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Sample records for transmembrane receptor 7tmr

  1. Quantitative phosphoproteomics dissection of seven-transmembrane receptor signaling using full and biased agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte L; Kelstrup, Christian D; Lyngsø, Christina

    2010-01-01

    (q)-dependent and -independent AT(1)R signaling. This study provides substantial novel insight into angiotensin II signal transduction and is the first study dissecting the differences between a full agonist and a biased agonist from a 7TMR on a systems-wide scale. Importantly, it reveals a previously unappreciated diversity......Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) signal through the well described heterotrimeric G proteins but can also activate G protein-independent signaling pathways of which the impact and complexity are less understood. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) is a prototypical 7TMR...... and quantity of Galpha(q) protein-independent signaling and uncovers novel signaling pathways. We foresee that the amount and diversity of G protein-independent signaling may be more pronounced than previously recognized for other 7TMRs as well. Quantitative mass spectrometry is a promising tool for evaluation...

  2. Evolutionary and Comparative Genomics to Drive Rational Drug Design, with Particular Focus on Neuropeptide Seven-Transmembrane Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael; Seong, Jae Young

    2017-01-01

    Seven transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), also known as G protein-coupled receptors, are popular targets of drug development, particularly 7TMR systems that are activated by peptide ligands. Although many pharmaceutical drugs have been discovered via conventional bulk analysis techniques the increasing availability of structural and evolutionary data are facilitating change to rational, targeted drug design. This article discusses the appeal of neuropeptide-7TMR systems as drug targets and provides an overview of concepts in the evolution of vertebrate genomes and gene families. Subsequently, methods that use evolutionary concepts and comparative analysis techniques to aid in gene discovery, gene function identification, and novel drug design are provided along with case study examples.

  3. Virus-Encoded 7 Transmembrane Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølleskov-Jensen, Ann-Sofie; Oliveira, MarthaTrindade; Farrell, Helen Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    families. Divergence of functional properties between the viral 7TMR and their cellular counterparts is likely, therefore, to reflect adaptation supporting various aspects of the viral lifecycle with concomitant effects upon viral pathogenesis. Consistent with their long evolutionary history, the v7TMRs...

  4. Quantitative phosphoproteomics dissection of 7TM receptor signaling using full and biased agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte L; Kelstrup, Christian D; Lyngsø, Christina

    2010-01-01

    only activates the Gaq protein-independent signaling.e quantified more than ten thousand phosphorylation sites of which 1183 were regulated by Angiotensin II or its analogue SII Angiotensin II. 36% of the AT1R regulated phosphorylations were regulated by SII Angiotensin II. Analysis of phosphorylation...... into Angiotensin II signal transduction and is the first study dissecting the differences between a full agonist and a biased agonist from a 7TMR on a systems-wide scale. Importantly, it reveals a previously unappreciated diversity and quantity of Gaq protein-independent signaling and uncovers novel signaling......Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) signal through the well described heterotrimeric G proteins, but can also activate G protein-independent signaling pathways of which the impact and complexity are less understood. The Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a prototypical 7TMR and an important...

  5. Promiscuous Seven Transmembrane Receptors Sensing L-α-amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smajilovic, Sanela; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2014-01-01

    A number of nutrient sensing seven trans-membrane (7TM) receptors have been identified and characterized over the past few years. While the sensing mechanisms to carbohydrates and free fatty acids are well understood, the molecular basis of amino acid sensing has recently come to the limelight....... The present review describes the current status of promiscuous L-α-amino acid sensors, the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), the GPRC6A receptor, the T1R1/T1R3 receptor and also their molecular pharmacology, expression pattern and physiological significance....

  6. The PTK7-Related Transmembrane Proteins Off-track and Off-track 2 Are Co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 Required for Male Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Linnemannstöns, Karen; Ripp, Caroline; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Brechtel-Curth, Katja; Hedderich, Marie; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was identified as a Wnt co-recept...

  7. Molecular pharmacological phenotyping of EBI2. An orphan seven-transmembrane receptor with constitutive activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Benned-Jensen, Tau; Holst, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is an orphan seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptor originally identified as the most up-regulated gene (>200-fold) in EBV-infected cells. Here we show that EBI2 signals with constitutive activity through Galpha(i) as determined by a receptor...

  8. Identification of transmembrane domain 6 & 7 residues that contribute to the binding pocket of the urotensin II receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Brian J; Domazet, Ivana; Beaulieu, Marie-Eve; Yan, Li Ping; Guillemette, Gaétan; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard

    2009-04-15

    Urotensin II (U-II), a cyclic undecapeptide, is the natural ligand of the urotensin II (UT) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor. In the present study, we used the substituted-cysteine accessibility method to identify specific residues in transmembrane domains (TMDs) six and seven of the rat urotensin II receptor (rUT) that contribute to the formation of the binding pocket of the receptor. Each residue in the R256(6.32)-Q283(6.59) fragment of TMD6 and the A295(7.31)-T321(7.57) fragment of TMD7 was mutated, individually, to a cysteine. The resulting mutants were expressed in COS-7 cells, which were subsequently treated with the positively charged methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA) or the negatively charged methanethiosulfonate-ethylsulfonate (MTSES) sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agents. MTSEA treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the binding of TMD6 mutants F268C(6.44) and W278C(6.54) and TMD7 mutants L298C(7.34), T302C(7.38), and T303C(7.39) to (125)I-U-II. MTSES treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the binding of two additional mutants, namely L282C(6.58) in TMD6 and Y300C(7.36) in TMD7. These results suggest that specific residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the rUT receptor. This approach, which allowed us to identify key determinants in TMD6 and TMD7 that contribute to the UT receptor binding pocket, enabled us to further refine our homology-based model of how U-II interacts with its cognate receptor.

  9. Structure, function and physiological consequences of virally encoded chemokine seven transmembrane receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Smit, M J; Waldhoer, M

    2008-01-01

    A number of human and animal herpes viruses encode G-protein coupled receptors with seven transmembrane (7TM) segments-most of which are clearly related to human chemokine receptors. It appears, that these receptors are used by the virus for immune evasion, cellular transformation, tissue targeting...... pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here we focus on the current knowledge of structure, function and trafficking patterns of virally encoded chemokine receptors and further address the putative roles of these receptors in virus survival and host -cell and/or -immune system modulation. Finally, we...

  10. Conformational constraining of inactive and active States of a seven transmembrane receptor by metal ion site engineering in the extracellular end of transmembrane segment V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; David, Ralf; Oerlecke, Ilka

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular part of transmembrane segment V (TM-V) is expected to be involved in the activation process of 7TM receptors, but its role is far from clear. Here, we study the highly constitutively active CXC-chemokine receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (ORF74-HHV8), in which a metal ion ...

  11. The carboxyl terminus of human cytomegalovirus-encoded 7 transmembrane receptor US28 camouflages agonism by mediating constitutive endocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldhoer, Maria; Casarosa, Paola; Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2003-01-01

    are separable entities in this viral chemokine receptor. We generated chimeric and mutant US28 proteins that were altered in either their constitutive endocytic (US28 Delta 300, US28 Delta 317, US28-NK1-ctail, and US28-ORF74-ctail) or signaling properties (US28R129A). By using this series of mutants, we show...... further show that the constitutive endocytic property of US28 affects the action of its chemokine ligand fractalkine/CX3CL1 and show that in the absence of the US28 C terminus, fractalkine/CX3CL1 acts as an agonist on US28. This demonstrates for the first time that the endocytic properties of a 7TM......US28 is one of four 7 transmembrane (7TM) chemokine receptors encoded by human cytomegalovirus and has been shown to both signal and endocytose in a ligand-independent, constitutively active manner. Here we show that the constitutive activity and constitutive endocytosis properties of US28...

  12. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer 2 (BRET2) assay for monitoring seven transmembrane receptor and insulin receptor crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanni, Samra Joke; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Jorgensen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The angiotensin AT1 receptor is a seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor, which mediates the regulation of blood pressure. Activation of angiotensin AT1 receptor may lead to impaired insulin signaling indicating crosstalk between angiotensin AT1 receptor and insulin receptor signaling pathways....... To elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind this crosstalk, we applied the BRET2 technique to monitor the effect of angiotensin II on the interaction between Rluc8 tagged insulin receptor and GFP2 tagged insulin receptor substrates 1, 4, 5 (IRS1, IRS4, IRS5) and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein (Shc......). We demonstrate that angiotensin II reduces the interaction between insulin receptor and IRS1 and IRS4, respectively, while the interaction with Shc is unaffected, and this effect is dependent on Gαq activation. Activation of other Gαq-coupled 7TM receptors led to a similar reduction in insulin...

  13. Role of protein dynamics in transmembrane receptor signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Bugge, Katrine Østergaard; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2018-01-01

    Cells are dependent on transmembrane receptors to communicate and transform chemical and physical signals into intracellular responses. Because receptors transport 'information', conformational changes and protein dynamics play a key mechanistic role. We here review examples where experiment...... to function. Because the receptors function in a heterogeneous environment and need to be able to switch between distinct functional states, they may be particularly sensitive to small perturbations that complicate studies linking dynamics to function....

  14. PheVI:09 (Phe6.44) as a sliding microswitch in seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Louise; Holst, Birgitte; Frimurer, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    In seven-transmembrane (7TM), G protein-coupled receptors, highly conserved residues function as microswitches, which alternate between different conformations and interaction partners in an extended allosteric interface between the transmembrane segments performing the large scale conformational......-V into a tight pocket generated by five hydrophobic residues protruding from TM-III and TM-V. Of these, the residue in position III:16 (3.40) (often an Ile or Val) appears to function as a barrier or gate for the transition between inactive and active conformation. Mutational analysis showed that PheVI:09...... an aromatic microswitch that stabilizes the active, outward tilted conformation of TM-VI relative to TM-III by sliding into a tight hydrophobic pocket between TM-III and TM-V and that the hydrophobic residue in position III:16 constitutes a gate for this transition....

  15. Molecular Insights into the Transmembrane Domain of the Thyrotropin Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Chantreau

    Full Text Available The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR that is member of the leucine-rich repeat subfamily (LGR. In the absence of crystal structure, the success of rational design of ligands targeting the receptor internal cavity depends on the quality of the TSHR models built. In this subfamily, transmembrane helices (TM 2 and 5 are characterized by the absence of proline compared to most receptors, raising the question of the structural conformation of these helices. To gain insight into the structural properties of these helices, we carried out bioinformatics and experimental studies. Evolutionary analysis of the LGR family revealed a deletion in TM5 but provided no information on TM2. Wild type residues at positions 2.58, 2.59 or 2.60 in TM2 and/or at position 5.50 in TM5 were substituted to proline. Depending on the position of the proline substitution, different effects were observed on membrane expression, glycosylation, constitutive cAMP activity and responses to thyrotropin. Only proline substitution at position 2.59 maintained complex glycosylation and high membrane expression, supporting occurrence of a bulged TM2. The TSHR transmembrane domain was modeled by homology with the orexin 2 receptor, using a protocol that forced the deletion of one residue in the TM5 bulge of the template. The stability of the model was assessed by molecular dynamics simulations. TM5 straightened during the equilibration phase and was stable for the remainder of the simulations. Our data support a structural model of the TSHR transmembrane domain with a bulged TM2 and a straight TM5 that is specific of glycoprotein hormone receptors.

  16. The PTK7-related transmembrane proteins off-track and off-track 2 are co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 required for male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemannstöns, Karen; Ripp, Caroline; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Brechtel-Curth, Katja; Hedderich, Marie; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP) in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk) are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964), which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract.

  17. Identification and functional comparison of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled BILF1 receptors in recently discovered nonhuman primate lymphocryptoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Fares, Suzan; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander H

    2015-01-01

    Coevolution of herpesviruses with their respective host has resulted in a delicate balance between virus-encoded immune evasion mechanisms and host antiviral immunity. BILF1 encoded by human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a 7-transmembrane (7TM) G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with multiple immuno...

  18. The PTK7-related transmembrane proteins off-track and off-track 2 are co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 required for male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Linnemannstöns

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7 was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964, which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract.

  19. Family C 7TM receptor dimerization and activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Sheikh, Søren P; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2006-01-01

    The family C seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors constitutes a small and especially well characterized subfamily of the large 7TM receptor superfamily. Approximately 50% of current prescription drugs target 7TM receptors, this biologically important family represents the largest class of drug...... to be fully defined. This review presents the biochemical support for family C 7TM receptor dimerization and discusses its importance for receptor biosynthesis, surface expression, ligand binding and activation, since lessons learnt here may well be applicable to the whole superfamily of 7TM receptors.......-targets today. It is well established that family C 7TM receptors form homo- or hetero-dimers on the cell surface of living cells. The large extra-cellular domains (ECD) have been crystallized as a dimer in the presence and absence of agonist. Upon agonist binding, the dimeric ECD undergoes large conformational...

  20. Ligand-mediated negative regulation of a chimeric transmembrane receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, D M; Sap, J; Schlessinger, J

    1993-01-01

    CD45, a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), is required for TCR signaling. Multiple CD45 isoforms, differing in the extracellular domain, are expressed in a tissue- and activation-specific manner, suggesting an important function for this domain. We report that a chimeric protein...... that ligand-mediated regulation of receptor-PTPases may have mechanistic similarities with receptor tyrosine kinases....

  1. Molecular pharmacology of promiscuous seven transmembrane receptors sensing organic nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-09-01

    A number of highly promiscuous seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors have been cloned and characterized within the last few years. It is noteworthy that many of these receptors are activated broadly by amino acids, proteolytic degradation products, carbohydrates, or free fatty acids and are expressed in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, adipose tissue, and/or kidney. These receptors thus hold the potential to act as sensors of food intake, regulating, for example, release of incretin hormones from the gut, insulin/glucagon from the pancreas, and leptin from adipose tissue. The promiscuous tendency in ligand recognition of these receptors is in contrast to the typical specific interaction with one physiological agonist seen for most receptors, which challenges the classic "lock-and-key" concept. We here review the molecular mechanisms of nutrient sensing of the calcium-sensing receptor, the G protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A), and the taste1 receptor T1R1/T1R3, which are sensing L-alpha-amino acids, the carbohydrate-sensing T1R2/T1R3 receptor, the proteolytic degradation product sensor GPR93 (also termed GPR92), and the free fatty acid (FFA) sensing receptors FFA1, FFA2, FFA3, GPR84, and GPR120. The involvement of the individual receptors in sensing of food intake has been validated to different degrees because of limited availability of specific pharmacological tools and/or receptor knockout mice. However, as a group, the receptors represent potential drug targets, to treat, for example, type II diabetes by mimicking food intake by potent agonists or positive allosteric modulators. The ligand-receptor interactions of the promiscuous receptors of organic nutrients thus remain an interesting subject of emerging functional importance.

  2. Transmembrane α-Helix 2 and 7 Are Important for Small Molecule-Mediated Activation of the GLP-1 Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Møller Knudsen, Sanne; Schjellerup Wulff, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) activates the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), which belongs to family B of the G-protein-coupled receptors. We previously identified a selective small molecule ligand, compound 2, that acted as a full agonist and allosteric modulator of GLP-1R. In this study, the structur......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) activates the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), which belongs to family B of the G-protein-coupled receptors. We previously identified a selective small molecule ligand, compound 2, that acted as a full agonist and allosteric modulator of GLP-1R. In this study......, the structurally related small molecule, compound 3, stimulated cAMP production from GLP-1R, but not from the homologous glucagon receptor (GluR). The receptor selectivity encouraged a chimeric receptor approach to identify domains important for compound 3-mediated activation of GLP-1R. A subsegment of the GLP-1R...... transmembrane domain containing TM2 to TM5 was sufficient to transfer compound 3 responsiveness to GluR. Therefore, divergent residues in this subsegment of GLP-1R and GluR are responsible for the receptor selectivity of compound 3. Functional analyses of other chimeric receptors suggested that the existence...

  3. Construction of covalently coupled, concatameric dimers of 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terpager, Marie; Scholl, D Jason; Kubale, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    -Ala repeats flanked by flexible spacers and positively charged residues to ensure correct inside-out orientation plus an extracellular HA-tag to construct covalently coupled dimers of 7TM receptors. Such 15 TM concatameric homo- and heterodimers of the beta(2)-adrenergic and the NK(1) receptors, which...... for either of the protomers, which was not observed upon simple coexpression of the two receptors. It is concluded that covalently joined 7TM receptor dimers with surprisingly normal receptor properties can be constructed with use of an artificial transmembrane connector, which perhaps can be used to fuse...

  4. Two novel mutations in the sixth transmembrane segment of the thyrotropin receptor gene causing hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozu, Hulya; Avsar, Melike; Bircan, Rifat; Claus, Maren; Sahin, Serap; Sezgin, Ozlem; Deyneli, Oguzhan; Paschke, Ralf; Cirakoglu, Beyazit; Akalin, Sema

    2005-04-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) can present as hyperfunctioning adenomas or toxic multinodular goiters. In the last decade, a large number of activating mutations have been identified in the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Most have been situated close to, or within the sixth transmembrane segment and third intracellular loop of the TSHR where the receptor interacts with the Gs protein. In this study we describe two novel mutations in the sixth transmembrane segment of the TSHR causing hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Genomic DNAs were isolated from four hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, normal tissues and peripheral leukocytes of two patients with toxic multinodular goiter. After amplifying the related regions, TSHR and G(s)alpha genes were analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The precise localization of the mutations was identified by automatic DNA sequence analysis. Functional studies were done by site-directed mutagenesis and transfection of a mutant construct into COS-7 cells. We identified two novel TSHR mutations in two hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: Phe631Val in the first patient and Iso630Met in the second patient. Both mutant receptors display an increase in constitutive stimulation of basal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels compared to the wild-type receptor. This confirms that these mutant receptors cause hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

  5. Cloning and characterization of SCART1, a novel scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type I transmembrane molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Dorte; Fink, Dorte Rosenbek; Grønlund, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a novel murine transmembrane molecule, mSCART1 belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide chain of 989 amino acids, organized as a type I transmembrane protein that contains eight extracellular SRCR domains followed...

  6. Functionally biased signalling properties of 7TM receptors - opportunities for drug development for the ghrelin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, B; Holliday, N; Madsen, A N

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The ghrelin receptor is a 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptor involved in a variety of physiological functions including growth hormone secretion, increased food intake and fat accumulation as well as modulation of reward and cognitive functions. Because of its important role in metabolism...... and energy expenditure, the ghrelin receptor has become an important therapeutic target for drug design and the development of anti-obesity compounds. However, none of the compounds developed so far have been approved for commercial use. Interestingly, the ghrelin receptor is able to signal through several...... review, we have described how ligands and mutations in the 7TM receptor may bias the receptors to favour either one G-protein over another or to promote G-protein independent signalling pathways rather than G-protein-dependent pathways. For the ghrelin receptor, both agonist and inverse agonists have...

  7. Vitamin A transport and the transmembrane pore in the cell-surface receptor for plasma retinol binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhong

    Full Text Available Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids play diverse and crucial functions from embryogenesis to adulthood and are used as therapeutic agents in human medicine for eye and skin diseases, infections and cancer. Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP is the principal and specific vitamin A carrier in the blood and binds vitamin A at 1:1 ratio. STRA6 is the high-affinity membrane receptor for RBP and mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. STRA6 null mice have severely depleted vitamin A reserves for vision and consequently have vision loss, even under vitamin A sufficient conditions. STRA6 null humans have a wide range of severe pathological phenotypes in many organs including the eye, brain, heart and lung. Known membrane transport mechanisms involve transmembrane pores that regulate the transport of the substrate (e.g., the gating of ion channels. STRA6 represents a new type of membrane receptor. How this receptor interacts with its transport substrate vitamin A and the functions of its nine transmembrane domains are still completely unknown. These questions are critical to understanding the molecular basis of STRA6's activities and its regulation. We employ acute chemical modification to introduce chemical side chains to STRA6 in a site-specific manner. We found that modifications with specific chemicals at specific positions in or near the transmembrane domains of this receptor can almost completely suppress its vitamin A transport activity. These experiments provide the first evidence for the existence of a transmembrane pore, analogous to the pore of ion channels, for this new type of cell-surface receptor.

  8. Verification of Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) Insertion for Reliable and Trusted Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for TMR insertion verification that satisfies the process for reliable and trusted systems. If a system is expected to be protected using TMR, improper insertion can jeopardize the reliability and security of the system. Due to the complexity of the verification process, there are currently no available techniques that can provide complete and reliable confirmation of TMR insertion. This manuscript addresses the challenge of confirming that TMR has been inserted without corruption of functionality and with correct application of the expected TMR topology. The proposed verification method combines the usage of existing formal analysis tools with a novel search-detect-and-verify tool. Field programmable gate array (FPGA),Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR),Verification, Trust, Reliability,

  9. A conserved aromatic lock for the tryptophan rotameric switch in TM-VI of seven-transmembrane receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Nygaard, Rie; Hansen, Louise Valentin

    2010-01-01

    simulations in rhodopsin demonstrated that rotation around the chi1 torsion angle of Trp-VI:13 brings its side chain close to the equally highly conserved Phe-V:13 (Phe-5.47) in TM-V. In the ghrelin receptor, engineering of high affinity metal-ion sites between these positions confirmed their close spatial...... degree as observed in the constructs where Trp-VI:13 itself was mutated, but again without affecting agonist potency. In a proposed active receptor conformation generated by molecular simulations, where the extracellular segment of TM-VI is tilted inwards in the main ligand-binding pocket, Trp-VI:13......The conserved tryptophan in position 13 of TM-VI (Trp-VI:13 or Trp-6.48) of the CWXP motif located at the bottom of the main ligand-binding pocket in TM-VI is believed to function as a rotameric microswitch in the activation process of seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors. Molecular dynamics...

  10. The Fifth Transmembrane Domain of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Participates in the Formation of the Ligand-binding Pocket and Undergoes a Counterclockwise Rotation upon Receptor Activation*

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    Domazet, Ivana; Martin, Stéphane S.; Holleran, Brian J.; Morin, Marie-Ève; Lacasse, Patrick; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2009-01-01

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II exerts a wide variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the angiotensin II Type 1 (AT1) receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Like other G protein- coupled receptors, the AT1 receptor possesses seven transmembrane domains that provide structural support for the formation of the ligand-binding pocket. The role of the fifth transmembrane domain (TMD5) was investigated using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. All of the residues within Thr-190 to Leu-217 region were mutated one at a time to cysteine, and after expression in COS-7 cells, the mutant receptors were treated with the sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agent methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA). MTSEA reacts selectively with water-accessible, free sulfhydryl groups of endogenous or introduced point mutation cysteines. If a cysteine is found in the binding pocket, the covalent modification will affect the binding kinetics of the ligand. MTSEA substantially decreased the binding affinity of L197C-AT1, N200C-AT1, I201C-AT1, G203C-AT1, and F204C-AT1 mutant receptors, which suggests that these residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the AT1 receptor. Interestingly, this pattern of acquired MTSEA sensitivity was altered for TMD5 reporter cysteines engineered in a constitutively active N111G-AT1 receptor background. Indeed, mutant I201C-N111G-AT1 became more sensitive to MTSEA, whereas mutant G203C-N111G-AT1 lost some sensitivity. Our results suggest that constitutive activation of AT1 receptor causes an apparent counterclockwise rotation of TMD5 as viewed from the extracellular side. PMID:19773549

  11. The fifth transmembrane domain of angiotensin II Type 1 receptor participates in the formation of the ligand-binding pocket and undergoes a counterclockwise rotation upon receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Ivana; Martin, Stéphane S; Holleran, Brian J; Morin, Marie-Eve; Lacasse, Patrick; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2009-11-13

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II exerts a wide variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the angiotensin II Type 1 (AT(1)) receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Like other G protein- coupled receptors, the AT(1) receptor possesses seven transmembrane domains that provide structural support for the formation of the ligand-binding pocket. The role of the fifth transmembrane domain (TMD5) was investigated using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. All of the residues within Thr-190 to Leu-217 region were mutated one at a time to cysteine, and after expression in COS-7 cells, the mutant receptors were treated with the sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agent methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA). MTSEA reacts selectively with water-accessible, free sulfhydryl groups of endogenous or introduced point mutation cysteines. If a cysteine is found in the binding pocket, the covalent modification will affect the binding kinetics of the ligand. MTSEA substantially decreased the binding affinity of L197C-AT(1), N200C-AT(1), I201C-AT(1), G203C-AT(1), and F204C-AT(1) mutant receptors, which suggests that these residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the AT(1) receptor. Interestingly, this pattern of acquired MTSEA sensitivity was altered for TMD5 reporter cysteines engineered in a constitutively active N111G-AT(1) receptor background. Indeed, mutant I201C-N111G-AT(1) became more sensitive to MTSEA, whereas mutant G203C-N111G-AT(1) lost some sensitivity. Our results suggest that constitutive activation of AT(1) receptor causes an apparent counterclockwise rotation of TMD5 as viewed from the extracellular side.

  12. The transmembrane domain of the p75 neurotrophin receptor stimulates phosphorylation of the TrkB tyrosine kinase receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadipour, Khalil; MacLean, Michael; Pirkle, Sean; Ali, Solav; Lopez-Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Stokes, David L; Chao, Moses V

    2017-10-06

    The function of protein products generated from intramembraneous cleavage by the γ-secretase complex is not well defined. The γ-secretase complex is responsible for the cleavage of several transmembrane proteins, most notably the amyloid precursor protein that results in Aβ, a transmembrane (TM) peptide. Another protein that undergoes very similar γ-secretase cleavage is the p75 neurotrophin receptor. However, the fate of the cleaved p75 TM domain is unknown. p75 neurotrophin receptor is highly expressed during early neuronal development and regulates survival and process formation of neurons. Here, we report that the p75 TM can stimulate the phosphorylation of TrkB (tyrosine kinase receptor B). In vitro phosphorylation experiments indicated that a peptide representing p75 TM increases TrkB phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, mutagenesis analyses revealed that a valine residue at position 264 in the rat p75 neurotrophin receptor is necessary for the ability of p75 TM to induce TrkB phosphorylation. Because this residue is just before the γ-secretase cleavage site, we then investigated whether the p75(αγ) peptide, which is a product of both α- and γ-cleavage events, could also induce TrkB phosphorylation. Experiments using TM domains from other receptors, EGFR and FGFR1, failed to stimulate TrkB phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation and biochemical fractionation data suggested that p75 TM stimulates TrkB phosphorylation at the cell membrane. Altogether, our results suggest that TrkB activation by p75(αγ) peptide may be enhanced in situations where the levels of the p75 receptor are increased, such as during brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Ligand Modulation of the Epstein-Barr Virus-induced Seven-transmembrane Receptor EBI2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Smethurst, Christopher; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus-induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor, which was recently shown to orchestrate the positioning of B cells in the follicle. To date, no ligands, endogenously or synthetic, have been identified that modulate EBI2 activity. Here we...... with similar potency. Overexpression of EBI2 profoundly potentiated antibody-stimulated ex vivo proliferation of murine B cells compared with WT cells, whereas this was equivalently reduced for EBI2-deficient B cells. Inhibition of EBI2 constitutive activity suppressed the proliferation in all cases...

  14. Biased and Constitutive Signaling in the CC-Chemokine Receptor CCR5 by manipulating the Interface between Transmembrane Helix 6 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Thiele, Stefanie; Guo, Dong

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium state of CCR5 is manipulated here toward either activation or inactivation by introduction of single amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane domains (TMs) 6 and 7. Insertion of a steric hindrance mutation in the center of TM7 (G286F in position VII:09/7.42) resulted in biase...

  15. The Scanning TMR Microscope for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal N. Vyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR scanning microscopeset-up capable of quantitatively imaging the magnetic stray field patterns of micron-sizedelements in 3D. By incorporating an Anderson loop measurement circuit for impedancematching, we are able to detect magnetoresistance changes of as little as 0.006%/Oe. By 3Drastering a mounted TMR sensor over our magnetic barcodes, we are able to characterisethe complex domain structures by displaying the real component, the amplitude and thephase of the sensor’s impedance. The modular design, incorporating a TMR sensor withan optical microscope, renders this set-up a versatile platform for studying and imagingimmobilised magnetic carriers and barcodes currently employed in biosensor platforms,magnetotactic bacteria and other complex magnetic domain structures of micron-sizedentities. The quantitative nature of the instrument and its ability to produce vector maps ofmagnetic stray fields has the potential to provide significant advantages over other commonlyused scanning magnetometry techniques.

  16. Functional analysis of the murine cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor homologue M33: ablation of constitutive signaling is associated with an attenuated phenotype in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, Ruth; Sharp, Emma; Benned-Jensen, Tau

    2007-01-01

    the salivary glands. In this study, we probed N- and C-terminal regions of M33 as well as known 7TMR signature motifs in transmembrane (TM) II and TM III to determine the impact on cell surface expression, constitutive signaling, and in vivo phenotype. The region between amino acids R(340) and A(353) of the C...

  17. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Culhane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  18. Transmembrane adaptor proteins in the high-affinity IgE receptor signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Petr; Hálová, Ivana; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Dráberová, Lubica

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, 11.1. (2012), s. 95 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759; GA AV ČR KAN200520701 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200520901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : IgE receptor * LAT/LAT1 * LAX * NTAL/Lab/LAT2 * PAG/Cbp * mast cells * plasma membrane * transmembrane adaptor proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  19. Poxvirus-encoded TNF decoy receptors inhibit the biological activity of transmembrane TNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontejo, Sergio M; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Poxviruses encode up to four different soluble TNF receptors, named cytokine response modifier B (CrmB), CrmC, CrmD and CrmE. These proteins mimic the extracellular domain of the cellular TNF receptors to bind and inhibit the activity of TNF and, in some cases, other TNF superfamily ligands. Most of these ligands are released after the enzymic cleavage of a membrane precursor. However, transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) is not only a precursor of soluble TNF but also exerts specific pro-inflammatory and immunological activities. Here, we report that viral TNF receptors bound and inhibited tmTNF and describe some interesting differences in their activity against the soluble cytokine. Thus, CrmE, which does not inhibit mouse soluble TNF, could block murine tmTNF-induced cytotoxicity. We propose that this anti-tmTNF effect should be taken into consideration when assessing the role of viral TNF decoy receptors in the pathogenesis of poxvirus.

  20. Vocational interest evaluation of TMR adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R L; Schull, C; Cambell, K

    1981-01-01

    Fifty TMR adults participated in a three-stage job-training and placement program over a 5-year period. Vocational inventoried interest and expressed interest were correlated, as were relationships between inventoried interest and such variables as CA and IQ. The results showed that (a) TMR adults can discriminate between occupational likes and dislikes when using pictorial inventoried interest assessment techniques, (b) a positive relationship exists between expressed and inventoried interest, (c) inventoried interest is independent of CA and IQ, (d) there was a general consistency in inventoried occupational choice over a 6-month interval, and (e) the Reading-Free Vocational Interest Inventory has predictive and status validity, as evidenced by job incumbents' success and their inventory cluster profiles.

  1. The Spectrum of TMR-1C Is Consistent with a Background Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebey, S.; Van Buren, D.; Matthews, K.; Padgett, D. L.

    2000-05-01

    In a previous paper we proposed that there may be a population of runaway planets and brown dwarfs that formed via ejection from multiple-star systems. We further suggested TMR-1C as a candidate runaway protoplanet. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS images of the Class I protostar TMR-1 (IRAS 04361+2547) reveal TMR-1C as a faint near-infrared companion with 10.0"=1400 AU projected separation. The central protostar is itself resolved as a close binary with 0.31"=42 AU separation, surrounded by circumstellar reflection nebulosity. A long, narrow filament seems to connect the protobinary to the faint companion TMR-1C, suggesting a physical association, which can plausibly be explained if TMR-1C was ejected by the protobinary. This paper presents near-infrared grism spectroscopy to constrain the effective temperature of TMR-1C, obtained with the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRC) at Keck Observatory. To interpret the data, we construct a grid of extincted M dwarf spectra to compare with the low-resolution (R~120) NIRC spectrum. The assumed extinction corresponds to standard interstellar dust. With the additional assumption that no near-infrared dust excess contributes to the spectrum, then M4.5 is the latest spectral type TMR-1C can have within the uncertainties. Adopting 2 σ error bars, this translates to Teff>2700 K effective temperature and AK=2.5+/-0.75 extinction at K band (AV=22+/-6.6 for standard dust). We compare the luminosity and effective temperature of TMR-1C with evolutionary tracks of young giant planets and brown dwarfs in a theoretical H-R diagram. Given a relatively low inferred luminosity of ~10-3 Lsolar, then TMR-1C is hotter than predicted by available theoretical models. However, the models are very uncertain at such young ages, less than 300,000 yr, so that it is unclear whether the theoretical tracks by themselves provide a suitably strong test. Given the quality of the observed spectrum, only a partial answer is possible. The new data do not lend weight

  2. System and methods for predicting transmembrane domains in membrane proteins and mining the genome for recognizing G-protein coupled receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rene J; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E; Goddard, William A; Floriano, Wely

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides computer-implemented methods and apparatus implementing a hierarchical protocol using multiscale molecular dynamics and molecular modeling methods to predict the presence of transmembrane regions in proteins, such as G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR), and protein structural models generated according to the protocol. The protocol features a coarse grain sampling method, such as hydrophobicity analysis, to provide a fast and accurate procedure for predicting transmembrane regions. Methods and apparatus of the invention are useful to screen protein or polynucleotide databases for encoded proteins with transmembrane regions, such as GPCRs.

  3. Pyridoxal phosphate as a probe of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins: Application to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ramirez, B.; Martinez-Carrion, M.

    1989-01-01

    A novel procedure has been developed to specifically label the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins with the aldehyde pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP). Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AcChR) vesicles were loaded with [ 3 H]pyridoxine 5-phosphate ([ 3 H]PNP) and pyridoxine-5-phosphate oxidase, followed by intravesicular enzymatic oxidation of [ 3 H]PNP at 37 degree C in the presence of externally added cytochrome c as a scavenger of possible leaking PLP product. The four receptor subunits were labeled whether the reaction was carried out on the internal surface or separately designed to mark the external one. On the other hand, the relative pyridoxylation of the subunits differed in both cases, reflecting differences in accessible lysyl residues in each side of the membrane. Even though there are no large differences in the total lysine content among the subunits and there are two copies of the α-subunit, internal surface labeling by PLP was greatest for the highest molecular weight (δ) subunit, reinforcing the concept that the four receptor subunits are transmembranous and may protrude into the cytoplasmic face in a fashion that is proportional to their subunit molecular weight. Yet, the labeling data do not fit well to any of the models proposed for AcChR subunit folding. The method described can be used for selective labeling of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins in sealed membrane vesicles

  4. The emerging role of promiscuous 7TM receptors as chemosensors for food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2010-01-01

    review, we describe the molecular mechanisms of nutrient-sensing of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), the G protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A), and the taste1 receptor T1R1/T1R3-sensing L-a-amino acids; the carbohydrate-sensing T1R2/T1R3 receptor; the proteolytic degradation......In recent years, several highly promiscuous seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors have been cloned and characterized of which many are activated broadly by amino acids, proteolytic degradation products, carbohydrates, or free fatty acids (FFAs) and are expressed in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal...

  5. Ligand-Receptor Interaction-Mediated Transmembrane Transport of Dendrimer-like Soft Nanoparticles: Mechanisms and Complicated Diffusive Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junshi; Chen, Pengyu; Dong, Bojun; Huang, Zihan; Zhao, Kongyin; Yan, Li-Tang

    2016-05-09

    Nearly all nanomedical applications of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles rely on the functionality of attached ligands. Understanding how the ligands interact with the receptors in cell membrane and its further effect on the cellular uptake of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles is thereby a key issue for their better application in nanomedicine. However, the essential mechanism and detailed kinetics for the ligand-receptor interaction-mediated transmembrane transport of such unconventional nanoparticles remain poorly elucidated. Here, using coarse-grained simulations, we present the very first study of molecular mechanism and kinetics behaviors for the transmembrane transport of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles conjugated with ligands. A phase diagram of interaction states is constructed through examining ligand densities and membrane tensions that allows us to identify novel endocytosis mechanisms featured by the direct wrapping and the penetration-extraction vesiculation. The results provide an in-depth insight into the diffusivity of receptors and dendrimer in the membrane plane and demonstrate how the ligand density influences receptor diffusion and uptake kinetics. It is interesting to find that the ligand-conjugated dendrimers present superdiffusive behaviors on a membrane, which is revealed to be driven by the random fluctuation dynamics of the membrane. The findings facilitate our understanding of some recent experimental observations and could establish fundamental principles for the future development of such important nanomaterials for widespread nanomedical applications.

  6. Functional relevance of aromatic residues in the first transmembrane domain of P2X receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Vávra, Vojtěch; Obšil, Tomáš; Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2009), s. 923-934 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011408; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110702; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : purinergic receptors * gating * transmembrane domain Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 3.999, year: 2009

  7. Conversion of agonist site to metal-ion chelator site in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, C E; Thirstrup, K; Holst, Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    Previously metal-ion sites have been used as structural and functional probes in seven transmembrane receptors (7TM), but as yet all the engineered sites have been inactivating. Based on presumed agonist interaction points in transmembrane III (TM-III) and -VII of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor,...... as generic, pharmacologic tools to switch 7TM receptors with engineered metal-ion sites on or off at will.......Previously metal-ion sites have been used as structural and functional probes in seven transmembrane receptors (7TM), but as yet all the engineered sites have been inactivating. Based on presumed agonist interaction points in transmembrane III (TM-III) and -VII of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor......, in this paper we construct an activating metal-ion site between the amine-binding Asp-113 in TM-III-or a His residue introduced at this position-and a Cys residue substituted for Asn-312 in TM-VII. No increase in constitutive activity was observed in the mutant receptors. Signal transduction was activated...

  8. The Second Transmembrane Domain of the Human Type 1 Angiotensin II Receptor Participates in the Formation of the Ligand Binding Pocket and Undergoes Integral Pivoting Movement during the Process of Receptor Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Ivana; Holleran, Brian J.; Martin, Stéphane S.; Lavigne, Pierre; Leduc, Richard; Escher, Emanuel; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2009-01-01

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II (AngII) exerts a wide variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the angiotensin II type-1 (AT1) receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Like other G protein-coupled receptors, the AT1 receptor possesses seven transmembrane domains that provide structural support for the formation of the ligand-binding pocket. In order to identify those residues in the second transmembrane domain (TMD2) that contribute to the formation of the binding pocket of the AT1 receptor, we used the substituted cysteine accessibility method. All of the residues within the Leu-70 to Trp-94 region were mutated one at a time to a cysteine, and, after expression in COS-7 cells, the mutant receptors were treated with the sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agent methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA). MTSEA reacts selectively with water-accessible, free sulfhydryl groups of endogenous or introduced point mutation cysteines. If a cysteine is found in the binding pocket, the covalent modification will affect the binding kinetics of the ligand. MTSEA substantially decreased the binding affinity of D74C-AT1, L81C-AT1, A85C-AT1, T88C-AT1, and A89C-AT1 mutant receptors, which suggests that these residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the AT1 receptor. Interestingly, this pattern of acquired MTSEA sensitivity was altered for TMD2 reporter cysteines engineered in a constitutively active N111G-AT1 receptor background. Indeed, mutant D74C-N111G-AT1 became insensitive to MTSEA, whereas mutant L81C-N111G-AT1 lost some sensitivity and mutant V86C-N111G-AT1 became sensitive to MTSEA. Our results suggest that constitutive activation of the AT1 receptor causes TMD2 to pivot, bringing the top of TMD2 closer to the binding pocket and pushing the bottom of TMD2 away from the binding pocket. PMID:19276075

  9. The second transmembrane domain of the human type 1 angiotensin II receptor participates in the formation of the ligand binding pocket and undergoes integral pivoting movement during the process of receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Ivana; Holleran, Brian J; Martin, Stéphane S; Lavigne, Pierre; Leduc, Richard; Escher, Emanuel; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2009-05-01

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II (AngII) exerts a wide variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the angiotensin II type-1 (AT(1)) receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Like other G protein-coupled receptors, the AT(1) receptor possesses seven transmembrane domains that provide structural support for the formation of the ligand-binding pocket. In order to identify those residues in the second transmembrane domain (TMD2) that contribute to the formation of the binding pocket of the AT(1) receptor, we used the substituted cysteine accessibility method. All of the residues within the Leu-70 to Trp-94 region were mutated one at a time to a cysteine, and, after expression in COS-7 cells, the mutant receptors were treated with the sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agent methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA). MTSEA reacts selectively with water-accessible, free sulfhydryl groups of endogenous or introduced point mutation cysteines. If a cysteine is found in the binding pocket, the covalent modification will affect the binding kinetics of the ligand. MTSEA substantially decreased the binding affinity of D74C-AT(1), L81C-AT(1), A85C-AT(1), T88C-AT(1), and A89C-AT(1) mutant receptors, which suggests that these residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the AT(1) receptor. Interestingly, this pattern of acquired MTSEA sensitivity was altered for TMD2 reporter cysteines engineered in a constitutively active N111G-AT(1) receptor background. Indeed, mutant D74C-N111G-AT(1) became insensitive to MTSEA, whereas mutant L81C-N111G-AT(1) lost some sensitivity and mutant V86C-N111G-AT(1) became sensitive to MTSEA. Our results suggest that constitutive activation of the AT(1) receptor causes TMD2 to pivot, bringing the top of TMD2 closer to the binding pocket and pushing the bottom of TMD2 away from the binding pocket.

  10. [Application of Brownian dynamics to the description of transmembrane ion flow as exemplified by the chloride channel of glycine receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronovskiĭ, S E; Nartsissov, Ia R

    2009-01-01

    Using the Brownian dynamics of the movement of hydrated ion in a viscous water solution, a mathematical model has been built, which describes the transport of charged particles through a single protein pore in a lipid membrane. The dependences of transmembrane ion currents on ion concentrations in solution have been obtained. It was shown that, if the geometry of a membrane pore is identical to that of the inner part of the glycine receptor channel and there is no ion selectivity, then the values of both chloride and sodium currents are not greater than 0.5 pA at the physiological concentrations of these ions. If local charge heterogeneity caused by charged amino acid residues of transmembrane protein segments is included into the model calculations, the chloride current increases to about 3.7 pA, which exceeds more than seven times the value for sodium ions under the conditions of the complex channel geometry in the range of physiological concentrations of ions in the solution. The model takes changes in the density of charge distribution both inside the channel and near the protein surface into account. The alteration of pore geometry can be also considered as a parameter at the researcher's option. Thus, the model appears as an effective tool for the description of transmembrane currents for other types of membrane channels.

  11. Transmembrane signalling at the epidermal growth factor receptor. Positive regulation by the C-terminal phosphotyrosine residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, M; Pandiella, A; Helin, K

    1991-01-01

    a positive role in the regulation of transmembrane signalling at the EGF receptor. The stepwise decrease in signal generation observed in single, double and triple point mutants suggest that the role of phosphotyrosine residues is not in the participation in specific amino acid sequences, but rather...... in the double and the triple mutants. In the latter mutant, expression of the EGF-receptor-activated lipolytic enzyme phospholipase C gamma was unchanged, whereas its tyrosine phosphorylation induced by the growth factor was lowered to approx. 25% of that in the controls. In all of the cell clones employed......, the accumulation of inositol phosphates induced by treatment with fetal calf serum varied only slightly, whereas the same effect induced by EGF was consistently lowered in those lines expressing mutated receptors. This decrease was moderate for those receptors missing only the distal tyrosine (point and deletion...

  12. In vivo evidence for a functional role of both tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors and transmembrane TNF in experimental hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsters, S; Tiegs, G; Alexopoulou, L; Pasparakis, M; Douni, E; Künstle, G; Bluethmann, H; Wendel, A; Pfizenmaier, K; Kollias, G; Grell, M

    1997-11-01

    The significance of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) for TNF function in vivo is well documented, whereas the role of TNFR2 so far remains obscure. In a model of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced, CD4+ T cell-dependent experimental hepatitis in mice, in which TNF is a central mediator of apoptotic and necrotic liver damage, we now provide evidence for an essential in vivo function of TNFR2 in this pathophysiological process. We demonstrate that a cooperation of TNFR1 and TNFR2 is required for hepatotoxicity as mice deficient of either receptor were resistant against Con A. A significant role of TNFR2 for Con A-induced hepatitis is also shown by the enhanced sensitivity of transgenic mice overexpressing the human TNFR2. The ligand for cytotoxic signaling via both TNF receptors is the precursor of soluble TNF, i.e. transmembrane TNF. Indeed, transmembrane TNF is sufficient to mediate hepatic damage, as transgenic mice deficient in wild-type soluble TNF but expressing a mutated nonsecretable form of TNF developed inflammatory liver disease.

  13. Characterization of the single transmembrane domain of human receptor activity-modifying protein 3 in adrenomedullin receptor internalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka; Nozaki, Naomi; Kato, Johji

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less effectively than does RAMP2. ► The RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization. ► A new strategy of promoting internalization and resensitization of the receptor was found. -- Abstract: Two receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP2 and RAMP3) enable calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) to function as two heterodimeric receptors (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3) for adrenomedullin (AM), a potent cardiovascular protective peptide. Following AM stimulation, both receptors undergo rapid internalization through a clathrin-dependent pathway, after which CLR/RAMP3, but not CLR/RAMP2, can be recycled to the cell surface for resensitization. However, human (h)RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less efficiently than does hRAMP2. Therefore, the molecular basis of the single transmembrane domain (TMD) and the intracellular domain of hRAMP3 during AM receptor internalization was investigated by transiently transfecting various RAMP chimeras and mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hCLR. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that substituting the RAMP3 TMD with that of RAMP2 markedly enhanced AM-induced internalization of CLR. However, this replacement did not enhance the cell surface expression of CLR, [ 125 I]AM binding affinity or AM-induced cAMP response. More detailed analyses showed that substituting the Thr 130 –Val 131 sequence in the RAMP3 TMD with the corresponding sequence (Ile 157 –Pro 158 ) from RAMP2 significantly enhanced AM-mediated CLR internalization. In contrast, substituting the RAMP3 target sequence with Ala 130 –Ala 131 did not significantly affect CLR internalization. Thus, the RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization, and the aforementioned introduction of the Ile–Pro sequence into the RAMP3 TMD may be a strategy for promoting receptor internalization/resensitization.

  14. Resonant TMR inversion in LiF/EuS based spin-filter tunnel junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resonant tunneling can lead to inverse tunnel magnetoresistance when impurity levels rather than direct tunneling dominate the transport process. We fabricated hybrid magnetic tunnel junctions of CoFe/LiF/EuS/Ti, with an epitaxial LiF energy barrier joined with a polycrystalline EuS spin-filter barrier. Due to the water solubility of LiF, the devices were fully packaged in situ. The devices showed sizeable positive TMR up to 16% at low bias voltages but clearly inverted TMR at higher bias voltages. The TMR inversion depends sensitively on the thickness of LiF, and the tendency of inversion disappears when LiF gets thick enough and recovers its intrinsic properties.

  15. Structural Diversity in Conserved Regions Like the DRY-Motif among Viral 7TM Receptors-A Consequence of Evolutionary Pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølleskov-Jensen, Ann-Sofie; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Davis-Poynter, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Several herpes- and poxviruses have captured chemokine receptors from their hosts and modified these to their own benefit. The human and viral chemokine receptors belong to class A 7 transmembrane (TM) receptors which are characterized by several structural motifs like the DRY-motif in TM3...... and the C-terminal tail. In the DRY-motif, the arginine residue serves important purposes by being directly involved in G protein coupling. Interestingly, among the viral receptors there is a greater diversity in the DRY-motif compared to their endogenous receptor homologous. The C-terminal receptor tail...... constitutes another regulatory region that through a number of phosphorylation sites is involved in signaling, desensitization, and internalization. Also this region is more variable among virus-encoded 7TM receptors compared to human class A receptors. In this review we will focus on these two structural...

  16. The Size of Activating and Inhibitory Killer Ig-like Receptor Nanoclusters Is Controlled by the Transmembrane Sequence and Affects Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oszmiana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution microscopy has revealed that immune cell receptors are organized in nanoscale clusters at cell surfaces and immune synapses. However, mechanisms and functions for this nanoscale organization remain unclear. Here, we used super-resolution microscopy to compare the surface organization of paired killer Ig-like receptors (KIR, KIR2DL1 and KIR2DS1, on human primary natural killer cells and cell lines. Activating KIR2DS1 assembled in clusters two-fold larger than its inhibitory counterpart KIR2DL1. Site-directed mutagenesis established that the size of nanoclusters is controlled by transmembrane amino acid 233, a lysine in KIR2DS1. Super-resolution microscopy also revealed two ways in which the nanoscale clustering of KIR affects signaling. First, KIR2DS1 and DAP12 nanoclusters are juxtaposed in the resting cell state but coalesce upon receptor ligation. Second, quantitative super-resolution microscopy revealed that phosphorylation of the kinase ZAP-70 or phosphatase SHP-1 is favored in larger KIR nanoclusters. Thus, the size of KIR nanoclusters depends on the transmembrane sequence and affects downstream signaling.

  17. Spin asymmetry calculations of the TMR-V curves in single and double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2011-10-01

    Spin-polarization asymmetry is the key parameter in asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in magnetic tunnel junctions. In this paper, we study the value of the TMR as a function of the applied voltage Va in the single as well as double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (SMTJ & DMTJ, which are constructed from CoFeB/MgO interfaces) and numerically estimate the possible difference of the TMR-V a curves for negative and positive voltages in the homojunctions. As a result, we found that AVB may help to determine the exact values of Fermi wave vectors for minority and majority conducting spin sub-bands. Moreover, significant asymmetry of the experimental TMR-Va curves, which arises due to different annealing regimes, is explained by different heights of the tunnel barriers and values of the spin asymmetry. The numerical TMR-V a data are in good agreement with experimental ones. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. The cytoplasmic domain close to the transmembrane region of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor contains sequence elements that regulate agonist-dependent internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Patricia; Roncero, Isabel; Blázquez, Enrique; Alvarez, Elvira

    2005-07-01

    In order to gain better insight into the molecular events involved in the signal transduction generated through glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors, we tested the effect of deletions and point mutations within the cytoplasmic tail of this receptor with a view to establishing relationships between signal transduction desensitisation and receptor internalisation. Wild-type and truncated (deletion of the last 27 amino acids (GLPR 435R) and deletion of 44 amino acids (GLPR 418R)) GLP-1 receptors bound the agonist with similar affinity. Deletion of the last 27 amino acids decreased the internalisation rate by 78%, while deletion of 44 amino acids containing all the phosphorylation sites hitherto described in this receptor decreased the internalisation rate by only 47%. Binding of the ligand to both receptors stimulated adenylyl cyclase. In contrast, deletion of the region containing amino acids 419 to 435 (GLPR 419delta435) increased the internalisation rate by 268%, and the replacement of EVQ(408-410) by alanine (GLPR A(408-410)) increased this process to 296%. In both receptors, the efficacy in stimulating adenylate cyclase was decreased. All the receptors studied were internalised by coated pits, except for the receptor with a deletion of the last 44 amino acids, which also had a faster resensitisation rate. Our findings indicate that the neighbouring trans-membrane domain of the carboxyl-terminal tail of the GLP-1 receptor contains sequence elements that regulate agonist-dependent internalisation and transmembrane signalling.

  19. TMR- and TAMR-effects of (Ga,Mn)As and GaAs tunnel junctions; TMR- und TAMR-Effekt an (Ga,Mn)As und GaAs Tunnelstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmeier, Eva

    2009-07-30

    This thesis is concerned with the experimental investigation of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and tunnel anistropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) in GaAs and (Ga,Mn)As tunnel junction. A special emphasis was put on the study of the newly discovered TAMR effect, which consists in the variation of the TMR with the magnetization's angle. The tunnel junctions were fabricated by means of optical lithography and wet chemical etching. The dependence of the TAMR effect on the layer system, the barrier thickness, the bias voltage, the temperature and the applied magnetic field magnitude was subsequently examined. The conducted measurements on (Ga,Mn)As junctions showed a TMR effect as well as various anisotropic effects which are in good agreement with the experimental reports published so far. The observed dependences of the TAMR effect on the aforementioned parameters were discussed within the framework of two distinct preexisting theoretical models and the experimental data could be explained by the superimposition of two effects stemming in one case from the spin orbit coupling in the (Ga,Mn)As layer and in the other from the concurrent action of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction within the barrier. (orig.)

  20. A method to design high SNR nanoscale magnetic sensors using an array of tunnelling magneto-resistance (TMR) devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, P; Litvinov, D; Khizroev, S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic method to design and calculate tunnelling magneto-resistance (TMR) sensors with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The sensing module consists of four TMR devices arranged in a Wheatstone-bridge configuration. Closed-form equations were obtained to calculate TMR sensor current, array output voltage, magneto-resistance ratio, overall noise (thermal and shot) and SNR for a given bandwidth. Using this technique we were able to maximize the SNR by tuning the many parameters of the TMR devices. Typical SNR values are in excess of 45 dB

  1. TARM1 Is a Novel Leukocyte Receptor Complex-Encoded ITAM Receptor That Costimulates Proinflammatory Cytokine Secretion by Macrophages and Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radjabova, Valeria; Mastroeni, Piero; Skjødt, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    We identified a novel, evolutionarily conserved receptor encoded within the human leukocyte receptor complex and syntenic region of mouse chromosome 7, named T cell-interacting, activating receptor on myeloid cells-1 (TARM1). The transmembrane region of TARM1 contained a conserved arginine residu...

  2. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  3. Technical Note: Direct measurement of continuous TMR data with a 1D tank and automated couch movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Nels C; Schmidt, Matthew C; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Ngoc B; Li, H Harold; Sajo, Erno; Price, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Real-time dynamic control of the linear accelerator, couch, and imaging parameters during radiation delivery was investigated as a novel technique for acquiring tissue maximum ratio (TMR) data. TrueBeam Developer Mode (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) was used to control the linear accelerator using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A single XML file was used to dynamically manipulate the machine, couch, and imaging parameters during radiation delivery. A TG-51 compliant 1D water tank was placed on the treatment couch, and used to position a detector at isocenter at a depth of 24.5 cm. A depth scan was performed towards the water surface. Via XML control, the treatment couch vertical position was simultaneously lowered at the same rate, maintaining the detector position at isocenter, allowing for the collection of TMR data. To ensure the detector remained at isocenter during the delivery, the in-room camera was used to monitor the detector. Continuous kV fluoroscopic images during 10 test runs further confirmed this result. TMR data at multiple Source to Detector Distances (SDD) and scan speeds were acquired to investigate their impact on the TMR data. Percentage depth dose (PDD) scans (for conversion to TMR) along with traditional discrete TMR data were acquired as a standard for comparison. More than 99.8% of the measured points had a gamma value (1%/1 mm) < 1 when compared with discrete or PDD converted TMR data. Fluoroscopic images showed that the concurrent couch and tank movements resulted in SDD errors < 1 mm. TMRs acquired at SDDs of 99, 100, and 101 cm showed differences less than 0.004. TrueBeam Developer Mode was used to collect continuous TMR data with the same accuracy as traditionally collected discrete data, but yielded higher sampled resolution and reduced acquisition time. This novel method does not require the modification of any equipment and does not use a 3D tank or reservoir. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in

  4. An automated system for the analysis of G protein-coupled receptor transmembrane binding pockets: alignment, receptor-based pharmacophores, and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwil, Nicole A; Malherbe, Pari; Lindemann, Lothar; Ebeling, Martin; Hoener, Marius C; Mühlemann, Andreas; Porter, Richard H P; Stahl, Martin; Gerber, Paul R

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) share a common architecture consisting of seven transmembrane (TM) domains. Various lines of evidence suggest that this fold provides a generic binding pocket within the TM region for hosting agonists, antagonists, and allosteric modulators. Here, a comprehensive and automated method allowing fast analysis and comparison of these putative binding pockets across the entire GPCR family is presented. The method relies on a robust alignment algorithm based on conservation indices, focusing on pharmacophore-like relationships between amino acids. Analysis of conservation patterns across the GPCR family and alignment to the rhodopsin X-ray structure allows the extraction of the amino acids lining the TM binding pocket in a so-called ligand binding pocket vector (LPV). In a second step, LPVs are translated to simple 3D receptor pharmacophore models, where each amino acid is represented by a single spherical pharmacophore feature and all atomic detail is omitted. Applications of the method include the assessment of selectivity issues, support of mutagenesis studies, and the derivation of rules for focused screening to identify chemical starting points in early drug discovery projects. Because of the coarseness of this 3D receptor pharmacophore model, however, meaningful scoring and ranking procedures of large sets of molecules are not justified. The LPV analysis of the trace amine-associated receptor family and its experimental validation is discussed as an example. The value of the 3D receptor model is demonstrated for a class C GPCR family, the metabotropic glutamate receptors.

  5. Molecular characterization of the gerbil C5a receptor and identification of a transmembrane domain V amino acid that is crucial for small molecule antagonist interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stephen M; Brodbeck, Robbin M; Steflik, Jeremy; Yu, Jianying; Baltazar, Carolyn; Peck, Amy E; Severance, Daniel; Zhang, Lu Yan; Currie, Kevin; Chenard, Bertrand L; Hutchison, Alan J; Maynard, George; Krause, James E

    2005-12-09

    Anaphylatoxin C5a is a potent inflammatory mediator associated with pathogenesis and progression of several inflammation-associated disorders. Small molecule C5a receptor (C5aR) antagonist development is hampered by species-specific receptor biology and the associated inability to use standard rat and mouse in vivo models. Gerbil is one rodent species reportedly responsive to small molecule C5aR antagonists with human C5aR affinity. We report the identification of the gerbil C5aR cDNA using a degenerate primer PCR cloning strategy. The nucleotide sequence revealed an open reading frame encoding a 347-amino acid protein. The cloned receptor (expressed in Sf9 cells) bound recombinant human C5a with nanomolar affinity. Alignment of the gerbil C5aR sequence with those from other species showed that a Trp residue in transmembrane domain V is the only transmembrane domain amino acid unique to small molecule C5aR antagonist-responsive species (i.e. gerbil, human, and non-human primate). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate human and mouse C5aRs with a residue exchange of this Trp residue. Mutation of Trp to Leu in human C5aR completely eliminated small molecule antagonist-receptor interaction. In contrast, mutation of Leu to Trp in mouse C5aR enabled small molecule antagonist-receptor interaction. This crucial Trp residue is located deeper within transmembrane domain V than residues reportedly involved in C5a- and cyclic peptide C5a antagonist-receptor interaction, suggesting a novel interaction site(s) for small molecule antagonists. These data provide insight into the basis for small molecule antagonist species selectivity and further define sites critical for C5aR activation and function.

  6. F104S c-Mpl responds to a transmembrane domain-binding thrombopoietin receptor agonist: proof of concept that selected receptor mutations in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia can be stimulated with alternative thrombopoietic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Norma E; Lim, Jihyang; Chen, Rose; Geddis, Amy E

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether specific c-Mpl mutations might respond to thrombopoietin receptor agonists. We created cell line models of type II c-Mpl mutations identified in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia. We selected F104S c-Mpl for further study because it exhibited surface expression of the receptor. We measured proliferation of cell lines expressing wild-type or F104S c-Mpl in response to thrombopoietin receptor agonists targeting the extracellular (m-AMP4) or transmembrane (LGD-4665) domains of the receptor by 1-methyltetrazole-5-thiol assay. We measured thrombopoietin binding to the mutant receptor using an in vitro thrombopoietin uptake assay and identified F104 as a potentially critical residue for the interaction between the receptor and its ligand by aligning thrombopoietin and erythropoietin receptors from multiple species. Cells expressing F104S c-Mpl proliferated in response to LGD-4665, but not thrombopoietin or m-AMP4. Compared to thrombopoietin, LGD-4665 stimulates signaling with delayed kinetics in both wild-type and F104S c-Mpl-expressing cells. Although F104S c-Mpl is expressed on the cell surface in our BaF3 cell line model, the mutant receptor does not bind thrombopoietin. Comparison to the erythropoietin receptor suggests that F104 engages in hydrogen-bonding interactions that are critical for binding to thrombopoietin. These findings suggest that a small subset of patients with congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia might respond to treatment with thrombopoietin receptor agonists, but that responsiveness will depend on the type of mutation and agonist used. We postulate that F104 is critical for thrombopoietin binding. The kinetics of signaling in response to a transmembrane domain-binding agonist are delayed in comparison to thrombopoietin. 2010 ISEH Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary design study of the Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Carlson, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes work done in Fiscal Year 1977 by the Fusion Reactor Studies Group of LLL on the conceptual design of a 1000-MW(e) Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR). The high Q (defined as the ratio of fusion power to injection power) predicted for the TMR (approximately 5) reduces the recirculating power to a nondominant problem and results in an attractive mirror fusion power plant. The fusion plasma of the TMR is contained in the 100-m-long central cell where the magnetic field strength is a modest 2 T. The blanket for neutron energy recovery and tritium breeding is cylindrical and, along with the solenoidal magnet, is divided into 3-m-long modules to facilitate maintenance. The central cell is fueled (but not heated) by the injection of low-energy neutral beams near its ends. Thus, the central cell is simple and of low technology. The end-cell plasmas must be of high density and high energy in order to plug and heat (via the electrons) the central-cell plasma. The present conceptual design uses 1.2-MeV neutral-beam injection for the end plugs and a cryogenic-aluminum, Yin-Yang magnet that produces an incremental field of about 1 T over a field of 16 T produced by a pair of Nb 3 Sn superconducting solenoids. Important design problems remain in both the neutral-beam injector and in the end-plug magnet. Also remaining are important physics questions such as alpha-beam particle transport and end-plug stability. These questions are discussed at length in the report and suggestions for future work are given

  8. Transmembrane topology of the acetylcholine receptor examined in reconstituted vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Each of the five acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits, α 2 β-γδ, is believed to have the same number of transmembrane crossing and to share the same general folding pattern. AChR isolated from the electric organ of electric fish is predominantly dimeric. We have used this bridge as a marker for the C-terminus of the δ subunit, and presumably that of the other subunits in addition. The disulfide's accessibility to hydrophilic reductants, principally glutathione (GSH), was tested in a reconstituted vesicle system. The reduction of the δ-δ desulfide, as evidenced by the transition of AChrR dimers to monomers, was quantitatively monitored on velocity sedimentation sucrose gradients. Alternatively, the reduction of δ 2 to δ was followed by employing non-reducing SDS-PAGE. Reductants such as GSH were able to access the bridge in intact right-side-out vesicles. No acceleration of this process was evident when the vesicles were disrupted by freeze-thaw or by detergents. Control experiments which determined the rate of reduction of entrapped diphtheria toxin, or that of 3 H-GSH efflux, demonstrated that intact reconstituted vesicles provide an adequate permeability barrier to GSH access of their intravesicular space

  9. beta-Arrestin 1 and 2 stabilize the angiotensin II type I receptor in distinct high-affinity conformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanni, S J; Hansen, J T; Bonde, M M

    2010-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor belongs to family A of 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptors. The receptor has important roles in the cardiovascular system and is commonly used as a drug target in cardiovascular diseases. Interaction of 7TM receptors with G proteins or beta-arrestins often...

  10. Selective elimination of high constitutive activity or chemokine binding in the human herpesvirus 8 encoded seven transmembrane oncogene ORF74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2000-01-01

    Open reading frame 74 (ORF74) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 is a highly constitutively active seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor stimulated by angiogenic chemokines, e.g. growth-related oncogene-alpha, and inhibited by angiostatic chemokines e.g. interferon-gamma-inducible protein. Transgenic mice...

  11. [Bacterial synthesis, purification, and solubilization of transmembrane segments of ErbB family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, M V; Shul'ga, A A; Ermoliuk, Ia S; Tkach, E N; Goncharuk, S A; Pustovalova, Iu E; Mineev, K S; Bocharov, É V; Maslennikov, I V; Arsen'ev, A S; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2011-01-01

    A family of epidermal growth factor receptors, ErbB, represents an important class of receptor tyrosine kinases, playing a leading role in cellular growth, development and differentiation. Transmembrane domains of these receptors transduce biochemical signals across plasma membrane via lateral homo- and heterodimerization. Relatively small size of complexes of ErbB transmembrane domains with detergents or lipids allows one to study their detailed spatial structure using three-dimensional heteronuclear high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Here, we describe the effective expression system and purification procedure for preparative-scale production of transmembrane peptides from four representatives of ErbB family, ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3, ErbB4, for structural studies. The recombinant peptides were produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS as C-terminal extensions of thioredoxin A. The fusion protein cleavage was accomplished with the light subunit of human enterokinase. Several (10-30) milligrams of purified isotope-labeled transmembrane peptides were isolated with the use of a simple and convenient procedure, which consists of consecutive steps of immobilized metal affinity chromatography and cation-exchange chromatography. The purified peptides were reconstituted in lipid/detergent environment (micelles or bicelles) and characterized using dynamic light scattering, CD and NMR spectroscopy. The data obtained indicate that the purified ErbB transmembrane peptides are suitable for structural and dynamic studies of their homo- and heterodimer complexes using high resolution NMR spectroscopy.

  12. Research on experimental cerebral infarction in cats with in vivo TMR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Toru; Asato, Reinin; Miyake, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Akira; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro

    1984-01-01

    Metabolic changes in the ischemic brains of cats were investigated in vivo with high energy phosphate compounds as parameters by using a topical magnetic resonance (TMR) spectrometer. The following points must be considered in obtaining 31 P-TMR spectrum in a cat brain: Firstly, as much muscle as possible must be removed from the detective area because it contains phosphate compounds. Our experiment showed that bone and blood had little or no effect on the 31 P-TMR spectrum. Secondly, although same procedure was repeated, it was difficult to obtain constant ischemic lesion; in site and size. The detective area in setting was not changed in the particular area. However there was a possibility of the detective area also including various non-ischemic regions. Thirdly, 31 P-TMR spectrum had several peaks in a cat brain; which were sugar phosphate, inorganic phosphate, phosphodiesters, phosphocreatine, γ-, α-, β-ATP in the pre-occlusive conditions. These peaks did not appear in clear volume separation with one another. We drew the perpendicular line from through between two neighbour peaks to the horizontal base line and artificially divided two peaks. The area of each peak did not represent correctly the density of each component. Fourthly, unnecessary components were rationalistically excluded from the 'raw' spectrum. In fact, the result of experiment, they could not be completely removed mathematically. Fifthly, pH measurement were possible from the correlation between the chemical shifts of Pi and PCr. The value of chemical shift of Pi moved to a higher resonant frequency and overlapped with that of PDE. Thus, the value could not be decided precisely. The result was nearly equal to the ratio from the biochemical method using the same ischemic models. (J.P.N.)

  13. Role of Conserved Disulfide Bridges and Aromatic Residues in Extracellular Loop 2 of Chemokine Receptor CCR8 for Chemokine and Small Molecule Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Line; Rummel, Pia C; Lückmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and aromatic residues in extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) for ligand binding and activation in the chemokine receptor CCR8. We used IP3 accumulation and radioligand binding experiments to determine the impact of receptor mutagenesis on both chemokine and small molecule agonist and antagonist binding and action...... in CCR8. We find that the 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptor conserved disulfide bridge (7TM bridge) linking transmembrane helix (TM)III and ECL2 is crucial for chemokine and small molecule action, whereas the chemokine receptor conserved disulfide bridge between the N terminus and TMVII is needed only...

  14. SU-F-J-108: TMR Correction Factor Based Online Adaptive Radiotherapy for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) of L-Spine Tumors Using Cone Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaffar, I; Balik, S; Zhuang, T; Chao, S; Xia, P [The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using TMR ratio correction factors for a fast online adaptive plan to compensate for anatomical changes in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of L-spine tumors. Methods: Three coplanar treatment plans were made for 11 patients: Uniform (9 IMRT beams equally distributed around the patient); Posterior (IMRT with 9 posterior beams every 20 degree) and VMAT (2 360° arcs). For each patient, the external body and bowel gas were contoured on the planning CT and pre-treatment CBCT. After registering CBCT and the planning CT by aligning to the tumor, the CBCT contours were transferred to the planning CT. To estimate the actual delivered dose while considering patient’s anatomy of the treatment day, a hybrid CT was created by overriding densities in planning CT using the differences between CT and CBCT external and bowel gas contours. Correction factors (CF) were calculated using the effective depth information obtained from the planning system using the hybrid CT: CF = TMR (delivery)/TMR (planning). The adaptive plan was generated by multiplying the planned Monitor Units with the CFs. Results: The mean absolute difference (MAD) in V16Gy of the target between planned and estimated delivery with and without TMR correction was 0.8 ± 0.7% vs. 2.4 ± 1.3% for Uniform and 1.0 ± 0.9% vs. 2.6 ± 1.3% for VMAT plans(p<0.05), respectively. For V12Gy of cauda-equina with and without TMR correction, MAD was 0.24 ± 0.19% vs. 1.2 ± 1.02% for Uniform and 0.23 ± 0.20% vs. 0.78 ± 0.79% for VMAT plans(p<0.05), respectively. The differences between adaptive and original plans were not significant for posterior plans. Conclusion: The online adaptive strategy using TMR ratios and pre-treatment CBCT information was feasible strategy to compensate for anatomical changes for the patients treated for L-spine tumors, particularly for equally spaced IMRT and VMAT plans.

  15. Seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor repertoire of gastric ghrelin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Park, Won-Mee; Sakata, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms regulating secretion of the orexigenic-glucoregulatory hormone ghrelin remain unclear. Based on qPCR analysis of FACS-purified gastric ghrelin cells, highly expressed and enriched 7TM receptors were comprehensively identified and functionally characterized using in vitro......, ex vivo and in vivo methods. Five Gαs-coupled receptors efficiently stimulated ghrelin secretion: as expected the β1-adrenergic, the GIP and the secretin receptors but surprisingly also the composite receptor for the sensory neuropeptide CGRP and the melanocortin 4 receptor. A number of Gαi....../o-coupled receptors inhibited ghrelin secretion including somatostatin receptors SSTR1, SSTR2 and SSTR3 and unexpectedly the highly enriched lactate receptor, GPR81. Three other metabolite receptors known to be both Gαi/o- and Gαq/11-coupled all inhibited ghrelin secretion through a pertussis toxin-sensitive Gαi...

  16. Magnetization switching driven by spin-transfer-torque in high-TMR magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelio, D.; Torres, L.; Finocchio, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of magnetization switching driven by spin-polarized current in high-TMR magnetic tunnel junctions (TMR>100%). The current density distribution throughout the free-layer is computed dynamically, by modeling the ferromagnet/insulator/ferromagnet trilayer as a series of parallel resistances. The validity of the main hypothesis, which states that the current flows perpendicular to the sample plane, has been verified by numerically solving the Poisson equation. Our results show that the nonuniform current density distribution is a source of asymmetry to the switching process. Furthermore, we observe that the reversal mechanisms are characterized by well-defined localized pre-switching oscillation modes.

  17. The Vasopressin Type-2 Receptor and Prostaglandin Receptors EP2 and EP4 can Increase Aquaporin-2 Plasma Membrane Targeting Through a cAMP Independent Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma Tina Bisgaard; Moeller, Hanne Bjerregaard; Assentoft, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Apical membrane targeting of the collecting duct water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is essential for body water balance. As this event is regulated by Gs coupled 7-transmembrane receptors such as the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) and the prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP4, it is believed to be c...

  18. Synchronization of faulty processors in coarse-grained TMR protected partially reconfigurable FPGA designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, U.; Gomez-Cornejo, J.; Astarloa, A.; Bidarte, U.; Ser, J. Del

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of FPGA technology in numerous application fields is a fact. Single Event Effects (SEE) are a critical factor for the reliability of FPGA based systems. For this reason, a number of researches have been studying fault tolerance techniques to harden different elements of FPGA designs. Using Partial Reconfiguration (PR) in conjunction with Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) is an emerging approach in recent publications dealing with the implementation of fault tolerant processors on SRAM-based FPGAs. While these works pay great attention to the repair of erroneous instances by means of reconfiguration, the essential step of synchronizing the repaired processors is insufficiently addressed. In this context, this paper poses four different synchronization approaches for soft core processors, which balance differently the trade-off between synchronization speed and hardware overhead. All approaches are assessed in practice by synchronizing TMR protected PicoBlaze processors implemented on a Virtex-5 FPGA. Nevertheless all methods are of a general nature and can be applied for different processor architectures in a straightforward fashion. - Highlights: • Four different synchronization methods for faulty processors are proposed. • The methods balance between synchronization speed and hardware overhead. • They can be applied to TMR-protected reconfigurable FPGA designs. • The proposed schemes are implemented and tested in real hardware.

  19. The transmembrane collagen COL-99 guides longitudinally extending axons in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jesse; Unsoeld, Thomas; Hutter, Harald

    2018-06-01

    We have identified the transmembrane collagen, COL-99, in a genetic screen for novel genes involved in axon guidance in the nematode C. elegans. COL-99 is similar to transmembrane collagens type XIII, XXIII and XXV in vertebrates. col-99 mutants exhibit guidance defects in axons extending along the major longitudinal axon tracts, most prominently the left ventral nerve cord (VNC). COL-99 is expressed in the hypodermis during the time of axon outgrowth. We provide evidence that a furin cleavage site in COL-99 is essential for function, suggesting that COL-99 is released from the cells producing it. Vertebrate homologs of COL-99 have been shown to be expressed in mammalian nervous systems and linked to various neurological disease but have not been associated with guidance of extending neurons. col-99 acts genetically with the discoidin domain receptors ddr-1 and ddr-2, which are expressed by neurons affected in col-99 mutants. Discoidin domain receptors are activated by collagens in vertebrates. DDR-1 and DDR-2 may function as receptors for COL-99. Our results establish a novel role for a transmembrane collagen in axonal guidance and asymmetry establishment of the VNC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The emerging role of promiscuous 7TM receptors as chemosensors for food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, several highly promiscuous seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors have been cloned and characterized of which many are activated broadly by amino acids, proteolytic degradation products, carbohydrates, or free fatty acids (FFAs) and are expressed in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, endocrine glands, adipose tissue, and/or kidney. This has led to the hypothesis that these receptors may act as sensors of food intake modulating, for example, release of incretin hormones from the gut, insulin/glucagon from the pancreas, and leptin from adipose tissue. In the present review, we describe the molecular mechanisms of nutrient-sensing of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), the G protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A), and the taste1 receptor T1R1/T1R3-sensing L-α-amino acids; the carbohydrate-sensing T1R2/T1R3 receptor; the proteolytic degradation product sensor GPR93 (also termed GPR92); and the FFA sensing receptors FFA1, FFA2, FFA3, GPR84, and GPR120. Due to their omnipresent nature, the natural ligands have had limited usability in pharmacological/physiological studies which has hampered the elucidation of the physiological function and therapeutic prospect of their receptors. However, an increasing number of subtype-selective ligands and/or receptor knockout mice are being developed which at least for some of the receptors have validated them as promising drug targets in, for example, type II diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. G protein-coupled receptor transmembrane binding pockets and their applications in GPCR research and drug discovery: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwil, Nicole A; Gatti-McArthur, Silvia; Hoener, Marius C; Lindemann, Lothar; Christ, Andreas D; Green, Luke G; Guba, Wolfgang; Martin, Rainer E; Malherbe, Pari; Porter, Richard H P; Slack, Jay P; Winnig, Marcel; Dehmlow, Henrietta; Grether, Uwe; Hertel, Cornelia; Narquizian, Robert; Panousis, Constantinos G; Kolczewski, Sabine; Steward, Lucinda

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) share a common architecture consisting of seven transmembrane (TM) domains. Various lines of evidence suggest that this fold provides a generic binding pocket within the TM region for hosting agonists, antagonists, and allosteric modulators. Hence, an automated method was developed that allows a fast analysis and comparison of these generic ligand binding pockets across the entire GPCR family by providing the relevant information for all GPCRs in the same format. This methodology compiles amino acids lining the TM binding pocket including parts of the ECL2 loop in a so-called 1D ligand binding pocket vector and translates these 1D vectors in a second step into 3D receptor pharmacophore models. It aims to support various aspects of GPCR drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry. Applications of pharmacophore similarity analysis of these 1D LPVs include definition of receptor subfamilies, prediction of species differences within subfamilies in regard to in vitro pharmacology and identification of nearest neighbors for GPCRs of interest to generate starting points for GPCR lead identification programs. These aspects of GPCR research are exemplified in the field of melanopsins, trace amine-associated receptors and somatostatin receptor subtype 5. In addition, it is demonstrated how 3D pharmacophore models of the LPVs can support the prediction of amino acids involved in ligand recognition, the understanding of mutational data in a 3D context and the elucidation of binding modes for GPCR ligands and their evaluation. Furthermore, guidance through 3D receptor pharmacophore modeling for the synthesis of subtype-specific GPCR ligands will be reported. Illustrative examples are taken from the GPCR family class C, metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 5 and sweet taste receptors, and from the GPCR class A, e.g. nicotinic acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine 5A receptor. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers

  2. Chapter 8. Activation mechanisms of chemokine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia C; Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2009-01-01

    binding. Attempts to unravel the activation mechanism of 7TM receptors have led to the conclusion that activation involves movements of the transmembrane segments VI and VII in particular, as recently gathered in the Global Toggle Switch Model. However, to understand the activation mechanism completely......, more research has to be done in this field. Chemokine receptors are interesting tools in this matter. First, the chemokine system has a high degree of promiscuity that allows several chemokines to target one receptor in different ways, as well as a single chemokine ligand to target several receptors...

  3. Receptor oligomerization in family B1 of G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Norklit; Ørgaard, Anne; Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    , the glucagon receptor, and the receptors for parathyroid hormone (PTHR1 and PTHR2). The dysregulation of several family B1 receptors is involved in diseases, such as diabetes, chronic inflammation, and osteoporosis which underlines the pathophysiological importance of this GPCR subfamily. In spite of this......, investigation of family B1 receptor oligomerization and especially its pharmacological importance is still at an early stage. Even though GPCR oligomerization is a well-established phenomenon, there is a need for more investigations providing a direct link between these interactions and receptor functionality......The superfamily of the seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (7TM/GPCRs) is the largest family of membrane-associated receptors. GPCRs are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous human diseases, and they constitute an estimated 30-40% of all drug targets. During the last two decades...

  4. Nucleotide sequence of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens octopine Ti plasmid-encoded tmr gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidekamp, F.; Dirkse, W.G.; Hille, J.; Ormondt, H. van

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the tmr gene, encoded by the octopine Ti plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pTiAch5), was determined. The T-DNA, which encompasses this gene, is involved in tumor formation and maintenance, and probably mediates the cytokinin-independent growth of transformed plant

  5. Recombinant expression in E. coli of human FGFR2 with its transmembrane and extracellular domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bajinting

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases containing three domains: an extracellular receptor domain, a single transmembrane helix, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. FGFRs are activated by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs as part of complex signal transduction cascades regulating angiogenesis, skeletal formation, cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival, and cancer. We have developed the first recombinant expression system in E. coli to produce a construct of human FGFR2 containing its transmembrane and extracellular receptor domains. We demonstrate that the expressed construct is functional in binding heparin and dimerizing. Size exclusion chromatography demonstrates that the purified FGFR2 does not form a complex with FGF1 or adopts an inactive dimer conformation. Progress towards the successful recombinant production of intact FGFRs will facilitate further biochemical experiments and structure determination that will provide insight into how extracellular FGF binding activates intracellular kinase activity.

  6. Cloning of human genes encoding novel G protein-coupled receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, A.; Docherty, J.M.; Heiber, M. [Univ. of Toronto, (Canada)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of several novel human genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors. Each of the receptors contained the familiar seven transmembrane topography and most closely resembled peptide binding receptors. Gene GPR1 encoded a receptor protein that is intronless in the coding region and that shared identity (43% in the transmembrane regions) with the opioid receptors. Northern blot analysis revealed that GPR1 transcripts were expressed in the human hippocampus, and the gene was localized to chromosome 15q21.6. Gene GPR2 encoded a protein that most closely resembled an interleukin-8 receptor (51% in the transmembrane regions), and this gene, not expressed in the six brain regions examined, was localized to chromosome 17q2.1-q21.3. A third gene, GPR3, showed identity (56% in the transmembrane regions) with a previously characterized cDNA clone from rat and was localized to chromosome 1p35-p36.1. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Susceptibility of Redundant Versus Singular Clock Domains Implemented in SRAM-Based FPGA TMR Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We present the challenges that arise when using redundant clock domains due to their clock-skew. Radiation data show that a singular clock domain (DTMR) provides an improved TMR methodology for SRAM-based FPGAs over redundant clocks.

  8. The stability of the three transmembrane and the four transmembrane human vitamin K epoxide reductase models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sangwook

    2016-04-01

    The three transmembrane and the four transmembrane helix models are suggested for human vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). In this study, we investigate the stability of the human three transmembrane/four transmembrane VKOR models by employing a coarse-grained normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. Based on the analysis of the mobility of each transmembrane domain, we suggest that the three transmembrane human VKOR model is more stable than the four transmembrane human VKOR model.

  9. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets.......A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...

  10. A conserved gene family encodes transmembrane proteins with fibronectin, immunoglobulin and leucine-rich repeat domains (FIGLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Christopher L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mouse the cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7 is required for generation of B lymphocytes, but human IL-7 does not appear to have this function. A bioinformatics approach was therefore used to identify IL-7 receptor related genes in the hope of identifying the elusive human cytokine. Results Our database search identified a family of nine gene candidates, which we have provisionally named fibronectin immunoglobulin leucine-rich repeat (FIGLER. The FIGLER 1–9 genes are predicted to encode type I transmembrane glycoproteins with 6–12 leucine-rich repeats (LRR, a C2 type Ig domain, a fibronectin type III domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain containing one to four tyrosine residues. Members of this multichromosomal gene family possess 20–47% overall amino acid identity and are differentially expressed in cell lines and primary hematopoietic lineage cells. Genes for FIGLER homologs were identified in macaque, orangutan, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, toad, and puffer fish databases. The non-human FIGLER homologs share 38–99% overall amino acid identity with their human counterpart. Conclusion The extracellular domain structure and absence of recognizable cytoplasmic signaling motifs in members of the highly conserved FIGLER gene family suggest a trophic or cell adhesion function for these molecules.

  11. Functional enhancement of AT1R potency in the presence of the TPαR is revealed by a comprehensive 7TM receptor co-expression screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Tind Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional cross-talk between seven transmembrane (7TM receptors can dramatically alter their pharmacological properties, both in vitro and in vivo. This represents an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutics that potentially target more specific biological effects while causing fewer adverse events. Although several studies convincingly have established the existence of 7TM receptor cross-talk, little is known about the frequencey and biological significance of this phenomenon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the extent of synergism in 7TM receptor signaling, we took a comprehensive approach and co-expressed 123 different 7TM receptors together with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R and analyzed how each receptor affected the angiotensin II (AngII response. To monitor the effect we used integrative receptor activation/signaling assay called Receptor Selection and Amplification Technology (R-SAT. In this screen the thromboxane A2α receptor (TPαR was the only receptor which significantly enhanced the AngII-mediated response. The TPαR-mediated enhancement of AngII signaling was significantly reduced when a signaling deficient receptor mutant (TPαR R130V was co-expressed instead of the wild-type TPαR, and was completely blocked both by TPαR antagonists and COX inhibitors inhibiting formation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found a functional enhancement of AT1R only when co-expressed with TPαR, but not with 122 other 7TM receptors. In addition, the TPαR must be functionally active, indicating the AT1R enhancement is mediated by a paracrine mechanism. Since we only found one receptor enhancing AT1R potency, our results suggest that functional augmentation through 7TM receptor cross-talk is a rare event that may require specific conditions to occur.

  12. Chemical homogeneity and particle size distribution of dairy cow TMR along the feeding alley with different mixing times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the concepts of precision feeding, the right components balance (Sova et al., 2014 and the correct particle size distribution (PSD, Khan et al., 2014 of total mixed ration (TMR are essential for a complete homogeneity of the diet and are strongly influenced by adopted mixing time (MT, Humer et al., 2018, Schingoethe et al.,2017. The aim of the trial was to determine the influence of two MTs (MT1≤7min and MT2>7min on the chemical homogeneity and PSD along the feeding alley. Diets were performed with a horizontal cutter-mixer wagon (Gulliver 4016, Sgariboldi, and TMR samples were collected from the beginning, middle and end of the feeding alley after discharge. Triplicate samples of the diet were collected for chemical composition analyses (moisture, CP, Ash, EE, NDF and ADF and PSD evaluation (Heinrichs and Kononoff, 2002 over two months (two sampling/week. Statistical analysis was performed by a PROC MIXED for repeated measurements of SAS. MT1 evidenced a non-uniform distribution of moisture content along the feeding alley (P=0.05: lower moisture was found at the end than at the beginning and in the middle (47.55 vs 51.13 and 51.00%, respectively; P<0.01. No significant effects of MTs were recorded for other chemical parameters. The PSD showed trend to a higher retained amount of fibre in MT1 upper sieve (14.79 vs. 10.14%; P=0.06, while lower amount of feed was found in middle and bottom sieve than MT2 (38.9 and 12.81 vs 42.17 and 14.32%, respectively; P=0.08 and P=0.06. With respect to TMR distribution along the feeding alley, no differences were found between MT1 and MT2. Day of sampling evidenced significant variation both in chemical and physical composition (P<0.05. Obtained preliminary data evidenced the influence of MTs on composition and on PSD of the provided diet; results suggest to daily measure moisture of raw material in order to avoid negative changes in dry matter intake.

  13. Molecular cloning of a novel, putative G protein-coupled receptor from sea anemones structurally related to members of the FSH, TSH, LH/CG receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1993-01-01

    hormone (FSH, TSH, LH/CG) receptor family from mammals, including a very large, extracellular N terminus (18-25% sequence identity) and a 7 transmembrane region (44-48% sequence identity). As with the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes, the sea anemone receptor gene yields transcripts which can...... be alternatively spliced, thereby yielding a shortened receptor variant only containing the large extracellular (soluble) N terminus. All this is strong evidence that the putative glycoprotein hormone receptor from sea anemones is evolutionarily related to those from mammals. This is the first report showing...

  14. Transmission of integrin β7 transmembrane domain topology enables gut lymphoid tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Lagarrigue, Frederic; Gingras, Alexandre R; Fan, Zhichao; Ley, Klaus; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2018-04-02

    Integrin activation regulates adhesion, extracellular matrix assembly, and cell migration, thereby playing an indispensable role in development and in many pathological processes. A proline mutation in the central integrin β3 transmembrane domain (TMD) creates a flexible kink that uncouples the topology of the inner half of the TMD from the outer half. In this study, using leukocyte integrin α4β7, which enables development of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), we examined the biological effect of such a proline mutation and report that it impairs agonist-induced talin-mediated activation of integrin α4β7, thereby inhibiting rolling lymphocyte arrest, a key step in transmigration. Furthermore, the α4β7(L721P) mutation blocks lymphocyte homing to and development of the GALT. These studies show that impairing the ability of an integrin β TMD to transmit talin-induced TMD topology inhibits agonist-induced physiological integrin activation and biological function in development. © 2018 Sun et al.

  15. PTPBR7 binding proteins in myelinating neurons of the mouse brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesini, I.M.; Debyser, G.; Croes, H.J.E.; Dam, G.B. ten; Devreese, B.; Stoker, A.W.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mouse protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPBR7 is a receptor-like, transmembrane protein that is localized on the surface of neuronal cells. Its protein phosphatase activity is reduced upon multimerization, and PTPBR7-deficient mice display motor coordination defects. Extracellular molecules that may

  16. High-frequency signal paths in the TMR-86.1 experimental tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrcian, J.; Jellus, V.; Weis, J.; Frollo, I.

    1990-01-01

    The NMR-based TMR-86.1 tomography apparatus, developed at the Institute of Measurement and Measuring Instrumentation, Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, enables imaging of the inner structure of biological samples and human limbs no more than 110 mm in diameter, using a measuring matrix containing at most 128x128 elements. The imaged matrix can possess a maximum of 256x256 image elements with 256 brightness steps. The signal paths of the high-frequency excitation-imaging complex of the apparatus are described. Some functional blocks of the apparatus can be used without substantial modifications for the imaging of larger objects such as the human body. From the point of view of the high-frequency pulses for nonselective excitation (so-called 180deg-pulses), the excitation pulse power will have to be increased to at least 1 kW. (author). 5 figs, 7 refs

  17. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation independently of beta-arrestin- and dynamin-mediated FSH receptor internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Vincent; Kara, Elodie; Guillou, Florian; Reiter, Eric; Crepieux, Pascale

    2006-01-01

    Background The follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R) is a seven transmembrane spanning receptor (7TMR) which plays a crucial role in male and female reproduction. Upon FSH stimulation, the FSH-R activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). However, the mechanisms whereby the agonist-stimulated FSH-R activates ERK are poorly understood. In order to activate ERK, some 7 TMRs require beta-arrestin-and dynamin-dependent internalization to occur, whereas some others do not. In the present study, we examined the ability of the FSH-activated FSH-R to induce ERK phosphorylation, in conditions where its beta-arrestin- and dynamin-mediated internalization was impaired. Methods Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were transiently transfected with the rat FSH-R. Internalization of the FSH-R was manipulated by co-expression of either a beta-arrestin (319–418) dominant negative peptide, either an inactive dynamin K44A mutant or of wild-type beta-arrestin 1 or 2. The outcomes on the FSH-R internalization were assayed by measuring 125I-FSH binding at the cell surface when compared to internalized 125I-FSH binding. The resulting ERK phosphorylation level was visualized by Western blot analysis. Results In HEK 293 cells, FSH stimulated ERK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Co-transfection of the beta- arrestin (319–418) construct, or of the dynamin K44A mutant reduced FSH-R internalization in response to FSH, without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Likewise, overexpression of wild-type beta-arrestin 1 or 2 significantly increased the FSH-R internalization level in response to FSH, without altering FSH-induced ERK phosphorylation. Conclusion From these results, we conclude that the FSH-R does not require beta-arrestin- nor dynamin-mediated internalization to initiate ERK phosphorylation in response to FSH. PMID:16787538

  18. Hidden markov model for the prediction of transmembrane proteins using MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Shanker, Sudhanshu; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Sinha, Dhiraj; Pandey, Paras Nath

    2011-01-01

    Since membranous proteins play a key role in drug targeting therefore transmembrane proteins prediction is active and challenging area of biological sciences. Location based prediction of transmembrane proteins are significant for functional annotation of protein sequences. Hidden markov model based method was widely applied for transmembrane topology prediction. Here we have presented a revised and a better understanding model than an existing one for transmembrane protein prediction. Scripting on MATLAB was built and compiled for parameter estimation of model and applied this model on amino acid sequence to know the transmembrane and its adjacent locations. Estimated model of transmembrane topology was based on TMHMM model architecture. Only 7 super states are defined in the given dataset, which were converted to 96 states on the basis of their length in sequence. Accuracy of the prediction of model was observed about 74 %, is a good enough in the area of transmembrane topology prediction. Therefore we have concluded the hidden markov model plays crucial role in transmembrane helices prediction on MATLAB platform and it could also be useful for drug discovery strategy. The database is available for free at bioinfonavneet@gmail.comvinaysingh@bhu.ac.in.

  19. Direct association between the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and the Src homology 2-containing adapter protein Grb7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A; Liu, X; Dixon, J E; Di Fiore, P P; Dixit, V M

    1996-05-03

    Adapter proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains link transmembrane receptor protein-tyrosine kinases to downstream signal transducing molecules. A family of SH2 containing adapter proteins including Grb7 and Grb10 has been recently identified. We had previously shown that Grb10 associates with Ret via its SH2 domain in an activation-dependent manner (Pandey, A., Duan, H., Di Fiore, P.P., and Dixit, V.M. (1995) J. Biol, Chem. 270, 21461-21463). We now demonstrate that the related adapter molecule Grb7 also associates with Ret in vitro and in vivo, and that the binding of the SH2 domain of Grb7 to Ret is direct. This binding is dependent upon Ret autophosphorylation since Grb7 is incapable of binding a kinase-defective mutant of Ret. Thus two members of the Grb family, Grb7 and Grb10, likely relay signals emanating from Ret to other, as yet, unidentified targets within the cell.

  20. Mutation G805R in the transmembrane domain of the LDL receptor gene causes familial hypercholesterolemia by inducing ectodomain cleavage of the LDL receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Bismo Strøm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 1700 mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene have been found to cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH. These are commonly divided into five classes based upon their effects on the structure and function of the LDLR. However, little is known about the mechanism by which mutations in the transmembrane domain of the LDLR gene cause FH. We have studied how the transmembrane mutation G805R affects the function of the LDLR. Based upon Western blot analyses of transfected HepG2 cells, mutation G805R reduced the amounts of the 120 kDa precursor LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. This led to reduced amounts of the mature 160 kDa LDLR at the cell surface. However, significant amounts of a secreted 140 kDa G805R-LDLR ectodomain fragment was observed in the culture media. Treatment of the cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat largely restored the amounts of the 120 and 160 kDa forms in cell lysates, and prevented secretion of the 140 kDa ectodomain fragment. Together, these data indicate that a metalloproteinase cleaved the ectodomain of the 120 kDa precursor G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. It was the presence of the polar Arg805 and not the lack of Gly805 which led to ectodomain cleavage. Arg805 also prevented γ-secretase cleavage within the transmembrane domain. It is conceivable that introducing a charged residue within the hydrophobic membrane lipid bilayer, results in less efficient incorporation of the 120 kDa G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and makes it a substrate for metalloproteinase cleavage.

  1. Functional Consequences of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Cross-talk and Trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Noerklit; Nøhr, Anne Cathrine; Wismann, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The signaling capacity of seven-transmembrane/G-protein-coupled receptors (7TM/GPCRs) can be regulated through ligand-mediated receptor trafficking. Classically, the recycling of internalized receptors is associated with resensitization, whereas receptor degradation terminates signaling. We have......) and glucagon (GCGR) receptors. The interaction and cross-talk between coexpressed receptors is a wide phenomenon of the 7TM/GPCR superfamily. Numerous reports show functional consequences for signaling and trafficking of the involved receptors. On the basis of the high structural similarity and tissue...... coexpression, we here investigated the potential cross-talk between GLP-1R and GIPR or GCGR in both trafficking and signaling pathways. Using a real-time time-resolved FRET-based internalization assay, we show that GLP-1R, GIPR, and GCGR internalize with differential properties. Remarkably, upon coexpression...

  2. Delineation of the peptide binding site of the human galanin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kask, K; Berthold, M; Kahl, U; Nordvall, G; Bartfai, T

    1996-01-01

    Galanin, a neuroendocrine peptide of 29 amino acids, binds to Gi/Go-coupled receptors to trigger cellular responses. To determine which amino acids of the recently cloned seven-transmembrane domain-type human galanin receptor are involved in the high-affinity binding of the endogenous peptide ligand, we performed a mutagenesis study. Mutation of the His264 or His267 of transmembrane domain VI to alanine, or of Phe282 of transmembrane domain VII to glycine, results in an apparent loss of galanin binding. The substitution of Glu271 to serine in the extracellular loop III of the receptor causes a 12-fold loss in affinity for galanin. We combined the mutagenesis results with data on the pharmacophores (Trp2, Tyr9) of galanin and with molecular modelling of the receptor using bacteriorhodopsin as a model. Based on these studies, we propose a binding site model for the endogenous peptide ligand in the galanin receptor where the N-terminus of galanin hydrogen bonds with Glu271 of the receptor, Trp2 of galanin interacts with the Zn2+ sensitive pair of His264 and His267 of transmembrane domain VI, and Tyr9 of galanin interacts with Phe282 of transmembrane domain VII, while the C-terminus of galanin is pointing towards the N-terminus of th Images PMID:8617199

  3. A conserved aspartic acid is important for agonist (VUAA1 and odorant/tuning receptor-dependent activation of the insect odorant co-receptor (Orco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh N Kumar

    Full Text Available Insect odorant receptors function as heteromeric odorant-gated cation channels comprising a conventional odorant-sensitive tuning receptor, and a conserved co-receptor (Orco. An Orco agonist, VUAA1, is able to activate both heteromeric and homomeric Orco-containing channels. Very little is known about specific residues in Orco that contribute to cation permeability and gating. We investigated the importance of two conserved Asp residues, one in each of transmembrane domains 5 and 7, for channel function by mutagenesis. Drosophila melanogaster Orco and its substitution mutants were expressed in HEK cells and VUAA1-stimulated channel activity was determined by Ca(2+ influx and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Substitution of D466 in transmembrane 7 with amino acids other than glutamic acid resulted in a substantial reduction in channel activity. The D466E Orco substitution mutant was ~2 times more sensitive to VUAA1. The permeability of the D466E Orco mutant to cations was unchanged relative to wild-type Orco. When D466E Orco is co-expressed with a conventional tuning odorant receptor, the heteromeric complex also shows increased sensitivity to an odorant. Thus, the effect of the D466E mutation is not specific to VUAA1 agonism or dependent on homomeric Orco assembly. We suggest the gain-of-activation characteristic of the D466E mutant identifies an amino acid that is likely to be important for activation of both heteromeric and homomeric insect odorant receptor channels.

  4. A multi-protein receptor-ligand complex underlies combinatorial dendrite guidance choices in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Shen, Ao; Dong, Xintong; Tugizova, Madina; Xiang, Yang K; Shen, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Ligand receptor interactions instruct axon guidance during development. How dendrites are guided to specific targets is less understood. The C. elegans PVD sensory neuron innervates muscle-skin interface with its elaborate dendritic branches. Here, we found that LECT-2, the ortholog of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2), is secreted from the muscles and required for muscle innervation by PVD. Mosaic analyses showed that LECT-2 acted locally to guide the growth of terminal branches. Ectopic expression of LECT-2 from seam cells is sufficient to redirect the PVD dendrites onto seam cells. LECT-2 functions in a multi-protein receptor-ligand complex that also contains two transmembrane ligands on the skin, SAX-7/L1CAM and MNR-1, and the neuronal transmembrane receptor DMA-1. LECT-2 greatly enhances the binding between SAX-7, MNR-1 and DMA-1. The activation of DMA-1 strictly requires all three ligands, which establishes a combinatorial code to precisely target and pattern dendritic arbors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18345.001 PMID:27705746

  5. Semaphorin7A and its receptors: pleiotropic regulators of immune cell function, bone homeostasis, and neural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloets, Bart C; Ramakers, Geert M J; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    Semaphorins form a large, evolutionary conserved family of cellular guidance signals. The semaphorin family contains several secreted and transmembrane proteins, but only one GPI-anchored member, Semaphorin7A (Sema7A). Although originally identified in immune cells, as CDw108, Sema7A displays widespread expression outside the immune system. It is therefore not surprising that accumulating evidence supports roles for this protein in a wide variety of biological processes in different organ systems and in disease. Well-characterized biological effects of Sema7A include those during bone and immune cell regulation, neuron migration and neurite growth. These effects are mediated by two receptors, plexinC1 and integrins. However, most of what is known today about Sema7A signaling concerns Sema7A-integrin interactions. Here, we review our current knowledge of Sema7A function and signaling in different organ systems, highlighting commonalities between the cellular effects and signaling pathways activated by Sema7A in different cell types. Furthermore, we discuss a potential role for Sema7A in disease and provide directions for further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spin asymmetry calculations of the TMR-V curves in single and double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    in the single as well as double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (SMTJ & DMTJ, which are constructed from CoFeB/MgO interfaces) and numerically estimate the possible difference of the TMR-V a curves for negative and positive voltages in the homojunctions

  7. Corruption of host seven-transmembrane proteins by pathogenic microbes: a common theme in animals and plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panstruga, Ralph; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Human diseases like AIDS, malaria, and pneumonia are caused by pathogens that corrupt host chemokine G-protein coupled receptors for molecular docking. Comparatively, little is known about plant host factors that are required for pathogenesis and that may serve as receptors for the entry of pathogenic microbes. Here, we review potential analogies between human chemokine receptors and the plant seven-transmembrane MLO protein, a candidate serving a dual role as docking molecule and defence modulator for the phytopathogenic powdery mildew fungus.

  8. Peptide microarray analysis of substrate specificity of the transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase KPI-2 reveals reactivity with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Brautigan, David L

    2006-11-01

    Human lemur (Lmr) kinases are predicted to be Tyr kinases based on sequences and are related to neurotrophin receptor Trk kinases. This study used homogeneous recombinant KPI-2 (Lmr2, LMTK2, Cprk, brain-enriched protein kinase) kinase domain and a library of 1,154 peptides on a microarray to analyze substrate specificity. We found that KPI-2 is strictly a Ser/Thr kinase that reacts with Ser either preceded by or followed by Pro residues but unlike other Pro-directed kinases does not strictly require an adjacent Pro residue. The most reactive peptide in the library corresponds to Ser-737 of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, and the recombinant R domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was a preferred substrate. Furthermore the KPI-2 kinase phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the single site in phosphorylase and purified phosphorylase b, making this only the second known phosphorylase b kinase. Phosphorylase was used as a specific substrate to show that KPI-2 is inhibited in living cells by addition of nerve growth factor or serum. The results demonstrate the utility of the peptide library to probe specificity and discover kinase substrates and offer a specific assay that reveals hormonal regulation of the activity of this unusual transmembrane kinase.

  9. Dimers of G-Protein Coupled Receptors as Versatile Storage and Response Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Parker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The status and use of transmembrane, extracellular and intracellular domains in oligomerization of heptahelical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are reviewed and for transmembrane assemblies also supplemented by new experimental evidence. The transmembrane-linked GPCR oligomers typically have as the minimal unit an asymmetric ~180 kDa pentamer consisting of receptor homodimer or heterodimer and a G-protein αβγ subunit heterotrimer. With neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors, this assembly is converted to ~90 kDa receptor monomer-Gα complex by receptor and Gα agonists, and dimers/heteropentamers are depleted by neutralization of Gαi subunits by pertussis toxin. Employing gradient centrifugation, quantification and other characterization of GPCR dimers at the level of physically isolated and identified heteropentamers is feasible with labeled agonists that do not dissociate upon solubilization. This is demonstrated with three neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors and could apply to many receptors that use large peptidic agonists.

  10. Transmembrane Signaling Proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R

    2010-01-01

    Virtually all metazoan cells contain at least one and usually several types of transmembrane proteoglycans. These are varied in protein structure and type of polysaccharide, but the total number of vertebrate genes encoding transmembrane proteoglycan core proteins is less than 10. Some core prote...... proteins, including those of the syndecans, always possess covalently coupled glycosaminoglycans; others do not. Syndecan has a long evolutionary history, as it is present in invertebrates, but many other transmembrane proteoglycans are vertebrate inventions. The variety of proteins...... proteins has been obtained in mouse knockout experiments. Here some of the latest developments in the field are examined in hopes of stimulating further interest in this fascinating group of molecules. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology Volume 26...

  11. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression analysis of mouse spinesin, a type II transmembrane serine protease 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Okui, Akira; Mitsui, Shinichi; Kawarabuki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported novel serine proteases isolated from cDNA libraries of the human and mouse central nervous system (CNS) by PCR using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the serine protease motifs, AAHC and DSGGP. Here we report a newly isolated serine protease from the mouse CNS. This protease is homologous (77.9% identical) to human spinesin type II transmembrane serine protease 5. Mouse spinesin (m-spinesin) is also composed of (from the N-terminus) a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger-receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain, as is h-spinesin. We also isolated type 1, type 2, and type 3 variant cDNAs of m-spinesin. Full-length spinesin (type 4) and type 3 contain all the domains, whereas type 1 and type 2 variants lack the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and scavenger-receptor-like domains. Subcellular localization of the variant forms was analyzed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins. EGFP-type 4 fusion protein was predominantly localized to the ER, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane, whereas EGFP-type 1 was localized to the cytoplasm, reflecting differential classification of m-spinesin variants into transmembrane and cytoplasmic types. We analyzed the distribution of m-spinesin variants in mouse tissues, using RT-PCR with variant-specific primer sets. Interestingly, transmembrane-type spinesin, types 3 and 4, was specifically expressed in the spinal cord, whereas cytoplasmic type, type 1, was expressed in multiple tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. Therefore, m-spinesin variants may have distinct biological functions arising from organ-specific variant expression

  12. The nectin-1α transmembrane domain, but not the cytoplasmic tail, influences cell fusion induced by HSV-1 glycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Ravi P.; Dunn, Jennifer E.; Geraghty, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Nectin-1 is a receptor for herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and a cellular adhesion molecule. To study domains of nectin-1α involved in cell fusion, we measured the ability of nectin-1α/nectin-2α chimeras, nectin-1α/CD4 chimeras, and transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail mutants of nectin-1α to promote cell fusion induced by HSV-1 glycoproteins. Our results demonstrate that only chimeras and mutants containing the entire V-like domain and a link to the plasma membrane conferred cell-fusion activity. The transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of nectin-1 were not required for any viral receptor or cell adhesion function tested. Cellular cytoplasmic factors that bind to the nectin-1α cytoplasmic tail, therefore, did not influence virus entry or cell fusion. Interestingly, the efficiency of cell fusion was reduced when membrane-spanning domains of nectin-1α and gD were replaced by glycosylphosphatidylinositol tethers, indicating that transmembrane domains may play a modulatory role in the gD/nectin-1α interaction in fusion

  13. Beta2-adrenergic receptor homodimers: Role of transmembrane domain 1 and helix 8 in dimerization and cell surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Vikas K; Grinde, Ellinor; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E; Herrick-Davis, Katharine

    2017-09-01

    Even though there are hundreds of reports in the published literature supporting the hypothesis that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) form and function as dimers this remains a highly controversial area of research and mechanisms governing homodimer formation are poorly understood. Crystal structures revealing homodimers have been reported for many different GPCR. For adrenergic receptors, a potential dimer interface involving transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1) and helix 8 (H8) was identified in crystal structures of the beta 1 -adrenergic (β 1 -AR) and β 2 -AR. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential role for TMD1 and H8 in dimerization and plasma membrane expression of functional β 2 -AR. Charged residues at the base of TMD1 and in the distal portion of H8 were replaced, singly and in combination, with non-polar residues or residues of opposite charge. Wild type and mutant β 2 -AR, tagged with YFP and expressed in HEK293 cells, were evaluated for plasma membrane expression and function. Homodimer formation was evaluated using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Amino acid substitutions at the base of TMD1 and in the distal portion of H8 disrupted homodimer formation and caused receptors to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in the proximal region of H8 did not disrupt dimerization but did interfere with plasma membrane expression. This study provides biophysical evidence linking a potential TMD1/H8 interface with ER export and the expression of functional β 2 -AR on the plasma membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interactions between membrane receptors in cellular membranes edited by Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between refractive index and mineral content of enamel and dentin using SS-OCT and TMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ilnaz; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Nakashima, Syozi; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate relationship between refractive index (n) and mineral content (MC) (vol %) of enamel and dentin using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and transverse microradiography (TMR). Enamel and dentin blocks were partitioned into three regions. The middle partition of each sample was covered with a nail polish to protect the sound area during exposure to the treatment solutions. Samples were demineralized in a demineralizing solution, which was refreshed once a week, for 2 months. One window was covered with acid-resistant varnish, leaving the other window exposed; the samples were placed in a solution for remineralization. Samples then were sliced into disks with thickness of 300 μm to 400 μm and placed on metal plate in order to capture cross-sectional images of sound, demineralized and remineralized regions by OCT at 1319 nm center wavelength. The n then was calculated via formula using image analysis software. Following n measurement, these specimens were further polished for the TMR analysis. Correlation between OCT n and TMR MC was examined. A significant and highly positive correlation was found between the measured n and the actual MC at the corresponding locations (Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were 0.94 and 0.97 in enamel and 0.95 and 0.91 in dentin after de-/remineralization process, respectively p < 0.05). OCT showed a potential for quantitative analysis of the mineral loss or gain by measuring of the n in vitro. Supported by the grant from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, "International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases."

  15. Nonpolar interactions between trans-membrane helical EGF peptide and phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and cholesterol. Molecular dynamics simulation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Róg, T.; Murzyn, K.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M.

    2008-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation study of four lipid bilayers with inserted trans-membrane helical fragment of epithelial growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGF peptide) was performed. The lipid bilayers differ in their lipid composition and consist of (i) unsaturated phosphatidylcholine

  16. Structure of FGFR3 transmembrane domain dimer: implications for signaling and human pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Eduard V; Lesovoy, Dmitry M; Goncharuk, Sergey A; Goncharuk, Marina V; Hristova, Kalina; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2013-11-05

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) transduces biochemical signals via lateral dimerization in the plasma membrane, and plays an important role in human development and disease. Eight different pathogenic mutations, implicated in cancers and growth disorders, have been identified in the FGFR3 transmembrane segment. Here, we describe the dimerization of the FGFR3 transmembrane domain in membrane-mimicking DPC/SDS (9/1) micelles. In the solved NMR structure, the two transmembrane helices pack into a symmetric left-handed dimer, with intermolecular stacking interactions occurring in the dimer central region. Some pathogenic mutations fall within the helix-helix interface, whereas others are located within a putative alternative interface. This implies that although the observed dimer structure is important for FGFR3 signaling, the mechanism of FGFR3-mediated transduction across the membrane is complex. We propose an FGFR3 signaling mechanism that is based on the solved structure, available structures of isolated soluble FGFR domains, and published biochemical and biophysical data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, Fiona M

    2013-06-01

    Toll-like receptors are vital transmembrane receptors that initiate the innate immune response to many micro-organisms. The discovery of these receptors has improved our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and these receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple neonatal conditions such as sepsis and brain injury. Toll-like receptors, especially TLRs 2 and 4, are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia and sepsis.

  18. Ghrelin receptor inverse agonists: identification of an active peptide core and its interaction epitopes on the receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Lang, Manja; Brandt, Erik

    2006-01-01

    [D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]Substance P functions as a low-potency antagonist but a high-potency full inverse agonist on the ghrelin receptor. Through a systematic deletion and substitution analysis of this peptide, the C-terminal carboxyamidated pentapeptide wFwLX was identified as the core...... structure, which itself displayed relatively low inverse agonist potency. Mutational analysis at 17 selected positions in the main ligand-binding crevice of the ghrelin receptor demonstrated that ghrelin apparently interacts only with residues in the middle part of the pocket [i.e., between transmembrane...... upon both AspII:20 and GluIII:09. The identified pharmacophore can possibly serve as the basis for targeted discovery of also nonpeptide inverse agonists for the ghrelin receptor....

  19. Molecular mechanism of 7TM receptor activation--a global toggle switch model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Thue W; Frimurer, Thomas M; Holst, Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    the accumulated biophysical data supporting an outward rigid-body movement of the intracellular segments, as well as the recent data derived from activating metal ion sites and tethered ligands, which suggests an opposite, inward movement of the extracellular segments of the transmembrane helices. According...... to this model, a vertical see-saw movement of TM-VI-and to some degree TM-VII-around a pivot corresponding to the highly conserved prolines will occur during receptor activation, which may involve the outer segment of TM-V in an as yet unclear fashion. Small-molecule agonists can stabilize such a proposed...

  20. Improvement of thermal stability of nano-granular TMR films by using a Mg-Al-O insulator matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanie, S.; Koyama, S.

    2018-05-01

    A new metal-insulator nano-granular tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) film made of (Fe-Co)-(Mg-Al-O) has been investigated. It is confirmed that the film has granular structure in which crystal Fe-Co granules are surrounded by an amorphous Mg-Al-O matrix. A large MR ratio of 11.8 % at room temperature is observed for a 42 vol.%(Fe0.6Co0.4)-(Mg-Al-O) film annealed at 395 °C. The electrical resistivity increases rapidly by annealing at above the changing point (500 °C). The changing point is about 300 °C higher than that of conventional (Fe-Co)-(Mg-F) nano-granular TMR films. The 42 vol.%(Fe0.6Co0.4)-(Mg-Al-O) film also exhibits less degradation in the MR ratio at high annealing temperatures such as 600 °C. These results suggest the (Fe-Co)-(Mg-Al-O) film is superior to the (Fe-Co)-(Mg-F) film in thermal stability.

  1. The disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM12 contributes to TGF-beta signaling through interaction with the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atfi, Azeddine; Dumont, Emmanuelle; Colland, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates a wide variety of biological processes through two types of Ser/Thr transmembrane receptors: the TGF-beta type I receptor and the TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII). Upon ligand binding, TGF-beta type I receptor activated by TbetaRII propagat......RII protein presumably by suppressing the association of TbetaRII with Smad7. These results define ADAM12 as a new partner of TbetaRII that facilitates its trafficking to early endosomes in which activation of the Smad pathway is initiated....

  2. Direct action of aldosterone on transmembrane 22Na efflux from arterial smooth muscle. Rapid and delayed effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, A.M.; Worcel, M.

    1984-01-01

    Acute subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of aldosterone increases ex vivo 22 Na efflux from rat tail artery smooth muscle, which appears to be due to a specific action on mineralocorticoid receptors. Indeed, this effect is blocked by the antimineralocorticoid compounds RU 28318 [17 beta-hydroxy-3-oxo,7 alpha-propyl(17 alpha)-pregn 4-ene, 21 potassium carboxylate] and spironolactone. The specific glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU 26988 does not modify 22 Na efflux. The authors show here that aldosterone has, at physiological concentrations, a mineralocorticoid specific stimulating effect on passive and sodium pump dependent transmembrane movements of sodium from the rat tail artery smooth muscle. Aldosterone exerts two types of action on sodium transport: 1) a delayed stimulation of ouabain-dependent 22 Na efflux and ouabain-independent 22 Na efflux, which are completely blocked by actinomycin D; and 2) a very rapid increase of passive 22 Na efflux, which is insensitive to actinomycin D and therefore does not seem to depend on transcription of genomic information

  3. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S; Wu, Yidong

    2016-04-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Agonists and inverse agonists for the herpesvirus 8-encoded constitutively active seven-transmembrane oncogene product, ORF-74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A number of CXC chemokines competed with similar, nanomolar affinity against 125I-interleukin-8 (IL-8) binding to ORF-74, a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8. However, in competition against 125I-labeled growth-related oncogene (GRO)-alpha, the ORF-74...

  5. Activation of the CXCR3 chemokine receptor through anchoring of a small molecule chelator ligand between TM-III, -IV, and -VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Andersen, Michael B; Nygaard, Rie

    2006-01-01

    modeling and molecular simulations combined with mutational analysis indicated that the metal ion site-anchored chelators act as agonists by establishing an aromatic-aromatic, second-site interaction with TyrVI:16 on the inner face of TM-VI. It is noteworthy that this interaction required......Seven transmembrane segment (7TM) receptors are activated through a common, still rather unclear molecular mechanism by a variety of chemical messengers ranging from monoamines to large proteins. By introducing a His residue at position III:05 in the CXCR3 receptor a metal ion site was built...... between the extracellular ends of transmembrane (TM) III and TM-IV to anchor aromatic chelators at a location corresponding to the presumed binding pocket for adrenergic receptor agonists. In this construct, free metal ions had no agonistic effect in accordance with the optimal geometry of the metal ion...

  6. Molecular pharmacology of promiscuous seven transmembrane receptors sensing organic nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-01-01

    drug targets, to treat, for example, type II diabetes by mimicking food intake by potent agonists or positive allosteric modulators. The ligand-receptor interactions of the promiscuous receptors of organic nutrients thus remain an interesting subject of emerging functional importance....... in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, adipose tissue, and/or kidney. These receptors thus hold the potential to act as sensors of food intake, regulating, for example, release of incretin hormones from the gut, insulin/glucagon from the pancreas, and leptin from adipose tissue....... The promiscuous tendency in ligand recognition of these receptors is in contrast to the typical specific interaction with one physiological agonist seen for most receptors, which challenges the classic "lock-and-key" concept. We here review the molecular mechanisms of nutrient sensing of the calcium...

  7. Selective mode of action of guanidine-containing non-peptides at human NPFF receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Maria; Würker, Cäcilia; Rathmann, Daniel; Meier, René; Meiler, Jens; Olsson, Roger; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2012-07-12

    The binding pocket of both NPFF receptors was investigated, focusing on subtype-selective behavior. By use of four nonpeptidic compounds and the peptide mimetics RF9 and BIBP3226, agonistic and antagonistic properties were characterized. A set of Ala receptor mutants was generated. The binding pocket was narrowed down to the upper part of transmembrane helices V, VI, VII and the extracellular loop 2. Positions 5.27 and 6.59 have been shown to have a strong impact on receptor activation and were suggested to form an acidic, negatively charged binding pocket in both NPFF receptor subtypes. Additionally, position 7.35 was identified to play an important role in functional selectivity. According to docking experiments, the aryl group of AC-216 interacts with position 7.35 in the NPFF(1) but not in the NPFF(2) receptor. These results provide distinct insights into the receptor specific binding pockets, which is necessary for the development of drugs to address the NPFF system.

  8. Differential expression of a novel seven transmembrane domain protein in epididymal fat from aged and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Egan, J M; Rodgers, B D; Bernier, M; Montrose-Rafizadeh, C

    1999-06-01

    To identify novel seven transmembrane domain proteins from 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we used PCR to amplify 3T3-L1 adipocyte complementary DNA (cDNA) with primers homologous to the N- and C-termini of pancreatic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor. We screened a cDNA library prepared from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes using a 500-bp cDNA PCR product probe. Herein describes the isolation and characterization of a 1.6-kb cDNA clone that encodes a novel 298-amino acid protein that we termed TPRA40 (transmembrane domain protein of 40 kDa regulated in adipocytes). TPRA40 has seven putative transmembrane domains and shows little homology with the known GLP-1 receptor or with other G protein-coupled receptors. The levels of TPRA40 mRNA and protein were higher in 3T3-L1 adipocytes than in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. TPRA40 is present in a number of mouse and human tissues. Interestingly, TPRA40 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 2- to 3-fold in epididymal fat of 24-month-old mice vs. young controls as well as in db/db and ob/ob mice vs. nondiabetic control littermates. No difference in TPRA40 mRNA levels was observed in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, liver, or kidney. Furthermore, no difference in TPRA40 expression was detected in brown fat of ob/ob mice when compared with age-matched controls. Taken together, these data suggest that TPRA40 represents a novel membrane-associated protein whose expression in white adipose tissue is altered with aging and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Ghrelin receptor mutations--too little height and too much hunger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Schwartz, Thue W

    2006-01-01

    The ghrelin receptor is known from in vitro studies to signal in the absence of the hormone ghrelin at almost 50% of its maximal capacity. But, as for many other 7-transmembrane receptors, the in vivo importance of this ligand-independent signaling has remained unclear. In this issue of the JCI......, Pantel et al. find that a natural mutation in the ghrelin receptor, Ala204Glu, which is associated with a selective loss of constitutive activity without affecting ghrelin affinity, potency, or efficacy, segregates in 2 families with the development of short stature (see the related article beginning...... on page 760). By combination of the observations from this study with those related to the phenotype of subjects carrying another natural ghrelin receptor mutation, Phe279Leu, having identical molecular-pharmacological properties, it is proposed that selective lack of ghrelin receptor constitutive...

  10. 6-Bromohypaphorine from Marine Nudibranch Mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis is an Agonist of Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor E. Kasheverov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 6-Bromohypaphorine (6-BHP has been isolated from the marine sponges Pachymatisma johnstoni, Aplysina sp., and the tunicate Aplidium conicum, but data on its biological activity were not available. For the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis no endogenous compounds were known, and here we describe the isolation of 6-BHP from this mollusk and its effects on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR. Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on the chimeric α7 nAChR (built of chicken α7 ligand-binding and glycine receptor transmembrane domains or on rat α4β2 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed no action of 6-BHP. However, in radioligand analysis, 6-BHP competed with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 nAChR expressed in GH4C1 cells (IC50 23 ± 1 μM, but showed no competition on muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica. In Ca2+-imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells, 6-BHP in the presence of PNU120596 behaved as an agonist (EC50 ~80 μM. To the best of our knowledge, 6-BHP is the first low-molecular weight compound from marine source which is an agonist of the nAChR subtype. This may have physiological importance because H. crassicornis, with its simple and tractable nervous system, is a convenient model system for studying the learning and memory processes.

  11. Resistance to Inhibitors of Cholinesterase 3 (Ric-3 Expression Promotes Selective Protein Associations with the Human α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Mulcahy

    Full Text Available The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor7-nAChR is a ligand-gated ion channel widely expressed in vertebrates and is associated with numerous physiological functions. As transmembrane ion channels, α7-nAChRs need to be expressed on the surface of the plasma membrane to function. The receptor has been reported to associate with proteins involved with receptor biogenesis, modulation of receptor properties, as well as intracellular signaling cascades and some of these associated proteins may affect surface expression of α7-nAChRs. The putative chaperone resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 3 (Ric-3 has been reported to interact with, and enhance the surface expression of, α7-nAChRs. In this study, we identified proteins that associate with α7-nAChRs when Ric-3 is expressed. Using α-bungarotoxin (α-bgtx, we isolated and compared α7-nAChR-associated proteins from two stably transfected, human tumor-derived cell lines: SH-EP1-hα7 expressing human α7-nAChRs and the same cell line further transfected to express Ric-3, SH-EP1-hα7-Ric-3. Mass spectrometric analysis of peptides identified thirty-nine proteins that are associated with α7-nAChRs only when Ric-3 was expressed. Significantly, and consistent with reports of Ric-3 function in the literature, several of the identified proteins are involved in biological processes that may affect nAChR surface expression such as post-translational processing of proteins, protein trafficking, and protein transport. Additionally, proteins affecting the cell cycle, the cytoskeleton, stress responses, as well as cyclic AMP- and inositol triphosphate-dependent signaling cascades were identified. These results illuminate how α-bgtx may be used to isolate and identify α7-nAChRs as well as how the expression of chaperones such as Ric-3 can influence proteins associating with α7-nAChRs. These associating proteins may alter activities of α7-nAChRs to expand their functionally-relevant repertoire as

  12. Allosteric and orthosteric sites in CC chemokine receptor (CCR5), a chimeric receptor approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Stefanie; Steen, Anne; Jensen, Pia C

    2011-01-01

    -allosteric molecules. A chimera was successfully constructed between CCR5 and the closely related CCR2 by transferring all extracellular regions of CCR2 to CCR5, i.e. a Trojan horse that resembles CCR2 extracellularly but signals through a CCR5 transmembrane unit. The chimera bound CCR2 (CCL2 and CCL7), but not CCR5...... preserved, the allosteric enhancement of chemokine binding was disrupted. In summary, the Trojan horse chimera revealed that orthosteric and allosteric sites could be structurally separated and still act together with transmission of agonism and antagonism across the different receptor units....

  13. Mechanism of allosteric regulation of β2-adrenergic receptor by cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manna, Moutusi; Niemelä, Miia; Tynkkynen, Joona

    2016-01-01

    ) - a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor - is modulated by cholesterol in an allosteric fashion. Extensive atomistic simulations show that cholesterol regulates b2AR by limiting its conformational variability. The mechanism of action is based on the binding of cholesterol at specific high-affinity sites located...... near the transmembrane helices 5-7 of the receptor. The alternative mechanism, where the β2AR conformation would be modulated by membrane-mediated interactions, plays only a minor role. Cholesterol analogues also bind to cholesterol binding sites and impede the structural flexibility of β2AR, however...... cholesterol generates the strongest effect. The results highlight the capacity of lipids to regulate the conformation of membrane receptors through specific interactions....

  14. Structural Insights into Selective Ligand-Receptor Interactions Leading to Receptor Inactivation Utilizing Selective Melanocortin 3 Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Minying; Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Mertz, Blake; Beck, Johannes G; Opperer, Florian; Rechenmacher, Florian; Kessler, Horst; Hruby, Victor J

    2017-08-15

    Systematic N-methylated derivatives of the melanocortin receptor ligand, SHU9119, lead to multiple binding and functional selectivity toward melanocortin receptors. However, the relationship between N-methylation-induced conformational changes in the peptide backbone and side chains and melanocortin receptor selectivity is still unknown. We conducted comprehensive conformational studies in solution of two selective antagonists of the third isoform of the melanocortin receptor (hMC3R), namely, Ac-Nle-c[Asp-NMe-His 6 -d-Nal(2') 7 -NMe-Arg 8 -Trp 9 -Lys]-NH 2 (15) and Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His 6 -d-Nal(2') 7 -NMe-Arg 8 -NMe-Trp 9 -NMe-Lys]-NH 2 (17). It is known that the pharmacophore (His 6 -DNal 7 -Arg 8 -Trp 9 ) of the SHU-9119 peptides occupies a β II-turn-like region with the turn centered about DNal 7 -Arg 8 . The analogues with hMC3R selectivity showed distinct differences in the spatial arrangement of the Trp 9 side chains. In addition to our NMR studies, we also carried out molecular-level interaction studies of these two peptides at the homology model of hMC3R. Earlier chimeric human melanocortin 3 receptor studies revealed insights regarding the binding and functional sites of hMC3R selectivity. Upon docking of peptides 15 and 17 to the binding pocket of hMC3R, it was revealed that Arg 8 and Trp 9 side chains are involved in a majority of the interactions with the receptor. While Arg 8 forms polar contacts with D154 and D158 of hMC3R, Trp 9 utilizes π-π stacking interactions with F295 and F298, located on the transmembrane domain of hMC3R. It is hypothesized that as the frequency of Trp 9 -hMC3R interactions decrease, antagonistic activity increases. The absence of any interactions of the N-methyl groups with hMC3R suggests that their primary function is to modulate backbone conformations of the ligands.

  15. Functional characterization of mutants in the transmembrane domains of the rat P2X7 receptor that regulate pore conductivity and agonist sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Rupert, Marian; Škopek, Petr; Obšil, T.; Zemková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 6 (2015), s. 815-827 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/12/P371; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic receptor channel * P2X7 * pore dilation * YO-PRO-1 uptake Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.842, year: 2015

  16. Computer simulations and modeling-assisted ToxR screening in deciphering 3D structures of transmembrane α-helical dimers: ephrin receptor A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volynsky, P E; Mineeva, E A; Goncharuk, M V; Ermolyuk, Ya S; Arseniev, A S; Efremov, R G

    2010-01-01

    Membrane-spanning segments of numerous proteins (e.g. receptor tyrosine kinases) represent a novel class of pharmacologically important targets, whose activity can be modulated by specially designed artificial peptides, the so-called interceptors. Rational construction of such peptides requires understanding of the main factors driving peptide–peptide association in lipid membranes. Here we present a new method for rapid prediction of the spatial structure of transmembrane (TM) helix–helix complexes. It is based on computer simulations in membrane-like media and subsequent refinement/validation of the results using experimental studies of TM helix dimerization in a bacterial membrane by means of the ToxR system. The approach was applied to TM fragments of the ephrin receptor A1 (EphA1). A set of spatial structures of the dimer was proposed based on Monte Carlo simulations in an implicit membrane followed by molecular dynamics relaxation in an explicit lipid bilayer. The resulting models were employed for rational design of wild-type and mutant genetic constructions for ToxR assays. The computational and the experimental data are self-consistent and provide an unambiguous spatial model of the TM dimer of EphA1. The results of this work can be further used to develop new biologically active 'peptide interceptors' specifically targeting membrane domains of proteins

  17. Secreted and transmembrane 1A is a novel co-stimulatory ligand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Howie

    Full Text Available Most T cell responses to pathogens or self antigens are modulated through the action of regulatory T cells and tissue-specific inhibitory mechanisms. To this end, several receptor-ligand pairs have evolved which either augment or diminish T cell function. Here we describe the tissue ligand SECTM1A (Secreted and transmembrane1A as an alternative murine CD7 ligand. We show that SECTM1A, like SECTM1B, binds strongly to CD7, and that SECTM1B was able to compete with SECTM1A for CD7 binding. SECTM1A is ubiquitously expressed and has two major alternative transcripts which differ in expression between tissues. Both immobilised soluble forms of SECTM1A and SECTM1B and cell surface anchored forms demonstrated opposing effects on CD4+ T cell activation. Whereas SECTM1A acted as a co-stimulator of T cells, enhancing IL-2 production and proliferation, SECTM1B proved inhibitory to TCR mediated T cell activation. Surprisingly, both functional outcomes proved to be CD7-independent, indicating the existence of alternative receptors for both ligands. We used a SECTM1A-Fc fusion protein to immunoprecipitate potential alternative ligands from detergent lysates of CD7(-/- T cells and, using mass spectrometry, identified GITR as a SECTM1A binder. SECTM1A was found to bind to activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as to CHO cells expressing cell surface GITR. Binding of SECTM1A to activated primary T cells was inhibited by either GITRL-Fc or anti GITR antibodies. Thus SECTM1A and SECTM1B represent novel reciprocal alternative ligands which may function to modulate the activation of effector and regulatory T cells. The ability of SECTM1A to activate T cells may be explained by its ability to bind to GITR.

  18. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars M; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    , an impressive sequence conservation (67-77% amino acid sequence identities between the seven-transmembrane areas; 82-87% sequence similarities). The identification of well-conserved SIFamide receptor orthologues in all other insects with a sequenced genome, suggests that the SIFamide/receptor couple must have...... an essential function in arthropods. This paper is the first report on the identification of a SIFamide receptor....

  19. InterProScan Result: FS765894 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS765894 FS765894_3_ORF2 2218C53708677A45 PANTHER PTHR21229 LUNG SEVEN TRANSMEMBRAN...E RECEPTOR 7.9e-11 T IPR009637 Transmembrane receptor, eukaryota Cellular Component: integral to membrane (GO:0016021) ...

  20. Cloning and expression of a widely expressed receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; D'Eustachio, P; Givol, D

    1990-01-01

    We describe the identification of a widely expressed receptor-type (transmembrane) protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase; EC 3.1.3.48). Screening of a mouse brain cDNA library under low-stringency conditions with a probe encompassing the intracellular (phosphatase) domain of the CD45 lymphocyte...... antigen yielded cDNA clones coding for a 794-amino acid transmembrane protein [hereafter referred to as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (R-PTP-alpha)] with an intracellular domain displaying clear homology to the catalytic domains of CD45 and LAR (45% and 53%, respectively). The 142-amino acid...

  1. Postnatal Expression of V2 Vasopressin Receptor Splice Variants in the Rat Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Karina J.; Sarmiento, José M.; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Añazco, Carolina C.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Carmona, Pamela L.; Brenet, Marianne; Navarro, Javier; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2010-01-01

    The V2 vasopressin receptor gene contains an alternative splice site in exon-3, which leads to the generation of two splice variants (V2a and V2b) first identified in the kidney. The open reading frame of the alternatively spliced V2b transcripten codes a truncated receptor, showing the same amino acid sequence as the canonical V2a receptor up to the 6th transmembrane segment, but displaying a distinct sequence to the corresponding 7th transmembrane segment and C-terminal domain relative to the V2a receptor. Here, we demonstrate the postnatal expression of V2a and V2b variants in the rat cerebellum. Most importantly, we showed by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry that both V2 splice variants were preferentially expressed in Purkinje cells, from early to late postnatal development. In addition, both variants were transiently expressed in the neuroblastic external granule cells and Bergmann fibers. These results indicate that the cellular distributions of both splice variants are developmentally regulated, and suggest that the transient expression of the V2 receptor is involved in the mechanisms of cerebellar cytodifferentiation by AVP. Finally, transfected CHO-K1 .expressing similar amounts of both V2 splice variants, as that found in the cerebellum, showed a significant reduction in the surface expression of V2a receptors, suggesting that the differential expression of the V2 splice variants regulate the vasopressin signaling in the cerebellum. PMID:19281786

  2. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, José D

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300–301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery. PMID:21785268

  3. The Cannabinoid Receptor CB1 Modulates the Signaling Properties of the Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargl, Julia; Balenga, Nariman; Parzmair, Gerald P.; Brown, Andrew J.; Heinemann, Akos; Waldhoer, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 55 (GPR55) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) are co-expressed in many tissues, predominantly in the central nervous system. Seven transmembrane spanning (7TM) receptors/GPCRs can form homo- and heteromers and initiate distinct signaling pathways. Recently, several synthetic CB1 receptor inverse agonists/antagonists, such as SR141716A, AM251, and AM281, were reported to activate GPR55. Of these, SR141716A was marketed as a promising anti-obesity drug, but was withdrawn from the market because of severe side effects. Here, we tested whether GPR55 and CB1 receptors are capable of (i) forming heteromers and (ii) whether such heteromers could exhibit novel signaling patterns. We show that GPR55 and CB1 receptors alter each others signaling properties in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that the co-expression of FLAG-CB1 receptors in cells stably expressing HA-GPR55 specifically inhibits GPR55-mediated transcription factor activation, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells and serum response element, as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation. GPR55 and CB1 receptors can form heteromers, but the internalization of both receptors is not affected. In addition, we observe that the presence of GPR55 enhances CB1R-mediated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell activation. Our data provide the first evidence that GPR55 can form heteromers with another 7TM/GPCR and that this interaction with the CB1 receptor has functional consequences in vitro. The GPR55-CB1R heteromer may play an important physiological and/or pathophysiological role in tissues endogenously co-expressing both receptors. PMID:23161546

  4. InterProScan Result: FS856416 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS856416 FS856416_5_ORF1 8BC932287F58E2D2 PANTHER PTHR21229 LUNG SEVEN TRANSMEMBRAN...E RECEPTOR 3.7e-48 T IPR009637 Transmembrane receptor, eukaryota Cellular Component: integral to membrane (GO:0016021) ...

  5. Molecular modeling of ligand-receptor interactions in the OR5 olfactory receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M S; Shepherd, G M

    1994-06-02

    Olfactory receptors belong to the superfamily of seven transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors. In order to begin analysis of mechanisms of receptor activation, a computer model of the OR5 olfactory receptor has been constructed and compared with other members of this superfamily. We have tested docking of the odor molecule lyral, which is known to activate the OR5 receptor. The results point to specific ligand-binding residues on helices III through VII that form a binding pocket in the receptor. Some of these residues occupy sequence positions identical to ligand-binding residues conserved among other superfamily members. The results provide new insights into possible molecular mechanisms of odor recognition and suggest hypotheses to guide future experimental studies using site-directed mutagenesis.

  6. Control of phospholipid flip-flop by transmembrane peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaihara, Masanori; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Endo, Hitoshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Handa, Tetsurou; Nakano, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phospholipid flip-flop in transmembrane peptide-containing vesicles was investigated. ► Peptides that contained polar residues in the center of the transmembrane region promoted phospholipid flip-flop. ► A bioinformatics approach revealed the presence of polar residues in the transmembrane region of ER membrane proteins. ► Polar residues in ER membrane proteins possibly provide flippase-like activity. - Abstract: We designed three types of transmembrane model peptides whose sequence originates from a frequently used model peptide KALP23, and we investigated their effects on phospholipid flip-flop. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering and a dithionite fluorescent quenching assay demonstrated that TMP-L, which has a fully hydrophobic transmembrane region, did not enhance phospholipid flip-flop, whereas TMP-K and TMP-E, which have Lys and Glu, respectively, in the center of their transmembrane regions, enhanced phospholipid flip-flop. Introduction of polar residues in the membrane-spanning helices is considered to produce a locally polar region and enable the lipid head group to interact with the polar side-chain inside the bilayers, thereby reducing the activation energy for the flip-flop. A bioinformatics approach revealed that acidic and basic residues account for 4.5% of the central region of the transmembrane domain in human ER membrane proteins. Therefore, polar residues in ER membrane proteins are considered to provide flippase-like activity

  7. [GPCRs heterodimerization: a new way towards the discovery of function for the orphan receptors?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levoye, Angélique; Jockers, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also called seven transmembrane domain (7TM) proteins, represent the largest family of cell surface receptors. GPCRs control a variety of physiological processes, are involved in multiple diseases and are major drug targets. Despite a vast effort of academic and industrial research, more than one hundred receptors remain orphans. These orphan GPCRs offer a great potential for drug discovery, as almost 60% of currently prescribed drugs target GPCRs. Deorphenization strategies have concentrated mainly on the identification of the natural ligands of these proteins. Recent advances have shown that orphan GPCRs, similar to orphan nuclear receptors, can regulate the function of non-orphan receptors by heterodimerization. These findings not only help to better understand the extraordinary diversity of GPCRs, but also open new perspectives for the identification of the function of these orphan receptors that hold great therapeutic potential.

  8. Secondary reduction of alpha7B integrin in laminin alpha2 deficient congenital muscular dystrophy supports an additional transmembrane link in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, R D; Mayer, U; Saher, G; Herrmann, R; van der Flier, A; Sonnenberg, A; Sorokin, L; Voit, T

    1999-03-01

    The integrins are a large family of heterodimeric transmembrane cellular receptors which mediate the association between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cytoskeletal proteins. The alpha7beta1 integrin is a major laminin binding integrin in skeletal and cardiac muscle and is thought to be involved in myogenic differentiation and migration processes. The main binding partners of the alpha7 integrin are laminin-1 (alpha1-beta1-gamma1), laminin-2 (alpha2-beta1-gamma1) and laminin-4 (alpha2-beta2-gamma1). Targeted deletion of the gene for the alpha7 integrin subunit (ITGA7) in mice leads to a novel form of muscular dystrophy. In the present study we have investigated the expression of two alternative splice variants, the alpha7B and beta1D integrin subunits, in normal human skeletal muscle, as well as in various forms of muscular dystrophy. In normal human skeletal muscle the expression of the alpha7 integrin subunit appeared to be developmentally regulated: it was first detected at 2 years of age. In contrast, the beta1D integrin could be detected in immature and mature muscle in the sarcolemma of normal fetal skeletal muscle at 18 weeks gestation. The expression of alpha7B integrin was significantly reduced at the sarcolemma in six patients with laminin alpha2 chain deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) (age >2 years). However, this reduction was not correlated with the amount of laminin alpha2 chain expressed. In contrast, the expression of the laminin alpha2 chain was not altered in the skeletal muscle of the alpha7 knock-out mice. These data argue in favor that there is not a tight correlation between the expression of the alpha7 integrin subunit and that of the laminin alpha2 chain in either human or murine dystrophic muscle. Interestingly, in dystrophinopathies (Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy; DMD/BMD) expression of alpha7B was upregulated irrespective of the level of dystrophin expression as shown by a strong sarcolemmal staining pattern even

  9. Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing protein 1 (Tmub1/HOPS facilitates surface expression of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjeong Yang

    Full Text Available Some ubiquitin-like (UBL domain-containing proteins are known to play roles in receptor trafficking. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs undergo constitutive cycling between the intracellular compartment and the cell surface in the central nervous system. However, the function of UBL domain-containing proteins in the recycling of the AMPARs to the synaptic surface has not yet been reported.Here, we report that the Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing 1 (Tmub1 protein, formerly known as the Hepatocyte Odd Protein Shuttling (HOPS protein, which is abundantly expressed in the brain and which exists in a synaptosomal membrane fraction, facilitates the recycling of the AMPAR subunit GluR2 to the cell surface. Neurons transfected with Tmub1/HOPS-RNAi plasmids showed a significant reduction in the AMPAR current as compared to their control neurons. Consistently, the synaptic surface expression of GluR2, but not of GluR1, was significantly decreased in the neurons transfected with the Tmub1/HOPS-RNAi and increased in the neurons overexpressing EGFP-Tmub1/HOPS. The altered surface expression of GluR2 was speculated to be due to the altered surface-recycling of the internalized GluR2 in our recycling assay. Eventually, we found that GluR2 and glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP were coimmunoprecipitated by the anti-Tmub1/HOPS antibody from the mouse brain. Taken together, these observations show that the Tmub1/HOPS plays a role in regulating basal synaptic transmission; it contributes to maintain the synaptic surface number of the GluR2-containing AMPARs by facilitating the recycling of GluR2 to the plasma membrane.

  10. Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylate cyclase.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misono, K. S.; Philo, J. S.; Arakawa, T.; Ogata, C. M.; Qiu, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Young, H. S. (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Nevada); (Alliance Protein Labs.)

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the homologous B-type natriuretic peptide are cardiac hormones that dilate blood vessels and stimulate natriuresis and diuresis, thereby lowering blood pressure and blood volume. ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide counterbalance the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neurohormonal systems, and play a central role in cardiovascular regulation. These activities are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA), a single transmembrane segment, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-linked receptor that occurs as a homodimer. Here, we present an overview of the structure, possible chloride-mediated regulation and signaling mechanism of NPRA and other receptor GCs. Earlier, we determined the crystal structures of the NPRA extracellular domain with and without bound ANP. Their structural comparison has revealed a novel ANP-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that apparently triggers transmembrane signal transduction. More recently, the crystal structures of the dimerized catalytic domain of green algae GC Cyg12 and that of cyanobacterium GC Cya2 have been reported. These structures closely resemble that of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain, consisting of a C1 and C2 subdomain heterodimer. Adenylyl cyclase is activated by binding of G{sub s}{alpha} to C2 and the ensuing 7{sup o} rotation of C1 around an axis parallel to the central cleft, thereby inducing the heterodimer to adopt a catalytically active conformation. We speculate that, in NPRA, the ANP-induced rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, transmitted across the transmembrane helices, may induce a similar rotation in each of the dimerized GC catalytic domains, leading to the stimulation of the GC catalytic activity.

  11. Actividades del grupo EEF en el contexto de la red europea TMR "Polarimetría radar: Teoría y aplicaciones"

    OpenAIRE

    Fabregas Canovas, Francisco Javier; López Martínez, Carlos; Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    2000-01-01

    The activity of the EEF group in the TMR European Project Radar Polarimetry: Theory and Applications will be presented in this paper. We have developed new polarimetric-interferometric retrieval algorithms and enhancement techniques. These methods will be showed briefly in the next points. Peer Reviewed

  12. Modeling structure of G protein-coupled receptors in huan genome

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-26

    G protein-coupled receptors (or GPCRs) are integral transmembrane proteins responsible to various cellular signal transductions. Human GPCR proteins are encoded by 5% of human genes but account for the targets of 40% of the FDA approved drugs. Due to difficulties in crystallization, experimental structure determination remains extremely difficult for human GPCRs, which have been a major barrier in modern structure-based drug discovery. We proposed a new hybrid protocol, GPCR-I-TASSER, to construct GPCR structure models by integrating experimental mutagenesis data with ab initio transmembrane-helix assembly simulations, assisted by the predicted transmembrane-helix interaction networks. The method was tested in recent community-wide GPCRDock experiments and constructed models with a root mean square deviation 1.26 Å for Dopamine-3 and 2.08 Å for Chemokine-4 receptors in the transmembrane domain regions, which were significantly closer to the native than the best templates available in the PDB. GPCR-I-TASSER has been applied to model all 1,026 putative GPCRs in the human genome, where 923 are found to have correct folds based on the confidence score analysis and mutagenesis data comparison. The successfully modeled GPCRs contain many pharmaceutically important families that do not have previously solved structures, including Trace amine, Prostanoids, Releasing hormones, Melanocortins, Vasopressin and Neuropeptide Y receptors. All the human GPCR models have been made publicly available through the GPCR-HGmod database at http://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/GPCR-HGmod/ The results demonstrate new progress on genome-wide structure modeling of transmembrane proteins which should bring useful impact on the effort of GPCR-targeted drug discovery.

  13. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds and prote......The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds...

  14. Autonomous and nonautonomous regulation of axis formation by antagonistic signaling via 7-span cAMP receptors and GSK3 in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, G T; Kimmel, A R

    1997-08-15

    Early during Dictyostelium development a fundamental cell-fate decision establishes the anteroposterior (prestalk/prespore) axis. Signaling via the 7-transmembrane cAMP receptor CAR4 is essential for creating and maintaining a normal pattern; car4-null alleles have decreased levels of prestalk-specific mRNAs but enhanced expression of prespore genes. car4- cells produce all of the signals required for prestalk differentiation but lack an extracellular factor necessary for prespore differentiation of wild-type cells. This secreted factor decreases the sensitivity of prespore cells to inhibition by the prestalk morphogen DIF-1. At the cell autonomous level, CAR4 is linked to intracellular circuits that activate prestalk but inhibit prespore differentiation. The autonomous action of CAR4 is antagonistic to the positive intracellular signals mediated by another cAMP receptor, CAR1 and/or CAR3. Additional data indicate that these CAR-mediated pathways converge at the serine/threonine protein kinase GSK3, suggesting that the anterior (prestalk)/posterior (prespore) axis of Dictyostelium is regulated by an ancient mechanism that is shared by the Wnt/Fz circuits for dorsoventral patterning during early Xenopus development and establishing Drosophila segment polarity.

  15. Functional properties of Virus-Encoded and Virus-Regulated 7TM Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2014-01-01

    During co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have developed several survival strategies that involve exploitation of 7TM receptors. These include virus-encoded 7TM receptors and ligands and viral regulation of endogenous receptors. Many functional properties have been ascribed to virus-exploited...

  16. Molecular Cloning, Genomic Organization and Developmental Regulation of a Novel Receptor from Drosophila melanogaster Structurally Related to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors from Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Søndergaard, Leif; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P.

    1998-01-01

    After screening the data base of the BerkeleyDrosophilaGenome Project with a sequence coding for the transmembrane region of a G protein-coupled receptor, we found thatDrosophilamight contain a gene coding for a receptor that is structurally related to the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) re...

  17. Basigin (CD147), a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein with various binding partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Basigin, also called CD147 or EMMPRIN, is a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Basigin has isoforms; the common form (basigin or basigin-2) has two immunoglobulin domains, and the extended form (basigin-1) has three. Basigin is the receptor for cyclophilins, S100A9 and platelet glycoprotein VI, whereas basigin-1 serves as the receptor for the rod-derived cone viability factor. Basigin tightly associates with monocarboxylate transporters and is essential for their cell surface translocation and activities. In the same membrane plane, basigin also associates with other proteins including GLUT1, CD44 and CD98. The carbohydrate portion of basigin is recognized by lectins, such as galectin-3 and E-selectin. These molecular recognitions form the basis for the role of basigin in the transport of nutrients, migration of inflammatory leukocytes and induction of matrix metalloproteinases. Basigin is important in vision, spermatogenesis and other physiological phenomena, and plays significant roles in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including cancer. Basigin is also the receptor for an invasive protein RH5, which is present in malaria parasites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society.

  18. Computational studies of G protein-coupled receptor complexes : Structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sensoy, Ozge; Almeida, Jose G; Shabbir, Javeria; de Sousa Moreira, Irina; Morra, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitously expressed transmembrane proteins associated with a wide range of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson, schizophrenia, and also implicated in in several abnormal heart conditions. As such, this family of receptors is regarded as excellent drug

  19. A library of 7TM receptor C-terminal tails - Interactions with the proposed post-endocytic sorting proteins ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein (GASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, A.; Sondergaard, B.P.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2004-01-01

    Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor...... only a single receptor tail, i.e. the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, whereas N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor bound 11 of the tail-fusion proteins. Of the two proteins proposed to target receptors for lysosomal degradation, sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) bound 10 and the C-terminal domain of G protein...... the expected nanomolar affinities for interaction with SNX1. Truncations of the NK1 receptor revealed that an extended binding epitope is responsible for the interaction with both SNX1 and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein as well as with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. It is concluded...

  20. A library of 7TM receptor C-terminal tails. Interactions with the proposed post-endocytic sorting proteins ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein (GASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Arne; Søndergaard, Birgitte P; Ersbøll, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor...... only a single receptor tail, i.e. the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, whereas N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor bound 11 of the tail-fusion proteins. Of the two proteins proposed to target receptors for lysosomal degradation, sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) bound 10 and the C-terminal domain of G protein...... the expected nanomolar affinities for interaction with SNX1. Truncations of the NK(1) receptor revealed that an extended binding epitope is responsible for the interaction with both SNX1 and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein as well as with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. It is concluded...

  1. Nootropic α7 nicotinic receptor allosteric modulator derived from GABAA receptor modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Herman J.; Whittemore, Edward R.; Tran, Minhtam B.; Hogenkamp, Derk J.; Broide, Ron S.; Johnstone, Timothy B.; Zheng, Lijun; Stevens, Karen E.; Gee, Kelvin W.

    2007-01-01

    Activation of brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors7 nAChRs) has broad therapeutic potential in CNS diseases related to cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In contrast to direct agonist activation, positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs would deliver the clinically validated benefits of allosterism to these indications. We have generated a selective α7 nAChR-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) from a library of GABAA receptor PAMs. Compound 6 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-α-[[(4-chloro-phenyl)amino]methylene]-3-methyl-5-isoxazoleacet-amide) evokes robust positive modulation of agonist-induced currents at α7 nAChRs, while preserving the rapid native characteristics of desensitization, and has little to no efficacy at other ligand-gated ion channels. In rodent models, it corrects sensory-gating deficits and improves working memory, effects consistent with cognitive enhancement. Compound 6 represents a chemotype for allosteric activation of α7 nAChRs, with therapeutic potential in CNS diseases with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:17470817

  2. Selectivity of Odorant Receptors in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    Luetje, C. W., and Robertson, H. M. (2007). A honey bee odorant receptor for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A...since they might be exposed to a greater number of pharmacolog- ically active compounds than other conventional ligand-gated ion channels and G- protein ...2008). Drosophila odorant receptors are novel seven transmembrane domain proteins that can signal independently of heterotrimeric G proteins

  3. Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels exhibit distinct transmembrane domain archetypes for folding/expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therien, J P Daniel; Baenziger, John E

    2017-03-27

    Although transmembrane helix-helix interactions must be strong enough to drive folding, they must still permit the inter-helix movements associated with conformational change. Interactions between the outermost M4 and adjacent M1 and M3 α-helices of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels have been implicated in folding and function. Here, we evaluate the role of different physical interactions at this interface in the function of two prokaryotic homologs, GLIC and ELIC. Strikingly, disruption of most interactions in GLIC lead to either a reduction or a complete loss of expression and/or function, while analogous disruptions in ELIC often lead to gains in function. Structural comparisons suggest that GLIC and ELIC represent distinct transmembrane domain archetypes. One archetype, exemplified by GLIC, the glycine and GABA receptors and the glutamate activated chloride channel, has extensive aromatic contacts that govern M4-M1/M3 interactions and that are essential for expression and function. The other archetype, exemplified by ELIC and both the nicotinic acetylcholine and serotonin receptors, has relatively few aromatic contacts that are detrimental to function. These archetypes likely have evolved different mechanisms to balance the need for strong M4 "binding" to M1/M3 to promote folding/expression, and the need for weaker interactions that allow for greater conformational flexibility.

  4. Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulven, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84, and GPR120 has made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length. Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber...... produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, a process which is important to health. The phylogenetically related 7-transmembrane (7TM) receptors free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) and FFA3 are activated by these SCFAs, and several lines of evidence...... in general have properties that make them less than ideal as such tools, but published patent applications indicate that better tool compounds might soon become available which should enable studies critical to validate the receptors as new drug targets....

  5. Radial symmetry in a chimeric glutamate receptor pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Timothy J.; Lopez, Melany N.; Huettner, James E.

    2014-02-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors comprise two conformationally different A/C and B/D subunit pairs. Closed channels exhibit fourfold radial symmetry in the transmembrane domain (TMD) but transition to twofold dimer-of-dimers symmetry for extracellular ligand binding and N-terminal domains. Here, to evaluate symmetry in open pores we analysed interaction between the Q/R editing site near the pore loop apex and the transmembrane M3 helix of kainate receptor subunit GluK2. Chimeric subunits that combined the GluK2 TMD with extracellular segments from NMDA receptors, which are obligate heteromers, yielded channels made up of A/C and B/D subunit pairs with distinct substitutions along M3 and/or Q/R site editing status, in an otherwise identical homotetrameric TMD. Our results indicate that Q/R site interaction with M3 occurs within individual subunits and is essentially the same for both A/C and B/D subunit conformations, suggesting that fourfold pore symmetry persists in the open state.

  6. Contactless Measurement of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Lateral Flow Strips Using Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR) Sensors in Differential Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huaming; Wang, Kan; Ji, Xiaojun; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-12-14

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are commonly used in biomedical detection due to their capability to bind with some specific antibodies. Quantification of biological entities could be realized by measuring the magnetic response of MNPs after the binding process. This paper presents a contactless scanning prototype based on tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors for quantification of MNPs present in lateral flow strips (LFSs). The sensing unit of the prototype composes of two active TMR elements, which are parallel and closely arranged to form a differential sensing configuration in a perpendicular magnetic field. Geometrical parameters of the configuration are optimized according to theoretical analysis of the stray magnetic field produced by the test line (T-line) while strips being scanned. A brief description of our prototype and the sample preparation is presented. Experimental results show that the prototype exhibits the performance of high sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability. Meanwhile, the detection speed has been improved compared with existing similar techniques. The proposed prototype demonstrates a good sensitivity for detecting samples containing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at a concentration of 25 mIU/mL. The T-line produced by the sample with low concentration is almost beyond the visual limit and produces a maximum stray magnetic field some 0.247 mOe at the sensor in the x direction.

  7. Contactless Measurement of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Lateral Flow Strips Using Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR Sensors in Differential Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are commonly used in biomedical detection due to their capability to bind with some specific antibodies. Quantification of biological entities could be realized by measuring the magnetic response of MNPs after the binding process. This paper presents a contactless scanning prototype based on tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR sensors for quantification of MNPs present in lateral flow strips (LFSs. The sensing unit of the prototype composes of two active TMR elements, which are parallel and closely arranged to form a differential sensing configuration in a perpendicular magnetic field. Geometrical parameters of the configuration are optimized according to theoretical analysis of the stray magnetic field produced by the test line (T-line while strips being scanned. A brief description of our prototype and the sample preparation is presented. Experimental results show that the prototype exhibits the performance of high sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability. Meanwhile, the detection speed has been improved compared with existing similar techniques. The proposed prototype demonstrates a good sensitivity for detecting samples containing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG at a concentration of 25 mIU/mL. The T-line produced by the sample with low concentration is almost beyond the visual limit and produces a maximum stray magnetic field some 0.247 mOe at the sensor in the x direction.

  8. Evaluation of radiation tolerance of TMR designs in SRAM-based FPGA.

    CERN Document Server

    Shibin, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    During the Summer Student program in CERN I was working in the CMS Muon Drift Tube group, building a setup for evaluating the radiation tolerance of the drift tube signal encoding hardware (Time-to-Digital Converter, TDC) implemented in SRAM-based FPGA using Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR). While commercially available SRAM-based FPGAs have more computational power, are more advanced in general than flash-based FPGAs and are the most suitable technology for implementing the TDC logic (also taking into account the performance requirements), in the context of operation inside an environment with high levels of ionizing radiation (such as inside CMS DT detector) they are more susceptible to configuration memory bit flips – Single Event Upsets (SEUs) - due to lower required energy for a memory bit being flipped. The effect of a SEU inside the configuration memory might change the functionality of the underlying building blocks of FPGA and if the respective blocks were involved in implementing the desired custom...

  9. Captures of wild Ceratitis capitata Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in traps with improved multi-lure TMR-Dispensers weathered in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2012-2013 two “attract and kill” systems were weathered in California as potential detection and male annihilation treatments (MAT). Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide...

  10. Differential Modulation of GABAA and NMDA Receptors by an α7-nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist in Chronic Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujiao Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Presynaptic modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA release by an alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor7-nAChR agonist promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC survival and function, as suggested by a previous study on a chronic glaucomatous model from our laboratory. However, the role of excitatory and inhibitory amino acid receptors and their interaction with α7-nAChR in physiological and glaucomatous events remains unknown. In this study, we investigated GABAA and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor activity in control and glaucomatous retinal slices and the regulation of amino acid receptor expression and function by α7-nAChR. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from RGCs revealed that the α7-nAChR specific agonist PNU-282987 enhanced the amplitude of currents elicited by GABA and reduced the amplitude of currents elicited by NMDA. The positive modulation of GABAA receptor and the negative modulation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR by PNU-282987-evoked were prevented by pre-administration of the α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA. The frequency and the amplitude of glutamate receptor-mediated miniature glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs were not significantly different between the control and glaucomatous RGCs. Additionally, PNU-282987-treated slices showed no alteration in the frequency or amplitude of mEPSCs relative to control RGCs. Moreover, we showed that expression of the α1 subunit of the GABAA receptor was downregulated and the expression of the NMDAR NR2B subunit was upregulated by intraocular pressure (IOP elevation, and the changes of high IOP were blocked by PNU-282987. In conclusion, retina GABAA and NMDARs are modulated positively and negatively, respectively, by activation of α7-nAChR in in vivo chronic glaucomatous models.

  11. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds and prote......The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds...... in diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, α7 nAChR agonists and allosteric modulators differentially alter expression and functionality of the α7 nAChR with repeated administration, which suggests that there may be fundamentally different outcomes of long-term administration...... with these different types of compounds. Finally, we describe the special case of Aβ1-42 binding to the α7 nAChR, which may pose a unique challenge to drug development of α7 nAChR-specific ligands for Alzheimer's disease. Hopefully, a greater knowledge of the many factors influencing α7 nAChR function as well...

  12. Signaling-sensitive amino acids surround the allosteric ligand binding site of the thyrotropin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Haas, Ann-Karin; Neumann, Susanne; Worth, Catherine L; Hoyer, Inna; Furkert, Jens; Rutz, Claudia; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Schülein, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2010-07-01

    The thyrotropin receptor [thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR)], a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is endogenously activated by thyrotropin, which binds to the extracellular region of the receptor. We previously identified a low-molecular-weight (LMW) agonist of the TSHR and predicted its allosteric binding pocket within the receptor's transmembrane domain. Because binding of the LMW agonist probably disrupts interactions or leads to formation of new interactions among amino acid residues surrounding the pocket, we tested whether mutation of residues at these positions would lead to constitutive signaling activity. Guided by molecular modeling, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 24 amino acids in this spatial region, followed by functional characterization of the mutant receptors in terms of expression and signaling, measured as cAMP accumulation. We found that mutations V421I, Y466A, T501A, L587V, M637C, M637W, S641A, Y643F, L645V, and Y667A located in several helices exhibit constitutive activity. Of note is mutation M637W at position 6.48 in transmembrane helix 6, which has a significant effect on the interaction of the receptor with the LMW agonist. In summary, we found that a high proportion of residues in several helices surrounding the allosteric binding site of LMW ligands in the TSHR when mutated lead to constitutively active receptors. Our findings of signaling-sensitive residues in this region of the transmembrane bundle may be of general importance as this domain appears to be evolutionarily retained among GPCRs.

  13. Anti-tumor Activity of Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huju Chi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a class of pattern recognition receptors that play a bridging role in innate immunity and adaptive immunity. The activated TLRs not only induce inflammatory responses, but also elicit the development of antigen specific immunity. TLR7, a member of TLR family, is an intracellular receptor expressed on the membrane of endosomes. TLR7 can be triggered not only by ssRNA during viral infections, but also by immune modifiers that share a similar structure to nucleosides. Its powerful immune stimulatory action can be potentially used in the anti-tumor therapy. This article reviewed the anti-tumor activity and mechanism of TLR7 agonists that are frequently applied in preclinical and clinical investigations, and mainly focused on small synthetic molecules, including imiquimod, resiquimod, gardiquimod, and 852A, etc.

  14. Functional characteristics of three new germline mutations of the thyrotropin receptor gene causing autosomal dominant toxic thyroid hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonacchera, M.; Van Sande, J.; Cetani, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    We report three unrelated families in which hyperthyroidism associated with thyroid hyperplasia was transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion, in the absence of signs of autoimmunity. Exon 10 of the TSH receptor gene was directly sequenced after PCR amplification from DNA of peripheral leukocytes. In one family, a C to A transversion resulted in an S505R substitution in the third transmembrane segment; in the second, an A to T transversion caused an N650Y substitution in the sixth transmembrane segment; and in the third family, an A to G transition resulted in an N670S substitution in the seventh transmembrane segment. When expressed by transfection in COS-7 cells, each mutated receptor displayed an increase in constitutive stimulation of cAMP production; no effect on basal accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP) could be detected. In binding studies, cells transfected with wild-type of mutated receptors showed similar levels of expression, with the mutated receptors displaying similar or slightly increased affinity for bovine TSH (bTSH) binding. Cells transfected with S505R and N650Y mutants showed a similar cAMP maximal TSH-stimulated accumulation over the cells transfected with the wild type, whereas N670S transfectants showed a blunted response with an increase in EC{sub 50}. A higher IP response to 100 mU/mL bTSH over that obtained with the wild-type receptor was obtained in cells transfected with N650Y; in contrast, cells transfected with S505R showed a blunted IP production (50% less), and the N670S mutant completely lost the ability to stimulate IP accumulation in response to bTSH. The differential effects of individual mutations on stimulation by bTSH of cAMP or IP accumulation suggest that individual mutant receptors may achieve different active conformations with selective abilities to couple to G{sub s}{alpha} and to G{sub q}{alpha}. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Topology of transmembrane channel-like gene 1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, Valentina; Weichert, Rachel M; Makishima, Tomoko; Griffith, Andrew J

    2010-10-05

    Mutations of transmembrane channel-like gene 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss in humans and mice. TMC1 is the founding member of a family of genes encoding proteins of unknown function that are predicted to contain multiple transmembrane domains. The goal of our study was to define the topology of mouse TMC1 expressed heterologously in tissue culture cells. TMC1 was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane of five tissue culture cell lines that we tested. We used anti-TMC1 and anti-HA antibodies to probe the topologic orientation of three native epitopes and seven HA epitope tags along full-length TMC1 after selective or complete permeabilization of transfected cells with digitonin or Triton X-100, respectively. TMC1 was present within the ER as an integral membrane protein containing six transmembrane domains and cytosolic N- and C-termini. There is a large cytoplasmic loop, between the fourth and fifth transmembrane domains, with two highly conserved hydrophobic regions that might associate with or penetrate, but do not span, the plasma membrane. Our study is the first to demonstrate that TMC1 is a transmembrane protein. The topologic organization revealed by this study shares some features with that of the shaker-TRP superfamily of ion channels.

  16. Blockade of human P2X7 receptor function with a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, G; Chessell, I P; Michel, A D; Collo, G; Salazzo, M; Herren, S; Gretener, D; Grahames, C; Kaur, R; Kosco-Vilbois, M H; Humphrey, P P

    1998-11-15

    A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific for the human P2X7 receptor was generated in mice. As assessed by flow cytometry, the MoAb labeled human blood-derived macrophage cells natively expressing P2X7 receptors and cells transfected with human P2X7 but not other P2X receptor types. The MoAb was used to immunoprecipitate the human P2X7 receptor protein, and in immunohistochemical studies on human lymphoid tissue, P2X7 receptor labeling was observed within discrete areas of the marginal zone of human tonsil sections. The antibody also acted as a selective antagonist of human P2X7 receptors in several functional studies. Thus, whole cell currents, elicited by the brief application of 2',3'-(4-benzoyl)-benzoyl-ATP in cells expressing human P2X7, were reduced in amplitude by the presence of the MoAb. Furthermore, preincubation of human monocytic THP-1 cells with the MoAb antagonized the ability of P2X7 agonists to induce the release of interleukin-1beta.

  17. 5-HT7 Receptor Antagonists with an Unprecedented Selectivity Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ali; Burssens, Pierre; Lorthioir, Olivier; Lo Brutto, Patrick; Dehon, Gwenael; Keyaerts, Jean; Coloretti, Francis; Lallemand, Bénédicte; Verbois, Valérie; Gillard, Michel; Vermeiren, Céline

    2018-04-23

    Selective leads: In this study, we generated a new series of serotonin 5-HT 7 receptor antagonists. Their synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and selectivity profiles are reported. This series includes 5-HT 7 antagonists with unprecedented high selectivity for the 5-HT 7 receptor, setting the stage for lead optimization of drugs acting on a range of neurological targets. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Ashoor

    Full Text Available Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+-dependent Cl(- channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  19. EFFECT OF THE PRODUCTION SEASON ON NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUITABILITY OF MILK OBTAINED FROM INTENSIVE (TMR AND TRADITIONAL FEEDING SYSTEM OF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Brodziak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variations in milk yield and its chemical composition arise mainly from changes in feeding of the cattle in different seasons of the year. A constant quantity of production and a similar quality of the raw material supply farms, where the feeding of cows is uniform throughout the year (TMR and PMR. The study included 1211 samples of milk obtained in the summer season (663 and in the winter season (548 from cows maintained in traditional and intensive (TMR system of production. Following parameters were determined: content of fat, protein, casein, lactose and dry matter; acidity (pH value; heat stability; rennet coagulation time; content of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, lysozyme and fatty acid profiles. Cows fed in the TMR system produced significantly (P≤0.01 more milk and of a better chemical composition regardless of the season of production. Milk obtained from cows fed traditionally had the most profitable protein to fat ratio (0,90 and the shortest time of rennet coagulation (3:26 min. It contained significantly (P≤0.01 more whey proteins and had better fatty acid profiles for health. In addition the differences were usually larger in the summer season than in the winter season. It is possible to state that in summer season, when the animals are maintained on the pasture, milk obtained from cows fed traditionally is more suitable for processing and contains more biologically active substances. The daily milk yield and other important quality features of milk, significant interactions between season of production and system of feeding were revealed.

  20. Deorphanizing the human transmembrane genome: A landscape of uncharacterized membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Joseph J; Li, Min

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has fueled the last decade of work to functionally characterize genome content. An important subset of genes encodes membrane proteins, which are the targets of many drugs. They reside in lipid bilayers, restricting their endogenous activity to a relatively specialized biochemical environment. Without a reference phenotype, the application of systematic screens to profile candidate membrane proteins is not immediately possible. Bioinformatics has begun to show its effectiveness in focusing the functional characterization of orphan proteins of a particular functional class, such as channels or receptors. Here we discuss integration of experimental and bioinformatics approaches for characterizing the orphan membrane proteome. By analyzing the human genome, a landscape reference for the human transmembrane genome is provided.

  1. SGIP1 alters internalization and modulates signaling of activated cannabinoid receptor 1 in a biased manner

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Alena; Techlovská, Šárka; Dvořáková, Michaela; Chambers, Jayne Nicole; Kumpošt, Jiří; Hubálková, Pavla; Prezeau, L.; Blahoš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 107, léto (2016), s. 201-214 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/12/2408 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Seven transmembrane receptors * G-protein coupled receptors * Cannabinoid receptor 1 * Protein-protein interactions * Bias signaling * Receptor endocytosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.012, year: 2016

  2. The Structure of the Mouse Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor in Lipid Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Deluz, Cédric; Hassaine, Gherici; Grasso, Luigino; Graf-Meyer, Alexandra; Vogel, Horst; Stahlberg, Henning

    2016-01-05

    The function of membrane proteins is best understood if their structure in the lipid membrane is known. Here, we determined the structure of the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor inserted in lipid bilayers to a resolution of 12 Å without stabilizing antibodies by cryo electron tomography and subtomogram averaging. The reconstruction reveals protein secondary structure elements in the transmembrane region, the extracellular pore, and the transmembrane channel pathway, showing an overall similarity to the available X-ray model of the truncated 5-HT3 receptor determined in the presence of a stabilizing nanobody. Structural analysis of the 5-HT3 receptor embedded in a lipid bilayer allowed the position of the membrane to be determined. Interactions between the densely packed receptors in lipids were visualized, revealing that the interactions were maintained by the short horizontal helices. In combination with methodological improvements, our approach enables the structural analysis of membrane proteins in response to voltage and ligand gating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Allosteric regulation by oleamide of the binding properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, P B; Carson, M J; Sutcliffe, J G; Thomas, E A

    1999-12-01

    Oleamide belongs to a family of amidated lipids with diverse biological activities, including sleep induction and signaling modulation of several 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes, including 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A/2C, and 5-HT7. The 5-HT7 receptor, predominantly localized in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, stimulates cyclic AMP formation and is thought to be involved in the regulation of sleep-wake cycles. Recently, it was proposed that oleamide acts at an allosteric site on the 5-HT7 receptor to regulate cyclic AMP formation. We have further investigated the interaction between oleamide and 5-HT7 receptors by performing radioligand binding assays with HeLa cells transfected with the 5-HT7 receptor. Methiothepin, clozapine, and 5-HT all displaced specific [3H]5-HT (100 nM) binding, with pK(D) values of 7.55, 7.85, and 8.39, respectively. Oleamide also displaced [3H]5-HT binding, but the maximum inhibition was only 40% of the binding. Taking allosteric (see below) cooperativity into account, a K(D) of 2.69 nM was calculated for oleamide. In saturation binding experiments, oleamide caused a 3-fold decrease in the affinity of [3H]5-HT for the 5-HT7 receptor, without affecting the number of binding sites. A Schild analysis showed that the induced shift in affinity of [3H]5-HT reached a plateau, unlike that of a competitive inhibitor, illustrating the allosteric nature of the interaction between oleamide and the 5-HT7 receptor. Oleic acid, the product of oleamide hydrolysis, had a similar effect on [3H]5-HT binding, whereas structural analogs of oleamide, trans-9,10-octadecenamide, cis-8,9-octadecenamide, and erucamide, did not alter [3H]5-HT binding significantly. The findings support the hypothesis that oleamide acts via an allosteric site on the 5-HT7 receptor regulating receptor affinity.

  4. The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Eva; Jörnvall, Henrik; Blokzijl, Andries; Andersson, Olov; Chang, Chenbei; Minchiotti, Gabriella; Persico, M. Graziella; Ibáñez, Carlos F.; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2001-01-01

    Nodal proteins have crucial roles in mesendoderm formation and left–right patterning during vertebrate development. The molecular mechanisms of signal transduction by Nodal and related ligands, however, are not fully understood. In this paper, we present biochemical and functional evidence that the orphan type I serine/threonine kinase receptor ALK7 acts as a receptor for mouse Nodal and Xenopus Nodal-related 1 (Xnr1). Receptor reconstitution experiments indicate that ALK7 collaborates with ActRIIB to confer responsiveness to Xnr1 and Nodal. Both receptors can independently bind Xnr1. In addition, Cripto, an extracellular protein genetically implicated in Nodal signaling, can independently interact with both Xnr1 and ALK7, and its expression greatly enhances the ability of ALK7 and ActRIIB to respond to Nodal ligands. The Activin receptor ALK4 is also able to mediate Nodal signaling but only in the presence of Cripto, with which it can also interact directly. A constitutively activated form of ALK7 mimics the mesendoderm-inducing activity of Xnr1 in Xenopus embryos, whereas a dominant-negative ALK7 specifically blocks the activities of Nodal and Xnr1 but has little effect on other related ligands. In contrast, a dominant-negative ALK4 blocks all mesoderm-inducing ligands tested, including Nodal, Xnr1, Xnr2, Xnr4, and Activin. In agreement with a role in Nodal signaling, ALK7 mRNA is localized to the ectodermal and organizer regions of Xenopus gastrula embryos and is expressed during early stages of mouse embryonic development. Therefore, our results indicate that both ALK4 and ALK7 can mediate signal transduction by Nodal proteins, although ALK7 appears to be a receptor more specifically dedicated to Nodal signaling. PMID:11485994

  5. Expression of Plant Receptor Kinases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Hidefumi; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Although more than 600 single-transmembrane receptor kinase genes have been found in the Arabidopsis genome, only a few of them have known physiological functions, and even fewer plant receptor kinases have known specific ligands. Ligand-binding analysis must be operated using the functionally expressed receptor form. However, the relative abundance of native receptor kinase molecules in the plasma membrane is often quite low. Here, we present a method for stable and functional expression of plant receptor kinases in tobacco BY-2 cells that allows preparation of microsomal fractions containing the receptor. This procedure provides a sufficient amount of receptor proteins while maintaining its ligand-binding activities.

  6. A glycine residue essential for high ivermectin sensitivity in Cys-loop ion channel receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    Ivermectin exerts its anthelmintic effect by activating nematode Cys-loop glutamate-gated receptors. Here we show that a glycine residue at a specific transmembrane domain location is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity in both glycine- and glutamate-gated Cys-loop receptors. We also show...

  7. Primary structure and functional characterization of a Drosophila dopamine receptor with high homology to human D1/5 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzes, F; Balfanz, S; Baumann, A

    1994-01-01

    Members of the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors share significant similarities in sequence and transmembrane architecture. We have isolated a Drosophila homologue of the mammalian dopamine receptor family using a low stringency hybridization approach. The deduced amino acid sequence is approximately 70% homologous to the human D1/D5 receptors. When expressed in HEK 293 cells, the Drosophila receptor stimulates cAMP production in response to dopamine application. This effect was mimicked by SKF 38393, a specific D1 receptor agonist, but inhibited by dopaminergic antagonists such as butaclamol and flupentixol. In situ hybridization revealed that the Drosophila dopamine receptor is highly expressed in the somata of the optic lobes. This suggests that the receptor might be involved in the processing of visual information and/or visual learning in invertebrates.

  8. Upregulation of α7 Nicotinic Receptors by Acetylcholinesterase C-Terminal Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Cherie E.; Zimmermann, Martina; Greenfield, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor7-nAChR) is well known as a potent calcium ionophore that, in the brain, has been implicated in excitotoxicity and hence in the underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Previous research implied that the activity of this receptor may be modified by exposure to a peptide fragment derived from the C-terminal region of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. This investigation was undertaken to determine if the functional changes observed could be attributed to peptide binding interaction with the α7-nAChR, or peptide modulation of receptor expression. Methodology/Principal Findings This study provides evidence that two peptides derived from the C-terminus of acetylcholinesterase, not only selectively displace specific bungarotoxin binding at the α7-nAChR, but also alter receptor binding properties for its familiar ligands, including the alternative endogenous agonist choline. Of more long-term significance, these peptides also induce upregulation of α7-nAChR mRNA and protein expression, as well as enhancing receptor trafficking to the plasma membrane. Conclusions/Significance The results reported here demonstrate a hitherto unknown relationship between the α7-nAChR and the non-enzymatic functions of acetylcholinesterase, mediated independently by its C-terminal domain. Such an interaction may prove valuable as a pharmacological tool, prompting new approaches for understanding, and combating, the process of neurodegeneration. PMID:19287501

  9. cDNA for the human β2-adrenergic receptor: a protein with multiple membrane-spanning domains and encoded by a gene whose chromosomal location is shared with that of the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobilka, B.K.; Dixon, R.A.F.; Frielle, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding the human β 2 -adrenergic receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence (413 residues) is that of a protein containing seven clusters of hydrophobic amino acids suggestive of membrane-spanning domains. While the protein is 87% identical overall with the previously cloned hamster β 2 -adrenergic receptor, the most highly conserved regions are the putative transmembrane helices (95% identical) and cytoplasmic loops (93% identical), suggesting that these regions of the molecule harbor important functional domains. Several of the transmembrane helices also share lesser degrees of identity with comparable regions of select members of the opsin family of visual pigments. They have localized the gene for the β 2 -adrenergic receptor to q31-q32 on chromosome 5. This is the same position recently determined for the gene encoding the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor and is adjacent to that for the FMS protooncogene, which encodes the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor

  10. P2X7 Receptor Function in Bone-Related Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Adinolfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of tumor microenvironment by different mediators is central in determining neoplastic formation and progression. Among these molecules extracellular ATP is emerging as a good candidate in promoting cell growth, neovascularization, tumor-host interactions, and metastatization. This paper summarizes recent findings on expression and function of P2X7 receptor for extracellular ATP in primary and metastatic bone cancers. Search of mRNA expression microchip databases and literature analysis demonstrate a high expression of P2X7 in primary bone tumors as well as in other malignancies such as multiple myeloma, neuroblastoma, breast, and prostate cancer. Evidence that P2X7 triggers NFATc1, PI3K/Akt, ROCK, and VEGF pathways in osteoblasts promoting either primary tumor development or osteoblastic lesions is also reported. Moreover, P2X7 receptor is involved in osteoclast differentiation, RANKL expression, matrix metalloproteases and cathepsin secretion thus promoting bone resorption and osteolytic lesions. Taken together these data point to a pivotal role for the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer biology.

  11. 5-HT7 receptor activation: procognitive and antiamnesic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Perez-Garcia, G; Liy-Salmeron, G; Ponce-López, T; Lacivita, E; Leopoldo, M

    2015-02-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) 5-HT7 receptor is localized in brain areas mediating memory; however, the role of this receptor on memory remains little explored. First, demonstrating the associative nature of Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping (P/I-A) task, rats were exposed (three sessions) to CS-US (Pavlovian autoshaping), truly random control, free operant, and presentations of US or CS, and they were compared with rats trained-tested for one session to the P/I-A procedure. Also, effects of the 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-211 administered intraperitoneally after training was determined on short- (1.5 h) and long-term memory 24 and 48 h) and on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and cAMP production. Autoshaping and its behavioral controls were studied. Other animals were subjected to an autoshaping training session and immediately afterwards were given (intraperitoneal) vehicle or LP-211 (0.1-10 mg/kg) and/or scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg) and tested for short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM); their brains were extracted for the cAMP ELISA immunoassay. P/I-A group produced the higher %CR. LP-211 did not affect STM; nonetheless, at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, it improved LTM. The 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 (SB; 10.0 mg/kg) alone had no effect; nevertheless, the LP-211 (1.0 mg/kg) LTM facilitation was reversed by SB. The scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg) induced-decrement in CR was accompanied by significant increased cAMP production. The scopolamine-induced decrement in CR and increments in cAMP were significantly attenuated by LP-211. Autoshaping is a reliable associative learning task whose consolidation is facilitated by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-211.

  12. Contributions of conserved residues at the gating interface of glycine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Leung, Ada W Y; Galpin, Jason D

    2011-01-01

    and the in vivo nonsense suppression method to incorporate unnatural amino acids to probe the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions of five highly conserved side chains near the interface, Glu-53, Phe-145, Asp-148, Phe-187, and Arg-218. Our results suggest a salt bridge between Asp-148 in loop 7 and Arg-218......Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are chloride channels that mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) family. The interface between the ligand binding domain and the transmembrane domain of pLGICs has been proposed to be crucial...

  13. Mutational analysis of the antagonist-binding site of the histamine H(1) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, K; Laak, A M; Smit, M J; Kühne, R; Timmerman, H; Leurs, R

    1999-10-15

    We combined in a previously derived three-dimensional model of the histamine H(1) receptor (Ter Laak, A. M., Timmerman, H., Leurs, H., Nederkoorn, P. H. J., Smit, M. J., and Donne-Op den Kelder, G. M. (1995) J. Comp. Aid. Mol. Design. 9, 319-330) a pharmacophore for the H(1) antagonist binding site (Ter Laak, A. M., Venhorst, J., Timmerman, H., and Donné-Op de Kelder, G. M. (1994) J. Med. Chem. 38, 3351-3360) with the known interacting amino acid residue Asp(116) (in transmembrane domain III) of the H(1) receptor and verified the predicted receptor-ligand interactions by site-directed mutagenesis. This resulted in the identification of the aromatic amino acids Trp(167), Phe(433), and Phe(436) in transmembrane domains IV and VI of the H(1) receptor as probable interaction points for the trans-aromatic ring of the H(1) antagonists. Subsequently, a specific interaction of carboxylate moieties of two therapeutically important, zwitterionic H(1) antagonists with Lys(200) in transmembrane domain V was predicted. A Lys(200) --> Ala mutation results in a 50- (acrivastine) to 8-fold (d-cetirizine) loss of affinity of these zwitterionic antagonists. In contrast, the affinities of structural analogs of acrivastine and cetirizine lacking the carboxylate group, triprolidine and meclozine, respectively, are unaffected by the Lys(200) --> Ala mutation. These data strongly suggest that Lys(200), unique for the H(1) receptor, acts as a specific anchor point for these "second generation" H(1) antagonists.

  14. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nielsen, Christian K.; Nasser, Arafat

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice...... were susceptible to bone cancer pain and moreover had an earlier onset of pain-related behaviours compared with cancer-bearing, wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute treatment with the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours in models of bone cancer pain...... with and without astrocyte activation (BALB/cJ or C3H mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary cancer cells or NCTC 2472 osteosarcoma cells, respectively), suggesting that astrocytic P2X7 receptors play a negligible role in bone cancer pain. The results support the hypothesis that bone cancer pain is a separate pain state...

  15. Intramolecular cross-linking in a bacterial homolog of mammalian SLC6 neurotransmitter transporters suggests an evolutionary conserved role of transmembrane segments 7 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kniazeff, Julie; Loland, Claus Juul; Goldberg, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    The extracellular concentration of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA and glycine is tightly controlled by plasma membrane transporters belonging to the SLC6 gene family. A very large number of putative transport proteins with a remarkable homology to the SLC6...... proximity between TM 7 and 8 in the tertiary structure of TnaT as previously suggested for the mammalian counterparts. Furthermore, the inhibition of uptake upon cross-linking the two cysteines provides indirect support for a conserved conformational role of these transmembrane domains in the transport...

  16. Functional polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, L B; Harsløf, T; Stenkjær, L

    2013-01-01

    variant allele, which has been associated with increased receptor function in monocytes, was associated with increased total hip BMD in women. With the exception of His155Tyr for which we found conflicting results in men and women, our results are consistent with the phenotype of the knockout mouse......UNLABELLED: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. We investigated the effect of both loss-of-function and gain-of-function polymorphisms in the P2X(7) receptor gene on BMD and risk of vertebral fractures and found that five polymorphisms and haplotypes containing three...... of these polymorphisms were associated with BMD and fracture risk. INTRODUCTION: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. P2X(7) receptor knockout mice have reduced total bone mineral content, and because several functional polymorphisms have been identified in the human P2X(7) receptor gene, we wanted...

  17. Kalirin-7 is necessary for normal NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemtiri-Chlieh Fouad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic spines represent the postsynaptic component of the vast majority of excitatory synapses present in the mammalian forebrain. The ability of spines to rapidly alter their shape, size, number and receptor content in response to stimulation is considered to be of paramount importance during the development of synaptic plasticity. Indeed, long-term potentiation (LTP, widely believed to be a cellular correlate of learning and memory, has been repeatedly shown to induce both spine enlargement and the formation of new dendritic spines. In our studies, we focus on Kalirin-7 (Kal7, a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor (Rho-GEF localized to the postsynaptic density that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of dendritic spines both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking Kal7 (Kal7KO have decreased dendritic spine density in the hippocampus as well as focal hippocampal-dependent learning impairments. Results We have performed a detailed electrophysiological characterization of the role of Kal7 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. We show that loss of Kal7 results in impaired NMDA receptor-dependent LTP and long-term depression, whereas a NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP is shown to be normal in the absence of Kal7. Conclusions These results indicate that Kal7 is an essential and selective modulator of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  18. Kalirin-7 is necessary for normal NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad

    2011-12-19

    Background: Dendritic spines represent the postsynaptic component of the vast majority of excitatory synapses present in the mammalian forebrain. The ability of spines to rapidly alter their shape, size, number and receptor content in response to stimulation is considered to be of paramount importance during the development of synaptic plasticity. Indeed, long-term potentiation (LTP), widely believed to be a cellular correlate of learning and memory, has been repeatedly shown to induce both spine enlargement and the formation of new dendritic spines. In our studies, we focus on Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor (Rho-GEF) localized to the postsynaptic density that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of dendritic spines both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking Kal7 (Kal7 KO) have decreased dendritic spine density in the hippocampus as well as focal hippocampal-dependent learning impairments.Results: We have performed a detailed electrophysiological characterization of the role of Kal7 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. We show that loss of Kal7 results in impaired NMDA receptor-dependent LTP and long-term depression, whereas a NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP is shown to be normal in the absence of Kal7.Conclusions: These results indicate that Kal7 is an essential and selective modulator of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. 2011 Lemtiri-Chlieh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. The role of membrane microdomains in transmembrane signaling through the epithelial glycoprotein Gp140/CDCP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Stacy M.; Dunn, Clarence A.; Brown, Tod A.; Wayner, Elizabeth E.; Carter, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) via integrin adhesion receptors initiates signaling cascades leading to changes in cell behavior. While integrin clustering is necessary to initiate cell attachment to the matrix, additional membrane components are necessary to mediate the transmembrane signals and the cell adhesion response that alter downstream cell behavior. Many of these signaling components reside in glycosphingolipid-rich and cholesterol-rich membrane domains such as Tetraspanin Enriched Microdomains (TEMs)/Glycosynapse 3 and Detergent-Resistant Microdomains (DRMs), also known as lipid rafts. In the following article, we will review examples of how components in these membrane microdomains modulate integrin adhesion after initial attachment to the ECM. Additionally, we will present data on a novel adhesion-responsive transmembrane glycoprotein Gp140/CUB Domain Containing Protein 1, which clusters in epithelial cell-cell contacts. Gp140 can then be phosphorylated by Src Family Kinases at tyrosine 734 in response to outside-in signals- possibly through interactions involving the extracellular CUB domains. Data presented here suggests that outside-in signals through Gp140 in cell-cell contacts assemble membrane clusters that associate with membrane microdomains to recruit and activate SFKs. Active SFKs then mediate phosphorylation of Gp140, SFK and PKCδ with Gp140 acting as a transmembrane scaffold for these kinases. We propose that the clustering of Gp140 and signaling components in membrane microdomains in cell-cell contacts contributes to changes in cell behavior. PMID:18269919

  20. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of β2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of α-subunit in BK potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Francisco J.; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Kundu, Pallob; Salazar, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martinez, Agustin D.; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The BK channel is one of the most broadly expressed ion channels in mammals. In many tissues, the BK channel pore-forming α-subunit is associated to an auxiliary β-subunit that modulates the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the channel. Structural components present in β-subunits that are important for the physical association with the α-subunit are yet unknown. Here, we show through co-immunoprecipitation that the intracellular C-terminus, the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and the extracellular loop of the β2-subunit are dispensable for association with the α-subunit pointing transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) as responsible for the interaction. Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane protein–protein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the β2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the α-subunit. PMID:22710124

  1. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol enhances MCF-7 cell proliferation via cannabinoid receptor-independent signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shuso; Yamaori, Satoshi; Motoya, Erina; Matsunaga, Tamihide; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhito

    2008-01-01

    We recently reported that Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) has the ability to stimulate the proliferation of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. However, the mechanism of action remains to be clarified. The present study focused on the relationship between receptor expression and the effects of Δ 9 -THC on cell proliferation. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that there was no detectable expression of CB receptors in MCF-7 cells. In accordance with this, no effects of cannabinoid 1/2 (CB1/2) receptor antagonists and pertussis toxin on cell proliferation were observed. Although MCF-7 cell proliferation is suggested to be suppressed by Δ 9 -THC in the presence of CB receptors, it was revealed that Δ 9 -THC could exert upregulation of living cells in the absence of the receptors. Interestingly, Δ 9 -THC upregulated human epithelial growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) expression, which is known to be a predictive factor of human breast cancer and is able to stimulate cancer cells as well as MCF-7 cells. Actinomycin D-treatment interfered with the upregulation of HER2 and cell proliferation by cannabinoid. Taken together, these studies suggest that, in the absence of CB receptors, Δ 9 -THC can stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by modulating, at least in part, HER2 transcription

  2. Role of the transmembrane domain of FXYD7 in structural and functional interactions with Na,K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ciming; Crambert, Gilles; Thuillard, Delphine; Roy, Sophie; Schaer, Danièle; Geering, Käthi

    2005-12-30

    Members of the FXYD family are tissue-specific regulators of the Na,K-ATPase. Here, we have investigated the contribution of amino acids in the transmembrane (TM) domain of FXYD7 to the interaction with Na,K-ATPase. Twenty amino acids of the TM domain were replaced individually by tryptophan, and combined mutations and alanine insertion mutants were constructed. Wild type and mutant FXYD7 were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with Na,K-ATPase. Mutational effects on the stable association with Na,K-ATPase and on the functional regulation of Na,K-ATPase were determined by co-immunoprecipitation and two-electrode voltage clamp techniques, respectively. Most residues important for the structural and functional interaction of FXYD7 are clustered in a face of the TM helix containing the two conserved glycine residues, but others are scattered over two-thirds of the FXYD TM helix. Ile-35, Ile-43, and Ile-44 are only involved in the stable association with Na,K-ATPase. Glu-26, Met-30, and Ile-44 are important for the functional effect and/or the efficient association of FXYD7 with Na,K-ATPase, consistent with the prediction that these amino acids contact TM domain 9 of the alpha subunit (Li, C., Grosdidier, A., Crambert, G., Horisberger, J.-D., Michielin, O., and Geering, K. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 38895-38902). Several amino acids that are not implicated in the efficient association of FXYD7 with the Na,K-ATPase are specifically involved in the functional effect of FXYD7. Leu-32 and Phe-37 influence the apparent affinity for external K+, whereas Val-28 and Ile-42 are implicated in the apparent affinity for both external K+ and external Na+. These amino acids act in a synergistic way. These results highlight the important structural and functional role of the TM domain of FXYD7 and delineate the determinants that mediate the complex interactions of FXYD7 with Na,K-ATPase.

  3. Synthesis of opioid receptor imaging agent 7α-o-IA-DPN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rongfu

    1997-01-01

    A new opioid receptor imaging agent is designed and synthesized. 7α-o-iodoallyl diprenorphine (7α-o-IA-DPN) was obtained in one step by radioiododestannylation, which involved in the selection of DPN as an opioid antagonist, the regioselective protection of the DPN phenol tertiary-OH using acetylation and the introduction of vinylstannane as prosthetic group into the tertiary alcohol group position in the 7α-side chain. The iodinated DPN derivation was possessed of high radiolabeled yield (>90%) with 80 TBq/mmol specific radioactivity and more than 95% radiochemical purity. In vitro opioid receptor binding analysis showed very high affinity (Ki = 0.4 nmol/L). This new radioiodinated opioid ligand is suitable for SPECT study of opioid receptor imaging

  4. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Functional Membrane-bound Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Seena S.; Eyles, Stephen J.; Weis, Robert M.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane signaling mechanism of bacterial chemotaxis receptors is thought to involve changes in receptor conformation and dynamics. The receptors function in ternary complexes with two other proteins, CheA and CheW, that form extended membrane-bound arrays. Previous studies have shown that attractant binding induces a small (~2 Å) piston displacement of one helix of the periplasmic and transmembrane domains towards the cytoplasm, but it is not clear how this signal propagates through the cytoplasmic domain to control the kinase activity of the CheA bound at the membrane-distal tip, nearly 200 Å away. The cytoplasmic domain has been shown to be highly dynamic, which raises the question of how a small piston motion could propagate through a dynamic domain to control CheA kinase activity. To address this, we have developed a method for measuring dynamics of the receptor cytoplasmic fragment (CF) in functional complexes with CheA and CheW. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) measurements of global exchange of CF demonstrate that CF exhibits significantly slower exchange in functional complexes than in solution. Since the exchange rates in functional complexes are comparable to that of other proteins of similar structure, the CF appears to be a well-structured protein within these complexes, which is compatible with its role in propagating a signal that appears to be a tiny conformational change in the periplasmic and transmembrane domains of the receptor. We also demonstrate the feasibility of this protocol for local exchange measurements, by incorporating a pepsin digest step to produce peptides with 87% sequence coverage and only 20% back exchange. This method extends HDX-MS to membrane-bound functional complexes without detergents that may perturb the stability or structure of the system. PMID:24274333

  5. Determination of Six Transmembrane Protein of Prostate 2 Gene Expression and Intracellular Localization in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora İrer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between the RNA and protein expression profile of six transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2 gene and androgen and the intracellular localization of STAMP2. Materials and Methods: RNA and protein were obtained from androgen treated lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP cells, untreated LNCaP cells, DU145 cells with no androgen receptor, and STAMP2 transfected COS-7 cells. The expression profile of STAMP2 gene and the effect of androgenes on the expression was shown in RNA and protein levels by using Northern and Western blotting methods. In addition, intracellular localization of the naturally synthesized STAMP2 protein and the transfected STAMP2 protein in COS-7 cells after androgen administration in both LNCaP cells was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: We found that the RNA and protein expression of STAMP2 gene in LNCaP cells are regulated by androgenes, the power of expression is increased with the duration of androgen treatment and there is no STAMP2 expression in DU145 cells which has no androgen receptor. As a result of the immunofluorescence microscopy study we observed that STAMP2 protein was localized at golgi complex and cell membrane. Conclusion: In conclusion, we have demonstrated that STAMP2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the prostate cancer and in the androgen-dependent androgen-independent staging of prostate cancer. In addition, STAMP2 protein, which is localized in the intracellular golgi complex and cell membrane, may be a new target molecule for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Modeling structure of G protein-coupled receptors in huan genome

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (or GPCRs) are integral transmembrane proteins responsible to various cellular signal transductions. Human GPCR proteins are encoded by 5% of human genes but account for the targets of 40% of the FDA approved drugs. Due

  7. Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors in tethered cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Karen L.; Meyer, Bruno H.; Hovius, Ruud

    2003-01-01

    for the surface immobilization of membrane proteins was developed using the prototypic seven transmembrane neurokinin-1 receptor. The receptor was expressed as a biotinylated protein in mammalian cells. Membranes from cell homogenates were selectively immobilized on glass surfaces covered with streptavidin. TIRF...... measurements showed that a fluorescent agonist binds to the receptor on the sensor surface with similar affinity as to the receptor in live cells. This approach offers the possibility to investigate minute amounts of membrane protein in an active form and in its native environment without purification....

  8. Biased Gs Versus Gq Proteins and β-Arrestin Signaling in the NK1 Receptor Determined by Interactions in the Water Hydrogen Bond Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Louise; Frimurer, Thomas M; Mokrosinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    X-ray structures, molecular dynamics simulations, and mutational analysis have previously indicated that an extended water hydrogen bond network between trans-membranes I-III, VI, and VII constitutes an allosteric interface essential for stabilizing different active and inactive helical...... of the highly conserved AspII:10 (2.50). Here, we find that this GluII:10 occupies the space of a putative allosteric modulating Na(+) ion and makes direct inter-helical interactions in particular with SerIII:15 (3.39) and AsnVII:16 (7.49) of the NPXXY motif. Mutational changes in the interface between GluII:10....... It is concluded that the interface between position II:10 (2.50), III:15 (3.39), and VII:16 (7.49) in the center of the water hydrogen bond network constitutes a focal point for fine-tuning seven trans-membrane receptor conformations activating different signal transduction pathways....

  9. Reconstruction of the Chemotaxis Receptor-Kinase Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.; Borbat, P.; Gonzalez-Bonet, G.; Bhatnagar, J.; Pollard, A.; Freed, J.; Bilwes, A.; Crane, B.

    2006-01-01

    In bacterial chemotaxis, an assembly of transmembrane receptors, the CheA histidine kinase and the adaptor protein CheW processes environmental stimuli to regulate motility. The structure of a Thermotoga maritima receptor cytoplasmic domain defines CheA interaction regions and metal ion-coordinating charge centers that undergo chemical modification to tune receptor response. Dimeric CheA-CheW, defined by crystallography and pulsed ESR, positions two CheWs to form a cleft that is lined with residues important for receptor interactions and sized to clamp one receptor dimer. CheW residues involved in kinase activation map to interfaces that orient the CheW clamps. CheA regulatory domains associate in crystals through conserved hydrophobic surfaces. Such CheA self-contacts align the CheW receptor clamps for binding receptor tips. Linking layers of ternary complexes with close-packed receptors generates a lattice with reasonable component ratios, cooperative interactions among receptors and accessible sites for modification enzymes

  10. Toll-Like Receptors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosseini, Akbar; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of transmembrane receptors, which play a key role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Beside of recognizing specific molecular patterns that associated with different types of pathogens, TLRs may also detect a number of self-proteins and endogenous nucleic acids. Activating TLRs lead to the heightened expression of various inflammatory genes, which have a protective role against infection. Data rising predominantly from human patients an...

  11. Bombyx neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor A7 is the third cognate receptor for short neuropeptide F from silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Cao, Zheng; Yu, Yena; Yan, Lili; Zhang, Wenjuan; Shi, Ying; Zhou, Naiming; Huang, Haishan

    2017-12-15

    The short neuropeptide F (sNPF) neuropeptides, closely related to vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been suggested to exert pleiotropic effects on many physiological processes in insects. In the silkworm ( Bombyx mori ) two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, Bombyx neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor (BNGR) A10 and A11, have been identified as cognate receptors for sNPFs, but other sNPF receptors and their signaling mechanisms in B. mori remain unknown. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA of the orphan receptor BNGR-A7 from the brain of B. mori larvae and identified it as a receptor for Bombyx sNPFs. Further characterization of signaling and internalization indicated that BNGR-A7, -A10, and -A11 are activated by direct interaction with synthetic Bombyx sNPF-1 and -3 peptides. This activation inhibited forskolin or adipokinetic hormone-induced adenylyl cyclase activity and intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization via a G i/o -dependent pathway. Upon activation by sNPFs, BNGR-A7, -A10, and -A11 evoked ERK1/2 phosphorylation and underwent internalization. On the basis of these findings, we designated the receptors BNGR-A7, -A10, and -A11 as Bommo -sNPFR-1, -2, and -3, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained with quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the three Bombyx sNPF receptor subtypes exhibit differential spatial and temporal expression patterns, suggesting possible roles of sNPF signaling in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes. Our findings provide the first in-depth information on sNPF signaling for further elucidation of the roles of the Bombyx sNPF/sNPFR system in the regulation of physiological activities. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Heteromeric α7β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Qiang; Tang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor7 nAChR) is highly expressed in the brain, where it maintains various neuronal functions including (but not limited to) learning and memory. In addition, the protein expression levels of α7 nAChRs are altered in various brain disorders. The classic rule...... governing α7 nAChR assembly in the mammalian brain was that it was assembled from five α7 subunits to form a homomeric receptor pentamer. However, emerging evidence demonstrates the presence of heteromeric α7 nAChRs in heterologously expressed systems and naturally in brain neurons, where α7 subunits are co...... nAChR, which have provided new insights into the understanding of a novel target of cholinergic signaling....

  13. Genomic organization, annotation, and ligand-receptor inferences of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptor genes based on comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Sing-Hoi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines and their receptors play important roles in host defense, organogenesis, hematopoiesis, and neuronal communication. Forty-two chemokines and 19 cognate receptors have been found in the human genome. Prior to this report, only 11 chicken chemokines and 7 receptors had been reported. The objectives of this study were to systematically identify chicken chemokines and their cognate receptor genes in the chicken genome and to annotate these genes and ligand-receptor binding by a comparative genomics approach. Results Twenty-three chemokine and 14 chemokine receptor genes were identified in the chicken genome. All of the chicken chemokines contained a conserved CC, CXC, CX3C, or XC motif, whereas all the chemokine receptors had seven conserved transmembrane helices, four extracellular domains with a conserved cysteine, and a conserved DRYLAIV sequence in the second intracellular domain. The number of coding exons in these genes and the syntenies are highly conserved between human, mouse, and chicken although the amino acid sequence homologies are generally low between mammalian and chicken chemokines. Chicken genes were named with the systematic nomenclature used in humans and mice based on phylogeny, synteny, and sequence homology. Conclusion The independent nomenclature of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptors suggests that the chicken may have ligand-receptor pairings similar to mammals. All identified chicken chemokines and their cognate receptors were identified in the chicken genome except CCR9, whose ligand was not identified in this study. The organization of these genes suggests that there were a substantial number of these genes present before divergence between aves and mammals and more gene duplications of CC, CXC, CCR, and CXCR subfamilies in mammals than in aves after the divergence.

  14. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Dániel; Simon, István; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2013-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the last 8 years not only the size of the PDBTM database has been steadily growing from ∼400 to 1700 entries but also new structural elements have been identified, in addition to the well-known α-helical bundle and β-barrel structures. Numerous 'exotic' transmembrane protein structures have been solved since the first release, which has made it necessary to define these new structural elements, such as membrane loops or interfacial helices in the database. This article reports the new features of the PDBTM database that have been added since its first release, and our current efforts to keep the database up-to-date and easy to use so that it may continue to serve as a fundamental resource for the scientific community.

  15. Cloning of zebrafish activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) cDNA and mRNA expression of ActRIIB in embryos and adult tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R R; Bally-Cuif, L; Lee, S E; Gong, Z; Ni, X; Hew, C L; Peng, C

    1999-07-20

    A full-length cDNA encoding for activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) was cloned from zebrafish embryos. It encodes a protein with 509 amino acids consisting of a signal peptide, an extracellular ligand binding domain, a single transmembrane region, and an intracellular kinase domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. The extracellular domain shows 74-91% sequence identity to human, bovine, mouse, rat, chicken, Xenopus and goldfish activin type IIB receptors, while the transmembrane region and the kinase domain show 67-78% and 82-88% identity to these known activin IIB receptors, respectively. In adult zebrafish, ActRIIB mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in the gonads, as well as in non-reproductive tissues, including the brain, heart and muscle. In situ hybridization on ovarian sections further localized ActRIIB mRNA to cytoplasm of oocytes at different stages of development. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization, ActRIIB mRNA was found to be expressed at all stages of embryogenesis examined, including the sphere, shield, tail bud, and 6-7 somite. These results provide the first evidence that ActRIIB mRNA is widely distributed in fish embryonic and adult tissues. Cloning of zebrafish ActRIIB demonstrates that this receptor is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution and provides a basis for further studies on the role of activin in reproduction and development in lower vertebrates.

  16. Effects of BMS-902483, an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, on cognition and sensory gating in relation to receptor occupancy in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieschl, Rick L; Miller, Regina; Jones, Kelli M; Post-Munson, Debra J; Chen, Ping; Newberry, Kimberly; Benitex, Yulia; Molski, Thaddeus; Morgan, Daniel; McDonald, Ivar M; Macor, John E; Olson, Richard E; Asaka, Yukiko; Digavalli, Siva; Easton, Amy; Herrington, James; Westphal, Ryan S; Lodge, Nicholas J; Zaczek, Robert; Bristow, Linda J; Li, Yu-Wen

    2017-07-15

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is thought to play an important role in human cognition. Here we describe the in vivo effects of BMS-902483, a selective potent α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in relationship to α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor occupancy. BMS-902483 has low nanomolar affinity for rat and human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and elicits currents in cells expressing human or rat α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are about 60% of the maximal acetylcholine response. BMS-902483 improved 24h novel object recognition memory in mice with a minimal effective dose (MED) of 0.1mg/kg and reversed MK-801-induced deficits in a rat attentional set-shifting model of executive function with an MED of 3mg/kg. Enhancement of novel object recognition was blocked by the silent α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, NS6740, demonstrating that activity of BMS-902483 was mediated by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. BMS-902483 also reversed ketamine-induced deficits in auditory gating in rats, and enhanced ex vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation examined 24h after dosing in mice. Results from an ex vivo brain homogenate binding assay showed that α7 receptor occupancy ranged from 64% (novel object recognition) to ~90% (set shift and gating) at the MED for behavioral and sensory processing effects of BMS-902483. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The transmembrane region is responsible for targeting of adaptor protein LAX into "heavy rafts''

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdinka, Matouš; Otáhal, Pavel; Hořejší, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2012), e36330 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEMEM/09/E011; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : LAX * transmembrane domain * DRM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  18. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokoch, Michael P.; Zou, Yaozhong; Rasmussen, Søren G.F.; Liu, Corey W.; Nygaard, Rie; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Fung, Juan José; Choi, Hee-Jung; Thian, Foon Sun; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Weis, William I.; Pardo, Leonardo; Prosser, R. Scott; Mueller, Luciano; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED); (Toronto); (BMS); (UAB, Spain)

    2010-01-14

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven-transmembrane proteins that mediate most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. They are the largest group of therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. Recent crystal structures of GPCRs have revealed structural conservation extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the transmembrane core to the cytoplasmic G-protein-coupling domains. In contrast, the extracellular surface (ECS) of GPCRs is remarkably diverse and is therefore an ideal target for the discovery of subtype-selective drugs. However, little is known about the functional role of the ECS in receptor activation, or about conformational coupling of this surface to the native ligand-binding pocket. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate ligand-specific conformational changes around a central structural feature in the ECS of the {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic receptor: a salt bridge linking extracellular loops 2 and 3. Small-molecule drugs that bind within the transmembrane core and exhibit different efficacies towards G-protein activation (agonist, neutral antagonist and inverse agonist) also stabilize distinct conformations of the ECS. We thereby demonstrate conformational coupling between the ECS and the orthosteric binding site, showing that drugs targeting this diverse surface could function as allosteric modulators with high subtype selectivity. Moreover, these studies provide a new insight into the dynamic behaviour of GPCRs not addressable by static, inactive-state crystal structures.

  19. Meta-diamide insecticides acting on distinct sites of RDL GABA receptor from those for conventional noncompetitive antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Toshifumi; Banba, Shinich; Nomura, Michikazu; Hirase, Kangetsu

    2013-04-01

    The RDL GABA receptor is an attractive target of insecticides. Here we demonstrate that meta-diamides [3-benzamido-N-(4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)phenyl)benzamides] are a distinct class of RDL GABA receptor antagonists showing high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura. We also suggest that the mode of action of the meta-diamides is distinct from that of conventional noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs), such as fipronil, picrotoxin, lindane, dieldrin, and α-endosulfan. Using a membrane potential assay, we examined the effects of the meta-diamide 3-benzamido-N-(2-bromo-4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide (meta-diamide 7) and NCAs on mutant Drosophila RDL GABA receptors expressed in Drosophila Mel-2 cells. NCAs had little or no inhibitory activity against at least one of the three mutant receptors (A2'S, A2'G, and A2'N), which were reported to confer resistance to NCAs. In contrast, meta-diamide 7 inhibited all three A2' mutant receptors, at levels comparable to its activity with the wild-type receptor. Furthermore, the A2'S·T6'V mutation almost abolished the inhibitory effects of all NCAs. However, meta-diamide 7 inhibited the A2'S・T6'S mutant receptor at the same level as its activity with the wild-type receptor. In contrast, a G336M mutation in the third transmembrane domain of the RDL GABA receptor abolished the inhibitory activities of meta-diamide 7, although the G336M mutation had little effect on the inhibitory activities of conventional NCAs. Molecular modeling studies also suggested that the binding site of meta-diamides was different from those of NCAs. Meta-diamide insecticides are expected to be prominent insecticides effective against A2' mutant RDL GABA receptors with a different mode of action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How to Choose the Suitable Template for Homology Modelling of GPCRs: 5-HT7 Receptor as a Test Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaf, Nir; Pappalardo, Matteo; Basile, Livia; Guccione, Salvatore; Rayan, Anwar

    2016-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a super-family of membrane proteins that attract great pharmaceutical interest due to their involvement in almost every physiological activity, including extracellular stimuli, neurotransmission, and hormone regulation. Currently, structural information on many GPCRs is mainly obtained by the techniques of computer modelling in general and by homology modelling in particular. Based on a quantitative analysis of eighteen antagonist-bound, resolved structures of rhodopsin family "A" receptors - also used as templates to build 153 homology models - it was concluded that a higher sequence identity between two receptors does not guarantee a lower RMSD between their structures, especially when their pair-wise sequence identity (within trans-membrane domain and/or in binding pocket) lies between 25 % and 40 %. This study suggests that we should consider all template receptors having a sequence identity ≤50 % with the query receptor. In fact, most of the GPCRs, compared to the currently available resolved structures of GPCRs, fall within this range and lack a correlation between structure and sequence. When testing suitability for structure-based drug design, it was found that choosing as a template the most similar resolved protein, based on sequence resemblance only, led to unsound results in many cases. Molecular docking analyses were carried out, and enrichment factors as well as attrition rates were utilized as criteria for assessing suitability for structure-based drug design. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nanoporous microbead supported bilayers: stability, physical characterization, and incorporation of functional transmembrane proteins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan W. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, James A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, Susan Marie; Cox, Jason M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lopez, Gabriel P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Barrick, Todd A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Flores, Adrean (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-01

    The introduction of functional transmembrane proteins into supported bilayer-based biomimetic systems presents a significant challenge for biophysics. Among the various methods for producing supported bilayers, liposomal fusion offers a versatile method for the introduction of membrane proteins into supported bilayers on a variety of substrates. In this study, the properties of protein containing unilamellar phosphocholine lipid bilayers on nanoporous silica microspheres are investigated. The effects of the silica substrate, pore structure, and the substrate curvature on the stability of the membrane and the functionality of the membrane protein are determined. Supported bilayers on porous silica microspheres show a significant increase in surface area on surfaces with structures in excess of 10 nm as well as an overall decrease in stability resulting from increasing pore size and curvature. Comparison of the liposomal and detergent-mediated introduction of purified bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and the human type 3 serotonin receptor (5HT3R) are investigated focusing on the resulting protein function, diffusion, orientation, and incorporation efficiency. In both cases, functional proteins are observed; however, the reconstitution efficiency and orientation selectivity are significantly enhanced through detergent-mediated protein reconstitution. The results of these experiments provide a basis for bulk ionic and fluorescent dye-based compartmentalization assays as well as single-molecule optical and single-channel electrochemical interrogation of transmembrane proteins in a biomimetic platform.

  2. Frizzled7: A Promising Achilles’ Heel for Targeting the Wnt Receptor Complex to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phesse, Toby; Flanagan, Dustin; Vincan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Frizzled7 is arguably the most studied member of the Frizzled family, which are the cognate Wnt receptors. Frizzled7 is highly conserved through evolution, from Hydra through to humans, and is expressed in diverse organisms, tissues and human disease contexts. Frizzled receptors can homo- or hetero-polymerise and associate with several co-receptors to transmit Wnt signalling. Notably, Frizzled7 can transmit signalling via multiple Wnt transduction pathways and bind to several different Wnt ligands, Frizzled receptors and co-receptors. These promiscuous binding and functional properties are thought to underlie the pivotal role Frizzled7 plays in embryonic developmental and stem cell function. Recent studies have identified that Frizzled7 is upregulated in diverse human cancers, and promotes proliferation, progression and invasion, and orchestrates cellular transitions that underscore cancer metastasis. Importantly, Frizzled7 is able to regulate Wnt signalling activity even in cancer cells which have mutations to down-stream signal transducers. In this review we discuss the various aspects of Frizzled7 signalling and function, and the implications these have for therapeutic targeting of Frizzled7 in cancer. PMID:27196929

  3. Definition of the G protein-coupled receptor transmembrane bundle binding pocket and calculation of receptor similarities for drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David Erik Immanuel; Foord, Steven M; Blaney, Frank E

    2009-01-01

    currently available crystal structures. This was used to characterize pharmacological relationships of Family A/Rhodopsin family GPCRs, minimizing evolutionary influence from parts of the receptor that do not generally affect ligand binding. The resultant dendogram tended to group receptors according...

  4. Biologically Complex Planar Cell Plasma Membranes Supported on Polyelectrolyte Cushions Enhance Transmembrane Protein Mobility and Retain Native Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Liang; Ober, Christopher K; Daniel, Susan

    2018-01-23

    Reconstituted supported lipid bilayers (SLB) are widely used as in vitro cell-surface models because they are compatible with a variety of surface-based analytical techniques. However, one of the challenges of using SLBs as a model of the cell surface is the limited complexity in membrane composition, including the incorporation of transmembrane proteins and lipid diversity that may impact the activity of those proteins. Additionally, it is challenging to preserve the transmembrane protein native orientation, function, and mobility in SLBs. Here, we leverage the interaction between cell plasma membrane vesicles and polyelectrolyte brushes to create planar bilayers from cell plasma membrane vesicles that have budded from the cell surface. This approach promotes the direct incorporation of membrane proteins and other species into the planar bilayer without using detergent or reconstitution and preserves membrane constituents. Furthermore, the structure of the polyelectrolyte brush serves as a cushion between the planar bilayer and rigid supporting surface, limiting the interaction of the cytosolic domains of membrane proteins with this surface. Single particle tracking was used to analyze the motion of GPI-linked yellow fluorescent proteins (GPI-YFP) and neon-green fused transmembrane P2X2 receptors (P2X2-neon) and shows that this platform retains over 75% mobility of multipass transmembrane proteins in its native membrane environment. An enzyme accessibility assay confirmed that the protein orientation is preserved and results in the extracellular domain facing toward the bulk phase and the cytosolic side facing the support. Because the platform presented here retains the complexity of the cell plasma membrane and preserves protein orientation and mobility, it is a better representative mimic of native cell surfaces, which may find many applications in biological assays aimed at understanding cell membrane phenomena.

  5. Binding Mode Prediction of 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C Receptor Ligands by Homology Modeling and Molecular Docking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Asif; Nagarajan, Shanthi; Doddareddy, Munikumar Reddy; Cho, Yong Seo; Pae, Ae Nim [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 2C (5-HT{sub 2C}) receptor belongs to class A amine subfamily of Gprotein- coupled receptor (GPCR) super family and its ligands has therapeutic promise as anti-depressant and -obesity agents. So far, bovine rhodopsin from class A opsin subfamily was the mostly used X-ray crystal template to model this receptor. Here, we explained homology model using beta 2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), the model was energetically minimized and validated by flexible ligand docking with known agonists and antagonists. In the active site Asp134, Ser138 of transmembrane 3 (TM3), Arg195 of extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) and Tyr358 of TM7 were found as important residues to interact with agonists. In addition to these, V208 of ECL2 and N351 of TM7 was found to interact with antagonists. Several conserved residues including Trp324, Phe327 and Phe328 were also found to contribute hydrophobic interaction. The predicted ligand binding mode is in good agreement with published mutagenesis and homology model data. This new template derived homology model can be useful for further virtual screening based lead identification.

  6. Substrate-modulated unwinding of transmembrane helices in the NSS transporter LeuT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Patrick S; Gotfryd, Kamil; Cuendet, Michel A; Leth-Espensen, Katrine Z; Gether, Ulrik; Loland, Claus J; Rand, Kasper D

    2018-05-01

    LeuT, a prokaryotic member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family, is an established structural model for mammalian NSS counterparts. We investigate the substrate translocation mechanism of LeuT by measuring the solution-phase structural dynamics of the transporter in distinct functional states by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Our HDX-MS data pinpoint LeuT segments involved in substrate transport and reveal for the first time a comprehensive and detailed view of the dynamics associated with transition of the transporter between outward- and inward-facing configurations in a Na + - and K + -dependent manner. The results suggest that partial unwinding of transmembrane helices 1/5/6/7 drives LeuT from a substrate-bound, outward-facing occluded conformation toward an inward-facing open state. These hitherto unknown, large-scale conformational changes in functionally important transmembrane segments, observed for LeuT in detergent-solubilized form and when embedded in a native-like phospholipid bilayer, could be of physiological relevance for the translocation process.

  7. What Can We Learn about Cholesterol's Transmembrane Distribution Based on Cholesterol-Induced Changes in Membrane Dipole Potential?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Falkovich, S. G.; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Nesterenko, A. M.; Vattulainen, I.; Gurtovenko, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 22 (2016), s. 4585-4590 ISSN 1948-7185 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane * cholesterol * membrane asymmetry * membrane dipole potential * transmembrane distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.353, year: 2016

  8. A7DB: a relational database for mutational, physiological and pharmacological data related to the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom Mark SP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are pentameric proteins that are important drug targets for a variety of diseases including Alzheimer's, schizophrenia and various forms of epilepsy. One of the most intensively studied nAChR subunits in recent years has been α7. This subunit can form functional homomeric pentamers (α75, which can make interpretation of physiological and structural data much simpler. The growing amount of structural, pharmacological and physiological data for these receptors indicates the need for a dedicated and accurate database to provide a means to access this information in a coherent manner. Description A7DB http://www.lgics.org/a7db/ is a new relational database of manually curated experimental physiological data associated with the α7 nAChR. It aims to store as much of the pharmacology, physiology and structural data pertaining to the α7 nAChR. The data is accessed via web interface that allows a user to search the data in multiple ways: 1 a simple text query 2 an incremental query builder 3 an interactive query builder and 4 a file-based uploadable query. It currently holds more than 460 separately reported experiments on over 85 mutations. Conclusions A7DB will be a useful tool to molecular biologists and bioinformaticians not only working on the α7 receptor family of proteins but also in the more general context of nicotinic receptor modelling. Furthermore it sets a precedent for expansion with the inclusion of all nicotinic receptor families and eventually all cys-loop receptor families.

  9. Glycine Perturbs Local and Global Conformational Flexibility of a Transmembrane Helix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högel, Philipp; Götz, Alexander; Kuhne, Felix

    2018-01-01

    Flexible transmembrane helices frequently support the conformational transitions between different functional states of membrane proteins. While proline is well known to distort and destabilize transmembrane helices, the role of glycine is still debated. Here, we systematically investigated the e...

  10. Biological amine transport in chromaffin ghosts. Coupling to the transmembrane proton and potential gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R G; Pfister, D; Carty, S E; Scarpa, A

    1979-11-10

    The effect of the transmembrane proton gradient (delta pH) and potential gradient (delta psi) upon the rate and extent of amine accumulation was investigated in chromaffin ghosts. The chromaffin ghosts were formed by hypo-osmotic lysis of isolated bovine chromaffin granules and extensive dialysis in order to remove intragranular binding components and dissipate the endogenous electrochemical gradients. Upon ATP addition to suspensions of chromaffin ghosts, a transmembrane proton gradient alone, a transmembrane gradient alone, or both, could be established, depending upon the compositions of the media in which the ghosts were formed and resuspended. When chloride was present in the medium, addition of ATP resulted in the generation of a transmembrane proton gradient, acidic inside of 1 pH unit (measured by [14C]methylamine distribution), and no transmembrane potential (measured by [14C]-thiocyanate distribution). When ATP was added to chromaffin ghosts suspended in a medium in which chloride was substituted by isethionate, a transmembrane potential, inside positive, of 45 mV and no transmembrane proton gradient, was measured. In each medium, the addition of agents known to affect proton or potential gradients, respectively, exerted a predictable mechanism of action. Accumulation of [14C]epinephrine or [14C]5-hydroxytryptamine was over 1 order of magnitude greater in the presence of the transmembrane proton gradient or the transmembrane potential than in the absence of any gradient and, moreover, was related to the magnitude of the proton or potential gradient in a dose-dependent manner. When ghosts were added to a medium containing chloride and isethionate, both a delta pH and delta psi could be generated upon addition of ATP. In this preparation, the maximal rate of amine accumulation was observed. The results indicate that amine accumulation into chromaffin ghosts can occur in the presence of either a transmembrane proton gradient, or a transmembrane potential

  11. [Cloning of VH and VL Gene of Human anti-IL1RAP McAb and Construction of Recombinant Chimeric Receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Su-Hong; Tian, Yu; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Kai Lin

    2015-10-01

    To clone the variable region genes of human anti-IL1RAP (IL-1 receptor accessory protein) monoclonal antibodies (McAb) and to construct IL1RAP chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The VH and VL DNA of IL1RAP single chain antibodies were amplified by RACE and overlap extension PCR from total RNA extracted from 3H6E10 and 10D8A7 hybridoma and ligated into specific IL1RAP single-chain variable fragments (scFv). CD8α transmembrane domain, CD137 intracellular domain, TCR ζ chain, human CD8α signal peptide and scFv-anti-IL1RAP were cloned into plasmid LV-lac. Recombinant lentiviruses were generated by co-transfection of recombinant plasmid LV-lac, pMD2. G, and psPAX2 helper vectors into 293FT packing cells. The VH and VL genes of 2 human anti-IL1RAP McAb were acquired. The 3H6E10 VH and VL genes consisted of 402 bp and 393 bp encoding 134 and 131 aminoacid residues, respectively; 10D8A7 VH and VL genes consisted of 423 bp and 381 bp encoding 141 and 127 amine acid residues, respectively. Recombinant expression vertors LV-3H6E10 scFv-ICD and LV-10D8A7 scFv-ICD (ICD: CD8α transmembrane domain-CD137 intracellular domain-TCR ζ chain) were constructed. The target fragments were demonstrated by sequencing analysis. Recombinant plasmids were transfected into 293FT cells and lentiviral particles were acquired. Human anti-IL1RAP recombinant receptors are constructed successfully and lay a good foundation for the construction of IL1RAP-CAR killer T cell vaccine.

  12. Pharmacological and functional characterisation of the wild-type and site-directed mutants of the human H1 histamine receptor stably expressed in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguilevsky, N; Varsalona, F; Guillaume, J P; Noyer, M; Gillard, M; Daliers, J; Henichart, J P; Bollen, A

    1995-01-01

    A cDNA clone for the human histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a lung cDNA library and stably expressed in CHO cells. The recombinant receptor protein present in the cell membranes, displayed the functional and binding characteristics of histamine H1 receptors. Mutation of Ser155 to Ala in the fourth transmembrane domain did not significantly change the affinity of the receptor for histamine and H1 antagonists. However, mutation of the fifth transmembrane Asn198 to Ala resulted in a dramatic decrease of the affinity for histamine binding, and for the histamine-induced polyphosphoinositides breakdown, whereas the affinity towards antagonists was not significantly modified. In addition, mutation of another fifth transmembrane amino acid, Thr194 to Ala also diminished, but to a lesser extent, the affinity for histamine. These data led us to propose a molecular model for histamine interaction with the human H1 receptor. In this model, the amide moiety of Asn198 and the hydroxyl group of Thr194 are involved in hydrogen bonding with the nitrogen atoms of the imidazole ring of histamine. Moreover, mutation of Thr194 to Ala demonstrated that this residue is responsible for the discrimination between enantiomers of cetirizine.

  13. TARPs differentially decorate AMPA receptors to specify neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akihiko S; Gill, Martin B; Yu, Hong; Nisenbaum, Eric S; Bredt, David S

    2010-05-01

    Transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) are the first identified auxiliary subunits for a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Although initial studies found that stargazin, the prototypical TARP, principally chaperones AMPA receptors, subsequent research demonstrated that it also regulates AMPA receptor kinetics and synaptic waveforms. Recent studies have identified a diverse collection of TARP isoforms--types Ia, Ib II--that distinctly regulate AMPA receptor trafficking, gating and neuropharmacology. These TARP isoforms are heterogeneously expressed in specific neuronal populations and can differentially sculpt synaptic transmission and plasticity. Whole-genome analyses also link multiple TARP loci to childhood epilepsy, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. TARPs emerge as vital components of excitatory synapses that participate both in signal transduction and in neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Activation of G-proteins by receptor-stimulated nucleoside diphosphate kinase in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bominaar, A A; Molijn, A C; Pestel, M; Veron, M; Van Haastert, P J

    1993-01-01

    Recently, interest in the enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase (EC2.7.4.6) has increased as a result of its possible involvement in cell proliferation and development. Since NDP kinase is one of the major sources of GTP in cells, it has been suggested that the effects of an altered NDP kinase activity on cellular processes might be the result of altered transmembrane signal transduction via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). In the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum, extracellular cAMP induces an increase of phospholipase C activity via a surface cAMP receptor and G-proteins. In this paper it is demonstrated that part of the cellular NDP kinase is associated with the membrane and stimulated by cell surface cAMP receptors. The GTP produced by the action of NDP kinase is capable of activating G-proteins as monitored by altered G-protein-receptor interaction and the activation of the effector enzyme phospholipase C. Furthermore, specific monoclonal antibodies inhibit the effect of NDP kinase on G-protein activation. These results suggest that receptor-stimulated NDP kinase contributes to the mediation of hormone action by producing GTP for the activation of GTP-binding proteins. Images PMID:8389692

  15. Ligand binding to the human MT2 melatonin receptor: The role of residues in transmembrane domains 3, 6, and 7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazna, Petr; Berka, K.; Jelínková, Irena; Balík, Aleš; Svoboda, Petr; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, T.; Teisinger, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 332, č. 3 (2005), s. 726-734 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5011308; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1479; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/0714; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/04/0496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : MT2 melatonin receptor * homology modeling * binding study Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2005

  16. Transmembrane-sequence-dependent overexpression and secretion of glycoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M; Wasserbauer, E; Aversa, G; Jungbauer, A

    2001-02-01

    Protein expression using the secretory pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to high amounts of overexpressed and secreted proteins in culture supernatants in a short period of time. These post-translational modified expression products can be purified up to >90% in a single step. The overexpression and secretion of the transmembrane glycoprotein signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) was studied. SLAM belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and its engagement results in T-cell expansion and INF-gamma production. The molecule is composed of an extracellular, a single-span transmembrane and a cytoplasmatic domain. The extracellular part may be relevant for stimulation studies in vitro since SLAM is a high-affinity self-ligand. Therefore several fragments of this region have been expressed as Flag-fusions in S. cerevisiae: a full-length fragment containing the transmembrane region and the autologous signal sequence, another without the transmembrane region, and two fragments without the autologous signal sequence with and without the transmembrane region. By molecular cloning, the different deletion mutants of the cDNA encoding the full-length construct have been inserted in a yeast episomal plasmid. Upstream of the cDNA, the alpha-leader sequence of a yeast mating pheromone has been cloned to direct the fusion proteins into the secretory protein maturation pathway. All four fragments were expressed but yield, location, and maturation were highly influenced by the transmembrane domain and the autologous signal sequence. Only the fragment without autologous signal sequence and transmembrane domain could be efficiently secreted. High-mannose glycosylation was analyzed by lectin mapping and digestion with specific glycosidases. After enzyme treatment, a single band product with the theoretical size could be detected and identified as SLAM by a specific monoclonal antibody. The fusion protein concentration in the supernatant was 30 microg/ml. The

  17. α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: role in early odor learning preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hellier

    Full Text Available Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors7 in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP, an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5-18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21, mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits.

  18. Three mutations switch H7N9 influenza to human-type receptor specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, Robert P.; Peng, Wenjie; Grant, Oliver C.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Zhu, Xueyong; Bouwman, Kim M.; de la Pena, Alba T. Torrents; van Breemen, Marielle J.; Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Woods, Robert J.; Verheije, Monique H.; Wilson, Ian A.; Paulson, James C.; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2017-06-15

    The avian H7N9 influenza outbreak in 2013 resulted from an unprecedented incidence of influenza transmission to humans from infected poultry. The majority of human H7N9 isolates contained a hemagglutinin (HA) mutation (Q226L) that has previously been associated with a switch in receptor specificity from avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal) to human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal), as documented for the avian progenitors of the 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) human influenza pandemic viruses. While this raised concern that the H7N9 virus was adapting to humans, the mutation was not sufficient to switch the receptor specificity of H7N9, and has not resulted in sustained transmission in humans. To determine if the H7 HA was capable of acquiring human-type receptor specificity, we conducted mutation analyses. Remarkably, three amino acid mutations conferred a switch in specificity for human-type receptors that resembled the specificity of the 2009 human H1 pandemic virus, and promoted binding to human trachea epithelial cells.

  19. Three mutations switch H7N9 influenza to human-type receptor specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P de Vries

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The avian H7N9 influenza outbreak in 2013 resulted from an unprecedented incidence of influenza transmission to humans from infected poultry. The majority of human H7N9 isolates contained a hemagglutinin (HA mutation (Q226L that has previously been associated with a switch in receptor specificity from avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal to human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal, as documented for the avian progenitors of the 1957 (H2N2 and 1968 (H3N2 human influenza pandemic viruses. While this raised concern that the H7N9 virus was adapting to humans, the mutation was not sufficient to switch the receptor specificity of H7N9, and has not resulted in sustained transmission in humans. To determine if the H7 HA was capable of acquiring human-type receptor specificity, we conducted mutation analyses. Remarkably, three amino acid mutations conferred a switch in specificity for human-type receptors that resembled the specificity of the 2009 human H1 pandemic virus, and promoted binding to human trachea epithelial cells.

  20. Deorphanization of GPRC6A: a promiscuous L-alpha-amino acid receptor with preference for basic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Hansen, Kasper B; Balsgaard, Anders

    2005-01-01

    with the signal transducing transmembrane and C terminus of the homologous goldfish 5.24 receptor allowed us to overcome these obstacles. Homology modeling of the hGPRC6A ATD based on the crystal structure of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 predicted interaction with alpha-amino acids...

  1. Calcitonin and calcitonin receptor-like receptors: common themes with family B GPCRs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwell, James; Gingell, Joseph J; Watkins, Harriet A; Archbold, Julia K; Poyner, David R; Hay, Debbie L

    2012-05-01

    The calcitonin receptor (CTR) and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) are two of the 15 human family B (or Secretin-like) GPCRs. CTR and CLR are of considerable biological interest as their pharmacology is moulded by interactions with receptor activity-modifying proteins. They also have therapeutic relevance for many conditions, such as osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, lymphatic insufficiency, migraine and cardiovascular disease. In light of recent advances in understanding ligand docking and receptor activation in both the family as a whole and in CLR and CTR specifically, this review reflects how applicable general family B GPCR themes are to these two idiosyncratic receptors. We review the main functional domains of the receptors; the N-terminal extracellular domain, the juxtamembrane domain and ligand interface, the transmembrane domain and the intracellular C-terminal domain. Structural and functional findings from the CLR and CTR along with other family B GPCRs are critically appraised to gain insight into how these domains may function. The ability for CTR and CLR to interact with receptor activity-modifying proteins adds another level of sophistication to these receptor systems but means careful consideration is needed when trying to apply generic GPCR principles. This review encapsulates current thinking in the realm of family B GPCR research by highlighting both conflicting and recurring themes and how such findings relate to two unusual but important receptors, CTR and CLR. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Coordinated movement of cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of RyR1 upon gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Samsó

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1 produces spatially and temporally defined Ca2+ signals in several cell types. How signals received in the cytoplasmic domain are transmitted to the ion gate and how the channel gates are unknown. We used EGTA or neuroactive PCB 95 to stabilize the full closed or open states of RyR1. Single-channel measurements in the presence of FKBP12 indicate that PCB 95 inverts the thermodynamic stability of RyR1 and locks it in a long-lived open state whose unitary current is indistinguishable from the native open state. We analyzed two datasets of 15,625 and 18,527 frozen-hydrated RyR1-FKBP12 particles in the closed and open conformations, respectively, by cryo-electron microscopy. Their corresponding three-dimensional structures at 10.2 A resolution refine the structure surrounding the ion pathway previously identified in the closed conformation: two right-handed bundles emerging from the putative ion gate (the cytoplasmic "inner branches" and the transmembrane "inner helices". Furthermore, six of the identifiable transmembrane segments of RyR1 have similar organization to those of the mammalian Kv1.2 potassium channel. Upon gating, the distal cytoplasmic domains move towards the transmembrane domain while the central cytoplasmic domains move away from it, and also away from the 4-fold axis. Along the ion pathway, precise relocation of the inner helices and inner branches results in an approximately 4 A diameter increase of the ion gate. Whereas the inner helices of the K+ channels and of the RyR1 channel cross-correlate best with their corresponding open/closed states, the cytoplasmic inner branches, which are not observed in the K+ channels, appear to have at least as important a role as the inner helices for RyR1 gating. We propose a theoretical model whereby the inner helices, the inner branches, and the h1 densities together create an efficient novel gating mechanism for channel opening by relaxing two right

  3. Endosomal sorting of Notch receptors through COMMD9-dependent pathways modulates Notch signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Haiying; Koo, Yeon; Mao, Xicheng; Sifuentes-Dominguez, Luis; Morris, Lindsey L.; Jia, Da; Miyata, Naoteru; Faulkner, Rebecca A.; van Deursen, Jan M.; Vooijs, Marc; Billadeau, Daniel D.; van de Sluis, Bart; Cleaver, Orane; Burstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    Notch family members are transmembrane receptors that mediate essential developmental programs. Upon ligand binding, a proteolytic event releases the intracellular domain of Notch, which translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene transcription. In addition, Notch trafficking across the

  4. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase R-PTP-kappa mediates homophilic binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; Jiang, Y P; Friedlander, D

    1994-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPases) feature PTPase domains in the context of a receptor-like transmembrane topology. The R-PTPase R-PTP-kappa displays an extracellular domain composed of fibronectin type III motifs, a single immunoglobulin domain, as well as a recently defined MAM domain (Y...... not require PTPase activity or posttranslational proteolytic cleavage of the R-PTP-kappa protein and is calcium independent. The results suggest that R-PTPases may provide a link between cell-cell contact and cellular signaling events involving tyrosine phosphorylation....

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in baboons through an exclusive effect on the p55 receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Jansen, P. M.; van Zee, K. J.; Welborn, M. B.; de Jong, I.; Hack, C. E.; Loetscher, H.; Lesslauer, W.; Lowry, S. F.; Moldawer, L. L.

    1996-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) can bind to two distinct transmembrane receptors, the p55 and p75 TNF receptors. We compared the capability of two mutant TNF proteins with exclusive affinity for the p55 or p75 TNF receptor with that of wild type TNF, to activate the hemostatic mechanism in

  6. Toll-like receptor 3 signalling up-regulates expression of the HIV co-receptor G-protein coupled receptor 15 on human CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kiene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many HIV-2 and SIV isolates, as well as some HIV-1 strains, can use the orphan 7-transmembrane receptor GPR15 as co-receptor for efficient entry into host cells. GPR15 is expressed on central memory and effector memory CD4(+ T cells in healthy individuals and a subset of these cells is susceptible to HIV-1 and SIV infection. However, it has not been determined whether GPR15 expression is altered in the context of HIV-1 infection. RESULTS: Here, we show that GPR15 expression in CD4(+ T cells is markedly up-regulated in some HIV-1 infected individuals compared to the rest of the infected patients and to healthy controls. Infection of the PM1 T cell line with primary HIV-1 isolates was found to up-regulate GPR15 expression on the infected cells, indicating that viral components can induce GPR15 expression. Up-regulation of GPR15 expression on CD4(+ T cells was induced by activation of Toll-like receptor 3 signalling via TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF and was more prominent on gut-homing compared to lymph node-homing CD4(+ T cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that infection-induced up-regulation of GPR15 expression could increase susceptibility of CD4(+ T cells to HIV infection and target cell availability in the gut in some infected individuals.

  7. Direct labelling of the human P2X7 receptor and identification of positive and negative cooperativity of binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A D; Chambers, L J; Clay, W C; Condreay, J P; Walter, D S; Chessell, I P

    2007-05-01

    The P2X(7) receptor exhibits complex pharmacological properties. In this study, binding of a [(3)H]-labelled P2X(7) receptor antagonist to human P2X(7) receptors has been examined to further understand ligand interactions with this receptor. The P2X(7) receptor antagonist, N-[2-({2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl}amino)-5-quinolinyl]-2-tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]dec-1-ylacetamide (compound-17), was radiolabelled with tritium and binding studies were performed using membranes prepared from U-2 OS or HEK293 cells expressing human recombinant P2X(7) receptors. Binding of [(3)H]-compound-17 was higher in membranes prepared from cells expressing P2X(7) receptors than from control cells and was inhibited by ATP suggesting labelled sites represented human P2X(7) receptors. Binding was reversible, saturable and modulated by P2X(7) receptor ligands (Brilliant Blue G, KN62, ATP, decavanadate). Furthermore, ATP potency was reduced in the presence of divalent cations or NaCl. Radioligand binding exhibited both positive and negative cooperativity. Positive cooperativity was evident from bell shaped Scatchard plots, reduction in radioligand dissociation rate by unlabelled compound-17 and enhancement of radioligand binding by KN62 and unlabelled compound-17. ATP and decavanadate inhibited binding in a negative cooperative manner as they enhanced radioligand dissociation. These data demonstrate that human P2X(7) receptors can be directly labelled and provide novel insights into receptor function. The positive cooperativity observed suggests that binding of compound-17 to one subunit in the P2X(7) receptor complex enhances subsequent binding to other P2X(7) subunits in the same complex. The negative cooperative effects of ATP suggest that ATP and compound-17 bind at separate, interacting, sites on the P2X(7) receptor.

  8. Up-regulation of the Neuronal Nicotinic Receptor α7 by HIV Glycoprotein 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Leomar Y.; Capó-Vélez, Coral M.; García-Beltrán, Wilfredo F.; Ramos, Félix M.; Vázquez-Rosa, Edwin; Ríos, Raymond; Mercado, José R.; Meléndez, Roberto I.; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 30–50% of the >30 million HIV-infected subjects develop neurological complications ranging from mild symptoms to dementia. HIV does not infect neurons, and the molecular mechanisms behind HIV-associated neurocognitive decline are not understood. There are several hypotheses to explain the development of dementia in HIV+ individuals, including neuroinflammation mediated by infected microglia and neuronal toxicity by HIV proteins. A key protein associated with the neurological complications of HIV, gp120, forms part of the viral envelope and can be found in the CSF of infected individuals. HIV-1-gp120 interacts with several receptors including CD4, CCR5, CXCR4, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, the role of nAChRs in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder has not been investigated. We studied the effects of gp120IIIB on the expression and function of the nicotinic receptor α77-nAChR). Our results show that gp120, through activation of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, induces a functional up-regulation of α7-nAChRs. Because α7-nAChRs have a high permeability to Ca2+, we performed TUNEL staining to investigate the effects of receptor up-regulation on cell viability. Our data revealed an increase in cell death, which was blocked by the selective antagonist α-bungarotoxin. The in vitro data are supported by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, confirming a remarkable up-regulation of the α7-nAChR in gp120-transgenic mice brains. Specifically, α7-nAChR up-regulation is observed in mouse striatum, a region severely affected in HIV+ patients. In summary, CXCR4 activation induces up-regulation of α7-nAChR, causing cell death, suggesting that α7-nAChR is a previously unrecognized contributor to the neurotoxicity associated with HIV infection. PMID:22084248

  9. The purinergic P2X7 ion channel receptor — a ‘repair’ receptor in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    A strong skeleton relies on adaptation to varying physical demands and on maintenance of the bone tissue in order to avoid accumulation of micro-damage. In bone, the purinergic P2X7 ion channel receptor is expressed on both cells of the stromal lineage such as the bone forming osteoblasts...... and the mechano-sensing osteocytes and on cells belonging to the immune-related monocyte–macrophage lineage, the bone resorbing osteoclasts. Recent studies have demonstrated that the receptor plays important roles in the anabolic responses to mechanical loading on bone and, together with the pannexin1 hemi......-channel, in the process of initiating bone remodeling in response to micro-damage. Thus, the receptor is crucial in skeletal mechano-transduction and in the continuous repair process. However, under pathophysiological conditions such as diabetes with high glucose concentrations or glucocorticoid-treatment the receptor...

  10. Alpha7 nicotinic receptor mediated protection against ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; King, M A; Grimes, J; Smith, N; de Fiebre, C M; Meyer, E M

    1999-01-16

    Ethanol caused a concentration-dependent loss of PC12 cells over a 24 h interval, accompanied by an increase in intracellular calcium. The specific alpha7 nicotinic receptor partial agonist DMXB attenuated both of these ethanol-induced actions at a concentration (3 microM) found previously to protect against apoptotic and necrotic cell loss. The alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist methylylaconitine blocked the neuroprotective action of DMXB when applied with but not 30 min after the agonist. These results indicate that activation of alpha7 nicotinic receptors may be therapeutically useful in preventing ethanol-neurotoxicity. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Effects of the potential 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 in an autoshaping learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-García, Georgina S; Meneses, A

    2005-08-30

    This work aimed to evaluate further the role of 5-HT7 receptors during memory formation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task. Post-training administration of the potential 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 or antagonist SB-269970 enhanced memory formation or had no effect, respectively. The AS 19 facilitatory effect was reversed by SB-269970, but not by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Amnesia induced by scopolamine (cholinergic antagonist) or dizocilpine (NMDA antagonist) was also reversed by AS 19. Certainly, reservations regarding the selectivity of AS 19 for 5-HT7 and other 5-HT receptors in vivo are noteworthy and, therefore, its validity for use in animal models as a pharmacological tool. Having mentioned that, it should be noticed that together these data are providing further support to the notion of the 5-HT7 receptors role in memory formation. Importantly, this 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 appears to represent a step forward respect to the notion that potent and selective 5-HT7 receptor agonists can be useful in the treatment of dysfunctional memory in aged-related decline and Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Syntheses of 7-Substituted α-Cyperone Derivatives for Selective Sigma-1 Receptor over Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Binding Affinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Juyoung; Shin, Younggyun; Yoon, Sunghwa [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keewon; Kwon, Youngbae [ChonBuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We have successfully synthesized seven α-cyperone derivatives and found that the presence of a hydrogen bond donor/acceptor groups at the C7 position of α-cyperone significantly affects specificity and potency of CB{sub 1} receptor binding affinity over sigma-1 receptor binding affinity. In particular, the presence of the amino moiety at the C7 position of α-cyperone is beneficial for binding to sigmia-1 receptor. The molecular mechanism of compound 8 involved in the high binding affinity to sigma-1 receptor is under investigation. We first synthesized α-cyperone 1 by following the previously reported synthetic routes.15-19 In brief, azeotropic imination of (+)-dihydrocarvone and (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine followed by alkylation with a slight excess of ethyl vinyl ketone (EVK) in THF at 40 .deg. C produced the Micheal adduct. The resulting adduct was hydrolyzed and then treated with sodium methoxide at room temperature to give an easily separable mixture of α-cyperone 1 and its side product. Flash chromatography resulted in pure α-cyperone 1 in a 30% yield from (+)-dihydrocarvone.

  13. Frizzled Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-Mian Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Frizzled receptors (FZDs are a family of seven-span transmembrane receptors with hallmarks of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that serve as receptors for secreted Wingless-type (WNT ligands in the WNT signaling pathway. Functionally, FZDs play crucial roles in regulating cell polarity, embryonic development, cell proliferation, formation of neural synapses, and many other processes in developing and adult organisms. In this review, we will introduce the basic structural features and review the biological function and mechanism of FZDs in the progression of human cancers, followed by an analysis of clinical relevance and therapeutic potential of FZDs. We will focus on the development of antibody-based and small molecule inhibitor-based therapeutic strategies by targeting FZDs for human cancers.

  14. Emerging issues in receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase function: lifting fog or simply shifting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, A; Sap, J

    2000-01-01

    Transmembrane (receptor) tyrosine phosphatases are intimately involved in responses to cell-cell and cell-matrix contact. Several important issues regarding the targets and regulation of this protein family are now emerging. For example, these phosphatases exhibit complex interactions with signal...

  15. The 2.1 Å resolution structure of cyanopindolol-bound β1-adrenoceptor identifies an intramembrane Na+ ion that stabilises the ligand-free receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Miller-Gallacher

    Full Text Available The β1-adrenoceptor (β1AR is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR that is activated by the endogenous agonists adrenaline and noradrenaline. We have determined the structure of an ultra-thermostable β1AR mutant bound to the weak partial agonist cyanopindolol to 2.1 Å resolution. High-quality crystals (100 μm plates were grown in lipidic cubic phase without the assistance of a T4 lysozyme or BRIL fusion in cytoplasmic loop 3, which is commonly employed for GPCR crystallisation. An intramembrane Na+ ion was identified co-ordinated to Asp872.50, Ser1283.39 and 3 water molecules, which is part of a more extensive network of water molecules in a cavity formed between transmembrane helices 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7. Remarkably, this water network and Na+ ion is highly conserved between β1AR and the adenosine A2A receptor (rmsd of 0.3 Å, despite an overall rmsd of 2.4 Å for all Cα atoms and only 23% amino acid identity in the transmembrane regions. The affinity of agonist binding and nanobody Nb80 binding to β1AR is unaffected by Na+ ions, but the stability of the receptor is decreased by 7.5°C in the absence of Na+. Mutation of amino acid side chains that are involved in the co-ordination of either Na+ or water molecules in the network decreases the stability of β1AR by 5-10°C. The data suggest that the intramembrane Na+ and associated water network stabilise the ligand-free state of β1AR, but still permits the receptor to form the activated state which involves the collapse of the Na+ binding pocket on agonist binding.

  16. Development of 7TM receptor-ligand complex models using ligand-biased, semi-empirical helix-bundle repacking in torsion space: application to the agonist interaction of the human dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Marcus; Persson, Ronnie; Svensson, Peder; Luthman, Kristina; Brive, Lars

    2013-03-01

    Prediction of 3D structures of membrane proteins, and of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in particular, is motivated by their importance in biological systems and the difficulties associated with experimental structure determination. In the present study, a novel method for the prediction of 3D structures of the membrane-embedded region of helical membrane proteins is presented. A large pool of candidate models are produced by repacking of the helices of a homology model using Monte Carlo sampling in torsion space, followed by ranking based on their geometric and ligand-binding properties. The trajectory is directed by weak initial restraints to orient helices towards the original model to improve computation efficiency, and by a ligand to guide the receptor towards a chosen conformational state. The method was validated by construction of the β1 adrenergic receptor model in complex with (S)-cyanopindolol using bovine rhodopsin as template. In addition, models of the dopamine D2 receptor were produced with the selective and rigid agonist (R)-N-propylapomorphine ((R)-NPA) present. A second quality assessment was implemented by evaluating the results from docking of a library of 29 ligands with known activity, which further discriminated between receptor models. Agonist binding and recognition by the dopamine D2 receptor is interpreted using the 3D structure model resulting from the approach. This method has a potential for modeling of all types of helical transmembrane proteins for which a structural template with sequence homology sufficient for homology modeling is not available or is in an incorrect conformational state, but for which sufficient empirical information is accessible.

  17. Odorant Receptor Modulation: Ternary Paradigm for Mode of Action of Insect Repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Ostrinia nubilalis. PLoS ONE 5, e8685. Wanner, K.W., Nichols, A.S.,Walden, K.K., Brockmann, A., Luetje, C.W., Robertson, H.M., 2007. A honey bee odorant...allosteric”. Protein Sci. 20, 1119e1124. Christopoulos, A., Kenakin, T., 2002. G protein -coupled receptor allosterism and complexing. Pharmacol. Rev. 54...Newcomb, R.D., Warr, C.G., 2008. Drosophila odorant receptors are novel seven transmembrane domain proteins that can signal independently of

  18. Recent Advances on the Role of G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Hypoxia-Mediated Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Lappano, Rosamaria; Rigiracciolo, Damiano; De Marco, Paola; Avino, Silvia; Cappello, Anna Rita; Rosano, Camillo; Maggiolini, Marcello; De Francesco, Ernestina Marianna

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell surface proteins mainly involved in signal transmission; however, they play a role also in several pathophysiological conditions. Chemically heterogeneous molecules like peptides, hormones, lipids, and neurotransmitters activate second messengers and induce several biological responses by binding to these seven transmembrane receptors, which are coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins. Recently, additional molecular mechanisms have been involved in GP...

  19. Transmembrane potential polarization, calcium influx, and receptor conformational state modulate the sensitivity of the imidacloprid-insensitive neuronal insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodereau-Dubois, Béatrice; List, Olivier; Calas-List, Delphine; Marques, Olivier; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Thany, Steeve H; Lapied, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent studies revealed that their efficiency was altered by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process and the intracellular signaling pathway involved in the regulation of nAChRs. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology adapted for dissociated cockroach dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, we demonstrated that intracellular factors involved in the regulation of nAChR function modulated neonicotinoid sensitivity. DUM neurons were known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR subtypes: nAChR1 and nAChR2. Whereas nAChR1 was sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 was insensitive to this insecticide. Here, we demonstrated that, like nicotine, acetamiprid and clothianidin, other types of neonicotinoid insecticides, acted as agonists on the nAChR2 subtype. Using acetamiprid, we revealed that both steady-state depolarization and hyperpolarization affected nAChR2 sensitivity. The measurement of the input membrane resistance indicated that change in the acetamiprid-induced agonist activity was related to the receptor conformational state. Using cadmium chloride, ω-conotoxin GVIA, and (R,S)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline-1-yl)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-acetamide (LOE 908), we found that inhibition of calcium influx through high voltage-activated calcium channels and transient receptor potential γ (TRPγ) activated by both depolarization and hyperpolarization increased nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Finally, using N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W7), forskolin, and cAMP, we demonstrated that adenylyl cyclase sensitive to the calcium/calmodulin complex regulated internal cAMP concentration, which in turn modulated TRPγ function and nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Similar TRPγ-induced modulatory effects were also obtained when clothianidin was tested. These findings bring insights into the signaling pathway modulating

  20. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-09-15

    The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca(2+) activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X(7) receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X(7) receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X(7) receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X(7) receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion.

  1. Effect of P2X7 receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X7 receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X7 receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X7−/− (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca2+ activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X7−/− mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X7−/− mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca2+ activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X7 receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X7 receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X7 receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X7 receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion. PMID:20643770

  2. Membrane shape modulates transmembrane protein distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimon, Sophie; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Berthaud, Alice; Pinot, Mathieu; Toombes, Gilman E S; Bassereau, Patricia

    2014-01-27

    Although membrane shape varies greatly throughout the cell, the contribution of membrane curvature to transmembrane protein targeting is unknown because of the numerous sorting mechanisms that take place concurrently in cells. To isolate the effect of membrane shape, we used cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing either the potassium channel KvAP or the water channel AQP0 to form membrane nanotubes with controlled radii. Whereas the AQP0 concentrations in flat and curved membranes were indistinguishable, KvAP was enriched in the tubes, with greater enrichment in more highly curved membranes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements showed that both proteins could freely diffuse through the neck between the tube and GUV, and the effect of each protein on membrane shape and stiffness was characterized using a thermodynamic sorting model. This study establishes the importance of membrane shape for targeting transmembrane proteins and provides a method for determining the effective shape and flexibility of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transmembrane Tumor Necrosis Factor Controls Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Activity via TNF Receptor 2 and Protects from Excessive Inflammation during BCG-Induced Pleurisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Chavez-Galan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleural tuberculosis (TB is a form of extra-pulmonary TB observed in patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC has been observed in animal models of TB and in human patients but their role remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the role of transmembrane TNF (tmTNF in the accumulation and function of MDSC in the pleural cavity during an acute mycobacterial infection. Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced pleurisy was resolved in mice expressing tmTNF, but lethal in the absence of tumor necrosis factor. Pleural infection induced MDSC accumulation in the pleural cavity and functional MDSC required tmTNF to suppress T cells as did pleural wild-type MDSC. Interaction of MDSC expressing tmTNF with CD4 T cells bearing TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2, but not TNFR1, was required for MDSC suppressive activity on CD4 T cells. Expression of tmTNF attenuated Th1 cell-mediated inflammatory responses generated by the acute pleural mycobacterial infection in association with effective MDSC expressing tmTNF and interacting with CD4 T cells expressing TNFR2. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the crucial role played by the tmTNF/TNFR2 pathway in MDSC suppressive activity required during acute pleural infection to attenuate excessive inflammation generated by the infection.

  4. Improvement of ketamine-induced social withdrawal in rats: the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołuj, Małgorzata; Popik, Piotr; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Social withdrawal, one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia, can be modelled in the social interaction (SI) test in rats using N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glutamate receptor antagonists. We have recently shown that amisulpride, an antipsychotic with a high affinity for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors, reversed ketamine-induced SI deficits in rats. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the potential involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in the prosocial action of amisulpride. Acute administration of amisulpride (3 mg/kg) and SB-269970 (1 mg/kg), a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, reversed ketamine-induced social withdrawal, whereas sulpiride (20 or 30 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) were ineffective. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS19 (10 mg/kg) abolished the prosocial efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The coadministration of an inactive dose of SB-269970 (0.2 mg/kg) showed the prosocial effects of inactive doses of amisulpride (1 mg/kg) and sulpiride (20 mg/kg). The anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (2.5 mg/kg) and the antidepressant fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg) were ineffective in reversing ketamine-induced SI deficits. The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute towards the mechanisms underlying the prosocial action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia and other disorders characterized by social withdrawal.

  5. Spinal 5-HT7 Receptors and Protein Kinase A Constrain Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Phrenic Long-term Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M.S.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) is a form of serotonin-dependent respiratory plasticity induced by acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH). pLTF requires spinal Gq protein-coupled serotonin-2 receptor (5-HT2) activation, new synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and activation of its high-affinity receptor, TrkB. Intrathecal injections of selective agonists for Gs protein-coupled receptors (adenosine 2A and serotonin-7; 5-HT7) also induce long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation via TrkB “trans-activation.” Since serotonin release near phrenic motor neurons may activate multiple serotonin receptor subtypes, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT7 receptor activation contributes to AIH-induced pLTF. A selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (SB-269970, 5mM, 12μl) was administered intrathecally at C4 to anesthetized, vagotomized and ventilated rats prior to AIH (3, 5-min episodes, 11% O2). Contrary to predictions, pLTF was greater in SB-269970 treated versus control rats (80±11% vs 45±6% 60 min post-AIH; p<0.05). Hypoglossal LTF was unaffected by spinal 5-HT7 receptor inhibition, suggesting that drug effects were localized to the spinal cord. Since 5-HT7 receptors are coupled to protein kinase A (PKA), we tested the hypothesis that PKA inhibits AIH-induced pLTF. Similar to 5-HT7 receptor inhibition, spinal PKA inhibition (KT-5720, 100μM, 15μl) enhanced pLTF (99±15% 60 min post-AIH; p<0.05). Conversely, PKA activation (8-br-cAMP, 100μM, 15μl) blunted pLTF versus control rats (16±5% vs 45±6% 60 min post-AIH; p<0.05). These findings suggest a novel mechanism whereby spinal Gs protein-coupled 5-HT7 receptors constrain AIH-induced pLTF via PKA activity. PMID:23850591

  6. The AMPA receptor-associated protein Shisa7 regulates hippocampal synaptic function and contextual memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Leanne J M; Klaassen, Remco V; Ruiperez-Alonso, Marta; Zamri, Azra Elia; Stroeder, Jasper; Rao-Ruiz, Priyanka; Lodder, Johannes C; van der Loo, Rolinka J; Mansvelder, Huib D; Smit, August B; Spijker, Sabine; Verhage, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Glutamatergic synapses rely on AMPA receptors (AMPARs) for fast synaptic transmission and plasticity. AMPAR auxiliary proteins regulate receptor trafficking, and modulate receptor mobility and its biophysical properties. The AMPAR auxiliary protein Shisa7 (CKAMP59) has been shown to interact with

  7. International Union of Pharmacology. LXXXIX. Update on the Extended Family of Chemokine Receptors and Introducing a New Nomenclature for Atypical Chemokine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelerie, Francoise; Ben-Baruch, Adit; Burkhardt, Amanda M.; Combadiere, Christophe; Farber, Joshua M.; Graham, Gerard J.; Horuk, Richard; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Locati, Massimo; Luster, Andrew D.; Mantovani, Alberto; Matsushima, Kouji; Nibbs, Robert; Nomiyama, Hisayuki; Power, Christine A.; Proudfoot, Amanda E. I.; Rosenkilde, Mette M.; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus; Yoshie, Osamu; Zlotnik, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145–176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human

  8. Structure of the human glucagon class B G-protein-coupled receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siu, F.Y.; He, M.; de Graaf, C.; Yang, D; Zhang, Z.; Zhou, C.; Han, G.W.; Xu, Q.; Wacker, D.; Joseph, J.S.; Wei, Liu; Lau, J.F.; Cherezov, V.; Katritch, V; Wang, M.W.; Stevens, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Binding of the glucagon peptide to the glucagon receptor (GCGR) triggers the release of glucose from the liver during fasting; thus GCGR plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Here we report the crystal structure of the seven transmembrane helical domain of human GCGR at 3.4 Å resolution,

  9. Discovery of a novel allosteric modulator of 5-HT3 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trattnig, Sarah M; Harpsøe, Kasper; Thygesen, Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    The ligand-gated ion channels in the Cysloop receptor superfamily mediate the effects of neurotransmitters acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA and glycine. Cysloop receptor signaling is susceptible to modulation by ligands acting through numerous allosteric sites. Here we report the discovery of a novel...... receptor guided by a homology model, PU02 is demonstrated to act through a transmembrane intersubunit site situated in the upper three helical turns of TM2 and TM3 in the (+)subunit and TM1 and TM2 in the (minus)subunit. The Ser248, Leu288, Ile290, Thr294 and Gly306 residues are identified as important...

  10. Biochemical characterization of a heterotrimeric G(i)-protein activator peptide designed from the junction between the intracellular third loop and sixth transmembrane helix in the m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Matsubayashi, Rina; Hara, Kanako; Onozuka, Tatsuki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. The mAChR family comprises 5 subtypes, m1-m5, each of which has a different coupling selectivity for heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins). m4 mAChR specifically activates the Gi/o family by enhancing the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) reaction with the Gα subunit through an interaction that occurs via intracellular segments. Here, we report that the m4 mAChR mimetic peptide m4i3c(14)Gly, comprising 14 residues in the junction between the intracellular third loop (i3c) and transmembrane helix VI (TM-VI) extended with a C-terminal glycine residue, presents GEF activity toward the Gi1 α subunit (Gαi1). The m4i3c(14)Gly forms a stable complex with guanine nucleotide-free Gαi1 via three residues in the VTI(L/F) motif, which is conserved within the m2/4 mAChRs. These results suggest that this m4 mAChR mimetic peptide, which comprises the amino acid of the mAChR intracellular segments, is a useful tool for understanding the interaction between GPCRs and G-proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutational analysis of the extracellular disulphide bridges of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7 uncovers multiple binding and activation modes for its chemokine and endogenous non-chemokine agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpakowska, Martyna; Meyrath, Max; Reynders, Nathan; Counson, Manuel; Hanson, Julien; Steyaert, Jan; Chevigné, Andy

    2018-07-01

    The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7 plays crucial roles in numerous physiological processes but also in viral infection and cancer. ACKR3 shows strong propensity for activation and, unlike classical chemokine receptors, can respond to chemokines from both the CXC and CC families as well as to the endogenous peptides BAM22 and adrenomedullin. Moreover, despite belonging to the G protein coupled receptor family, its function appears to be mainly dependent on β-arrestin. ACKR3 has also been shown to continuously cycle between the plasma membrane and the endosomal compartments, suggesting a possible role as a scavenging receptor. So far, the molecular basis accounting for these atypical binding and signalling properties remains elusive. Noteworthy, ACKR3 extracellular domains bear three disulphide bridges. Two of them lie on top of the two main binding subpockets and are conserved among chemokine receptors, and one, specific to ACKR3, forms an intra-N terminus four-residue-loop of so far unknown function. Here, by mutational and functional studies, we examined the impact of the different disulphide bridges for ACKR3 folding, ligand binding and activation. We showed that, in contrast to most classical chemokine receptors, none of the extracellular disulphide bridges was essential for ACKR3 function. However, the disruption of the unique ACKR3 N-terminal loop drastically reduced the binding of CC chemokines whereas it only had a mild impact on CXC chemokine binding. Mutagenesis also uncovered that chemokine and endogenous non-chemokine ligands interact and activate ACKR3 according to distinct binding modes characterized by different transmembrane domain subpocket occupancy and N-terminal loop contribution, with BAM22 mimicking the binding mode of CC chemokine N terminus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Non-imaging High Throughput Approach to Chemical Library Screening at the Unmodified Adenosine-A3 Receptor in Living Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Arruda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in fluorescent ligand technology have enabled the study of G protein-coupled receptors in their native environment without the need for genetic modification such as addition of N-terminal fluorescent or bioluminescent tags. Here, we have used a non-imaging plate reader (PHERAstar FS to monitor the binding of fluorescent ligands to the human adenosine-A3 receptor (A3AR; CA200645 and AV039, stably expressed in CHO-K1 cells. To verify that this method was suitable for the study of other GPCRs, assays at the human adenosine-A1 receptor, and β1 and β2 adrenoceptors (β1AR and β2AR; BODIPY-TMR-CGP-12177 were also carried out. Affinity values determined for the binding of the fluorescent ligands CA200645 and AV039 to A3AR for a range of classical adenosine receptor antagonists were consistent with A3AR pharmacology and correlated well (R2 = 0.94 with equivalent data obtained using a confocal imaging plate reader (ImageXpress Ultra. The binding of BODIPY-TMR-CGP-12177 to the β1AR was potently inhibited by low concentrations of the β1-selective antagonist CGP 20712A (pKi 9.68 but not by the β2-selective antagonist ICI 118551(pKi 7.40. Furthermore, in experiments conducted in CHO K1 cells expressing the β2AR this affinity order was reversed with ICI 118551 showing the highest affinity (pKi 8.73 and CGP20712A (pKi 5.68 the lowest affinity. To determine whether the faster data acquisition of the non-imaging plate reader (~3 min per 96-well plate was suitable for high throughput screening (HTS, we screened the LOPAC library for inhibitors of the binding of CA200645 to the A3AR. From the initial 1,263 compounds evaluated, 67 hits (defined as those that inhibited the total binding of 25 nM CA200645 by ≥40% were identified. All compounds within the library that had medium to high affinity for the A3AR (pKi ≥6 were successfully identified. We found three novel compounds in the library that displayed unexpected sub-micromolar affinity

  13. Positive versus negative modulation of different endogenous chemokines for CC-chemokine receptor 1 by small molecule agonists through allosteric versus orthosteric binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia C; Thiele, Stefanie; Ulven, Trond

    2008-01-01

    7 transmembrane-spanning (7TM) chemokine receptors having multiple endogenous ligands offer special opportunities to understand the molecular basis for allosteric mechanisms. Thus, CC-chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) binds CC-chemokine 3 and 5 (CCL3 and CCL5) with K(d) values of 7.3 and 0.16 nm......5 and not CCL3 activation is affected by substitutions in the main ligand binding pocket including the conserved GluVII:06 anchor point. A series of metal ion chelator complexes were found to act as full agonists on CCR1 and to be critically affected by the same substitutions in the main ligand...... binding pocket as CCL5 but not by mutations in the extracellular domain. In agreement with the overlapping binding sites, the small non-peptide agonists displaced radiolabeled CCL5 with high affinity. Interestingly, the same compounds acted as allosteric enhancers of the binding of CCL3, with which...

  14. InterProScan Result: FS742531 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS742531 FS742531_5_ORF1 83DE48A0149BB5E1 PANTHER PTHR23154 LEUCINE-RICH TRANSMEMBR...ANE PROTEINS 1.7e-16 T IPR000157 unintegrated Molecular Function: transmembrane receptor activity (GO:000488

  15. Crystal structures of a GABAA-receptor chimera reveal new endogenous neurosteroid-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Duncan; Thomas, Philip; Field, Martin; Andersen, Ole J; Gold, Matthew G; Biggin, Philip C; Gielen, Marc; Smart, Trevor G

    2017-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA A Rs) are vital for controlling excitability in the brain. This is emphasized by the numerous neuropsychiatric disorders that result from receptor dysfunction. A critical component of most native GABA A Rs is the α subunit. Its transmembrane domain is the target for many modulators, including endogenous brain neurosteroids that impact anxiety, stress and depression, and for therapeutic drugs, such as general anesthetics. Understanding the basis for the modulation of GABA A R function requires high-resolution structures. Here we present the first atomic structures of a GABA A R chimera at 2.8-Å resolution, including those bound with potentiating and inhibitory neurosteroids. These structures define new allosteric binding sites for these modulators that are associated with the α-subunit transmembrane domain. Our findings will enable the exploitation of neurosteroids for therapeutic drug design to regulate GABA A Rs in neurological disorders.

  16. Identification of functional VEGF receptors on human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, Frode; Holmsen, Holm; Vassbotn, Flemming S

    2002-02-13

    Platelets secrete platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon stimulation. We have demonstrated that platelets have functionally active PDGF alpha-receptors, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase involved in negative feedback regulation. Here we demonstrate the presence of the related VEGF receptors fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and kinase-insert domain region on human platelets. VEGF itself did not cause platelet aggregation. However, addition of exogenous VEGF to SFRLLN or thrombin-stimulated platelets potentiated platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity were enhanced in the presence of VEGF.

  17. Recurrent nonsense mutations in the growth hormone receptor from patients with Laron dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amselem, S; Sobrier, M L; Duquesnoy, P; Rappaport, R; Postel-Vinay, M C; Gourmelen, M; Dallapiccola, B; Goossens, M

    1991-01-01

    In addition to its classical effects on growth, growth hormone (GH) has been shown to have a number of other actions, all of which are initiated by an interaction with specific high affinity receptors present in a variety of tissues. Purification of a rabbit liver protein via its ability to bind GH has allowed the isolation of a cDNA encoding a putative human growth hormone receptor that belongs to a new class of transmembrane receptors. We have previously shown that this putative growth hormone receptor gene is genetically linked to Laron dwarfism, a rare autosomal recessive syndrome caused by target resistance to GH. Nevertheless, the inability to express the corresponding full-length coding sequence and the lack of a test for growth-promoting function have hampered a direct confirmation of its role in growth. We have now identified three nonsense mutations within this growth hormone receptor gene, lying at positions corresponding to the amino terminal extremity and causing a truncation of the molecule, thereby deleting a large portion of both the GH binding domain and the full transmembrane and intracellular domains. Three independent patients with Laron dwarfism born of consanguineous parents were homozygous for these defects. Two defects were identical and consisted of a CG to TG transition. Not only do these results confirm the growth-promoting activity of this receptor but they also suggest that CpG doublets may represent hot spots for mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene that are responsible for hereditary dwarfism. Images PMID:1999489

  18. Corneal epithelium expresses a variant of P2X(7 receptor in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Mankus

    Full Text Available Improper wound repair of the corneal epithelium can alter refraction of light resulting in impaired vision. We have shown that ATP is released after injury, activates purinergic receptor signaling pathways and plays a major role in wound closure. In many cells or tissues, ATP activates P2X(7 receptors leading to cation fluxes and cytotoxicity. The corneal epithelium is an excellent model to study the expression of both the full-length P2X(7 form (defined as the canonical receptor and its truncated forms. When Ca(2+ mobilization is induced by BzATP, a P2X(7 agonist, it is attenuated in the presence of extracellular Mg(2+ or Zn(2+, negligible in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+, and inhibited by the competitive P2X7 receptor inhibitor, A438079. BzATP enhanced phosphorylation of ERK. Together these responses indicate the presence of a canonical or full-length P2X(7 receptor. In addition BzATP enhanced epithelial cell migration, and transfection with siRNA to the P2X(7 receptor reduced cell migration. Furthermore, sustained activation did not induce dye uptake indicating the presence of truncated or variant forms that lack the ability to form large pores. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis revealed a P2X(7 splice variant. Western blots identified a full-length and truncated form, and the expression pattern changed as cultures progressed from monolayer to stratified. Cross-linking gels demonstrated the presence of homo- and heterotrimers. We examined epithelium from age matched diabetic and non-diabetic corneas patients and detected a 4-fold increase in P2X(7 mRNA from diabetic corneal epithelium compared to non-diabetic controls and an increased trend in expression of P2X(7variant mRNA. Taken together, these data indicate that corneal epithelial cells express full-length and truncated forms of P2X(7, which ultimately allows P2X(7 to function as a multifaceted receptor that can mediate cell proliferation and

  19. Localization of the fourth membrane spanning domain as a ligand binding site in the human platelet α2-adrenergic receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.; Regan, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The human platelet α 2 -adrenergic receptor is an integral membrane protein which binds epinephrine. The gene for this receptor has been cloned, and the primary structure is thus known. A model of its secondary structure predicts that the receptor has seven transmembrane spanning domains. By covalent labeling and peptide mapping, the authors have identified a region of the receptor that is directly involved with ligand binding. Partially purified preparations of the receptor were covalently radiolabeled with either of two specific photoaffinity ligands: [ 3 H]SKF 102229 (an antagonist) or p-azido[ 3 H]clonidine (an agonist). The radiolabeled receptors were then digested with specific endopeptidases, and peptides containing the covalently bound radioligands were identified. Lysylendopeptidase treatment of [ 3 H]SKF 102229 labeled receptor yielded one peptide of M r 2400 as the product of a complete digest. Endopeptidase Arg-C gave a labeled peptide of M r 4000, which was further digested to the M r 2400 peptide by additional treatment with lysylendopeptidase. Using p-azido[ 3 H]clonidine-labeled receptor, a similar M r 2400 peptide was obtained by lysylendopeptidase cleavage. This M r 2400 peptide corresponds to the fourth transmembrane spanning domain of the receptor. These data suggest that this region forms part of the ligand binding domain of the human platelet α 2 -adrenergic receptor

  20. Normal Development and Function of T Cells in Proline Rich 7 (Prr7) Deficient Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdinka, M.; Sudan, K.; Just, S.; Drobek, Aleš; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Schlueter, D.; Reinhold, D.; Jordan, B.A.; Gintschel, P.; Schraven, B.; Kreutz, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 9 (2016), č. článku e0162863. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-09208Y Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : transmembrane adapter proteins * experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis * multiple-sclerosis * listeria - monocytogenes * lymphocyte development * negative regulation * activation * receptor * neurodegeneration * apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  1. Errorless discrimination and picture fading as techniques for teaching sight words to TMR students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B F; Lamberts, F

    1979-03-01

    The effectiveness of two approaches for teaching beginning sight words to 30 TMR students was compared. In Dorry and Zeaman's picture-fading technique, words are taught through association with pictures that are faded out over a series of trials, while in the Edmark program errorless-discrimination technique, words are taught through shaped sequences of visual and auditory--visual matching-to-sample, with the target word first appearing alone and eventually appearing with orthographically similar words. Students were instructed on two lists of 10 words each, one list in the picture-fading and one in the discrimination method, in a double counter-balanced, repeated-measures design. Covariance analysis on three measures (word identification, word recognition, and picture--word matching) showed highly significant differences between the two methods. Students' performance was better after instruction with the errorless-discrimination method than after instruction with the picture-fading method. The findings on picture fading were interpreted as indicating a possible failure of the shifting of control from picture to printed word that earlier researchers have hypothesized as occurring.

  2. Isolation, Expression Analysis, and Functional Characterization of the First Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the honey bee Apis mellifera. Prog Neurobiol 80:1–19. 28. Larkin MA, et al. (2007) Clustal W and Clustal X version...capa-r2; however, the latter encodes an atypical G protein - coupled receptor lacking a region ranging between the first and second transmembrane domain...this medically important insect- disease vector. CAPA | Chagas’ | G protein -coupled receptor | neurohormone | neuropeptide A major physiological

  3. Known regulators of nitric oxide synthase and arginase are agonists at the human G-protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bolette; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2006-01-01

    receptor construct, h6A/5.24, containing the ligand-binding amino-terminal domain of the human GPRC6A and the seven-transmembrane domain and carboxy terminus of the homologous goldfish receptor 5.24. Based on knowledge that this chimera prefers basic L-alpha-amino acids such as arginine, lysine...

  4. Structures of Receptor Complexes of a North American H7N2 Influenza Hemagglutinin with a Loop Deletion in the Receptor Binding Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hua; Chen, Li-Mei; Carney, Paul J.; Donis, Ruben O.; Stevens, James (CDC)

    2012-02-21

    Human infections with subtype H7 avian influenza viruses have been reported as early as 1979. In 1996, a genetically stable 24-nucleotide deletion emerged in North American H7 influenza virus hemagglutinins, resulting in an eight amino acid deletion in the receptor-binding site. The continuous circulation of these viruses in live bird markets, as well as its documented ability to infect humans, raises the question of how these viruses achieve structural stability and functionality. Here we report a detailed molecular analysis of the receptor binding site of the North American lineage subtype H7N2 virus A/New York/107/2003 (NY107), including complexes with an avian receptor analog (3'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine, 3'SLN) and two human receptor analogs (6'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine, 6'SLN; sialyllacto-N-tetraose b, LSTb). Structural results suggest a novel mechanism by which residues Arg220 and Arg229 (H3 numbering) are used to compensate for the deletion of the 220-loop and form interactions with the receptor analogs. Glycan microarray results reveal that NY107 maintains an avian-type ({alpha}2-3) receptor binding profile, with only moderate binding to human-type ({alpha}2-6) receptor. Thus despite its dramatically altered receptor binding site, this HA maintains functionality and confirms a need for continued influenza virus surveillance of avian and other animal reservoirs to define their zoonotic potential.

  5. Structures of receptor complexes of a North American H7N2 influenza hemagglutinin with a loop deletion in the receptor binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human infections with subtype H7 avian influenza viruses have been reported as early as 1979. In 1996, a genetically stable 24-nucleotide deletion emerged in North American H7 influenza virus hemagglutinins, resulting in an eight amino acid deletion in the receptor-binding site. The continuous circulation of these viruses in live bird markets, as well as its documented ability to infect humans, raises the question of how these viruses achieve structural stability and functionality. Here we report a detailed molecular analysis of the receptor binding site of the North American lineage subtype H7N2 virus A/New York/107/2003 (NY107, including complexes with an avian receptor analog (3'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine, 3'SLN and two human receptor analogs (6'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine, 6'SLN; sialyllacto-N-tetraose b, LSTb. Structural results suggest a novel mechanism by which residues Arg220 and Arg229 (H3 numbering are used to compensate for the deletion of the 220-loop and form interactions with the receptor analogs. Glycan microarray results reveal that NY107 maintains an avian-type (alpha2-3 receptor binding profile, with only moderate binding to human-type (alpha2-6 receptor. Thus despite its dramatically altered receptor binding site, this HA maintains functionality and confirms a need for continued influenza virus surveillance of avian and other animal reservoirs to define their zoonotic potential.

  6. Am5-HT7: molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first serotonin receptor of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Jana; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-09-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in the regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioural processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. These functions are mediated through the binding of serotonin to its receptors, of which 13 subtypes have been characterized in vertebrates. We have isolated a cDNA from the honeybee Apis mellifera (Am5-ht7) sharing high similarity to members of the 5-HT(7) receptor family. Expression of the Am5-HT(7) receptor in HEK293 cells results in an increase in basal cAMP levels, suggesting that Am5-HT(7) is expressed as a constitutively active receptor. Serotonin application to Am5-ht7-transfected cells elevates cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) levels in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 1.1-1.8 nm). The Am5-HT(7) receptor is also activated by 5-carboxamidotryptamine, whereas methiothepin acts as an inverse agonist. Receptor expression has been investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and western blotting experiments. Receptor mRNA is expressed in the perikarya of various brain neuropils, including intrinsic mushroom body neurons, and in peripheral organs. This study marks the first comprehensive characterization of a serotonin receptor in the honeybee and should facilitate further analysis of the role(s) of the receptor in mediating the various central and peripheral effects of 5-HT.

  7. Novel 2-aminotetralin and 3-aminochroman derivatives as selective serotonin 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Pär; Sohn, Daniel; Leideborg, Robert; Caldirola, Patrizia; Zlatoidsky, Pavel; Hanson, Sverker; Mohell, Nina; Rosqvist, Susanne; Nordvall, Gunnar; Johansson, Anette M; Johansson, Rolf

    2004-07-29

    The understanding of the physiological role of the G-protein coupled serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor is largely rudimentary. Therefore, selective and potent pharmacological tools will add to the understanding of serotonergic effects mediated through this receptor. In this report, we describe two compound classes, chromans and tetralins, encompassing compounds with nanomolar affinity for the 5-HT(7) receptor and with good selectivity. Within theses classes, we have discovered both agonists and antagonists that can be used for further understanding of the pharmacology of the 5-HT(7) receptor.

  8. Engineering of PDMS surfaces for use in microsystems for capture and isolation of complex and biomedically important proteins: epidermal growth factor receptor as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Aaron M; Ozer, Byram H; Wiepz, Gregory J; Bertics, Paul J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2008-08-01

    Elastomers based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are promising materials for fabrication of a wide range of microanalytical systems due to their mechanical and optical properties and ease of processing. To date, however, quantitative studies that demonstrate reliable and reproducible methods for attachment of binding groups that capture complex receptor proteins of relevance to biomedical applications of PDMS microsystems have not been reported. Herein we describe methods that lead to the reproducible capture of a transmembrane protein, the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, onto PDMS surfaces presenting covalently immobilized antibodies for EGF receptor, and subsequent isolation of the captured receptor by mechanical transfer of the receptor onto a chemically functionalized surface of a gold film for detection. This result is particularly significant because the physical properties of transmembrane proteins make this class of proteins a difficult one to analyze. We benchmark the performance of antibodies to the human EGF receptor covalently immobilized on PDMS against the performance of the same antibodies physisorbed to conventional surfaces utilized in ELISA assays through the use of EGF receptor that was (32)P-radiolabeled in its autophosphorylation domain. These results reveal that two pan-reactive antibodies for the EGF receptor (clones H11 and 111.6) and one phosphospecific EGF receptor antibody (clone pY1068) capture the receptor on both PDMS and ELISA plates. When using H11 antibody to capture EGF receptor and subsequent treatment with a stripping buffer (NaOH and sodium dodecylsulfate) to isolate the receptor, the signal-to-background obtained using the PDMS surface was 82 : 1, exceeding the signal-to-background measured on the ELISA plate (<48 : 1). We also characterized the isolation of captured EGF receptor by mechanical contact of the PDMS surface with a chemically functionalized gold film. The efficiency of mechanical transfer of the

  9. Structural Determinants for the Binding of Morphinan Agonists to the μ-Opioid Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Cong

    Full Text Available Atomistic descriptions of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR noncovalently binding with two of its prototypical morphinan agonists, morphine (MOP and hydromorphone (HMP, are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Subtle differences between the binding modes and hydration properties of MOP and HMP emerge from the calculations. Alchemical free energy perturbation calculations show qualitative agreement with in vitro experiments performed in this work: indeed, the binding free energy difference between MOP and HMP computed by forward and backward alchemical transformation is 1.2±1.1 and 0.8±0.8 kcal/mol, respectively, to be compared with 0.4±0.3 kcal/mol from experiment. Comparison with an MD simulation of μOR covalently bound with the antagonist β-funaltrexamine hints to agonist-induced conformational changes associated with an early event of the receptor's activation: a shift of the transmembrane helix 6 relative to the transmembrane helix 3 and a consequent loss of the key R165-T279 interhelical hydrogen bond. This finding is consistent with a previous proposal suggesting that the R165-T279 hydrogen bond between these two helices indicates an inactive receptor conformation.

  10. Towards structural models of molecular recognition in olfactory receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, M; Hubbard, R E; Demaille, J

    1998-02-01

    The G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) are an important class of proteins that act as signal transducers through the cytoplasmic membrane. Understanding the structure and activation mechanism of these proteins is crucial for understanding many different aspects of cellular signalling. The olfactory receptors correspond to the largest family of GPCRs. Very little is known about how the structures of the receptors govern the specificity of interaction which enables identification of particular odorant molecules. In this paper, we review recent developments in two areas of molecular modelling: methods for modelling the configuration of trans-membrane helices and methods for automatic docking of ligands into receptor structures. We then show how a subset of these methods can be combined to construct a model of a rat odorant receptor interacting with lyral for which experimental data are available. This modelling can help us make progress towards elucidating the specificity of interactions between receptors and odorant molecules.

  11. Molecular Simulations of Sequence-Specific Association of Transmembrane Proteins in Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxastakis, Manolis; Prakash, Anupam; Janosi, Lorant

    2011-03-01

    Association of membrane proteins is central in material and information flow across the cellular membranes. Amino-acid sequence and the membrane environment are two critical factors controlling association, however, quantitative knowledge on such contributions is limited. In this work, we study the dimerization of helices in lipid bilayers using extensive parallel Monte Carlo simulations with recently developed algorithms. The dimerization of Glycophorin A is examined employing a coarse-grain model that retains a level of amino-acid specificity, in three different phospholipid bilayers. Association is driven by a balance of protein-protein and lipid-induced interactions with the latter playing a major role at short separations. Following a different approach, the effect of amino-acid sequence is studied using the four transmembrane domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor family in identical lipid environments. Detailed characterization of dimer formation and estimates of the free energy of association reveal that these helices present significant affinity to self-associate with certain dimers forming non-specific interfaces.

  12. Nanobody-Enabled Reverse Pharmacology on G-Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Els; Betti, Cecilia; Laeremans, Toon; Chevillard, Florent; Guillemyn, Karel; Kolb, Peter; Ballet, Steven; Steyaert, Jan

    2018-05-04

    The conformational complexity of transmembrane signaling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a central hurdle for the design of screens for receptor agonists. In their basal states, GPCRs have lower affinities for agonists compared to their G-protein-bound active state conformations. Moreover, different agonists can stabilize distinct active receptor conformations and do not uniformly activate all cellular signaling pathways linked to a given receptor (agonist bias). Comparative fragment screens were performed on a β 2 -adrenoreceptor-nanobody fusion locked in its active-state conformation by a G-protein-mimicking nanobody, and the same receptor in its basal-state conformation. This simple biophysical assay allowed the identification and ranking of multiple novel agonists and permitted classification of the efficacy of each hit in agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist categories, thereby opening doors to nanobody-enabled reverse pharmacology. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya O. Welcome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  14. Regulation of EGF receptor signaling by the MARVEL domain-containing protein CKLFSF8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Caining; Ding, Peiguo; Wang, Ying; Ma, Dalong

    2005-11-21

    It is known that chemokine-like factor superfamily 8 (CKLFSF8), a member of the CKLF superfamily, has four putative transmembrane regions and a MARVEL domain. Its structure is similar to TM4SF11 (plasmolipin) and widely distributed in normal tissue. However, its function is not yet known. We show here that CKLFSF8 is associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and that ectopic expression of CKLFSF8 in several cell lines suppresses EGF-induced cell proliferation, whereas knockdown of CKLFSF8 by siRNA promotes cell proliferation. In cells overexpressing CKLFSF8, the initial activation of EGFR was not affected, but subsequent desensitization of EGF-induced signaling occurred rapidly. This attenuation was correlated with an increased rate of receptor endocytosis. In contrast, knockdown of CKLFSF8 by siCKLFSF8 delayed EGFR endocytosis. These results identify CKLFSF8 as a novel regulator of EGF-induced signaling and indicate that the association of EGFR with four transmembrane proteins is critical for EGFR desensitization.

  15. Non-Neuronal Functions of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Tikkanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter whose effects are mediated by two classes of receptors. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ion channels, whereas the muscarinic receptors belong to the large family of G protein coupled seven transmembrane helix receptors. Beyond its function in neuronal systems, it has become evident that acetylcholine also plays an important role in non-neuronal cells such as epithelial and immune cells. Furthermore, many cell types in the periphery are capable of synthesizing acetylcholine and express at least some of the receptors. In this review, we summarize the non-neuronal functions of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, especially those of the M2 muscarinic receptor in epithelial cells. We will review the mechanisms of signaling by the M2 receptor but also the cellular trafficking and ARF6 mediated endocytosis of this receptor, which play an important role in the regulation of signaling events. In addition, we provide an overview of the M2 receptor in human pathological conditions such as autoimmune diseases and cancer.

  16. Physiological Signaling and Structure of the HGF Receptor MET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Baldanzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The “hepatocyte growth factor” also known as “scatter factor”, is a multifunctional cytokine with the peculiar ability of simultaneously triggering epithelial cell proliferation, movement and survival. The combination of those proprieties results in the induction of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in target cells, fundamental for embryogenesis but also exploited by tumor cells during metastatization. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor, MET, is a proto-oncogene and a prototypical transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. Inhere we discuss the MET molecular structure and the hepatocyte growth factor driven physiological signaling which coordinates epithelial proliferation, motility and morphogenesis.

  17. Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0144 TITLE: Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0144 5c...ABSTRACT Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a polygenic signaling disorder that may result, in part, from an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory

  18. Pharmacological characterisation of strychnine and brucine analogues at glycine and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Gharagozloo, Parviz; Birdsall, Nigel J M

    2006-01-01

    of tertiary and quaternary analogues as well as bisquaternary dimers of strychnine and brucine at human alpha1 and alpha1beta glycine receptors and at a chimera consisting of the amino-terminal domain of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor (containing the orthosteric ligand binding site) and the ion channel domain...... of strychnine and brucine, none of the analogues displayed significant selectivity between the alpha1 and alpha1beta subtypes. The structure-activity relationships for the compounds at the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera were significantly different from those at the glycine receptors. Most strikingly, quaternization...... of strychnine and brucine with substituents possessing different steric and electronic properties completely eliminated the activity at the glycine receptors, whereas binding affinity to the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera was retained for the majority of the quaternary analogues. This study provides an insight...

  19. The receptor RAGE: Bridging inflammation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Jochen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is a single transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is mainly expressed on immune cells, neurons, activated endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, bone forming cells, and a variety of cancer cells. RAGE is a multifunctional receptor that binds a broad repertoire of ligands and mediates responses to cell damage and stress conditions. It activates programs responsible for acute and chronic inflammation, and is implicated in a number of pathological diseases, including diabetic complications, stroke, atheriosclerosis, arthritis, and neurodegenerative disorders. The availability of Rage knockout mice has not only advanced our knowledge on signalling pathways within these pathophysiological conditions, but also on the functional importance of the receptor in processes of cancer. Here, we will summarize molecular mechanisms through which RAGE signalling contributes to the establishment of a pro-tumourigenic microenvironment. Moreover, we will review recent findings that provide genetic evidence for an important role of RAGE in bridging inflammation and cancer.

  20. Towards a Novel Class of Multitarget-Directed Ligands: Dual P2X7–NMDA Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Karoutzou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs offer new hope for the treatment of multifactorial complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Herein, we present compounds aimed at targeting the NMDA and the P2X7 receptors, which embody a different approach to AD therapy. On one hand, we are seeking to delay neurodegeneration targeting the glutamatergic NMDA receptors; on the other hand, we also aim to reduce neuroinflammation, targeting P2X7 receptors. Although the NMDA receptor is a widely recognized therapeutic target in treating AD, the P2X7 receptor remains largely unexplored for this purpose; therefore, the dual inhibitor presented herein—which is open to further optimization—represents the first member of a new class of MTDLs.

  1. Tumor hypoxia modulates podoplanin/CCL21 interactions in CCR7+ NK cell recruitment and CCR7+ tumor cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejchman, Anna; Lamerant-Fayel, Nathalie; Jacquinet, Jean-Claude; Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Mleczko-Sanecka, Katarzyna; Grillon, Catherine; Chouaib, Salem; Ugorski, Maciej; Kieda, Claudine

    2017-05-09

    Podoplanin (PDPN), an O-glycosylated, transmembrane, mucin-type glycoprotein, is expressed by cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs). In malignant transformation, PDPN is subjected to changes and its role is yet to be established. Here we show that it is involved in modulating the activity of the CCL21/CCR7 chemokine/receptor axis in a hypoxia-dependent manner. In the present model, breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and NKL3 cells express the surface CCR7 receptor for CCL21 chemokine which is a potent chemoattractant able to bind to PDPN. The impact of the CCL21/CCR7 axis in the molecular mechanism of the adhesion of NKL3 cells and of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was reduced in a hypoxic tumor environment. In addition to its known effect on migration, CCL21/CCR7 interaction was shown to allow NK cell adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs) and its reduction by hypoxia. A PDPN expressing model of CAFs made it possible to demonstrate the same CCL21/CCR7 axis involvement in the tumor cells to CAFs recognition mechanism through PDPN binding of CCL21. PDPN was induced by hypoxia and its overexpression undergoes a reduction of adhesion, making it an anti-adhesion molecule in the absence of CCL21, in the tumor. CCL21/CCR7 modulated NK cells/ECs and MDA-MB-231 cells/CAF PDPN-dependent interactions were further shown to be linked to hypoxia-dependent microRNAs as miRs: miR-210 and specifically miR-21, miR-29b which influence PDPN expression.

  2. Crystal Structure of a Lipid G Protein-Coupled Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Michael A; Roth, Christopher B; Jo, Euijung; Griffith, Mark T; Scott, Fiona L; Reinhart, Greg; Desale, Hans; Clemons, Bryan; Cahalan, Stuart M; Schuerer, Stephan C; Sanna, M Germana; Han, Gye Won; Kuhn, Peter; Rosen, Hugh; Stevens, Raymond C [Scripps; (Receptos)

    2012-03-01

    The lyso-phospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate modulates lymphocyte trafficking, endothelial development and integrity, heart rate, and vascular tone and maturation by activating G protein-coupled sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors. Here, we present the crystal structure of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 fused to T4-lysozyme (S1P1-T4L) in complex with an antagonist sphingolipid mimic. Extracellular access to the binding pocket is occluded by the amino terminus and extracellular loops of the receptor. Access is gained by ligands entering laterally between helices I and VII within the transmembrane region of the receptor. This structure, along with mutagenesis, agonist structure-activity relationship data, and modeling, provides a detailed view of the molecular recognition and requirement for hydrophobic volume that activates S1P1, resulting in the modulation of immune and stromal cell responses.

  3. A multiprocessor computer simulation model employing a feedback scheduler/allocator for memory space and bandwidth matching and TMR processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. B.; Irwin, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A computer simulation model for a multiprocessor computer is developed that is useful for studying the problem of matching multiprocessor's memory space, memory bandwidth and numbers and speeds of processors with aggregate job set characteristics. The model assumes an input work load of a set of recurrent jobs. The model includes a feedback scheduler/allocator which attempts to improve system performance through higher memory bandwidth utilization by matching individual job requirements for space and bandwidth with space availability and estimates of bandwidth availability at the times of memory allocation. The simulation model includes provisions for specifying precedence relations among the jobs in a job set, and provisions for specifying precedence execution of TMR (Triple Modular Redundant and SIMPLEX (non redundant) jobs.

  4. Requirement of transmembrane domain for CD154 association to lipid rafts and subsequent biological events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Benslimane

    Full Text Available Interaction of CD40 with CD154 leads to recruitment of both molecules into lipid rafts, resulting in bi-directional cell activation. The precise mechanism by which CD154 is translocated into lipid rafts and its impact on CD154 signaling remain largely unknown. Our aim is to identify the domain of CD154 facilitating its association to lipid rafts and the impact of such association on signaling events and cytokine production. Thus, we generated Jurkat cell lines expressing truncated CD154 lacking the cytoplasmic domain or chimeric CD154 in which the transmembrane domain was replaced by that of transferrin receptor I, known to be excluded from lipid rafts. Our results show that cell stimulation with soluble CD40 leads to the association of CD154 wild-type and CD154-truncated, but not CD154-chimera, with lipid rafts. This is correlated with failure of CD154-chimera to activate Akt and p38 MAP kinases, known effectors of CD154 signaling. We also found that CD154-chimera lost the ability to promote IL-2 production upon T cell stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 and soluble CD40. These results demonstrate the implication of the transmembrane domain of CD154 in lipid raft association, and that this association is necessary for CD154-mediated Akt and p38 activation with consequent enhancement of IL-2 production.

  5. Spatial memory deficit across aging: current insights of the role of 5-HT7 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eBeaudet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderly persons often face biological, psychological or social changes over time that may cause discomfort or morbidity. While some cognitive domains remain stable over time, others undergo a decline. Spatial navigation is a complex cognitive function essential for independence, safety and quality of life. While egocentric (body-centered navigation is quite preserved during aging, allocentric (externally-centered navigation — based on a cognitive map using distant landmarks — declines with age. Recent preclinical studies showed that serotonergic 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain regions associated with allocentric spatial navigation processing. Behavioral assessments with pharmacological or genetic tools have confirmed the role of 5-HT7 receptors in allocentric navigation. Moreover, few data suggested a selective age-related decrease in the expression of 5-HT7 receptors in pivotal brain structures implicated in allocentric navigation such as the hippocampal CA3 region. We aim to provide a short overview of the potential role of 5-HT7 receptors in spatial navigation, and to argue for their interests as therapeutic targets against age-related cognitive decline.

  6. P2X7 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 independently of Ca2+ influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Jan; Novak, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    P2X7 nucleotide receptors modulate a spectrum of cellular events in various cells including epithelia, such as exocrine pancreas. Although the pharmacology and channel properties of the P2X7 receptors have been studied intensively, signal transduction pathways are relatively unknown. In this study...... we applied a heterologous expression system of rat P2X7 receptors in HEK-293 cells. We followed the receptor expression and function using the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tag, activation of intracellular proteins and increases in cellular Ca2+. EGFP-P2X7 receptors localized...... to the plasma membrane, clusters within the membrane and intracellularly. Stimulation of P2X7 receptors in HEK-293 cells led to an activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 and this activation was seen after just 1 min of stimulation with ATP. Using C- and N-terminal P2X7-receptor...

  7. Structure-Based Sequence Alignment of the Transmembrane Domains of All Human GPCRs: Phylogenetic, Structural and Functional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvicek, Vaclav; Goddard, William A.; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is undergoing a revolution due to increased information about their signaling and the experimental determination of structures for more than 25 receptors. The availability of at least one receptor structure for each of the GPCR classes, well separated in sequence space, enables an integrated superfamily-wide analysis to identify signatures involving the role of conserved residues, conserved contacts, and downstream signaling in the context of receptor structures. In this study, we align the transmembrane (TM) domains of all experimental GPCR structures to maximize the conserved inter-helical contacts. The resulting superfamily-wide GpcR Sequence-Structure (GRoSS) alignment of the TM domains for all human GPCR sequences is sufficient to generate a phylogenetic tree that correctly distinguishes all different GPCR classes, suggesting that the class-level differences in the GPCR superfamily are encoded at least partly in the TM domains. The inter-helical contacts conserved across all GPCR classes describe the evolutionarily conserved GPCR structural fold. The corresponding structural alignment of the inactive and active conformations, available for a few GPCRs, identifies activation hot-spot residues in the TM domains that get rewired upon activation. Many GPCR mutations, known to alter receptor signaling and cause disease, are located at these conserved contact and activation hot-spot residue positions. The GRoSS alignment places the chemosensory receptor subfamilies for bitter taste (TAS2R) and pheromones (Vomeronasal, VN1R) in the rhodopsin family, known to contain the chemosensory olfactory receptor subfamily. The GRoSS alignment also enables the quantification of the structural variability in the TM regions of experimental structures, useful for homology modeling and structure prediction of receptors. Furthermore, this alignment identifies structurally and functionally important residues in all human GPCRs

  8. BDNF Up-Regulates α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Levels on Subpopulations of Hippocampal Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Kerri A.; Zago, Wagner M.; Berg, Darwin K.

    2006-01-01

    In the hippocampus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates a number of synaptic components. Among these are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs), which are interesting because of their relative abundance in the hippocampus and their high relative calcium permeability. We show here that BDNF elevates surface and intracellular pools of α7-nAChRs on cultured hippocampal neurons and that glutamatergic activity is both necessary and sufficient for the effect. Blocking transmission through NMDA receptors with APV blocked the BDNF effect; increasing spontaneous excitatory activity with the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline replicated the BDNF effect. BDNF antibodies blocked the BDNF-mediated increase but not the bicuculline one, consistent with enhanced glutamatergic activity acting downstream from BDNF. Increased α7-nAChR clusters were most prominent on interneuron subtypes known to innervate directly excitatory neurons. The results suggest that BDNF, acting through glutamatergic transmission, can modulate hippocampal output in part by controlling α7-nAChR levels. PMID:17029981

  9. Molecular characterization of oxysterol binding to the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (GPR183)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Norn, Christoffer; Laurent, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    , the family of G protein-coupled seven transmembrane-spanning receptors (7TM receptors) was added to this group. Specifically, the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2 or GPR183) was shown to be activated by several oxysterols, most potently by 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC). Nothing is known about...

  10. Genetic characterization of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene in lagomorphs: comparison between the families Ochotonidae and Leporidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, J; Esteves, P J; Carmo, C R; Müller, A; Thompson, G; van der Loo, W

    2008-04-01

    Chemokines receptors are transmembrane proteins that bind chemokines. Chemokines and their receptors are known to play a crucial role in the immune system and in pathogen entry. There is evidence that myxoma virus, the causative agent of myxomatosis, can use the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to infect cells. This virus causes a benign disease in its natural host, Sylvilagus, but in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) it causes a highly fatal and infectious disease known as myxomatosis. We have characterized the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene in five genera of the order Lagomorpha, Ochotona (Ochotonidae), and Oryctolagus, Lepus, Bunolagus and Sylvilagus (Leporidae). In lagomorphs, the CXCR4 is highly conserved, with most of the protein diversity found at surface regions. Five amino acid replacements were observed, two in the intracellular loops, one in the transmembrane domain and two in the extracellular loops. Oryctolagus features unique amino acid changes at the intracellular domains, putting this genus apart of all other lagomorphs. Furthermore, in the 37 European rabbits analysed, which included healthy rabbits and rabbits with clinical symptoms of myxomatosis, 14 nucleotide substitutions were obtained but no amino acid differences were observed.

  11. Over-accumulation of nuclear IGF-1 receptor in tumor cells requires elevated expression of the receptor and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hua; Lin, Yingbo; Badin, Margherita; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Stroemberg, Thomas [Department of Oncology and Pathology, The Karolinska Institute, Cancer Center Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena [Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Sehat, Bita [Department of Oncology and Pathology, The Karolinska Institute, Cancer Center Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Olle, E-mail: olle.larsson@ki.se [Department of Oncology and Pathology, The Karolinska Institute, Cancer Center Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of IGF-1R which activates transcription. {yields} Here we show that nuclear IGF-1R over-accumulates in tumor cells. {yields} This requires overexpression of the receptor that is a common feature in tumor cells. {yields} An increased expression of the SUMO ligase Ubc9 seems to be an involved mechanism too. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays crucial roles in tumor cell growth and is overexpressed in many cancers. IGF-1R's trans-membrane kinase signaling pathways have been well characterized. Very recently, we showed that SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of the IGF-1R, and that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) binds to enhancer regions and activates transcription. We identified three lysine residues in the {beta}-subunit of the receptor and that mutation of these blocks nuclear translocation and gene activation. Furthermore, accumulation of nIGF-1R was proven strongly dependent on the specific SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. Here we show that nIGF-1R originates solely from the cell membrane and that phosphorylation of the core tyrosine residues of the receptor kinase is crucial for nuclear accumulation. We also compared the levels of nIGF-1R, measured as nuclear/membrane ratios, in tumor and normal cells. We found that the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has 13-fold higher amounts of nIGF-1R than breast epithelial cells (IME) which showed only a small amount of nIGF-1R. In comparison, the total expression of IGF-1R was only 3.7- higher in MCF-7. Comparison of several other tumor and normal cell lines showed similar tumor cell over-accumulation of nIGF-1R, exceeding the total receptor expression substantially. Ectopic overexpression (>10-fold) of the receptor increased nIGF-1R in IME cells but not to that high level as in wild type MCF-7. The levels of Ubc9 were higher in all tumor cell lines, compared to the normal cells, and this probably contributes to over

  12. Over-accumulation of nuclear IGF-1 receptor in tumor cells requires elevated expression of the receptor and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Hua; Lin, Yingbo; Badin, Margherita; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Stroemberg, Thomas; Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena; Sehat, Bita; Larsson, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of IGF-1R which activates transcription. → Here we show that nuclear IGF-1R over-accumulates in tumor cells. → This requires overexpression of the receptor that is a common feature in tumor cells. → An increased expression of the SUMO ligase Ubc9 seems to be an involved mechanism too. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays crucial roles in tumor cell growth and is overexpressed in many cancers. IGF-1R's trans-membrane kinase signaling pathways have been well characterized. Very recently, we showed that SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of the IGF-1R, and that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) binds to enhancer regions and activates transcription. We identified three lysine residues in the β-subunit of the receptor and that mutation of these blocks nuclear translocation and gene activation. Furthermore, accumulation of nIGF-1R was proven strongly dependent on the specific SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. Here we show that nIGF-1R originates solely from the cell membrane and that phosphorylation of the core tyrosine residues of the receptor kinase is crucial for nuclear accumulation. We also compared the levels of nIGF-1R, measured as nuclear/membrane ratios, in tumor and normal cells. We found that the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has 13-fold higher amounts of nIGF-1R than breast epithelial cells (IME) which showed only a small amount of nIGF-1R. In comparison, the total expression of IGF-1R was only 3.7- higher in MCF-7. Comparison of several other tumor and normal cell lines showed similar tumor cell over-accumulation of nIGF-1R, exceeding the total receptor expression substantially. Ectopic overexpression (>10-fold) of the receptor increased nIGF-1R in IME cells but not to that high level as in wild type MCF-7. The levels of Ubc9 were higher in all tumor cell lines, compared to the normal cells, and this probably contributes to over-accumulation of nIGF-1R

  13. Functional role of the extracellular N-terminal domain of neuropeptide Y subfamily receptors in membrane integration and agonist-stimulated internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Diana; Walther, Cornelia; Tennemann, Anja; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2009-01-01

    The N terminus is the most variable element in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), ranging from seven residues up to approximately 5900 residues. For family B and C GPCRs it is described that at least part of the ligand binding site is located within the N terminus. Here we investigated the role of the N terminus in the neuropeptide Y receptor family, which belongs to the class A of GPCRs. We cloned differentially truncated Y receptor mutants, in which the N terminus was partially or completely deleted. We found, that eight amino acids are sufficient for full ligand binding and signal transduction activity. Interestingly, we could show that no specific amino acids but rather the extension of the first transmembrane helix by any residues is sufficient for receptor activity but also for membrane integration in case of the hY(1) and the hY(4) receptors. In contrast, the complete deletion of the N terminus in the hY(2) receptors resulted in a mutant that is fully integrated in the membrane but does not bind the ligand very well and internalizes much slower compared to the wild type receptor. Interestingly, also these effects could be reverted by any N-terminal extension. Accordingly, the most important function of the N termini seems to be the stabilization of the first transmembrane helix to ensure the correct receptor structure, which obviously is essential for ligand binding, integration into the cell membrane and receptor internalization.

  14. Regulation of basal resistance by a powdery mildew-induced cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayapuram, Channabasavangowda; Jensen, Michael Krogh; Maiser, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) constitute a large and diverse group of proteins controlling numerous plant physiological processes, including development, hormone perception and stress responses. The cysteine-rich RLKs (CRKs) represent a prominent subfamily of transmembrane-anchored RLKs...

  15. [Musculoskeletal biopsies in an open 0.5-T-MR system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzsch, M; Scholz, R; Moche, M; Thomas, M; Tannapfel, A; von Salis-Soglio, G

    2005-01-01

    MR-guided interventions have been successful in different medical disciplines. The aim of this paper is to report our results with the application of MR-guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions using an open 0.5-T-MR scanner and further to discuss these results on the basis of the available literature. Between 1998 and 2003 30 patients (average age 44.1 years) underwent a total of 31 biopsies. The interventions were performed in an open 0.5-T MRI system using an active optical localization system as well as a navigation system. For the motion tracking we used T (1)-weighted real-time sequences with 0.25 pictures per second. For the sampling MR-compatible instruments were used that were specially developed for this purpose. The data of this retrospective investigation are based on the evaluation of the patient documents and the radiological findings. On the basis of the histological findings the technical success rate and the histological overall accuracy were determined. In 81 % of the biopsies the histological diagnosis was correct. In cases of suspected inflammation the histological accuracy was smaller (70 %). No differences were observed between skeletal and soft-tissue lesions. The technical success rate amounted to 77.5 %. No procedural or anesthesiological complications occurred. The mean operating time amounted to 65 min including the time for motion tracking. In cases of suspected lesions of the musculoskeletal system, the MR-guided biopsy represents a promising and safe procedure to get a histological diagnosis. In cases of sufficient size of the lesion sampling of a representative probe is possible. On account of the outstanding performance in soft-part contrasting, the sensitive structures surrounding the lesion can be saved. Substantial disadvantages of the procedure are the high costs for personal and material and the long operating time.

  16. Identification in the mu-opioid receptor of cysteine residues responsible for inactivation of ligand binding by thiol alkylating and reducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibelet, G; Capeyrou, R; Dietrich, G; Emorine, L J

    1997-05-19

    Inactivation by thiol reducing and alkylating agents of ligand binding to the human mu-opioid receptor was examined. Dithiothreitol reduced the number of [3H]diprenorphine binding sites. Replacement by seryl residues of either C142 or C219 in extracellular loops 1 and 2 of the mu receptor resulted in a complete loss of opioid binding. A disulfide bound linking C142 to C219 may thus be essential to maintain a functional conformation of the receptor. We also demonstrated that inactivation of ligand binding upon alkylation by N-ethylmaleimide occurred at two sites. Alteration of the more sensitive (IC50 = 20 microM) did not modify antagonists binding but decreased agonist affinity almost 10-fold. Modification of the less reactive site (IC50 = 2 mM) decreased the number of both agonist and antagonist binding sites. The alkylation site of higher sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide was shown by mutagenesis experiments to be constituted of both C81 and C332 in transmembrane domains 1 and 7 of the mu-opioid receptor.

  17. A bovine papillomavirus-1 based vector restores the function of the low-density lipoprotein receptor in the receptor-deficient CHO-ldlA7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustav Mart

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rationale of using bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1 derived vectors in gene therapy protocols lies in their episomal maintenance at intermediate to high copy number, and stable, high-level expression of the gene products. We constructed the BPV-1 based vector harbouring the human low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene cDNA and tested its ability to restore the function of the LDLR in the receptor-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7. Results The introduced vector p3.7LDL produced functionally active LDL receptors in the receptor-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7 during the 32-week period of observation as determined by the internalisation assay with the labelled LDL particles. Conclusion Bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1-derived vectors could be suitable for gene therapy due to their episomal maintenance at intermediate to high copy number and stable, high-level expression of the gene products. The constructed BPV-1 based vector p3.7LDL produced functionally active LDL receptors in the LDLR-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7 during the 32-week period of observation. In vivo experiments should reveal, whether 1–5% transfection efficiency obtained in the current work is sufficient to bring about detectable and clinically significant lowering of the amount of circulating LDL cholesterol particles.

  18. Identification of endogenous surrogate ligands for human P2Y12 receptors by in silico and in vitro methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Yosuke; Hiramoto, Takeshi; Fujita, Norihisa

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous ligands acting on a human P2Y 12 receptor, one of the G-protein coupled receptors, were searched by in silico screening against our own database, which contains more than 500 animal metabolites. The in silico screening using the docking software AutoDock resulted in selection of cysteinylleukotrienes (CysLTs) and 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), with high free energy changes, in addition to the known P2Y 12 ligands such as 2MeSADP and ADP. These candidates were subjected to an in vitro Ca 2+ assay using the CHO cells stably expressing P2Y 12 -G 16 α fusion proteins. We found that CysLTE4 and PRPP acted on the P2Y 12 receptor as agonists with the EC 50 values of 1.3 and 7.8 nM, respectively. Furthermore, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the P2Y, P2Y-like, and CysLT receptors based on sequence alignment followed by evolutionary analyses. The analyses showed that the P2Y 12 , P2Y 13 , P2Y 14 , GPR87, CysLT-1, and CysLT-2 receptors formed a P2Y-related receptor subfamily with common sequence motifs in the transmembrane regions

  19. Therapeutic potential of α7 nicotinic receptor agonists to regulate neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Foucault-Fruchard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, are all characterized by a component of innate immunity called neuroinflammation. Neuronal loss and neuroinflammation are two phenomena closely linked. Hence, the neuroinflammation is a relevant target for the management of the neurodegenerative diseases given that, to date, there is no treatment to stop neuronal loss. Several studies have investigated the potential effects of activators of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. These receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system. After activation, they seem to mediate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the brain. This anti-inflammatory pathway, first described in periphery, regulates activation of microglial cells considered as the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system. In this article, we shortly review the agonists of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that have been evaluated in vivo and we focused on the selective positive allosteric modulators of these receptors. These compounds represent a key element to enhance receptor activity only in the presence of the endogenous agonist.

  20. Differential Requirement of the Extracellular Domain in Activation of Class B G Protein-coupled Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Hua; Yin, Yanting; Yang, Dehua; Liu, Bo; Hou, Li; Wang, Xiaoxi; Pal, Kuntal; Jiang, Yi; Feng, Yang; Cai, Xiaoqing; Dai, Antao; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Ming-Wei; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2016-07-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the secretin-like (class B) family are key players in hormonal homeostasis and are important drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disorders and neuronal diseases. They consist of a large N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) and a transmembrane domain (TMD) with the GPCR signature of seven transmembrane helices. Class B GPCRs are activated by peptide hormones with their C termini bound to the receptor ECD and their N termini bound to the TMD. It is thought that the ECD functions as an affinity trap to bind and localize the hormone to the receptor. This in turn would allow the hormone N terminus to insert into the TMD and induce conformational changes of the TMD to activate downstream signaling. In contrast to this prevailing model, we demonstrate that human class B GPCRs vary widely in their requirement of the ECD for activation. In one group, represented by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1R), parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R), and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide type 1 receptor (PAC1R), the ECD requirement for high affinity hormone binding can be bypassed by induced proximity and mass action effects, whereas in the other group, represented by glucagon receptor (GCGR) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), the ECD is required for signaling even when the hormone is covalently linked to the TMD. Furthermore, the activation of GLP-1R by small molecules that interact with the intracellular side of the receptor is dependent on the presence of its ECD, suggesting a direct role of the ECD in GLP-1R activation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The role of receptor topology in the vitamin D3 uptake and Ca"2"+ response systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrill, Gene A.; Kostellow, Adele B.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    The steroid hormone, vitamin D_3, regulates gene transcription via at least two receptors and initiates putative rapid response systems at the plasma membrane. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds vitamin D_3 and a second receptor, importin-4, imports the VDR-vitamin D_3 complex into the nucleus via nuclear pores. Here we present evidence that the Homo sapiens VDR homodimer contains two transmembrane (TM) helices ("3"2"7E – D"3"4"2), two TM “half-helix” ("2"6"4K − N"2"7"6), one or more large channels, and 16 cholesterol binding (CRAC/CARC) domains. The importin-4 monomer exhibits 3 pore-lining regions ("2"2"6E – L"2"5"1; "7"6"8V – G"7"8"3; "8"7"6S – A"8"9"1) and 16 CRAC/CARC domains. The MEMSAT algorithm indicates that VDR and importin-4 may not be restricted to cytoplasm and nucleus. VDR homodimer TM helix-topology predicts insertion into the plasma membrane, with two 84 residue C-terminal regions being extracellular. Similarly, MEMSAT predicts importin-4 insertion into the plasma membrane with 226 residue extracellular N-terminal regions and 96 residue C-terminal extracellular loops; with the pore-lining regions contributing gated Ca"2"+ channels. The PoreWalker algorithm indicates that, of the 427 residues in each VDR monomer, 91 line the largest channel, including two vitamin D_3 binding sites and residues from both the TM helix and “half-helix”. Cholesterol-binding domains also extend into the channel within the ligand binding region. Programmed changes in bound cholesterol may regulate both membrane Ca"2"+ response systems and vitamin D_3 uptake as well as receptor internalization by the endomembrane system culminating in uptake of the vitamin D_3-VDR-importin-4 complex into the nucleus.

  2. Crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor-Gs protein complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Søren G.F.; DeVree, Brian T; Zou, Yaozhong; Kruse, Andrew C; Chung, Ka Young; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Chae, Pil Seok; Pardon, Els; Calinski, Diane; Mathiesen, Jesper M; Shah, Syed T.A.; Lyons, Joseph A; Caffrey, Martin; Gellman, Samuel H; Steyaert, Jan; Skiniotis, Georgios; Weis, William I; Sunahara, Roger K; Kobilka, Brian K [Brussels; (Trinity); (Michigan); (Stanford-MED); (Michigan-Med); (UW)

    2011-12-07

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for the majority of cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters as well as the senses of sight, olfaction and taste. The paradigm of GPCR signalling is the activation of a heterotrimeric GTP binding protein (G protein) by an agonist-occupied receptor. The β2 adrenergic receptor2AR) activation of Gs, the stimulatory G protein for adenylyl cyclase, has long been a model system for GPCR signalling. Here we present the crystal structure of the active state ternary complex composed of agonist-occupied monomeric β2AR and nucleotide-free Gs heterotrimer. The principal interactions between the β2AR and Gs involve the amino- and carboxy-terminal α-helices of Gs, with conformational changes propagating to the nucleotide-binding pocket. The largest conformational changes in the β2AR include a 14Å outward movement at the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) and an α-helical extension of the cytoplasmic end of TM5. The most surprising observation is a major displacement of the α-helical domain of Gαs relative to the Ras-like GTPase domain. This crystal structure represents the first high-resolution view of transmembrane signalling by a GPCR.

  3. Distinct neurobehavioural effects of cannabidiol in transmembrane domain neuregulin 1 mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora E Long

    Full Text Available The cannabis constituent cannabidiol (CBD possesses anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties. We have previously shown that transmembrane domain neuregulin 1 mutant (Nrg1 TM HET mice display altered neurobehavioural responses to the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ(9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Here we investigated whether Nrg1 TM HET mice respond differently to CBD and whether CBD reverses schizophrenia-related phenotypes expressed by these mice. Adult male Nrg1 TM HET and wild type-like littermates (WT received vehicle or CBD (1, 50 or 100 mg/kg i.p. for 21 days. During treatment and 48 h after withdrawal we measured behaviour, whole blood CBD concentrations and autoradiographic receptor binding. Nrg1 HET mice displayed locomotor hyperactivity, PPI deficits and reduced 5-HT(2A receptor binding density in the substantia nigra, but these phenotypes were not reversed by CBD. However, long-term CBD (50 and 100 mg/kg selectively enhanced social interaction in Nrg1 TM HET mice. Furthermore, acute CBD (100 mg/kg selectively increased PPI in Nrg1 TM HET mice, although tolerance to this effect was manifest upon repeated CBD administration. Long-term CBD (50 mg/kg also selectively increased GABA(A receptor binding in the granular retrosplenial cortex in Nrg1 TM HET mice and reduced 5-HT(2A binding in the substantia nigra in WT mice. Nrg1 appears necessary for CBD-induced anxiolysis since only WT mice developed decreased anxiety-related behaviour with repeated CBD treatment. Altered pharmacokinetics in mutant mice could not explain our findings since no genotype differences existed in CBD blood concentrations. Here we demonstrate that Nrg1 modulates acute and long-term neurobehavioural effects of CBD, which does not reverse the schizophrenia-relevant phenotypes.

  4. Functional requirements for inhibitory signal transmission by the immunomodulatory receptor CD300a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, Karen E; Simhadri, Venkateswara R; Mariano, John L; Borrego, Francisco

    2012-04-26

    Activation signals can be negatively regulated by cell surface receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). CD300a, an ITIM bearing type I transmembrane protein, is expressed on many hematopoietic cells, including subsets of lymphocytes. We have taken two approaches to further define the mechanism by which CD300a acts as an inhibitor of immune cell receptor signaling. First, we have expressed in Jurkat T cells a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domains of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)2DL2 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of CD300a (KIR-CD300a) to explore surrogate ligand-stimulated inhibition of superantigen stimulated T cell receptor (TCR) mediated cell signaling. We found that intact CD300a ITIMs were essential for inhibition and that the tyrosine phosphorylation of these ITIMs required the src tyrosine kinase Lck. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the CD300a ITIMs created docking sites for both src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP-2. Suppression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 expression in KIR-CD300a Jurkat T cells with siRNA and the use of DT40 chicken B cell lines expressing CD300a and deficient in several phosphatases revealed that SHP-1, but not SHP-2 or the src homology 2 domain containing inositol 5' phosphatase SHIP, was utilized by CD300a for its inhibitory activity. These studies provide new insights into the function of CD300a in tuning T and B cell responses.

  5. Specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelén González Montoro

    Full Text Available Many proteins are modified after their synthesis, by the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues, through a thioester bond. This modification is called S-acylation, and more commonly palmitoylation. This reaction is carried out by a family of enzymes, called palmitoyltransferases (PATs, characterized by the presence of a conserved 50- aminoacids domain called "Asp-His-His-Cys- Cysteine Rich Domain" (DHHC-CRD. There are 7 members of this family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and each of these proteins is thought to be responsible for the palmitoylation of a subset of substrates. Substrate specificity of PATs, however, is not yet fully understood. Several yeast PATs seem to have overlapping specificity, and it has been proposed that the machinery responsible for palmitoylating peripheral membrane proteins in mammalian cells, lacks specificity altogether.Here we investigate the specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in S. cerevisiae, which is carried out predominantly by two PATs, Swf1 and Pfa4. We show that palmitoylation of transmembrane substrates requires dedicated PATs, since other yeast PATs are mostly unable to perform Swf1 or Pfa4 functions, even when overexpressed. Furthermore, we find that Swf1 is highly specific for its substrates, as it is unable to substitute for other PATs. To identify where Swf1 specificity lies, we carried out a bioinformatics survey to identify amino acids responsible for the determination of specificity or Specificity Determination Positions (SDPs and showed experimentally, that mutation of the two best SDP candidates, A145 and K148, results in complete and partial loss of function, respectively. These residues are located within the conserved catalytic DHHC domain suggesting that it could also be involved in the determination of specificity. Finally, we show that modifying the position of the cysteines in Tlg1, a Swf1 substrate, results in lack of palmitoylation, as

  6. Lack of the purinergic receptor P2X7 results in resistance to contact hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Felix C.; Esser, Philipp R.; Müller, Tobias; Ganesan, Jayanthi; Pellegatti, Patrizia; Simon, Markus M.; Zeiser, Robert; Idzko, Marco; Jakob, Thilo

    2010-01-01

    Sensitization to contact allergens requires activation of the innate immune system by endogenous danger signals. However, the mechanisms through which contact allergens activate innate signaling pathways are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that mice lacking the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor P2X7 are resistant to contact hypersensitivity (CHS). P2X7-deficient dendritic cells fail to induce sensitization to contact allergens and do not release IL-1β in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP. These defects are restored by pretreatment with LPS and alum in an NLRP3- and ASC-dependent manner. Whereas pretreatment of wild-type mice with P2X7 antagonists, the ATP-degrading enzyme apyrase or IL-1 receptor antagonist, prevents CHS, IL-1β injection restores CHS in P2X7-deficient mice. Thus, P2X7 is a crucial receptor for extracellular ATP released in skin in response to contact allergens. The lack of P2X7 triggering prevents IL-1β release, which is an essential step in the sensitization process. Interference with P2X7 signaling may be a promising strategy for the prevention of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21059855

  7. Refinement of glucagon-like peptide 1 docking to its intact receptor using mid-region photolabile probes and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence J; Chen, Quan; Lam, Polo C-H; Pinon, Delia I; Sexton, Patrick M; Abagyan, Ruben; Dong, Maoqing

    2011-05-06

    The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor is an important drug target within the B family of G protein-coupled receptors. Its natural agonist ligand, GLP1, has incretin-like actions and the receptor is a recognized target for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite recent solution of the structure of the amino terminus of the GLP1 receptor and several close family members, the molecular basis for GLP1 binding to and activation of the intact receptor remains unclear. We previously demonstrated molecular approximations between amino- and carboxyl-terminal residues of GLP1 and its receptor. In this work, we study spatial approximations with the mid-region of this peptide to gain insights into the orientation of the intact receptor and the ligand-receptor complex. We have prepared two new photolabile probes incorporating a p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine into positions 16 and 20 of GLP1(7-36). Both probes bound to the GLP1 receptor specifically and with high affinity. These were each fully efficacious agonists, stimulating cAMP accumulation in receptor-bearing CHO cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Each probe specifically labeled a single receptor site. Protease cleavage and radiochemical sequencing identified receptor residue Leu(141) above transmembrane segment one as its site of labeling for the position 16 probe, whereas the position 20 probe labeled receptor residue Trp(297) within the second extracellular loop. Establishing ligand residue approximation with this loop region is unique among family members and may help to orient the receptor amino-terminal domain relative to its helical bundle region.

  8. Chemogenomic analysis of G-protein coupled receptors and their ligands deciphers locks and keys governing diverse aspects of signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg D Wichard

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanism of signalling in the important super-family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs is causally related to questions of how and where these receptors can be activated or inhibited. In this context, it is of great interest to unravel the common molecular features of GPCRs as well as those related to an active or inactive state or to subtype specific G-protein coupling. In our underlying chemogenomics study, we analyse for the first time the statistical link between the properties of G-protein-coupled receptors and GPCR ligands. The technique of mutual information (MI is able to reveal statistical inter-dependence between variations in amino acid residues on the one hand and variations in ligand molecular descriptors on the other. Although this MI analysis uses novel information that differs from the results of known site-directed mutagenesis studies or published GPCR crystal structures, the method is capable of identifying the well-known common ligand binding region of GPCRs between the upper part of the seven transmembrane helices and the second extracellular loop. The analysis shows amino acid positions that are sensitive to either stimulating (agonistic or inhibitory (antagonistic ligand effects or both. It appears that amino acid positions for antagonistic and agonistic effects are both concentrated around the extracellular region, but selective agonistic effects are cumulated between transmembrane helices (TMHs 2, 3, and ECL2, while selective residues for antagonistic effects are located at the top of helices 5 and 6. Above all, the MI analysis provides detailed indications about amino acids located in the transmembrane region of these receptors that determine G-protein signalling pathway preferences.

  9. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells

  10. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada); Cheng, Jung-Chien [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada); Huang, He-Feng, E-mail: huanghefg@hotmail.com [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Leung, Peter C.K., E-mail: peter.leung@ubc.ca [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  11. The P2X7 Receptor Supports Both Life and Death in Fibrogenic Pancreatic Stellate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian; Schwab, Albrecht; Novak, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have complex roles in pancreas, including tissue repair and fibrosis. PSCs surround ATP releasing exocrine cells, but little is known about purinergic receptors and their function in PSCs. Our aim was to resolve whether PSCs express the multifunctional P2X7...... versions of the receptor. In culture, the proliferation rate of the KO PSCs was significantly lower. Inclusion of apyrase reduced the proliferation rate in both WT and KO PSCs, indicating importance of endogenous ATP. Exogenous ATP had a two-sided effect. Proliferation of both WT and KO cells...... inhibitor az10606120. The P2X7 receptor-pore inhibitor A438079 partially prevented cell death induced by millimolar ATP concentrations. This study shows that ATP and P2X7 receptors are important regulators of PSC proliferation and death, and therefore might be potential targets for treatments of pancreatic...

  12. Synthesis of N-p-azidophenylethyl-7,8-dihydronormorphine and its 7,8-ditritio analogue. Potential opiate receptor photoaffinity labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, G.K.; Rapoport, Henry

    1985-01-01

    The morphine derivatives N-p-azidophenylethyl-7,8-dihydronormorphine and its 7,8-ditritio analogue were synthesized from morphine. This material, a potential photoaffinity label with high specific radio-activity and with opiate agonist activity comparable to morphine, may be useful for labeling of opiate receptors. (author)

  13. Peripheral 5-HT7 receptors as a new target for prevention of lung injury and mortality in septic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadirci, Elif; Halici, Zekai; Bayir, Yasin; Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Karakus, Emre; Polat, Beyzagul; Unal, Deniz; Atamanalp, Sabri S; Aksak, Selina; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2013-10-01

    Sepsis is a complex pathophysiological event involving metabolic acidosis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, tissue damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Although many new mechanisms are being investigated to enlighten the pathophysiology of sepsis, there is no effective treatment protocol yet. Presence of 5-HT7 receptors in immune tissues prompted us to hypothesize that these receptors have roles in inflammation and sepsis. We investigated the effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists on serum cytokine levels, lung oxidative stress, lung histopathology, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) positivity and lung 5-HT7 receptor density in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced sepsis model of rats. Agonist administration to septic rats increased survival time; decreased serum cytokine response against CLP; decreased oxidative stress and increased antioxidant system in lungs; decreased the tissue NF-κB immunopositivity, which is high in septic rats; and decreased the sepsis-induced lung injury. In septic rats, as a result of high inflammatory response, 5-HT7 receptor expression in lungs increased significantly and agonist administration, which decreased inflammatory response and related mortality, decreased the 5-HT7 receptor expression. In conclusion, all these data suggest that stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors may be a new therapeutic target for prevention of impaired inflammatory response related lung injury and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The soluble loop BC region guides, but not dictates, the assembly of the transmembrane cytochrome b6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Tome-Stangl

    Full Text Available Studying folding and assembly of naturally occurring α-helical transmembrane proteins can inspire the design of membrane proteins with defined functions. Thus far, most studies have focused on the role of membrane-integrated protein regions. However, to fully understand folding pathways and stabilization of α-helical membrane proteins, it is vital to also include the role of soluble loops. We have analyzed the impact of interhelical loops on folding, assembly and stability of the heme-containing four-helix bundle transmembrane protein cytochrome b6 that is involved in charge transfer across biomembranes. Cytochrome b6 consists of two transmembrane helical hairpins that sandwich two heme molecules. Our analyses strongly suggest that the loop connecting the helical hairpins is not crucial for positioning the two protein "halves" for proper folding and assembly of the holo-protein. Furthermore, proteolytic removal of any of the remaining two loops, which connect the two transmembrane helices of a hairpin structure, appears to also not crucially effect folding and assembly. Overall, the transmembrane four-helix bundle appears to be mainly stabilized via interhelical interactions in the transmembrane regions, while the soluble loop regions guide assembly and stabilize the holo-protein. The results of this study might steer future strategies aiming at designing heme-binding four-helix bundle structures, involved in transmembrane charge transfer reactions.

  15. Differential expression of the P2X7 receptor in ovarian surface epithelium during the oestrous cycle in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cuevas, F G; Cruz-Rico, A; Garay, E; García-Carrancá, A; Pérez-Montiel, D; Juárez, B; Arellano, R O

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic signalling has been proposed as an intraovarian regulatory mechanism. Of the receptors responsible for purinergic transmission, the P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated cationic channel that displays a broad spectrum of cellular functions ranging from apoptosis to cell proliferation and tumourigenesis. In the present study, we investigated the functional expression of P2X7 receptors in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). P2X7 protein was detected in the OSE layer of the mouse, both in situ and in primary cultures. In cultures, 2'(3')-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5'-triphosphate (BzATP) activation of P2X7 receptors increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced apoptosis. The functionality of the P2X7 receptor was investigated in situ by intrabursal injection of BzATP on each day of the oestrous cycle and evaluation of apoptosis 24h using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay. Maximum effects of BzATP were observed during pro-oestrus, with the effects being blocked by A438079, a specific P2X7 receptor antagonist. Immunofluorescence staining for P2X7 protein revealed more robust expression during pro-oestrus and in OSE regions behind the antral follicles, strongly supporting the notion that the differences in apoptosis can be explained by increased receptor expression, which is regulated during the oestrous cycle. Finally, P2X7 receptor expression was detected in the OSE layer of human ovaries, with receptor expression maintained in human ovaries diagnosed with cancer, as well as in the human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line.

  16. Three distinct roles for notch in Drosophila R7 photoreceptor specification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tomlinson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs and Notch (N proteins are different types of transmembrane receptors that transduce extracellular signals and control cell fate. Here we examine cell fate specification in the Drosophila retina and ask how N acts together with the RTKs Sevenless (Sev and the EGF receptor (DER to specify the R7 photoreceptor. The retina is composed of many hundred ommatidia, each of which grows by recruiting surrounding, undifferentiated cells and directing them to particular fates. The R7 photoreceptor derives from a cohort of three cells that are incorporated together following specification of the R2-R5 and R8 photoreceptors. Two cells of the cohort are specified as the R1/6 photoreceptor type by DER activation. These cells then activate N in the third cell (the R7 precursor. By manipulation of N and RTK signaling in diverse combinations we establish three roles for N in specifying the R7 fate. The first role is to impose a block to photoreceptor differentiation; a block that DER activation cannot overcome. The second role, paradoxically, is to negate the first; Notch activation up-regulates Sev expression, enabling the presumptive R7 cell to receive an RTK signal from R8 that can override the block. The third role is to specify the cell as an R7 rather than an R1/6 once RTK signaling has specified the cells as a photoreceptor. We speculate why N acts both to block and to facilitate photoreceptor differentiation, and provide a model for how N and RTK signaling act combinatorially to specify the R1/6 and R7 photoreceptors as well as the surrounding non-neuronal cone cells.

  17. Labeling and preliminary in vivo evaluation of the 5-HT7 receptor selective agonist [(11)C]E-55888

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne D; Andersen, Valdemar L; Lehel, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    E-55888 has been identified as a selective serotonin 7 (5-HT7) receptor agonist. In this study, we describe the synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo evaluation of [(11)C]E-55888 as a radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. [(11)C]E-55888 was obtained by N-methylation of an app...... neither be displaced by the structurally different 5-HT7 receptor ligand SB-269970 nor by self-block with unlabeled E-55888. Based on these data, [(11)C]E-55888 does not show promise as a PET radioligand for imaging the 5-HT7 receptor in vivo....

  18. Functional and structural stability of the epidermal growth factor receptor in detergent micelles and phospholipid nanodiscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mi, Li-Zhi; Grey, Michael J; Nishida, Noritaka

    2008-01-01

    Cellular signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases plays an important role in regulating normal and oncogenic cellular physiology. While structures of isolated EGFR extracellular domains and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase...... differential functional stability in Triton X-100 versus dodecyl maltoside. Furthermore, the kinase activity can be significantly stabilized by reconstituting purified EGF-bound EGFR dimers in phospholipid nanodiscs or vesicles, suggesting that the environment around the hydrophobic transmembrane...

  19. Neuroprotection of rat retinal ganglion cells mediated through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, K; Mata, D; Linn, D M; Linn, C L

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is thought to play an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity was analyzed using acetylcholine (ACh), nicotine and the α7 specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor7 nAChR) agonist, N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-282987), in cultured adult rat retinal neurons. Adult Long Evans rat retinas were dissociated and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were isolated from all other retinal tissue using a two-step panning technique. Once isolated, RGCs were cultured under various pharmacological conditions to demonstrate excitotoxicity and neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. After 3 days, RGCs were immunostained with antibodies against the glycoprotein, Thy 1.1, counted and cell survival was assessed relative to control untreated conditions. 500 μM glutamate induced excitotoxicity in large and small RGCs in an adult rat dissociated culture. After 3 days in culture with glutamate, the cell survival of large RGCs decreased by an average of 48.16% while the cell survival of small RGCs decreased by an average of 42.03%. Using specific glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists, we provide evidence that the excitotoxic response was mediated through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors through an apoptotic mechanism. However, the excitotoxic effect of glutamate on all RGCs was eliminated if cells were cultured for an hour with 10 μM ACh, 100 μM nicotine or 100 nM of the α7 nAChR agonist, PNU-282987, before the glutamate insult. Inhibition studies using 10nM methyllycaconitine (MLA) or α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt) supported the hypothesis that neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity on rat RGCs was mediated through α7 nAChRs. In immunocytochemical studies, double

  20. Correlation of Aquaporins and Transmembrane Solute Transporters Revealed by Genome-Wide Analysis in Developing Maize Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are multifunctional membrane channels that facilitate the transmembrane transport of water and solutes. When transmembrane mineral nutrient transporters exhibit the same expression patterns as aquaporins under diverse temporal and physiological conditions, there is a greater probability that they interact. In this study, genome-wide temporal profiling of transcripts analysis and coexpression network-based approaches are used to examine the significant specificity correlation of aquaporins and transmembrane solute transporters in developing maize leaf. The results indicate that specific maize aquaporins are related to specific transmembrane solute transporters. The analysis demonstrates a systems-level correlation between aquaporins, nutrient transporters, and the homeostasis of mineral nutrients in developing maize leaf. Our results provide a resource for further studies into the physiological function of these aquaporins.

  1. Selective labelling of 5-HT7 receptor recognition sites in rat brain using [3H]5-carboxamidotryptamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowe, R.L.; Barnes, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a radioligand binding assay to selectively label the native 5-HT 7 receptor expressed in rat brain. In rat whole brain (minus cerebellum and striatum) homogenate, (±)-pindolol (10 μM)-insensitive [ 3 H]5-CT ([ 3 H]5-carboxamidotryptamine; 0.5 nM) specific binding (defined by 5-HT, 10 μM) displayed a pharmacological profile similar to the recombinant 5-HT 7 receptor, although the Hill coefficients for competition curves generated by methiothepin, ritanserin, sumatriptan, clozapine and pimozide were significantly less than unity. In homogenates of rat hypothalamus, (±)-pindolol (10 μM)-insensitive [ 3 H]5-CT recognition sites also resembled, pharmacologically, the 5-HT 7 receptor, although pimozide still generated Hill coefficients significantly less than unity. Subsequent studies were performed in the additional presence of WAY100635 (100 nM) to prevent [ 3 H]5-CT binding to residual, possibly, 5-HT 1A sites. Competition for this [ 3 H]5-CT binding indicated the labelling in whole rat brain homogenate of a homogenous population of sites with the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT 7 receptor. Saturation studies also indicated that (±)-pindolol (10 μM)/WAY 100635 (100 nM)-insensitive [ 3 H]5-CT binding to homogenates of whole rat brain was saturable and to an apparently homogenous population of sites which were labelled with nanomolar affinity (B max =33.2±0.7 fmol mg -1 protein, pK d =8.78±0.05, mean±S.E.M., n=3). The development of this 5-HT 7 receptor binding assay will aid investigation of the rat native 5-HT 7 receptor. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Pharmacological characterization of receptor-activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) and the human calcitonin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, S L; Foord, S; Kenakin, T; Chen, W J

    1999-12-01

    Receptor-activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single transmembrane domain proteins shown to be important for the transport and ligand specificity of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor. In this report, we describe the analysis of pharmacological properties of the human calcitonin receptor (hCTR) coexpressed with different RAMPs with the use of the Xenopus laevis melanophore expression system. We show that coexpression of RAMP3 with human calcitonin receptor changed the relative potency of hCTR to human calcitonin (hCAL) and rat amylin. RAMP1 and RAMP2, in contrast, had little effect on the change of hCTR potency to hCAL or rat amylin. When coexpressed with RAMP3, hCTR reversed the relative potency by a 3.5-fold loss in sensitivity to hCAL and a 19-fold increase in sensitivity to rat amylin. AC66, an inverse agonist, produced apparent simple competitive antagonism of hCAL and rat amylin, as indicated by linear Schild regressions. The potency of AC66 was changed in the blockade of rat amylin but not hCAL responses with RAMP3 coexpression. The mean pK(B) for AC66 to hCAL was 9.4 +/- 0.3 without RAMP3 and 9.45 +/- 0.07 with RAMP3. For the antagonism of AC66 to rat amylin, the pK(B) was 9.25 +/- 0.15 without RAMP3 and 8.2 +/- 0.35 with RAMP3. The finding suggests that RAMP3 might modify the active states of calcitonin receptor in such a way as to create a new receptor phenotype that is "amylin-like." Irrespective of the physiological association of the new receptor species, the finding that a coexpressed membrane protein can completely change agonist and antagonist affinities for a receptor raises implications for screening in recombinant receptor systems.

  3. Class I Cytokine Receptors: Structure and function in the Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Katrine Østergaard

    bilayer via structural characterizations of TMD representatives. To enable structural studies of these domains, an organic-extraction based strategy for efficient production of isotope-labeled TMDs with or without short intrinsically disordered regions was developed. This strategy successfully provided...... of these challenging domains. Supplemented by a review of the current collection of TMD structures from single-pass transmembrane receptors, the thesis as a whole provides important insights on the structure and function in the membrane as well as highlight the open questions to be addressed in the years to come.......Class I cytokine receptors are involved in important biological functions of both physiological and pathological nature in mammals. However, the molecular details of the cross-membrane signal transduction through these receptors remain obscure. One of the major reasons for this is the lack...

  4. The P2X7 receptor regulates cell survival, migration and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannuzzo, Andrea; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    of the ATP receptors, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) could be an important player in PDAC behaviour. METHODS: We determined the expression (real time PCR and Western blot) and localization (immunofluorescence) of P2X7R in human PDAC cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-1, MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1) and a "normal" human...

  5. α7 and β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits Form Heteromeric Receptor Complexes that Are Expressed in the Human Cortex and Display Distinct Pharmacological Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Zwart, Ruud; Ursu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The existence of α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has recently been demonstrated in both the rodent and human brain. Since α7-containing nAChRs are promising drug targets for schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, it is critical to determine whether α7β2 nAChRs are present in the h......The existence of α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has recently been demonstrated in both the rodent and human brain. Since α7-containing nAChRs are promising drug targets for schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, it is critical to determine whether α7β2 nAChRs are present...

  6. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields depolarize transmembrane potential via voltage-gated K+, Ca2+ and TRPM8 channels in U87 glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ryan C; Bardet, Sylvia M; Carr, Lynn; Romanenko, Sergii; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Leveque, Philippe; O'Connor, Rodney P

    2017-10-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have a variety of applications in the biomedical and biotechnology industries. Cancer treatment has been at the forefront of investigations thus far as nsPEFs permeabilize cellular and intracellular membranes leading to apoptosis and necrosis. nsPEFs may also influence ion channel gating and have the potential to modulate cell physiology without poration of the membrane. This phenomenon was explored using live cell imaging and a sensitive fluorescent probe of transmembrane voltage in the human glioblastoma cell line, U87 MG, known to express a number of voltage-gated ion channels. The specific ion channels involved in the nsPEF response were screened using a membrane potential imaging approach and a combination of pharmacological antagonists and ion substitutions. It was found that a single 10ns pulsed electric field of 34kV/cm depolarizes the transmembrane potential of cells by acting on specific voltage-sensitive ion channels; namely the voltage and Ca2 + gated BK potassium channel, L- and T-type calcium channels, and the TRPM8 transient receptor potential channel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional interactions between 7TM receptors in the renin-angiotensin system--dimerization or crosstalk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Christina; Erikstrup, Niels; Hansen, Jakob L

    2008-01-01

    . The importance of the RAS is clearly emphasised by the widespread use of drugs targeting this system in clinical practice. These include, renin inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor type I blockers, and inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme. Some of the important effectors within the system are 7...... be important for receptor function, and in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This is very significant, since "dimers" may provide pharmacologists with novel targets for improved drug therapy. However, we know that 7TM receptors can mediate signals as monomeric units, and so far it has been very......The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is important for the regulation of cardiovascular physiology, where it controls blood pressure, and salt- and water homeostasis. Dysregulation of RAS can lead to severe diseases including hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and cardiac arrhythmia, and -failure...

  8. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a new series of radiolabeled ligands for 5-HT7 receptor PET neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomb, Julie; Becker, Guillaume; Forcellini, Elsa; Meyer, Sandra; Buisson, Lauriane; Zimmer, Luc; Billard, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The brain serotonin-7 receptor (5-HT 7 ) is the most recently discovered serotonin receptor. It is targeted by several drug-candidates in psychopharmacology and neuropharmacology. In these fields, positron emission tomography (PET) is a molecular imaging modality offering great promise for accelerating the development process from preclinical discovery to clinical phases. We recently described fluorinated 5-HT 7 radioligands, inspired by the structure of SB269970, the prototypical 5-HT 7 antagonist. Although these results were promising, it appeared that the radiotracer-candidates suffered, among other drawbacks, from too low a 5-HT 7 receptor affinity. Methods: In the present study, seven structural analogs of SB269970 were synthesized using design strategies aiming to improve their radiopharmacological properties. Their 5-HT 7 binding properties were investigated by cellular functional assay. The nitro-precursors of the analogs were radiolabeled by [ 18 F-]nucleophilic substitution, and in vitro autoradiography was performed in rat brain, followed by in vivo microPET. Result: The chemical and radiochemical purity of the fluorine radiotracers was > 99% with specific activity in the 40–129 GBq/μmol range. The seven derivatives presented heterogeneous binding affinities toward 5-HT 7 and 5-HT 1A receptors. While [ 18 F]2F3P3 had promising characteristics in vitro, it showed poor brain penetration in vivo, partially reversed after pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein. Conclusions: These results indicated that, while chemical modification of these series improved several radiotracer-candidates in terms of 5-HT 7 receptor affinity and specificity toward 5-HT 1A receptors, other physicochemical modulations would be required in order to increase brain penetration

  9. Nicotinic Receptor Alpha7 Expression during Tooth Morphogenesis Reveals Functional Pleiotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Scott W.; Gahring, Lorise C.

    2012-01-01

    The expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype, alpha7, was investigated in the developing teeth of mice that were modified through homologous recombination to express a bi-cistronic IRES-driven tau-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP); alpha7GFP) or IRES-Cre (alpha7Cre). The expression of alpha7GFP was detected first in cells of the condensing mesenchyme at embryonic (E) day E13.5 where it intensifies through E14.5. This expression ends abruptly at E15.5, but was again observed in ameloblasts of incisors at E16.5 or molar ameloblasts by E17.5–E18.5. This expression remains detectable until molar enamel deposition is completed or throughout life as in the constantly erupting mouse incisors. The expression of alpha7GFP also identifies all stages of innervation of the tooth organ. Ablation of the alpha7-cell lineage using a conditional alpha7Cre×ROSA26-LoxP(diphtheria toxin A) strategy substantially reduced the mesenchyme and this corresponded with excessive epithelium overgrowth consistent with an instructive role by these cells during ectoderm patterning. However, alpha7knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal tooth size and shape indicating that under normal conditions alpha7 expression is dispensable to this process. The function of ameloblasts in alpha7KO mice is altered relative to controls. High resolution micro-computed tomography analysis of adult mandibular incisors revealed enamel volume of the alpha7KO was significantly reduced and the organization of enamel rods was altered relative to controls. These results demonstrate distinct and varied spatiotemporal expression of alpha7 during tooth development, and they suggest that dysfunction of this receptor would have diverse impacts upon the adult organ. PMID:22666322

  10. Theoretical and Computational Studies of Peptides and Receptors of the Insulin Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Vashisth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic interactions among peptides and receptors of the insulin family are required for glucose homeostasis, normal cellular growth and development, proliferation, differentiation and other metabolic processes. The peptides of the insulin family are disulfide-linked single or dual-chain proteins, while receptors are ligand-activated transmembrane glycoproteins of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK superfamily. Binding of ligands to the extracellular domains of receptors is known to initiate signaling via activation of intracellular kinase domains. While the structure of insulin has been known since 1969, recent decades have seen remarkable progress on the structural biology of apo and liganded receptor fragments. Here, we review how this useful structural information (on ligands and receptors has enabled large-scale atomically-resolved simulations to elucidate the conformational dynamics of these biomolecules. Particularly, applications of molecular dynamics (MD and Monte Carlo (MC simulation methods are discussed in various contexts, including studies of isolated ligands, apo-receptors, ligand/receptor complexes and intracellular kinase domains. The review concludes with a brief overview and future outlook for modeling and computational studies in this family of proteins.

  11. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Responses Require Actions of the Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein on the Extracellular Surface of the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sundeep; Dolan, Terrance M; Maben, Zachary J; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2015-11-13

    The melanocortin-2 (MC2) receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates responses to ACTH. The MC2 receptor acts in concert with the MC2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) that is absolutely required for ACTH binding and signaling. MRAP has a single transmembrane domain and forms a highly unusual antiparallel homodimer that is stably associated with MC2 receptors at the plasma membrane. Despite the physiological importance of the interaction between the MC2 receptor and MRAP, there is little understanding of how the accessory protein works. The dual topology of MRAP has made it impossible to determine whether highly conserved and necessary regions of MRAP are required on the intracellular or extracellular face of the plasma membrane. The strategy used here was to fix the orientation of two antiparallel MRAP molecules and then introduce inactivating mutations on one side of the membrane or the other. This was achieved by engineering proteins containing tandem copies of MRAP fused to the amino terminus of the MC2 receptor. The data firmly establish that only the extracellular amino terminus (Nout) copy of MRAP, oriented with critical segments on the extracellular side of the membrane, is essential. The transmembrane domain of MRAP is also required in only the Nout orientation. Finally, activity of MRAP-MRAP-MC2-receptor fusion proteins with inactivating mutations in either MRAP or the receptor was rescued by co-expression of free wild-type MRAP or free wild-type receptor. These results show that the basic MRAP-MRAP-receptor signaling unit forms higher order complexes and that these multimers signal. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Structural basis for subtype-specific inhibition of the P2X7 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, Akira; Kawate, Toshimitsu (Cornell)

    2016-12-09

    The P2X7 receptor is a non-selective cation channel activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Chronic activation of P2X7 underlies many health problems such as pathologic pain, yet we lack effective antagonists due to poorly understood mechanisms of inhibition. Here we present crystal structures of a mammalian P2X7 receptor complexed with five structurally-unrelated antagonists. Unexpectedly, these drugs all bind to an allosteric site distinct from the ATP-binding pocket in a groove formed between two neighboring subunits. This novel drug-binding pocket accommodates a diversity of small molecules mainly through hydrophobic interactions. Functional assays propose that these compounds allosterically prevent narrowing of the drug-binding pocket and the turret-like architecture during channel opening, which is consistent with a site of action distal to the ATP-binding pocket. These novel mechanistic insights will facilitate the development of P2X7-specific drugs for treating human diseases.

  13. Characterization, cell-surface expression and ligand-binding properties of different truncated N-terminal extracellular domains of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlhinney, R A; Molnár, E

    1996-04-01

    To identify the location of the first transmembrane segment of the GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit artificial stop codons have been introduced into the N-terminal domain at amino acid positions 442, 510, and 563, namely just before and spanning the proposed first two transmembrane regions. The resultant truncated N-terminal fragments of GluR1, termed NT1, NT2, and NT3 respectively were expressed in Cos-7 cells and their cellular distribution and cell-surface expression analysed using an N-terminal antibody to GluR1. All of the fragments were fully glycosylated and were found to be associated with cell membranes but none was secreted. Differential extraction of the cell membranes indicated that both NT1 and NT2 behave as peripheral membrane proteins. In contrast NT3, like the full subunit, has integral membrane protein properties. Furthermore only NT3 is expressed at the cell surface as determined by immunofluorescence and cell-surface biotinylation. Protease protection assays indicated that only NT3 had a cytoplasmic tail. Binding studies using the selective ligand [(3)H]alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate ([(3)H]AMPA) demonstrated that NT3 does not bind ligand. Together these results indicate that the first transmembrane domain of the GluR1 subunit lies between residues 509 and 562, that the N-terminal domain alone cannot form a functional ligand-binding site and that this domain can be targeted to the cell surface provided that it has a transmembrane-spanning region.

  14. Oxygen/glucose deprivation increases the integration of recombinant P2X7 receptors into the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milius, Doreen; Groeger-Arndt, Helke; Stanchev, Doychin; Lange-Dohna, Christine; Rossner, Steffen; Sperlagh, Beata; Wirkner, Kerstin; Illes, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant human P2X 7 receptors, C-terminally labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (P2X 7 -EGFP), were transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. Activation of these receptors by their preferential agonist 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) induced inward currents and propidium ion uptake indicating the opening of cationic channels and of large pores permeable for dye molecules, respectively. Two mutants of P2X 7 receptors (P2X 7 -EGFP-I568N, -E496A) representing polymorphisms in the P2X 7 gene known to interfere with normal receptor-trafficking and with optimal assembly of its subunits, responded with much lower current amplitudes to BzATP than their wild-type counterpart. Similarly, the normal propidium ion uptake induced by BzATP at the wild-type P2X 7 receptor was abolished by the two mutants. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that in vitro ischemia of 12 h duration increased the integration of P2X 7 -EGFP, but not of its two mutants, into the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells. Further, this ischemic stimulus facilitated the current response to BzATP in HEK293 cells permanently transfected with P2X 7 receptors. Finally, the fluorescence intensity per cell measured by flow cytometry and P2X 7 antibodies directed against an extracellular, but not an intracellular epitope of the receptor, were also increased. In conclusion, P2X 7 receptors may alter their trafficking properties during ischemia and thereby contribute to the ATP-induced damage of various cell-types including neurons

  15. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  16. B7-H3 in tumors: friend or foe for tumor immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Quan, Yanchun; Che, Fengyuan; Wang, Lijuan

    2018-02-01

    B7-H3 is a type I transmembrane co-stimulatory molecule of the B7 family. B7-H3 mRNA is widely distributed in most tissues; however, B7-H3 protein is not constitutively expressed. Few molecules have been shown to mediate the regulation of B7-H3 expression, and their regulatory mechanisms remain unexplored. Recently, TREM-like transcript 2 (TLT-2) has been identified as a potential receptor of B7-H3. However, TLT-2 may not be the only receptor of B7-H3, as B7-H3 has many contradictory roles. As a co-stimulatory molecule, B7-H3 increases the proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and enhances cytotoxic T-cell activity. However, greatly increased T-cell proliferation and IL-2 levels have been observed in the absence of B7-H3. Thus far, it has been shown that various tumors test positive for B7-H3 expression and that B7-H3 levels correlate with tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, malignant stage, and recurrence rate. Furthermore, transfection of cells with a B7-H3 plasmid and treatment with monoclonal antibodies to block B7-H3 are the main immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. Several groups have generated anti-B7-H3 antibodies and observed tumor growth suppression in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it is likely that B7-H3 plays an important role in cancer diagnosis and treatment, aside from its role as a co-stimulatory molecule.

  17. Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor signalling 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Antosz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of innate immunity is based on the pattern recognition receptors (PRR that recognize molecular patterns associated with pathogens (PAMPs. Among PRR receptors Toll-like receptors (TLR are distinguished. As a result of contact with pathogens, TLRs activate specific intracellular signaling pathways. It happens through proteins such as adaptor molecules, e.g. MyD88, TIRAP, TRIF, TRAM, and IPS-1, which participate in the cascade activation of kinases (IKK, MAP, RIP-1, TBK-1 as well as transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1 and regulatory factor (IRF3. The result of this activation is the production of active proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, interferons and enzymes. The PRR pathways are controlled by extra – and intracellular molecules to prevent overexpression of PRR. They include soluble receptors (sTLR, transmembrane proteins (ST2, SIGIRR, RP105, TRAIL-R and intracellular inhibitors (SOCS-1, SOCS-3, sMyD88, TOLLIP, IRAK-M, SARM, A20, β-arrestin, CYLD, SHP. These molecules maintain the balance between activation and inhibition and ensure balancing of the beneficial and adverse effects of antigen recognition.

  18. Brief Report: Initial Trial of Alpha7-Nicotinic Receptor Stimulation in Two Adult Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olincy, Ann; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Johnson, Lynn; Kem, William R.; Freedman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in CHRNA7, the alpha7-nicotinic receptor gene, have been reported in autism spectrum disorder. These genetic abnormalities potentially decrease the receptor's expression and diminish its functional role. This double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in two adult patients investigated whether an investigational…

  19. Estrogen-mediated inactivation of FOXO3a by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekas, Erin; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen (17β-estradiol) promotes the survival and proliferation of breast cancer cells and its receptors represent important therapeutic targets. The cellular actions of estrogen are mediated by the nuclear estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ as well as the 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). We previously reported that estrogen activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kinase) pathway via GPER, resulting in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) production within the nucleus of breast cancer cells; however, the mechanisms and consequences of this activity remained unclear. MCF7 breast cancer cells were transfected with GFP-fused Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) as a reporter to assess localization in response to estrogen stimulation. Inhibitors of PI3Kinases and EGFR were employed to determine the mechanisms of estrogen-mediated FOXO3a inactivation. Receptor knockdown with siRNA and the selective GPER agonist G-1 elucidated the estrogen receptor(s) responsible for estrogen-mediated FOXO3a inactivation. The effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators and downregulators (SERMs and SERDs) on FOXO3a in MCF7 cells were also determined. Cell survival (inhibition of apoptosis) was assessed by caspase activation. In the estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell line MCF7, FOXO3a inactivation occurs on a rapid time scale as a result of GPER, but not ERα, stimulation by estrogen, established by the GPER-selective agonist G-1 and knockdown of GPER and ERα. GPER-mediated inactivation of FOXO3a is effected by the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3Kinase as a result of transactivation of the EGFR. The SERMs tamoxifen and raloxifene, as well as the SERD ICI182,780, were active in mediating FOXO3a inactivation in a GPER-dependent manner. Additionally, estrogen-and G-1-mediated stimulation of MCF7 cells results in a decrease in caspase activation under proapoptotic conditions. Our results suggest that non-genomic signaling by GPER contributes

  20. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise.

  1. Galectin-3 induces clustering of CD147 and integrin-β1 transmembrane glycoprotein receptors on the RPE cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S Priglinger

    Full Text Available Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR is a blinding disease frequently occurring after retinal detachment surgery. Adhesion, migration and matrix remodeling of dedifferentiated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells characterize the onset of the disease. Treatment options are still restrained and identification of factors responsible for the abnormal behavior of the RPE cells will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. Galectin-3, a carbohydrate-binding protein, was previously found to inhibit attachment and spreading of retinal pigment epithelial cells, and thus bares the potential to counteract PVR-associated cellular events. However, the identities of the corresponding cell surface glycoprotein receptor proteins on RPE cells are not known. Here we characterize RPE-specific Gal-3 containing glycoprotein complexes using a proteomic approach. Integrin-β1, integrin-α3 and CD147/EMMPRIN, a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in regulating matrix metalloproteinase induction, were identified as potential Gal-3 interactors on RPE cell surfaces. In reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments we confirmed that Gal-3 associated with CD147 and integrin-β1, but not with integrin-α3. Additionally, association of Gal-3 with CD147 and integrin-β1 was observed in co-localization analyses, while integrin-α3 only partially co-localized with Gal-3. Blocking of CD147 and integrin-β1 on RPE cell surfaces inhibited binding of Gal-3, whereas blocking of integrin-α3 failed to do so, suggesting that integrin-α3 is rather an indirect interactor. Importantly, Gal-3 binding promoted pronounced clustering and co-localization of CD147 and integrin-β1, with only partial association of integrin-α3. Finally, we show that RPE derived CD147 and integrin-β1, but not integrin-α3, carry predominantly β-1,6-N-actyl-D-glucosamine-branched glycans, which are high-affinity ligands for Gal-3. We conclude from these data that extracellular Gal-3 triggers

  2. Galectin-3 Induces Clustering of CD147 and Integrin-β1 Transmembrane Glycoprotein Receptors on the RPE Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priglinger, Claudia S.; Szober, Christoph M.; Priglinger, Siegfried G.; Merl, Juliane; Euler, Kerstin N.; Kernt, Marcus; Gondi, Gabor; Behler, Jennifer; Geerlof, Arie; Kampik, Anselm; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding disease frequently occurring after retinal detachment surgery. Adhesion, migration and matrix remodeling of dedifferentiated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells characterize the onset of the disease. Treatment options are still restrained and identification of factors responsible for the abnormal behavior of the RPE cells will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. Galectin-3, a carbohydrate-binding protein, was previously found to inhibit attachment and spreading of retinal pigment epithelial cells, and thus bares the potential to counteract PVR-associated cellular events. However, the identities of the corresponding cell surface glycoprotein receptor proteins on RPE cells are not known. Here we characterize RPE-specific Gal-3 containing glycoprotein complexes using a proteomic approach. Integrin-β1, integrin-α3 and CD147/EMMPRIN, a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in regulating matrix metalloproteinase induction, were identified as potential Gal-3 interactors on RPE cell surfaces. In reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments we confirmed that Gal-3 associated with CD147 and integrin-β1, but not with integrin-α3. Additionally, association of Gal-3 with CD147 and integrin-β1 was observed in co-localization analyses, while integrin-α3 only partially co-localized with Gal-3. Blocking of CD147 and integrin-β1 on RPE cell surfaces inhibited binding of Gal-3, whereas blocking of integrin-α3 failed to do so, suggesting that integrin-α3 is rather an indirect interactor. Importantly, Gal-3 binding promoted pronounced clustering and co-localization of CD147 and integrin-β1, with only partial association of integrin-α3. Finally, we show that RPE derived CD147 and integrin-β1, but not integrin-α3, carry predominantly β-1,6-N-actyl-D-glucosamine-branched glycans, which are high-affinity ligands for Gal-3. We conclude from these data that extracellular Gal-3 triggers clustering of CD147 and

  3. Covalent attachment of antagonists to the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: synthesis and reactivity of substituted maleimides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Joseph I; Halliday, Jill I; Kanizaj, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The 3-methylmaleimide congeners of the natural product methyllycaconitine (MLA) and an analogue covalently attach to functional cysteine mutants of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR).......The 3-methylmaleimide congeners of the natural product methyllycaconitine (MLA) and an analogue covalently attach to functional cysteine mutants of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)....

  4. Rheumatic Disease: Protease-Activated Receptor-2 in Synovial Joint Pathobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal McCulloch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2 is one member of a small family of transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are activated via cleavage of their N terminus by serine proteases (e.g., tryptase, unveiling an N terminus tethered ligand which binds to the second extracellular loop of the receptor. Increasing evidence has emerged identifying key pathophysiological roles for PAR2 in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA and osteoarthritis (OA. Importantly, this includes both pro-inflammatory and destructive roles. For example, in murine models of RA, the associated synovitis, cartilage degradation, and subsequent bone erosion are all significantly reduced in the absence of PAR2. Similarly, in experimental models of OA, PAR2 disruption confers protection against cartilage degradation, subchondral bone osteosclerosis, and osteophyte formation. This review focuses on the role of PAR2 in rheumatic disease and its potential as an important therapeutic target for treating pain and joint degradation.

  5. Negative allosteric modulation of the mGlu7 receptor reduces visceral hypersensitivity in a stress-sensitive rat strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D. Moloney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, exerts its effect through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Of these, group III mGlu receptors (mGlu 4, 6, 7, 8 are among the least studied due to a lack of pharmacological tools. mGlu7 receptors, the most highly conserved isoform, are abundantly distributed in the brain, especially in regions, such as the amygdala, known to be crucial for the emotional processing of painful stimuli. Visceral hypersensitivity is a poorly understood phenomenon manifesting as an increased sensitivity to visceral stimuli. Glutamate has long been associated with somatic pain processing leading us to postulate that crossover may exist between these two modalities. Moreover, stress has been shown to exacerbate visceral pain. ADX71743 is a novel, centrally penetrant, negative allosteric modulator of mGlu7 receptors. Thus, we used this tool to explore the possible involvement of this receptor in the mediation of visceral pain in a stress-sensitive model of visceral hypersensitivity, namely the Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat. ADX71743 reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the WKY rat as exhibited by increased visceral sensitivity threshold with concomitant reductions in total number of pain behaviours. Moreover, AD71743 increased total distance and distance travelled in the inner zone of the open field. These findings show, for what is to our knowledge, the first time, that mGlu7 receptor signalling plays a role in visceral pain processing. Thus, negative modulation of the mGlu7 receptor may be a plausible target for the amelioration of stress-induced visceral pain where there is a large unmet medical need.

  6. NK1 receptor fused to beta-arrestin displays a single-component, high-affinity molecular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Lene; Hastrup, Hanne; Holst, Birgitte; Fraile-Ramos, Alberto; Marsh, Mark; Schwartz, Thue W

    2002-07-01

    Arrestins are cytosolic proteins that, upon stimulation of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors, terminate signaling by binding to the receptor, displacing the G protein and targeting the receptor to clathrin-coated pits. Fusion of beta-arrestin1 to the C-terminal end of the neurokinin NK1 receptor resulted in a chimeric protein that was expressed to some extent on the cell surface but also accumulated in transferrin-labeled recycling endosomes independently of agonist stimulation. As expected, the fusion protein was almost totally silenced with respect to agonist-induced signaling through the normal Gq/G11 and Gs pathways. The NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion construct bound nonpeptide antagonists with increased affinity but surprisingly also bound two types of agonists, substance P and neurokinin A, with high, normal affinity. In the wild-type NK1 receptor, neurokinin A (NKA) competes for binding against substance P and especially against antagonists with up to 1000-fold lower apparent affinity than determined in functional assays and in homologous binding assays. When the NK1 receptor was closely fused to G proteins, this phenomenon was eliminated among agonists, but the agonists still competed with low affinity against antagonists. In contrast, in the NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion protein, all ligands bound with similar affinity independent of the choice of radioligand and with Hill coefficients near unity. We conclude that the NK1 receptor in complex with arrestin is in a high-affinity, stable, agonist-binding form probably best suited to structural analysis and that the receptor can display binding properties that are nearly theoretically ideal when it is forced to complex with only a single intracellular protein partner.

  7. In Vitro Effects of the Endocrine Disruptor p,p’-DDT on Human Follitropin Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Mathilde; Grouleff, Julie; Gourdin, Louis; Fauchard, Mathilde; Chantreau, Vanessa; Henrion, Daniel; Coutant, Régis; Schiøtt, Birgit; Chabbert, Marie; Rodien, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Background: 1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene (p,p′-DDT) is a persistent environmental endocrine disruptor (ED). Several studies have shown an association between p,p′-DDT exposure and reproductive abnormalities. Objectives: To investigate the putative effects of p,p′-DDT on the human follitropin receptor (FSHR) function. Methods and Results: We used Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing human FSHR to investigate the impact of p,p′-DDT on FSHR activity and its interaction with the receptor. At a concentration of 5 μM p,p′-DDT increased the maximum response of the FSHR to follitropin by 32 ± 7.45%. However, 5 μM p,p′-DDT decreased the basal activity and did not influence the maximal response of the closely related LH/hCG receptor to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The potentiating effect of p,p′-DDT was specific for the FSHR. Moreover, in cells that did not express FSHR, p,p′-DDT had no effect on cAMP response. Thus, the potentiating effect of p,p′-DDT was dependent on the FSHR. In addition, p,p′-DDT increased the sensitivity of FSHR to hCG and to a low molecular weight agonist of the FSHR, 3-((5methyl)-2-(4-benzyloxy-phenyl)-5-{[2-[3-ethoxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-ethylcarbamoyl]-methyl}-4-oxo-thiazolidin-3-yl)-benzamide (16a). Basal activity in response to p,p′-DDT and potentiation of the FSHR response to FSH by p,p′-DDT varied among FSHR mutants with altered transmembrane domains (TMDs), consistent with an effect of p,p′-DDT via TMD binding. This finding was corroborated by the results of simultaneously docking p,p′-DDT and 16a into the FSHR transmembrane bundle. Conclusion: p,p′-DDT acted as a positive allosteric modulator of the FSHR in our experimental model. These findings suggest that G protein–coupled receptors are additional targets of endocrine disruptors. Citation: Munier M, Grouleff J, Gourdin L, Fauchard M, Chantreau V, Henrion D, Coutant R, Schiøtt B, Chabbert M, Rodien P. 2016

  8. Transmembrane neural cell-adhesion molecule (NCAM), but not glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored NCAM, down-regulates secretion of matrix metalloproteinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Chen, W; Rucklidge, G

    1993-01-01

    proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors all participate in the construction, maintenance, and remodeling of extracellular matrix by cells. The neural cell-adhesion molecule (NCAM)-negative rat glioma cell line BT4Cn secretes substantial amounts of metalloproteinases, as compared with its NCAM-positive mother......During embryogenesis interactions between cells and extracellular matrix play a central role in the modulation of cell motility, growth, and differentiation. Modulation of matrix structure is therefore crucial during development; extracellular matrix ligands, their receptors, extracellular...... cell line BT4C. We have transfected the BT4Cn cell line with cDNAs encoding the human NCAM-B and -C isoforms. We report here that the expression of transmembrane NCAM-B, but not of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked NCAM-C, induces a down-regulation of 92-kDa gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinase 9...

  9. Gene : CBRC-DNOV-01-1811 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _HUMAN 1e-69 68% ref|XP_588566.3| PREDICTED: similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor [Bos taurus] 2e-7...9 78% MQHCLSSWCPSWTLNSTLLCIFFLSHFSFLDLCFLSSIIPQLLVNLKCSDKSITYVDCMIQLYVSLVMGYTECIHLAVMTYDHYVAVCHPLHYIFFMHLWLRHVLASME

  10. Association between genetic polymorphisms in the human interleukin-7 receptor alpha-chain and inhalation allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamim, Z; Müller, K; Svejgaard, A

    2007-01-01

    Thymic stromal-derived lymphopoietin (TSLP) and interleukin-7 share a common receptor chain, IL-7Ralpha. IL-7 is involved in T-cell homeostasis, and TSLP induces production of pro-allergic cytokines. The gene encoding the IL-7Ralpha chain is polymorphic, and investigation of inhalation allergic p...

  11. High Affinity IgE-Fc Receptor alpha and gamma Subunit Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.; Housden, J. E. M.; Sabban, S.; Helm, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between the subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc and RI) and its ability to mediate transmembrane signaling. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, UK, from 2008 to 2009. Methodology: The approach employed was to create a chimera (human alpha-gamma-gamma) using the extracellular (EC) domain of the human high affinity IgE receptor. The alpha subunit (huFc and RIalpha) of IgE receptor was spliced onto the rodent gamma TM and cytoplasmic domain (CD). This was transfected into the Rat Basophilic Leukemia cell line in order to assess the possibility of selectively activating cells transfected with this single pass construct for antigen induced mediator release. Results: The RBLs cell lines transfected with the huFc and RIalpha/gamma/gamma cDNA constructs were assessed for the cell surface expression of the huFc and RIalpha subunit and the response to the antigenic stimulus by looking for degranulation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilisation. The results obtained showed the absence of huFc and RIalpha subunit expression on the surface of transfected cells as seen by flowcytometric studies, beta-hexosaminidase assays and intracellular calcium mobilisation studies. Conclusion: In the present study the grounds for non-expression of huFc and RIalpha/gamma/gamma cDNA remains elusive but may be due to the fact that the human-rodent chimeric receptors are assembled differently than the endogenous rodent receptors as seen in study in which COS 7 cells were transfected with human/rat chimeric complexes. (author)

  12. Glioblastoma chemotherapy adjunct via potent serotonin receptor-7 inhibition using currently marketed high-affinity antipsychotic medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, RE

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma treatment as now constituted offers increased survival measured in months over untreated patients. Because glioblastomas are active in synthesizing a bewildering variety of growth factors, a systematic approach to inhibiting these is being undertaken as treatment adjunct. The serotonin 7 receptor is commonly overexpressed in glioblastoma. Research documentation showing agonists at serotonin receptor 7 cause increased extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 activation, increased interleukin-6 synthesis, increased signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activation, increased resistance to apoptosis and other growth enhancing changes in glioblastoma is reviewed in this paper. Because three drugs in wide use to treat thought disorders – paliperidone, pimozide and risperidone – are also potent and well-tolerated inhibitors at serotonin receptor 7, these drugs should be studied for growth factor deprivation in an adjunctive role in glioblastoma treatment. PMID:20880389

  13. The secreted peptide PIP1 amplifies immunity through receptor-like kinase 7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguo Hou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, innate immune responses are initiated by plasma membrane-located pattern recognition receptors (PRRs upon recognition of elicitors, including exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. Arabidopsis thaliana produces more than 1000 secreted peptide candidates, but it has yet to be established whether any of these act as elicitors. Here we identified an A. thaliana gene family encoding precursors of PAMP-induced secreted peptides (prePIPs through an in-silico approach. The expression of some members of the family, including prePIP1 and prePIP2, is induced by a variety of pathogens and elicitors. Subcellular localization and proteolytic processing analyses demonstrated that the prePIP1 product is secreted into extracellular spaces where it is cleaved at the C-terminus. Overexpression of prePIP1 and prePIP2, or exogenous application of PIP1 and PIP2 synthetic peptides corresponding to the C-terminal conserved regions in prePIP1 and prePIP2, enhanced immune responses and pathogen resistance in A. thaliana. Genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that the receptor-like kinase 7 (RLK7 functions as a receptor of PIP1. Once perceived by RLK7, PIP1 initiates overlapping and distinct immune signaling responses together with the DAMP PEP1. PIP1 and PEP1 cooperate in amplifying the immune responses triggered by the PAMP flagellin. Collectively, these studies provide significant insights into immune modulation by Arabidopsis endogenous secreted peptides.

  14. Repeated administration of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, but not positive allosteric modulators, increases alpha7 nAChR levels in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H

    2010-01-01

    AChR binding sites in several brain regions, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. The alpha7 nAChR agonists SSR180711 and PNU-282987 also increase [(125)I]-BTX binding, suggesting that this is a general consequence of alpha7 nAChR agonism. Interestingly, the alpha7 nAChR positive allosteric modulators PNU......The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is an important target for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. However, the receptor desensitizes rapidly in vitro, which has led to concern regarding its applicability as a clinically relevant drug target....... Here we investigate the effects of repeated agonism on alpha7 nAChR receptor levels and responsiveness in vivo in rats. Using [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) autoradiography we show that acute or repeated administration with the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist A-582941 increases the number of alpha7 n...

  15. Cellular receptors for human enterovirus species A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorihiro eNishimura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Human enterovirus species A (HEV-A is one of the four species of HEV in the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. Among HEV-A, coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 and enterovirus 71 (EV71 are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Some other types of HEV-A are commonly associated with herpangina. Although HFMD and herpangina due to HEV-A are common febrile diseases among infants and children, EV71 can cause various neurological diseases, such as aseptic meningitis and fatal encephalitis.Recently, two human transmembrane proteins, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 and scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2, were identified as functional receptors for EV71 and CVA16. In in vitro infection experiments using the prototype HEV-A strains, PSGL-1 and SCARB2 could be responsible for the specific receptors for EV71 and CVA16. However, the involvement of both receptors in the in vitro and in vivo infections of clinical isolates of HEV-A has not been clarified yet. To elucidate a diverse array of the clinical outcome of HEV-A-associated diseases, the identification and characterization of HEV-A receptors may provide useful information in understanding the HEV-A pathogenesis at a molecular level.

  16. PrP Knockout Cells Expressing Transmembrane PrP Resist Prion Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karen E; Hughson, Andrew; Vascellari, Sarah; Priola, Suzette A; Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Baron, Gerald S

    2017-01-15

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of the prion protein (PrP C ) influences PrP C misfolding into the disease-associated isoform, PrP res , as well as prion propagation and infectivity. GPI proteins are found in cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane regions called rafts. Exchanging the GPI anchor for a nonraft transmembrane sequence redirects PrP C away from rafts. Previous studies showed that nonraft transmembrane PrP C variants resist conversion to PrP res when transfected into scrapie-infected N2a neuroblastoma cells, likely due to segregation of transmembrane PrP C and GPI-anchored PrP res in distinct membrane environments. Thus, it remained unclear whether transmembrane PrP C might convert to PrP res if seeded by an exogenous source of PrP res not associated with host cell rafts and without the potential influence of endogenous expression of GPI-anchored PrP C To further explore these questions, constructs containing either a C-terminal wild-type GPI anchor signal sequence or a nonraft transmembrane sequence containing a flexible linker were expressed in a cell line derived from PrP knockout hippocampal neurons, NpL2. NpL2 cells have physiological similarities to primary neurons, representing a novel and advantageous model for studying transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infection. Cells were infected with inocula from multiple prion strains and in different biochemical states (i.e., membrane bound as in brain microsomes from wild-type mice or purified GPI-anchorless amyloid fibrils). Only GPI-anchored PrP C supported persistent PrP res propagation. Our data provide strong evidence that in cell culture GPI anchor-directed membrane association of PrP C is required for persistent PrP res propagation, implicating raft microdomains as a location for conversion. Mechanisms of prion propagation, and what makes them transmissible, are poorly understood. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchoring of the prion protein (PrP C

  17. Role of protease-activated receptor-2 in inflammation, and its possible implications as a putative mediator of periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Holzhausen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2 belongs to a novel subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors with seven-transmembrane domains. This receptor is widely distributed throughout the body and seems to be importantly involved in inflammatory processes. PAR2 can be activated by serine proteases such as trypsin, mast cell tryptase, and bacterial proteases, such as gingipain produced by Porphyromonas gingivalis. This review describes the current stage of knowledge of the possible mechanisms that link PAR2 activation with periodontal disease, and proposes future therapeutic strategies to modulate the host response in the treatment of periodontitis.

  18. Desensitization of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor from rat brain: two distinguishable receptors on the same membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, D.J.; Subbarao, K.

    1987-01-01

    Transmembrane chloride flux mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor can be measured with a mammalian brain homogenate preparation containing sealed membrane vesicles. The preparation can be mixed rapidly with solutions of defined composition. Influx of 36 Cl - tracer initiated by mixing with GABA was rapidly terminated by mixing with bicuculline methiodide. The decrease in the isotope influx measurement due to prior incubation of the vesicle preparation with GABA, which increased with preincubation time and GABA concentration, was attributed to desensitization of the GABA receptor. By varying the time of preincubation with GABA between 10 ms and 50 s with quench-flow technique, the desensitization rates could be measured over their whole time course independently of the chloride ion flux rate. Most of the receptor activity decreased in a fast phase of desensitization complete in 200 ms at saturation with GABA. Remaining activity was desensitized in a few seconds. These two phases of desensitization were each kinetically first order and were shown to correspond with two distinguishable GABA receptors on the same membrane. The receptor activities could be estimated, and the faster desensitizing receptor was the predominant one, giving on average ca. 80% of the total activity. The half-response concentrations were similar, 150 and 114 μM for the major and minor receptors, respectively. The dependence on GABA concentration indicated that desensitization is mediated by two GABA binding sites. The fast desensitization rate was approximately 20-fold faster than previously reported rates while the slower desensitization rate was slightly faster than previously reported rates

  19. GPCR-SSFE 2.0-a fragment-based molecular modeling web tool for Class A G-protein coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Catherine L; Kreuchwig, Franziska; Tiemann, Johanna K S; Kreuchwig, Annika; Ritschel, Michele; Kleinau, Gunnar; Hildebrand, Peter W; Krause, Gerd

    2017-07-03

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key players in signal transduction and therefore a large proportion of pharmaceutical drugs target these receptors. Structural data of GPCRs are sparse yet important for elucidating the molecular basis of GPCR-related diseases and for performing structure-based drug design. To ameliorate this problem, GPCR-SSFE 2.0 (http://www.ssfa-7tmr.de/ssfe2/), an intuitive web server dedicated to providing three-dimensional Class A GPCR homology models has been developed. The updated web server includes 27 inactive template structures and incorporates various new functionalities. Uniquely, it uses a fingerprint correlation scoring strategy for identifying the optimal templates, which we demonstrate captures structural features that sequence similarity alone is unable to do. Template selection is carried out separately for each helix, allowing both single-template models and fragment-based models to be built. Additionally, GPCR-SSFE 2.0 stores a comprehensive set of pre-calculated and downloadable homology models and also incorporates interactive loop modeling using the tool SL2, allowing knowledge-based input by the user to guide the selection process. For visual analysis, the NGL viewer is embedded into the result pages. Finally, blind-testing using two recently published structures shows that GPCR-SSFE 2.0 performs comparably or better than other state-of-the art GPCR modeling web servers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Long-term improvements in sensory inhibition with gestational choline supplementation linked to α7 nicotinic receptors through studies in Chrna7 null mutation mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E; Choo, Kevin S; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Adams, Catherine E

    2014-03-13

    Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Lack of neuroprotection in the absence of P2X7 receptors in toxin-induced animal models of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittel Ágnes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate a role of P2X7 receptors in processes that lead to neuronal death. The main objective of our study was to examine whether genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors influenced dopaminergic cell death in various models of Parkinson's disease (PD. Results mRNA encoding P2X7 and P2X4 receptors was up-regulated after treatment of PC12 cells with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. P2X7 antagonists protected against MPTP and rotenone induced toxicity in the LDH assay, but failed to protect after rotenone treatment in the MTT assay in PC12 cells and in primary midbrain culture. In vivo MPTP and in vitro rotenone pretreatments increased the mRNA expression of P2X7 receptors in the striatum and substantia nigra of wild-type mice. Basal mRNA expression of P2X4 receptors was higher in P2X7 knockout mice and was further up-regulated by MPTP treatment. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of P2X7 receptors did not change survival rate or depletion of striatal endogenous dopamine (DA content after in vivo MPTP or in vitro rotenone treatment. However, depletion of norepinephrine was significant after MPTP treatment only in P2X7 knockout mice. The basal ATP content was higher in the substantia nigra of wild-type mice, but the ADP level was lower. Rotenone treatment elicited a similar reduction in ATP content in the substantia nigra of both genotypes, whereas reduction of ATP was more pronounced after rotenone treatment in striatal slices of P2X7 deficient mice. Although the endogenous amino acid content remained unchanged, the level of the endocannabinoid, 2-AG, was elevated by rotenone in the striatum of wild-type mice, an effect that was absent in mice deficient in P2X7 receptors. Conclusions We conclude that P2X7 receptor deficiency or inhibition does not support the survival of dopaminergic neurons in an in vivo or in vitro models of PD.

  2. Key interactions by conserved polar amino acids located at the transmembrane helical boundaries in Class B GPCRs modulate activation, effector specificity and biased signalling in the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Denise; Reynolds, Christopher A; Smith, Kevin J; Mobarec, Juan C; Furness, Sebastian G B; Miller, Laurence J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M

    2016-10-15

    Class B GPCRs can activate multiple signalling effectors with the potential to exhibit biased agonism in response to ligand stimulation. Previously, we highlighted key TM domain polar amino acids that were crucial for the function of the GLP-1 receptor, a key therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. Using a combination of mutagenesis, pharmacological characterisation, mathematical and computational molecular modelling, this study identifies additional highly conserved polar residues located towards the TM helical boundaries of Class B GPCRs that are important for GLP-1 receptor stability and/or controlling signalling specificity and biased agonism. This includes (i) three positively charged residues (R3.30 227 , K4.64 288 , R5.40 310 ) located at the extracellular boundaries of TMs 3, 4 and 5 that are predicted in molecular models to stabilise extracellular loop 2, a crucial domain for ligand affinity and receptor activation; (ii) a predicted hydrogen bond network between residues located in TMs 2 (R2.46 176 ), 6 (R6.37 348 ) and 7 (N7.61 406 and E7.63 408 ) at the cytoplasmic face of the receptor that is important for stabilising the inactive receptor and directing signalling specificity, (iii) residues at the bottom of TM 5 (R5.56 326 ) and TM6 (K6.35 346 and K6.40 351 ) that are crucial for receptor activation and downstream signalling; (iv) residues predicted to be involved in stabilisation of TM4 (N2.52 182 and Y3.52 250 ) that also influence cell signalling. Collectively, this work expands our understanding of peptide-mediated signalling by the GLP-1 receptor. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo interactions between α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α: Implication for nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Asti; Bagdas, Deniz; Muldoon, Pretal P; Lichtman, Aron H; Carroll, F Ivy; Greenwald, Mark; Miles, Michael F; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-05-15

    Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-α (PPARα) has been implicated as a downstream signaling target of the α7 nAChR in ventral tegmental area dopamine cells. The present study investigated PPARα as a possible mediator of the effect of α7 nAChR activation in nicotine dependence. Our results demonstrate the PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocks actions of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 on nicotine reward in an unbiased CPP test in male ICR adult mice. These findings suggests that α7 nAChR activation attenuates nicotine CPP in a PPARα-dependent manner. To evaluate PPARα activation in nicotine dependence we used the selective and potent PPARα agonist, WY-14643 and the clinically used PPARα activator, fenofibrate, in nicotine CPP and we observed attenuation of nicotine preference, but fenofibrate was less potent. We also studied PPARα in nicotine dependence by evaluating its activation in nicotine withdrawal. WY-14643 reversed nicotine withdrawal signs whereas fenofibrate had modest efficacy. This suggests that PPARα plays a role in nicotine reward and withdrawal and that further studies are warranted to elucidate its function in mediating the effects of α7 nAChRs in nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Is a Novel Regulator of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firhan A Malik

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR attenuates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P signaling in resistance arteries and has emerged as a prominent regulator of myogenic vasoconstriction. This investigation demonstrates that S1P inhibits CFTR activity via adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK, establishing a potential feedback link. In Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK cells expressing wild-type human CFTR, S1P (1μmol/L attenuates forskolin-stimulated, CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. S1P's inhibitory effect is rapid (within 30 seconds, transient and correlates with CFTR serine residue 737 (S737 phosphorylation. Both S1P receptor antagonism (4μmol/L VPC 23019 and AMPK inhibition (80μmol/L Compound C or AMPK siRNA attenuate S1P-stimluated (i AMPK phosphorylation, (ii CFTR S737 phosphorylation and (iii CFTR activity inhibition. In BHK cells expressing the ΔF508 CFTR mutant (CFTRΔF508, the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, both S1P receptor antagonism and AMPK inhibition enhance CFTR activity, without instigating discernable correction. In summary, we demonstrate that S1P/AMPK signaling transiently attenuates CFTR activity. Since our previous work positions CFTR as a negative S1P signaling regulator, this signaling link may positively reinforce S1P signals. This discovery has clinical ramifications for the treatment of disease states associated with enhanced S1P signaling and/or deficient CFTR activity (e.g. cystic fibrosis, heart failure. S1P receptor/AMPK inhibition could synergistically enhance the efficacy of therapeutic strategies aiming to correct aberrant CFTR trafficking.

  5. Site-directed cross-linking: establishing the dimeric structure of the aspartate receptor of bacterial chemotaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, D.L.; Koshland, D.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteine residues introduced at specific locations in the aspartate receptor of Salmonella typhimurium provide anchor points for cross-linking and serve as chemical markers for structural studies of this oligomeric receptor. These markers have been used to measure the rate of subunit exchange between oligomeric receptors and to show that ligand binding inhibits this exchange. The cysteine-containing receptors can be oxidatively cross-linked to completion within the oligomeric receptor, indicating that the receptor has an even number of subunits. Based on this observation, a technique has been developed that can be used to determine the oligomeric structure of proteins under a variety of experimental conditions. The technique involves the measurement of the effect of dilution by cysteineless receptor subunits on cross-linking and reveals that the aspartate receptor is dimeric in detergent solution, in a mixed-micelle system, and in reconstituted membrane vesicles. Binding of aspartate does not change the oligomeric structure of the receptor, indicating that transmembrane signaling occurs within an oligomeric receptor of constant size

  6. G protein-coupled receptor 39 deficiency is associated with pancreatic islet dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Egerod, Kristoffer L; Jin, Chunyu

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-39 is a seven-transmembrane receptor expressed mainly in endocrine and metabolic tissues that acts as a Zn(++) sensor signaling mainly through the G(q) and G(12/13) pathways. The expression of GPR39 is regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1alpha and HNF-4...... tolerance both during oral and iv glucose tolerance tests, and Gpr39(-/-) mice had decreased plasma insulin response to oral glucose. Islet architecture was normal in the Gpr39 null mice, but expression of Pdx-1 and Hnf-1alpha was reduced. Isolated, perifused islets from Gpr39 null mice secreted less...

  7. Channel opening of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor from rat brain: molecular mechanisms of the receptor responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, D.J.; Subbarao, K.

    1987-01-01

    The function of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which mediate transmembrane chloride flux, can be studied by use of 36 Cl - isotope tracer with membrane from mammalian brain by quench-flow technique, with reaction times that allow resolution of the receptor desensitization rates from the ion flux rates. The rates of chloride exchange into the vesicles in the absence and presence of GABA were characterized with membrane from rat cerebral cortex. Unspecific 36 Cl - influx was completed in three phases of ca. 3% (t/sub 1/2/ = 0.6 s), 56% (t/sub 1/2 = 82 s), and 41% (t/sub 1/2 = 23 min). GABA-mediated, specific chloride exchange occurred with 6.5% of the total vesicular internal volume. The GABA-dependent 36 Cl - influx proceeded in two phases, each progressively slowed by desensitization. The measurements supported the presence of two distinguishable active GABA receptors on the same membrane mediating chloride exchange into the vesicles. The half-response concentrations were similar for both receptors. The two receptors were present in the activity ratio of ca. 4/1, similar to the ratio of low affinity to high-affinity GABA sites found in ligand binding experiments. The desensitization rates have a different dependence on GABA concentration than the channel-opening equilibria. For both receptors, the measurements over a 2000-fold GABA concentration range required a minimal mechanism involving the occupation of both of the two GABA binding sites for significant channel opening; then the receptors were ca. 80% open. Similarly for both receptors, desensitization was mediated by a different pair of binding sites, although desensitization with only one ligand molecule bound could occur at a 20-fold slower rate

  8. Maximizing the effect of an α7 nicotinic receptor PAM in a mouse model of schizophrenia-like sensory inhibition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E; Zheng, Lijun; Floyd, Kirsten L; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2015-06-22

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for the α7 nicotinic receptor hold promise for the treatment of sensory inhibition deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. Studies of these compounds in the DBA/2 mouse, which models the schizophrenia-related deficit in sensory inhibition, have shown PAMs to be effective in improving the deficit. However, the first published clinical trial of a PAM for both sensory inhibition deficits and related cognitive difficulties failed, casting a shadow on this therapeutic approach. The present study used both DBA/2 mice, and C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice to assess the ability of the α7 PAM, PNU-120596, to improve sensory inhibition. Both of these strains of mice have reduced hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers and deficient sensory inhibition similar to schizophrenia patients. Low doses of PNU-120596 (1 or 3.33mg/kg) were effective in the DBA/2 mouse but not the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. Moderate doses of the selective α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, choline chloride (10 or 33mg/kg), were also ineffective in improving sensory inhibition in the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. However, combining the lowest doses of both PNU-120596 and choline chloride in this mouse model did improve sensory inhibition. We propose here that the difference in efficacy of PNU-120596 between the 2 mouse strains is driven by differences in hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers, such that C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice require additional direct stimulation of the α7 receptors. These data may have implications for further clinical testing of putative α7 nicotinic receptor PAMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A.; Chobot, Sarah E.; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C.; Leslie Dutton, P.; Discher, Bohdana M.

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe the design, Escherichia coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics — the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.

  10. Surface TRAIL decoy receptor-4 expression is correlated with TRAIL resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D; Dirice, Ercument; Aydin, Cigdem; Erin, Nuray; Koksoy, Sadi; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2005-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Despite this promising feature, TRAIL resistance observed in cancer cells seriously challenged the use of TRAIL as a death ligand in gene therapy. The current dispute concerns whether or not TRAIL receptor expression pattern is the primary determinant of TRAIL sensitivity in cancer cells. This study investigates TRAIL receptor expression pattern and its connection to TRAIL resistance in breast cancer cells. In addition, a DcR2 siRNA approach and a complementary gene therapy modality involving IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA) were also tested to verify if these approaches could sensitize MCF7 breast cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL). TRAIL sensitivity assays were conducted using Molecular Probe's Live/Dead Cellular Viability/Cytotoxicity Kit following the infection of breast cancer cells with Ad5hTRAIL. The molecular mechanism of TRAIL induced cell death under the setting of IKK inhibition was revealed by Annexin V binding. Novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis were performed to disclose TRAIL receptor composition in breast cancer cells. MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells displayed strong resistance to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL. Only the combinatorial use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA infection sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to TRAIL induced cell death. Moreover, novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR assays suggested that while the level of TRAIL Decoy Receptor-4 (TRAIL-R4) expression was the highest in MCF7 cells, it was the lowest TRAIL receptor expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, conventional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that TRAIL resistant MCF7 cells exhibited substantial levels of TRAIL-R4 expression but not TRAIL decoy receptor-3 (TRAIL-R3) on surface. On the contrary, TRAIL sensitive MDA-MB-231 cells displayed very low levels of surface TRAIL-R4

  11. Elevated chemokine CC-motif receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) promotes cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fengqiong; Xu, Zhenhua; Wang, Zifeng; Yao, Hong; Shen, Zan; Yu, Fang; Tang, Yiping; Fu, Dengli; Lin, Sheng; Lu, Gang; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Poon, Wai Sang; Huang, Yunchao; Lin, Marie Chia-Mi

    2012-12-14

    Chemokine CC-motif receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) is a 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor which plays a key role in lung dendritic cell trafficking to peripheral lymph nodes. The function and expression of CCRL2 in cancer is not understood at present. Here we report that CCRL2 expression level is elevated in human glioma patient samples and cell lines. The magnitude of increase is positively associated with increasing tumor grade, with the highest level observed in grade IV glioblastoma. By gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we further showed that CCRL2 did not regulate the growth of human glioblatoma U87 and U373 cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that over-expression of CCRL2 significantly enhanced the migration rate and invasiveness of the glioblastoma cells. Taken together, these results suggest for the first time that elevated CCRL2 in glioma promotes cell migration and invasion. The potential roles of CCRL2 as a novel therapeutic target and biomarker warrant further investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ligand-induced internalization of neurotensin in transfected COS-7 cells: differential intracellular trafficking of ligand and receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbulcke, F; Nouel, D; Vincent, J P; Mazella, J; Beaudet, A

    2000-09-01

    The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) is known to be internalized in a receptor-mediated fashion into its target cells. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying this process, we monitored in parallel the migration of the NT1 neurotensin receptor subtype and a fluorescent analog of NT (fluo-NT) in COS-7 cells transfected with a tagged NT1 construct. Fluo-NT internalization was prevented by hypertonic sucrose, potassium depletion and cytosol acidification, demonstrating that it proceeded via clathrin-coated pits. Within 0-30 minutes, fluo-NT accumulated together with its receptor in Acridine Orange-positive, acidic organelles. These organelles concentrated transferrin and immunostained positively for rab 5A, therefore they were early endosomes. After 30-45 minutes, the ligand and its receptor no longer colocalized. Fluo-NT was first found in rab 7-positive late endosomes and later in a nonacidic juxtanuclear compartment identified as the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN) by virtue of its staining for syntaxin 6. This juxtanuclear compartment also stained positively for rab 7 and for the TGN/pericentriolar recycling endosome marker rab 11, suggesting that the ligand could have been recruited to the TGN from either late or recycling endosomes. By that time, internalized receptors were detected in Lamp-1-immunoreactive lysosomes. These results demonstrate that neurotensin/NT1 receptor complexes follow a recycling cycle that is unique among the G protein-coupled receptors studied to date, and provide the first evidence for the targeting of a nonendogenous protein from endosomes to the TGN.

  13. Insight of Transmembrane Processes of Self-Assembling Nanotubes Based on a Cyclic Peptide Using Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yankai; Yan, Tingxuan; Xu, Xia

    2017-09-28

    Transmembrane self-assembling cyclic peptide (SCP) nanotubes are promising candidates for delivering specific molecules through cell membranes. The detailed mechanisms behind the transmembrane processes, as well as stabilization factors of transmembrane structures, are difficult to elucidate through experiments. In this study, the effects of peptide sequence and oligomeric state on the transmembrane capabilities of SCP nanotubes and the perturbation of embedded SCP nanotubes acting on the membrane were investigated based on coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results reveal that hydrophilic SCP oligomers result in the elevation of the energy barrier while the oligomerization of hydrophobic SCPs causes the reduction of the energy barrier, further leading to membrane insertion. Once SCP nanotubes are embedded, membrane properties such as density, thickness, ordering state and lateral mobility are adjusted along the radial direction. This study provides insight into the transmembrane strategy of SCP nanotubes and sheds light on designing novel transport systems.

  14. Distinct neural pathways mediate alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Hansen, Henrik H

    2010-01-01

    alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists are candidates for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Selective alpha(7) nAChR agonists, such as SSR180711, activate neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens shell (ACCshell) in rats, regions...

  15. Do serotonin(1-7) receptors modulate short and long-term memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A

    2007-05-01

    Evidence from invertebrates to human studies indicates that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system modulates short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). This work is primarily focused on analyzing the contribution of 5-HT, cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors as well as protein synthesis to STM and LTM of an autoshaping learning task. It was observed that the inhibition of hippocampal protein synthesis or new mRNA did not produce a significant effect on autoshaping STM performance but it did impair LTM. Both non-contingent protein inhibition and 5-HT depletion showed no effects. It was basically the non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist cyproheptadine, which facilitated STM. However, the blockade of glutamatergic and cholinergic transmission impaired STM. In contrast, the selective 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist SB-224289 facilitated both STM and LTM. Selective receptor antagonists for the 5-HT(1A) (WAY100635), 5-HT(1D) (GR127935), 5-HT(2A) (MDL100907), 5-HT(2C/2B) (SB-200646), 5-HT(3) (ondansetron) or 5-HT(4) (GR125487), 5-HT(6) (Ro 04-6790, SB-399885 and SB-35713) or 5-HT(7) (SB-269970) did not impact STM. Nevertheless, WAY100635, MDL100907, SB-200646, GR125487, Ro 04-6790, SB-399885 or SB-357134 facilitated LTM. Notably, some of these changes shown to be independent of food-intake. Concomitantly, these data indicate that '5-HT tone via 5-HT(1B) receptors' might function in a serial manner from STM to LTM, whereas working in parallel using 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B/2C), 5-HT(4), or 5-HT(6) receptors.

  16. The Paradigm of G Protein Receptor Transactivation: A Mechanistic Definition and Novel Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Little

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven transmembrane G protein—coupled receptors are among the most common in biology and they transduce cellular signals from a plethora of hormones. As well as their own well-characterized signaling pathways, they can also transactivate tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors to greatly expand their own cellular repertoire of responses. Recent data in vascular smooth muscle cells have expanded the breadth of transactivation to include serine/threonine kinase receptors, specifically the receptor for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β. Stimulation with endothelin and thrombin leads to the rapid formation of C-terminal phosphorylated Smad2, which is the immediate product of activation of the TGF-β receptor. Additionally, it appears that no definition of transactivation based on mechanism is available, so we have provided a definition involving temporal aspects and the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The phenomenon of transactivation is an important biochemical mechanism and potential drug target in multiple diseases.

  17. Stargazin regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through adaptor protein complexes during long-term depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kakegawa, Wataru; Budisantoso, Timotheus; Nomura, Toshihiro; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2013-11-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) underlies learning and memory in various brain regions. Although postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking mediates LTD, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here we show that stargazin, a transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein, forms a ternary complex with adaptor proteins AP-2 and AP-3A in hippocampal neurons, depending on its phosphorylation state. Inhibiting the stargazin-AP-2 interaction disrupts NMDA-induced AMPA receptor endocytosis, and inhibiting that of stargazin-AP-3A abrogates the late endosomal/lysosomal trafficking of AMPA receptors, thereby upregulating receptor recycling to the cell surface. Similarly, stargazin’s interaction with AP-2 or AP-3A is necessary for low-frequency stimulus-evoked LTD in CA1 hippocampal neurons. Thus, stargazin has a crucial role in NMDA-dependent LTD by regulating two trafficking pathways of AMPA receptors—transport from the cell surface to early endosomes and from early endosomes to late endosomes/lysosomes—through its sequential binding to AP-2 and AP-3A.

  18. Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84, and GPR120 has made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length. Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, a process which is important to health. The phylogenetically related 7-transmembrane (7TM) receptors free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) and FFA3 are activated by these SCFAs, and several lines of evidence indicate that FFA2 and FFA3 mediate beneficial effects associated with a fiber-rich diet, and that they may be of interest as targets for treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. FFA2 is highly expressed on immune cells, in particular neutrophils, and several studies suggest that the receptor plays a role in diseases involving a dysfunctional neutrophil response, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both FFA2 and FFA3 have been implicated in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and in regulation of appetite. More research is however required to clarify the potential of the receptors as drug targets and establish if activation or inhibition would be the preferred mode of action. The availability of potent and selective receptor modulators is a prerequisite for these studies. The few modulators of FFA2 or FFA3 that have been published hitherto in the peer-reviewed literature in general have properties that make them less than ideal as such tools, but published patent applications indicate that better tool compounds might soon become available which should enable studies critical to validate the receptors as new drug targets.

  19. The role of the dopamine D1 receptor in social cognition: studies using a novel genetic rat model­

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R. Homberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is an endophenotype that is impaired in schizophrenia and several other (comorbid psychiatric disorders. One of the modulators of social cognition is dopamine, but its role is not clear. The effects of dopamine are mediated through dopamine receptors, including the dopamine D1 receptor (Drd1. Because current Drd1 receptor agonists are not Drd1 selective, pharmacological tools are not sufficient to delineate the role of the Drd1. Here, we describe a novel rat model with a genetic mutation in Drd1 in which we measured basic behavioural phenotypes and social cognition. The I116S mutation was predicted to render the receptor less stable. In line with this computational prediction, this Drd1 mutation led to a decreased transmembrane insertion of Drd1, whereas Drd1 expression, as measured by Drd1 mRNA levels, remained unaffected. Owing to decreased transmembrane Drd1 insertion, the mutant rats displayed normal basic motoric and neurological parameters, as well as locomotor activity and anxiety-like behaviour. However, measures of social cognition like social interaction, scent marking, pup ultrasonic vocalizations and sociability, were strongly reduced in the mutant rats. This profile of the Drd1 mutant rat offers the field of neuroscience a novel genetic rat model to study a series of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism, depression, bipolar disorder and drug addiction.

  20. Expression and role of 5-HT7 receptor in brain and intestine in rats with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bai-cang; Dong, Lei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Sheng-hao; Cao, Ming-bo

    2007-12-05

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine7 receptor (5-HT(7) receptor, 5-HT(7)R) plays an important role in the regulation of smooth muscle relaxation and visceral sensation and might be involved in the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal dyskinesia, abdominal pain and visceral paresthesia in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the 5-HT(7) receptor in the pathogenesis of IBS. A rat model of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) was established by colonic instillation of acetic acid and restraint stress. A rat model with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) was established by stomach irrigated with 0 - 4 degrees C cool water daily for 14 days. The content and distribution of 5-HT in the brain and gut were examined by immunohistochemistry and the mRNA expression of the 5-HT(7) receptor was determined by fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in all the same tissues was measured by radioimmunity. The models of IBS were reliable by identification. The immunohistochemistry results showed that there were significantly more 5-HT positive cells in the IBS-D group than in the control group in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, jejunum, ileum, proximate colon and distal colon (P intestine is related to the IBS pathogenesis. The up-regulated expression of the 5-HT(7) receptor in the brain and colon might play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBS-C.

  1. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Oxindole Derivatives as Potential Radioligands for 5-HT7 Receptor Imaging with PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herth, Matthias Manfred; Volk, Balázs; Pallagi, Katalin

    2012-01-01

    The most recently discovered serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype, 5-HT(7), is considered to be associated with several CNS disorders. Noninvasive in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral 5-HT(7) receptors could provide a significant advance in the understanding of the neurobio...

  2. Assignment of the 5HT7 receptor gene (HTR7) to chromosome 10q and exclusion of genetic linkage with Tourette syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelernter, J.; Rao, P.A.; Pauls, D.L. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, West Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-20

    A novel serotonin receptor designated 5HT7 (genetic locus HTR7) was cloned in 1993. This receptor has interesting properties related to ligand affinity and CNS distribution that render HTR7 a very interesting candidate gene for neuropsychiatric disorders. We mapped this gene, first by physical methods and then by genetic linkage. First, we made a tentative assignment to chromosome 10, based on hybridization of an HTR7 probe to a Southern blot of DNA from somatic cell hybrids. We then identified a genetic polymorphism at the HTR7 locus. We identified one extended pedigree where the polymorphism segregated. Using the LEPED computer program for pairwise linkage analysis, we confirmed the assignment of the gene to chromosome 10, specifically 10q21-q24, based on a lod score of 5.37 at 0% recombination between HTR7 and D10S20 (a chromosome 10 reference marker). Finally, we excluded genetic linkage between this locus and Tourette syndrome under a reasonable set of assumptions. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Detection of Side Chain Rearrangements Mediating the Motions of Transmembrane Helices in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Gaieb

    Full Text Available Structure and dynamics are essential elements of protein function. Protein structure is constantly fluctuating and undergoing conformational changes, which are captured by molecular dynamics (MD simulations. We introduce a computational framework that provides a compact representation of the dynamic conformational space of biomolecular simulations. This method presents a systematic approach designed to reduce the large MD simulation spatiotemporal datasets into a manageable set in order to guide our understanding of how protein mechanics emerge from side chain organization and dynamic reorganization. We focus on the detection of side chain interactions that undergo rearrangements mediating global domain motions and vice versa. Side chain rearrangements are extracted from side chain interactions that undergo well-defined abrupt and persistent changes in distance time series using Gaussian mixture models, whereas global domain motions are detected using dynamic cross-correlation. Both side chain rearrangements and global domain motions represent the dynamic components of the protein MD simulation, and are both mapped into a network where they are connected based on their degree of coupling. This method allows for the study of allosteric communication in proteins by mapping out the protein dynamics into an intramolecular network to reduce the large simulation data into a manageable set of communities composed of coupled side chain rearrangements and global domain motions. This computational framework is suitable for the study of tightly packed proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptors, and we present an application on a seven microseconds MD trajectory of CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7 bound to its ligand CCL21. Keywords: Molecular dynamics, Change-point detection, Side chain reorganization, Helical domain motion, Intramolecular network, Membrane proteins, GPCR, GPCR computational modeling, GPCR allostery

  4. Two distinct CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR3 and CXCR4) from the big-belly seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis: Molecular perspectives and immune defensive role upon pathogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Oh, Minyoung; Bathige, S D N K; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Jehee

    2017-06-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and 4 (CXCR4) are members of the seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptor family, involved in pivotal physiological functions. In this study, seahorse CXCR3 and CXCR4 (designated as HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4) cDNA sequences were identified from the transcriptome library and subsequently molecularly characterized. HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4 encoded 363 and 373 amino acid long polypeptides, respectively. The HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4 deduced proteins have typical structural features of chemokine receptors, including seven transmembrane domains and a G protein coupled receptors family 1 profile with characteristic DRY motifs. Amino acid sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of these two CXC chemokine receptors revealed a close relationship to their corresponding teleost counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4 were ubiquitously expressed in all the tested tissues, with highest expression levels in blood cells. The seahorse blood cells and kidney HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4 mRNA expressions were differently modulated when challenged with Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, lipopolysaccharide, and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, confirming their involvement in post immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Mouse S5D-SRCRB: A New Group B Member of the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró-Julià, Cristina; Roselló, Sandra; Martínez, Vanesa G

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily (SRCR-SF) members are transmembrane and/or secreted receptors exhibiting one or several repeats of a cysteine-rich protein module of ∼100 aa, named scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR). Two types of SRCR domains (A or B) have been reported, which...... differ in the number of coding exons and intradomain cysteines. Although no unifying function has been reported for SRCR-SF members, recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) was recently shown for some of them. In this article, we report the structural and functional characterization...

  6. Transceptors as a functional link of transporters and receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Diallinas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cells need to communicate with their environment in order to obtain nutrients, grow, divide and respond to signals related to adaptation in changing physiological conditions or stress. A very basic question in biology is how cells, especially of those organisms living in rapidly changing habitats, sense their environment. Apparently, this question is of particular importance to all free-living microorganisms. The critical role of receptors, transporters and channels, transmembrane proteins located in the plasma membrane of all types of cells, in signaling environmental changes is well established. A relative newcomer in environment sensing are the so called transceptors, membrane proteins that possess both solute transport and receptor-like signaling activities. Now, the transceptor concept is further enlarged to include micronutrient sensing via the iron and zinc high-affinity transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interestingly, what seems to underline the transport and/or sensing function of receptors, transporters and transceptors is ligand-induced conformational alterations recognized by downstream intracellular effectors.

  7. Biased signaling of G protein-coupled receptors - From a chemokine receptor CCR7 perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Astrid Sissel; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Hjortø, Gertrud M

    2018-01-01

    of CCL21 displays an extraordinarily strong glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding, CCR7 plays a central role in coordinating the meeting between mature antigen presenting DCs and naïve T-cells which normally takes place in the lymph nodes (LNs). This process is a prerequisite for the initiation of an antigen...... the cell-based immune system is controlled. Bias comes in three forms; ligand-, receptor- and tissue-bias. Biased signaling is increasingly being recognized as playing an important role in contributing to the fine-tuned coordination of immune cell chemotaxis. In the current review we discuss the recent...

  8. Selective labelling of 5-HT{sub 7} receptor recognition sites in rat brain using [{sup 3}H]5-carboxamidotryptamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, R.L.; Barnes, N.M. [Department of Pharmacology, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a radioligand binding assay to selectively label the native 5-HT{sub 7} receptor expressed in rat brain. In rat whole brain (minus cerebellum and striatum) homogenate, ({+-})-pindolol (10 {mu}M)-insensitive [{sup 3}H]5-CT ([{sup 3}H]5-carboxamidotryptamine; 0.5 nM) specific binding (defined by 5-HT, 10 {mu}M) displayed a pharmacological profile similar to the recombinant 5-HT{sub 7} receptor, although the Hill coefficients for competition curves generated by methiothepin, ritanserin, sumatriptan, clozapine and pimozide were significantly less than unity. In homogenates of rat hypothalamus, ({+-})-pindolol (10 {mu}M)-insensitive [{sup 3}H]5-CT recognition sites also resembled, pharmacologically, the 5-HT{sub 7} receptor, although pimozide still generated Hill coefficients significantly less than unity. Subsequent studies were performed in the additional presence of WAY100635 (100 nM) to prevent [{sup 3}H]5-CT binding to residual, possibly, 5-HT{sub 1A} sites. Competition for this [{sup 3}H]5-CT binding indicated the labelling in whole rat brain homogenate of a homogenous population of sites with the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT{sub 7} receptor. Saturation studies also indicated that ({+-})-pindolol (10 {mu}M)/WAY 100635 (100 nM)-insensitive [{sup 3}H]5-CT binding to homogenates of whole rat brain was saturable and to an apparently homogenous population of sites which were labelled with nanomolar affinity (B{sub max}=33.2{+-}0.7 fmol mg{sup -1} protein, pK{sub d}=8.78{+-}0.05, mean{+-}S.E.M., n=3). The development of this 5-HT{sub 7} receptor binding assay will aid investigation of the rat native 5-HT{sub 7} receptor. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Activation gating kinetics of GIRK channels are mediated by cytoplasmic residues adjacent to transmembrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadja, Rona; Reuveny, Eitan

    2009-01-01

    G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK/Kir3.x) are involved in neurotransmission-mediated reduction of excitability. The gating mechanism following G protein activation of these channels likely proceeds from movement of inner transmembrane helices to allow K(+) ions movement through the pore of the channel. There is limited understanding of how the binding of G-protein betagamma subunits to cytoplasmic regions of the channel transduces the signal to the transmembrane regions. In this study, we examined the molecular basis that governs the activation kinetics of these channels, using a chimeric approach. We identified two regions as being important in determining the kinetics of activation. One region is the bottom of the outer transmembrane helix (TM1) and the cytoplasmic domain immediately adjacent (the slide helix); and the second region is the bottom of the inner transmembrane helix (TM2) and the cytoplasmic domain immediately adjacent. Interestingly, both of these regions are sufficient in mediating the kinetics of fast activation gating. This result suggests that there is a cooperative movement of either one of these domains to allow fast and efficient activation gating of GIRK channels.

  10. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Aromatic interactions impact ligand binding and function at serotonin 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors: receptor homology modelling, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics results validated by experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Sintjago, Tania; Villa, Nancy; Fang, Lijuan; Booth, Raymond G.

    2014-02-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT2 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family consists of types 2A, 2B, and 2C that share ∼75% transmembrane (TM) sequence identity. Agonists for 5-HT2C receptors are under development for psychoses; whereas, at 5-HT2A receptors, antipsychotic effects are associated with antagonists - in fact, 5-HT2A agonists can cause hallucinations and 5-HT2B agonists cause cardiotoxicity. It is known that 5-HT2A TM6 residues W6.48, F6.51, and F6.52 impact ligand binding and function; however, ligand interactions with these residues at the 5-HT2C receptor have not been reported. To predict and validate molecular determinants for 5-HT2C-specific activation, results from receptor homology modelling, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies were compared with experimental results for ligand binding and function at wild type and W6.48A, F6.51A, and F6.52A point-mutated 5-HT2C receptors.

  12. Adrenergic Agonists Bind to Adrenergic-Receptor-Like Regions of the Mu Opioid Receptor, Enhancing Morphine and Methionine-Enkephalin Binding: A New Approach to "Biased Opioids"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-Bernstein, Robert; Turke, Miah; Subhramanyam, Udaya K Tiruttani; Churchill, Beth; Labahn, Joerg

    2018-01-17

    Extensive evidence demonstrates functional interactions between the adrenergic and opioid systems in a diversity of tissues and organs. While some effects are due to receptor and second messenger cross-talk, recent research has revealed an extracellular, allosteric opioid binding site on adrenergic receptors that enhances adrenergic activity and its duration. The present research addresses whether opioid receptors may have an equivalent extracellular, allosteric adrenergic binding site that has similar enhancing effects on opioid binding. Comparison of adrenergic and opioid receptor sequences revealed that these receptors share very significant regions of similarity, particularly in some of the extracellular and transmembrane regions associated with adrenergic binding in the adrenergic receptors. Five of these shared regions from the mu opioid receptor (muOPR) were synthesized as peptides and tested for binding to adrenergic, opioid and control compounds using ultraviolet spectroscopy. Adrenergic compounds bound to several of these muOPR peptides with low micromolar affinity while acetylcholine, histamine and various adrenergic antagonists did not. Similar studies were then conducted with purified, intact muOPR with similar results. Combinations of epinephrine with methionine enkephalin or morphine increased the binding of both by about half a log unit. These results suggest that muOPR may be allosterically enhanced by adrenergic agonists.

  13. Advantages of combined transmembrane topology and signal peptide prediction--the Phobius web server

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käll, Lukas; Krogh, Anders; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

    2007-01-01

    . The method makes an optimal choice between transmembrane segments and signal peptides, and also allows constrained and homology-enriched predictions. We here present a web interface (http://phobius.cgb.ki.se and http://phobius.binf.ku.dk) to access Phobius. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jul......When using conventional transmembrane topology and signal peptide predictors, such as TMHMM and SignalP, there is a substantial overlap between these two types of predictions. Applying these methods to five complete proteomes, we found that 30-65% of all predicted signal peptides and 25-35% of all...

  14. Cell transformation mediated by the Epstein-Barr virus G protein-coupled receptor BILF1 is dependent on constitutive signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaa, Rikke Birgitte; Nørregaard, K.; Kristensen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) open reading frame BILF1 encodes a seven trans-membrane (TM) G protein-coupled receptor that signals with high constitutive activity through G alpha(i) (Beisser et al., 2005; Paulsen et al., 2005). In this paper, the transforming potential of BILF1 is investigated in vitro...

  15. Novel series of potent, nonsteroidal, selective androgen receptor modulators based on 7H-[1,4]oxazino[3,2-g]quinolin-7-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Robert I; Arienti, Kristen L; López, Francisco J; Mani, Neelakhanda S; Mais, Dale E; Caferro, Thomas R; Long, Yun Oliver; Jones, Todd K; Edwards, James P; Zhi, Lin; Schrader, William T; Negro-Vilar, Andrés; Marschke, Keith B

    2007-05-17

    Recent interest in orally available androgens has fueled the search for new androgens for use in hormone replacement therapy and as anabolic agents. In pursuit of this, we have discovered a series of novel androgen receptor modulators derived from 7H-[1,4]oxazino[3,2-g]quinolin-7-ones. These compounds were synthesized and evaluated in competitive binding assays and an androgen receptor transcriptional activation assay. A number of compounds from the series demonstrated single-digit nanomolar agonist activity in vitro. In addition, lead compound (R)-16e was orally active in established rodent models that measure androgenic and anabolic properties of these agents. In this assay, (R)-16e demonstrated full efficacy in muscle and only partially stimulated the prostate at 100 mg/kg. These data suggest that these compounds may be utilized as selective androgen receptor modulators or SARMs. This series represents a novel class of compounds for use in androgen replacement therapy.

  16. Self-phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor: evidence for a model of intermolecular allosteric activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarden, Y.; Schlessinger, J.

    1987-01-01

    The membrane receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 170,000 dalton glycoprotein composed of an extracellular EGF-binding domain and a cytoplasmic kinase domain connected by a stretch of 23 amino acids traversing the plasma membrane. The binding of EGF to the extracellular domain activates the cytoplasmic kinase function even in highly purified preparations of EGF receptor, suggesting that the activation occurs exclusively within the EGF receptor moiety. Conceivably, kinase activation may require the transfer of a conformational change through the single transmembrane region from the ligand binding domain to the cytoplasmic kinase region. Alternatively, ligand-induced receptor-receptor interactions may activate the kinase and thus bypass this requirement. Both mechanisms were contrasted by employing independent experimental approaches. On the basis of these results, an allosteric aggregation model is formulated for the activation of the cytoplasmic kinase function of the receptor by EGF. This model may be relevant to the mechanism by which the mitogenic signal of EGF is transferred across the membrane

  17. EBI2, GPR18 and GPR17--three structurally related, but biologically distinct 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Kristine; Benned-Jensen, Tau; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2011-01-01

    7TM receptors constitute one of the largest superfamilies of proteins in the human genome. They are involved in a large number of physiological and pathological processes in the human body and thus represent major and important drug targets for the pharmaceutical industry. Although the majority...... have been deorphanized, many remain orphan, and these orphan receptors constitute a large pool of potential drug targets. This review focuses on one of these orphan targets, the Epstein-Barr Virus-induced receptor 2, EBI2 (or GPR183), together with two structurally related receptors, GPR17 and GPR18...

  18. Several Classical Mouse Inbred Strains, Including DBA/2, NOD/Lt, FVB/N, and SJL/J, Carry a Putative Loss-of-Function Allele of Gpr84

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Carlos J.; Dumas, Aline; Vallières, Luc; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Benavides, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a 7-transmembrane protein expressed on myeloid cells that can bind to medium-chain free fatty acids in vitro. Here, we report the discovery of a 2-bp frameshift deletion in the second exon of the Gpr84 gene in several classical mouse inbred strains. This deletion generates a premature stop codon predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane domains 4-7. We sequenced Gpr84 exon 2 from 58 strains representing different groups in th...

  19. METHODS FOR RECOMBINANT EXPRESSION AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN CANNABINOID RECEPTOR CB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Yeliseev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid receptor CB2 is a seven transmembrane-domain integral membrane protein that belongs to a large superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. CB2 is a part of the endocannabinoid system that plays vital role in regulation of immune response, inflammation, pain sensitivity, obesity and other physiological responses. Information about the structure and mechanisms of functioning of this receptor in cell membranes is essential for the rational development of specific pharmaceuticals. Here we review the methodology for recombinant expression, purification, stabilization and biochemical characterization of CB2 suitable for preparation of multi-milligram quantities of functionally active receptor. The biotechnological protocols include expression of the recombinant CB2 in E. coli cells as a fusion with the maltose binding protein, stabilization with a high affinity ligand and a derivative of cholesterol in detergent micelles, efficient purification by tandem affinity chromatography, and reconstitution of the receptor into lipid bilayers. The purified recombinant CB2 receptor is amenable to functional and structural studies including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a wide range of biochemical and biophysical techniques.

  20. The Role of Sigma-1 Receptor, an Intracellular Chaperone in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penke, Botond; Fulop, Livia; Szucs, Maria; Frecska, Ede

    2018-01-01

    Widespread protein aggregation occurs in the living system under stress or during aging, owing to disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis. Many neurodegenerative diseases may have a common mechanism: the failure of protein homeostasis. Perturbation of ER results in unfolded protein response (UPR). Prolonged chronical UPR may activate apoptotic pathways and cause cell death. Research articles on Sigma-1 receptor were reviewed. ER is associated to mitochondria by the mitochondria-associated ER-membrane, MAM. The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), a well-known ER-chaperone localizes in the MAM. It serves for Ca2+-signaling between the ER and mitochondria, involved in ion channel activities and especially important during neuronal differentiation. Sig-1R acts as central modulator in inter-organelle signaling. Sig-1R helps cell survival by attenuating ER-stress. According to sequence based predictions Sig-1R is a 223 amino acid protein with two transmembrane (2TM) domains. The X-ray structure of the Sig-1R [1] showed a membrane-bound trimeric assembly with one transmembrane (1TM) region. Despite the in vitro determined assembly, the results of in vivo studies are rather consistent with the 2TM structure. The receptor has unique and versatile pharmacological profile. Dimethyl tryptamine (DMT) and neuroactive steroids are endogenous ligands that activate Sig-1R. The receptor has a plethora of interacting client proteins. Sig-1R exists in oligomeric structures (dimer-trimer-octamer-multimer) and this fact may explain interaction with diverse proteins. Sig-1R agonists have been used in the treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (AD and PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Utilization of Sig-1R agents early in AD and similar other diseases has remained an overlooked therapeutic opportunity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Structural Insights into Triglyceride Storage Mediated by Fat Storage-Inducing Transmembrane (FIT) Protein 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, David A.; Snapp, Erik L.; Silver, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2) belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9)AAA) in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9)AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation. PMID:20520733

  2. Structural insights into triglyceride storage mediated by fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gross

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2 belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9AAA in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation.

  3. InterProScan Result: FS763011 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS763011 FS763011_3_ORF1 ADA83816196D1572 PANTHER PTHR21229 LUNG SEVEN TRANSMEMBRAN...E RECEPTOR 1.2e-07 T IPR009637 Transmembrane receptor, eukaryota Cellular Component: integral to membrane (GO:0016021) ...

  4. Trans-membrane area asymmetry controls the shape of cellular organelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beznoussenko, Galina V; Pilyugin, Sergei S; Geerts, Willie J C; Kozlov, Michael M; Burger, Koert N J; Luini, Alberto; Derganc, Jure; Mironov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Membrane organelles often have complicated shapes and differ in their volume, surface area and membrane curvature. The ratio between the surface area of the cytosolic and luminal leaflets (trans-membrane area asymmetry (TAA)) determines the membrane curvature within different sites of the organelle.

  5. Modelling of a transmembrane evaporation module for desalination of seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, C.M.; Racz, I.G.; van Heuven, Jan Willem; Reith, T.; de Haan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    Transmembrane evaporation (often called membrane distillation) carried out in a countercurrent flow module, in which incoming cold seawater is heated by the condensing product water flow, is a promising technology for low-cost seawater desalination. This paper presents a model for preliminary design

  6. alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout selectively enhances ethanol-, but not beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2005-01-03

    The alpha7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated as a potential site of action for two neurotoxins, ethanol and the Alzheimer's disease related peptide, beta-amyloid. Here, we utilized primary neuronal cultures of cerebral cortex from alpha7 nAChR null mutant mice to examine the role of this receptor in modulating the neurotoxic properties of subchronic, "binge" ethanol and beta-amyloid. Knockout of the alpha7 nAChR gene selectively enhanced ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a gene dosage-related fashion. Susceptibility of cultures to beta-amyloid induced toxicity, however, was unaffected by alpha7 nAChR gene null mutation. Further, beta-amyloid did not inhibit the binding of the highly alpha7-selective radioligand, [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin. On the other hand, in studies in Xenopus oocytes ethanol efficaciously inhibited alpha7 nAChR function. These data suggest that alpha7 nAChRs modulate the neurotoxic effects of binge ethanol, but not the neurotoxicity produced by beta-amyloid. It is hypothesized that inhibition of alpha7 nAChRs by ethanol provides partial protection against the neurotoxic properties of subchronic ethanol.

  7. Mutual enhancement of IL-2 and IL-7 on DNA vaccine immunogenicity mainly involves regulations on their receptor expression and receptor-expressing lymphocyte generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Liang, Shuang; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Jianlou; Xu, Jian; Huo, Shanshan; Cao, Xuebin; Zhong, Zhenyu; Zhong, Fei

    2015-07-09

    Our previous study showed that IL-2 and IL-7 could mutually enhance the immunogenicity of canine parvovirus VP2 DNA vaccine, although the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here, we used the OVA gene as a DNA vaccine in a mouse model to test their enhancement on DNA vaccine immunogenicity and to explore the molecular mechanism. Results showed that both IL-2 and IL-7 genes significantly increased the immunogenicity of OVA DNA vaccine in mice. Co-administration of IL-2 and IL-7 genes with OVA DNA significantly increased OVA-specific antibody titers, T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production compared with IL-2 or IL-7 alone, confirming that IL-2 and IL-7 mutually enhanced DNA vaccine immunogenicity. Mechanistically, we have shown that IL-2 significantly stimulated generation of IL-7 receptor-expressing lymphocytes, and that IL-7 significantly induced IL-2 receptor expression. These results contribute to an explanation of the mechanism of the mutual effects of IL-2 and IL-7 on enhancing DNA vaccine immunogenicity and provided a basis for further investigation on their mutual effects on adjuvant activity and immune regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adrenergic Agonists Bind to Adrenergic-Receptor-Like Regions of the Mu Opioid Receptor, Enhancing Morphine and Methionine-Enkephalin Binding: A New Approach to “Biased Opioids”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turke, Miah; Subhramanyam, Udaya K. Tiruttani; Churchill, Beth; Labahn, Joerg

    2018-01-01

    Extensive evidence demonstrates functional interactions between the adrenergic and opioid systems in a diversity of tissues and organs. While some effects are due to receptor and second messenger cross-talk, recent research has revealed an extracellular, allosteric opioid binding site on adrenergic receptors that enhances adrenergic activity and its duration. The present research addresses whether opioid receptors may have an equivalent extracellular, allosteric adrenergic binding site that has similar enhancing effects on opioid binding. Comparison of adrenergic and opioid receptor sequences revealed that these receptors share very significant regions of similarity, particularly in some of the extracellular and transmembrane regions associated with adrenergic binding in the adrenergic receptors. Five of these shared regions from the mu opioid receptor (muOPR) were synthesized as peptides and tested for binding to adrenergic, opioid and control compounds using ultraviolet spectroscopy. Adrenergic compounds bound to several of these muOPR peptides with low micromolar affinity while acetylcholine, histamine and various adrenergic antagonists did not. Similar studies were then conducted with purified, intact muOPR with similar results. Combinations of epinephrine with methionine enkephalin or morphine increased the binding of both by about half a log unit. These results suggest that muOPR may be allosterically enhanced by adrenergic agonists. PMID:29342106

  9. Adrenergic Agonists Bind to Adrenergic-Receptor-Like Regions of the Mu Opioid Receptor, Enhancing Morphine and Methionine-Enkephalin Binding: A New Approach to “Biased Opioids”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Root-Bernstein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive evidence demonstrates functional interactions between the adrenergic and opioid systems in a diversity of tissues and organs. While some effects are due to receptor and second messenger cross-talk, recent research has revealed an extracellular, allosteric opioid binding site on adrenergic receptors that enhances adrenergic activity and its duration. The present research addresses whether opioid receptors may have an equivalent extracellular, allosteric adrenergic binding site that has similar enhancing effects on opioid binding. Comparison of adrenergic and opioid receptor sequences revealed that these receptors share very significant regions of similarity, particularly in some of the extracellular and transmembrane regions associated with adrenergic binding in the adrenergic receptors. Five of these shared regions from the mu opioid receptor (muOPR were synthesized as peptides and tested for binding to adrenergic, opioid and control compounds using ultraviolet spectroscopy. Adrenergic compounds bound to several of these muOPR peptides with low micromolar affinity while acetylcholine, histamine and various adrenergic antagonists did not. Similar studies were then conducted with purified, intact muOPR with similar results. Combinations of epinephrine with methionine enkephalin or morphine increased the binding of both by about half a log unit. These results suggest that muOPR may be allosterically enhanced by adrenergic agonists.

  10. Structural mechanism of ligand activation in human calcium-sensing receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Yong; Mosyak, Lidia; Kurinov, Igor; Zuo, Hao; Sturchler, Emmanuel; Cheng, Tat Cheung; Subramanyam, Prakash; Brown, Alice P.; Brennan, Sarah C.; Mun, Hee-chang; Bush, Martin; Chen, Yan; Nguyen, Trang X.; Cao, Baohua; Chang, Donald D.; Quick, Matthias; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Colecraft, Henry M.; McDonald, Patricia; Fan, Qing R.

    2016-07-19

    Human calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that maintains extracellular Ca2+homeostasis through the regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion. It functions as a disulfide-tethered homodimer composed of three main domains, the Venus Flytrap module, cysteine-rich domain, and seven-helix transmembrane region. Here, we present the crystal structures of the entire extracellular domain of CaSR in the resting and active conformations. We provide direct evidence that L-amino acids are agonists of the receptor. In the active structure, L-Trp occupies the orthosteric agonist-binding site at the interdomain cleft and is primarily responsible for inducing extracellular domain closure to initiate receptor activation. Our structures reveal multiple binding sites for Ca2+and PO43-ions. Both ions are crucial for structural integrity of the receptor. While Ca2+ions stabilize the active state, PO43-ions reinforce the inactive conformation. The activation mechanism of CaSR involves the formation of a novel dimer interface between subunits.

  11. A Hydrogen-Bonded Polar Network in the Core of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Is a Fulcrum for Biased Agonism: Lessons from Class B Crystal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Denise; Reynolds, Christopher A; Koole, Cassandra; Smith, Kevin J; Mobarec, Juan C; Simms, John; Quon, Tezz; Coudrat, Thomas; Furness, Sebastian G B; Miller, Laurence J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M

    2016-03-01

    The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor is a class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is a key target for treatments for type II diabetes and obesity. This receptor, like other class B GPCRs, displays biased agonism, though the physiologic significance of this is yet to be elucidated. Previous work has implicated R2.60(190), N3.43(240), Q7.49(394), and H6.52(363) as key residues involved in peptide-mediated biased agonism, with R2.60(190), N3.43(240), and Q7.49(394) predicted to form a polar interaction network. In this study, we used novel insight gained from recent crystal structures of the transmembrane domains of the glucagon and corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptors to develop improved models of the GLP-1 receptor that predict additional key molecular interactions with these amino acids. We have introduced E6.53(364)A, N3.43(240)Q, Q7.49(394)N, and N3.43(240)Q/Q7.49(394)N mutations to probe the role of predicted H-bonding and charge-charge interactions in driving cAMP, calcium, or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. A polar interaction between E6.53(364) and R2.60(190) was predicted to be important for GLP-1- and exendin-4-, but not oxyntomodulin-mediated cAMP formation and also ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, Q7.49(394), but not R2.60(190)/E6.53(364) was critical for calcium mobilization for all three peptides. Mutation of N3.43(240) and Q7.49(394) had differential effects on individual peptides, providing evidence for molecular differences in activation transition. Collectively, this work expands our understanding of peptide-mediated signaling from the GLP-1 receptor and the key role that the central polar network plays in these events. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. The expression of Toll-like receptor 4, 7 and co-receptors in neurochemical sub-populations of rat trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helley, M P; Abate, W; Jackson, S K; Bennett, J H; Thompson, S W N

    2015-12-03

    The recent discovery that mammalian nociceptors express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has raised the possibility that these cells directly detect and respond to pathogens with implications for either direct nociceptor activation or sensitization. A range of neuronal TLRs have been identified, however a detailed description regarding the distribution of expression of these receptors within sub-populations of sensory neurons is lacking. There is also some debate as to the composition of the TLR4 receptor complex on sensory neurons. Here we use a range of techniques to quantify the expression of TLR4, TLR7 and some associated molecules within neurochemically-identified sub-populations of trigeminal (TG) and dorsal root (DRG) ganglion sensory neurons. We also detail the pattern of expression and co-expression of two isoforms of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), a phospholipid remodeling enzyme previously shown to be involved in the lipopolysaccharide-dependent TLR4 response in monocytes, within sensory ganglia. Immunohistochemistry shows that both TLR4 and TLR7 preferentially co-localize with transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1) and purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 3 (P2X3), markers of nociceptor populations, within both TG and DRG. A gene expression profile shows that TG sensory neurons express a range of TLR-associated molecules. LPCAT1 is expressed by a proportion of both nociceptors and non-nociceptive neurons. LPCAT2 immunostaining is absent from neuronal profiles within both TG and DRG and is confined to non-neuronal cell types under naïve conditions. Together, our results show that nociceptors express the molecular machinery required to directly respond to pathogenic challenge independently from the innate immune system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. IL-7 Induces an Epitope Masking of γc Protein in IL-7 Receptor Signaling Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sik Goh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-7 signaling via IL-7Rα and common γ-chain (γc is necessary for the development and homeostasis of T cells. Although the delicate mechanism in which IL-7Rα downregulation allows the homeostasis of T cell with limited IL-7 has been well known, the exact mechanism behind the interaction between IL-7Rα and γc in the absence or presence of IL-7 remains unclear. Additionally, we are still uncertain as to how only IL-7Rα is separately downregulated by the binding of IL-7 from the IL-7Rα/γc complex. We demonstrate here that 4G3, TUGm2, and 3E12 epitope masking of γc protein are induced in the presence of IL-7, indicating that the epitope alteration is induced by IL-7 binding to the preassembled receptor core. Moreover, the epitope masking of γc protein is inversely correlated with the expression of IL-7Rα upon IL-7 binding, implying that the structural alteration of γc might be involved in the regulation of IL-7Rα expression. The conformational change in γc upon IL-7 binding may contribute not only to forming the functional IL-7 signaling complex but also to optimally regulating the expression of IL-7Rα.

  14. IL-7 Induces an Epitope Masking of γc Protein in IL-7 Receptor Signaling Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Tae Sik; Jo, Yuna; Lee, Byunghyuk; Kim, Geona; Hwang, Hyunju; Ko, Eunhee; Kang, Seung Wan; Oh, Sae-Ock; Baek, Sun-Yong; Yoon, Sik; Lee, Jung Sub

    2017-01-01

    IL-7 signaling via IL-7Rα and common γ-chain (γc) is necessary for the development and homeostasis of T cells. Although the delicate mechanism in which IL-7Rα downregulation allows the homeostasis of T cell with limited IL-7 has been well known, the exact mechanism behind the interaction between IL-7Rα and γc in the absence or presence of IL-7 remains unclear. Additionally, we are still uncertain as to how only IL-7Rα is separately downregulated by the binding of IL-7 from the IL-7Rα/γc complex. We demonstrate here that 4G3, TUGm2, and 3E12 epitope masking of γc protein are induced in the presence of IL-7, indicating that the epitope alteration is induced by IL-7 binding to the preassembled receptor core. Moreover, the epitope masking of γc protein is inversely correlated with the expression of IL-7Rα upon IL-7 binding, implying that the structural alteration of γc might be involved in the regulation of IL-7Rα expression. The conformational change in γc upon IL-7 binding may contribute not only to forming the functional IL-7 signaling complex but also to optimally regulating the expression of IL-7Rα. PMID:28127156

  15. Can membrane-bound carotenoid pigment zeaxanthin carry out a transmembrane proton transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupisz, Kamila; Sujak, Agnieszka; Patyra, Magdalena; Trebacz, Kazimierz; Gruszecki, Wiesław I

    2008-10-01

    Polar carotenoid pigment zeaxanthin (beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) incorporated into planar lipid membranes formed with diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine increases the specific electric resistance of the membrane from ca. 4 to 13 x 10(7) Omega cm2 (at 5 mol% zeaxanthin with respect to lipid). Such an observation is consistent with the well known effect of polar carotenoids in decreasing fluidity and structural stabilization of lipid bilayers. Zeaxanthin incorporated into the lipid membrane at 1 mol% has very small effect on the overall membrane resistance but facilitates equilibration of the transmembrane proton gradient, as demonstrated with the application of the H+-sensitive antimony electrodes. Relatively low changes in the electrical potential suggest that the equilibration process may be associated with a symport/antiport activity or with a transmembrane transfer of the molecules of acid. UV-Vis linear dichroism analysis of multibilayer formed with the same lipid-carotenoid system shows that the transition dipole moment of the pigment molecules forms a mean angle of 21 degrees with respect to the axis normal to the plane of the membrane. This means that zeaxanthin spans the membrane and tends to have its two hydroxyl groups anchored in the opposite polar zones of the membrane. Detailed FTIR analysis of beta-carotene and zeaxanthin indicates that the polyene chain of carotenoids is able to form weak hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Possible molecular mechanisms responsible for proton transport by polyenes are discussed, including direct involvement of the polyene chain in proton transfer and indirect effect of the pigment on physical properties of the membrane.

  16. Evaluation of 3-Ethyl-3-(phenylpiperazinylbutyl)oxindoles as PET Ligands for the Serotonin 5-HT7 Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herth, Matthias M; Andersen, Valdemar L; Hansen, Hanne D

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated several oxindole derivatives in the pursuit of a 5-HT7 receptor PET ligand. Herein the synthesis, chiral separation, and pharmacological profiling of two possible PET candidates toward a wide selection of CNS-targets are detailed. Subsequent (11)C-labeling and in vivo evaluat...... evaluation in Danish landrace pigs showed that both ligands displayed high brain uptake. However, neither of the radioligands could be displaced by the 5-HT7 receptor selective inverse agonist SB-269970....

  17. Performance comparison of two androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernemann, Christof; Steinestel, Julie; Humberg, Verena; Bögemann, Martin; Schrader, Andres Jan; Lennerz, Jochen K

    2018-01-23

    To compare the performance of two established androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) mRNA detection systems, as paradoxical responses to next-generation androgen-deprivation therapy in AR-V7 mRNA-positive circulating tumour cells (CTC) of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) could be related to false-positive classification using detection systems with different sensitivities. We compared the performance of two established mRNA-based AR-V7 detection technologies using either SYBR Green or TaqMan chemistries. We assessed in vitro performance using eight genitourinary cancer cell lines and serial dilutions in three AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cell lines, as well as in 32 blood samples from patients with CRPC. Both assays performed identically in the cell lines and serial dilutions showed identical diagnostic thresholds. Performance comparison in 32 clinical patient samples showed perfect concordance between the assays. In particular, both assays determined AR-V7 mRNA-positive CTCs in three patients with unexpected responses to next-generation anti-androgen therapy. Thus, technical differences between the assays can be excluded as the underlying reason for the unexpected responses to next-generation anti-androgen therapy in a subset of AR-V7 patients. Irrespective of the method used, patients with AR-V7 mRNA-positive CRPC should not be systematically precluded from an otherwise safe treatment option. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of [11C]Cimbi-806 as a potential PET ligand for 5-HT7 receptor imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herth, Matthias Manfred; Hansen, Hanne Demant; Ettrup, Anders Janusz

    2012-01-01

    )-N,N-dimethylethanamine ([(11)C]Cimbi-806) as a radioligand for imaging brain 5-HT(7) receptors with positron emission tomography (PET). Precursor and reference compound was synthesized and subsequent (11)C-labelling with [(11)C]methyltriflate produced [(11)C]Cimbi-806 in specific activities ranging from 50 to 300 GBq...... of appropriate in vivo blocking with a 5-HT(7) receptor selective compounds renders the conclusion that [(11)C]Cimbi-806 is not an appropriate PET radioligand for imaging the 5-HT(7) receptor in vivo....

  19. GABAA receptor: Positive and negative allosteric modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard W

    2018-01-31

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission and the gene products involved were discovered during the mid-twentieth century. Historically, myriad existing nervous system drugs act as positive and negative allosteric modulators of these proteins, making GABA a major component of modern neuropharmacology, and suggesting that many potential drugs will be found that share these targets. Although some of these drugs act on proteins involved in synthesis, degradation, and membrane transport of GABA, the GABA receptors Type A (GABA A R) and Type B (GABA B R) are the targets of the great majority of GABAergic drugs. This discovery is due in no small part to Professor Norman Bowery. Whereas the topic of GABA B R is appropriately emphasized in this special issue, Norman Bowery also made many insights into GABA A R pharmacology, the topic of this article. GABA A R are members of the ligand-gated ion channel receptor superfamily, a chloride channel family of a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes containing 19 possible different subunits. These subtypes show different brain regional and subcellular localization, age-dependent expression, and potential for plastic changes with experience including drug exposure. Not only are GABA A R the targets of agonist depressants and antagonist convulsants, but most GABA A R drugs act at other (allosteric) binding sites on the GABA A R proteins. Some anxiolytic and sedative drugs, like benzodiazepine and related drugs, act on GABA A R subtype-dependent extracellular domain sites. General anesthetics including alcohols and neurosteroids act at GABA A R subunit-interface trans-membrane sites. Ethanol at high anesthetic doses acts on GABA A R subtype-dependent trans-membrane domain sites. Ethanol at low intoxicating doses acts at GABA A R subtype-dependent extracellular domain sites. Thus GABA A R subtypes possess pharmacologically specific receptor binding sites for a large group of different chemical classes of

  20. International Union of Pharmacology. XXXII. The mammalian calcitonin gene-related peptides, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyner, David R; Sexton, Patrick M; Marshall, Ian; Smith, David M; Quirion, Remi; Born, Walter; Muff, Roman; Fischer, Jan A; Foord, Steven M

    2002-06-01

    The calcitonin family of peptides comprises calcitonin, amylin, two calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRPs), and adrenomedullin. The first calcitonin receptor was cloned in 1991. Its pharmacology is complicated by the existence of several splice variants. The receptors for the other members the family are made up of subunits. The calcitonin-like receptor (CL receptor) requires a single transmembrane domain protein, termed receptor activity modifying protein, RAMP1, to function as a CGRP receptor. RAMP2 and -3 enable the same CL receptor to behave as an adrenomedullin receptor. Although the calcitonin receptor does not require RAMP to bind and respond to calcitonin, it can associate with the RAMPs, resulting in a series of receptors that typically have high affinity for amylin and varied affinity for CGRP. This review aims to reconcile what is observed when the receptors are reconstituted in vitro with the properties they show in native cells and tissues. Experimental conditions must be rigorously controlled because different degrees of protein expression may markedly modify pharmacology in such a complex situation. Recommendations, which follow International Union of Pharmacology guidelines, are made for the nomenclature of these multimeric receptors.

  1. Transmembrane adaptor molecules: a new category of lymphoid-cell markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tedoldi, S.; Paterson, J.C.; Hansmann, M.-L.; Natkunam, Y.; Rüdiger, T.; Angelisová, Pavla; Du, M.Q.; Roberton, H.; Roncador, G.; Sanchez, L.; Pozzobon, M.; Masir, N.; Barry, R.; Pileri, S.; Mason, D.Y.; Marafioti, T.; Hořejší, Václav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2006), s. 213-221 ISSN 0006-4971 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : transmembrane adaptors * PAG * LIME Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 10.370, year: 2006

  2. LDL receptor-related protein 1 regulates the abundance of diverse cell-signaling proteins in the plasma membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultier, Alban; Simon, Gabriel; Niessen, Sherry; Dix, Melissa; Takimoto, Shinako; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Gonias, Steven L

    2010-12-03

    LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is an endocytic receptor, reported to regulate the abundance of other receptors in the plasma membrane, including uPAR and tissue factor. The goal of this study was to identify novel plasma membrane proteins, involved in cell-signaling, that are regulated by LRP1. Membrane protein ectodomains were prepared from RAW 264.7 cells in which LRP1 was silenced and control cells using protease K. Peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS. By analysis of spectral counts, 31 transmembrane and secreted proteins were regulated in abundance at least 2-fold when LRP1 was silenced. Validation studies confirmed that semaphorin4D (Sema4D), plexin domain-containing protein-1 (Plxdc1), and neuropilin-1 were more abundant in the membranes of LRP1 gene-silenced cells. Regulation of Plxdc1 by LRP1 was confirmed in CHO cells, as a second model system. Plxdc1 coimmunoprecipitated with LRP1 from extracts of RAW 264.7 cells and mouse liver. Although Sema4D did not coimmunoprecipitate with LRP1, the cell-surface level of Sema4D was increased by RAP, which binds to LRP1 and inhibits binding of other ligands. These studies identify Plxdc1, Sema4D, and neuropilin-1 as novel LRP1-regulated cell-signaling proteins. Overall, LRP1 emerges as a generalized regulator of the plasma membrane proteome.

  3. Intercellular calcium signaling occurs between human osteoblasts and osteoclasts and requires activation of osteoclast P2X7 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Henriksen, Zanne; Sørensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    that human osteoclasts expressed functional P2Y1 receptors, but, unexpectedly, desensitization of P2Y1 did not block calcium signaling to osteoclasts. We also found that osteoclasts expressed functional P2X7 receptors and showed that pharmacological inhibition of these receptors blocked calcium signaling...

  4. Non-nucleotide Agonists Triggering P2X7 Receptor Activation and Pore Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Virgilio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R is a ligand-gated plasma membrane ion channel belonging to the P2X receptor subfamily activated by extracellular nucleotides. General consensus holds that the physiological (and maybe the only agonist is ATP. However, scattered evidence generated over the last several years suggests that ATP might not be the only agonist, especially at inflammatory sites. Solid data show that NAD+ covalently modifies the P2X7R of mouse T lymphocytes, thus lowering the ATP threshold for activation. Other structurally unrelated agents have been reported to activate the P2X7R via a poorly understood mechanism of action: (a the antibiotic polymyxin B, possibly a positive allosteric P2X7R modulator, (b the bactericidal peptide LL-37, (c the amyloidogenic β peptide, and (d serum amyloid A. Some agents, such as Alu-RNA, have been suggested to activate the P2X7R acting on the intracellular N- or C-terminal domains. Mode of P2X7R activation by these non-nucleotide ligands is as yet unknown; however, these observations raise the intriguing question of how these different non-nucleotide ligands may co-operate with ATP at inflammatory or tumor sites. New information obtained from the cloning and characterization of the P2X7R from exotic mammalian species (e.g., giant panda and data from recent patch-clamp studies are strongly accelerating our understanding of P2X7R mode of operation, and may provide hints to the mechanism of activation of P2X7R by non-nucleotide ligands.

  5. EGF-induced stimualtion of EGF-receptor synthesis in human cytotrophoblasts and A431 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePalo, L.; Basu, A.; Das, M.

    1987-01-01

    EGF-receptor is a transmembrane glycoprotein whose intracellular degradation is known to be enhanced by EGF. The authors tested whether the receptor is replenished during this process by an enhanced rate of synthesis. Human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells, and primary cultures of human placental cytotrophoblasts were used in these studies. Cells were labeled with 35 S-methionine, and EGF-receptor biosynthesis was quantitated by immunoprecipitation using a monoclonal anti-EGF-receptor antibody. EGF stimulated receptor biosynthesis at concentrations of 0.1-1 nM. The effect was seen within 2 h of EGF addition. The maximal stimulatory effect was modest in A431 (∼ 2-fold), but marked in the cytotrophoblasts (>5-fold). At EGF concentrations higher than 3 nM, the stimulatory effect was abolished. In contrast, the effect of EGF on receptor degradation is negligible at low subnanomolar concentrations, and is pronounced only at saturating concentrations. These results show that occupation of the cell surface EGF-receptor by its ligand can lead to production of more receptor protein, thus counterbalancing the negative effect on receptor degradation. At low subnanomolar (mitogenic) concentrations of EGF the stimulator effect on receptor synthesis is likely to predominate over the effect on receptor degradation

  6. Diversity and impact of rare variants in genes encoding the platelet G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew L; Norman, Jane E; Morgan, Neil V; Mundell, Stuart J; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Lowe, Gillian C; Daly, Martina E; Simpson, Michael A; Drake, Sian; Watson, Steve P; Mumford, Andrew D

    2015-04-01

    Platelet responses to activating agonists are influenced by common population variants within or near G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes that affect receptor activity. However, the impact of rare GPCR gene variants is unknown. We describe the rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the coding and splice regions of 18 GPCR genes in 7,595 exomes from the 1,000-genomes and Exome Sequencing Project databases and in 31 cases with inherited platelet function disorders (IPFDs). In the population databases, the GPCR gene target regions contained 740 SNVs (318 synonymous, 410 missense, 7 stop gain and 6 splice region) of which 70 % had global minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.05 %. Functional annotation using six computational algorithms, experimental evidence and structural data identified 156/740 (21 %) SNVs as potentially damaging to GPCR function, most commonly in regions encoding the transmembrane and C-terminal intracellular receptor domains. In 31 index cases with IPFDs (Gi-pathway defect n=15; secretion defect n=11; thromboxane pathway defect n=3 and complex defect n=2) there were 256 SNVs in the target regions of 15 stimulatory platelet GPCRs (34 unique; 12 with MAF< 1 % and 22 with MAF≥ 1 %). These included rare variants predicting R122H, P258T and V207A substitutions in the P2Y12 receptor that were annotated as potentially damaging, but only partially explained the platelet function defects in each case. Our data highlight that potentially damaging variants in platelet GPCR genes have low individual frequencies, but are collectively abundant in the population. Potentially damaging variants are also present in pedigrees with IPFDs and may contribute to complex laboratory phenotypes.

  7. Structural determinants for selective recognition of peptide ligands for endothelin receptor subtypes ETA and ETB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lättig, Jens; Oksche, Alexander; Beyermann, Michael; Rosenthal, Walter; Krause, Gerd

    2009-07-01

    The molecular basis for recognition of peptide ligands endothelin-1, -2 and -3 in endothelin receptors is poorly understood. Especially the origin of ligand selectivity for ET(A) or ET(B) is not clearly resolved. We derived sequence-structure-function relationships of peptides and receptors from mutational data and homology modeling. Our major findings are the dissection of peptide ligands into four epitopes and the delineation of four complementary structural portions on receptor side explaining ligand recognition in both endothelin receptor subtypes. In addition, structural determinants for ligand selectivity could be described. As a result, we could improve the selectivity of BQ3020 about 10-fold by a single amino acid substitution, validating our hypothesis for ligand selectivity caused by different entrances to the receptors' transmembrane binding sites. A narrow tunnel shape in ET(A) is restrictive for a selected group of peptide ligands' N-termini, whereas a broad funnel-shaped entrance in ET(B) accepts a variety of different shapes and properties of ligands.

  8. Subcellular localization of estradiol receptor in MCF7 cells studied with nanogold-labelled antibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, M M; Qualmann, B; Thole, H H; Sierralta, W D

    1998-01-01

    Ultrastructural localization studies of estradiol receptor in hormone-deprived and hormone-stimulated MCF7 cells were done using F(ab') fragments of three different antibodies (#402, 13H2, HT277) covalently linked to nanogold. These ultra-small, non-charged immunoreagents, combined with a size-enlargement by silver enhancement, localized estradiol receptor in both nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of non-stimulated target cells; stimulation with the steroid induced a predominantly nuclear labelling. In the cytoplasm of resting cells, tagging was often observed at or in the proximity of stress fibers. In the nucleus a large proportion of receptor was found inside the nucleolus, specially with the reagent derived from antibody 13H2. We postulate that different accessibilities of receptor epitopes account for the different labelling densities observed at cytoskeletal elements and the nucleoli.

  9. P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs, thus inhibiting the abnormal pain behaviors in adult rats. P2X receptors are also actively involved in sensory signaling in developing rodents. However, very little is known about the developmental change of P2X7Rs in DRGs and the interaction between P2X7Rs and P2X3Rs in those animals. We therefore examined the expression of P2X3Rs and P2X7Rs in postnatal rats and determined if P2X7R-P2X3R control exists in developing rats. Findings We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations. Conclusions These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.

  10. The medaka novel immune-type receptor (NITR gene clusters reveal an extraordinary degree of divergence in variable domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litman Gary W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel immune-type receptor (NITR genes are members of diversified multigene families that are found in bony fish and encode type I transmembrane proteins containing one or two extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig domains. The majority of NITRs can be classified as inhibitory receptors that possess cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs. A much smaller number of NITRs can be classified as activating receptors by the lack of cytoplasmic ITIMs and presence of a positively charged residue within their transmembrane domain, which permits partnering with an activating adaptor protein. Results Forty-four NITR genes in medaka (Oryzias latipes are located in three gene clusters on chromosomes 10, 18 and 21 and can be organized into 24 families including inhibitory and activating forms. The particularly large dataset acquired in medaka makes direct comparison possible to another complete dataset acquired in zebrafish in which NITRs are localized in two clusters on different chromosomes. The two largest medaka NITR gene clusters share conserved synteny with the two zebrafish NITR gene clusters. Shared synteny between NITRs and CD8A/CD8B is limited but consistent with a potential common ancestry. Conclusion Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses between the complete datasets of NITRs from medaka and zebrafish indicate multiple species-specific expansions of different families of NITRs. The patterns of sequence variation among gene family members are consistent with recent birth-and-death events. Similar effects have been observed with mammalian immunoglobulin (Ig, T cell antigen receptor (TCR and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR genes. NITRs likely diverged along an independent pathway from that of the somatically rearranging antigen binding receptors but have undergone parallel evolution of V family diversity.

  11. Anandamide Revisited: How Cholesterol and Ceramides Control Receptor-Dependent and Receptor-Independent Signal Transmission Pathways of a Lipid Neurotransmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, Coralie; Fantini, Jacques; Yahi, Nouara; Barrantes, Francisco J; Chahinian, Henri

    2018-05-22

    Anandamide is a lipid neurotransmitter derived from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid. The chemical differences between anandamide and arachidonic acid result in a slightly enhanced solubility in water and absence of an ionisable group for the neurotransmitter compared with the fatty acid. In this review, we first analyze the conformational flexibility of anandamide in aqueous and membrane phases. We next study the interaction of the neurotransmitter with membrane lipids and discuss the molecular basis of the unexpected selectivity of anandamide for cholesterol and ceramide from among other membrane lipids. We show that cholesterol behaves as a binding partner for anandamide, and that following an initial interaction mediated by the establishment of a hydrogen bond, anandamide is attracted towards the membrane interior, where it forms a molecular complex with cholesterol after a functional conformation adaptation to the apolar membrane milieu. The complex is then directed to the anandamide cannabinoid receptor (CB1) which displays a high affinity binding pocket for anandamide. We propose that cholesterol may regulate the entry and exit of anandamide in and out of CB1 by interacting with low affinity cholesterol recognition sites (CARC and CRAC) located in transmembrane helices. The mirror topology of cholesterol binding sites in the seventh transmembrane domain is consistent with the delivery, extraction and flip-flop of anandamide through a coordinated cholesterol-dependent mechanism. The binding of anandamide to ceramide illustrates another key function of membrane lipids which may occur independently of protein receptors. Interestingly, ceramide forms a tight complex with anandamide which blocks the degradation pathway of both lipids and could be exploited for anti-cancer therapies.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of human interleukin-7 bound to unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of its α-receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, Joseph Jr; Walsh, Scott T. R., E-mail: walsh.220@osu.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ohio State University, 467 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Bacterial and insect cell expression systems have been developed to produce unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of human interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the extracellular domain of its α receptor, IL-7Rα. We report the crystallization and X-ray diffraction of IL-7 complexes to both unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of the IL-7Rα to 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively. The interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling pathway plays an essential role in the development, proliferation and homeostasis of T and B cells in cell-mediated immunity. Understimulation and overstimulation of the IL-7 signaling pathway leads to severe combined immunodeficiency, autoimmune reactions, heart disease and cancers. Stimulation of the IL-7 pathway begins with IL-7 binding to its α-receptor, IL-7Rα. Protein crystals of unglycosylated and glycosylated complexes of human IL-7–IL-7Rα extracellular domain (ECD) obtained using a surface entropy-reduction approach diffract to 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively. Anomalous dispersion methods will be used to solve the unglycosylated IL-7–IL-7Rα ECD complex structure and this unglycosylated structure will then serve as a model in molecular-replacement attempts to solve the structure of the glycosylated IL-7–α-receptor complex.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of human interleukin-7 bound to unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of its α-receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, Joseph Jr; Walsh, Scott T. R.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial and insect cell expression systems have been developed to produce unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of human interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the extracellular domain of its α receptor, IL-7Rα. We report the crystallization and X-ray diffraction of IL-7 complexes to both unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of the IL-7Rα to 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively. The interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling pathway plays an essential role in the development, proliferation and homeostasis of T and B cells in cell-mediated immunity. Understimulation and overstimulation of the IL-7 signaling pathway leads to severe combined immunodeficiency, autoimmune reactions, heart disease and cancers. Stimulation of the IL-7 pathway begins with IL-7 binding to its α-receptor, IL-7Rα. Protein crystals of unglycosylated and glycosylated complexes of human IL-7–IL-7Rα extracellular domain (ECD) obtained using a surface entropy-reduction approach diffract to 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively. Anomalous dispersion methods will be used to solve the unglycosylated IL-7–IL-7Rα ECD complex structure and this unglycosylated structure will then serve as a model in molecular-replacement attempts to solve the structure of the glycosylated IL-7–α-receptor complex

  14. Dual Gating Mechanism and Function of P2X7 Receptor Channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khadra, A.; Tomic, M.; Yan, Z.; Zemková, Hana; Sherman, A.; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 12 (2013), s. 2612-2621 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : purinergic P2X7 receptors * ATP-gated channels * BzATP * dilation * Markov -state model Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.832, year: 2013

  15. Channel opening of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor from rat brain: molecular mechanisms of the receptor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, D J; Subbarao, K

    1987-12-01

    The function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which mediate transmembrane chloride flux, can be studied by use of 36Cl- isotope tracer with membrane from mammalian brain by quench-flow technique, with reaction times that allow resolution of the receptor desensitization rates from the ion flux rates. The rates of chloride exchange into the vesicles in the absence and presence of GABA were characterized with membrane from rat cerebral cortex. Unspecific 36Cl- influx was completed in three phases of ca. 3% (t 1/2 = 0.6 s), 56% (t 1/2 = 82 s), and 41% (t 1/2 = 23 min). GABA-mediated, specific chloride exchange occurred with 6.5% of the total vesicular internal volume. The GABA-dependent 36Cl- influx proceeded in two phases, each progressively slowed by desensitization. The measurements supported the presence of two distinguishable active GABA receptors on the same membrane mediating chloride exchange into the vesicles with initial first-order rate constants of 9.5 s-1 and 2.3 s-1 and desensitizing with first-order rate constants of 21 s-1 and 1.4 s-1, respectively, at saturation. The half-response concentrations were similar for both receptors, 150 microM and 114 microM GABA for desensitization and 105 microM and 82 microM for chloride exchange, for the faster and slower desensitizing receptors, respectively. The two receptors were present in the activity ratio of ca. 4/1, similar to the ratio of "low-affinity" to "high-affinity" GABA sites found in ligand binding experiments. The desensitization rates have a different dependence on GABA concentration than the channel-opening equilibria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Mutation in Parkinson disease-associated, G-protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37/PaelR is related to autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Fujita-Jimbo

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, a neurodevelopmental disorder. Here we identified two mutations in the G-protein-coupled receptor 37 gene (GPR37 localized on chromosome 7q31-33, called the AUTS1 region, of ASD patients; 1585-1587 ttc del (Del312F in one Japanese patient and G2324A (R558Q in one Caucasian patient. The Del312F was located in the conserved transmembrane domain, and the R558Q was located in a conserved region just distal to the last transmembrane domain. In addition, a potential ASD-related GPR37 variant, T589M, was found in 7 affected Caucasian men from five different families. Our results suggested that some alleles in GPR37 were related to the deleterious effect of ASD. GPR37 is associated with the dopamine transporter to modulate dopamine uptake, and regulates behavioral responses to dopaminergic drugs. Thus, dopaminergic neurons may be involved in the ASD. However, we also detected the Del321F mutation in the patient's unaffected father and R558Q in not only an affected brother but also an unaffected mother. The identification of unaffected parents that carried the mutated alleles suggested that the manifestation of ASD was also influenced by factors other than these mutations, including endoplasmic reticulum stress of the mutated proteins or gender. Our study will provide the new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of ASD.

  17. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira-Cunha, Melissa; Newman, William G.; Siriwardena, Ajith K.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer. Over-expression correlates with more advanced disease, poor survival and the presence of metastases. Therefore, inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment incorporating EGFR-inhibition is emerging as a novel strategy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer

  18. [Research advances in CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member 5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye-qing; Xiao, Yun-bei; Liu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-wei; Xu, Tao; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2012-12-01

    CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member(CMTM)is a novel generic family firstly reported by Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics. CMTM5 belongs to this family and has exhibited tumor-inhibiting activities. It can encode proteins approaching to the transmembrane 4 superfamily(TM4SF). CMTM5 is broadly expressed in normal adult and fetal human tissues, but is undetectable or down-regulated in most carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Restoration of CMTM5 may inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of carcinoma cells. Although the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains unclear, CMTM5 may be involved in various signaling pathways governing the occurrence and development of tumors. CMTM5 may be a new target in the gene therapies for tumors, while further studies on CMTM5 and its anti-tumor mechanisms are warranted.

  19. The adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G2 (ADGRG2/GPR64) constitutively activates SRE and NFκB and is involved in cell adhesion and migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelia Peeters, Miriam; Fokkelman, Michiel; Boogaard, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (ADGRs) are believed to be activated by auto-proteolytic cleavage of their very large extracellular N-terminal domains normally acting as a negative regulator of the intrinsically constitutively active seven transmembrane domain. ADGRG2 (or GPR64) which...

  20. Short communication: Limit feeding dairy heifers: effect of feed bunk space and provision of a low-nutritive feedstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Kitts, B L; Devries, T J

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the behavioral effects of providing limit-fed dairy heifers an increased amount of feed bunk space compared with recommended feed bunk allowance, and to determine if the effects of provision of extra bunk space would be comparable to those seen when limit-fed heifers are provided a low-nutritive feedstuff. Twelve Holstein dairy heifers (381.1 ± 44.8 d of age, 417.3 ± 47.9 kg), divided into groups of 4, were exposed to each of 3 treatments using a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 7-d periods. The treatments were (1) 0.68 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.68), (2) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.34), and (3) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer with an additional 0.34 m of feed bunk space available for free-choice straw (TMR-S). The total mixed ration was fed once daily at a restricted level (1.83% of body weight) and contained (dry matter basis) 19.9% alfalfa/grass haylage, 20.1% corn silage, 49.6% high-moisture corn, and 10.4% protein supplement. Group dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily. Behavior at the feed bunk was recorded for the last 4 d of each treatment period. Due to the provision of straw, DMI was highest on the TMR-S treatment compared with the other treatments (9.4 vs. 7.8 kg/d). Heifers spent the most time feeding when on the TMR-S treatment (147.7 min/d), with no difference in feeding time between the limit-fed TMR treatments (64.5 min/d). Within the TMR-S treatment, feeding time on the straw was 76.9 min/d; thus, the rate of consumption of only the TMR was similar across all treatments. Unrewarded time at the feed bunk (when no feed was present) did not differ between treatments. Heifers did not differ in competitive behavior when on the limit-fed TMR treatments (13.1 displacements/heifer per day). However, while on the TMR-S treatment, heifers displaced each other more frequently (23.8 displacements/heifer per day) than while on the other 2 treatments. Overall, results suggest that neither

  1. [7α-18F]fluoro-17α-methyl-5α-dihydrotestosterone: a ligand for androgen receptor-mediated imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Pradeep K.; Labaree, David C.; Hoyte, Robert M.; Hochberg, Richard B.

    2001-01-01

    We have synthesized a 18 F-labeled androgen, [7α- 18 F]fluoro-17α-methyl-5α-dihydrotestosterone, in a no-carrier-added radiosynthesis by exchange of 18 F- (tetrabutylammonium fluoride) with the 7β-tosyloxy of 17α-methyl-5α-dihydrotestosterone. The nonradioactive steroid binds with high affinity and specificity to the androgen receptor and binds poorly, if at all, to other steroid receptors and plasma sex hormone binding globulin. The 7α- 18 F-androgen concentrates markedly in the prostate of rats by an androgen receptor-dependent mechanism. It is likely that [7α- 18 F]fluoro-17α-methyl-5α-dihydrotestosterone will be an excellent positron emission tomography imaging agent for prostate cancer

  2. G protein-coupled receptor 30 is an estrogen receptor in the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funakoshi, Takeshi; Yanai, Akie; Shinoda, Koh; Kawano, Michio M.; Mizukami, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, GPR30 was reported to be a novel estrogen receptor; however, its intracellular localization has remained controversial. To investigate the intracellular localization of GPR30 in vivo, we produced four kinds of polyclonal antibodies for distinct epitopes on GPR30. Immunocytochemical observations using anti-GPR30 antibody and anti-FLAG antibody show that FLAG-GPR30 localizes to the plasma membrane 24 h after transfection. Treatment with estrogen (17β-estradiol or E2) causes an elevation in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) within 10 s in HeLa cells expressing FLAG-GPR30. In addition, E2 induces the translocation of GPR30 from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm by 1 h after stimulation. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that GPR30 exists on the cell surface of CA2 pyramidal neuronal cells. The images on transmission electron microscopy show that GPR30 is localized to a particular region associated with the plasma membranes of the pyramidal cells. These data indicate that GPR30, a transmembrane receptor for estrogen, is localized to the plasma membrane of CA2 pyramidal neuronal cells of the hippocampus in rat brain

  3. The ACE-2/Ang1-7/Mas cascade enhances bone structure and metabolism following angiotensin-II type 1 receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-07-15

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) regulates numerous systemic functions and is expressed locally in skeletal tissues. Angiotensin1-7 (Ang1-7) is a beneficial member of the RAS, and the therapeutic effects of a large number of angiotensin receptors blockers (ARBs) are mediated by an Ang1-7-dependent cascade. This study examines whether the reported osteo-preservative effects of losartan are mediated through the angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE-2)/Ang1-7/Mas pathway in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sham and OVX animals received losartan (10mg/kg/d p.o.) for 6 weeks. A specific Mas receptor blocker (A-779) was delivered via mini-osmotic pumps during the losartan treatment period. Serum and urine bone metabolism biomarker levels were measured. Bone trabecular and cortical morphometry were quantified in distal femurs, whereas mineral contents were estimated in ashed bones, serum and urine. Finally, the expression of RAS components, the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) was determined. Losartan significantly improved the elevated bone metabolism marker levels and altered trabecular and cortical structures in OVX animals, and restored normal urinary and skeletal mineral levels. Mas receptor inhibition significantly abolished all osteo-protective effects of losartan and enhanced the deleterious effects of OVX. Losartan enhanced OVX-induced up-regulation of ACE-1, AngII, angiotensin type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor and RANKL expression, and increased ACE-2, Ang1-7, Mas and OPG expression in OVX animals. However, A-779 significantly eradicated the effects of losartan on RAS components and RANKL/OPG expression. Thus, Ang1-7 are involved in the osteo-preservative effects of losartan via Mas receptor, which may add therapeutic value to this well-known antihypertensive agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural basis for receptor recognition of vitamin-B(12)-intrinsic factor complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Madsen, Mette; Storm, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin...... and the 45-kDa transmembrane protein amnionless. Loss of function of any of these proteins ultimately leads to Cbl deficiency in man. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex between IF-Cbl and the cubilin IF-Cbl-binding-region (CUB(5-8)) determined at 3.3 A resolution. The structure provides...... of how Cbl indirectly induces ligand-receptor coupling. Finally, the comparison of Ca(2+)-binding CUB domains and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-type A modules suggests that the electrostatic pairing of a basic ligand arginine/lysine residue with Ca(2+)-coordinating acidic aspartates...

  5. Design of ET(B) receptor agonists: NMR spectroscopic and conformational studies of ET7-21[Leu7, Aib11, Cys(Acm)15].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewage, Chandralal M; Jiang, Lu; Parkinson, John A; Ramage, Robert; Sadler, Ian H

    2002-03-01

    In a previous report we have shown that the endothelin-B receptor-selective linear endothelin peptide, ET-1[Cys (Acm)1,15, Ala3, Leu7, Aib11], folds into an alpha-helical conformation in a methanol-d3/water co-solvent [Hewage et al. (1998) FEBS Lett., 425, 234-238]. To study the requirements for the structure-activity relationships, truncated analogues of this peptide were subjected to further studies. Here we report the solution conformation of ET7-21[Leu7, Aib11, Cys(Acm)15], in a methanol-d3/water co-solvent at pH 3.6, by NMR spectroscopic and molecular modelling studies. Further truncation of this short peptide results in it displaying poor agonist activity. The modelled structure shows that the peptide folds into an alpha-helical conformation between residues Lys9-His16, whereas the C-terminus prefers no fixed conformation. This truncated linear endothelin analogue is pivotal for designing endothelin-B receptor agonists.

  6. Metal ion site engineering indicates a global toggle switch model for seven-transmembrane receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Christian E; Frimurer, Thomas M; Gerlach, Lars-Ole

    2006-01-01

    for monoamine binding in TM-III, was used as the starting point to engineer activating metal ion sites between the extracellular segments of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. Cu(II) and Zn(II) alone and in complex with aromatic chelators acted as potent (EC50 decreased to 0.5 microm) and efficacious agonists...

  7. Effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 and amisulpride on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like deficits in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Nikiforuk

    Full Text Available A wide body of evidence suggests that 5-HT7 receptors are implicated in a variety of central nervous system functions, including control of learning and memory processes. According to recent preclinical data, the selective blockade of these receptors may be a potential target for cognitive improvement in schizophrenia. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970, and the antipsychotic drug with a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors, amisulpride, on ketamine-induced deficits in attentional set-shifting and novel object recognition tasks in rats. Because the role of 5-HT7 receptor blockade in ameliorating positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia remains equivocal, the second aim of these experiments was to examine the effectiveness of SB-269970 and amisulpride in reversing ketamine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and in social interaction test in rats. The study revealed that acute administration of SB-269970 (1 mg/kg or amisulpride (3 mg/kg ameliorated ketamine-induced cognitive inflexibility and novel object recognition deficit in rats. Both compounds were also effective in attenuating ketamine-evoked disruption of social interactions. In contrast, neither SB-269970 nor amisulpride affected ketamine-disrupted prepulse inhibition or 50 kHz USVs accompanying social behaviour. In conclusion, antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may represent a useful pharmacological approach in the treatment of cognitive deficits and some negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  8. Conserved water-mediated hydrogen bond network between TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII in 7TM receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Rie; Hansen, Louise Valentin; Mokrosinski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Five highly conserved polar residues connected by a number of structural water molecules together with two rotamer micro-switches, TrpVI:13 and TyrVII:20, constitute an extended hydrogen bond network between the intracellular segments of TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII of 7TM receptors. Molecular dynamics...... to apparently function as a catching trap for water molecules. Mutational analysis of the beta2-adrenergic receptor demonstrated that the highly conserved polar residues of the hydrogen bond network were all important for receptor signaling but served different functions, some dampening constitutive activity...... (AsnI:18, AspII:10, and AsnVII:13), whereas others (AsnVII:12 and AsnVII:16) located one helical turn apart and sharing a water molecule were shown to be essential for agonist-induced signaling. It is concluded that the conserved water hydrogen bond network of 7TM receptors constitutes an extended...

  9. P2X7 receptor activation induces cell death and microparticle release in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinescu, P.; Wang, B.; Kovacevic, K.; Jalilian, I.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Wiley, J.S.; Sluyter, R.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular ATP induces cation fluxes in and impairs the growth of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells in a manner characteristic of the purinergic P2X7 receptor, however the presence of P2X7 in these cells is unknown. This study investigated whether MEL cells express functional P2X7. RT-PCR,

  10. Radiosynthesis and in vitro validation of 3H-NS14492 as a novel high affinity alpha7 nicotinic receptor radioligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Janus H.; Ettrup, Anders; Donat, Cornelius K.

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a homo-pentameric ligand-gated ion channel that is a promising drug target for cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. We have previously described 11C-NS14492 as a suitable agonist radioligand for in vivo positron...... emission tomography (PET) occupancy studies of the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor in the pig brain. In order to investigate the utility of the same compound for in vitro studies, 3H-NS14492 was synthesized and its binding properties were characterized using in vitro autoradiography and homogenate binding...... assays in pig frontal cortex. 3H-NS14492 showed specific binding to alpha 7 nicotinic receptors in autoradiography, revealing a dissociation constant (Kd) of 2.1 ± 0.7 nM and a maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 15.7±2.0 fmol/mg tissue equivalent. Binding distribution was similar...

  11. Prognostic significance of interleukin-7 receptor-α gene polymorphisms in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation: a confirmatory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamim, Zaiba; Ryder, Lars P; Christensen, Ib J

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a hematopoietic cytokine essential for T-cell development in the thymus and for the maintenance of peripheral T cells. A previous study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the exons of IL-7 receptor a-chain (IL-7Ra) in a Danish cohort of patients undergoing a...

  12. Proteomic and Functional Analyses of the Virion Transmembrane Proteome of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancsok, Catherine; Peñaranda, M Michelle D; Raj, V Stalin; Leroy, Baptiste; Jazowiecka-Rakus, Joanna; Boutier, Maxime; Gao, Yuan; Wilkie, Gavin S; Suárez, Nicolás M; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillet, Laurent; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain F C

    2017-11-01

    Virion transmembrane proteins (VTPs) mediate key functions in the herpesvirus infectious cycle. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses. The present study was devoted to CyHV-3 VTPs. Using mass spectrometry approaches, we identified 16 VTPs of the CyHV-3 FL strain. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that eight of these proteins are essential for viral growth in vitro (open reading frame 32 [ORF32], ORF59, ORF81, ORF83, ORF99, ORF106, ORF115, and ORF131), and eight are nonessential (ORF25, ORF64, ORF65, ORF108, ORF132, ORF136, ORF148, and ORF149). Among the nonessential proteins, deletion of ORF25, ORF132, ORF136, ORF148, or ORF149 affects viral replication in vitro , and deletion of ORF25, ORF64, ORF108, ORF132, or ORF149 impacts plaque size. Lack of ORF148 or ORF25 causes attenuation in vivo to a minor or major extent, respectively. The safety and efficacy of a virus lacking ORF25 were compared to those of a previously described vaccine candidate deleted for ORF56 and ORF57 (Δ56-57). Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that the ORF25 deleted virus infects fish through skin infection and then spreads to internal organs as reported previously for the wild-type parental virus and the Δ56-57 virus. However, compared to the parental wild-type virus, the replication of the ORF25-deleted virus was reduced in intensity and duration to levels similar to those observed for the Δ56-57 virus. Vaccination of fish with a virus lacking ORF25 was safe but had low efficacy at the doses tested. This characterization of the virion transmembrane proteome of CyHV-3 provides a firm basis for further research on alloherpesvirus VTPs. IMPORTANCE Virion transmembrane proteins play key roles in the biology of herpesviruses. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses and the causative agent of major economic losses in common and koi carp worldwide. In this study of the virion transmembrane proteome of CyHV-3, the

  13. Transmembrane protein diffusion in gel-supported dual-leaflet membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Ying; Hill, Reghan J

    2014-11-18

    Tools to measure transmembrane-protein diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes have advanced in recent decades, providing a need for predictive theoretical models that account for interleaflet leaflet friction on tracer mobility. Here we address the fully three-dimensional flows driven by a (nonprotruding) transmembrane protein embedded in a dual-leaflet membrane that is supported above and below by soft porous supports (e.g., hydrogel or extracellular matrix), each of which has a prescribed permeability and solvent viscosity. For asymmetric configurations, i.e., supports with contrasting permeability, as realized for cells in contact with hydrogel scaffolds or culture media, the diffusion coefficient can reflect interleaflet friction. Reasonable approximations, for sufficiently large tracers on low-permeability supports, are furnished by a recent phenomenological theory from the literature. Interpreting literature data, albeit for hard-supported membranes, provides a theoretical basis for the phenomenological Stokes drag law as well as strengthening assertions that nonhydrodynamic interactions are important in supported bilayer systems, possibly leading to overestimates of the membrane/leaflet viscosity. Our theory provides a theoretical foundation for future experimental studies of tracer diffusion in gel-supported membranes.

  14. Repeated administration of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, but not positive allosteric modulators, increases alpha7 nAChR levels in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H

    2010-01-01

    The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is an important target for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. However, the receptor desensitizes rapidly in vitro, which has led to concern regarding its applicability as a clinically relevant drug target...

  15. Functional expression of BMP7 receptors in oral epithelial cells. Interleukin-17F production in response to BMP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kensuke; Ozawa, Yasumasa; Ito, Hisanori; Kifune, Takashi; Narita, Tatsuya; Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Asano, Masatake

    2017-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Recently, BMP7 has been demonstrated to be produced by salivary glands and contribute to embryonic branching in mice. The BMP7 in saliva is thought to be delivered to the oral cavity and is expected to contact with stratified squamous epithelial cells which line the surface of oral mucosa. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of BMP7 on oral epithelial cells. The expression of BMP receptors was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). OSCCs were stimulated with human recombinant BMP7 (hrBMP7) and the phosphorylation status of Smad1/5/8 was examined by western blotting. For microarray analysis, Ca9-22 cells were stimulated with 100 ng/mL of hrBMP7 and total RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time PCR. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IL-17 F gene was cloned to pGL4-basic vector and used for luciferase assay. Ca9-22 cells were pre-incubated with DM3189, a specific inhibitor of Smad1/5/8, for inhibition assay. All isoforms of type I and type II BMP receptors were expressed in both Ca9-22 and HSC3 cells and BMP7 stimulation resulted in the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in both cell lines. The microarray analysis revealed the induction of interleukin-17 F (IL-17 F), netrin G2 (NTNG2) and hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1). Luciferase assay using the 5'-UTR of the IL-17 F gene revealed transcriptional regulation. Induced IL-17 F production was further confirmed at the protein level by ELISA. Smad1/5/8 inhibitor pretreatment decreased IL-17 F expression levels in the cells.

  16. Effect of flow rate and temperature on transmembrane blood pressure drop in an extracorporeal artificial lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M; Costa, E L V; Maciel, A T; Barbosa, E V S; Hirota, A S; Schettino, G de P; Azevedo, L C P

    2014-11-01

    Transmembrane pressure drop reflects the resistance of an artificial lung system to blood transit. Decreased resistance (low transmembrane pressure drop) enhances blood flow through the oxygenator, thereby, enhancing gas exchange efficiency. This study is part of a previous one where we observed the behaviour and the modulation of blood pressure drop during the passage of blood through artificial lung membranes. Before and after the induction of multi-organ dysfunction, the animals were instrumented and analysed for venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, using a pre-defined sequence of blood flows. Blood flow and revolutions per minute (RPM) of the centrifugal pump varied in a linear fashion. At a blood flow of 5.5 L/min, pre- and post-pump blood pressures reached -120 and 450 mmHg, respectively. Transmembrane pressures showed a significant spread, particularly at blood flows above 2 L/min; over the entire range of blood flow rates, there was a positive association of pressure drop with blood flow (0.005 mmHg/mL/minute of blood flow) and a negative association of pressure drop with temperature (-4.828 mmHg/(°Celsius). These associations were similar when blood flows of below and above 2000 mL/minute were examined. During its passage through the extracorporeal system, blood is exposed to pressure variations from -120 to 450 mmHg. At high blood flows (above 2 L/min), the drop in transmembrane pressure becomes unpredictable and highly variable. Over the entire range of blood flows investigated (0-5500 mL/min), the drop in transmembrane pressure was positively associated with blood flow and negatively associated with body temperature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Identification of MarvelD3 as a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein of the occludin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balda Maria S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight junctions are an intercellular adhesion complex of epithelial and endothelial cells, and form a paracellular barrier that restricts the diffusion of solutes on the basis of size and charge. Tight junctions are formed by multiprotein complexes containing cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. How these components work together to form functional tight junctions is still not well understood and will require a complete understanding of the molecular composition of the junction. Results Here we identify a new transmembrane component of tight junctions: MarvelD3, a four-span transmembrane protein. Its predicted transmembrane helices form a Marvel (MAL and related proteins for vesicle traffic and membrane link domain, a structural motif originally discovered in proteins involved in membrane apposition and fusion events, such as the tight junction proteins occludin and tricellulin. In mammals, MarvelD3 is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms. Both isoforms exhibit a broad tissue distribution and are expressed by different types of epithelial as well as endothelial cells. MarvelD3 co-localises with occludin at tight junctions in intestinal and corneal epithelial cells. RNA interference experiments in Caco-2 cells indicate that normal MarvelD3 expression is not required for the formation of functional tight junctions but depletion results in monolayers with increased transepithelial electrical resistance. Conclusions Our data indicate that MarvelD3 is a third member of the tight junction-associated occludin family of transmembrane proteins. Similar to occludin, normal expression of MarvelD3 is not essential for the formation of functional tight junctions. However, MarvelD3 functions as a determinant of epithelial paracellular permeability properties.

  18. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance) of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii ( P. kudriavzevii ) previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica ( P. manshurica ), Candida ethanolica ( C. ethanolica ), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii ( Z. bailii ) isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d). With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01) stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d) were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii , probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant yeast species during aerobic

  19. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. Results In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica (P. manshurica, Candida ethanolica (C. ethanolica, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (Z. bailii isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d. With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01 stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. Conclusion The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii, probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant

  20. Conformational transitions and interactions underlying the function of membrane embedded receptor protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Eduard V; Sharonov, Georgy V; Bocharova, Olga V; Pavlov, Konstantin V

    2017-09-01

    Among membrane receptors, the single-span receptor protein kinases occupy a broad but specific functional niche determined by distinctive features of the underlying transmembrane signaling mechanisms that are briefly overviewed on the basis of some of the most representative examples, followed by a more detailed discussion of several hierarchical levels of organization and interactions involved. All these levels, including single-molecule interactions (e.g., dimerization, liganding, chemical modifications), local processes (e.g. lipid membrane perturbations, cytoskeletal interactions), and larger scale phenomena (e.g., effects of membrane surface shape or electrochemical potential gradients) appear to be closely integrated to achieve the observed diversity of the receptor functioning. Different species of receptor protein kinases meet their specific functional demands through different structural features defining their responses to stimulation, but certain common patterns exist. Signaling by receptor protein kinases is typically associated with the receptor dimerization and clustering, ligand-induced rearrangements of receptor domains through allosteric conformational transitions with involvement of lipids, release of the sequestered lipids, restriction of receptor diffusion, cytoskeleton and membrane shape remodeling. Understanding of complexity and continuity of the signaling processes can help identifying currently neglected opportunities for influencing the receptor signaling with potential therapeutic implications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interactions between membrane receptors in cellular membranes edited by Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Secreted Ly-6/uPAR Related Protein-1 (SLURP-1) Is a Selective Allosteric Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Kudryavtsev, Denis

    2016-01-01

    of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively, and anti-α7-nAChRs antibodies revealed α7 type nAChRs as an rSLURP-1 target in keratinocytes. Using affinity purification from human cortical extracts, we confirmed that rSLURP-1 binds selectively to the α7-n...

  2. The Distribution of Charged Amino Acid Residues and the Ca2+ Permeability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: A Predictive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Fucile

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are cation-selective ligand-gated ion channels exhibiting variable Ca2+ permeability depending on their subunit composition. The Ca2+ permeability is a crucial functional parameter to understand the physiological role of nAChRs, in particular considering their ability to modulate Ca2+-dependent processes such as neurotransmitter release. The rings of extracellular and intracellular charged amino acid residues adjacent to the pore-lining TM2 transmembrane segment have been shown to play a key role in the cation selectivity of these receptor channels, but to date a quantitative relationship between these structural determinants and the Ca2+ permeability of nAChRs is lacking. In the last years the Ca2+ permeability of several nAChR subtypes has been experimentally evaluated, in terms of fractional Ca2+ current (Pf, i.e., the percentage of the total current carried by Ca2+ ions. In the present study, the available Pf-values of nAChRs are used to build a simplified modular model describing the contribution of the charged residues in defined regions flanking TM2 to the selectivity filter controlling Ca2+ influx. This model allows to predict the currently unknown Pf-values of existing nAChRs, as well as the hypothetical Ca2+ permeability of subunit combinations not able to assemble into functional receptors. In particular, basing on the amino acid sequences, a Pf > 50% would be associated with homomeric nAChRs composed by different α subunits, excluding α7, α9, and α10. Furthermore, according to the model, human α7β2 receptors should have Pf-values ranging from 3.6% (4:1 ratio to 0.1% (1:4 ratio, much lower than the 11.4% of homomeric α7 nAChR. These results help to understand the evolution and the function of the large diversity of the nicotinic receptor family.

  3. Effects of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB-269970 and DR 4004 in autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2004-12-06

    There is an important debate regarding the functional role of the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor in memory systems. Hence, the objective of this paper is to investigate the function of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in memory consolidation, utilising an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning test. Specific antagonists at 5-HT(1A) (WAY 100635) and 5-HT(7) (SB-269970 or DR 4004) receptors administered i.p. or s.c.) after training, significantly decreased the improvement of performance produced by the 5-HT(1A/7) agonist 8-OH-DPAT to levels lower than controls'. These same antagonists attenuated the decreased level of performance produced by mCPP, although they decrease the performance levels after p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) lesion of the 5-HT system, which has no effect on its own on the conditioned response. Moreover, SB-269970 or DR 4004 reversed amnesia induced by scopolamine and dizocilpine. These data confirm a role for 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in memory formation and support the hypothesis that serotonergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic systems interact in cognitively impaired animals. These findings support a potential role for both 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in the pathophysiology and/or treatment of schizophrenia, cognitive deficits an