WorldWideScience

Sample records for translational science epistemology

  1. Prospective Elemantary Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaroglu Akgul, Esra; Oztuna Kaplan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined "prospective elementary science teachers' epistemological beliefs". Forty-nine prospective elementary science teachers participated into research. The research was designed in both quantitative and qualitative manner, within the context of "Special Methods in Science Teaching I" course.…

  2. The Impact of Translators' Epistemological Beliefs and Gender on Their Translation Quality

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    Araghizade, Elmira; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between translators' epistemological beliefs and gender on their Persian-to-English translation quality. To do so, a group of 53 MA translation students both male and female were selected, through convenient sampling to participate in this study. For data collection two instruments were employed: 1…

  3. Epistemology and Science Education: A Study of Epistemological Views of Teachers

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    Apostolou, Alexandros; Koulaidis, Vasilis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the epistemological views of science teachers for the following epistemological issues: scientific method, demarcation of scientific knowledge, change of scientific knowledge and the status of scientific knowledge. Teachers' views for each one of these epistemological questions were investigated during…

  4. Epistemological Predictors of Prospective Biology Teachers' Nature of Science Understandings

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    Köseoglu, Pinar; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate epistemological predictors of nature of science understandings of 281 prospective biology teachers surveyed using the Epistemological Beliefs Scale Regarding Science and the Nature of Science Scale. The findings on multiple linear regression showed that understandings about definition of science and…

  5. Formative science and indicial science: epistemological proposal for information science

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    Eliany Alvarenga de Araújo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological reflections on the Information Science as scientific field that if structure in the context of modern science, in theoretical and methodological terms and technologies of the information in applied terms. Such configuration made possible the sprouting of this science; however we consider that the same one will not guarantee to this science the full development as field of consistent and modern knowledge. Modern Science, while scientific practical vision and meets depleted and the information technologies are only auto-regulated mechanisms that function according to principles of automatisms. To leave of these considerations we propols the concept of Formative Science (Bachelard, 1996 and the Indiciario Paradigm (1991 with epistemological basis for the Information Science. The concept of formative science if a base on the principles of tree states of the scientific spirit and the psychological condition of the scientific progress and the indiciario paradigm it considers the intuição (empirical and rational as methodological base to make it scientific.

  6. High School Physics Students' Personal Epistemologies and School Science Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen

    2017-11-01

    This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.

  7. Epistemological problems of human sciences and education

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    Darwin Reyes Solís

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El campo de la epistemología es un mundo de conflictos, en ese sentido es mejor plantearse el problema epistemológico desde la visión de un sector de diferencias y luchas constantes, de un mundo de diversidad en el que las posiciones llegan a ser extremas, posiciones que van desde la negación de la epistemología como ideología científica, hasta afirmaciones de la epistemología como la posibilidad de un marco referencial único para el conocimiento humano validado como científico.

  8. Changing Epistemological Beliefs with Nature of Science Implementations

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    Johnson, Keith; Willoughby, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS) implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS…

  9. Science and Fiction. On Don Quijote’s Epistemological Skepticism

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    Félix Schmelzer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work seeks to analyze the representation of scientific knowledge in Cervantes’ Quixote, focusing on various passages that underline the scientific expertise of don Quixote himself. It is shown that the novel contains a subtle critique of science, based on an epistemological skepticism with regard to the arbitrariness of our world concepts. The characterization of don Quixote as a man of science even permits deducting that he suffers from a ‘double mental damage’, caused by the lecture of both books of cavalry and science. Cervantes thus would consider science to be fiction, a very modern point of view.

  10. Changing epistemological beliefs with nature of science implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; Willoughby, Shannon

    2018-06-01

    This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS) implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS material was integrated into the classroom. Our original study covered two years of baseline data and one year of treatment data. Two additional years of treatment course data have revealed intriguing new insights into our students' epistemic belief structure. To monitor the evolution of belief structures across each semester we used student pre-post data on the Epistemological Beliefs About the Physical Sciences (EBAPS) assessment. The collected data were also partitioned and analyzed according to the following variables: college (Letters of Science, Business, Education, etc.), degree (BA or BS), status (freshman, sophomore, etc.), and gender (male or female). We find that the treatment course no longer undergoes significant overall epistemic deterioration after a semester of instruction. We also acquire a more detailed analysis of these findings utilizing the aforementioned variables. Most notably, we see that this intervention had a pronounced positive impact on males and on students within the college of Education, Arts & Architecture, and those with no concentration. Lastly, whether or not students believe their ability to learn science is innate or malleable did not seem to change, remaining a rigid construct with student epistemologies.

  11. Changing epistemological beliefs with nature of science implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS material was integrated into the classroom. Our original study covered two years of baseline data and one year of treatment data. Two additional years of treatment course data have revealed intriguing new insights into our students’ epistemic belief structure. To monitor the evolution of belief structures across each semester we used student pre-post data on the Epistemological Beliefs About the Physical Sciences (EBAPS assessment. The collected data were also partitioned and analyzed according to the following variables: college (Letters of Science, Business, Education, etc., degree (BA or BS, status (freshman, sophomore, etc., and gender (male or female. We find that the treatment course no longer undergoes significant overall epistemic deterioration after a semester of instruction. We also acquire a more detailed analysis of these findings utilizing the aforementioned variables. Most notably, we see that this intervention had a pronounced positive impact on males and on students within the college of Education, Arts & Architecture, and those with no concentration. Lastly, whether or not students believe their ability to learn science is innate or malleable did not seem to change, remaining a rigid construct with student epistemologies.

  12. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

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    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  13. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-16

    and the disease from global translational science perspective.

  14. Habermasian knowledge interests: epistemological implications for health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Muñoz Terrón, José María; Aranda Torres, Cayetano

    2015-04-01

    The Habermasian concept of 'interest' has had a profound effect on the characterization of scientific disciplines. Going beyond issues unrelated to the theory itself, intra-theoretical interest characterizes the specific ways of approaching any science-related discipline, defining research topics and methodologies. This approach was developed by Jürgen Habermas in relation to empirical-analytical sciences, historical-hermeneutics sciences, and critical sciences; however, he did not make any specific references to health sciences. This article aims to contribute to shaping a general epistemological framework for health sciences, as well as its specific implications for the medical and nursing areas, via an analysis of the basic knowledge interests developed by Habermas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Religion, nature, science education and the epistemology of dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakos, Konstantinos

    2010-03-01

    In his article Scientists at Play in a Field of the Lord, David Long (2010) rightly challenges our presumptions of what science is and brings forth some of the disjunctures between science and deeply held American religious beliefs. Reading his narrative of the conflicts that he experienced on the opening day of the Creation Museum, I cannot help but reconsider what the epistemology of science is and science learning ought to be. Rather than science being taught as a prescribed, deterministic system of beliefs and procedures as it is often done, I suggest instead that it would be more appropriate to teach science as a way of thinking and making sense of dialectical processes in nature. Not as set of ultimate "truths", but as understandings of processes themselves in the process of simultaneously becoming and being transformed.

  16. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

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    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  17. Piaget's epistemic subject and science education: Epistemological vs. psychological issues

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    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1993-06-01

    Many individuals claim that Piaget's theory of cognitive development is empirically false or substantially disconfirmed by empirical research. Although there is substance to such a claim, any such conclusion must address three increasingly problematic issues about the possibility of providing an empirical test of Piaget's genetic epistemology: (1) the empirical underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence, (2) the empirical difficulty of testing competence-type explanations, and (3) the difficulty of empirically testing epistemic norms. This is especially true of a central epistemic construct in Piaget's theory — the epistemic subject. To illustrate how similar problems of empirical testability arise in the physical sciences, I briefly examine the case of Galileo and the correlative difficulty of empirically testing Galileo's laws. I then point out some important epistemological similarities between Galileo and Piaget together with correlative changes needed in science studies methodology. I conclude that many psychologists and science educators have failed to appreciate the difficulty of falsifying Piaget's theory because they have tacitly adopted a philosophy of science at odds with the paradigm-case of Galileo.

  18. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher......Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...

  19. Teaching and learning in the science classroom: The interplay between teachers' epistemological moves and students' practical epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidar, Malena; Lundqvist, Eva; Östman, Leif

    2006-01-01

    The practical epistemology used by students and the epistemological moves delivered by teachers in conversations with students are analyzed in order to understand how teaching activities interplay with the how and the what of students' learning. The purpose is to develop an approach for analyzing the process of privileging in students' meaning making and how individual and situational aspects of classroom discourse interact in this process. Here we especially focus on the experiences of students and the encounter with the teacher. The analyses also demonstrate that a study of teaching and learning activities can shed light on which role epistemology has for students' meaning making, for teaching and for the interplay between these activities. The methodological approach used is an elaboration a sociocultural perspective on learning, pragmatism, and the work of Wittgenstein. The empirical material consists of recordings made in science classes in two Swedish compulsory schools.

  20. An Analysis of Science Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Perceptions about the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgün

    2015-01-01

    This study has been carried out to identify the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of student teachers and their metacognitive perceptions about the nature of science. The participants of the study totaled 336 student teachers enrolled in the elementary science education division of the department of elementary education at the…

  1. Feminist approaches to social science: epistemological and methodological tenets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R; Wasco, S M

    2000-12-01

    This paper is a primer for community psychologists on feminist research. Much like the field of community psychology, feminist scholarship is defined by its values and process. Informed by the political ideologies of the 1970s women's movement (liberal, radical, socialist feminism, and womanism), feminist scholars reinterpreted classic concepts in philosophy of science to create feminist epistemologies and methodologies. Feminist epistemologies, such as feminist empiricism, standpoint theory, and postmodernism, recognize women's lived experiences as legitimate sources of knowledge. Feminist methodologies attempt to eradicate sexist bias in research and find ways to capture women's voices that are consistent with feminist ideals. Practically, the process of feminist research is characterized by four primary features: (1) expanding methodologies to include both quantitative and qualitative methods, (2) connecting women for group-level data collection, (3) reducing the hierarchical relationship between researchers and their participants to facilitate trust and disclosure, and (4) recognizing and reflecting upon the emotionality of women's lives. Recommendations for how community psychologists can integrate feminist scholarship into their practice are discussed.

  2. Translation of Tanabe Hajime’s “The Limit of Logicism in Epistemology: A Critique of the Marburg and Freiburg Schools”

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    Takeshi Morisato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides the first English translation of Tanabe’s early essay, “The Limit of Logicism in Epistemology: A Critique of the Marburg and Freiburg Schools” (1914. The key notion that the young Tanabe seeks to define in relation to his detailed analyses of contemporary Neo-Kantian epistemology is the notion of “pure experience” presented in Nishida’s philosophy. The general theory of epistemology shared among the thinkers from these two prominent schools of philosophy in early 20th century Germany aimed to eliminate the empirical residues in Kant’s theory of knowledge while opposing naïve empiricism and the uncritical methodology of positive science. Their “logicistic” approach, according to Tanabe, seems to contradict Nishida’s notion of pure experience, for it cannot allow any vestige of empiricism in its systematic framework, which is specifically designed to ground scientific knowledge. Yet given that the Neo-Kantian configuration of epistemology does not create the object of knowledge, it must face sensation or representational content as its limiting instance. Thus, to ground a Neo-Kantian theory of knowledge while taking account of this limit of logicism involves explaining their understanding of the unity of subject and object in human knowing. For this, Tanabe argues, recourse to Nishida’s notion of pure experience is indispensable.

  3. In Defense of Engineering Sciences: On the Epistemological Relations Between Science and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of discussions in the philosophy of technology on epistemological relations between science and technology, illustrating that often several mutually entangled issues are at stake. The focus is on conceptual and ideological issues concerning the relationship between

  4. On the Science of Consciousness: Epistemological Reflections and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Lucangeli, Daniela; Tressoldi, Patrizio

    Consciousness has been one of the most important and tantalizing issues ever since the origin of philosophy and medicine. The concept of consciousness and the so-called "hard problem" (i.e., the mind-brain relationship) are highly complex topics that have yet to be elucidated, involving the realms of both science and philosophy with profound epistemological implications. In the lively debate on the foundations of the science of consciousness there are several potential biases of an essentially philosophical nature, such as those related to the paradigm and axioms adopted, and the ostensible logical contradiction between monism and dualism. Their origin dates back largely to Descartes' thinking and the birth of the new sciences as a compromise with the Inquisition, but they have been handed down through the Enlightenment and Positivism. A proper investigation of consciousness and the world of subjectivity demands a careful reflection on the paradigm of scientific medicine to identify possible flaws and overcome the limits of the mechanistic-reductionist approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Translating science into action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    chronic diseases. Research on the causative role of tobacco use in periodontal disease is strong because of the fact that tobacco-induced disease ultimately may lead to the loss of teeth. Studies also indicate that wound healing may be negatively affected by the use of tobacco. Likewise, research has...... is emphasized. Research on other population-directed strategies and their implications on public health would be instrumental to integrated prevention of chronic disease and periodontal disease. Community interventions and delivery of preventive oral care by oral health services may have positive outcomes...... findings into effective and sustainable programs for groups and populations. The advances in oral health science have not yet benefitted the poor and disadvantaged population groups around the world to the fullest extent possible and this has led to inequalities in periodontal health as well as in other...

  6. Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program.

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    Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo

    2014-03-01

    This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program.

  7. [Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulz, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology. Thought experiments are an important element in Ernst Mach's epistemology: They facilitate amplifying our knowledge by experimenting with thoughts; they thus exceed the empirical experience and suspend the quest for immediate utility. In an economical perspective, Mach suggested that thought experiments depended on the production of an economic surplus based on the division of labor relieving the struggle for survival of the individual. Thus, as frequently emphasized, in Mach's epistemology, not only the 'economy of thought' is an important feature; instead, also the socioeconomic conditions of science play a decisive role. The paper discusses the mental and social economic aspects of experimental thinking in Mach's epistemology and examines those within the contemporary evolutionary, physiological, and economic contexts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Towards a pluralist epistemological approach in studies on communication and change: humanism, science and environmentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Pedro Carañana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a pluralistic epistemological approach to the investigation of the relationships between communication and social change. To this end, it draws on the proposal of epistemological merger posed by Johan Galtung for Peace Studies and takes into account the specifics of the communication phenomenon. According to Galtung, the combination of Cartesianism, the verum-factum (Vico and Taoism would counter the risks of epistemological monism and overcome its limitations. In this sense, the article proposes to extend each of these epistemologies in a more general and encompassing level (science, humanities, holistic-dialectical environmentalism and describes its historical trajectory to identify the possibilities of complementarity and its value for the study of communication and change.

  9. Unforgivable Sinners? Epistemological and Psychological Naturalism in Husserl’s Philosophy as a Rigorous Science

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    Andrea Sebastiano Staiti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present and assess Husserl's arguments against epistomological and psychological naturalism in his essay Philosophy as a Rigorous Science. I show that his critique is directed against positions that are generally more extreme than most currently debated variants of naturalism. However, Husserl has interesting thoughts to contribute to philosophy today. First, he shows that there is an important connection between naturalism in epistemology (which in his view amounts to the position that the validity of logic can be reduced to the validity natural laws of thinking and naturalism in psychology (which in his view amounts to the position that all psychic occurrences are merely parallel accompaniments of physiological occurrences. Second, he shows that a strong version of epistemological naturalism is self-undermining and fails to translate the cogency of logic in psychological terms. Third, and most importantly for current debates, he attacks Cartesianism as a form of psychological naturalism because of its construal of the psyche as a substance. Against this position, Husserl defends the necessity to formulate new epistemic aims for the investigation of consciousness. He contends that what is most interesting about consciousness is not its empirical fact but its transcendental function of granting cognitive access to all kinds of objects (both empirical and ideal. The study of this function requires a specific method (eidetics that cannot be conflated with empirical methods. I conclude that Husserl's analyses offer much-needed insight into the fabric of consciousness and compelling arguments against unwarranted metaphysical speculations about the relationship between mind and body.

  10. Examining Social Studies and Science and Technology Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs Regarding Different Variables

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    Topkaya, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine epistemological beliefs of pre-service teachers who attend social studies and science and technology teaching programs; and to investigate how these beliefs varies regarding grade level, gender and departments. The sample of the study is composed of 300 social studies, 260 science and technology…

  11. Topical Review: Translating Translational Research in Behavioral Science.

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    Hommel, Kevin A; Modi, Avani C; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Myers, James D

    2015-01-01

    To present a model of translational research for behavioral science that communicates the role of behavioral research at each phase of translation. A task force identified gaps in knowledge regarding behavioral translational research processes and made recommendations regarding advancement of knowledge. A comprehensive model of translational behavioral research was developed. This model represents T1, T2, and T3 research activities, as well as Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 clinical trials. Clinical illustrations of translational processes are also offered as support for the model. Behavioral science has struggled with defining a translational research model that effectively articulates each stage of translation and complements biomedical research. Our model defines key activities at each phase of translation from basic discovery to dissemination/implementation. This should be a starting point for communicating the role of behavioral science in translational research and a catalyst for better integration of biomedical and behavioral research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. From "They" Science to "Our" Science: Hip Hop Epistemology in STEAM Education

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    Dolberry, Maurice E.

    Hip hop has moved from being considered a type of music into being understood as a culture in which a prominent type of music originates. Hip hop culture has a philosophy and epistemological constructs as well. This study analyzed those constructs to determine how conceptions of science factor in hip hop worldviews. Pedagogical models in culturally responsive teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM) education were also examined to discern their philosophical connections with hip hop culture. These connections were used to create two theoretical models. The first one, Hip Hop Science, described how scientific thought functions in hip hop culture. The second model, Hip Hop STEAM Pedagogy, proposes how hip hop culture can inform STEAM teaching practices. The study began by using Critical Race Theory to create a theoretical framework proposing how the two theoretical models could be derived from the philosophical and pedagogical concepts. Content analysis and narrative inquiry were used to analyze data collected from scholarly texts, hip hop songs, and interviews with hip hop-responsive educators. The data from these sources were used initially to assess the adequacy of the proposed theoretical framework, and subsequently to improve its viability. Four overlapping themes emerged from the data analyses, including hip hop-resistance to formal education; how hip hop culture informs pedagogical practice in hip hop-responsive classrooms; conceptions of knowledge and reality that shape how hip hoppers conduct scientific inquiry; and hip hop-based philosophies of effective teaching for hip hoppers as a marginalized cultural group. The findings indicate that there are unique connections between hip hop epistemology, sciencemindedness, and pedagogical practices in STEAM education. The revised theoretical framework clarified the nature of these connections, and supported claims from prior research that hip hop culture provides viable sites of

  13. The Relationship between Pre-Service Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Preferences for Creating a Constructivist Learning Environment

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    Saylan, Asli; Armagan, Fulya Öner; Bektas, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between pre-service science teachers' epistemological beliefs and perceptions of a constructivist learning environment. The Turkish version of Constructivist Learning Environment Survey and Schommer's Epistemological Belief Questionnaire were administered to 531 pre-service science teachers attending…

  14. Preservice Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Informal Reasoning Regarding Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nilay; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated preservice elementary science teachers' (PSTs) informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues (SSI), their epistemological beliefs, and the relationship between informal reasoning and epistemological beliefs. From several SSIs, nuclear power usage was selected for this study. A total of 647 Turkish PSTs enrolled in three large universities in Turkey completed the open-ended questionnaire, which assessed the participants' informal reasoning about the target SSI, and Schommer's (1990) Epistemological Questionnaire. The participants' epistemological beliefs were assessed quantitatively and their informal reasoning was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings revealed that PSTs preferred to generate evidence-based arguments rather than intuitive-based arguments; however, they failed to generate quality evidence and present different types of evidence to support their claims. Furthermore, among the reasoning quality indicators, PSTs mostly generated supportive argument construction. Regarding the use of reasoning modes, types of risk arguments and political-oriented arguments emerged as the new reasoning modes. The study demonstrated that the PSTs had different epistemological beliefs in terms of innate ability, omniscient authority, certain knowledge, and quick learning. Correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong negative correlation between the PSTs' certain knowledge and counterargument construction, and there were negative correlations between the PSTs' innate ability, certain knowledge, and quick learning dimensions of epistemological beliefs and their total argument construction. This study has implications for both science teacher education and the practice of science education. For example, PST teacher education programs should give sufficient importance to training teachers that are skillful and knowledgeable regarding SSIs. To achieve this, specific SSI-related courses should form part of science

  15. [Qualitative translational science in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Pei-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative translational research refers to the "bench-to-bedside" enterprise of harnessing knowledge from the basic sciences to produce new treatment options or nursing interventions for patients. Three evidence-based translational problems related to qualitative translational research discussed this year address the interfaces among the nursing paradigm, the basic sciences, and clinical nursing work. This article illustrates the definition of translational science and translational blocks of evidence-based practice; discusses the qualitative research perspective in evidence synthesis, evidence translation and evidence utilization; and discusses the research questions that must be answered to solve the problems of the three translational gaps from the qualitative research perspective. Qualitative inquiry has an essential role to play in efforts to improve current healthcare-provider nursing interventions, experiences, and contexts. Thus, it is vital to introduce qualitative perspectives into evidence-based practice from the knowledge discovery through to the knowledge implementation process.

  16. Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers' Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…

  17. Science education in a bilingual class: problematising a translational practice

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    Ünsal, Zeynep; Jakobson, Britt; Molander, Bengt-Olov; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2016-10-01

    In this article we examine how bilingual students construe relations between everyday language and the language of science. Studies concerning bilingual students language use in science class have mainly been conducted in settings where both the teacher and the students speak the same minority language. In this study data was collected in a class consisting of students aged 13-14. All students had Turkish as their minority language, whereas the teacher's minority language was Bosnian. The class was observed when they were working with acids and bases. In addition, the students were interviewed in groups. They were asked about how they use their languages during science lessons and then asked to describe and explain scientific phenomena and processes that had been a part of the observed lessons. For the analysis, practical epistemology analysis and the theory of translanguaging were used. The results show how the students' everyday language repertoire may limit their possibilities to make meaning of science. In particular, the teacher's practice of facilitating and supporting students' understanding of science content by relating it to concrete examples took another direction since the everyday words he used were not a part of the students' language repertoire. The study also shows how the students used their minority language as a resource to translate words from Swedish to Turkish in order to proceed with the science activities. However, translating scientific concepts was problematic and led to the students' descriptions of the concepts not being in line with how they are viewed in science. Finally, the study also demonstrates how monolingual exams may limit bilingual students' achievements in science. The study contributes by presenting and discussing circumstances that need to be taken into consideration when planning and conducting science lessons in classes where the teacher and the student do not share the same minority language.

  18. From art to science: a new epistemological status for medicine? On expectations regarding personalized medicine.

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    Wiesing, Urban

    2017-12-20

    Personalized medicine plays an important role in the development of current medicine. Among the numerous statements regarding the future of personalized medicine, some can be found that accord medicine a new scientific status. Medicine will be transformed from an art to a science due to personalized medicine. This prognosis is supported by references to models of historical developments. The article examines what is meant by this prognosis, what consequences it entails, and how feasible it is. It refers to the long tradition of epistemological thinking in medicine and the use of historical models for the development of medicine. The possible answers to the question "art or science" are systematized with respect to the core question about the relationship between knowledge and action. The prediction for medicine to develop from an 'empirical healing art' to a 'rational, molecular science' is nonsensical from an epistemological point of view. The historical models employed to substantiate the development of personalized medicine are questionable.

  19. The Conceptualization and Development of the Practical Epistemology in Science Survey (PESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Mary Grace; Hand, Brian; Shelley, Mack; Therrien, William

    2017-08-01

    Various inquiry approaches have been promoted in science classrooms as a way for students to engage in, and have a deeper understanding of scientific discourse. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence to suggest how children's actions and engagement in these approaches, or practical epistemologies (Sandoval, Science Education 89(4): 634-656, 2005), may contribute to the development of their personal epistemologies, or their views about the nature of knowledge and knowing and the nature of learning. This paper puts forth the conceptualization and development of the Practical Epistemology in Science Survey (PESS) instrument, a 26-item Likert-scale self-assessment which measures how students view their individual and social participation in the classroom scientific community. Data were collected from 4th-6th-grade students (n = 1019) in the USA and a psychometric evaluation of the reliability, validity, and dimensionality of the instrument was conducted. The Cronbach's alpha value indices for all subsets of items of the PESS suggest a strong reliability of the instrument (α ≥ .80). The development of the PESS may be useful in science education research to (a) detect changes to students' beliefs about knowledge and knowledge development; (b) identify dispositions and beliefs which may or may not be in line with the aims and values of various pedagogical approaches; (c) monitor the process of change, e.g., time it takes for students to change their approaches and beliefs with respect to teacher practice; and, (d) overall, to provide an understanding of how students' formal epistemologies are developed and informed by the affordances in science classrooms.

  20. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

  1. Exploring Science Teachers' Argumentation and Personal Epistemology About Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Roehrig, Gillian

    2017-06-01

    This case study investigated the nature of in-service science teachers' argumentation and personal epistemology about global climate change during a 3-year professional development program on climate change education. Qualitative analysis of data from interviews and written assessments revealed that while these teachers grounded their arguments on climate issues in evidence, the evidence was often insufficient to justify their causal claims. Compared with generating arguments for their own views, teachers had more difficulties in constructing evidence-based arguments for alternative perspectives. Moreover, while these teachers shared some similarities in their epistemology about climate science, they varied in their beliefs about specific aspects such as scientists' expertise and the credibility of scientific evidence. Such similarities and distinctions were shown to relate to how teachers used evidence to justify claims in their arguments. The findings also suggested a mismatch between teachers' personal epistemology about science in general and climate science, which was revealed through their argumentation. This work helps to further the ongoing discussions in environmental education about what knowledge and skills teachers need in order to teach climate issues and prepare students for future decision making. It constitutes first steps to facilitate reasoning and argumentation in climate change education and provides important implications for future design of professional development programs.

  2. Forms of presentism in the history of science. Rethinking the project of historical epistemology.

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    Loison, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, presentism has seen a resurgence among some historians of science. Most of them draw a line between a good form of presentism and typical anachronism, but where the line should be drawn remains an open question. The present article aims at resolving this problem. In the first part I define the four main distinct forms of presentism at work in the history of science and the different purposes they serve. Based on this typology, the second part reconsiders what counts as anachronism, Whiggism and positivist history. This clarification is used as a basis to rethink the research program of historical epistemology in the third section. Throughout this article, I examine the conceptual core of historical epistemology more than its actual history, from Bachelard to Foucault or others. Its project should be defined - as Canguilhem suggested - as an attempt to account for both the contingency and the rationality of science. As such, historical epistemology is based on a complex fifth form of presentism, which I call critical presentism. The critical relation at stake not only works from the present to the past, because of the acknowledged rationality of science, but also from the past to the present because of the contingency and historicity of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Religion, Nature, Science Education and the Epistemology of Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    In his article "Scientists at Play in a Field of the Lord", David Long (2010) rightly challenges our presumptions of what science is and brings forth some of the disjunctures between science and deeply held American religious beliefs. Reading his narrative of the conflicts that he experienced on the opening day of the Creation Museum, I cannot…

  4. Epistemology & the Nature of Science: A Classroom Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Efforts to enact balanced treatment laws represent an attempt to wedge the supernatural into scientific explanations. Current attempts to displace methodological naturalism from science indicate a need to make the nature of science a central theme in our instruction. This article utilizes constructivist listening to introduce students to five…

  5. Hurdles in Basic Science Translation

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    Christina J. Perry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past century there have been incredible advances in the field of medical research, but what hinders translation of this knowledge into effective treatment for human disease? There is an increasing focus on the failure of many research breakthroughs to be translated through the clinical trial process and into medical practice. In this mini review, we will consider some of the reasons that findings in basic medical research fail to become translated through clinical trials and into basic medical practices. We focus in particular on the way that human disease is modeled, the understanding we have of how our targets behave in vivo, and also some of the issues surrounding reproducibility of basic research findings. We will also look at some of the ways that have been proposed for overcoming these issues. It appears that there needs to be a cultural shift in the way we fund, publish and recognize quality control in scientific research. Although this is a daunting proposition, we hope that with increasing awareness and focus on research translation and the hurdles that impede it, the field of medical research will continue to inform and improve medical practice across the world.

  6. Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic.

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    Elshakry, Marwa S

    2008-12-01

    This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modem scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders.

  7. Collaboration, Interdisciplinarity, and the Epistemology of Contemporary Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    shall provide a new account of the structure and development of contemporary science based on analyses of, first, cognitive resources and their relations to domains, and second of the distribution of cognitive resources among collaborators and the epistemic dependence that this distribution implies...

  8. Attending to Student Epistemological Framing in a Science Classroom

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    Hutchison, Paul; Hammer, David

    2010-01-01

    Studies of learning in school settings indicate that many students frame activities in science classes as the production of answers for the teacher or test, rather than as making new sense of the natural world. A case study of an episode from a class taught by the first author demonstrates what productive and unproductive student framing can look…

  9. Epistemology, development, and integrity in a science education professional development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Elizabeth St. Petery

    This research involved interpretive inquiry to understand changes in the notion of "self" as expressed by teachers recently enrolled as graduate students in an advanced degree program in science education at Florida State University. Teachers work in a context that integrates behavior, social structure, culture, and intention. Within this context, this study focused on the intentional realm that involves interior understandings, including self-epistemology, professional self-identity, and integrity. Scholarship in adult and teacher development, especially ways of knowing theory, guided my efforts to understand change in these notions of self. The five participants in this study were interviewed in depth to explore their "self"-related understandings in detail. The other primary data sources were portfolios and work the participants submitted as part of the program. Guided by a constructivist methodology, I used narrative inquiry and grounded theory to conduct data analysis. As learners and teachers, these individuals drew upon epistemological orientations emphasizing a procedural orientation to knowledge. They experienced varying degrees of interior and exterior development in self and epistemology. They created integrity in their efforts to align their intentions with their actions with a dynamic relationship to context. This study suggests that professional development experiences in science education include consideration of the personal and the professional, recognize and honor differing perspectives, facilitate development, and assist individuals to recognize and articulate their integrity.

  10. On Folk Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerken, Mikkel

    that are associated with biases. In developing this account, Mikkel Gerken presents work in cognitive psychology and pragmatics, while also contributing to epistemology. For example, Gerken develops positive epistemic norms of action and assertion and moreover, critically assesses contextualism, knowledge...... a role as data for epistemological theorizing. Rather, critical epistemological theorizing is required to interpret empirical findings. Consequently, On Folk Epistemology helps to lay the foundation for an emerging sub-field that intersects philosophy and the cognitive sciences: The empirical study...

  11. Translational Science Research: Towards Better Health

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    Emir Festic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though it is considered a 21st century term, translational research has been present for much longer. Idea of translating experimental discovery to its’ clinical application and use is old as research itself. However, it is the understanding of missing links between the basic science research and clinical research that emerged in the past decade and mobilized scientific and clinical communities and organizations worldwide. Hence term, translational research, which represents an “enterprise of harnessing knowledge from basic sciences to produce new drugs, devices, and treatment options for patients” (1. It has been also characterized as “effective translation of the new knowledge, mechanisms, and techniques generated by advances in basic science research into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, which is essential for improving health” (2.This translation is a complex process and involves more than one step for transfer of research knowledge. At least 3 such roadblocks have been identified (Figure 1 ; T1 translation: “The transfer of new understandings of disease mechanisms gained in the laboratory into the development of new methods for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention and their first testing in humans”, T2 translation: “The translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making”, and T3 translation: “Practice-based research, which is often necessary before distilled knowledge (e.g., systematic reviews, guidelines can be implemented in practice” (3-5.The international research community rapidly recognized importance for promotion of translational research and made it their priority(5. In the USA, National Institutes of Health, (NIH expects to fund 60 translational research centers with a budget of $500 million per year by 2012 (6. Besides academic centers, foundations, industry, disease-related organizations, and individual hospitals and

  12. Epistemological Beliefs and Practices of Science Faculty with Education Specialties: Combining Teaching Scholarship and Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Tracie Marcella

    2011-12-01

    Across the United States institutions of higher education address educational reform by valuing scholarship that focuses on teaching and learning, especially in STEM fields. University science departments can encourage teaching scholarship by hiring science faculty with education specialties (SFES), individuals who have expertise in both science and science education. The goal of this study was to understand how the epistemological beliefs and teaching practices of SFES relate to national reform efforts in science teaching promoting student-centered instruction. The research questions guiding this investigation were: (1) What epistemological belief systems do science faculty with education specialties espouse concerning the teaching and learning of science?; and (2) What are the classroom practices of science faculty with education specialties? How are these practices congruent with the reform efforts described by the National Research Council (1996, 2001, 2003)? The theoretical framework guiding the study was interdisciplinarity, the integration of knowledge between two or more disciplines (science and science pedagogy). The research design employed mixed (qualitative and quantitative) approaches and focused on 25 volunteer SFES participants. The TBI, ATI, and RTOP were used to triangulate self-report and videotaped teaching vignettes, and develop profiles of SFES. Of the 25 SFES participants, 82 percent of their beliefs were transitional or student-centered beliefs. Seventy-two percent of the 25 SFES espoused more student-focused than teacher focused approaches. The classroom practices of 10 SFES were on average transitional in nature (at the boundary of student-focused and teacher-focused). The beliefs of SFES appeared to be influenced by the sizes of their courses, and were positive correlated with reform-based teaching practices. There was a relationship between the degree to which they implemented reform-based practice and their perceived level of

  13. Best research practices in psychology: Illustrating epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W; Reis, Harry T

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, a robust movement has emerged within psychology to increase the evidentiary value of our science. This movement, which has analogs throughout the empirical sciences, is broad and diverse, but its primary emphasis has been on the reduction of statistical false positives. The present article addresses epistemological and pragmatic issues that we, as a field, must consider as we seek to maximize the scientific value of this movement. Regarding epistemology, this article contrasts the false-positives-reduction (FPR) approach with an alternative, the error balance (EB) approach, which argues that any serious consideration of optimal scientific practice must contend simultaneously with both false-positive and false-negative errors. Regarding pragmatics, the movement has devoted a great deal of attention to issues that frequently arise in laboratory experiments and one-shot survey studies, but it has devoted less attention to issues that frequently arise in intensive and/or longitudinal studies. We illustrate these epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science, one of the many research domains that frequently employ intensive and/or longitudinal methods. Specifically, we examine 6 research prescriptions that can help to reduce false-positive rates: preregistration, prepublication sharing of materials, postpublication sharing of data, close replication, avoiding piecemeal publication, and increasing sample size. For each, we offer concrete guidance not only regarding how researchers can improve their research practices and balance the risk of false-positive and false-negative errors, but also how the movement can capitalize upon insights from research practices within relationship science to make the movement stronger and more inclusive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Translational science: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Stephen H

    2008-02-01

    The concept of translational science is at least 15 years old. However, in its most recent incarnation, it represents the identification of a funding category designed to encourage academic participation in a critical stage of the drug discovery and product development process. It is hoped that this will make the process both shorter and more efficient. In this review, the author first considers the historical development of the pharmaceutical R&D process. The place of translational science in the process, the scientific techniques involved, and aspects of the business environment necessary for its success are then considered. Translational science does not displace preclinical development. Both concepts are relevant to the paramount importance of successfully and expeditiously bridging the gap between preclinical science and clinical testing, "from bench to bedside." Translational science is particularly likely to stimulate biomarker research in the universities and related business community and will probably give a modest boost to early clinical testing and commercialization of discoveries within the academic setting. Whether there will be a consequent improvement in the quality and efficiency of the overall process remains to be seen.

  15. The impact of science teachers' epistemological beliefs on authentic inquiry: A multiple-case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dionne Bennett

    The purpose of this study was to examine how science teachers' epistemological beliefs impacted their use of authentic inquiry in science instruction. Participants in this multiple-case study included a total of four teachers who represented the middle, secondary and post-secondary levels. Based on the results of the pilot study conducted with a secondary science teacher, adjustments were made to the interview questions and observation protocol. Data collection for the study included semi-structured interviews, direct observations of instructional techniques, and the collection of artifacts. The cross case analysis revealed that the cases epistemological beliefs were mostly Transitional and the method of instruction used most was Discussion. Two of the cases exhibited consistent beliefs and instructional practices, whereas the other two exhibited beliefs beyond their instruction. The findings of this study support the literature on the influence of contextual factors and professional development on teacher beliefs and practice. The findings support and contradict literature relevant to the consistency of teacher beliefs with instruction. This study's findings revealed that the use of reform-based instruction, or Authentic Inquiry, does not occur when science teachers do not have the beliefs and experiences necessary to implement this form of instruction.

  16. The worst enemy of science: clarifying polemics issues on Paul Feyerabend’s Epistemology in teacher training

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    Felipe Damasio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the objections to Feyerabend's epistemology arise from misinterpretations of ideas by this author. Terms and expressions as epistemological anarchism, irrationality, control of science and anything goes can give the false impression that the author's arguments are chaotic and unsustainable. This paper discusses these concepts, opposing the misconceptions about them. In initial and continuing teacher education, this reflection can be useful both for the deconstruction of certain misleading images about the nature of science and for the upbringing of critical citizens acquaintated to the concepts of modern philosophy of science.

  17. Preservice Teachers' Reconciliation of an Epistemological Issue in an Integrated Mathematics/Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormas, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Preservice teachers in six sections (n = 87) of a sequenced, methodological and process-integrated elementary mathematics/science methods course were able to reconcile an issue centered on a similar area of epistemology. Preservice teachers participated in a science inquiry lesson on biological classification and a mathematics problem-solving…

  18. Limits of Science and the Importance of Epistemological Functions of Religion

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    Qodratullah Qorbani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human is encountered by many metaphysical, scientific, religious and other fundamentalquestions which Science, and its potentials, can answer some of them, specially in the material realm.In fact, empirical science is limited to the material world, and it can’t answer human’s fundamentalquestions of his/her living. Then human can’t provide all his/her epistemological requirements byempirical science. In addition, contemporary human’s scientism caused many problems for him/her.Human tried to make empirical science as a worldview which caused some important andfundamental crisis. So he/she needs metaphysical, religious and other sources to know aboutsupernatural facts. Fulfilling this, he/she has to use religious teachings, because religions, in particulardivine ones, have many basic functions. They can make man aware about immaterial realms andexistents including God, origin and resurrection of man, the world system etc. They can give areasonable explanation of the origin and resurrection of human’s life and the meaning of human’sevolution in the mundane universe, and the philosophy of living by explaining the nature of Goodnessand Evil. Religions give some ethical and religious laws to manage and control his/her individual andsocial treatments. In fact, through religious teachings,man can take a suitable framework to managehis/her living, for example, by them man can determine functional results of his/her scientific andtechnological activities. In addition, religions can draw the spiritual future of human’s mundaneliving, and give a good motivation to get mundane and spiritual happiness. In the other word, man,only by the help of religious teachings, can take his/her fundamental requirements. Then, byconsidering the contemporary human epistemological crisis and important limits of human’sknowledge and science, there is the only way to refer to divine religions teachings. In this paper, it istried to explain religion functions in

  19. Engineering behaviour change in an epidemic: the epistemology of NIH-funded HIV prevention science.

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    Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat

    2015-05-01

    Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Translational medicine: science or wishful thinking?

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    Wehling Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Translational medicine" as a fashionable term is being increasingly used to describe the wish of biomedical researchers to ultimately help patients. Despite increased efforts and investments into R&D, the output of novel medicines has been declining dramatically over the past years. Improvement of translation is thought to become a remedy as one of the reasons for this widening gap between input and output is the difficult transition between preclinical ("basic" and clinical stages in the R&D process. Animal experiments, test tube analyses and early human trials do simply not reflect the patient situation well enough to reliably predict efficacy and safety of a novel compound or device. This goal, however, can only be achieved if the translational processes are scientifically backed up by robust methods some of which still need to be developed. This mainly relates to biomarker development and predictivity assessment, biostatistical methods, smart and accelerated early human study designs and decision algorithms among other features. It is therefore claimed that a new science needs to be developed called 'translational science in medicine'.

  1. Promoting Elementary Students' Epistemology of Science through Computer-Supported Knowledge-Building Discourse and Epistemic Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the role of computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection in promoting elementary-school students' scientific epistemology and science learning. The participants were 39 Grade 5 students who were collectively pursuing ideas and inquiry for knowledge advance using Knowledge Forum (KF) while studying a…

  2. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  3. Middle School Students' Use of Epistemological Resources while Reasoning about Science Performance Tasks and Media Reports of Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Brandy L. E.

    The goal of science education is to prepare students to make decisions about the complicated socioscientific issues that are an inescapable part of modern life, from personal medical decisions to evaluating a political candidate's environmental platform. We cannot expect adults to maintain a deep conceptual understanding of the current state of every branch of science that might prove relevant to their lives, so we must prepare them to rely on other knowledge to make these decisions. Epistemological beliefs about scientific knowledge--what it is, its purpose, how it is constructed--are one type of knowledge that could be brought to bear when evaluating scientific claims. Complicating this situation is the fact that most adults will get most of their information about these socioscientific issues from the news media. Journalists do not have the same goals or norms as scientists, and this media lens can distort scientific issues. This dissertation addresses the question of whether we can assess epistemological change in a way that gives us meaningful information about how people will apply their epistemological understanding of science when they make decisions in the real world. First, I designed a written assessment made up of performance tasks to assess middle school students' implicit epistemological beliefs, and looked at whether we can use such an assessment to see epistemological change over two years. I then gave the same students news articles about whether there is a link between vaccines and autism and looked at their reasoning about this issue and how the journalistic features of two different articles impacted their reasoning. Finally, I examined the external validity of the epistemology assessment by looking at whether it predicted anything about students' responses to the news articles. While I was able to find evidence of differences between eighth graders' and sixth graders' use of epistemological resources within the performance tasks, I found that

  4. Grasping the spirit in nature: Anschauung in Ørsted's epistemology of science and beauty.

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    Lynning, Kristine Hays; Jacobsen, Anja Skaar

    2011-03-01

    The intersection between art, poetry, philosophy and science was the leitmotif which guided the lives and careers of romantic natural philosophers including that of the Danish natural philosopher, H. C. Ørsted. A simple model of orsted's career would be one in which it was framed by two periods of philosophical speculation: the youth's curious and idealistic interest in new attractive thoughts and the experienced man's mature reflections at the end of his life. We suggest that a closer look at the epistemological aspects of his works on the theory of beauty reveals a connection between this late work and his early philosophical work including experimental philosophy, but also with the work in teaching and textbook writing, that lies in between. The latter includes Ørsted's view on the application of mathematics in natural philosophy as well as his failed attempt at a genetic presentation of elementary geometry.

  5. Historia, epistemología y didáctica de las ciencias: unas relaciones necesarias History, epistemology and didactics of science: some necessary relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Patricia Gallego Torres

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se establecen relaciones entre historia, epistemología y didáctica de las ciencias de la naturaleza. De cada una de estas categoría se presenta, además, un análisis de cómo son tratadas en la práctica habitual de algunos sistemas educativos, a la vez que se hacen propuestas para una posible superación. Se propende por hacer objeto de trabajo en el aula cada modelo científico, a partir de una caracterización de las razones que llevaron a la comunidad de especialistas a formularlo y aceptarlo. El objetivo es el de propiciar una reflexión fundamentada para una investigación didáctica, en la que esas relaciones superen habituales miradas aisladas.In this article, the authors present relevant relationships between history, epistemology and didactics of natural sciences. Each of these categories is analyzed based on the real practice of some educational systems and some proposals are outlined in order to improve them. Each one of the scientific models should be the focus of classroom work, taking into account the characterization of the foundations which have led the scientific community to state and accept them. The main objective is to start a reflection based on didactic research in which the established relationships overcome different isolated points of view.

  6. Meaningful Engagement in Scientific Practices: How Classroom Communities Develop Authentic Epistemologies for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Christina Rae

    practical epistemologies that guide their knowledge building work and how the development of these epistemologies is identity-laden. I find that for engagement in science practices to be meaningful, classroom communities' engagement is motivated by the unknowns in students' knowledge, or what they still need to figure out and explain. In contexts where knowledge is uncertain, practical epistemic heuristics become authentically useful for students' knowledge building work. However, using unknowns to motivate learning can be distressing for students. The anomalous case study suggests that students' meaningful engagement in science knowledge building requires particular affective supports from the teacher that allow students to take on and embrace new identities with respect to ideas in their classroom. Taken together, the model of epistemic learning that I propose suggests that both conceptual and affective supports are necessary to shift science classrooms in ways that engage students in meaningful science knowledge building.

  7. Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.

    2010-03-01

    Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant chapter in humans' cultural heritage before and since the Enlightenment. Truth, knowledge, and their relation are central to science and religion as ways of knowing, as social institutions, and to their interaction. In religion, truth is revealed through God's word. In science, truth is sought after via empirical methods. Discord can be viewed as a competition for social legitimization between two social institutions whose goals are explaining the world and how it works. Under this view, the root of the discord is truth as correspondence. In this concept of truth, knowledge corresponds to the facts of reality, and conflict is inevitable for many because humans want to ask which one—science or religion—gets the facts correct. But, the root paradox, also known as the problem of the criterion, suggests that seeking to know nature as it is represents a fruitless endeavor. The discord can be set on new ground and resolved by taking a moderately skeptical line of thought, one which employs truth as coherence and a moderate form of constructivist epistemology. Quantum mechanics and evolution as scientific theories and scientific research on human consciousness and vision provide support for this line of argument. Within a constructivist perspective, scientists would relinquish only the pursuit of knowing reality as it is. Scientists would retain everything else. Believers who hold that religion explains reality would come to understand that God never revealed His truth of nature; rather, He revealed His truth in how we are to conduct our lives.

  8. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  9. Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: How Science and Technique Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pisano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into two parts, this being the first one. The second is entitled ‘Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around Renaissance: Machines, Machineries and Perpetual Motion’ and will be published in Acta Baltica Historiae et Philosophiae Scientiarum in 2015. Based on our recent studies, we provide here a historical and epistemological feature on the role played by machines and machineries. Ours is an epistemological thesis based on a series of historical examples to show that the relations between theoretical science and the construction of machines cannot be taken for granted, a priori. Our analysis is mainly based on the culture of machines around 15th and 17th centuries, namely the epoch of Late Renaissance and Early Modern Age. For this is the period of scientific revolution and this age offers abundant interesting material for researches into the relations of theoretical science/construction of machines as well. However, to prove our epistemological thesis, we will also exploit examples of machines built in other historical periods. Particularly, a discussion concerning the relationship between science theory and the development of science art crafts produced by non-recognized scientists in a certain historical time is presented. The main questions are: when and why did the tension between science (physics, mathematics and geometry give rise to a new scientific approach to applied discipline such as studies on machines and machineries? What kind of science was used (if at all for projecting machines and machineries? Was science at the time a necessary precondition to build a machine? In the first part we will focus on the difference between Aristotelian-Euclidean and Archimedean approaches and we will outline the heritage of these two different approaches in late medieval and Renaissance science. In the second part, we will apply our reconstructions to some historical and epistemological

  10. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  11. Role of the epistemic subject in Piaget's genetic epistemology and its importance for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    According to Piaget, a fundamental epistemological distinction must be made between the psychological and the epistemic subject. The epistemic subject is studied by the genetic epistemologist who charts development through a common universal rationality, which develops, whereas the psychological subject is studied by the developmental/cognitive psychologist by focusing on accidental contingencies surrounding particular people and their individual differences. The epistemic subject as compared to the psychological subject is an idealized abstraction, viz., that set of underlying epistemic structures common to everyone at the same level of development. The objective of this study is to investigate the degree to which investigators in science education conceptualize the difference between the epistemic and the psychological subjects. It is argued that just as the ideal gas law (based on the theoretical formulation of Maxwell and Boltzmann) provides a general model to which the real gases approximate under different experimental conditions, so we can consider (by abduction) the epistemic subject to be an ideal knower to which the real (psychological) subjects approximate to varying degrees. The difference between the epistemic and the psychological subjects, however, cannot be used as an epistemological shield in defense of Piagetian theory. Any test of the Piagetian theory must involve psychological or real subjects. Empirical testability, however, need not be equated to being scientific. An analogy is drawn between Galileo's idealization, which led to the discovery of the law of free-fall, and Piaget's epistemic subject. Research conducted in science education shows that at least for some critics the wide variations in the age at which individuals acquire the different Piagetian stages is crucial for rejecting the theory. It is argued that the real issue is not the proportion of heterogeneity but the understanding that Piaget, by neglecting individual differences

  12. For a reasoned development of experimental methods in information and communication sciences Some epistemological findings of methodological pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier COURBET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available If multidisciplinarity is necessary, first, for studying the widest possible set of communication phenomena (organizational, in groups, interpersonal, media, computer-mediated communication... and, secondly, for grasping the complexity of the different moments of the same phenomenon of communication (production, content, reception, circulation ..., methodological pluralism is also important. However, French research in communication sciences leaves in the shade a number of phenomena and moments of communication that could be better understood thanks to the experimental method. We will underline that the epistemological issues related to rational use of the experimental method in communication sciences are not negligible: it allows the study of objects that cannot be investigated with other methods and offers the opportunity to build knowledge by the refutation of hypotheses and theoretical propositions. We will clarify some epistemological misunderstandings concerning this method. First, it is actually a method of studying complex systems and communication processes. Secondly, its use is not incompatible with constructivism.

  13. When Historiography Met Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Stoffel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Bordoni, Stefano. When historiography met epistemology: Sophisticated histories and philosophies of science in French-speaking countries in the second half of the nineteenth century. Reviewed by Jean-François Stoffel.

  14. [Science and magic. Motives from ethnology and the psychology of perception in the epistemology of Ludwik Fleck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sylwia

    2014-01-01

    Fleck's social theory of science refers to many ethnological examples in order to explain how collective thinking and acting constructs certain systems of belief and knowing. According to Fleck, scientific concepts and practices are comparable with magic terms and ceremonies. This essay aims to identify the ethnological sources that Fleck's epistemology is using. By confronting them with other relativistic theories that were circulating in Lemberg during the interwar period, the originality of Fleck's own position can be contextualized and explained as well.

  15. Promoting elementary students' epistemology of science through computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the role of computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection in promoting elementary-school students' scientific epistemology and science learning. The participants were 39 Grade 5 students who were collectively pursuing ideas and inquiry for knowledge advance using Knowledge Forum (KF) while studying a unit on electricity; they also reflected on the epistemic nature of their discourse. A comparison class of 22 students, taught by the same teacher, studied the same unit using the school's established scientific investigation method. We hypothesised that engaging students in idea-driven and theory-building discourse, as well as scaffolding them to reflect on the epistemic nature of their discourse, would help them understand their own scientific collaborative discourse as a theory-building process, and therefore understand scientific inquiry as an idea-driven and theory-building process. As hypothesised, we found that students engaged in knowledge-building discourse and reflection outperformed comparison students in scientific epistemology and science learning, and that students' understanding of collaborative discourse predicted their post-test scientific epistemology and science learning. To further understand the epistemic change process among knowledge-building students, we analysed their KF discourse to understand whether and how their epistemic practice had changed after epistemic reflection. The implications on ways of promoting epistemic change are discussed.

  16. Knowledge about Science in Science Education Research from the Perspective of Ludwik Fleck's Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, André Ferrer Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The importance of knowledge about science is well established, and it has a long history in the area of science education. More recently, the specialized literature has highlighted the search for consensus in relation to what should be taught in this regard, that is, what should compose the science curricula of elementary and high school levels.…

  17. Promoting Climate Literacy and Conceptual Understanding among In-service Secondary Science Teachers requires an Epistemological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Forbes, C.; Roehrig, G.; Chandler, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Promoting climate literacy among in-service science teachers necessitates an understanding of fundamental concepts about the Earth's climate System (USGCRP, 2009). Very few teachers report having any formal instruction in climate science (Plutzer et al., 2016), therefore, rather simple conceptions of climate systems and their variability exist, which has implications for students' science learning (Francies et al., 1993; Libarkin, 2005; Rebich, 2005). This study uses the inferences from a NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) teacher professional development program (CYCLES) to establish the necessity for developing an epistemological perspective among teachers. In CYCLES, 19 middle and high school (male=8, female=11) teachers were assessed for their understanding of global climate change (GCC). A qualitative analysis of their concept maps and an alignment of their conceptions with the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy (NOAA, 2009) demonstrated that participants emphasized on EPCL 1, 3, 6, 7 focusing on the Earth system, atmospheric, social and ecological impacts of GCC. However, EPCL 4 (variability in climate) and 5 (data-based observations and modeling) were least represented and emphasized upon. Thus, participants' descriptions about global climatic patterns were often factual rather than incorporating causation (why the temperatures are increasing) and/or correlation (describing what other factors might influence global temperatures). Therefore, engaging with epistemic dimensions of climate science to understand the processes, tools, and norms through which climate scientists study the Earth's climate system (Huxter et al., 2013) is critical for developing an in-depth conceptual understanding of climate. CLiMES (Climate Modeling and Epistemology of Science), a NSF initiative proposes to use EzGCM (EzGlobal Climate Model) to engage students and teachers in designing and running simulations, performing data processing activities, and analyzing

  18. Science writing heurisitc: A writing-to-learn strategy and its effect on student's science achievement, science self-efficacy, and scientific epistemological view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caukin, Nancy S.

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine if employing the writing-to-learn strategy known as a "Science Writing Heuristic" would positively effect students' science achievement, science self-efficacy, and scientific epistemological view. The publications Science for All American, Blueprints for Reform: Project 2061 (AAAS, 1990; 1998) and National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) strongly encourage science education that is student-centered, inquiry-based, active rather than passive, increases students' science literacy, and moves students towards a constructivist view of science. The capacity to learn, reason, problem solve, think critically and construct new knowledge can potentially be experienced through writing (Irmscher, 1979; Klein, 1999; Applebee, 1984). Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is a tool for designing science experiences that move away from "cookbook" experiences and allows students to design experiences based on their own ideas and questions. This non-traditional classroom strategy focuses on claims that students make based on evidence, compares those claims with their peers and compares those claims with the established science community. Students engage in reflection, meaning making based on their experiences, and demonstrate those understandings in multiple ways (Hand, 2004; Keys et al, 1999, Poock, nd.). This study involved secondary honors chemistry students in a rural prek-12 school in Middle Tennessee. There were n = 23 students in the group and n = 8 in the control group. Both groups participated in a five-week study of gases. The treatment group received the instructional strategy known as Science Writing Heuristic and the control group received traditional teacher-centered science instruction. The quantitative results showed that females in the treatment group outscored their male counterparts by 11% on the science achievement portion of the study and the males in the control group had a more constructivist scientific

  19. The Effects of Gender and Type of Inquiry Curriculum on Sixth Grade Students' Science Process Skills and Epistemological Beliefs in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleta, Kristy L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gender and type of inquiry curriculum (open or structured) on science process skills and epistemological beliefs in science of sixth grade students. The current study took place in an urban northeastern middle school. The researcher utilized a sample of convenience comprised of 303 sixth grade students taught by four science teachers on separate teams. The study employed mixed methods with a quasi-experimental design, pretest-posttest comparison group with 17 intact classrooms of students. Students' science process skills and epistemological beliefs in science (source, certainty, development, and justification) were measured before and after the intervention, which exposed different groups of students to different types of inquiry (structured or open). Differences between comparison and treatment groups and between male and female students were analyzed after the intervention, on science process skills, using a two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and, on epistemological beliefs in science, using a two-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Responses from two focus groups of open inquiry students were cycle coded and examined for themes and patterns. Quantitative measurements indicated that girls scored significantly higher on science process skills than boys, regardless of type of inquiry instruction. Neither gender nor type of inquiry instruction predicted students' epistemological beliefs in science after accounting for students' pretest scores. The dimension Development accounted for 10.6% of the variance in students' science process skills. Qualitative results indicated that students with sophisticated epistemological beliefs expressed engagement with the open-inquiry curriculum. Students in both the sophisticated and naive beliefs groups identified challenges with the curriculum and improvement in learning as major themes. The types of challenges identified differed between the groups

  20. Epistemological Issues Concerning Computer Simulations in Science and Their Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, Ileana M.; Seoane, Eugenia; Arriassecq, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Computers and simulations represent an undeniable aspect of daily scientific life, the use of simulations being comparable to the introduction of the microscope and the telescope, in the development of knowledge. In science education, simulations have been proposed for over three decades as useful tools to improve the conceptual understanding of…

  1. An Examination of the Relationship between Professional Development Providers' Epistemological and Nature of Science Beliefs and Their Professional Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Arriola, Alfonso

    In the last twenty years in US science education, professional development has emphasized the need to change science instruction from a direct instruction model to a more participatory and constructivist learning model. The result of these reform efforts has seen an increase in science education professional development that is focused on providing teaching strategies that promote inquiry learning to learn science content. Given these reform efforts and teacher responses to professional development, research seems to indicate that whether teachers actually change their practice may depend on the teachers' basic epistemological beliefs about the nature of science. The person who builds the bridge between teacher beliefs and teacher practice is the designer and facilitator of science teacher professional development. Even though these designers and facilitators of professional development are critical to science teacher change, few have studied how these professionals approach their work and what influence their beliefs have on their professional development activities. Eight developers and designers of science education professional development participated in this study through interviews and the completion of an online questionnaire. To examine the relationship between professional development providers' science beliefs and their design, development, and implementation of professional development experiences for science teachers, this study used the Views on Science Education Questionnaire (VOSE), and interview transcripts as well as analysis of the documents from teacher professional development experiences. Through a basic interpretive qualitative analysis, the predominant themes that emerged from this study suggest that the nature of science is often equated with the practice of science, personal beliefs about the nature of science have a minimal impact on the design of professional development experiences, current reform efforts in science education have a

  2. Precise machine translation of computer science study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available mobile (Android) application for translating discrete mathematics definitions between English and Afrikaans. The main component of the system is a Grammatical Framework (GF) application grammar which produces syntactically and semantically accurate...

  3. The Feminist ‘Successor Science Project’ as a Transnational Epistemological Community

    OpenAIRE

    Pesole, Betta

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the attempt by feminist epistemologies to overcome the impasse between objectivity and relativism has led to various formulations of the concept of ‘location’ and to the standpoint theory. As a result, the political project of a transnational community of interpreters fostered by transnational feminism can be seen as deriving from such enduring process.

  4. Epistemology as Education: Know Thyself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Tubbs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In his Introduction to this Special Edition of Education Sciences, Andrew Stables points out that often, epistemological questions in education have been pursued in isolation from ethics and other social concerns. In part, this problem has been addressed by ‘local’ epistemologies—feminist, queer, post-colonial, postmodern and others—which try to establish how different knowledge can look when not grounded in presuppositions of consciousness, or rationality, or gender, colour, etc., all of which exclude and suppress that which they deem to be ‘other’. However, perhaps it is not just these local knowledges that are excluded from epistemological work in education. Perhaps, remarkably, epistemological questions pursued in education are habitually carried out in isolation from education, as if education were nothing in its own right. This ‘otherness’ of education to philosophy in general, and to epistemology in particular, contributes to the latter often seeming to be nugatory with regard to the inequalities borne within modern social and political relations. With this is mind, the following contribution reflects not so much on the relation of epistemology and education, or on epistemology in education, but rather on epistemology as education. Primarily this concerns the question of how epistemology, the science of knowledge, can have knowledge of itself and of the educational significance carried in trying to do so. This challenge of epistemology as education commends epistemology to heed the Delphic maxim: know thyself. It is to these efforts that the following essay is directed.

  5. THE EPISTEMOLOGY BEHIND THE CURTAIN: THOUGHTS ON THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Brett H

    2017-07-01

    This essay is concerned with the epistemological complications of the interface between psychoanalysis and "scientific" disciplines and methodologies-in particular, with respect to theories of knowledge and conceptualizations of subjectivity appropriate to psychoanalysis. The author suggests that there is in such interface the potential for an untheorized scientism in empiricist prescriptions for the reform and rescue of psychoanalysis, and revisits the notion that subjectivity as conceived psychoanalytically, grounded in lived experience, is irreducible in ways that are unique and existentially abiding. The author explores the problem through the lens of philosophical hermeneutics and cautions against merging psychoanalysis, under the guise of a salutary pluralism, with disciplines guided by a systematized empiricism and its attendant epistemological commitments. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  6. Identifying translational science within the triangle of biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Griffin M

    2013-05-24

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap places special emphasis on "bench-to-bedside" research, or the "translation" of basic science research into practical clinical applications. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium is one example of the large investments being made to develop a national infrastructure to support translational science, which involves reducing regulatory burdens, launching new educational initiatives, and forming partnerships between academia and industry. However, while numerous definitions have been suggested for translational science, including the qualitative T1-T4 classification, a consensus has not yet been reached. This makes it challenging to tract the impact of these major policy changes. In this study, we use a bibliometric approach to map PubMed articles onto a graph, called the Triangle of Biomedicine. The corners of the triangle represent research related to animals, cells and molecules, and humans; and, the position of a publication on the graph is based on its topics, as determined by its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We define translation as movement of a collection of articles, or the articles that cite those articles, towards the human corner. The Triangle of Biomedicine provides a quantitative way of determining if an individual scientist, research organization, funding agency, or scientific field is producing results that are relevant to clinical medicine. We validate our technique using examples that have been previously described in the literature and by comparing it to prior methods of measuring translational science. The Triangle of Biomedicine is a novel way to identify translational science and track changes over time. This is important to policy makers in evaluating the impact of the large investments being made to accelerate translation. The Triangle of Biomedicine also provides a simple visual way of depicting this impact, which can be far more powerful than numbers alone.

  7. Ways of Knowing, Sharing, and Translating Agricultural Knowledge and Perspectives: Alternative Epistemologies across Non-Formal and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.; Ball, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    The mainstream agricultural literacy movement has been mostly focused on school-based learning through formal curricula and standardized non-formal models (e.g., FFA, 4-H). The purpose of the current study is to qualitatively explore through a grounded theory approach, the development, sharing, and translation of diverse forms of agricultural…

  8. Public understanding of science and the perception of nanotechnology: the roles of interest in science, methodological knowledge, epistemological beliefs, and beliefs about science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retzbach, Andrea; Marschall, Joachim; Rahnke, Marion; Otto, Lukas; Maier, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.

  9. Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine – AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research, March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Act, signed in 1971, aimed to eliminate cancer deaths through a massive increase in research funding. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine, observed the 40th anniversary of the Cancer Act in 2011, with special research articles and features, found in all three journals, on the state of cancer research 40 years later. This collection of articles explores both breakthroughs and the challenges in cancer research over the last four decades, and lets us know what we might expect in the future.

  10. Integrating Bioethics into Clinical and Translational Science Research: A Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.; Layde, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent initiatives to improve human health emphasize the need to effectively and appropriately translate new knowledge gleaned from basic biomedical and behavioral research to clinical and community application. To maximize the beneficial impact of scientific advances in clinical practice and community health, and to guard against potential deleterious medical and societal consequences of such advances, incorporation of bioethics at each stage of clinical and translational science research is essential. At the earliest stage, bioethics input is critical to address issues such as whether to limit certain areas of scientific inquiry. Subsequently, bioethics input is important to assure not only that human subjects trials are conducted and reported responsibly, but also that results are incorporated into clinical and community practices in a way that promotes and protects bioethical principles. At the final stage of clinical and translational science research, bioethics helps to identify the need and approach for refining clinical practices when safety or other concerns arise. The framework we present depicts how bioethics interfaces with each stage of clinical and translational science research, and suggests an important research agenda for systematically and comprehensively assuring bioethics input into clinical and translational science initiatives. PMID:20443821

  11. Translating Nutrition Science into Policy as Witness and Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustained effort to witness and participate in the targeted translation of nutritional science and policy forms the structure of this narrative. The memoir starts with an early career-directing experience with nutrition and cholera and proceeds with a long thread of interest in folic acid malabs...

  12. Science Translator: An Interview with Louisa Stark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2015-07-01

    The Genetics Society of America's Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes significant and sustained impact on genetics education. The 2015 awardee, Louisa Stark, has made a major impact on global access to genetics education through her work as director of the University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center. The Center's Learn.Genetics and Teach.Genetics websites are the most widely used online genetic education resources in the world. In 2014, they were visited by 18 million students, educators, scientists, and members of the public. With over 60 million page views annually, Learn.Genetics is among the most used sites on the Web. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. The Culture of Translational Science Research: Participants' Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Wooten, Kevin; Freeman, Jean; Brasier, Allan R

    2013-01-01

    We apply a symbolic interactionist framework and a qualitative methodology to the examination of the everyday reality of translational science research (TSR). This is a growing scientific movement that aims to facilitate the efficient application of basic research to clinical service design and delivery. We describe the emerging culture of translational research at a mid-size medical center that received a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health. The stories related by scientists, clinicians, and students in interviews indicate that they make sense of the emerging inter- and cross-disciplinary, team-oriented culture of TSR through the refinement and redefinition of the significant symbols that inform their work while they attempt to master translational research by addressing the dilemmas it produces for them and their work. We see the strength, currency, adaptability, and energy of the core self-definition of "scientist" to be significant in shaping the emerging culture of translational research. We conclude by celebrating the value of interpretive ethnography for evaluation research.

  14. Construction management and economics: the epistemology of a multidisciplinary design science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of construction management and economics (CME) can be characterized as a multidisciplinary design science. Results from the sciences and humanities are necessary inputs for this field of research that deals with design, production and operation of the built environment. The

  15. Changes in Participants' Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs during an Astronomical Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C. Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science projects provide non-scientists with opportunities to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on how participation in citizen science projects may affect their scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers'…

  16. Software Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    in-vitro decision to incubate a startup, Lexumo [7], which is developing a commercial Software as a Service ( SaaS ) vulnerability assessment...LTS Label Transition System MUSE Mining and Understanding Software Enclaves RTEMS Real-Time Executive for Multi-processor Systems SaaS Software ...as a Service SSA Static Single Assignment SWE Software Epistemology UD/DU Def-Use/Use-Def Chains (Dataflow Graph)

  17. Leadership Epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Bogenschneider, B

    2016-01-01

    The study of leadership is characterized by an expanding set of definitions of the term leadership. Some scholars even set out to know leadership by the identification of traits or behaviors of good leaders. However, the scientific study of leadership requires the identification of a causal theory of leadership. The scientific belief in causation as the common epistemology is the necessary link between the various disciplines interested in leadership (e.g., organizational psychology, statisti...

  18. Knowledge Translation: Moving Proteomics Science to Innovation in Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christina; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-06-01

    Proteomics is one of the pivotal next-generation biotechnologies in the current "postgenomics" era. Little is known about the ways in which innovative proteomics science is navigating the complex socio-political space between laboratory and society. It cannot be assumed that the trajectory between proteomics laboratory and society is linear and unidirectional. Concerned about public accountability and hopes for knowledge-based innovations, funding agencies and citizens increasingly expect that emerging science and technologies, such as proteomics, are effectively translated and disseminated as innovation in society. Here, we describe translation strategies promoted in the knowledge translation (KT) and science communication literatures and examine the use of these strategies within the field of proteomics. Drawing on data generated from qualitative interviews with proteomics scientists and ethnographic observation of international proteomics conferences over a 5-year period, we found that proteomics science incorporates a variety of KT strategies to reach knowledge users outside the field. To attain the full benefit of KT, however, proteomics scientists must challenge their own normative assumptions and approaches to innovation dissemination-beyond the current paradigm relying primarily on publication for one's scientific peers within one's field-and embrace the value of broader (interdisciplinary) KT strategies in promoting the uptake of their research. Notably, the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) is paying increasing attention to a broader range of KT strategies, including targeted dissemination, integrated KT, and public outreach. We suggest that increasing the variety of KT strategies employed by proteomics scientists is timely and would serve well the omics system sciences community.

  19. Before and beyond the precautionary principle: Epistemology of uncertainty in science and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallacchini, Mariachiara

    2005-01-01

    The precautionary principle has become, in European regulation of science and technology, a general principle for the protection of the health of human beings, animals, plants, and the environment. It requires that '[w]here there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation'. By focusing on situations of scientific uncertainty where data are lacking, insufficient, or inconclusive, the principle introduced a shift from a neutral legal attitude towards science to a bias in favor of safety, and a shift from the paradigm of science certain and objective to the awareness that the legal regulation of science involves decisions about values and interests. Implementation of the precautionary principle is highly variable. A crucial question still needs to be answered regarding the assumption that scientific certainty is a 'normal' characteristic of scientific knowledge. The relationship between technoscience and society has moved into a situation where uncertain knowledge is the rule. From this perspective, a more general framework for a democratic governance of science is needed. In democratic society, science may still have a special authoritative voice, but it cannot be the ultimate word on decisions that only the broader society may make. Therefore, the precautionary model of scientific regulation needs to be informed by an 'extended participatory model' of the relationship between science and society

  20. Discovering reality: feminist perspectives on epistemology, metaphysics, methodology, and philosophy of science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harding, Sandra G; Hintikka, Merrill B

    1983-01-01

    ... FOX KELLER / Gender and Science EVELYN FOX KELLER AND CHRISTINE R. GRONTKOWSKI / The Mind's Eye NAOMI SCHEMAN / Individualism and the Objects of Psychology JANE FLAX / Political Philosophy and the Pa...

  1. Changes in Participants’ Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs During an Astronomical Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on changes that may occur to their volunteer participants. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers’ attitudes towards science and beliefs in the nature of science changed over six months of participation in an astronomy-themed citizen science project and (2) how the level of project participation accounted for these changes. To measure attitudes towards science and beliefs about the nature of science, identical pre- and post-tests were used. We used pre-test data from 1,375 participants and post-test data collected from 175 participants. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. The pre-test sample was used to create the Rasch scales for the two scientific literacy measures. For the pre/post-test comparisons, data from those who completed both tests were used. Fourteen participants who took the pre/post-tests were interviewed. Results show that overall scientific attitudes did not change, p = .812. However, we did find significant changes related towards two scientific attitude items about science in the news (positive change; p self-efficacy (negative change, p scale did not change much and this change was not related to any of our recorded project activity variables. The interviews suggest that the social aspect of the project is important to participants and the change in self-efficacy is not due to a lowering of esteem but rather a greater appreciation for what they have yet to learn.

  2. Two Kinds of Social Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Finn

    2013-01-01

    ” for their emerging position. Still, substantial disagreement remains between the two identically named programmes with regard to the proper philosophical approach to knowledge as a social phenomenon; in this article, I try to pinpoint the locus of this disagreement. However, Fuller has also been engaged in minor......Steve Fuller’s programme of Social Epistemology was initiated some 25 years ago with the launching of a journal and the publication of a monograph with those very words as their title. Since then, the programme has evolved in a constant critical dialogue with other players in the fields...... of epistemology and science studies. Fuller’s main confrontation has been with analytic epistemology which, in its classical form, adopts a contrary position on most key issues. However, analytic epistemologists have gradually moved in the direction of Fuller’s views and even adopted the term “social epistemology...

  3. Knowledge of Knowledge: Problematic of Epistemology of Library and Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Keseroğlu

    2010-12-01

    philosophy, taken off from all the implementations, is only based on concepts and language. It is upper disciplinary. The focus of this study is to argue the Library and Information Science theory problematic in Turkey and an attempt to describe knowledge of this field. The theory of knowledge of any discipline can solely be established and enhanced onto the unique knowledge of that discipline. Mentioning of theory of Library and Information Science knowledge, is possible due to the distinctive knowledge detached from other disciplines. This distinctive knowledge, is the knowledge of library institution, that has come unchanged since its first models, and when removed from the field (LIS, becomes ordinary and moves out of originality of the library and information science. “The theory of knowledge of the field of Library and information science” need to be examined from three perspectives: Library and information science field knowledge; knowledge of organization of recorded information as object of the library (all processes from selection to use and knowledge of the user.

  4. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    OpenAIRE

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-01-01

    This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This...

  5. Social and behavioral science priorities for genomic translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehly, Laura M; Persky, Susan; Spotts, Erica; Acca, Gillian

    2018-01-29

    This commentary highlights the essential role of the social and behavioral sciences for genomic translation, and discusses some priority research areas in this regard. The first area encompasses genetics of behavioral, social, and neurocognitive factors, and how integration of these relationships might impact the development of treatments and interventions. The second area includes the contributions that social and behavioral sciences make toward the informed translation of genomic developments. Further, there is a need for behavioral and social sciences to inform biomedical research for effective implementation. The third area speaks to the need for increased outreach and education efforts to improve the public's genomic literacy such that individuals and communities can make informed health-related and societal (e.g., in legal or consumer settings) decisions. Finally, there is a need to prioritize representation of diverse communities in genomics research and equity of access to genomic technologies. Examples from National Institutes of Health-based intramural and extramural research programs and initiatives are used to discuss these points. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  6. Online Localization of "Zooniverse" Citizen Science Projects--On the Use of Translation Platforms as Tools for Translator Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at describing the way in which online translation platforms can facilitate the process of training translators. "Zooniverse," a website hosting a variety of citizen science projects in which everyone can take part, was used as an example of such a concept. The first section of this paper is focused on the history, idea…

  7. Translating Behavioral Science into Practice: A Framework to Determine Science Quality and Applicability for Police Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kimberley A; McGuire, Katherine L; Chapan, Denis M

    2018-05-07

    Policy on officer-involved shootings is critically reviewed and errors in applying scientific knowledge identified. Identifying and evaluating the most relevant science to a field-based problem is challenging. Law enforcement administrators with a clear understanding of valid science and application are in a better position to utilize scientific knowledge for the benefit of their organizations and officers. A recommended framework is proposed for considering the validity of science and its application. Valid science emerges via hypothesis testing, replication, extension and marked by peer review, known error rates, and general acceptance in its field of origin. Valid application of behavioral science requires an understanding of the methodology employed, measures used, and participants recruited to determine whether the science is ready for application. Fostering a science-practitioner partnership and an organizational culture that embraces quality, empirically based policy, and practices improves science-to-practice translation. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard

    2016-12-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  9. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Richard Gold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  10. Joseph Priestley Across Theology, Education, and Chemistry: An Interdisciplinary Case Study in Epistemology with a Focus on the Science Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berg, Kevin C.

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a search for the intellectual tools used by Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) in his chemistry, education, and theology documents. Priestley's enquiring democratic view of knowledge was applicable in all three areas and constitutes a significant part of his lifework. Current epistemological issues in science education are examined from the point of view of the nature of theory and experiment as observed in Priestley's writings and as espoused in modern philosophy of science. Science and religious faith issues in the context of science education are examined from the point of view of one's understanding of sacred texts, and the suggestion is made that a Priestleyan model of "the liberty to think for oneself" and "to hold knowledge with humility and virtue" could prove helpful in dealing with the known divergent opinions in relation to science, education, and religion.

  11. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  12. Bringing together two schools of social epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Finn; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2018-01-01

    Synthese was the first academic outlet to take notice of the phenomenon of social epistemology, by dedicating a special volume to the theme back in 1987. Since then social epistemology has grown into a major interdisciplinary effort in the borderland between philosophy and social science. Today, ...

  13. The laboratory technology of discrete molecular separation: the historical development of gel electrophoresis and the material epistemology of biomolecular science, 1945-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Howard Hsueh-hao

    2009-01-01

    Preparative and analytical methods developed by separation scientists have played an important role in the history of molecular biology. One such early method is gel electrophoresis, a technique that uses various types of gel as its supporting medium to separate charged molecules based on size and other properties. Historians of science, however, have only recently begun to pay closer attention to this material epistemological dimension of biomolecular science. This paper substantiates the historiographical thread that explores the relationship between modern laboratory practice and the production of scientific knowledge. It traces the historical development of gel electrophoresis from the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s, with careful attention to the interplay between technical developments and disciplinary shifts, especially the rise of molecular biology in this time-frame. Claiming that the early 1950s marked a decisive shift in the evolution of electrophoretic methods from moving boundary to zone electrophoresis, I reconstruct various trajectories in which scientists such as Oliver Smithies sought out the most desirable solid supporting medium for electrophoretic instrumentation. Biomolecular knowledge, I argue, emerged in part from this process of seeking the most appropriate supporting medium that allowed for discrete molecular separation and visualization. The early 1950s, therefore, marked not only an important turning point in the history of separation science, but also a transformative moment in the history of the life sciences as the growth of molecular biology depended in part on the epistemological access to the molecular realm available through these evolving technologies.

  14. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  15. Timelines of translational science: From technology initiation to FDA approval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M McNamee

    Full Text Available While timelines for clinical development have been extensively studied, there is little data on the broader path from initiation of research on novel drug targets, to approval of drugs based on this research. We examined timelines of translational science for 138 drugs and biologicals approved by the FDA from 2010-2014 using an analytical model of technology maturation. Research on targets for 102 products exhibited a characteristic (S-curve maturation pattern with exponential growth between statistically defined technology initiation and established points. The median initiation was 1974, with a median of 25 years to the established point, 28 years to first clinical trials, and 36 years to FDA approval. No products were approved before the established point, and development timelines were significantly longer when the clinical trials began before this point (11.5 vs 8.5 years, p<0.0005. Technological maturation represents the longest stage of translation, and significantly impacts the efficiency of drug development.

  16. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12], additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.

  17. On the Epistemological Crisis in Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2008-01-01

    There is an epistemological crisis in genomics. At issue is what constitutes scientific knowledge in genomic science, or systems biology in general. Does this crisis require a new perspective on knowledge heretofore absent from science or is it merely a matter of interpreting new scientific developments in an existing epistemological framework? This paper discusses the manner in which the experimental method, as developed and understood over recent centuries, leads naturally to a scientific epistemology grounded in an experimental-mathematical duality. It places genomics into this epistemological framework and examines the current situation in genomics. Meaning and the constitution of scientific knowledge are key concerns for genomics, and the nature of the epistemological crisis in genomics depends on how these are understood. PMID:19440447

  18. Energy balance at a crossroads: translating the science into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M; Brown, Katie; Houtkooper, Linda; Jakicic, John; Peters, John C; Smith Edge, Marianne; Steiber, Alison; Going, Scott; Gable, Lisa Guillermin; Krautheim, Ann Marie

    2014-07-01

    One of the major challenges facing the United States is the high number of overweight and obese adults and the growing number of overweight and unfit children and youth. To improve the nation's health, young people must move into adulthood without the burden of obesity and its associated chronic diseases. To address these issues, the American College of Sports Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and the US Department of Agriculture/Agriculture Research Service convened an expert panel meeting in October 2012 titled "Energy Balance at a Crossroads: Translating the Science into Action." Experts in the fields of nutrition and exercise science came together to identify the biological, lifestyle, and environmental changes that will most successfully help children and families attain and manage energy balance and tip the scale toward healthier weights. Two goals were addressed: 1) professional training and 2) consumer/community education. The training goal focused on developing a comprehensive strategy to facilitate the integration of nutrition and physical activity (PA) using a dynamic energy balance approach for regulating weight into the training of undergraduate and graduate students in dietetics/nutrition science, exercise science/PA, and pre-K-12 teacher preparation programs and in training existing cooperative extension faculty. The education goal focused on developing strategies for integrating dynamic energy balance into nutrition and PA educational programs for the public, especially programs funded by federal/state agencies. The meeting expert presenters and participants addressed three key areas: 1) biological and lifestyle factors that affect energy balance, 2) undergraduate/graduate educational and training issues, and 3) best practices associated with educating the public about dynamic energy balance. Specific consensus recommendations were developed for each goal.

  19. Scientific Instruments and Epistemology Engines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 529-540 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : material culture of science * scientific instruments * epistemology engines * experimental systems Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  20. Epistemological and Treatment Implications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A. H.

    The treatment implications of understanding mind as solely epiphenomenal to nonlinearly founded neurobiology are discussed. G. Klimovsky's epistemological understanding of psychoanalysis as a science is rejected and treatment approaches integrating W. R. Bion's and D. W. Winnicott's work are supported.

  1. National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM): advancing the field of translational medicine and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallak, Jaime E C; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Quevedo, João; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2010-03-01

    Translational medicine has been described as the integrated application of innovative pharmacology tools, biomarkers, clinical methods, clinical technologies and study designs to improve the understanding of medical disorders. In medicine, translational research offers an opportunity for applying the findings obtained from basic research to every-day clinical applications. The National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is comprised of six member institutions (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade de São Paulo-Ribeirão Preto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina and a core facility that serves all centers). The objectives of the project are divided into four areas: Institutional, Research, Human Resources and Technology for the Community and Productive Sector. In this manuscript, we describe some of the approaches used to attain the main objectives of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine, which include the development of 1) animal models for bipolar disorder; 2) strategies to investigate neurobehavioral function and cognitive dysfunction associated with brain disorders; 3) experimental models of brain function and behavior, neuropsychiatric disorders, cell proliferation, and cancer; 4) Simulated Public Speaking and 5) Virtual reality simulation for inducing panic disorder and agoraphobia. The main focus of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is the development of more useful methods that allow for a better application of basic research-based knowledge to the medical field.

  2. Reengineering the National Clinical and Translational Research Enterprise: The Strategic Plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Steven E.; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R.; Califf, Robert M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Johnson, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process in turn depends upon observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public-health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation’s academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding. To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006, the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program’s overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation’s academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  3. The translational science training program at NIH: Introducing early career researchers to the science and operation of translation of basic research to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E

    2017-01-02

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Large-scale survey of Chinese precollege students’ epistemological beliefs about physics: A progression or a regression?

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Zhang; Lin Ding

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a cross-grade comparative study of Chinese precollege students’ epistemological beliefs about physics by using the Colorado Learning Attitudes Survey about Sciences (CLASS). Our students of interest are middle and high schoolers taking traditional lecture-based physics as a mandatory science course each year from the 8th grade to the 12th grade in China. The original CLASS was translated into Mandarin through a rigorous transadaption process, and then it was administered as...

  5. Transparency and translation of science in a modern world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Ozonoff, David

    2013-08-27

    The co-Editors-in-Chief of Environmental Health respond to an unusual initiative taken by editors of 14 toxicology journals to influence pending decisions by the European Commission to establish a framework for regulating chemicals that pose a hazard to normal function of the endocrine system. This initiative is also the subject of this Commentary in this journal by authors who recently reviewed the subject and who point out inaccuracies in the toxicology editors' critique. The dispute is about potential public policy development, rather than on science translation and research opportunities and priorities. The toxicology journal editors recommend that chemicals be examined in depth one by one, ignoring modern achievements in biomedical research that would allow new understanding of the effects of classes of toxic substances in complex biological systems. Concerns about policy positions framed as scientific ones are especially important in a time with shrinking public support for biomedical research affects priorities. In such a setting, conflict of interest declarations are important, especially in research publications that address issues of public concern and where financial and other interests may play a role. Science relies on trust, and reasonable disclosure of financial or other potential conflicts is therefore essential. This need has been emphasized by recent discoveries of hidden financial conflicts in publications in toxicology journals, thus misleading readers and the public about the safety of particular industrial products. The transparency provided by Environmental Health includes open access and open peer review, with reader access to reviews, including the identity of reviewers and their statements on possible conflicts of interest. However, the editors of the 14 toxicology journals did not provide any information on potential conflicts of interest, an oversight that needs to be corrected.

  6. The innovation scorecard for continuous improvement applied to translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Wooten, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the baseline stage of a qualitative evaluation of the application of the Innovative Scorecard (ISC) to the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston. The ISC is adopted from the established Balanced Scorecard system for strategic planning and performance management. In formulating the evaluation, we focused on the organizational identity literature. The initial evaluation consisted of a series of semi-structured interviews with 22 participants of the ISC Boot Camp conducted in July 2015. The logic of grounded theory pointed to the clustering of perceptions of the ISC around respondents' occupational locations at UTMB. Administrators anticipate the expansion of planning activities to include a wider range of participants under the current CTSA award period (2015-2020) than under our first CTSA approval period (2009-2014). A common viewpoint among the senior scientists was that the scientific value of their work will continue to speak for itself without requiring the language of business. Junior scientists looked forward to the ISC's emphasis on increasingly horizontal leadership that will give them more access to and more control over their work and resources. Postdocs and senior staff welcomed increased involvement in the total research process at UTMB. The report concludes with strategies for future follow-up.

  7. Translational nutrition research at UC-Davis – the key role of the clinical and translational science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the facility and equipment needs for human clinical nutrition research the New York Academy of Sciences presented a symposium. This paper is the result of that symposium and provides information into how clinical nutrition research is conducted at the Clinical and Translational ...

  8. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  9. Ames Life Science Data Archive: Translational Rodent Research at Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These

  10. Translational science matters: forging partnerships between biomedical and behavioral science to advance the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, George A; Czajkowski, Susan M

    2018-03-29

    The prevention and effective treatment of many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are dependent on behaviors such as not smoking, adopting a physically-active lifestyle, eating a healthy diet, and adhering to prescribed medical and behavioral regimens. Yet adoption and maintenance of these behaviors pose major challenges for individuals, their families and communities, as well as clinicians and health care systems. These challenges can best be met through the integration of the biomedical and behavioral sciences that is achieved by the formation of strategic partnerships between researchers and practitioners in these disciplines to address pressing clinical and public health problems. The National Institutes of Health has supported a number of clinical trials and research initiatives that demonstrate the value of biomedical and behavioral science partnerships in translating fundamental discoveries into significant improvements in health outcomes. We review several such examples of collaborations between biomedical and behavioral researchers, describe key initiatives focused on advancing a transdisciplinary translational perspective, and outline areas which require insights, tools and findings from both the biomedical and behavioral sciences to advance the public's health.

  11. Por uma ciência formativa e indiciária: proposta epistemológica para a ciência da informação Formative science and indicial science: epistemological proposal for information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Alvarenga de Araújo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflexão epistemológica sobre a Ciência da Informação como “fazer científico” que se estrutura na Ciência Moderna, em termos teóricos e metodológicos e nas Tecnologias daInformação, em termos aplicados. Tal configuração possibilitou o surgimento desta ciência, porém consideramos que a mesma não garantirá à mesma o pleno desenvolvimento comocampo de conhecimento consistente e moderno. A Ciência Moderna, enquanto visão e prática científica encontra-se esgotada e as Tecnologias de Informação são apenas mecanismos autoregulados que funcionam segundo princípios de automatismos. A partir destas considerações propomos o conceito de ciência formativa (Bachelard, 1996 e o paradigma indiciário (Ginzburg, 1991 como bases teóricas e metodológicas para uma epistemologia da Ciência da Informação. O conceito de ciência formativa se baseia no principio dos três estados do espírito científico e nas condições psicológicas do progresso científico e o paradigma indiciário propõe a intuição (empírica e racional como base metodológica para o fazer científico.Epistemological reflections on the Information Science as scientific field that if structure in the context of modern science, in theoretical and methodological terms and technologies of the information in applied terms. Such configuration made possible the sprouting of this science; however we consider that the same one will not guarantee to this science the full development as field of consistent and modern knowledge. Modern Science, while scientific practical vision and meets depleted and the information technologies are only auto-regulated mechanisms that function according to principles of automatisms. To leave of these considerations we propols the concept of Formative Science (Bachelard, 1996 and the Indiciario Paradigm (1991 with epistemological basis for the Information Science. The concept of formative science if a base on the principles of tree

  12. A epistemologia de Mario Bunge e sua contribuição para o ensino de ciências Mario Bunge's epistemology and its contribution to science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Westphal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se parte da epistemologia de Mario Bunge, sua preocupação com a crise que se instaurou sobre a ciência e com o avanço de visões relativistas como as de Kuhn e Feyerabend. Destacam-se as divergências de opiniões e as muitas críticas que desenvolve no anseio de retorno ao realismo ontológico - seu maior interesse - razão de um progresso científico coeso e de uma aproximação consistente com a verdade. Faz-se referência, ainda, ao uso de tal epistemologia no ensino de ciências, mostrando-se o seu benefício, em contraste àquelas anti-realistas, quando se pensa nos estudantes, em seus interesses e nas possíveis mudanças conceituais que são o objetivo de qualquer forma de ensino.This paper aims to show part of Mario Bunge's epistemology, his attention to the crisis of science and with the advancement of relativist views like those of Kuhn and Feyerabend. It emphasizes the disagreement with their opinions and critique that Bunge develops to return to his main interest that of ontologic realismThis paper also shows that the use of this kind of epistemology in the science education is better than relativistic ones because of the students interests and the possiblity of change of their conceptions which is the principal aim of any form of education.

  13. What is the role of culture, diversity, and community engagement in transdisciplinary translational science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Kim, Mimi M; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Yaros, Anna; Richmond, Alan N; Jackson, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-03-01

    Concepts of culture and diversity are necessary considerations in the scientific application of theory generation and developmental processes of preventive interventions; yet, culture and/or diversity are often overlooked until later stages (e.g., adaptation [T3] and dissemination [T4]) of the translational science process. Here, we present a conceptual framework focused on the seamless incorporation of culture and diversity throughout the various stages of the translational science process (T1-T5). Informed by a community-engaged research approach, this framework guides integration of cultural and diversity considerations at each phase with emphasis on the importance and value of "citizen scientists" being research partners to promote ecological validity. The integrated partnership covers the first phase of intervention development through final phases that ultimately facilitate more global, universal translation of changes in attitudes, norms, and systems. Our comprehensive model for incorporating culture and diversity into translational research provides a basis for further discussion and translational science development.

  14. ¿Hubo ciencia en la Medicina Tradicional China? Una mirada desde la epistemología de la complejidad Was there any science in traditional Chinese medicine? An approach from the epistemology of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando A Abréu Guirado

    2008-08-01

    different disciplines and has been impacting the epistemological grounds of many sciences. The ancient philosophical eastern schools may be considered as a paradigm of the non-lineal thinking. As part of this view of the universe, the Traditional Chinese Medicine is a traditional medical system with a theoretical approach opposing essentially from the current western codes. This explains the increasing discussion on the scientific categories that it is based on. By the time European tribes were beginning to interact, ancient China, from a most advanced social dynamics, had already become a state and its traditional Chinese medicine had begun to exist. Objective: To explore, from the complexity approach, how much of science there was or was not in the origins of traditional Chinese medicine. Method: The historical evolution and environment of traditional Chinese medicine are analyzed from the perspective of complexity taking into account what science is nowadays, and evaluated considering the contextual hypothesis of the four hypotheses of the world according to Stephen Pepper. Results: Those interested in traditional Chinese medicine, must focus and place themselves in the centuries of its flourishing to value its historical development and judge it with the dialectical justice it deserves. Although little known, there are elements supporting that, for a long period of time, some methods were used and knowledge was systematized in the formation process of the theoretical approach of the traditional Chinese medicine. The view of complexity allows an evaluation of the deep contextual relation of this therapeutic system. Conclusions: There is much of science in traditional Chinese medicine and, in the roots of its conception, there WERE methods neither based on a formal nor mechanistic cosmogonic conception, but at least, contextual demanding another epistemological paradigm for its analysis.

  15. Louis Figuier translated in Brazil: science popularizers in the last quarter of 19th century

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    Kaori Kodama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to address aspects of the history of the divulgation of sciences in Brazil in the nineteenth century, through the analysis of the circulation of some translations into Portuguese of the works of French popularizer of science, Louis Figuier. His works, which were translated to different languages, received editions in Brazil and Portugal since late 1860. During this period, a model of popularization of science for non-specialists - working class, women and youth - with emphasis on applied science was gaining terrain. However, this model was also marked by limitations and discontinuities that reflect social issues in the passage to the twentieth century. This paper attempts to highlight the role of translators and editors, understood as mediators of science, whose projects of social reform was primarily focused in popular instruction.

  16. How College-Level Introductory Instruction Can Impact Student Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Mollohan, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a survey study of college students' epistemologies about biology and learning biology. Specifically, the authors examined the differences between science and nonscience majors and their changes in epistemologies over the course of a semester of instruction.

  17. Workshop on translating Science to Clinics and Market

    OpenAIRE

    Editor

    2016-01-01

    The workshop on translating technology is directed to senior industry leaders High tech entrepreneurs Scientists from academia and industry Clinical researchers and Venture capitalists. The event will cover various topics including startup success stories 19 inspiring showcases about advanced drug delivery systems.

  18. A community translational research pilot grants program to facilitate community--academic partnerships: lessons from Colorado's clinical translational science awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Deborah S; Felzien, Maret C; Magid, David J; Calonge, B Ned; O'Brien, Ruth A; Kempe, Allison; Nearing, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    National growth in translational research has increased the need for practical tools to improve how academic institutions engage communities in research. One used by the Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) to target investments in community-based translational research on health disparities is a Community Engagement (CE) Pilot Grants program. Innovative in design, the program accepts proposals from either community or academic applicants, requires that at least half of requested grant funds go to the community partner, and offers two funding tracks: One to develop new community-academic partnerships (up to $10,000), the other to strengthen existing partnerships through community translational research projects (up to $30,000). We have seen early success in both traditional and capacity building metrics: the initial investment of $272,742 in our first cycle led to over $2.8 million dollars in additional grant funding, with grantees reporting strengthening capacity of their community- academic partnerships and the rigor and relevance of their research.

  19. Can the History of Science Contribute to Modelling in Physics Teaching? The Case of Galilean Studies and Mario Bunge's Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Juliana; Braga, Marco Antônio Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    A characterization of the modelling process in science is proposed for science education, based on Mario Bunge's ideas about the construction of models in science. Galileo's "Dialogues" are analysed as a potentially fruitful starting point to implement strategies aimed at modelling in the classroom in the light of that proposal. It is…

  20. Some epistemology ́s elements of Social Science by Karl PopperAlguns elementos da Epistemolgia da Ciências Sociais de Karl Popper

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    Julio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main elements of the epistemology of human sciences of Karl Popper. It was organized as follows. First, we positioned ourselves in the Popper-Adorno controversy. Then weestablished the parameters of discussion, particularly in regards to the idea of “scientific explanation”. Some elements of Popper’s Theory of Knowledge are then analyzed. The final part discusses thescientific parameters of Social Sciences.Este artigo discute os principais elementos da epistemologia das ciências humanas de Karl Popper. Foi organizado como segue. Em primeiro lugar, nos posionamos sobre a  polêmica Popper-Adorno. Então, nós estabelecemos os parâmetros de discussão, nomeadamente no que respeita a idéia de "explicação científica". A seguir são analisados alguns elementos da Teoria do Conhecimento de Popper. A parte final discute os parâmetros científicos de Ciências Sociais

  1. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  2. Translating Current Science into Materials for High School via a Scientist-Teacher Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C.; Bokor, Julie R.; Crippen, Kent J.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique form of professional development that can assist teachers in translating current science into classroom instruction by involving them in meaningful collaborations with university researchers. However, few reported models aim to directly alter science teachers' practices by supporting them in the…

  3. Genetic counselors: translating genomic science into clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Robin L.; Hampel, Heather L.; Mandell, Jessica B.; Marks, Joan H.

    2003-01-01

    In a time of emerging genetic tests and technologies, genetic counselors are faced with the challenge of translating complex genomic data into information that will aid their client’s ability to learn about, understand, make, and cope with decisions relating to genetic diagnoses. The first of two companion articles in this issue examines the role of the genetic counselor, particularly in counseling individuals at risk for or diagnosed with breast cancer, in an era of high-tech health care and...

  4. Urgensi Tauhid dalam Membangun Epistemologi Islam

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    Bambang Irawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The reform efforts undertaken by contemporary Muslim thinkers have so far not been able to alter significantly the presence of Muslim which seems in the shadow of western progress in the context of science. This condition is due to the effect of undermining of Western thought through their epistemology packaging. Of course, we cannot blame the West as they have their own paradigm which is different with the Islamic paradigm in developing knowledge. Accordingly, the questions arise: why Muslim scholars are not working hard to build an epistemology that carries the message of monotheism; why they are hurry to accept the truth of Western epistemology without a fundamental review on revelation, so they become loyal followers of Western theories and concepts. Thus, the greatest challenge for Muslim scientists today is how to find a comprehensive formulation of the various theories of knowledge that can be accepted by all people, so that Islamic science is not only free from the shadow of imperialism of Western epistemology, but is able to reflect in a concrete concept of Islam as ‘rahmatan lil ‘alamin’. This paper seeks to reorient the meaning of monotheism in the development epistemology of science which is featured with theocentric-humanism, that is, in addition to spiritual oriented (tawhid it is also able to accommodate the interests of human beings (amal.Dalam konteks ilmu pengetahuan, upaya reformasi yang dilakukan oleh pemikir Muslim kontemporer sejauh ini belum mampu mengubah secara signifikan bayang-bayang kemajuan Barat. Kondisi ini disebabkan oleh efek pemikiran Barat yang dikemas dalam epistemologi mereka. Tentu saja, kita tidak bisa menyalahkan Barat karena mereka memiliki paradigma dan tolok ukur sendiri yang berbeda dengan paradigma Islam dalam mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan. Dengan demikian, pertanyaan yang muncul, mengapa sarjana Muslim tidak bekerja keras untuk membangun sebuah epistemologi yang membawa pesan tauhid, mengapa

  5. Genomics and bioinformatics resources for translational science in Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Main, Dorrie

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in biology promise unprecedented opportunities for rapid and sustainable advancement of crop quality. Following this trend, the Rosaceae research community continues to generate large amounts of genomic, genetic and breeding data. These include annotated whole genome sequences, transcriptome and expression data, proteomic and metabolomic data, genotypic and phenotypic data, and genetic and physical maps. Analysis, storage, integration and dissemination of these data using bioinformatics tools and databases are essential to provide utility of the data for basic, translational and applied research. This review discusses the currently available genomics and bioinformatics resources for the Rosaceae family.

  6. Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…

  7. Stimulating translational research: several European life science institutions put their heads together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Kubicek, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Saarela, Janna; Cook, Simon J; Van Minnebruggen, Geert; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Maurer, Cornelia; Erler, Janine T; Bertero, Michela G

    2015-09-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [An introduction of the Translational Medical Science Committee (TMSC) of the Japanese Society of Neuropsychopharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigooka, Jun

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Neuropsychopharmacology (NP) has established a Translational Medical Science Committee (TMSC), which is introduced in this article. In this century, the Japanese Government has made great effort to establish highly organized supporting systems for translational research (TR); however, clinical developments for psychotropic drugs in Japan are facing stagnation. TMSC will provide advisory activities from an academic point of view in this field, which will be result in the improvement of people's health.

  9. Evolutionary epistemology a multiparadigm program

    CERN Document Server

    Pinxten, Rik

    1987-01-01

    This volume has its already distant origin in an inter­national conference on Evolutionary Epistemology the editors organized at the University of Ghent in November 1984. This conference aimed to follow up the endeavor started at the ERISS (Epistemologically Relevant Internalist Sociology of Science) conference organized by Don Campbell and Alex Rosen­ berg at Cazenovia Lake, New York, in June 1981, whilst in­ jecting the gist of certain current continental intellectual developments into a debate whose focus, we thought, was in danger of being narrowed too much, considering the still underdeveloped state of affairs in the field. Broadly speaking, evolutionary epistemology today con­ sists of two interrelated, yet qualitatively distinct inves­ tigative efforts. Both are drawing on Darwinian concepts, which may explain why many people have failed to discriminate them. One is the study of the evolution of the cognitive apparatus of living organisms, which is first and foremost the province of biologists and...

  10. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...

  11. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  12. Drug design and discovery: translational biomedical science varies among countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian N; Weaver, Donald F

    2013-10-01

    Drug design and discovery is an innovation process that translates the outcomes of fundamental biomedical research into therapeutics that are ultimately made available to people with medical disorders in many countries throughout the world. To identify which nations succeed, exceed, or fail at the drug design/discovery endeavor--more specifically, which countries, within the context of their national size and wealth, are "pulling their weight" when it comes to developing medications targeting the myriad of diseases that afflict humankind--we compiled and analyzed a comprehensive survey of all new drugs (small molecular entities and biologics) approved annually throughout the world over the 20-year period from 1991 to 2010. Based upon this analysis, we have devised prediction algorithms to ascertain which countries are successful (or not) in contributing to the worldwide need for effective new therapeutics. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  14. Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences: translational and integrative mission

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Rowland; Ion G. Motofei

    2017-01-01

    Initiated four years ago, Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences (J Mind Med Sci.) established the mission to publish papers on mental and medical topics in distinct but closely interrelated domains. The editorial policy especially encourages interdisciplinary and integrative perspectives, being equally focused on basic research and clinical investigations and short reports. The journal adheres to the philosophy that high quality, original ideas and information should be readily accessibl...

  15. A Systems Medicine Approach: Translating Emerging Science into Individualized Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Bland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s aging society, more people are living with lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Numerous opinion-leader organizations recommend lifestyle medicine as the first-line approach in NCD prevention and treatment. However, there is a strong need for a personalized approach as “one-size-fits-all” public health recommendations have been insufficient in addressing the interindividual differences in the diverse populations. Advancement in systems biology and the “omics” technologies has allowed comprehensive analysis of how complex biological systems are impacted upon external perturbations (e.g., nutrition and exercise, and therefore is gradually pushing personalized lifestyle medicine toward reality. Clinicians and healthcare practitioners have a unique opportunity in advocating lifestyle medicine because patients see them as a reliable source of advice. However, there are still numerous technical and logistic challenges to overcome before personal “big data” can be translated into actionable and clinically relevant solutions. Clinicians are also facing various issues prior to bringing personalized lifestyle medicine to their practice. Nevertheless, emerging ground-breaking research projects have given us a glimpse of how systems thinking and computational methods may lead to personalized health advice. It is important that all stakeholders work together to create the needed paradigm shift in healthcare before the rising epidemic of NCDs overwhelm the society, the economy, and the dated health system.

  16. Anarchist Epistemologies and the Separation of Science and State: The Critique and Relevance of Paul Feyerabend to Educational Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfmeyer, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This article synthesizes Paul Feyerabend's controversial contributions to 20th-century philosophy of science through the synthesis of his works and the secondary literature, with specific foci on current trends in educational foundations and the potentials and pitfalls for applying Feyerabendian logics to our work. First, I situate his strains of…

  17. Exploring Students' Epistemological Knowledge of Models and Modelling in Science: Results from a Teaching/Learning Experience on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasquier, Giulia; Levrini, Olivia; Dillon, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The scientific community has been debating climate change for over two decades. In the light of certain arguments put forward by the aforesaid community, the EU has recommended a set of innovative reforms to science teaching such as incorporating environmental issues into the scientific curriculum, thereby helping to make schools a place of civic…

  18. Teaching through Interactive Multi-Media Programming. A New Philosophy of the Social Sciences and a New Epistemology of Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Steve R.

    This paper discusses the results of an experimental, non-traditional university class in sociology in which students produced an interactive multimedia module in a social science subject area using a computer system that allowed instant access to film, sound, television, images, and text. There were no constraints on the selection of media, or the…

  19. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present document describes key discussion points and outcomes of a Society of Toxicology (SOT) Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) Workshop, entitled FutureTox III1,2 that was held in Crystal City, Virginia, November 19-20, 2015. The workshop built on the many lessons learned from the first 10 years of TT21 and the first two workshops in the FutureTox series (for summary of FutureTox II see (Knudsen et al., 2015); for summary of FutureTox I see (Rowlands et al., 2014)). FutureTox III was attended in person and via webcast by more than 300 scientists from government research and regulatory agencies, research institutes, academia, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries in Europe, Canada, and the United States. The meeting materials for FutureTox III, currently available to meeting registrants at http://www.toxicology.org/events/shm/cct/meetings.asp#upcoming-pnl-open, will be open to the public on November 29, 2016. At this workshop, participants reviewed and discussed the state of the science in toxicology and human risk and exposure assessment with a focus on moving TT21 science into the arena of regulatory decision-making. This manuscript describes the outcome of the FutureTox III 'contemporary concepts in toxicology' conference of the Society Toxicology, held November 2015 in Crystal City VA.

  20. Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschow, Bryon; Doré, Joël; Hibberd, Patricia; Dinan, Timothy; Reid, Gregor; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Degnan, Fred H; Foster, Jane; Gibson, Glenn; Hutton, John; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Ley, Ruth; Nieuwdorp, Max; Pot, Bruno; Relman, David; Serazin, Andrew; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine. The goals of the meeting were to share recent advances in research on the microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, and to discuss these findings in the contexts of regulatory barriers, evolving healthcare environments, and potential effects on a variety of health topics, including the development of obesity and diabetes; the long-term consequences of exposure to antibiotics early in life to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota; lactose intolerance; and the relationship between the GI microbiota and the central nervous system, with implications for depression, cognition, satiety, and mental health for people living in developed and developing countries. This report provides an overview of these discussions. © 2013 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. On using ethical principles of community-engaged research in translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Mikesell, Lisa; Schraiber, Ron; Booth, Marika; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The transfer of new discoveries into both clinical practice and the wider community calls for reliance on interdisciplinary translational teams that include researchers with different areas of expertise, representatives of health care systems and community organizations, and patients. Engaging new stakeholders in research, however, calls for a reconsideration or expansion of the meaning of ethics in translational research. We explored expert opinion on the applicability of ethical principles commonly practiced in community-engaged research (CEnR) to translational research. To do so, we conducted 2 online, modified-Delphi panels with 63 expert stakeholders who iteratively rated and discussed 9 ethical principles commonly used in CEnR in terms of their importance and feasibility for use in translational research. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used to analyze the data and determine agreement and disagreement among participating experts. Both panels agreed that ethical translational research should be "grounded in trust." Although the academic panel endorsed "culturally appropriate" and "forthcoming with community about study risks and benefits," the mixed academic-community panel endorsed "scientifically valid" and "ready to involve community in interpretation and dissemination" as important and feasible principles of ethical translational research. These findings suggest that in addition to protecting human subjects, contemporary translational science models need to account for the interests of, and owe ethical obligations to, members of the investigative team and the community at large. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epistemology and Education: Nimat Hafez BarazangiEpistemology and Education: Nimat Hafez Barazangi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Guardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The text whose translation I present here deals with feminist epistemology in the Muslim world. As the epistemological assumptions are different from that of Western feminist thought, I introduce it to make the reader familiar with some basic concepts. I consider this text a classic in its field as it is a fundamental text for the development of Muslim feminist thought, a thought whose beginning can be placed in the second half of the twentieth century. In the introduction, after presenting some critical issues, I will briefly introduce the author and her thought.

  3. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C; Dann, Sara M; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle.

  4. Multidirectional Translation of Environmental Health Science in Community Settings: The Case of Oxidative Stress Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Natalie R; Tetteh, Myra M; Schulz, Amy J; Ramirez, Erminia; Wilkins, Donele; de Majo, Ricardo; Mentz, Graciela; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Translation of environmental health science in vulnerable communities is particularly important to promote public health and reduce health inequities. We describe a structured, multidirectional process used to develop a suite of health promotion tools (e.g., fact sheets, video, maps) documenting patterning of local air pollution sources and availability of antioxidant-rich foods in Detroit, Michigan as factors that jointly affect oxidative stress (OS). OS underlies many pathological processes associated with air pollution, including asthma, metabolic syndrome, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. This translational effort involved a 2-year dialogue among representatives from community-based and environmental organizations, health service providers, and academic researchers. This dialogue led to development of tools, as well as new opportunities to inform related policies and research. Through this example, we highlight how collaborative partnerships can enhance multidirectional dialogue to inform translation of environmental health science by promoting consideration of multilevel risk factors, local priorities and context, and diverse audiences.

  5. 78 FR 28601 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Request for Comment on Proposed Methods for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for... resources that leverage basic research in support of translational science; and by developing partnerships...-newsletter, distribution of emails to NCATS stakeholder listservs, and announcements on NCATS Facebook page...

  6. Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences: translational and integrative mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Rowland

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Initiated four years ago, Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences (J Mind Med Sci. established the mission to publish papers on mental and medical topics in distinct but closely interrelated domains. The editorial policy especially encourages interdisciplinary and integrative perspectives, being equally focused on basic research and clinical investigations and short reports. The journal adheres to the philosophy that high quality, original ideas and information should be readily accessible and freely shared within and amongst the scientific community. Accordingly, J Mind Med Sci. is an online, open access, non-for-profit journal which, because of individual/ private support, has levied no charges for submission, review, and publication of articles. All published articles may be freely downloaded and used by anyone from anywhere for scientific purposes. Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences is published by ValpoScholar/ Valparaiso University using the leading institutional repository platform of Digital Commons (powered by Bepress and under the local management of Jon Bull, Library Services, Valparaiso University, which combines submission management, editorial, and peer-review tools into a unique and flexible publishing software system. These editorial and publishing norms have facilitated the journal’s evolution, now indexed and abstracted in several international respected databases. Journal visibility is wide among international academic institutions and readers, as documented by the number of downloaded articles cited in respected journals, some indexed by Thomson Reuters and having high impact factors. In addition, published authors in J Mind Med Sci. periodically receive a statistical report about views / downloads of their articles. It is a pleasure and honor to thank all those who have thus far supported the journal activity (authors, reviewers, editorial board and assistance, publishing support, and to further invite and encourage

  7. LATIN AND SCIENCE: PERSPECTIVES ON TRANSLATION OF THE NEO-LATIN ON SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Kaltner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists in a study of interdisciplinary perspectives that arise in the translation of scientific texts, from the Translation Studies, Linguistics, Textlinguistik (Text Linguistic and Latin Language. Here is the translation of an excerpt from Historia Naturalis Palmarum (Natural History of Palms, written in the nineteenth century by the botanist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794-1868, a pioneer in the description of the Brazilian flora.

  8. The Ethics of Translational Science: Imagining Public Benefit in Gene-Environment Interaction Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research is increasingly informed by expectations of “translation,” which call for the production of scientific knowledge that can be used to create services and products that improve health outcomes. In this paper, we ask how translation, in particular the idea of social responsibility, is understood and enacted in the post-genomic life sciences. Drawing on theories examining what constitutes “good science,” and interviews with 35 investigators who study the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, we describe the dynamic and unsettled ethics of translational science through which the expected social value of scientific knowledge about complex disease causation is negotiated. To describe how this ethics is formed, we first discuss the politics of knowledge production in interdisciplinary research collectives. Researchers described a commitment to working across disciplines to examine a wide range of possible causes of disease, but they also pointed to persistent disciplinary and ontological divisions that rest on the dominance of molecular conceptions of disease risk. The privileging of molecular-level causation shapes and constrains the kinds of knowledge that can be created about gene-environment interactions. We then turn to scientists’ ideas about how this knowledge should be used, including personalized prevention strategies, targeted therapeutics, and public policy interventions. Consensus about the relative value of these anticipated translations was elusive, and many scientists agreed that gene-environment interaction research is part of a shift in biomedical research away from considering important social, economic, political and historical causes of disease and disease disparities. We conclude by urging more explicit engagement with questions about the ethics of translational science in the post-genomic life sciences. This would include a consideration

  9. Epistemological risk aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardashkin I.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers risk in the context of the main characteristics of non-classical epistemology. It states that non-classical epistemology is characterized by transformation, according to which the major priority of cognitive activity shifts the focus from the present to the past. In this situation a subject is keen not on what he or she has learnt but on what can be learnt. Truth being a crucial criterion of scientific knowledge is becoming of less priority, while risk is becoming more and more significant and acts as one of the major epistemology measurements. Risk is gaining the status of epistemological phenomenon, which shows a growing degree of uncertainty as a cognitive process background and the necessity for a subject to learn the world (make decisions under the conditions of uncertainty degree strengthening. The author states that risk is a comprehensive notion and it obtains a base value for all other aspects of its application, specifically, in the role of epistemological phenomenon.

  10. Epistemological or Political?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    in a consolidated field. It is argued that if we envisage a consolidated field of IDS, there is a need to develop common ground which calls for scholars of ID to be more explicit about the meanings they ascribe to ID than we see today when the sliding between the epistemological and political dimensions...... of the field may go unnoticed. It is suggested that whereas ambiguity may be unwanted in the epistemological dimension, it may be quite useful in the political dimension. A systematic comparison of opposite positions offers a common frame of reference for a more productive dialogue between different positions...

  11. Epistemology and Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2010-01-01

    Offers an exploration of the relationships between epistemology and probability in the work of Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger; in quantum mechanics; and in modern physics. This book considers the implications of these relationships and of quantum theory for our understanding of the nature of thinking and knowledge in general

  12. Purifying Impure Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    A notorious objection to robust virtue epistemology—the view that an agent knows a proposition if and only if her cognitive success is because of her intellectual virtues—is that it fails to eliminate knowledge-undermining luck. Modest virtue epistemologists agree with robust virtue epistemologis...

  13. [On the epistemological approaches to medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    The doctrine of correct reasoning was developed in the Western World as logic. This is an activity of the intellect that apparently began with Zeno of Elea, being formalized by Aristotle, and which received its name from the Stoic philosopher Chrysippus. It corresponds to the structure or anatomy of thought. Logic empiricism introduced systematic use of the logistic language into epistemology. The latter discipline designates the philosophy of science, i.e., the critical foundation of its principles, hypotheses, methods, and results. Strictly speaking, it does not constitute an analysis of the scientific method, which is rather the object of methodology, nor anticipation or synthesis of scientific results. It can be considered that, concerning science, epistemology constitutes the second step with a primary activity. In other words, it is a reflection on science, considering the latter as an element to be respected and not as a domain to be ruled. Dr. Hermann Boerhaave was the first physician to challenge problems of an epistemologic character in a coherent and systematic manner (XVIII Century). Others followed him in this direction during the subsequent centuries. In the light of Popper's critical rationalism, construction of a medical instrument, conception of a therapeutic procedure, development of a useful model in biology or medicine could also be considered as epistemologic problems. The corresponding examples that follow are worthwhile mentioning: Riva-Rocci's sphygmomanometer; metabolic therapeutics for ischemic heart disease, and elaboration of theoretical models. In turn, epistemology suggests that assessment of a fact, perceivable by the senses, is generally more difficult that elaboration of a hypothesis.

  14. Inspiring hope-A physician's responsibility, translating the science into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Walley J

    2018-03-01

    Giving hope to patients is our responsibility. It is the essence of a meaningful practice in medicine. Science now allows us to understand this complex and multidimensional human dynamic, and translate it into clinical practice. Quantitative research has shown hope is strong even in terminal illness. Through qualitative methodology hope fostering strategies and hope hindering behaviors have been identified. This exciting new knowledge facilitates the challenging task of disclosure of bad news while enabling hope. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Modeling timelines for translational science in cancer; the impact of technological maturation

    OpenAIRE

    McNamee, Laura M.; Ledley, Fred D.

    2017-01-01

    This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded ...

  16. Synthesizing Marketing, Community Engagement, and Systems Science Approaches for Advancing Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Leeman, Jennifer; McCall, Pamela; Hassmiller-Lich, Kristen; Bobashev, Georgiy; Schwartz, Todd A; Gilmore, Robert; Riggan, Scott; Gil, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are the goals of translational research; however, potential end-users' perceptions of an EBI value have contributed to low rates of adoption. In this article, we describe our application of emerging dissemination and implementation science theoretical perspectives, community engagement, and systems science principles to develop a novel EBI dissemination approach. Using consumer-driven, graphics-rich simulation, the approach demonstrates predicted implementation effects on health and employment outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the local level and is designed to increase adoption interest of county program managers accountable for improving these outcomes in their communities.

  17. Health Extension and Clinical and Translational Science: An Innovative Strategy for Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur; Rhyne, Robert L; Anastasoff, Juliana; Ronquillo, Francisco; Nixon, Marnie; Mishra, Shiraz; Poola, Charlene; Page-Reeves, Janet; Nkouaga, Carolina; Cordova, Carla; Larson, Richard S

    Health Extension Regional Officers (HEROs) through the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNMHSC) help to facilitate university-community engagement throughout New Mexico. HEROs, based in communities across the state, link priority community health needs with university resources in education, service, and research. Researchers' studies are usually aligned with federal funding priorities rather than with health priorities expressed by communities. To help overcome this misalignment, the UNM Clinical and Translational Science Center (CTSC) provides partial funding for HEROs to bridge the divide between research priorities of UNMHSC and health priorities of the state's communities. A bidirectional partnership between HEROs and CTSC researchers was established, which led to: 1) increased community engaged studies through the CTSC, 2) the HERO model itself as a subject of research, 3) a HERO-driven increase in local capacity in scholarship and grant writing, and 4) development of training modules for investigators and community stakeholders on community-engaged research. As a result, 5 grants were submitted, 4 of which were funded, totaling $7,409,002.00, and 3 research articles were published. Health extension can serve as a university-funded, community-based bridge between community health needs and Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) research capacity, opening avenues for translational research. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  18. Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In her presidential address, N. J. Kaslow (see record 2015-33530-002) argued that psychologists have a responsibility to translate psychological science to the public and identifies various platforms for doing so. In this comment on her article, I advocate that psychology as a field immediately heed her call in the area of psychological science highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings. I point out the psychological science documenting media contagion for suicide and mass shootings, the World Health Organization's (2008) guidelines for media in reporting suicide deaths to prevent that contagion, and discuss ways-based on Dr. Kaslow's suggestions-that psychologists can disseminate psychological science to prevent similar tragedies in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. New burns and trauma journal celebrating translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Gullo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the journal of Burns & Trauma launched in 2013 and published by the prestigious Wolters Kluwer Health. We are grateful to promote a cultural challenge toward a new horizon in the field of translational research (TR. We enjoy to work together with the common objective to perform continuous medical education programs, exploring the methods in research, designing study, and to improve multidisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration in the basic sciences and in the clinical trials. Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. Epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure and what are its limits? More broadly, epistemology is about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry as defined and revisiting at the beginning of the last decades. Translational medicine (TM should meet the demands to maintain or expanding the biomedical workforce and education programs that attract and retain young people in the translational and biomedical sciences. With this present contributes, we invite the members of the editorial board of Burns & Trauma to encourage submitting, in a special section, their personal experience about the philosophy of "Translation research." If this has a chance, welcome to the researchers, clinicians, and the allied people for their decisive contributions to strengthen the importance of a common way about the principles and methods of basic and clinical research. TR and TM represent a dynamic entity making a link, a sort of bridge, "from bench to bedside", or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. Epistemological pluralism is a critical point for conducting innovative, collaborative research which can lead to more successful integrated and successfully study

  20. D1-3: Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS): An Online Reference for Clinical and Translational Science Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamore, Joe; Ray, William; Kadolph, Chris; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Ye, Zhan; Jacqueline, Bohne; Tachinardi, Umberto; Mendonça, Eneida; Finnegan, Brian; Bartkowiak, Barbara; Weichelt, Bryan; Lin, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims New terms are rapidly appearing in the literature and practice of clinical medicine and translational research. To catalog real-world usage of medical terms, we report the first construction of an online dictionary of clinical and translational medicinal terms, which are computationally generated in near real-time using a big data approach. This project is NIH CTSA-funded and developed by the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation in conjunction with University of Wisconsin - Madison. Currently titled Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS), this application is a Google-like word search tool. By entering a term into the search bar, MD-CTS will display that term’s definition, usage examples, contextual terms, related images, and ontological information. A prototype is available for public viewing at http://spellchecker.mfldclin.edu/. Methods We programmatically derived the lexicon for MD-CTS from scholarly communications by parsing through 15,156,745 MEDLINE abstracts and extracting all of the unique words found therein. We then ran this list through several filters in order to remove words that were not relevant for searching, such as common English words and numeric expressions. We then loaded the resulting 1,795,769 terms into SQL tables. Each term is cross-referenced with every occurrence in all abstracts in which it was found. Additional information is aggregated from Wiktionary, Bioportal, and Wikipedia in real-time and displayed on-screen. From this lexicon we created a supplemental dictionary resource (updated quarterly) to be used in Microsoft Office® products. Results We evaluated the utility of MD-CTS by creating a list of 100 words derived from recent clinical and translational medicine publications in the week of July 22, 2013. We then performed comparative searches for each term with Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Medical

  1. Scientific retreats with 'speed dating': networking to stimulate new interdisciplinary translational research collaborations and team science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranwala, Damayanthi; Alberg, Anthony J; Brady, Kathleen T; Obeid, Jihad S; Davis, Randal; Halushka, Perry V

    2017-02-01

    To stimulate the formation of new interdisciplinary translational research teams and innovative pilot projects, the South Carolina Clinical and Translational Research (SCTR) Institute (South Carolina Clinical and Translational Science Award, CTSA) initiated biannual scientific retreats with 'speed dating' networking sessions. Retreat themes were prioritized based on the following criteria; cross-cutting topic, unmet medical need, generation of novel technologies and methodologies. Each retreat begins with an external keynote speaker followed by a series of brief research presentations by local researchers focused on the retreat theme, articulating potential areas for new collaborations. After each session of presentations, there is a 30 min scientific 'speed dating' period during which the presenters meet with interested attendees to exchange ideas and discuss collaborations. Retreat attendees are eligible to compete for pilot project funds on the topic of the retreat theme. The 10 retreats held have had a total of 1004 participants, resulted in 61 pilot projects with new interdisciplinary teams, and 14 funded projects. The retreat format has been a successful mechanism to stimulate novel interdisciplinary research teams and innovative translational research projects. Future retreats will continue to target topics of cross-cutting importance to biomedical and public health research. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  2. Making On-line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

    2012-02-01

    The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET project team overcame this challenge by creating the Translation Utility. This tool allows a person fluent in both English and another language to easily translate any of the PhET simulations and requires minimal computer expertise. In this paper we discuss the technical issues involved in this software solution, as well as the issues involved in obtaining accurate translations. We share our solutions to many of the unexpected problems we encountered that would apply generally to making on-line scientific course materials available in many different languages, including working with: languages written right-to-left, different character sets, and different conventions for expressing equations, variables, units and scientific notation.

  3. Design Resarch Epistemologies I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a stance on the following issues: project title and author, the research question, the methods applied, the theories consulted (or the state-of-the-art theory horizon), and the epistemology of the PhD research itself. Seen this way one could argue that each PhD student was asked two fundamental questions...... years now the PhD research has been organized within the Architecture and Design PhD Lab (ADPL). Now the time has come to put the pen to paper and actually reflect across a wide range of very diverse types of architecture and design research projects. Secondly, the aim is to show this research...... and in particular its epistemological basis to the external world. By this is partly meant the rest of the research environment at the Department of Architecture, Design and Media Technology. But obviously also to the many research networks and professional contacts that collaborate with the Department. Amongst...

  4. "A Ton of Faith in Science!" Nature and Role of Assumptions in, and Ideas about, Science and Epistemology Generated upon Watching a Sci-Fi Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Y.; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    This study (i) explicates the sorts of ideas about science and the nature of knowing that were generated among participant graduate students who viewed the sci-fi film, "Contact," and (ii) examines the interactions between these ideas and ontic stances with which participants approached viewing the film. Eleven doctoral students of…

  5. Modeling timelines for translational science in cancer; the impact of technological maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M McNamee

    Full Text Available This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded with technological maturation, with first approval averaging 14 years after the established point and 44 years after initiation of associated technologies. The lag in cancer drug approvals after the increases in cancer funding and dramatic scientific advances of the 1970s thus reflects predictable timelines of technology maturation. Analytical models of technological maturation may be used for technological forecasting to guide more efficient translation of scientific discoveries into cures.

  6. [Translational/regulatory science researches of NIHS for regenerative medicine and cellular therapy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Japanese Diet passed the Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act and the revisions to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act, which was also renamed as the Therapeutic Products Act (TPA). One of the aims of the new/revised Acts is to promote the development and translation of and access to regenerative/cellular therapies. In the TPA, a product derived from processing cells is categorized as a subgroup of "regenerative medicine, cellular therapy and gene therapy products" (RCGPs), products distinct from pharmaceuticals and medical devices, allowing RCGPs to obtain a conditional and time- limited marketing authorization much earlier than that under the conventional system. To foster not only RCGPs, but also innovative pharmaceuticals and medical devices, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recently launched Translational Research Program for Innovative Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices and RCGPs. This mini-review introduces contributions of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) to research projects on RCGPs in the Program.

  7. Artifact-based reflective interviews for identifying pragmatic epistemological resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Christopher Walden

    Physics Education Research studies the science of teaching and learning physics. The process of student learning is complex, and the factors that affect it are numerous. Describing students' understanding of physics knowledge and reasoning is the basis for much productive research; however, such research fails to account for certain types of student learning difficulties. In this dissertation, I explore one source of student difficulty: personal epistemology, students' ideas about knowledge and knowing. Epistemology traditionally answers three questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge created? And, how do we know what we know? An individual's responses to these questions can affect learning in terms of how they approach tasks involving the construction and application of knowledge. The key issue addressed in this dissertation is the effect of methodological choices on the validity and reliability of claims concerning personal epistemology. My central concern is contextual validity, how what is said about one's epistemology is not identical to how one behaves epistemologically. In response to these issues, I present here a new methodology for research on student epistemology: video artifact-based reflective interview protocols. These protocols begin with video taping students in their natural classroom activities, and then asking the participants epistemological questions immediately after watching selected scenes from their activity, contextually anchoring them in their actual learning experience. The data from these interviews is viewed in the framework of Epistemological Resource Theory, a framework of small bits of knowledge whose coordination in a given context is used to describe personal epistemology. I claim that the privileged data from these interviews allows detailed epistemological resources to be identified, and that these resources can provide greater insight into how student epistemologies are applied in learning activities. This research

  8. Epistemologic inquiries in evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Ashcroft, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    Since the term "evidence-based medicine" (EBM) first appeared in the scientific literature in 1991, the concept has had considerable influence in many parts of the world. Most professional societies, the public,and funding agencies have accepted EBM with remarkable enthusiasm. The concept of evidence-based practice is now applied in management, education, criminology, and social work. Yet, EBM has attracted controversy: its critics allege that EBM uses a narrow concept of evidence and a naive conception of the relationships between evidence, theory, and practice. They also contend that EBM presents itself as a radical restructuring of medical knowledge that discredits more traditional ways of knowing in medicine, largely in the interests of people with a particular investment in the enterprise of large-scale clinical trials. Because EBM proposes aspecific relationship between theory, evidence, and knowledge, its theoretical basis can be understood as an epistemological system. Undertaking epistemological inquiry is important because the adoption of a particular epistemological view defines how science is conducted. In this paper, we challenge this critical view of EBM by examining how EBM fits into broad epistemological debates within the philosophy of science. We consider how EBM relates to some classical debates regarding the nature of science and knowledge. We investigate EBM from the perspective of major epistemological theories (logical-positivism/inductivism, deductivism/falsificationism/theory-ladeness of observations, explanationism/holism, instrumentalism, underdetermination theory by evidence). We first explore the relationship between evidence and knowledge and discuss philosophical support for the main way that evidence is used in medicine: (1) in the philosophical tradition that "rational thinkers respect their evidence," we show that EBM refers to making medical decisions that are consistent with evidence, (2) as a reliable sign, symptom, or mark to

  9. Historical transformation and epistemological discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močnik Rastko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from recent formulas of EU bureaucracy for subordinating scientific and educational apparatuses to the needs of the capital and to the requests of its political representatives, the article analyses the interconnection between the historical transformation of the ideological state apparatuses (universities, higher education institutions, research institutes etc. and the epistemological discontinuity provoked by the triumph of technosciences. The hypothesis to be tested is the following: While the crisis of West European-North American capitalism requires an ever tighter submission of ideological state apparatuses, and especially of scientific and academic apparatuses to the needs of the capital, theoretical practices in the humanities and social sciences have come to the point where they entered into an open conflict with the domination of the capital and have, as a consequence, started to subvert their own institutional supports in the ideological apparatuses of the capitalist state. For this purpose, the article reconsiders social sciences as a compromise formation and, eventually, reassesses the historical materialism as a non-Cartesian modern science.

  10. Promoting Translational Research Among Movement Science, Occupational Science, and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainburg, Robert L; Liew, Sook-Lei; Frey, Scott H; Clark, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Integration of research in the fields of neural control of movement and biomechanics (collectively referred to as movement science) with the field of human occupation directly benefits both areas of study. Specifically, incorporating many of the quantitative scientific methods and analyses employed in movement science can help accelerate the development of rehabilitation-relevant research in occupational therapy (OT) and occupational science (OS). Reciprocally, OT and OS, which focus on the performance of everyday activities (occupations) to promote health and well-being, provide theoretical frameworks to guide research on the performance of actions in the context of social, psychological, and environmental factors. Given both fields' mutual interest in the study of movement as it relates to health and disease, the authors posit that combining OS and OT theories and principles with the theories and methods in movement science may lead to new, impactful, and clinically relevant knowledge. The first step is to ensure that individuals with OS or OT backgrounds are academically prepared to pursue advanced study in movement science. In this article, the authors propose 2 strategies to address this need.

  11. Large-scale survey of Chinese precollege students’ epistemological beliefs about physics: A progression or a regression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a cross-grade comparative study of Chinese precollege students’ epistemological beliefs about physics by using the Colorado Learning Attitudes Survey about Sciences (CLASS. Our students of interest are middle and high schoolers taking traditional lecture-based physics as a mandatory science course each year from the 8th grade to the 12th grade in China. The original CLASS was translated into Mandarin through a rigorous transadaption process, and then it was administered as a pencil-and-paper in-class survey to a total of 1318 students across all the five grade levels (8–12. Our results showed that although in general student epistemological beliefs became less expertlike after receiving more years of traditional instruction (a trend consistent with what was reported in the previous literature, the cross-grade change was not a monotonous decrease. Instead, students at grades 9 and 12 showed a slight positive shift in their beliefs measured by CLASS. Particularly, when compared to the 8th graders, students at the 9th grade demonstrated a significant increase in their views about the conceptual nature of physics and problem-solving sophistication. We hypothesize that both pedagogical and nonpedagogical factors may have contributed to these positive changes. Our results cast light on the complex nature of the relationship between formal instruction and student epistemological beliefs.

  12. Assessment of and Response to Data Needs of Clinical and Translational Science Researchers and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah F. Norton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Setting: As universities and libraries grapple with data management and “big data,” the need for data management solutions across disciplines is particularly relevant in clinical and translational science (CTS research, which is designed to traverse disciplinary and institutional boundaries. At the University of Florida Health Science Center Library, a team of librarians undertook an assessment of the research data management needs of CTS researchers, including an online assessment and follow-up one-on-one interviews. Design and Methods: The 20-question online assessment was distributed to all investigators affiliated with UF’s Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI and 59 investigators responded. Follow-up in-depth interviews were conducted with nine faculty and staff members. Results: Results indicate that UF’s CTS researchers have diverse data management needs that are often specific to their discipline or current research project and span the data lifecycle. A common theme in responses was the need for consistent data management training, particularly for graduate students; this led to localized training within the Health Science Center and CTSI, as well as campus-wide training. Another campus-wide outcome was the creation of an action-oriented Data Management/Curation Task Force, led by the libraries and with participation from Research Computing and the Office of Research. Conclusions: Initiating conversations with affected stakeholders and campus leadership about best practices in data management and implications for institutional policy shows the library’s proactive leadership and furthers our goal to provide concrete guidance to our users in this area.

  13. Patho-Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    Inspired by Michel Foucault and the French philosopher of medicine, Georges Canguilhem, the epistemological potential of disease is explored. The primary purpose of the dissertation is to expound upon and argue for this ‘patho-epistemological’ strategy, to elaborate and develop it as a methodology......, and not least to apply it as a method. This is done by investigating the self-care practices of type 2 diabetics, as well as the educational practices that, in this respect, become a catalyst for understanding contemporary health and lifestyle norms. Particularly the experimental practices of the diabetics...

  14. Development of a replicable process for translating science into practical health education messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyus, Nadra C; Freeman, Randall J; Gibbons, M Christopher

    2006-09-01

    There has been considerable discussion about translating science into practical messages, especially among urban minority and "hard-to-reach" populations. Unfortunately, many research findings rarely make it back in useful format to the general public. Few innovative techniques have been established that provide researchers with a systematic process for developing health awareness and prevention messages for priority populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the early development and experience of a unique community-based participatory process used to develop health promotion messages for a predominantly low-income, black and African-American community in Baltimore, MD. Scientific research findings from peer-reviewed literature were identified by academic researchers. Researchers then taught the science to graphic design students and faculty. The graphic design students and faculty then worked with both community residents and researchers to transform this information into evidence-based public health education messages. The final products were culturally and educationally appropriate, health promotion messages reflecting urban imagery that were eagerly desired by the community. This early outcome is in contrast to many previously developed messages and materials created through processes with limited community involvement and by individuals with limited practical knowledge of local community culture or expertise in marketing or mass communication. This process may potentially be utilized as a community-based participatory approach to enhance the translation of scientific research into desirable and appropriate health education messages.

  15. The C.R.E.A.T.E. Approach to Primary Literature Shifts Undergraduates’ Self-Assessed Ability to Read and Analyze Journal Articles, Attitudes about Science, and Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Sally G.; Lopatto, David; Stevens, Leslie M.

    2011-01-01

    The C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method uses intensive analysis of primary literature in the undergraduate classroom to demystify and humanize science. We have reported previously that the method improves students’ critical thinking and content integration abilities, while at the same time enhancing their self-reported understanding of “who does science, and why.” We report here the results of an assessment that addressed C.R.E.A.T.E. students’ attitudes about the nature of science, beliefs about learning, and confidence in their ability to read, analyze, and explain research articles. Using a Likert-style survey administered pre- and postcourse, we found significant changes in students’ confidence in their ability to read and analyze primary literature, self-assessed understanding of the nature of science, and epistemological beliefs (e.g., their sense of whether knowledge is certain and scientific talent innate). Thus, within a single semester, the inexpensive C.R.E.A.T.E. method can shift not just students’ analytical abilities and understanding of scientists as people, but can also positively affect students’ confidence with analysis of primary literature, their insight into the processes of science, and their beliefs about learning. PMID:22135371

  16. Strengthening the career development of clinical translational scientist trainees: a consensus statement of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Education and Career Development Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Frederick J; Begg, Melissa D; Fleming, Michael; Merchant, Carol

    2012-04-01

    The challenges for scholars committed to successful careers in clinical and translational science are increasingly well recognized. The Education and Career Development (EdCD) of the national Clinical and Translational Science Award consortium gathered thought leaders to propose sustainable solutions and an agenda for future studies that would strengthen the infrastructure across the spectrum of pre- and postdoctoral, MD and PhD, scholars. Six consensus statements were prepared that include: (1) the requirement for career development of a qualitatively different investigator; (2) the implications of interdisciplinary science for career advancement including institutional promotion and tenure actions that were developed for discipline-specific accomplishments; (3) the need for long-term commitment of institutions to scholars; (4) discipline-specific curricula are still required but curricula designed to promote team work and interdisciplinary training will promote innovation; (5) PhD trainees have many pathways to career satisfaction and success; and (6) a centralized infrastructure to enhance and reward mentoring is required. Several themes cut across all of the recommendations including team science, innovation, and sustained institutional commitment. Implied themes include an effective and diverse job force and the requirement for a well-crafted public policy that supports continued investments in science education. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The consistency and complementarity between critical meaningful learning theory and the epistemology of Paul Feyerabend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Damasio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in science teaching have advocated concomitant education about and of science. To approach the nature and history of science in basic education is necessary to have an epistemological approach that can go between of rationalism of Bunge and relativism of Feyerabend. In this paper, it is argued that Feyerabend's epistemological stance is that more can help promote meaningful learning critical, so as to form inquiring, flexible, creative, innovative, tolerant and liberal people. In addition, the suggestions Feyerabend's epistemology also complement the Theory of Meaningful Learning Critical to propose a curriculum and a context for the principles of the theory are in science classrooms.

  18. EPISTEMOLOGI IDEOLOGI KEAMANAN PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Adiwibowo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isu keamanan pangan memberikan dampak yang signifi kan pada kehidupan sosial ekonomi dunia. Hal ini ditandai dengan penyebaran bahaya virus, mikroba patogen dan residu pestisida yang menyebabkan gangguan kesehatan bahkan kematian.Untuk melindungi negara dari bahaya virus, mikroba patogen dan residu pestisida, maka negara maju menerapkan standar sebagai hambatan perdagangan agar produk yang terkontaminasi dan berbahaya tersebut tidak dapat masuk ke negaranya. Epistemologi Islam menjabarkan keamanan pangan dalam Al Quran sebagaimana tertulis dalam Qs Al-Baqoroh (2: 168 “makanlah yang halal lagi baik.” Makanan yang halal adalah hak Allah yang menghalalkan. Makanan yang baik adalah makanan yang memberikan ketenangan dan tidak menimbulkan bahaya. Hal ini sejalan dengan ideologi Pancasila dan konstitusi sebagai dasar fi losofi pembentukan peraturan perundang-undangan Indonesia.

  19. Knowledge of healthy foods does not translate to healthy snack consumption among exercise science undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H; Valentino, Antonette; Holbert, Donald

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional survey study compared the on- and off-campus snack choices and related correlates of convenience samples of exercise science (ES) ( n = 165, M = 45%, F = 55%) and non-exercise science (NES) ( n =160, M = 43%, F = 57%) undergraduates. The hypothesis posed was that knowledge of healthy foods will not translate to healthier snack consumption by the ES students, and that the snack choices and related correlates of ES and NES students will be similar. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires completed in classrooms (ES sample) and at high-traffic locations on-campus (NES sample). Chi-square and t-test analyses compared ES and NES students on snack correlates. Snacks consumed most often by the ES and NES students on-campus were health bars/squares ( n = 56 vs. n = 48) and savory snacks ( n = 55 vs. n = 71), and off-campus were savory snacks ( n = 60 vs. n = 71) and fruits ( n = 41 vs. n = 34). Over half of both samples believed their snack choices were a mix of unhealthy and healthy. Fruits were considered healthier snacks and chips less healthy by both samples, and fruits were the most often recommended snack. About 20% believed these choices would impact their health unfavorably, and about two thirds self-classified in the action stages for healthy snacking. Since knowledge about healthy food choices did not translate to healthy snack selection, these students would benefit from interventions that teach selection and preparation of healthy snacks on a restricted budget.

  20. Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitbol, Michel

    The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  1. The epistemology of neo-Gettier epistemology | Lockie | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disagreement in analytic epistemology. The paper recommends that we seek to develop theories of knowledge rather than analyses, and defends the position that such theories will precisely not be analyses. South African Journal of Philosophy ...

  2. Science for education: a new model of translational research applied to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lent

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A great advance in the last transition of centuries has been the consolidation of the concept of translational research, applied with success in Health and Engineering in practically all countries of medium/high GDP. Intriguingly, this has not occurred with Education. It is yet not perceived that Science can already understand how people learn, which are the mechanisms that accelerate learning and teaching, and how this would impact on the economy and the social progress of nations. It is also not perceived that innovations can be validated with populational studies to rationalize and scale novel teaching initiatives, nor which socioemotional competences should future citizens possess to work in companies more and more automatized and informatized. Perhaps because of this omission, the progress of Brazilian educational indicators has been so modest. In Health, public policies not only invest in material improvements (sanitation, hospital attendance, nutritional coverture, etc, but also on Science and Innovation capable of creating new options in the international scenario (therapies for degenerative diseases, vaccines for infectious diseases, etc. Differently, on Education investment has focused exclusively on material improvements (more schools, better salaries for teachers, etc, necessary but insufficient to accelerate growth of our indicators at faster and more competitive rates. This scenario opens to us a window of opportunity to create a new Science policy aiming at Education. To give concreteness to this possibility, the proposal on discussion is that the new initiatives of support and funding by public and private agencies should have Science for Education as its structurant axis.

  3. Perbandingan Konsepsi Epistemologi Empirisisme Ibnu Taymiyyah dan John Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rido Kurnianto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the epistemological empiricism conception of Ibn Taimiyyah and John Locke based on the comparative analysis to obtain the complete description of epistemological empiricism thought of both, as well as its implications and consequences for the development of science and religious thought. To obtain the detailed answer about the two figures thought, it would be revealed the similarities and differences of epistemological empiricism of each by showing the elements that became the focus of both studies. Furthermore, from those, it will be sought the strange and weaknesses, and possible relevance of the two thought to find a new alternative as a reflective systematic model for the development of science and religious thought in the present and future. Comparing the empirical thought of both figures above is important to do, due to the empirical tradition in the two mens’ world have a very extreme differences. In the west, Empiricism had contributed significantly to the epistemological assets or legacy and had led to the development of science and technology. In contrast, empiricism in the east, was suspected as a harmful tradition to the Islamic ideology. It was considered as the seed that gave birth to atheism. Based on the two thinkers empiricism, will appear the strategic idea that can be synthesized to developed modern science as well as Islamic thought. Bot of epistemology thought can be combine to reconstruct the Islamic epistemology which is more open and more mature, because in that context will emerge the theories of knowledge without eliminating the metaphysical and ethical authority. In the context of combination, the natural tendency of foundation of Islamic teaching should be the bases of policy as descript by Ibnu Taimiyyah, that human nature becomes the foundation of the human responsibility in the end after and imposition of responsibility or duty, are the necessities to obey Allah order and to leave the Allah

  4. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

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    Emil Dinga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  5. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  6. Translational science by public biotechnology companies in the IPO "class of 2000": the impact of technological maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Laura; Ledley, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science.

  7. The Human Microbiome and Understanding the 16S rRNA Gene in Translational Nursing Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy J; Ranucci, Alexandra; Moriyama, Brad; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    As more is understood regarding the human microbiome, it is increasingly important for nurse scientists and healthcare practitioners to analyze these microbial communities and their role in health and disease. 16S rRNA sequencing is a key methodology in identifying these bacterial populations that has recently transitioned from use primarily in research to having increased utility in clinical settings. The objectives of this review are to (a) describe 16S rRNA sequencing and its role in answering research questions important to nursing science; (b) provide an overview of the oral, lung, and gut microbiomes and relevant research; and (c) identify future implications for microbiome research and 16S sequencing in translational nursing science. Sequencing using the 16S rRNA gene has revolutionized research and allowed scientists to easily and reliably characterize complex bacterial communities. This type of research has recently entered the clinical setting, one of the best examples involving the use of 16S sequencing to identify resistant pathogens, thereby improving the accuracy of bacterial identification in infection control. Clinical microbiota research and related requisite methods are of particular relevance to nurse scientists-individuals uniquely positioned to utilize these techniques in future studies in clinical settings.

  8. Epistemological beliefs in introductory biology: Addressing measurement concerns and exploring the relationship with strategy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschuh, Jodi Lynn

    question, indicated that epistemological beliefs and strategy use contributed a statistically significant amount of unique variance in SAT Verbal score, college GPA, and course grade. The findings indicate that students' epistemological beliefs and strategy use affect their academic performance. Educators need to develop instructional strategies to incorporate tasks that encourage mature epistemological beliefs into the classroom, especially when teaching complex science concepts.

  9. Bundling in Place: Translating the NGSS into Place-Based Earth-System Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semken, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Bundling is the process of grouping Performance Expectations (PEs) from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into coherent units based on a defined topic, idea, question, or phenomenon. Bundling sorts the PEs for a given grade or grade band into a teachable narrative: a key stage in building curriculum, instruction, and assessment from the NGSS. To encourage and facilitate this, bundling guidelines have recently been released on the NGSS website (nextgenscience.org/glossary/bundlesbundling), and example bundles for different grade bands and disciplines are also being developed and posted there. According to these guidelines the iterative process of bundling begins with organization of PEs according to natural connections among them, and alignment of the three NGSS dimensions (Disciplinary Core Ideas, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Science and Engineering Practices) that underpin each PE. Bundles are grouped by coherence and increasing complexity into courses, and courses into course sets that should encompass all PEs for a grade band. Bundling offers a natural way to translate the NGSS into highly contextualized curricula such as place-based (PB) teaching, which is situated in specific places or regions and focused on natural and cultural features, processes, phenomena, history, and challenges to sustainability therein. Attributes of place and our individual and collective connections to place (sense of place) directly inform PB curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. PEs can be bundled by their relevance to these themes. Following the NGSS guidelines, I model the process for PB instruction by bundling PEs around the themes of Paleozoic geology and carbonate deposition and their relationships to mining and calcining of limestone in Anthropocene cement production for developing communities. The bundles integrate aspects of Earth history, the carbon cycle, mineral resources, climate change, and sustainability using specific local examples and narratives. They are

  10. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  11. Building Sustainable Professional Development Programs: Applying Strategies From Implementation Science to Translate Evidence Into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Constance D; Chandran, Latha; Gusic, Maryellen E

    2017-01-01

    Multisite and national professional development (PD) programs for educators are challenging to establish. Use of implementation science (IS) frameworks designed to convert evidence-based intervention methods into effective health care practice may help PD developers translate proven educational methods and models into successful, well-run programs. Implementation of the national Educational Scholars Program (ESP) is used to illustrate the value of the IS model. Four adaptable elements of IS are described: (1) replication of an evidence-based model, (2) systematic stages of implementation, (3) management of implementation using three implementation drivers, and (4) demonstration of program success through measures of fidelity to proven models and sustainability. Implementation of the ESP was grounded on five established principles and methods for successful PD. The process was conducted in four IS stages over 10 years: Exploration, Installation, Initial Implementation, and Full Implementation. To ensure effective and efficient processes, attention to IS implementation drivers helped to manage organizational relationships, build competence in faculty and scholars, and address leadership challenges. We describe the ESP's fidelity to evidence-based structures and methods, and offer three examples of sustainability efforts that enabled achievement of targeted program outcomes, including academic productivity, strong networking, and career advancement of scholars. Application of IS frameworks to program implementation may help other PD programs to translate evidence-based methods into interventions with enhanced impact. A PD program can follow systematic developmental stages and be operationalized by practical implementation drivers, thereby creating successful and sustainable interventions that promote the academic vitality of health professions educators.

  12. An Examination of the Relationship between Professional Development Providers' Epistemological and Nature of Science Beliefs and Their Professional Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Arriola, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    In the last twenty years in US science education, professional development has emphasized the need to change science instruction from a direct instruction model to a more participatory and constructivist learning model. The result of these reform efforts has seen an increase in science education professional development that is focused on…

  13. Against Mixed Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Milburn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2015v19n2p183 We can call any reductive account of knowledge that appeals to both safety and ability conditions a mixed account of knowledge. Examples of mixed accounts of knowledge include Pritchard’s (2012 Anti-Luck Virtue Epistemology, Kelp’s (2013 Safe-Apt account of knowledge, and Turri’s (2011 Ample belief account of knowledge. Mixed accounts of knowledge are motivated by well-known counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge. It is thought that by combining both safety and ability conditions we can give an extensionally adequate reductive account of knowledge. In this paper I argue that the putative counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge fail to motivate mixed accounts of knowledge. In particular, I argue that if the putative counterexamples are problematic for safety accounts they are problematic for ability accounts and vice-versa. The reason for this, I argue, is that the safety condition and ability condition should be understood as alternative expressions of the same intuition — that knowledge must come from a reliable source.

  14. An Analytic Search for the Elements of Naturalized Epistemology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naturalized epistemology is an approach to the theory of knowledge that emphasizes the application of methods, results, and theories from the empirical sciences. It contrasts with approaches that emphasize a priori conceptual analysis or insist on a theory of knowledge that is independent of it. In most cases when ...

  15. Epistemological Syncretism in a Biology Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William D.; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    In teaching science, the beliefs of teachers may come into conflict and inhibit the implementation of reformed teaching practice. An experienced biology teacher, Mr. Hobbs, was found to have two different sets of epistemological beliefs while his classroom practice was predominantly teacher-centered. A case study was then performed in order to…

  16. Inferring Teacher Epistemological Framing from Local Patterns in Teacher Noticing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Luna, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we use research from science education on teacher framing and work from mathematics education on teacher noticing to develop new approaches to modeling teacher cognition. The framing literature proposes a dynamic cognitive model of teaching in which teacher epistemological framing, or moment-to-moment understanding of what is going on…

  17. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  18. The ''state of the art in science'' examined as a concept of law from the angle of epistemology, with the example of the principle of averting danger, as defined in the emission control law and in the atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, D.

    1994-01-01

    The term ''state of the art in science'' is the essential element guaranteeing the legally required measures for averting danger during specified normal operation and in case of an accident, as defined in the Atomic Energy Act and in the Federal Emission Control Act. The literature, jurisdiction, and the licensing practice are not unanimous in the interpretation of the content of this term ''state of the art in science'', its function in the licensing procedure, and its distinctions as compared to the term ''state of the art in technology''. The book in hand sets out to provide answers. The term state of the art in science appears at different places in the Atomic Energy Act (AtG) or the Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG), and in different factual contexts. Reference to the measures for averting danger offers the possibility of gearing to a specific context of this term and thus to discuss the term in a selected context. The principle of averting danger therefore offers the factual frame for an epistemological examination of the term ''state of the art in science''. Other than the Federal Constitutional Court in its Kalkar reactor judgment, the author's opinion is that the limits of the human capacity of knowledge are not due to theoretical capacities, but rather to practical. The aquired knowledge thus lags behind the knowledge achievable from the angle of epidemology. The remaining uncertainty in the author's theory thus is larger than that assumed in the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court. The limits of the human capacity of knowledge, the author says, cannot be regarded to likewise set the same limits to the principle or instrument of averting danger. The limits of averting danger are a result of the administrative capacities. (orig.) [de

  19. Ethics and Epistemology in Big Data Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Mason, Paul H; Kerridge, Ian; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-12-01

    Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques. While such advances will likely go some way towards resolving technical and methodological issues, we believe that the epistemological issues raised by big data research have important ethical implications and raise questions about the very possibility of big data research achieving its goals.

  20. Epistemology of tourism: theoretical schools and critical proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Panosso Netto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is present, discuss and problematize the issue of epistemology applied to tourism. The paper discusses the problems in the construction of knowledge of tourism, and theoretical schools, and a proposed critical epistemology. Progress in the scientific production of knowledge in tourism, referring to epistemology, despite its growth in recent years, remains an issue that can be considered neglected or very complex due to the need for a strong philosophical reflection, with little application in practical life, by the claim of achieving scientific rigor of analytic epistemology. The procedure is a critical review of the term epistemology to discriminate the scientistic position of the term and the other schools recognize influencing this trend (analytical and those opposed to it (such as historical, to no effect misrepresent its meaning in the humanities and social sciences, but particularly in tourism. The proposal relates to the development of reflective critical foundations, based on critical theory, as a build option to transform the reality and knowledge of tourism.

  1. Lesson Exemplars in Electricity and Students’ Epistemological Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergel P. Mirana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of a developed lesson exemplars in electricity integrating computer simulations and constructivist approach on students' Epistemological Beliefs. Specifically, it sought to determine how computer simulations, constructivist approach and Formativ e Assessment Classroom Technique (FACT can be integrated in the lesson exemplars in electricity; and evaluate the effects of the developed lesson exemplars in the students’ Epistemological Beliefs. The investigation employed the pre - experimental single - gr oup pretest and posttest study using the Epistemological Beliefs Assessment in Physical Sciences (EBAPS questionnaire. The study was conducted among seventy - two (72 Grade 10 students of a laboratory high school from a state university in the Philippines. They were taught using Physics Educational Technology (PhET and other web - based simulations, constructivist approach, and formative assessment classroom technique. The results revealed that the over - all Epistemological Beliefs of the students did not cha nge significantly; only along Nature of Knowing and Learning and Real - Life Applicability. Generally, utilizing computer simulations and applying constructivist approach did not alter students' epistemological beliefs in its entirety. However, it can be en gaging and effective in promoting students’ understanding of Physics.

  2. Narrative and epistemology: Georges Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimisso, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    In the late 1960s, Georges Canguilhem introduced the concept of 'scientific ideology'. This concept had not played any role in his previous work, so why introduce it at all? This is the central question of my paper. Although it may seem a rather modest question, its answer in fact uncovers hidden tensions in the tradition of historical epistemology, in particular between its normative and descriptive aspects. The term ideology suggests the influence of Althusser's and Foucault's philosophies. However, I show the differences between Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology and Althusser's and Foucault's respective concepts of ideology. I argue that Canguilhem was in fact attempting to solve long-standing problems in the tradition of historical epistemology, rather than following the lead of his younger colleagues. I argue that Canguilhem's 'refurbishment without rejection' of Bachelard's epistemology, which the concept of scientific ideology was aimed to implement, was necessary to justify the historical narratives that Canguilhem had constructed in his own work as a historian of concepts. A strict acceptance of Bachelard's epistemology would have made it impossible to justify them. Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology therefore served as a theoretical justification of his practice as a historian. I maintain that the concept of scientific ideology was needed to reconcile Bachelard's normative epistemology with Canguilhem's view of the history of science and its aims, which differed from Bachelard's more than it is generally acknowledged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combination of interventions can change students’ epistemological beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin S. Kalman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on the hypothesis that students’ epistemological beliefs could become more expertlike with a combination of appropriate instructional activities: (i preclass reading with metacognitive reflection, and (ii in-class active learning that produces cognitive dissonance. This hypothesis was tested through a five-year study involving close to 1000 students at two institutions, in four physics courses. Using an experimental design, data from student interviews, writing product assessments, and the Discipline-Focused Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (DFEBQ we demonstrate that the beliefs of novice science learners became more expertlike on 2 of the 4 DFEBQ factors. We conclude that a combination of an activity that gets students to examine textual material metacognitively (Reflective Writing with one or more types of in-class active learning interventions can promote positive change in students’ epistemological beliefs.

  4. Assessing Statistical Competencies in Clinical and Translational Science Education: One Size Does Not Fit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsell, Christopher J.; Welty, Leah J.; Mazumdar, Madhu; Thurston, Sally W.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Carter, Rickey E.; Pollock, Bradley H.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Jovanovic, Borko D.; Enders, Felicity T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Statistics is an essential training component for a career in clinical and translational science (CTS). Given the increasing complexity of statistics, learners may have difficulty selecting appropriate courses. Our question was: what depth of statistical knowledge do different CTS learners require? Methods For three types of CTS learners (principal investigator, co‐investigator, informed reader of the literature), each with different backgrounds in research (no previous research experience, reader of the research literature, previous research experience), 18 experts in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design proposed levels for 21 statistical competencies. Results Statistical competencies were categorized as fundamental, intermediate, or specialized. CTS learners who intend to become independent principal investigators require more specialized training, while those intending to become informed consumers of the medical literature require more fundamental education. For most competencies, less training was proposed for those with more research background. Discussion When selecting statistical coursework, the learner's research background and career goal should guide the decision. Some statistical competencies are considered to be more important than others. Baseline knowledge assessments may help learners identify appropriate coursework. Conclusion Rather than one size fits all, tailoring education to baseline knowledge, learner background, and future goals increases learning potential while minimizing classroom time. PMID:25212569

  5. Translating Knowledge: The role of Shared Learning in Bridging the Science-Application Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, M.

    2014-12-01

    As the organizers of this session state: "Understanding and managing our future relation with the Earth requires research and knowledge spanning diverse fields, and integrated, societally-relevant science that is geared toward solutions." In most cases, however, integration is weak and scientific outputs do not match decision maker requirements. As a result, while scientific results may be highly relevant to society that relevance is operationally far from clear. This paper explores the use of shared learning processes to bridge the gap between the evolving body of scientific information on climate change and its relevance for resilience planning in cities across Asia. Examples related to understanding uncertainty, the evolution of scientific knowledge from different sources, and data extraction and presentation are given using experiences generated over five years of work as part of the Rockefeller Foundation supported Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network and other programs. Results suggest that processes supporting effective translation of knowledge between different sources and different applications are essential for the identification of solutions that respond to the dynamics and uncertainties inherent in global change processes.

  6. Using Evernote as an electronic lab notebook in a translational science laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Emily; Cho, Ilseung

    2013-06-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) offer significant advantages over traditional paper laboratory notebooks (PLNs), yet most research labs today continue to use paper documentation. While biopharmaceutical companies represent the largest portion of ELN users, government and academic labs trail far behind in their usage. Our lab, a translational science laboratory at New York University School of Medicine (NYUSoM), wanted to determine if an ELN could effectively replace PLNs in an academic research setting. Over 6 months, we used the program Evernote to record all routine experimental information. We also surveyed students working in research laboratories at NYUSoM on the relative advantages and limitations of ELNs and PLNs and discovered that electronic and paper notebook users alike reported the inability to freehand into a notebook as a limitation when using electronic methods. Using Evernote, we found that the numerous advantages of ELNs greatly outweighed the inability to freehand directly into a notebook. We also used imported snapshots and drawing program add-ons to obviate the need for freehanding. Thus, we found that using Evernote as an ELN not only effectively replaces PLNs in an academic research setting but also provides users with a wealth of other advantages over traditional paper notebooks.

  7. Counting Zero: Rethinking Feminist Epistemologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns feminist engagements with epistemologies. Feminist epistemologies have revealed and challenged the exclusions and denigrations at work in knowledge production processes. And yet, the emphasis on the partiality of knowledge and the non-innocence of any subject position also cast doubt on the possibility of feminist political communities. In view of this, it has been argued that the very parameter of epistemology poses limitations for feminism, for it leads to either political paralysis or prescriptive politics that in fact undoes the political of politics. From a different perspective, decolonial feminists argue for radical epistemic disobedience and delinking the move beyond the confines of Western systems of knowledge and its extractive knowledge economy. Nevertheless, the oppositional logic informs both feminist epistemologies and its critiques, which I argue is symptomatic of the epistemic habits of academic feminism. This article ends with a preliminary reconsideration of the question of origin through the figure of zero. It asks whether it might be possible to conceive of feminist epistemologies as performing the task of counting zero – accounting for origin, wholeness, and universality – that takes into account specificities without forfeiting coalition and claims to knowledge.

  8. Epistemological biology teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rask

    This poster presents some theoretical considerations and preliminary results on a study of interest development in science education among students in upper secondary school. The purpose of the study is to present new angles in to the science lessons in order to make the students more interested ...

  9. The Epistemology of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S. Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses questions that are relevant to the epistemology of qualitative research. In order to do so, the presumed dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research is discussed and challenged. According to the author, the similarities between these methods are more relevant than its differences. Both methods strive to describe the social reality and thus have the same epistemological basis, even though they emphasize different questions. To shed light in such dichotomy, the author explores the origins of epistemology as a discipline and its philosophical character. Finally, the particularities and advantages of qualitative research are discussed, especially ethnography and field research, through an analysis of some of its main aspects for observing social reality: its focus on the point of view of the actor; the observation of the everyday world and the full and thick description. 

  10. Epistemologies, deafness, learning, and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Donald F

    2010-01-01

    The study of Deaf epistemologies is in a nascent stage relative to, e.g., the study of feminist or African American epistemologies. It has only recently begun attracting the widespread attention it deserves. The present article addresses Deaf epistemologies as they relate to the sometimes conflicting trends in American society and education. In a relatively short period, the education of deaf students has gone from an independent enterprise under the aegis of special education to heavy influence by No Child Left Behind legislation that applies to virtually all American students. American education at one and the same time embraces and celebrates diversity, imposes uniform, rigid learning standards for all children, and mandates that all children be tested in the same way. An oxymoron exists of individualized educational planning and one-size-fits-all curricula and assessment of academic achievement. Implications for teaching and learning of deaf students are explored.

  11. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilia Maria Pires Sciarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. OBJECTIVE: To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. METHODS: A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. RESULTS: As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. CONCLUSION: Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.

  12. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Batigália, Fernando; Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza de

    2015-01-01

    In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.

  13. Social behavioural epistemology and the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Milind

    2017-07-01

    The progress of science is influenced substantially by social behaviour of and social interactions within the scientific community. Similar to innovations in primate groups, the social acceptance of an innovation depends not only upon the relevance of the innovation but also on the social dominance and connectedness of the innovator. There are a number of parallels between many well-known phenomena in behavioural evolution and various behavioural traits observed in the scientific community. It would be useful, therefore, to use principles of behavioural evolution as hypotheses to study the social behaviour of the scientific community. I argue in this paper that a systematic study of social behavioural epistemology is likely to boost the progress of science by addressing several prevalent biases and other problems in scientific communication and by facilitating appropriate acceptance/rejection of novel concepts.

  14. Toward actionable science: Empowering ecologists to engage in the process of translation through decision-maker and stakeholder partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, C.; Jackson, S. T.; Garfin, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Translational ecology is an approach by which ecologists, stakeholders, and decision-makers work collaboratively to develop and deliver ecological research that, ideally, results in actionable science that leads to improved environmental decision-making. We analyzed a diverse array of real-world case studies and distilled six principles that characterize the practice of translational ecology: communication, commitment, collaboration, engagement, process, and decision-framing. In this talk, we highlight a subset of the case studies that illustrate these principles. Notably, we found that translational ecology is distinct from both basic and applied ecological research. As a practice, the approach deliberately extends research beyond theory or opportunistic applications, motivated by a search for outcomes that directly serve the needs of natural resource managers and decision-makers. Translational ecology is also distinct from knowledge co-production in that it does not require deep engagement between collaborators, although incorporating differing modes of co-production relative to the decision context, associated time frame, and available financial resources can greatly enhance the translational approach. Although there is a need for incentives to pursue in this type of work, we found that the creativity and context-specific knowledge of resource managers, practitioners, and decision-makers informs and enriches the scientific process, helping shape actionable science. Moreover, the process of addressing research questions arising from on-the-ground management issues, rather than from the top-down or expert-oriented perspectives of traditional science, can foster the long-term trust and commitment that is critical for long-term, sustained engagement between partners. Now, perhaps more than ever, the climate and environmental issues facing society are complex, often politicized, and value-laden. We argue that ecological science should play a key role in informing

  15. Dewey on extended cognition and epistemology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaesen, K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a surge of attempts to draw out the epistemological consequences of views according to which cognition is deeply embedded, embodied and/or extended (e-cog). The principal machinery used for doing so is that of analytic epistemology. Here I argue that Dewey's pragmatic epistemology may be

  16. Toward an Epistemology of the Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend; Tanggaard, Lene

    2010-01-01

    epistemology of the eye' has been at work, which has had significant practical implications, not least in educational contexts. One way to characterize John Dewey's pragmatism is to see it as an attempt to replace the epistemology of the eye with an epistemology of the hand. This article develops...

  17. Characteristics of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Research Design Programs in Institutions With Clinical and Translational Science Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Dickerson, Aisha S; Ahn, Chul; Carter, Rickey E; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Lindsell, Christopher J; Nietert, Paul J; Oster, Robert A; Pollock, Brad H; Welty, Leah J

    2017-02-01

    To learn the size, composition, and scholarly output of biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design (BERD) units in U.S. academic health centers (AHCs). Each year for four years, the authors surveyed all BERD units in U.S. AHCs that were members of the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium. In 2010, 46 BERD units were surveyed; in 2011, 55; in 2012, 60; and in 2013, 61. Response rates to the 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 surveys were 93.5%, 98.2%, 98.3%, and 86.9%, respectively. Overall, the size of BERD units ranged from 3 to 86 individuals. The median FTE in BERD units remained similar and ranged from 3.0 to 3.5 FTEs over the years. BERD units reported more availability of doctoral-level biostatisticians than doctoral-level epidemiologists. In 2011, 2012, and 2013, more than a third of BERD units provided consulting support on 101 to 200 projects. A majority of BERD units reported that between 25% and 75% (in 2011) and 31% to 70% (in 2012) of their consulting was to junior investigators. More than two-thirds of BERD units reported their contributions to the submission of 20 or more non-BERD grant or contract applications annually. Nearly half of BERD units reported 1 to 10 manuscripts submitted annually with a BERD practitioner as the first or corresponding author. The findings regarding BERD units provide a benchmark against which to compare BERD resources and may be particularly useful for institutions planning to develop new units to support programs such as the CTSA.

  18. The art of translating nutritional science into dietary guidance: history and evolution of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mary Lee; Hager, Mary H; Toner, Cheryl D; Weber, Jennifer A

    2011-07-01

    The United States government has published official Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) since 1980 and has recently released the 2010 version. Serving as a foundational cornerstone for federal nutrition policy, the DGA embrace current nutritional science and translate it into practical guidance to enhance the overall health of Americans. This article reviews the history and process for developing the DGA, including the incorporation of sophisticated and systematic techniques for reviewing emerging evidence. It also explores issues related to implementation of the guidelines through federal policy, the food supply, and consumer knowledge and behavior. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  19. From normative towards positive epistemology: Problem of scientific fact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author provides a sketch of a twist from normative towards descriptive epistemology as a result of transformation of contemporary philosophy during the main occurrence known as Linguistic Turn. Best illustrations for epistemic twist are given in theories of Karl Popper, Ludwik Fleck and Thomas Kuhn. These three theories determined deconstruction of traditional philosophy of science and traditional picture of science and its practice. At the same time U isti mah, by the same twist towards descriptive and historical epistemology some core problems of epistemology and methodology are actualized in very sharper form. This concerns mainly of the problems of scientific statements and procedures of establishing of their objectivity and truthfulness. For in all three theories, of Popper, Fleck and Kuhn, empirical statements are functions/dependent of: theoretical framework, of though style or of paradigm, problem of truthfulness ad objective justification shows itself within Minhausen trilema. Task of positive epistemology is not to prescribe some procedure, but to provide reconstruction of real procedures given in practice of scientific communities. That means to show how they resolve problem of epistemic foundation of their theories and how they provide justified reasons to defend their theories as truthful and objective. .

  20. Pragmatic epistemology and the community of engaged actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Srđan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will explore the relation between engagement and social science. I will try to argue that positivist epistemology found in the early days of social sciences still greatly influences our understanding of social engagement. In the first part of the paper, I will analyze the epistemology of social sciences advocated by Fourier and Saint-Simon and try to show that, for them, scientific method was primarily the means for taming social change, as well as projecting private desires and plans onto the public sphere. In the second part, I will offer an alternative account of social engagement using the epistemic role of the community found in pragmatism.

  1. National Institutes of Health Update: Translating Basic Behavioral Science into New Pediatric Obesity Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric obesity increases the risk of later-life obesity and chronic diseases. Basic research to better understand factors associated with excessive weight gain in early life and studies translating research findings into preventive and therapeutic strategies are essential to our ability to better prevent and treat childhood obesity. This overview describes several National Institutes of Health efforts designed to stimulate basic and translational research in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. These examples demonstrate the value of research in early phase translational pediatric obesity research and highlight some promising directions for this important area of research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Relationship between epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation of high school students was studied and their relationship with school majoring, GPA and gender. To estimate epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation Schommer’s Epistemological Questionnaire (EQ and Work Preference Inventory (WPI were used. Through factor analysis of EQ 5 factors were extracted, that differ from those Schommer singled out. Negative correlation between naive epistemological beliefs on one side, and intrinsic (-0.327, p<0.01 and general motivation (-0.247, p<0.01 on the other, was determined. Students majoring in social sciences have more mature epistemological beliefs (F=11.278, df=1, p<0.01. Boys have more mature epistemological beliefs than girls only on factor Avoiding relating, ambiguity and dependence on authority (F=16.899, df=1, p<0.01. Correlation between epistemological beliefs and GPA was not determined. Students majoring in social sciences have higher level of motivation (F=6.626, df=1, p<0.05. Girls are more motivated by enjoying in what they are doing (F=6.261, df=1, p<0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  3. Readings in Formal Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ‘Formal epistemology’ is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy,the roots of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science, and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty, ...

  4. Understanding students' epistemologies: Examining practice and meaning in community contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Megan Elisabeth

    There is a great need to raise the levels of science achievement for those groups of children who have traditionally underperformed. Prior cognitive research with Native people suggests that problems with achievement for Native students may be more complicated then simple problems with knowing or not knowing content knowledge. This dissertation hypothesizes that Native Americans engage in practices and have funds of knowledge that facilitate sophisticated reasoning in the domain of science. However, the knowledge and patterns of reasoning are not elicited, acceptable, or recognized in classroom science, or perhaps are in conflict with classroom science. Furthermore the divergence is not simply in the details of what is known; there is discord at the level of epistemology, in the fundamental ways in which Native people conceptualize knowledge of the natural world. This work proposes a new framework, Micro-practice epistemology, for understanding epistemology. I propose that epistemology should be understood as implicitly and explicitly imbedded in the worldviews, values, beliefs and practices of our everyday lives. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods this work investigates the everyday practices related to nature, the epistemological stances and biological knowledge embedded in those practices in a 3X3 model (age cohort: child, adult, elder X community). The three communities involved in this work include: Chicago urban Indian community, Menominee reservation community, and a rural working poor white community. I find significant differences in all three areas across communities. Native communities tend to participate in practices in which some aspect of nature is fore-grounded while non-Native participants tended to participate in practices in which nature is the back-grounded. These findings are extended to explore the ways in which worldviews and values are connected to practice and knowledge about the natural world. I find significant differences in

  5. From dental science to clinical practice: Knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin I. Afrashtehfar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been claimed that in order to decrease the gap between what we know and what we do, research findings must be translated from knowledge to action. Such practices better enable dentists to make evidence-based decisions instead of personal ideas and judgments. To this end, this literature review aims to revisit the concepts of knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry (EBD and depict their role and influence within dental education. It addresses some possible strategies to facilitate knowledge translation (KT, encourage dental students to use EBD principles, and to encourage dental educators to create an environment in which students become self-directed learners. It concludes with a call to develop up-to-date and efficient online platforms that could grant dentists better access to EBD sources in order to more efficiently translate research evidence into the clinic.

  6. From dental science to clinical practice: Knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Assery, Mansour K

    2017-07-01

    It has been claimed that in order to decrease the gap between what we know and what we do, research findings must be translated from knowledge to action. Such practices better enable dentists to make evidence-based decisions instead of personal ideas and judgments. To this end, this literature review aims to revisit the concepts of knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) and depict their role and influence within dental education. It addresses some possible strategies to facilitate knowledge translation (KT), encourage dental students to use EBD principles, and to encourage dental educators to create an environment in which students become self-directed learners. It concludes with a call to develop up-to-date and efficient online platforms that could grant dentists better access to EBD sources in order to more efficiently translate research evidence into the clinic.

  7. Scientific Retreats with ‘Speed Dating’: Networking to Stimulate New Interdisciplinary Translational Research Collaborations and Team Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberg, Anthony J.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Obeid, Jihad S.; Davis, Randal; Halushka, Perry V.

    2016-01-01

    To stimulate the formation of new interdisciplinary translational research teams and innovative pilot projects, the South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research (SCTR) Institute (South Carolina Clinical and Translational Science Award, CTSA) initiated biannual scientific retreats with “speed dating” networking sessions. Retreat themes were prioritized based on the following criteria; cross-cutting topic, unmet medical need, generation of novel technologies and methodologies. Each retreat commences with an external keynote speaker followed by a series of brief research presentations by local researchers focused on the retreat theme, articulating potential areas for new collaborations. After each session of presentations, there is a 30 minute scientific “speed dating” period during which the presenters meet with interested attendees to exchange ideas and discuss collaborations. Retreat attendees are eligible to compete for pilot project funds on the topic of the retreat theme. The 10 retreats held have had a total of 1004 participants, resulted in 61 pilot projects with new interdisciplinary teams, and 14 funded projects. The retreat format has been a successful mechanism to stimulate novel interdisciplinary research teams and innovative translational research projects. Future retreats will continue to target topics of cross-cutting importance to biomedical and public health research. PMID:27807146

  8. International student exchange and the medical curriculum: evaluation of a medical sciences translational physiology course in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mariana; Jones, T David; Rocha, Maria Jose Alves; Fazan, Rubens; Chapleau, Mark W; Salgado, Helio C; Johnson, Alan Kim; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Michelini, Lisete C; Goldstein, David L

    2006-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to conduct a short-term international course on translational physiology for medical students from Wright State University and the University of Iowa. The goals were to 1) provide students with an exposure to the academic, cultural, and medical environments in Brazil; 2) promote awareness of the global medical community; and 3) provide an academic course focused on translational physiology. An evaluation of the students was conducted to determine whether such a short-term course might be useful in the medical curriculum. The 2-wk course was held in the summer of 2005 at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, for 23 American students. The program included presentations of basic and clinical topics, meetings with medical students, and clinical presentations. The program finished with student attendance at a scientific meeting sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Hypertension. Student surveys evaluated issues related to perceived treatment, Brazilian medical school environment, culture and personal attributes, and career aspirations. The international Medical Sciences Translational Physiology course for medical students provided a brief, but intense, experience. It gave students a picture of the medical environment in Brazil and an appreciation for the differences and similarities in cultures. Most students reported that it was a positive experience that would be beneficial to their careers. In conclusion, a short-term international course provides an efficient means for medical students to experience aspects of global medical science.

  9. Synergies and Distinctions between Computational Disciplines in Biomedical Research: Perspective from the Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V.; Hersh, William R.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Chute, Christopher G.; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P.; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P.; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin B.; Harris, Paul A.; Smith, Jack W.; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Krusch, David A.; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally-oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays and sub-optimal results. Although written from the perspective of clinical and translational science award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, the paper addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers. PMID:19550198

  10. Core competencies in the science and practice of knowledge translation: description of a Canadian strategic training initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Brouwers, Melissa; Johnson, David; Lavis, John N; Légaré, France; Majumdar, Sumit R; McKibbon, K Ann; Sales, Anne E; Stacey, Dawn; Klein, Gail; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2011-12-09

    Globally, healthcare systems are attempting to optimize quality of care. This challenge has resulted in the development of implementation science or knowledge translation (KT) and the resulting need to build capacity in both the science and practice of KT. We are attempting to meet these challenges through the creation of a national training initiative in KT. We have identified core competencies in this field and have developed a series of educational courses and materials for three training streams. We report the outline for this approach and the progress to date. We have prepared a strategy to develop, implement, and evaluate a national training initiative to build capacity in the science and practice of KT. Ultimately through this initiative, we hope to meet the capacity demand for KT researchers and practitioners in Canada that will lead to improved care and a strengthened healthcare system.

  11. Core competencies in the science and practice of knowledge translation: description of a Canadian strategic training initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Sharon E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, healthcare systems are attempting to optimize quality of care. This challenge has resulted in the development of implementation science or knowledge translation (KT and the resulting need to build capacity in both the science and practice of KT. Findings We are attempting to meet these challenges through the creation of a national training initiative in KT. We have identified core competencies in this field and have developed a series of educational courses and materials for three training streams. We report the outline for this approach and the progress to date. Conclusions We have prepared a strategy to develop, implement, and evaluate a national training initiative to build capacity in the science and practice of KT. Ultimately through this initiative, we hope to meet the capacity demand for KT researchers and practitioners in Canada that will lead to improved care and a strengthened healthcare system.

  12. Feminism and psychology: critiques of methods and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Causality, Randomness, Intelligibility, and the Epistemology of the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R; Bittner, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Because the basic unit of biology is the cell, biological knowledge is rooted in the epistemology of the cell, and because life is the salient characteristic of the cell, its epistemology must be centered on its livingness, not its constituent components. The organization and regulation of these components in the pursuit of life constitute the fundamental nature of the cell. Thus, regulation sits at the heart of biological knowledge of the cell and the extraordinary complexity of this regulation conditions the kind of knowledge that can be obtained, in particular, the representation and intelligibility of that knowledge. This paper is essentially split into two parts. The first part discusses the inadequacy of everyday intelligibility and intuition in science and the consequent need for scientific theories to be expressed mathematically without appeal to commonsense categories of understanding, such as causality. Having set the backdrop, the second part addresses biological knowledge. It briefly reviews modern scientific epistemology from a general perspective and then turns to the epistemology of the cell. In analogy with a multi-faceted factory, the cell utilizes a highly parallel distributed control system to maintain its organization and regulate its dynamical operation in the face of both internal and external changes. Hence, scientific knowledge is constituted by the mathematics of stochastic dynamical systems, which model the overall relational structure of the cell and how these structures evolve over time, stochasticity being a consequence of the need to ignore a large number of factors while modeling relatively few in an extremely complex environment. PMID:21119887

  14. What kind of theory is music theory? : Epistemological exercises in music theory and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Music theory has long aligned itself with the sciences - particularly with physics, mathematics, and experimental psychology - seeking to cloak itself in the mantle of their epistemological legitimacy. This affinity, which was foreshadowed in music's inclusion in the medieval quadrivium alongside geometry, astronomy, and arithmetic, is evident throughout the history of music theory from the scientific revolution onward. Yet, as eager as music theorists have been to claim the epistemological p...

  15. EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERCEPTION AND SCIENTIFIC LITERACY IN LEVEL HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Álvarez-Valenzuela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research in science education has helped to find some difficulties that hinder the teaching-learning process. These problems include conceptual content of school subjects, the influence of prior knowledge of the student and the teachers have not been trained in their university education epistemologically. This research presents the epistemological conceptions of a sample of 114 high school teachers university science area, which refer the ideas about the role of observation in scientific knowledge development and the work of scientists in the process of knowledge generation. It also includes the level of scientific literacy from the literature that is used as a source of information on the teaching. The result also identifies the level of scientific literacy in students and their influence on learning.

  16. Jacques Lacan and Feminist Epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    This book outlines a compelling new agenda for feminist theories of identity and social relations. Using Lacanian psychoanalysis with feminist epistemology, the author sets out a groundbreaking psychoanalytic social theory. Campbell's work offers answers to the important contemporary question of how feminism can change the formation of gendered subjectivities and social relations. Drawing on the work of third wave feminists, the book shows how feminism can provide new political models of know...

  17. FORMULASI BARU EPISTEMOLOGI FIQH PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Noor Harisudin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Though the world has changed, factually, our fiqh marginalizes women and not critical of social inequality among women. The social system is no longer a patriarchal, but it’s more based on gender equality. Therefore, the existence of more moderat and friendly fiqh for women should be realized. Fiqh should be designed with epistemology based on the mashlahah of women. This article proposes a new formulation towards epistemology of women fiqh and/ or new ushul fiqh which are really friendly towards women. This article recommends that the formation of Islamic law which is tends to neglect women is a sine qua none. Reform must be arranged through the epistemological realm, methodology, and product of women fiqh. All the three go hand in hand with its main core to potitioning the women in equal place. Thus, product of women fiqh that is better suited to the changing places and times will become a true.Copyright (c 2016 by Al-Ihkam. All right reservedDOI: 10.19105/al-ihkam.v10i2.735

  18. Epistemology of Classification with Emphasis on Emile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2018-01-01

    In 1903 Emile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss published a long journal article De Quelques Formes Primitives de Classification. Contribution à l’Étude des Representations Collectives (in 2010 translated to English and published in book form with an important introduction by Rodney Needham). This article...... discuss Durkheim & Mauss' article in the context of contemporary epistemologies of classification....

  19. Pistas epistemológicas y pasarelas para la formación docente en ciencias sociales. Epistemological tracks and walkways for teacher training in social sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Funes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES El artículo aborda cuatro conceptos estructurantes: lugar, identidad, memoria, y patrimonio para fundamentar la formación docente en ciencias sociales. La creación y legitimación del saber escolar evidencia una red de interacciones entre la escuela y el mundo cultural y social. Importa la reflexión construida desde lugares y localizaciones epistemológicas que enriquecen la producción en el campo en tanto posibilita pensar en las construcciones simbólicas que se juegan a la hora de enseñar y aprender conocimientos sociales, para ser más precisos nos interesan las maneras locales de conocer y por ello presentamos una propuesta de trabajo para las ciudades que habitamos. (EN The article approaches four structuring concepts: place, identity, memory, and heritage to base the educational formation on social sciences. The creation and legitimization of to know student demonstrates a network of interactions between the school and the cultural and social world. It imports the reflection constructed from places and locations epistemológicas that enrich the production in the field while it makes possible to think about the symbolic constructions that they are played at the moment of teaching and to learn social knowledge, to be more precise we are interested the local ways of knowing and for it let's sense beforehand an offer of work for the cities that we live.

  20. Knowledge Translation Research: The Science of Moving Research into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hayden, Jill A.; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing…

  1. Epistemological anarchism of Paul Karl Feyerabend and medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patrícia Gomes

    Full Text Available The thoughts of the philosopher Paul Karl Feyerabend brought important contributions to the debate on Science in the 20th century. Most recently his views about non-existence of a single method for doing science have been employed to rethink science education and propose the use of multiple methods for effective teaching-learning process. This article employs the theoretical framework of the author expressed in the book Against Method, 1977, about the epistemological anarchism and the methodological pluralism and uses it in the contemporary discussion of medical education.

  2. From Concepts to Predicates within Constructivist Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    Constructivism is a philosophical approach that appears in a variety of guises, some of them pedagogical, some epistemological and some in complex combinations. This article is based on constructivist epistemology. More specifically, constructivist epistemology provides a ground for conceptual an...... analysis of humans’ concept constructions, conceptions and concept learning processes. It will focus on conceptual specification and logical description of a flow from concepts to predicates....

  3. Ontological and epistemological foundations of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilachis, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the p...

  4. Scientific thinking in elementary school: Children's social cognition and their epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2017-03-01

    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding. Children's epistemological understanding, in turn, predicted their experimentation skills. Importantly, this relation was independent of the common influences of general information processing. Significant relations between experimentation skills and inhibition, and between epistemological understanding, intelligence, and language abilities emerged, suggesting that general information processing contributes to the conceptual development that is involved in scientific thinking. The model of scientific thinking that was tested in this study (social cognition and epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills) fitted the data significantly better than 2 alternative models, which assumed nonspecific, equally strong relations between all constructs under investigation. Our results support the conclusion that social cognition plays a foundational role in the emergence of children's epistemological understanding, which in turn is closely related to the development of experimentation skills. Our findings have significant implications for the teaching of scientific thinking in elementary school and they stress the importance of children's epistemological understanding in

  5. Between normal and pathological: Ludwik Fleck, Georges Canguilhem and the genesis of historical epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Lucio Leitão Condé

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to address, starting from some aspects of the thought of Ludwik Fleck and Georges Canguilhem, the genesis of historical epistemology in the history of science. Specifically, it seeks the contribution of the biological matrix, or the life sciences, presented by these authors, as a central framework in the constitution of historical epistemology. In other words, more than a search of similarities between Fleck and Canguilhem, the main goal is to show how, in formulating independently their ideas of history of science – especially the history of medicine – these authors contributed decisively to the basis of a historical epistemology that will be, throughout the twentieth century, a new thought style for understanding the history of science.

  6. Building a translational science on children and youth affected by political violence and armed conflict: A commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S

    2017-02-01

    Articles in this timely Special Section represent an important milestone in the developmental science on children and youth involved in political violence and armed conflict. With millions of children worldwide affected by past and present wars and conflicts, there is an urgent and growing need for research to inform efforts to understand, prevent, and mitigate the possible harm of such violence to individual children, families, communities, and societies, for present as well as future generations. The four programs of research highlighted in this Special Section illustrate key advances and challenges in contemporary development research on young people growing up in the midst or aftermath of political violence. These studies are longitudinal, methodologically sophisticated, and grounded in socioecological systems models that align well with current models of risk and resilience in developmental psychopathology. These studies collectively mark a critically important shift to process-focused research that holds great promise for translational applications. Nonetheless, given the scope of the international crisis of children and youth affected by political violence and its sequelae, there is an urgent global need for greater mobilization of resources to support translational science and effective evidence-based action.

  7. Do clinical and translational science graduate students understand linear regression? Development and early validation of the REGRESS quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Although regression is widely used for reading and publishing in the medical literature, no instruments were previously available to assess students' understanding. The goal of this study was to design and assess such an instrument for graduate students in Clinical and Translational Science and Public Health. A 27-item REsearch on Global Regression Expectations in StatisticS (REGRESS) quiz was developed through an iterative process. Consenting students taking a course on linear regression in a Clinical and Translational Science program completed the quiz pre- and postcourse. Student results were compared to practicing statisticians with a master's or doctoral degree in statistics or a closely related field. Fifty-two students responded precourse, 59 postcourse , and 22 practicing statisticians completed the quiz. The mean (SD) score was 9.3 (4.3) for students precourse and 19.0 (3.5) postcourse (P REGRESS quiz was internally reliable (Cronbach's alpha 0.89). The initial validation is quite promising with statistically significant and meaningful differences across time and study populations. Further work is needed to validate the quiz across multiple institutions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A mentor development program for clinical translational science faculty leads to sustained, improved confidence in mentoring skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mitchell D; Steinauer, Jody E; Khalili, Mandana; Huang, Laurence; Kahn, James S; Lee, Kathryn A; Creasman, Jennifer; Brown, Jeanette S

    2012-08-01

    Mentorship is crucial for academic productivity and advancement for clinical and translational (CT) science faculty. However, little is known about the long-term effects of mentor training programs. The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Clinical and Translational Science Institute launched a Mentor Development Program (MDP) in 2007 for CT faculty. We report on an evaluation of the first three cohorts of graduates from the MDP. In 2010, all Mentors in Training (MITs) who completed the MDP from 2007 to 2009 (n= 38) were asked to complete an evaluation of their mentoring skills and knowledge; all MITs (100%) completed the evaluation. Two-thirds of MDP graduates reported that they often apply knowledge, attitudes, or skills obtained in the MDP to their mentoring. Nearly all graduates (97%) considered being a mentor important to their career satisfaction. Graduates were also asked about the MDP's impact on specific mentoring skills; 95% agreed that the MDP helped them to become a better mentor and to focus their mentoring goals. We also describe a number of new initiatives to support mentoring at UCSF that have evolved from the MDP. To our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the long-term impact of a mentor training program for CT researchers. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Case for Flexible Epistemology and Metamethodology in Religious Fundamentalism Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter J. Haynes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available After reviewing a representative sample of current and historical research in religious fundamentalism, the author addresses the epistemological presuppositions supporting both quantitative and qualitative methodologies and argues for epistemological flexibility and metamethodology, both of which support and are supported by metatheoretical thinking. Habermas’ concept of the scientistic self-understanding of the sciences is used to point up the limitations of positivist epistemology, especially in the context of fundamentalism research. A metamethodological approach, supported by epistemological flexibility, makes dialogical engagement between researchers and those they research possible, and an example of how this would look in an actual research design is provided. The article concludes with a theoretical statement and graphic representation of a model for dialogical engagement between Western scholars and non-Western religious fundamentalists. Such engagement, the author argues, is necessary before any real progress on the “problem” of radicalized fundamentalism can be made.

  10. Verification of causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemology on physics conceptual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ding

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to test the causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemologies on student conceptual learning in physics. A causal model, integrating multiple variables that were investigated separately in the prior literature, is proposed and tested through path analysis. These variables include student preinstructional reasoning skills measured by the Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, pre- and postepistemological views measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, and pre- and postperformance on Newtonian concepts measured by the Force Concept Inventory. Students from a traditionally taught calculus-based introductory mechanics course at a research university participated in the study. Results largely support the postulated causal model and reveal strong influences of reasoning skills and preinstructional epistemology on student conceptual learning gains. Interestingly enough, postinstructional epistemology does not appear to have a significant influence on student learning gains. Moreover, pre- and postinstructional epistemology, although barely different from each other on average, have little causal connection between them.

  11. Lost in translation: Discourses, boundaries and legitimacy in the public understanding of science in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Simon Jay

    2008-07-01

    This thesis documents the historical development of debates around the public understanding of science in the UK from 1985 until 2005. Testimonies from key actors involved in the evolution of the recent public understanding of science arena, and an examination of documentary evidence, have been used to map out how this issue was problematised by scientists in the mid-1980s, and how it has developed into a contested field of activity, political interest and academic research. I propose that this historical period can be broadly understood in four phases each characterised by a dominant discourse of the public understanding of science. I examine how, within each phase, the various groups involved have engaged in boundary work: rhetorically constructing, and mobilising, ideas of 'science', 'the public', and the perceived 'problem' in the relationship between the two, in the pursuit of defining and legitimating themselves and these definitions of the relationship between science and public. Phase I is characterised as a rhetorical re-framing of earlier 'problems' of the public understanding of science by scientists and scientific institutions in the context of the 1980s. Phase II is dominated by the boundary work between scientists and social scientists as they contended for legitimacy and authority over competing discourses of public understanding of science and the institutionalisation of PUS activity and research. Phase III is characterised by a variety of discursive formulations of the 'problem' of PUS following the House of Lords report (2000) and a subsequent change in the rhetoric of public understanding of science to one of public engagement. Phase IV is dominated by the language of 'upstream engagement' and identifies the political interest in managing science's relationship with the public and the social scientific responses to this.

  12. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    Etiologic research in psychiatry relies on an objectivist epistemology positing that human cognition is specified by the "reality" of the outer world, which consists of a totality of mind-independent objects. Truth is considered as some sort of correspondence relation between words and external...... (connectionism), and developmental psychology (developmental biodynamics) converge in viewing living organisms as self-organizing systems. In this perspective, the organism is not specified by the outer world, but enacts its environment by selecting relevant domains of significance that constitute its world...

  13. Ten years of democracy: Translating policy into practice in mathematics and science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgabo Masehela

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a 10-year (1994 – 2004 review of the state of mathematics and physical science education (SME in South Africa with respect to participation and performance, and its relationship with policy implementation.

  14. Personal Epistemology of Urban Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearrow, Melissa; Sanchez, William

    2008-01-01

    Personal epistemology, originating from social construction theory, provides a framework for researchers to understand how individuals view their world. The Attitudes About Reality (AAR) scale is one survey method that qualitatively assesses personal epistemology along the logical positivist and social constructionist continuum; however, the…

  15. Applied Epistemology and Understanding in Information Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorichanaz, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Applied epistemology allows information studies to benefit from developments in philosophy. In information studies, epistemic concepts are rarely considered in detail. This paper offers a review of several epistemic concepts, focusing on understanding, as a call for further work in applied epistemology in information studies. Method:…

  16. Epistemological Development in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Epistemological development is an important factor in facilitating learner identity and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative action research study explored undergraduate social work students' epistemological beliefs about knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and implications for social work education. Data collection…

  17. Lean and Agile: An Epistemological Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browaeys, Marie-Joelle; Fisser, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to contribute to the discussion of treating the concepts of lean and agile in isolation or combination by presenting an alternative view from complexity thinking on these concepts, considering an epistemological approach to this topic. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an epistemological approach, using…

  18. Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallister, James

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a brief overview of virtue epistemology; it thereafter considers some possible ramifications of this branch of the theory of knowledge for the philosophy of education. The main features of three different manifestations of virtue epistemology are first explained. Importantly, it is then maintained that developments…

  19. Training scientists as future industry leaders: teaching translational science from an industry executive's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gloria; Kranzler, Jay D; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2018-01-01

    PhDs and post-doctoral biomedical graduates, in greater numbers, are choosing industry based careers. However, most scientists do not have formal training in business strategies and venture creation and may find senior management positions untenable. To fill this training gap, "Biotechnology Industry: Structure and Strategy" was offered at New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM). The course focuses on the business aspects of translational medicine and research translation and incorporates the practice of business case discussions, mock negotiation, and direct interactions into the didactic. The goal is to teach scientists at an early career stage how to create solutions, whether at the molecular level or via the creation of devices or software, to benefit those with disease. In doing so, young, talented scientists can develop a congruent mindset with biotechnology/industry executives. Our data demonstrates that the course enhances students' knowledge of the biotechnology industry. In turn, these learned skills may further encourage scientists to seek leadership positions in the field. Implementation of similar courses and educational programs will enhance scientists' training and inspire them to become innovative leaders in the discovery and development of therapeutics.

  20. Exploring How Second Grade Elementary Teachers Translate Their Nature of Science Views into Classroom Practice After a Graduate Level Nature of Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Hasan; Adibelli, Elif

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the factors mediating the translation of second grade teachers' nature of science (NOS) views into classroom practice after completing a graduate level NOS course. Four second grade in-service elementary teachers comprised the sample of this study. Data were collected from several sources during the course of this study. The primary data sources were (a) assessment of the elementary teachers' NOS views before and after the graduate level NOS course using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire Version B (VNOS-B) (Lederman et al., 2002) coupled with interviews, and (b) a classroom observation and videotaped recording of the elementary teachers' best NOS lessons coupled with interview. We identified three distinct but related factors that mediated the translation of NOS views into classroom practice: the teachers' perspectives about the developmental appropriateness of the NOS aspect, the teachers' selection of target NOS aspects, and the relative importance placed by teachers on each NOS aspect.

  1. Ontological and Epistemological Foundations of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vasilachis de Gialdino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the primary and secondary characteristics of qualitative research, expressing the need for an ontological rupture. Finally, cognitive interaction and cooperative knowledge construction are considered as two fundamental features in the process of qualitative research grounded on the Epistemology of the Known Subject. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902307

  2. Secondary science teachers' view toward and classroom translation of sustained professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth Blake

    This study concerns the phenomenon of secondary science teacher learning and enacting instructional strategies learned at the Communication in Science Inquiry Project (CISIP) teacher professional development events, as well as teacher perception of, and relationship to, this year-long professional development program. The CISIP program teaches science teachers how to build scientific classroom discourse communities with their students. Some of the science teachers were previous participants in the professional development, and acted as mentor teachers. The research design employed an integrated conceptual framework of situated learning theory with an analytical lens of teachers' professional, institutional and affinity, identities. A multi-method approach was used to generate data. Throughout the 2007-2008 academic year, the teachers' fidelity to the professional development model was measured using a classroom observation instrument aligned with the professional development model. From these observation data a longitudinal model, using hierarchical linear modeling, was constructed. In addition, surveys and interview data were used to construct both whole group and case studies of two high school science teachers who taught biology at the same school. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between previous and new participants; specifically, the longer teachers had participated in the professional development, and adopted a mentorship role, the greater their fidelity of classroom instruction to the CISIP model. Additionally, the case study teacher who developed a CISIP model-aligned affinity identity implemented more of the instructional strategies than the teacher who maintained his school-based institutional identity.

  3. Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr

  4. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2012-01-01

    Advances in a wide range of biological, behavioral, and social sciences are expanding our understanding of how early environmental influences (the ecology) and genetic predispositions (the biologic program) affect learning capacities, adaptive behaviors, lifelong physical and mental health, and adult productivity. A supporting technical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) presents an integrated ecobiodevelopmental framework to assist in translating these dramatic advances in developmental science into improved health across the life span. Pediatricians are now armed with new information about the adverse effects of toxic stress on brain development, as well as a deeper understanding of the early life origins of many adult diseases. As trusted authorities in child health and development, pediatric providers must now complement the early identification of developmental concerns with a greater focus on those interventions and community investments that reduce external threats to healthy brain growth. To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community-one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters-to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span.

  5. Methods of cell purification: a critical juncture for laboratory research and translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Peter J; Cagavi Bozkulak, Esra; Qyang, Yibing

    2012-01-01

    Research in cell biology and the development of translational technologies are driven by competition, public expectations, and regulatory oversight, putting these fields at a critical juncture. Success in these fields is quickly becoming dependent on the ability of researchers to identify and isolate specific cell populations from heterogeneous mixtures accurately and efficiently. Many methods for cell purification have been developed, and each has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered in light of the intended application. Current cell separation strategies make use of surface proteins, genetic expression, and physics to isolate specific cells by phenotypic traits. Cell purification is also dependent on the cellular reagents available for use and the intended application, as these factors may preclude certain mechanisms used in the processes of labeling and sorting cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Accrual and recruitment practices at Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institutions: a call for expectations, expertise, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Rhonda G; Mervin-Blake, Sabrena; Hallarn, Rose; Rathmann, Charles; Kolb, H Robert; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; D'Agostino, Toni; Rubinstein, Eric P; Dozier, Ann M; Schuff, Kathryn G

    2014-08-01

    To respond to increased public and programmatic demand to address underenrollment of clinical translational research studies, the authors examined participant recruitment practices at Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) sites and make recommendations for performance metrics and accountability. The CTSA Recruitment and Retention taskforce in 2010 invited representatives at 46 CTSAs to complete an online 48-question survey querying accrual and recruitment outcomes, practices, evaluation methods, policies, and perceived gaps in related knowledge/practice. Descriptive statistical and thematic analyses were conducted. Forty-six respondents representing 44 CTSAs completed the survey. Recruitment conducted by study teams was the most common practice reported (78%-91%, by study type); 39% reported their institution offered recruitment services to investigators. Respondents valued study feasibility assessment as a successful practice (39%); desired additional resources included feasibility assessments (49%) and participant registries (44%). None reported their institution systematically required justification of feasibility; some indicated relevant information was considered prior to institutional review board (IRB) review (30%) or contract approval (22%). All respondents' IRBs tracked study progress, but only 10% of respondents could report outcome data for timely accrual. Few reported written policies addressing poor accrual or provided data to support recruitment practice effectiveness. Many CTSAs lack the necessary frame work to support study accrual. Recom men dations to enhance accrual include articulating institutional expectations and policy for routine recruitment plan ning; providing recruitment expertise to inform feasibility assessment and recruit ment planning; and developing interdepartmental coordination and integrated informatics infrastructure to drive the conduct, evaluation, and improvement of recruitment practices.

  7. Training the next generation of research mentors: the University of California, San Francisco, Clinical & Translational Science Institute Mentor Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mitchell D; Huang, Laurence; Guglielmo, B Joseph; Jordan, Richard; Kahn, James; Creasman, Jennifer M; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P; Lee, Kathryn A; Tehrani, Ariane; Yaffe, Kristine; Brown, Jeanette S

    2009-06-01

    Mentoring is a critical component of career development and success for clinical translational science research faculty. Yet few programs train faculty in mentoring skills. We describe outcomes from the first two faculty cohorts who completed a Mentor Development Program (MDP) at UCSF. Eligibility includes having dedicated research time, expertise in a scientific area and a desire to be a lead research mentor. A post-MDP survey measured the program's impact on enhancement of five key mentoring skills, change in the Mentors-in-Training (MIT) self-rated importance of being a mentor to their career satisfaction, and overall confidence in their mentoring skills. Since 2007, 29 MITs participated in and 26 completed the MDP. Only 15% of the MITs reported any previous mentor training. Overall, 96% of MITs felt that participation in the MDP helped them to become better mentors. A majority reported a significant increase in confidence in mentoring skills and most reported an increased understanding of important mentoring issues at UCSF. MITs reported increased confidence in overall and specific mentoring skills after completion of the MDP. The MDP can serve as a model for other institutions to develop the next generation of clinical-translational research mentors.

  8. Orientations and outcome of interdisciplinary research: the case of research behaviour in translational medical science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The importance of interdisciplinary research in accelerating the progress and commercialization of science is widely recognized, yet little is known about how academic research self-organizes towards interdisciplinarity. In this paper, we therefore explore the micro-level behavior of researchers ...

  9. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  10. Translating Neuroscience, Psychology and Education: An Abstracted Conceptual Framework for the Learning Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Gregory M.; Horvath, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Educators strive to understand and apply knowledge gained through scientific endeavours. Yet, within the various sciences of learning, particularly within educational neuroscience, there have been instances of seemingly contradictory or incompatible research findings and theories. We argue that this situation arises through confusion between…

  11. PEMAHAMAN EPISTEMOLOGIS CALON MAHASISWA MENGENAI ILMU-ILMU SOSIAL DAN ILMU-ILMU ALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindito Aditomo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological understanding is an important part of college students’ intellectual development. The present study examines the structure of epistemological understanding on a sample of students in an Indonesian university. The study also compares epistemological understanding of the social and natural science disciplines. Participants were mostly female (58%, on average 17.9 years, and enrolled in either a social science (fashion design, law, and psychology; N = 575 or natural sciences study programme (engineering, pharmacy, and biology; N = 924. A Likert-type instrument was used to measure three dimensions of epistemological understanding regarding authority as a source of knowledge, the subjectivity of knowledge, and the changeability of knowledge. Eigen values and scree plot in the exploratory factor analysis indicate a four-factor solution. These factors referred to the three hypothesised dimensions, and one additional dimension reflecting beliefs related specifically to factual knowledge. Additional analyses show that knowledge in the social sciences are seen as more subjective and uncertain. Furthermore, while students generally trust epistemic authorities from both fields, the trust towards authority in the social sciences is associated with a belief that knowledge is subjective. The reverse pattern was found for the natural sciences. A possible explanation is that social science students recognised but were uncomfortable with the subjective nature of their discipline, and hence sought certainty from epistemic authorities.

  12. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  13. Data sharing in stem cell translational science: policy statement by the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenoord, Annelien L; Mostert, Menno; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-01-01

    Data and sample sharing constitute a scientific and ethical imperative but need to be conducted in a responsible manner in order to protect individual interests as well as maintain public trust. In 2014, the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) adopted a common Framework for Responsible Sharing of Genomic and Health-Related Data. The GA4GH Framework is applicable to data sharing in the stem cell field, however, interpretation is required so as to provide guidance for this specific context. In this paper, the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party discusses those principles that are specific to translational stem cell science, including engagement, data quality and safety, privacy, security and confidentiality, risk-benefit analysis and sustainability.

  14. A distributed model: redefining a robust research subject advocacy program at the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Sabune J; Cagliero, Enrico; Witte, Elizabeth; Bierer, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center ("Harvard Catalyst") Research Subject Advocacy (RSA) Program has reengineered subject advocacy, distributing the delivery of advocacy functions through a multi-institutional, central platform rather than vesting these roles and responsibilities in a single individual functioning as a subject advocate. The program is process-oriented and output-driven, drawing on the strengths of participating institutions to engage local stakeholders both in the protection of research subjects and in advocacy for subjects' rights. The program engages stakeholder communities in the collaborative development and distributed delivery of accessible and applicable educational programming and resources. The Harvard Catalyst RSA Program identifies, develops, and supports the sharing and distribution of expertise, education, and resources for the benefit of all institutions, with a particular focus on the frontline: research subjects, researchers, research coordinators, and research nurses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Charting the Publication and Citation Impact of the NIH Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program From 2006 Through 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Carter, Dorothy R; Rollins, Latrice; Nehl, Eric J

    2018-01-02

    The authors evaluated publication and citation patterns for articles supported by Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) hub investment over the first decade of the CTSA program. The aim was to elucidate a pivotal step in the translational process by providing an account of how time, hub maturity, and hub attributes were related to productivity and influence in the academic literature. In early 2017, the authors collected bibliometric data from PubMed, Web of Science InCites, and NIH iCite for articles citing any CTSA hub grants published from hub inception through 2016. They compiled data on publication and citation rates, and indices of relative citation impact aggregated by hub funding year cohort. They compared hub-level bibliometric activity by multi- versus single-institution structure and total monetary award sums, compiled from NIH RePORTER. From 2006-2016, CTSA hubs supported over 66,000 publications, with publication rates accelerating as hubs matured. These publications accumulated over 1.2 million citations, with some articles cited over 1,000 times. Indices of relative citation impact indicated that CTSA-supported publications were cited more than twice as often as expected for articles of their publication years and disciplines. Multi-institutional hubs and those awarded higher grant sums exhibited significantly higher publication and citation activity. The CTSA program is yielding a robust and growing body of influential research findings with consistently high indices of relative citation impact. Preliminary evidence suggests multi-institutional collaborations and more monetary resources are associated with elevated bibliometric activity, and therefore, may be worth their investment.

  16. e-Science platform for translational biomedical imaging research: running, statistics, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tusheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mingqing; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Lisa; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    In order to enable multiple disciplines of medical researchers, clinical physicians and biomedical engineers working together in a secured, efficient, and transparent cooperative environment, we had designed an e-Science platform for biomedical imaging research and application cross multiple academic institutions and hospitals in Shanghai and presented this work in SPIE Medical Imaging conference held in San Diego in 2012. In past the two-years, we implemented a biomedical image chain including communication, storage, cooperation and computing based on this e-Science platform. In this presentation, we presented the operating status of this system in supporting biomedical imaging research, analyzed and discussed results of this system in supporting multi-disciplines collaboration cross-multiple institutions.

  17. The Translation of Teachers' Understanding of Gifted Students Into Instructional Strategies for Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonhye; Steve Oliver, J.

    2009-08-01

    This study examined how instructional challenges presented by gifted students shaped teachers’ instructional strategies. This study is a qualitative research grounded in a social constructivist framework. The participants were three high school science teachers who were teaching identified gifted students in both heterogeneously- and homogeneously-grouped classrooms. Major data sources are classroom observations and interviews. Data analysis indicated that these science teachers developed content-specific teaching strategies based on their understanding of gifted students, including: (a) instructional differentiation, e.g., thematic units, (b) variety in instructional mode and/or students’ products, (c) student grouping strategies and peer tutoring, (d) individualized support, (e) strategies to manage challenging questions, (f) strategies to deal with the perfectionism, and (g) psychologically safe classroom environments.

  18. Design Research: Aesthetic Epistemology and Explanatory Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murphy

    Full Text Available The article explores the “what” and the “how” of design research. It discusses the epistemological assumptions of design and design research—the conception of true knowledge that underpins the quest to advance design knowledge through research. The article also examines the media and methods of doing design research—that is, the “how” of such research. As it developed over the past century, the design field has drawn extensively on three pivotal but often tacitly deployed epistemologies: the Platonic-Aristotelian, the pragmatic, and the postmodern. Platonic epistemology is latent in many commonplace design instruction texts. Pragmatic epistemology underscores the industrial-arts ethos of design. Postmodern epistemologies dominate in university programs—especially graduate and Ph.D. programs. The article considers how these competing epistemologies understand the role of imagination in the act of creation. The article then considers the role of explanation in the carrying out of research in creative design and arts fields. It addresses whether, and to what degree, design research ought to rely on explanatory words as its principal medium of research, or whether it is valid to substitute artifactual creation for intellectual explanation in the research process. Key words: Epistemology, Design, Imagination, Knowledge, Explanation, Practice-based research

  19. Conflicting Epistemologies and Inference in Coupled Human and Natural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Last year, I presented a model that projects per capita water consumption based on changes in price, population, building codes, and water stress salience. This model applied methods from hydrological science and engineering to relationships both within and beyond their traditional scope. Epistemologically, the development of mathematical models of natural or engineered systems is objectivist while research examining relationships between observations, perceptions and action is commonly constructivist or subjectivist. Drawing on multiple epistemologies is common in, and perhaps central to, the growing fields of coupled human and natural systems, and socio-hydrology. Critically, these philosophical perspectives vary in their view of the nature of the system as mechanistic, adaptive or constructed, and the split between aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Interdisciplinary research is commonly cited as a way to address the critical and domain crossing challenge of sustainability as synthesis across perspectives can offer a more comprehensive view of system dynamics. However, combining methods and concepts from multiple ontologies and epistemologies can introduce contradictions into the logic of inference. These contractions challenge the evaluation of research products and the implications for practical application of research findings are not fully understood. Reflections on the evaluation, application, and generalization of the water consumption model described above are used to ground these broader questions and offer thoughts on the way forward.

  20. The Epistemology of Moral Bioenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Parker

    2016-07-01

    Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e.g. beliefs) and that which manipulates other, non-representational states (e.g. motivations). Either way, I argue, the enhanced moral psychology will fail to conform to epistemic norms, and the only way to resolve this failure and allow the moral bioenhancement to be effective in addressing the targeted moral issues is to make the moral bioenhancement covert. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. THE QUALITY OF ENGLISH TRANSLATION VERSION OF BILINGUAL BOOKS FOR PHYSICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djatmika .

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the quality of English translation of the course books of Physics, Economics, and History for Junior High School students in Indonesia. The research which becomes the base for the article is qualitative, conducted on five English version texts of bilingual books for Junior High School students in Indonesia. It selected one chapter of each book and analyzed the quality of its text structure as well as its text texture. The data were in the forms of discourse units and analyzed on the quality of the text structure and aspects of grammar quality such as the grammatical construction of the clauses and the lexical choices of the texts. In addition, it obtained data related to the readability of the texts from twenty students who were selected randomly. The results show that all of the English texts have good quality in their text structure. However, the grammar and choice of words show a number of weaknesses in each text. Text improvement should consider English grammatical rules and systems and Indonesian language interference for English grammatical constructions, word choice and technical terms.

  2. Translational research: precision medicine, personalized medicine, targeted therapies: marketing or science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Pierre; Longeray, Pierre-Henry; Barlesi, Fabrice; Ameye, Véronique; Augé, Pascale; Cazeneuve, Béatrice; Chatelut, Etienne; Diaz, Isabelle; Diviné, Marine; Froguel, Philippe; Goni, Sylvia; Gueyffier, François; Hoog-Labouret, Natalie; Mourah, Samia; Morin-Surroca, Michèle; Perche, Olivier; Perin-Dureau, Florent; Pigeon, Martine; Tisseau, Anne; Verstuyft, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine is based on: 1) improved clinical or non-clinical methods (including biomarkers) for a more discriminating and precise diagnosis of diseases; 2) targeted therapies of the choice or the best drug for each patient among those available; 3) dose adjustment methods to optimize the benefit-risk ratio of the drugs chosen; 4) biomarkers of efficacy, toxicity, treatment discontinuation, relapse, etc. Unfortunately, it is still too often a theoretical concept because of the lack of convenient diagnostic methods or treatments, particularly of drugs corresponding to each subtype of pathology, hence to each patient. Stratified medicine is a component of personalized medicine employing biomarkers and companion diagnostics to target the patients likely to present the best benefit-risk balance for a given active compound. The concept of targeted therapy, mostly used in cancer treatment, relies on the existence of a defined molecular target, involved or not in the pathological process, and/or on the existence of a biomarker able to identify the target population, which should logically be small as compared to the population presenting the disease considered. Targeted therapies and biomarkers represent important stakes for the pharmaceutical industry, in terms of market access, of return on investment and of image among the prescribers. At the same time, they probably represent only the first generation of products resulting from the combination of clinical, pathophysiological and molecular research, i.e. of translational research. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Towards a sociology of knowledge translation: the importance of being dis-interested in knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitto, Simon C; Sargeant, Joan; Reeves, Scott; Silver, Ivan

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 15 years there has been an increasingly energetic search for theories and definitions in the burgeoning area of knowledge translation (KT) in the health care context. The focus has been on the design and evaluation of KT activities with little attention to developing a considered KT theoretical/methodological approach that takes a more distanced critical inquiry to the studying of KT interventions. As such, what has been overlooked in the health professions KT literature to date is a suitably complex conceptualisation of translation that encompasses the multiplicity of KT interventions, the dynamic environments in which they are occurring, and the production of new knowledge which arises from their interactions. Attending to these epistemological issues; i.e. issues of the type of knowledge and how it is produced, is crucial to developing a relational understanding of the production and emergence of context-specific clinical knowledge and practice in KT processes. Such an approach is compared to the traditional KT evaluations by KT practitioners themselves of the compliance or non-compliance of individual and organisational behaviour change. A Sociology of KT (SKT) is proposed to complement the applied and evaluative research practice of implementing planned action KT activities. The purpose of a SKT basic research agenda is to understand both the context-specific nature of KT interventions and the epistemological premises of the activities of KT implementers themselves, in order to advance the science of KT and inform, complement and add to the success of applied and evaluative KT research in the future.

  4. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Ahlstrom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices, and the construction of a theory of epistemic value.

  5. Epistemology, software engineering and formal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1994-01-01

    One of the most basic questions anyone can ask is, 'How do I know that what I think I know is true?' The study of this question is called epistemology. Traditionally, epistemology has been considered to be of legitimate interest only to philosophers, theologians, and three year old children who respond to every statement by asking, 'Why?' Software engineers need to be interested in the subject, however, because a lack of sufficient understanding of epistemology contributes to many of the current problems in the field.

  6. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  8. No longer lost in translation: the art and science of sports injury prevention implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F

    2011-12-01

    It is now understood that sports injury interventions will not have significant public health impact if they are not widely accepted and adopted by target sports participants. Although there has been increasing recognition of the need for intervention studies conducted within the real-world context of sports delivery, very few studies have been conducted in this important area. A major reason for this is that there are significant challenges in conducting implementation research; the more traditional sports medicine approaches may not be fully appropriate and new ways of thinking about how to design, conduct and report such research is needed. Moreover, real-world implementation of sports injury interventions and evaluation of their effectiveness needs to start to take into account the broad ecological context in which they are introduced, as well as considering the best way to translate this knowledge to reach the audiences who most need to benefit from such research. This overview paper provides perspectives and guidance on the design, conduct and evaluation of sports injury intervention implementation studies, including better understanding of the complexity of the ecological settings for intervention delivery. Some conceptual approaches that could be adopted in future implementation studies are discussed; particular emphasis is given to intervention mapping as a tool to assist intervention development, diffusion of innovations theory to guide the planning of intervention strategies and the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework for programme evaluation and programme design. Finally, a broad agenda for this emerging important field of sports medicine research is outlined.

  9. History, philosophy and science teaching new perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This anthology opens new perspectives in the domain of history, philosophy, and science teaching research. Its four sections are: first, science, culture and education; second, the teaching and learning of science; third, curriculum development and justification; and fourth, indoctrination. The first group of essays deal with the neglected topic of science education and the Enlightenment tradition. These essays show that many core commitments of modern science education have their roots in this tradition, and consequently all can benefit from a more informed awareness of its strengths and weaknesses. Other essays address research on leaning and teaching from the perspectives of social epistemology and educational psychology. Included here is the first ever English translation of Ernst Mach’s most influential 1890 paper on ‘The Psychological and Logical Moment in Natural Science Teaching’. This paper launched the influential Machian tradition in education. Other essays address concrete cases of the ...

  10. The central dogma, "GMO" and defective epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-10-02

    The expression "Genetically Modified Organisms" was coined to indicate a group of agricultural products (mostly crops and vegetables), modified through direct DNA recombination in order to obtain useful phenotypic traits or to inhibit undesirable characteristics. But the border between rDNA ("GMO") and other biotech methods is blurred. Moreover, the ill-assorted group is frequently charged with having peculiar, negative characteristics: many activists, part of the public and a few social science scholars think that "GMOs" are all dubious, even inherently dangerous. However, theoretical justifications of this alleged problematic nature which is supposed to be necessarily linked to the "splicing" of DNA, only when applied to agricultural products, are missing: the only text which tries to go in depth on the subject, an article by biologist Barry Commoner, takes aim at the wrong target, misunderstanding the Central Dogma. "GMO" is a term that has no clear reference, let alone in a detrimental sense. The only attempt to give it epistemological dignity fails.

  11. THE ETHICS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON EXERCISE AND MOVEMENT SCIENCE (English translated version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Aragón-Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews how we arrived at the current state of affairs in the ethical practice of scientific research, discussing some issues that are particularly pertinent to the exercise scientist. The paper focuses on two major areas of ethics in science. The ethical principles for biomedical research involving human subjects are presented and discussed using the three basic principles from the Belmont Report (autonomy, beneficence, and justice as a guide. The ethical presentation and publication of data are discussed as an update or expanded comment on the ten topics covered by Roy Shephard in his Ethics in Exercise Science Research paper from 2002. The manuscript closes with a reflection on personal responsibility and its importance in every scientific endeavor: placing all responsibility for action on those scientists or physicians doing the experiments was not sufficient to prevent all types of human research abuses in the first half of the twentieth century. However, intricate and cumbersome external review and approval procedures generate the perception that the system should be more than enough to ensure good practices, a perception that may dangerously prevent the scientists from assuming their individual responsibility.

  12. Financial accounting: an epistemological research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schiehll

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research note is the result of the authors' reflections on epistemological issues in respect to the financial accounting field. From an epistemological perspective, this document attempts to trace the philosophical, historical, sociological, and discursive research perspectives that have guided academic research in the field of financial accounting. In order to do so, this document explores the distinctions and connections between accounting theory and accounting practice, which we believe is the first step towards understanding accounting as a scientific discipline. We analyze the theories underpinning financial accounting research, discussing its purposes, historic evolution, and scientific methods used. This document also discuss the sociological and discursive contexts of financial accounting in order to demonstrate that, like every other social science, accounting research is based upon assumptions about the nature of it players, or social networks. This document does not have the pretension to cover or close the discussion about all the pitfalls of this complex topic. In this sense, we try to document our analysis and draw some arguments in order to offer evidence for further discussion.Este ensaio teórico é resultado de reflexões dos autores acerca de questões epistemológicas sobre a contabilidade financeira. Através de uma perspectiva epistemológica, este trabalho busca traçar perspectivas filosóficas, históricas, sociológicas e discursivas que guiaram a pesquisa acadêmica na área da contabilidade financeira. Para isso, exploram-se as similaridades e diferenças entre a teoria e a prática contábil, pois esse é o primeiro para a compreensão da contabilidade como disciplina científica. Analisam-se as teorias que suportam a pesquisa em contabilidade financeira, discutindo seu propósito, evolução histórica e métodos científicos utilizados. O presente trabalho também discute os contextos sociológicos e

  13. Regenerative dentistry: translating advancements in basic science research to the dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Murray, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. This review provides an assessment of how tissue engineering, stem cell, genetic transfer, biomaterial and growth factor therapies can be integrated into clinical dental therapies to restore and regenerate oral tissues. In parallel to the creation of a new field in general medicine called "regenerative medicine," we call this field "regenerative dentistry." While the problems of introducing regenerative therapies are substantial, the potential benefits to patients and the profession are equally ground-breaking. In this review, we outline a few areas of interest for the future of oral and dental medicine in which advancements in basic science have already been adapted to fit the goals of 21st century dentistry.

  14. Bridging basic science and clinical research: the EASL Monothematic Conference on Translational Research in Viral Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, Tobias; Moradpour, Darius; Thimme, Robert; Zoulim, Fabien

    2014-09-01

    The EASL Monothematic Conference on Translational Research in Viral Hepatitis brought together a group of leading scientists and clinicians working on both, basic and clinical aspects of viral hepatitis, thereby building bridges from bench to bedside. This report recapitulates the presentations and discussions at the conference held in Lyon, France on November 29-30, 2013. In recent years, great advances have been made in the field of viral hepatitis, particularly in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The identification of IL28B genetic polymorphisms as a major determinant for spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV clearance was a seminal discovery. Currently, hepatologists are at the doorstep of even greater advances, with the advent of a wealth of directly acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV. Indeed, promising results have accumulated over the last months and few years, showing sustained virological response (SVR) rates of up to 100% with interferon-free DAA combination therapies. Thus, less than 25 years after its identification, HCV infection may soon be curable in the vast majority of patients, highlighting the great success of HCV research over the last decades. However, viral hepatitis and its clinical complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain major global challenges. New therapeutic strategies to tackle hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection are needed, as current therapies have undeniable limitations. Nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUC) can efficiently control HBV replication and reduce or even reverse liver damage. However, these drugs have to be given for indefinite periods in most patients to maintain virological and biochemical responses. Although sustained responses off treatment can be achieved by treatment with (pegylated) interferon-α, only about 10-30% of patients effectively resolve chronic hepatitis B. It was the goal of this conference to review the progress made over the last

  15. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then ske......The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative...... is then sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices...

  16. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  18. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  19. Virginia Woolf's Literary Aesthetics: The Epistemological Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Bartkuvienė, Linara

    2012-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the epistemological aspect of Virginia Woolf‘s literary aethetics. The research problem of the thesis is an attempt at the conceptualization of the nature of knowledge in Woolf‘s writing and Bertrand Russell‘s philosophy. Methodologically and theoretically, the semantic relationship between Woolf‘s aesthetics and Russell‘s epistemology is closely examined within the framework of the history of ideas. The thesis arrives at the conclusion that Woolf‘s understanding of real...

  20. Gender and Criminological Thought: Perspectives From a Feminist Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássius Guimarães Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to analyze, from a feminist epistemological framework and approach, the role of Criminology in the production and reproduction of power relationship, studying how women were perceived in their different schools of criminological thought, understanding that the adoption of gender as a category of analysis contributes to the production of a wider knowledge in this science, unveiling the invisibility of women's relationships towards to crime and to the Penal System. The methodology consists of a literature reviewing that crosses several disciplines, such as history, sociology, criminology and feminist theories.

  1. Towards an epistemological basis for andragogy in midwifery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E

    1991-04-01

    In designing the curriculum for pre and post registration midwifery courses, the author has utilised an andragogical model. This term refers to the art and science of teaching adults (Knowles 1978). The ideas that Knowles (1978) put forward about andragogy while not new, have been implemented in adult education and are certainly relevant to the modern practice of midwifery education. The aim of this paper is to examine the two extreme philosophical views about the nature of man and to provide an epistemological basis for andragogy in midwifery education.

  2. Epistemological Anarchy and the Many Forms of Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David R.

    Constructivism has become an important referent for research and practice in science education. A variety of more or less divergent forms of constructivism have developed: discussion between these is occasionally heated. Six such forms are briefly described in order to provide an overview of the field of constructivist theory. A scheme for characterising constructivist writing on the basis of its relative emphasis on (a) personal versus social construction of knowledge and (b) objectivist versus relativist views of the nature of science is suggested. Issues of theory creation and reflexivity, central to constructivist practice, are discussed. It is suggested that debate about the "best" form of constructivism is counterproductive. A more powerful approach to epistemology is that described by Feyerabend, the holding in dialectical tension of a variety of incompatible perspectives: The following essay is written in the conviction that anarchism, while perhaps not the most attractive political philosophy, is certainly excellent medicine for epistemology, and for the philosophy of science (Feyerabend, 1975, 17, italics in original).

  3. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: Developing NEON's Online Learning Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Gram, W.; Goehring, L.

    2014-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be collecting data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, integrating big data into the university courses is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data, may warrant time and resources that present a barrier to classroom integration. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, teaching resources, in the form of demonstrative illustrations, and other supporting media that might help teach key data concepts, take time to find and more time to develop. Available resources are often spread widely across multi-online spaces. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. Portal content will include 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON data products including collection methods, key metadata to consider and consideration of potential error and uncertainty surrounding data analysis; and 2) packaged "lab" activities that include supporting data to be used in an ecology, biology or earth science classroom. To facilitate broad use in classrooms, lab activities will take advantage of freely and commonly available processing tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with existing labs and organizations.

  4. The Value of Information: Normativity, Epistemology, and LIS in Luciano Floridi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a critical reconstruction of Luciano Floridi's view of librarianship as "stewardship of a semantic environment," a view that is at odds with the dominant tradition in which library and information science (LIS) is understood as social epistemology. Floridi's work helps to explain the normative dimensions of librarianship in…

  5. Making of epistemologically sophisticated physics teachers: A cross-sequential study of epistemological progression from preservice to in-service teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Zhang, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature on learners' epistemological beliefs about physics has almost exclusively focused on analysis of university classroom instruction and its effects on students' views. However, little is known about other populations or factors other than classroom instruction on learners' epistemologies. In this study, we used a cross-sequential method, combining both longitudinal and cross-sectional designs, to investigate an epistemological progression trend from preservice to in-service teachers. Six cohorts of participants were studied, who either were then attending or had completed an undergraduate teacher preparation program in physics at a major Chinese university. These cohorts were incoming freshmen, end-of-year freshmen, end-of-year sophomores, end-of-year juniors, end-of-year seniors, and 1st-year high school physics teachers who were about to enter the 2nd year of teaching. We used the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) as both a pretest and a post-test to gauge the changes in the participants' epistemological views over an entire academic year. Follow-up interviews were also conducted to explore factors responsible for such changes. Results showed that the epistemological trend as measured by CLASS did not increase monotonically. Instead, there was a decrease in the epistemological trend among the incoming freshmen in their first year undergraduate studies, followed by a long stasis until the end of the senior year. Then, there was a rebound for the end-of-year seniors in their 1st year of teaching, followed by another plateau. Interviews revealed that the competitive learning environment, increased content difficulty, and unfamiliar pedagogies in college were major factors that negatively influenced incoming freshmen's views about physics. Conversely, a role change from student to teacher and relatively easy content in high school positively impacted end-of-year seniors' views about physics and learning.

  6. Making of epistemologically sophisticated physics teachers: A cross-sequential study of epistemological progression from preservice to in-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ding

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous literature on learners’ epistemological beliefs about physics has almost exclusively focused on analysis of university classroom instruction and its effects on students’ views. However, little is known about other populations or factors other than classroom instruction on learners’ epistemologies. In this study, we used a cross-sequential method, combining both longitudinal and cross-sectional designs, to investigate an epistemological progression trend from preservice to in-service teachers. Six cohorts of participants were studied, who either were then attending or had completed an undergraduate teacher preparation program in physics at a major Chinese university. These cohorts were incoming freshmen, end-of-year freshmen, end-of-year sophomores, end-of-year juniors, end-of-year seniors, and 1st-year high school physics teachers who were about to enter the 2nd year of teaching. We used the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS as both a pretest and a post-test to gauge the changes in the participants’ epistemological views over an entire academic year. Follow-up interviews were also conducted to explore factors responsible for such changes. Results showed that the epistemological trend as measured by CLASS did not increase monotonically. Instead, there was a decrease in the epistemological trend among the incoming freshmen in their first year undergraduate studies, followed by a long stasis until the end of the senior year. Then, there was a rebound for the end-of-year seniors in their 1st year of teaching, followed by another plateau. Interviews revealed that the competitive learning environment, increased content difficulty, and unfamiliar pedagogies in college were major factors that negatively influenced incoming freshmen’s views about physics. Conversely, a role change from student to teacher and relatively easy content in high school positively impacted end-of-year seniors’ views about physics and

  7. Translational plant proteomics: A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic

  8. Community Advisory Boards Guiding Engaged Research Efforts within a Clinical Translational Sciences Award: Key Contextual Factors Explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Jacqueline R; Donahue, Katrina E; Sleath, Betsy; Reuland, Dan; Black, Adina; Mitchell, C Madeline; Breland, Carol E; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Mottus, Kathleen; Watson, Sable Noelle; Lewis, Virginia; Wynn, Mysha; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    Engaging stakeholders in research carries the promise of enhancing the research relevance, transparency, and speed of getting findings into practice. By describing the context and functional aspects of stakeholder groups, like those working as community advisory boards (CABs), others can learn from these experiences and operationalize their own CABs. Our objective is to describe our experiences with diverse CABs affiliated with our community engagement group within our institution's Clinical Translational Sciences Award (CTSA). We identify key contextual elements that are important to administering CABs. A group of investigators, staff, and community members engaged in a 6-month collaboration to describe their experiences of working with six research CABs. We identified the key contextual domains that illustrate how CABS are developed and sustained. Two lead authors, with experience with CABs and identifying contextual domains in other work, led a team of 13 through the process. Additionally, we devised a list of key tips to consider when devising CABs. The final domains include (1) aligned missions among stakeholders (2) resources/support, (3) defined operational processes/shared power, (4) well-described member roles, and (5) understanding and mitigating challenges. The tips are a set of actions that support the domains. Identifying key contextual domains was relatively easy, despite differences in the respective CAB's condition of focus, overall mission, or patient demographics represented. By contextualizing these five domains, other research and community partners can take an informed approach to move forward with CAB planning and engaged research.

  9. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  10. From Subordination to Hegemony On the Epistemological Legitimation of Mathematics in Natural Philosophy of XVII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ochoa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the epistemological legitimation of mathematics in natural philosophy in the seventeenth century. In the Renaissance it was claimed that mathematics does not meet the Aristotelian criteria of scientificity, and that it did not explain the efficient and final causes. So, its critics, inspired by the Aristotelian tradition, rejected the first attempts to mathematize natural philosophy. The epistemological conditions involved in the debate are examined on the scientific nature of mathematics and its relevance to natural philosophy. A historiographical tour of the mathematization of nature is made to provide new weighing elements with respect to a historically and philosophically more conceptual characterization of the emergence of modern science.

  11. A history of gravity: An introduction to the epistemology of Paul Feyerabend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Danilo Miranda

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this work is to show an historical introduction to epistemology of Paul Feyerabend and the importance of his concept of epistemological anarchism for education.Feyerabend defended that different and even contradictory theories must be used in education, this multiplicity of possible explanations for natural phenomena is important to express the real development of science.There are many different explanations for the fall of bodies, since the "natural places" in Aristotle until the Newtonian Gravitation or the General Relativity. The contact with many different explanations has as important contribution for the learning of Astronomy.

  12. Computer epistemology a treatise on the feasibility of the unfeasible or old ideas brewed new

    CERN Document Server

    Vámos, Tibor

    1991-01-01

    This book is an essay on relevant problems of epistemology (the theory of knowledge) related to computer science. It draws a continuous line between the earliest scientific approaches of epistemology, starting with the Greek Classics and the recent practical and theoretical problems of computer modelling, and by that the appropriate application of computers to our present problems. Uncertainty, logic and language are the key issues of this road leading to some new aspects of cognitive psychology and unification of the different results for a modelling procedure. The book is not a textbook but

  13. Examining Prospective Pre-School and Biology Teachers’ Metacognitive Awareness and Epistemological Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    BEDEL, Emine Ferda; ÇAKIR, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe prospective pre-school and biology teachers’ level of metacognitive awareness and epistemological beliefs and to examine differences between the groups. The total of 286 pre-school and biology teacher candidates participated in the study. Participants were asked to complete the central epistemological beliefs questionnaire which consisted of four sub-scales namely: belief in science as a source of knowledge, belief in rational society, belief in s...

  14. Investigating learners' epistemological framings of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Vesal

    Classical mechanics challenges students to use their intuitions and experiences as a basis for understanding, in effect to approach learning as "a refinement of everyday thinking'' (Einstein, 1936). Moving on to quantum mechanics (QM), students, like physicists, need to adjust this approach, in particular with respect to the roles that intuitive knowledge and mathematics play in the pursuit of coherent understanding (these are adjustments to aspects of their epistemologies). In this dissertation, I explore how some students manage the epistemological transition. I began this work by recruiting both graduate and undergraduate students, interviewing each subject several times as they moved through coursework in QM. The interviews featured, among other things, how students tried to fit ideas together in mutually consistent ways, including with respect to intuitive knowledge, mathematics and experiment, if at all. I modeled these dynamic cognitive processes as different epistemological framings (i.e., tacit, in-the-moment responses to the question "How should I approach knowledge?''). Through detailed qualitative analyses of students' reasoning and a systematic coding of their interviews, I explored how these coherence seeking related framings impacted their learning. The dissertation supports three main findings: (1) students' patterns of epistemological framing are mostly stable within a given course; (2) students who profess epistemologies aligned with the coordination of coherence seeking framings tend to be more stable in demonstrating them; and (3) students aware that their understanding of QM ultimately anchors in its mathematics tend to produce more coherent explanations and perform better in their courses. These findings are consistent with existing research on student epistemologies in QM and imply that epistemologies, in particular whether and how students seek coherence, require greater attention and emphasis in instruction.

  15. DIY-Bio - economic, epistemological and ethical implications and ambivalences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulartz, Jozef; van den Belt, Henk

    2016-12-01

    Since 2008, we witness the emergence of the Do-It-Yourself Biology movement, a global movement spreading the use of biotechnology beyond traditional academic and industrial institutions and into the lay public. Practitioners include a broad mix of amateurs, enthusiasts, students, and trained scientists. At this moment, the movement counts nearly 50 local groups, mostly in America and Europe, but also increasingly in Asia. Do-It-Yourself Bio represents a direct translation of hacking culture and practicesfrom the realm of computers and software into the realm of genes and cells. Although the movement is still in its infancy, and it is even unclear whether it will ever reach maturity, the contours of a new paradigm of knowledge production are already becoming visible. We will subsequently sketch the economic, the epistemological and the ethical profile of Do-It-Yourself Bio, and discuss its implications and also its ambivalences.

  16. Translating Biotechnology to Knowledge-Based Innovation, Peace, and Development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps—An Open Letter to World Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, Alaa H.; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O.; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S.; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.; Karaömerlioğlu, M. Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Şardaş, Semra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of “one health”—encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health—thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21st century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21st century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed

  17. Translating biotechnology to knowledge-based innovation, peace, and development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps--an open letter to world leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekim, Nezih; Coşkun, Yavuz; Sınav, Ahmet; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Karaömerlioğlu, M Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Sardaş, Şemra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit; Özdemir, Vural

    2014-07-01

    Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of "one health"--encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health--thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21(st) century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21(st) century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed, "nearly

  18. Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting–activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally—and perhaps historically—related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease. PMID

  19. Chinese medicine: a cognitive and epistemological review*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Ben

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting-activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally-and perhaps historically-related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease.

  20. Kritik Epistemologi Islam dalam Islamologi Terapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Anshori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses critique of Islamic epistemology within applied Islamology. The writer concludes that Islamic epistemology is an episteme which has been originally derived from Islamic doctrines. It can be obtained through a number of methods. The first method is revelation, which has an absolute truth. The second way is reason, which becomes a potency blessed by God to all humankind. Through impressions, which are attained by the five senses, the reason uses them as source of contemplation to draw conclusions. This episteme contains, however, a relative truth. The third method is kashfî. This episteme is also named as ‘irfanî episteme, which had successfully grown within Sufism tradition where the source of knowledge is experience, namely al-ru’yat al-mubâshirah (direct experience. The last mentioned episteme is founded on the dichotomy between exoteric and esoteric aspects where the hierarchy of esoteric knowledge is higher than the exoteric ones as the first possesses divine basis. The critique of Islamic epistemology within applied Islamology is oriented towards the domination of scientific epistemology or modern epistemology, which recognizes positivism or scientific knowledge as the sole method employed by the modern people to gain knowledge. The fundamental difference between the scientific-rational episteme and the Islamic episteme rests within each worldview.

  1. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Molan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the concepts of epistemological beliefs, training motivation and the actual participation in the workplace training. We predicted that epistemological beliefs would have an effect on training motivation and actual participation on the workplace training and that there would be a positive relationship between the concepts, meaning that the more sophisticated epistemological beliefs would lead to higher motivation and participation. To test the epistemological beliefs, the Epistemic Belief Inventory (Schraw, Bendixen & Dunkle, 2002 was used and adjusted to the workplace setting. Then the results were compared to employees’ training motivation, which was measured with a questionnaire made by authors of the present study, and employees’ actual number of training hours annually. The results confirmed the relationship between the concepts as well as a significant predicting value of epistemological beliefs on motivation and actual participation. Epistemic Belief Inventory did not yield expected results reported by the authors of the instrument therefore the limitations, possible other interpretations and suggested further exploration are discussed.

  2. Ontological and Epistemological Issues Regarding Climate Models and Computer Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezer, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent philosophical discussions (Parker 2009; Frigg and Reiss 2009; Winsberg, 2009; Morgon 2002, 2003, 2005; Gula 2002) about the ontology of computer simulation experiments and the epistemology of inferences drawn from them are of particular relevance to climate science as computer modeling and analysis are instrumental in understanding climatic systems. How do computer simulation experiments compare with traditional experiments? Is there an ontological difference between these two methods of inquiry? Are there epistemological considerations that result in one type of inference being more reliable than the other? What are the implications of these questions with respect to climate studies that rely on computer simulation analysis? In this paper, I examine these philosophical questions within the context of climate science, instantiating concerns in the philosophical literature with examples found in analysis of global climate change. I concentrate on Wendy Parker’s (2009) account of computer simulation studies, which offers a treatment of these and other questions relevant to investigations of climate change involving such modelling. Two theses at the center of Parker’s account will be the focus of this paper. The first is that computer simulation experiments ought to be regarded as straightforward material experiments; which is to say, there is no significant ontological difference between computer and traditional experimentation. Parker’s second thesis is that some of the emphasis on the epistemological importance of materiality has been misplaced. I examine both of these claims. First, I inquire as to whether viewing computer and traditional experiments as ontologically similar in the way she does implies that there is no proper distinction between abstract experiments (such as ‘thought experiments’ as well as computer experiments) and traditional ‘concrete’ ones. Second, I examine the notion of materiality (i.e., the material commonality between

  3. Models of Interinstitutional Partnerships between Research Intensive Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) across the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Alecia; Norris, Keith; Verbalis, Joseph G.; Poland, Russell; Bernard, Gordon; Stephens, David S.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Imperato‐McGinley, Julianne; Dottin, Robert P.; Pulley, Jill; West, Andrew; Brown, Arleen; Mellman, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Health disparities are an immense challenge to American society. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) housed within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) are designed to accelerate the translation of experimental findings into clinically meaningful practices and bring new therapies to the doorsteps of all patients. Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) program at the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) are designed to build capacity for biomedical research and training at minority serving institutions. The CTSA created a mechanism fostering formal collaborations between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) supported by the RCMI program. These consortium‐level collaborations activate unique translational research approaches to reduce health disparities with credence to each academic institutions history and unique characteristics. Five formal partnerships between research intensive universities and MSI have formed as a result of the CTSA and RCMI programs. These partnerships present a multifocal approach; shifting cultural change and consciousness toward addressing health disparities, and training the next generation of minority scientists. This collaborative model is based on the respective strengths and contributions of the partnering institutions, allowing bidirectional interchange and leveraging NIH and institutional investments providing measurable benchmarks toward the elimination of health disparities. PMID:24119157

  4. Indonesian teachers' epistemological beliefs and inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto; Kaye, Helen; Rofiah, Khofidotur

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of children with intellectual disabilities attend inclusive schools in Indonesia. Previous research has suggested that teachers' type of school and experience influences their beliefs about inclusive education. This research collected questionnaire data from 267 Indonesian teachers and compared the responses from those working in inclusive, special and regular schools regarding their epistemological and pedagogical beliefs. The results showed that teachers in inclusive schools expressed stronger social constructivist beliefs than those in other schools. However, it was teachers' epistemological beliefs, rather than their type of school or experience, which were the significant predictor of their beliefs about inclusive education. The findings suggest that international epistemological research needs to have a more nuanced view of constructivist models of learning to better understand and inform how inclusive pedagogy is being enacted in different contexts.

  5. EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS AND METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES OF ELT PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS IN DISTANCE AND FORMAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral GUVEN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The epistemological beliefs in learning process have been investigated from different aspects in relation with many variables in literature. Such beliefs are defined as individuals’ beliefs regarding knowledge and learning. As another related, popular concept, the metacognitive strategies are identified as the strategies used to control the process of obtaining knowledge. Thus, it is seen that both of them are employed to make learning more effective. Within this framework, the aim of the present study was to determine the epistemological beliefs and metacognitive strategies of the pre-service teachers in the distance and formal education English Language Teaching program and to investigate whether there was any difference/ were any differences between them. To collect data, “Epistemological Belief Scale” developed by Schommer (1990 and translated and validated by Deryakulu and Büyüköztürk (2002 and “Metacognitive Strategy Inventory” which was adapted for university students by Yıldız, Akpınar and Ergin (2006 were used. Then through the descriptive method they were analyzed. As a result of study, it was determined that there was a significant relationship between the epistemological beliefs and metacognitive strategy use of ELT pre-service teachers in both formal and distance education programs.

  6. Policies, activities, and structures supporting research mentoring: a national survey of academic health centers with clinical and translational science awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Robert E; Jang, Susan; Abedin, Zainab; Richards, Boyd F; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    To document the frequency of policies and activities in support of mentoring practices at institutions receiving a U.S. National Institutes of Health's Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). The study consisted of a 69-item survey with questions about the inclusion (formal or informal) of policies, activities, and structures supporting mentoring within CTSA-sponsored research (i.e., KL2 programs) and, more broadly, in the CTSA's home institution. The survey, conducted from November 2010 through January 2011, was sent to the 55 institutions awarded CTSAs at the time of the survey. Follow-up phone interviews were conducted to clarify responses as needed. Fifty-one of 55 (92%) institutions completed the survey for institutional programs and 53 of 55 (96%) for KL2 programs. Responses regarding policies and activities involving mentor criteria, mentor-mentee relationship, incentives, and evaluative mechanisms revealed considerable variability between KL2 and institutional programs in some areas, such as having mentor qualification criteria and processes to evaluate mentors. The survey also identified areas, such as training and women and minority mentoring programs, where there was frequent sharing of activities between the institutional and KL2 programs. KL2 programs and institutional programs tend to have different preferences for policies versus activities to optimize qualification of mentors, the mentor-mentee relationship, incentives, and evaluation mechanisms. Frequently, these elements are informal. Individuals in charge of implementing and maintaining mentoring initiatives can use the results of the study to consider their current mentoring policies, structures, and activities by comparing them with national patterns within CTSA institutions.

  7. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  8. Large-Scale Survey of Chinese Precollege Students' Epistemological Beliefs about Physics: A Progression or a Regression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Ding, Lin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a cross-grade comparative study of Chinese precollege students' epistemological beliefs about physics by using the Colorado Learning Attitudes Survey about Sciences (CLASS). Our students of interest are middle and high schoolers taking traditional lecture-based physics as a mandatory science course each year from the 8th grade…

  9. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  10. Carl Ludwig's (1847) and Pavel Petrovich Einbrodt's (1860) physiological research and its implications for modern cardiovascular science: translator's notes relating to the English translation of two seminal papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jochen; Lohff, Brigitte; Dittmer, Janke Jörn

    2014-08-01

    Respiratory interactions with the heart have remained a challenging physiological phenomenon since their discovery more than two hundred and fifty years ago. In the course of translating the seminal publications of Carl Ludwig and his disciple Pavel Petrovich Einbrodt into English, we became aware of some under-appreciated aspects of their work that contain useful insights into the history of the phenomenon now called respiratory arrhythmia. Ludwig observed arrhythmic effects of respiratory movements in experiments on dogs and horses and published his findings in 1847. He subsequently undertook further work on this problem, together with Einbrodt. Already in 1847 Ludwig had mentioned an exciting observation on the possible role of mechanical factors of the respiratory movements on the action of the heart in a dog in whom he had artificially induced bouts of coughing. Einbrodt decided to systematically develop methods to increase or decrease the pressure of the air the animal had to breathe. He observed that this procedure led to a greater or lesser degree of compression or decompression of all the organs in the thoracic cavity without apparently causing harmful consequences during the time of its application. How the mechanical influence of breathing affects cardiac activity during respiratory arrhythmia has been the subject of scientific discussions and controversies over a period of more than 150 years and is still unresolved. Recent publications suggest that cardiac mechano-electrical coupling plays an important role in the emergence of cardio-respiratory interdependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  12. The Implications of Feyerabend's Epistemological Approach for Educational Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadikolaei, Elham Shirvani; Sajjadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Epistemology is defined as theory of knowledge and the ways of achieving it. Epistemology is research questions of the possibility of knowledge and the riddle of knowledge. Epistemology and methodology despite being interconnected are inseparable and are not reducible from each other. In addition, their relationship is direct, meaning that…

  13. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  14. Students' General and Physics Epistemological Beliefs: A Twofold Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Sengul-Turgut, Gulsen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although research on epistemological beliefs has expanded over the past two decades, there are still some issues that need to be explored, such as whether epistemological beliefs are domain general or domain specific. Purpose: One of the purposes of this research was to determine if high school students' general epistemological beliefs…

  15. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  16. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Organizational Epistemology, Education and Social Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2007-01-01

    Organizational learning or epistemology has emerged in order to manage the creation of knowledge and innovation within contemporary capitalism. Its insights are being applied also to the public sector. Much of the research in organizational learning has drawn upon the discipline of psychology, particularly constructivist theory. Two approaches in…

  18. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    field of study which is concerned with the control and communication in animal and ... process upon which cybernetics is based has proved enormous, and over the ... the epistemological implications deriving from the Cybernetic perspective. .... the manner in which we conceive of organisations and their contexts has so.

  19. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to build machines upon the principles which characterise organisms, and another which follows the epistemological implications deriving from the cybernetic perspective. The former line of development has given rise to a number of theories and techniques, which facilitate the achievement of regulation and control in social ...

  20. Globalization, Post-modernity and Epistemological Imperialism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge is crucial to the march of globalization but as globalization from national financial systems, this study identifies steps that Africa could adopt to confront epistemological imperialism. Keywords: Globalization; Post-modernity; Political Economy. International Journal of Educational Research Vol. 4 (1) 2008: pp. 183- ...

  1. Social behavioural epistemology and the scientific community

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MILIND WATVE

    2017-07-20

    Jul 20, 2017 ... Keywords. epistemology; paradigm shift; peer review bias; evolutionary psychology. Introduction ... process and the other is the community's reactions to a published finding that ..... abandoned the hypothesis and stopped all actions founded ... before a person becomes consciously aware of the urge to act.

  2. Gorgias' Rhetoric: Epistemology, Doxa, and Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory T.

    Gorgias' rhetoric can be explained in three parts: his sensory-based but non-empirical epistemology; his definitions of language as inherently deceptive and of "doxa" as the only "knowledge" communicable; and his antithetical style, which reproduces the necessary negotiation of understanding in the world. Gorgias' epistemology…

  3. Anti-Luck (Too Weak) Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    I argue that Duncan Pritchard’s anti-luck virtue epistemology is insufficient for knowledge. I show that Pritchard fails to achieve the aim that motivates his adoption of a virtue-theoretic condition in the first place: to guarantee the appropriate direction of fit that known beliefs have. Finally...

  4. PERKEMBANGAN PARADIGMA EPISTEMOLOGI DALAM FILSAFAT ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathul Mufid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:    Based on historical reports, Islamic epistemology paradigm has evolved from time to time bringing different schools each other. This paper aims at revealing such differences. Methods employed are philosophical Literary Review where compiled data are analyzed inductively to formulate theoretical constructions. Research findings reveal that peripatetic philosophers highlight their mind as a dominant tool to gain knowledge using demonstrative method (burhānī.Whilst illuminative philosophers, ‘irfāniyyīn, and Sufis believe that knowledge can only be derived from mystical intuition after purification of the heart (qalb trough practices (riyā╨ah. Different schools such as ones held by Mulla Sadra and Abed al-Jabiri are based on those distinctive principles.Abstrak:      Paradigma epistemologi pemikiran Islam menurut laporan sejarah mengalami perkembangan dari zaman ke zaman, yang berbeda prinsip antara aliran yang satu dengan yang lain. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menguak letak perbedaan antara aliran-aliran tersebut. Metode kepustakaan filsafat dilakukan dengan analisa data induktif untuk merumuskan konstruksi teoritik.  Temuan penelitian ini adalah, bahwa para filosof Muslim Paripatetik mengedepankan akal atau rasio sebagai alat yang paling dominan untuk memperoleh pengetahuan yang benar dengan menggunakan metode demonstratif (burhānī. Sementara filosof iluminasi, kaum ‘irfānī, dan kaum sufi berprinsip bahwa pengetahuan hakiki hanya dapat diperoleh melalui intuisi-mistik, setelah melalui proses penyucian hati (qalb dengan berbagai bentuk latihan (riyā╨ah. Sementara epistemologi Mulla Sadra menggunakan tipe “hikmah”, yaitu pemaduan antara visi rasional dengan visi mistik, yang kemudian diselaraskan dengan syari’at. Epistemolog kontemporer, Abed al-Jabiri memilih epistemologi burhānī yang meyakini bahwa sumber pengetahuan adalah rasio, bukan teks atau intuisi.

  5. Teaching Translational Research to Medical Students: The New York University School of Medicine's Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation Dual‐Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, Michael; Plottel, Claudia S.; Galeano, Claudia; Maddalo, Scott; Hochman, Judith S.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Gold‐von Simson, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To develop the next generation of translational investigators, New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the NYU‐NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation Clinical and Translational Science Institute (NYU‐HHC CTSI) developed the Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation dual‐degree (MD/MSCI) program. This 5‐year program dedicates 1 year to coursework and biomedical research, followed by a medical school/research overlap year, to prepare students for academic research careers. This paper details the MD/MSCI program's curriculum and approach to mentorship, describes the research/professional interests of students, and reports student productivity. In the first 4 years of the program (2010–2014) 20 students were matriculated; 7 (35%) were women, and 12 (60%) research projects were in surgical specialties. To date, 14 students have applied to residency, and half pursued surgical residency programs. Our students have produced 68 accepted abstracts, 15 abstracts in submission, 38 accepted papers, and 24 papers in submission. Despite the time‐limited nature of this program, additional training in research design and implementation has promoted a high level of productivity. We conclude that dual‐degree training in medicine and translational research is feasible for medical students and allows for meaningful participation in valuable projects. Follow‐up is warranted to evaluate the academic trajectory of these students. PMID:26365704

  6. Teaching Translational Research to Medical Students: The New York University School of Medicine's Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation Dual-Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Jennifer; Pillinger, Michael; Plottel, Claudia S; Galeano, Claudia; Maddalo, Scott; Hochman, Judith S; Cronstein, Bruce N; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2015-12-01

    To develop the next generation of translational investigators, New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the NYU-NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation Clinical and Translational Science Institute (NYU-HHC CTSI) developed the Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation dual-degree (MD/MSCI) program. This 5-year program dedicates 1 year to coursework and biomedical research, followed by a medical school/research overlap year, to prepare students for academic research careers. This paper details the MD/MSCI program's curriculum and approach to mentorship, describes the research/professional interests of students, and reports student productivity. In the first 4 years of the program (2010-2014) 20 students were matriculated; 7 (35%) were women, and 12 (60%) research projects were in surgical specialties. To date, 14 students have applied to residency, and half pursued surgical residency programs. Our students have produced 68 accepted abstracts, 15 abstracts in submission, 38 accepted papers, and 24 papers in submission. Despite the time-limited nature of this program, additional training in research design and implementation has promoted a high level of productivity. We conclude that dual-degree training in medicine and translational research is feasible for medical students and allows for meaningful participation in valuable projects. Follow-up is warranted to evaluate the academic trajectory of these students. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Genetic Epistemology, History of Science and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Creso; Colinvaux-de-Dominguez, Dominique

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Piaget's and Garcia's work that examines the common features underlying individual and historical development. Presents criticism to Piaget's position and examines the possibility of overcoming the main problems of Piaget's approach within a Piagetian framework. Looks at the consequences of the relationship between individual and…

  8. Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Medicina Translacional (INCT-TM: abordagens metodológicas National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM: advancing the field of translational medicine and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. C. Hallak

    2010-03-01

    , translational research offers an opportunity for applying the findings obtained from basic research to every-day clinical applications. The National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is comprised of six member institutions (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade de São Paulo-Ribeirão Preto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina and a core facility that serves all centers. The objectives of the project are divided into four areas: Institutional, Research, Human Resources and Technology for the Community and Productive Sector. METHOD: In this manuscript, we describe some of the approaches used to attain the main objectives of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine, which include the development of 1 animal models for bipolar disorder; 2 strategies to investigate neurobehavioral function and cognitive dysfunction associated with brain disorders; 3 experimental models of brain function and behavior, neuropsychiatric disorders, cell proliferation, and cancer; 4 Simulated Public Speaking and 5 Virtual reality simulation for inducing panic disorder and agoraphobia. CONCLUSION: The main focus of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is the development of more useful methods that allow for a better application of basic research-based knowledge to the medical field.

  9. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  10. Epistemologi Anarkhis Paul Feyerabend dan Implikasinya terhadap Pemikiran Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Faradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Islamic thought is trapped on the stagnancy of ideas. Such condition happens because the function of Islam changes, from an instrument for freedom to a rigid system of ideology. The similar pattern of change identified by Feyerabend also exists in the modern science. The similarity of the pattern inspired the writer to elaborate the concept of anarchy epistemology of Paul Feyerabend and its implication to the Islamic thought. This article uses philosophical hermeneutic  approach by Gadamer in investigating meaningful sense of Feyerabend thought. The conclusion of the study ends up with the importance of returning Islamic thought to the pluralistic environment  because Islam itself was not burn in a single thought but at least there are three epistemic patrons; Bayani, Burhani, and ‘Irfani.

  11. Life Sciences and Allied Fields: Indexes and Abstracts, Book Review Indexes, Serials Bibliographies, Translations. Bibliographic Series No. 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, D. Corinne

    The information sources for the life sciences and allied fields listed were selected from the holdings of the Arkansas University library. Citations include indexes and abstracts dealing with national and international literature in medicine, the biological sciences, environmental science, veterinary medicine, agriculture, botany, and zoology, as…

  12. Epistemology and Rosen's Modeling Relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Rosen's modeling relation is embedded in Popper's three worlds to provide an heuristic tool for model building and a guide for thinking about complex systems. The utility of this construct is demonstrated by suggesting a solution to the problem of pseudo science and a resolution of the famous Bohr-Einstein debates. A theory of bizarre systems is presented by an analogy with entangled particles of quantum mechanics. This theory underscores the poverty of present-day computational systems (e.g., computers) for creating complex and bizarre entities by distinguishing between mechanism and organism

  13. Positivism as classical epistemological framework of educational policy and school practice institutionalization in contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindomar Wessler Boneti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article consists of an epistemological reflection on educational policies in order to contribute to the Red Latinoamerica de Estudios Epistemológicos en Política Educativa (ReLePe debate. It is about to rescue the historical journey of the positivist position as classical epistemological framework of the educational policy institutionalization with regard to the implementation of educational action, with special focus to the set of rules, norms and values that conduct school activity. It is argued that these frameworks are constituted from two interconnected movements: historical construction of the epistemological frameworks of science and the Modern State that with the new mode of production, capitalism, gives rise to the second one: bourgeois movement of class distinction based on lifestyle. Thus, from the “Modern Reason”, it was outlined what may be regarded as a “model of civility”, becoming the epistemological framework and goal of achieving the educational policy institutionalization and school activity in contemporaneity.

  14. Typology reconfigured: from the metaphysics of essentialism to the epistemology of representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to encourage a reconfiguration of the discussion about typology in biology away from the metaphysics of essentialism and toward the epistemology of classifying natural phenomena for the purposes of empirical inquiry. First, I briefly review arguments concerning 'typological thinking', essentialism, species, and natural kinds, highlighting their predominantly metaphysical nature. Second, I use a distinction between the aims, strategies, and tactics of science to suggest how a shift from metaphysics to epistemology might be accomplished. Typological thinking can be understood as a scientific tactic that involves representing natural phenomena using idealizations and approximations, which facilitates explanation, investigation, and theorizing via abstraction and generalization. Third, a variety of typologies from different areas of biology are introduced to emphasize the diversity of this representational reasoning. One particular example is used to examine how there can be epistemological conflict between typology and evolutionary analysis. This demonstrates that alternative strategies of typological thinking arise due to the divergent explanatory goals of researchers working in different disciplines with disparate methodologies. I conclude with several research questions that emerge from an epistemological reconfiguration of typology.

  15. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM AS A SOLUTION TO RATIONALITY IN POSTNONCLASSICAL EPISTEMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Molokova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. In this article the epistemology is investigated in such direction of social thought as social constructivism. The occurrence and popularity of a socially-constructivist paradigm was preceded by polemic between defenders of orientation of a science on the objectivity, positions adhering positivistically- universalistic and their opponents defending positions relativism. In the centre of discussion of scientific community there were such important problems for philosophy, as search for scientific true; objectivity of scientific knowledge and a relative autonomy of a science; relativization scientific knowledge. Methodology. Features of modern constructivism − in a special sight at knowledge, in a new foreshortening of its consideration when it represents itself as the tool of maintenance of ability to live of an organism as integrity (the individual, social group, a society. The outstanding characteristics of constructivism are the new foreshortening of consideration of possibilities of social knowledge − as constituting element of human experience of an everyday life. Scientific novelty. The important point is studying of how the scientific knowledge influences life of people, changes and structures life of the person. As the knowledge does not correspond any more with the objective world by a reflexion principle, loses sense and a question on its conformity of a reality that removes stubborn problems of true, reliability, objectivity. Conclusions. Social constructivism creates new possibilities for studying a problem of true and connected with it epistemological procedures of understanding, an explanation, interpretation, allows to look at the nature of human knowledge differently. In modern scientific researches the wide circulation is received by idea of designed character social and cultural the validity. This idea is supported with conclusions of variety of interdisciplinary approaches (the general theory of systems, the

  16. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    immunosuppression sparing regimens allowing for immunomodulation and tolerance induction after VCA using a translational large animal model. A total of...group I animals died prematurely due to infectious complications related to high dose tacrolimus treatment. 2/3 animals that received sub...Immunomodulation, Chimerism, Costimulatory blockade, Belatacept, CTLA4-Ig, Large animal model 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  17. Ontology, Epistemology, and Teleology for Modeling and Simulation Philosophical Foundations for Intelligent M&S Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In this book, internationally recognized experts in philosophy of science, computer science, and modeling and simulation are contributing to the discussion on how ontology, epistemology, and teleology will contribute to enable the next generation of intelligent modeling and simulation applications. It is well understood that a simulation can provide the technical means to display the behavior of a system over time, including following observed trends to predict future possible states, but how reliable and trustworthy are such predictions? The questions about what we can know (ontology), how we gain new knowledge (epistemology), and what we do with this knowledge (teleology) are therefore illuminated from these very different perspectives, as each experts uses a different facet to look at these challenges. The result of bringing these perspectives into one book is a challenging compendium that gives room for a spectrum of challenges: from general philosophy questions, such as can we use modeling and simulation...

  18. Elementary epistemological features of machine intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of machine intelligence (MI) is useful for defining a common platform in both theoretical and applied artificial intelligence (AI). The goal of this paper is to set canonical definitions that can assist pragmatic research in both strong and weak AI. Described epistemological features of machine intelligence include relationship between intelligent behavior, intelligent and unintelligent machine characteristics, observable and unobservable entities and classification of in...

  19. MEMBANGUN EPISTEMOLOGI TAFSIR SUFI; (Intervensi Psikologi Mufassir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    habibi al amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jika kita telusuri literature – literature ‘ulu>m al-Qur’a>n maka kita sering mendapati bahwa epistemologi tafsir sufi lahir dari nafas sufisme. Namun demikian epistemologi sufi yang digunakan dalam penafsiran al-Qur’an tidak dapat lepas dari faktor kejiwaan. Hal Ini ditunjukkan dengan produk penafsiran yang berupa identitas perlambangan (alegorasi ayat-ayat Al-Qur’an dalam bentuk metafora jiwa suci yang diorientasikan menuju eksistensi Yang Maha Suci. Pengembangan struktur jiwa dalam sufi terbentuk melalui pengalaman-pengalaman yang kemudian digunakan untuk mengelaborasi makna di balik teks. Menariknya, kejiwaan para sufi yang dikelola melalui latihan-latihan olah jiwa (riya>d}ah kurang disentuh dan dikritisi sebagai sebuah bentuk epistemologi. Selain proses pengalaman kejiwaan, dalam memahami kalam ilahi para sufi tidak terlepas dari kaidah linguistik serta makna lahiriah dari ayat-ayat dan susunan gramatika. Mereka menjelaskan ayat dengan menembus batas-batas makna teks dan menyelami makna ayat dengan pengalaman dan doktrin mereka. Proses jelajah dan eksplorasi yang tertimbun dari makna lahir dalam studi ilmu tafsir masuk pada kajian takwil. Konsep umum tentang takwil dalam perspektif sufi merupakan pendekatan yang menanjak/transendensi/ s}u’u>di>, mengambil emanasi dari tanzi>l (ayat-ayat ilahiah yang bercorak menukik (imanensi/nuzuli.

  20. Recognizing tacit knowledge in medical epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based medicine movement advocates basing all medical decisions on certain types of quantitative research data and has stimulated protracted controversy and debate since its inception. Evidence-based medicine presupposes an inaccurate and deficient view of medical knowledge. Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge both explains this deficiency and suggests remedies for it. Polanyi shows how all explicit human knowledge depends on a wealth of tacit knowledge which accrues from experience and is essential for problem solving. Edmund Pellegrino's classic treatment of clinical judgment is examined, and a Polanyian critique of this position demonstrates that tacit knowledge is necessary for understanding how clinical judgment and medical decisions involve persons. An adequate medical epistemology requires much more qualitative research relevant to the clinical encounter and medical decision making than is currently being done. This research is necessary for preventing an uncritical application of evidence-based medicine by health care managers that erodes good clinical practice. Polanyi's epistemology shows the need for this work and provides the structural core for building an adequate and robust medical epistemology that moves beyond evidence-based medicine.

  1. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  2. Quantum mechanics. An epistemological revolution that is revealed in the description of micro-states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugur-Schachter, M.

    2009-01-01

    The author deals with the issue of why quantum mechanics is so difficult to understand. The answer is identified here: the quantum formalism includes the principles of a radical revolution in epistemology. The development of these principles has led to an entire re-shaping of how to generate knowledge in sciences. It is a description of what lays behind quantum mechanics in terms of conceptualization. (A.C.)

  3. Epistemological Belief Congruency in Mathematics between Vocational Technology Students and Their Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Unruh, Susan; Morphew, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Three questions were addressed in this study. Is there evidence of epistemological beliefs congruency between students and their instructor? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict mathematical anxiety? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict…

  4. The Influence of Curriculum, Instruction, Technology, and Social Interactions on Two Fifth-Grade Students' Epistemologies in Modeling Throughout a Model-Based Curriculum Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hamin; Schwarz, Christina V.

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, reform efforts in science education have increasingly attended to engaging students in scientific practices such as scientific modeling. Engaging students in scientific modeling can help them develop their epistemologies by allowing them to attend to the roles of mechanism and empirical evidence when constructing and revising models. In this article, we present our in-depth case study of how two fifth graders—Brian and Joon—who were students in a public school classroom located in a Midwestern state shifted their epistemologies in modeling as they participated in the enactment of a technologically enhanced, model-based curriculum unit on evaporation and condensation. First, analyses of Brian's and Joon's models indicate that their epistemologies in modeling related to explanation and empirical evidence shifted productively throughout the unit. Additionally, while their initial and final epistemologies in modeling were similar, the pathways in which their epistemologies in modeling shifted differed. Next, analyses of the classroom activities illustrate how various components of the learning ecology including technological tools, the teacher's scaffolding remarks, and students' collective activities and conversations, were marshaled in the service of the two students' shifting epistemologies in modeling. These findings suggest a nuanced view of individual learners' engagement in scientific modeling, their epistemological shifts in the practice, and the roles of technology and other components of a modeling-oriented learning environment for such shifts.

  5. How does epistemological knowledge on modelling influence students' engagement in the issue of climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasquier, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    Involvement in climate change has been proven to be hindered by emotional and social barriers, as well as by conceptual difficulties that students may encounter in dealing with scientific content related to particular issues such as the greenhouse effect. In this study, we start from the conjecture that behind many conceptual difficulties and emotional barriers lie particular epistemological obstacles related to a naive and stereotypical view of science. These include, in particular, the belief that science still has the role and power to provide a unique, unquestionable, and certain explanation of events and processes. Such a naive idea clashes strongly with the intrinsic complexity of climate science. This paper sets out to investigate if and how the improvement of epistemological knowledge can influence behavioural habits and foster students' engagement in climate change. In order to explore such an issue, we focus on five interviews collected at the end of a teaching experience on climate change, carried out with secondary school students (grade 11; 16-year olds). This study is a follow-up of other two analytical studies aimed at investigating, respectively, the impact of the experience on students' epistemological knowledge and on their behavioural habits.

  6. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  7. Translating for the Common Reader An Ongoing Research on Science and Education in the Italian Book Trade, 1865-1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Marazzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at presenting the first results of a current research on works, series, periodicals translated and adapted for the Italian recently broadened audience of the late 19th century, especially during the age of Positivism. It presents two case studies: 1. translation and adaptation of geographical publications by Emilio Treves; 2. reuse of images in educational publications for object lessons, mainly published by Hoepli, Vallardi, Paravia. The two case studies are meant to give account of publishers’ strategies, influenced by the emergence of new readers, and favoured by a still-undefined international copyright legislation. Publishers often translated and adapted texts from abroad in order to save money and satisfy their audience; by doing so, they acted as relevant transcultural mediators in an age of mass education. In the conclusions, the debate on the controversial reception of Positivism in Italy, which determines the time span of the article, is mentioned as likely to benefit from the study of the coeval book trade. Namely, it can be argued that the surprising diffusion of scientism at every rank of society during the so- called liberal age drew upon on the described strategies of transcultural adaptation.

  8. Conceptual and epistemological undercurrents of learning as a process of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montfort, Devlin B.

    2011-12-01

    In the preparation and education of civil engineers it is essential to both increase student knowledge of the world (conceptual understanding), but also to establish and develop new ways of thinking (epistemology). Both of these processes of change can be considered learning, but they are vastly different in the time, energy and resources they require to accomplish. The second type of learning (conceptual change) is more difficult, and is only rarely accomplished in traditional university education. The purpose of this research is to apply existing research approaches from cognitive science and educational psychology to explain why by investigating conceptual change in the contexts of student learning and faculty adoption of new pedagogies. In each context, the difficulty with conceptual change was associated with the ways in which people categorize fundamental phenomena in the world around them, and with epistemological expectations of how those categorizations should be applied in new contexts. While attempts to encourage change often focus on "educating" people by providing them with more knowledge, the change processes seem to be primarily limited by people's existing knowledge and how it is structured. Because civil engineers interact closely with societal goals and processes (such as human safety and environmental policies), they adopt epistemological stances that are as-yet unaccounted for in most research on the subject, which assumes a strong distinction between epistemological stances toward the physical world compared to the social world. These differences suggest that civil engineers' conceptual change could be enhanced by more directly addressing their particular epistemological stances---which incorporate high needs for certainty in guaranteeing human safety, as well as high flexibility when being applied to human systems.

  9. Personal epistemological growth in a college chemistry laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen-Rocha, Linda S.

    The nature of this study was to explore changes in beliefs and lay a foundation for focusing on more specific features of reasoning related to personal epistemological and NOS beliefs in light of specific science laboratory instructional pedagogical practices (e.g., pre- and post-laboratory activities, laboratory work) for future research. This research employed a mixed methodology, foregrounding qualitative data. The total population consisted of 56 students enrolled in several sections of a general chemistry laboratory course, with the qualitative analysis focusing on the in-depth interviews. A quantitative NOS and epistemological beliefs measure was administered pre- and post-instruction. These measures were triangulated with pre-post interviews to assure the rigor of the descriptions generated. Although little quantitative change in NOS was observed from the pre-post NSKS assessment a more noticeable qualitative change was reflected by the participants during their final interviews. The NSKS results: the mean gain scores for the overall score and all dimensions, except for amoral were found to be significant at p ≤ .05. However there was a more moderate change in the populations' broader epistemological beliefs (EBAPS) which was supported during the final interviews. The EBAPS results: the mean gain scores for the overall score and all dimensions, except for the source of ability to learn were found to be significant at p ≤ .05. The participants' identified the laboratory work as the most effective instructional feature followed by the post-laboratory activities. The pre-laboratory was identified as being the least effective feature. The participants suggested the laboratory work offered real-life experiences, group discussions, and teamwork which added understanding and meaning to their learning. The post-laboratory was viewed as necessary in tying all the information together and being able to see the bigger picture. What one cannot infer at this point is

  10. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  11. Evidence-based medicine and epistemological imperialism: narrowing the divide between evidence and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Helen; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian

    2011-10-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been rapidly and widely adopted because it claims to provide a method for determining the safety and efficacy of medical therapies and public health interventions more generally. However, as others have noted, EBM may be riven through with cultural bias, both in the generation of evidence and in its translation. We suggest that technological and scientific advances in medicine accentuate and entrench these cultural biases, to the extent that they may invalidate the evidence we have about disease and its treatment. This creates a significant ethical, epistemological and ontological challenge for medicine. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Translational Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  13. Deconstructing science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-12-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity, exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and epistemology. I argue that science needs to acknowledge the subjectivity at its core to make space for non-absolute agents and new fields of study.

  14. Epistemology of analogy: Knowledge, society and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Beuchot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we expose the bases of analog epistemology. This theory of knowledge is between an extreme subjectivism and an extreme objectivism. Analog hermeneutics is a realistic hermeneutics. She seeks the truth, but incorporates the meaning and emotion. We have separated the reason from the experience, the praxis theory, the mind or the soul of the body. We have to get them back together, if we do not get lost in the rational (which says little of the human being, or we lose ourselves in the emotional (without logical consistency. The analogical hermeneutic realism is able, thanks to the analogy itself, to mediate in this way of union.

  15. Constructive Analysis : A Study in Epistemological Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    , and develops a framework for a kind of analysis that is more in keeping with recent psychological research on categorization. Finally, it is shown that this kind of analysis can be applied to the concept of justification in a manner that furthers the epistemological goal of providing intellectual guidance.......The present study is concerned the viability of the primary method in contemporary philosophy, i.e., conceptual analysis. Starting out by tracing the roots of this methodology to Platonic philosophy, the study questions whether such a methodology makes sense when divorced from Platonic philosophy...

  16. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  17. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  18. A Tale of Two Courses: Exploring Teacher Candidates' Translation of Science and Special Education Methods Instruction into Inclusive Science Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sami; Pigman, Ryan; Ottley, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood educators teach science to all students, including students with disabilities. Strategies for accommodating students with disabilities in science, including familiarity with equitable frameworks such as Universal Design for Learning (UDL) are therefore a critical aspect of early childhood teacher candidates' pedagogical content…

  19. A Chinese young adult non-scientist's epistemologies and her understandings of the concept of speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2015-08-01

    Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are native English speakers from Western cultures. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether Hammer and his colleagues' claims concerning learners' epistemologies could be extended to individuals who lack advanced mathematics and science training, have had different cultural and learning experiences, and have grown up speaking and learning in another language. To this end, we interviewed a participant with these characteristics about her understandings of the concept of speed. Our findings show that previous theoretical frameworks can be used to explain the epistemologies of the individual examined in this study. The case suggests that these theories may be relevant regardless of the learner's mathematics and science background, language, educational experience, and cultural background. In the future, more cases should be examined with learners from different academic backgrounds and cultures to further support this finding.

  20. The erudite humility of the historian: the 'critical epistemology' of Georges Lantéri-Laura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Lorini, Elisabetta

    2017-06-01

    This paper analyses the historical and epistemological work of the French psychiatrist Georges Lantéri-Laura (1930-2004) within the context of the French 'tradition' of history and philosophy of sciences, with special reference to Georges Canguilhem and Michel Foucault. After an introduction devoted to a critical survey of the most recent works on the history and historiography of psychiatry in French, the paper outlines Lantéri-Laura's approach by focusing especially on the role played by the methodological concept of 'semiology' as regards the relation between medicine and psychiatry. The last part of the paper draws attention to the relation between the history and philosophy of psychiatry in light of Lantéri-Laura's 'critical epistemology'.

  1. Physics teaching in a public school: an ethnographic case study with an epistemological bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa T. Massoni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a classroom ethnography. Ethnography in a research strategy that attempts to comprehensively describe a culture, in this case the culture of a physics classroom in the 12th grade of a public high school in Porto Alegre, Brazil. This study is part of a larger scope study designed to investigate the contributions of contemporary views of the nature of science to the improvement of physics teaching. It is in sense that this paper assumes an epistemological perspective. The physics teacher that was observed had conceptions partially aligned to those epistemological views, however, although our initial intention was to search for relationships between her conceptions an her teaching practices we ended up with a detailed interpretative description of the classroom reality that revealed relevant aspects to the comprehension of such a culture and to the teaching and learning process in physics. This interpretative description is what we present here.

  2. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  3. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  4. Epistemological Diversity and Moral Ends of Research in Instructed SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore epistemological diversity in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) from the perspective that obtains if we examine the moral ends of research, and we ask: In what ways does epistemological diversity relate to enhancing the social value and educational relevance of the research generated by the instructed SLA…

  5. The Influence of Hindu Epistemology on Ranganathan's Colon Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Bradley Gerald

    This study attempted to determine the influence of Hindu epistemology on Ranganathan's Colon Classification. Only the epistemological schools of Hindu philosophy and the Idea Plane element of Colon Classification were included. A literature search revealed that, although there is significant literature on each side of the problem, no bridges exist…

  6. Epistemology in Qualitative Educational Research: A Review of Published Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the epistemological basis for qualitative educational research studies. Within this context, 20 qualitative studies on education were analysed and three dimensions were sorted out: (1) the purpose or aim of the study, (2) the rationale for the study, and (3) the occurrence of epistemological aspects (theory, paradigm,…

  7. How Epistemological Beliefs Relate to Values and Gender Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In response to the current literature on possible systematic differences in the epistemological beliefs of men and women and between members of different cultures, this paper examines the way psychological constructs associated with gender (i.e. gender orientation) and culture (i.e. values) are related to individual's epistemological beliefs.…

  8. Intellectual Humility and Morality as Consultee-Centered Consultation Epistemologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Stephen D.; Kearney, Moriah A.; Davis, Don E.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Little research examines how epistemological constructs affect the consultation process in schools. We consider how the epistemological constructs of (a) intellectual humility and (b) moral foundations may moderate the effectiveness of consultee-centered consultation. We define the constructs and provide examples of their potential influences on…

  9. An Essay for Educators: Epistemological Realism Really is Common Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.

    2008-01-01

    "What is truth?" Pontius Pilot asked Jesus of Nazareth. For many educators today this question seems quaintly passe. Rejection of "truth" goes hand-in-hand with the rejection of epistemological realism. Educational thought over the last decade has instead been dominated by empiricist, anti-realist, instrumentalist epistemologies of two types:…

  10. Knowledge production in education: Post-structuralism as epistemological potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirley Lizott Tedeschi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the epistemological and methodological potentialities of Poststructuralism in education research. With a theoretical-bibliographic character, the research takes as main references Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida’s contributions in order to problematize the modern metanarratives and the processes of knowledge production in this area. By problematizing modern metanarratives and pointing out the historical, contextual character, inherent in the process of knowledge production, this epistemological perspective has triggered a number of concerns, doubts and discontinuities that have reverberated in investigative processes in that area. Being open to this epistemological field may both contribute to the deconstruction of the conceptual apparatus of modernity, which has strongly marked the education research, and bring other epistemological and methodological possibilities for knowledge production in that area. In this sense, the potentiality of this epistemological and methodological perspective for research in education is the multiplicity of possibilities that it provides.

  11. On the epistemology of postmodern spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley A. Schreiber

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available At first glance, the postmodern spiritual �scene� appears �sociologically messy, experiential, multifaceted, ecological, provisional and collective� (Petrolle 2007 and of uncertain epistemic provenance. Here, I ask: can Roland Benedikter�s (2005 conception of postmodern dialectic and spiritual turn, help us understand postmodern spirituality and can it assist in a construction of a postmodern epistemology of spirituality? The current argument constitutes a meta-theoretical exploration of:� Deconstruction and neo-essentialism as representing the significant dialectic in philosophical postmodernism. Deconstruction is presented as an apophatic moment in Western thought about �knowing� and �being� whilst postmodern neo-essentialism, though contextualised by antirealism and ambiguity, palpably suggests itself. � Postmodern trends which derive from the dialectic. � How these epistemic trends influence methodology in the study of spirituality. � How a trans-traditional (anthropological spirituality might incorporate insights about transformation from a complex of epistemologies in which, theories of �self� abound.In the conclusion an attempt is made to describe how postmodern spirituality expresses itself in society.�

  12. Compositional translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Janssen, Theo; Jong, de F.M.G.; Landsbergen, S.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth review of machine translation by discussing in detail a particular method, called compositional translation, and a particular system, Rosetta, which is based on this method. The Rosetta project is a unique combination of fundamental research and large-scale

  13. Intervensi Negara Dalam Perekonomian: Melacak Epistemologi Politik-Ekonomi Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafis Irkhami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A correct understanding to the fundamental elements in the Islamic political economy is a must for its development. This study tried to seek a conceptual understanding of the basic elements of scientific aspects including worldview and epistemology. Its role to construct the methodology of Islamic political economy also became the main topic. There were some different vision,and epistemological and methodological framework of the Islamic political economy to those of western,. The consequences of those differences leaded to different scientific developments. At the level of praxis, it also produced differences in determining policy, while internal logic, coherence and consistency were essential pre-requisites for scientific approach. Islamic political economiy should be evaluated with its own worldview and epistemology. However, in another side, we could not neglect the role and position of current political and  economic sciences in the process of developing Islamic politial economy. The study of political-economic epistemology consisted of  the intervention and role of the state in the economy, especially in terms of public policy. الملخص: إن تنمية الاقتصاد السياسي الإسلامي يُشترط فيه الفهم الصحيح تجاه العناصر الأساسية فيه. حاول هذا المقال اكتشاف أنواع المفاهيم عن العناصر الأساسية العلمية فيه، وكذلك النظرة السائدة والابستمولوجيا وموقع كل منها في بناء منهجية الاقتصاد السياسي الإسلامي. هناك فروق في الرؤية والابستمولوجيا والاطار المنهجي بين الاقتصاد السياسي الإسلامي والغرب.  وإن هذه الفروق أدت إلى وجود الاختلافات في المبتى العلمي. وفي الجانب العملي، تسببّ هذه الفروق

  14. The California active aging community grant program: translating science into practice to promote physical activity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Steven P; Seavey, William; Weidmer, Curtiss E; Harvey, Danielle J; Stewart, Anita L; Gillis, Dawn E; Nicholl, Katrina Lennea; King, Abby C

    2005-06-01

    Attempts to study the translation of evidence-based physical activity interventions in community settings are scarce. This project was an investigation of whether 13 diverse local lead agencies could effectively implement a choice-based, telephone-assisted physical activity promotion program for older adults based on intervention models proven efficacious in research settings. At baseline, participants developed their own physical activity programs through an individualized planning session based on preference, health status, readiness to change, and available community resources. Thereafter, participants received regular telephone calls over a 1-year period from a trained staff member or volunteer support buddy. Additional program components consisted of health education workshops, newsletters, and group-based physical activities. Self-report data on caloric expenditure due to all and moderate or greater intensity physical activities were collected from 447 participants (M age = 68 +/- 8.6 years). A significant increase (p activity duration and frequency. These changes were observed in participants across all sites. The increases in weekly caloric expenditure were commensurate with findings from several previous randomized clinical trials. The utilization of community agency staff and volunteers receiving basic training to implement essential program components proved feasible. Very favorable levels of program satisfaction expressed by community staff, volunteer support buddies, and participants, combined with the significant increases in physical activity, warrant further dissemination of the intervention model.

  15. Reconceptualising translation in agricultural innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, Julie; Dwyer, Janet; Gaskell, Peter; Mills, Jane; Wolf, de Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Scientific research continues to play a significant role in meeting the multiple innovation challenges in agriculture. If this role is to be fulfilled, provision needs to be made for effective translation of research outputs, where translation is understood to be the process whereby science becomes

  16. Michael Polanyi and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Maben Walter

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author attempts three things: (a) to describe the main beliefs of the "continental empiricist" epistemology that dominated the study of the social sciences in North America since the mid 1930s; (b) to speak of the influence of this epistemology on the dominant or mainstream school in the study of politics; and (c) to…

  17. Epistemological Presuppositions for the Theistic Philosophy of A. Plantinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Karpov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to reconstruct the context surrounding the projects for a reformed epistemology and an affi rmation of the Christian faith by Alvin Plantinga. An analysis of Plantinga’s epistemological presuppositions reveals how they are intertwined. The basic problem surrounding the dispute between fundamentalists and anti-fundamentalists concerning the nature of knowledge constituted the background against which the theistic philosophy of Plantinga began to take form. Examining this dispute, the author of this article attempts to define the position of the philosophers in question and to clarify the differences in terminology which are found in the appropriate literature. The relationship between evidentialism and reliabilism on the one hand and internalism and externalism on the other is noted. The author distinguishes between an early (weak and later (strong type of reformed epistemology. In the former type, Plantinga was concerned with refuting the classical version of epistemological fundamentalism; in the latter, he concentrated his attention on constructing a philosophical scheme which could grant to the basic teachings of theism an epistemological foundation. The author discusses and analyses the main objections to Plantinga. These objections are of two kinds: theological and philosophical. The philosophical objections are aimed at the epistemological presuppositions suggested by Plantinga. The author concludes that, in spite of the value and longevity of Plantiga’s arguments, the solutions to the questions which he raised are dependent on contemporary discussions of analytical epistemology.

  18. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  19. The Relationship between Epistemological Beliefs and Motivational Components of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Male and Female EFL Learners across

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Nayebi Limoodehi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between five dimensions of the epistemological beliefs regarding structure of knowledge, stability of knowledge, source of knowledge, ability to learn and, speed of learning and six measures of the motivational components of self-regulated learning strategies (intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy, control of learning, and test anxiety among male and female EFL learners across years of study (freshman and sophomore students. The participants of this study were 101 EFL students studying English literature and English translation in the Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran, during the spring semester of 2013. The participants completed Persian version of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia & McKeachie, 1991 and Persian version of Epistemological Questionnaire (Schommer, 1990. Results showed that, in general, the more naïve the epistemological beliefs of students, the less likely they are to use motivational learning strategies. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between dimensions of epistemological beliefs and motivational components of self-regulated learning strategies among male and female students. On the other hand, a statistically significant relationship was found between dimensions of epistemological beliefs and motivational components of self-regulated learning strategies for both freshman and sophomore students.

  20. Epistemology, Ethics, and Progress in Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Barsanti-Innes, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    The emerging paradigm of precision medicine strives to leverage the tools of molecular biology to prospectively tailor treatments to the individual patient. Fundamental to the success of this movement is the discovery and validation of "predictive biomarkers," which are properties of a patient's biological specimens that can be assayed in advance of therapy to inform the treatment decision. Unfortunately, research into biomarkers and diagnostics for precision medicine has fallen well short of expectations. In this essay, we examine the portfolio of research activities into the excision repair cross complement group 1 (ERCC1) gene as a predictive biomarker for precision lung cancer therapy as a case study in elucidating the epistemological and ethical obstacles to developing new precision medicines.

  1. Beyond (methodological) Nationalism and Epistemological Behaviouralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Carney, Stephen

    ’ by moving beyond these binaries and invoking the complex interrelations between diverse aspects of life.One strategy lies in problem-based project work where the underlying causes of social, cultural and political marginality are viewed as co-constructed. That general orientation is extended in the Global...... globalisation and new forms of localisation.Whilst many approaches to globalization attempt to explore interconnection and the mutual construction of social life, they nevertheless prioritize particular ways of looking at the world. Moving beyond these, the Roskilde University initiatives aim to center issues...... of interdependence and epistemological diversity. Here, students are encouraged not only to consider the ways in which a European/ rational / scientific ‘world’ view can lead to personal understanding and societal freedoms but how the production of dominant ideologies contributes to global inequality, social...

  2. Epistemological and didactic valuation of professional competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jacinto Abambari Arévalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of competency-based approach is not only a new expression of learning outcomes, but also for its epistemological and pedagogical implications leading to a transformation of the educational process and its evaluation. Today, this is an extremely controversial topic due to divorce between university curricula recognized competency, its realization in the teaching-learning process and how evaluated is practiced. It is therefore of utmost importance to achieve a thematic approach about the topic, for the reason that, while theorizing from process competences development is not new, it is so from the perspective of the considerations about how to evaluate performances and evidences. The results of this study contributed to provide a strategy to fulfill this purpose. Keywords: competence development, competence assessment, professional problem solving

  3. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  4. An epistemology of facilitation: A Julian M�ller story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Elmo Pienaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article furthered an epistemology of facilitation. It was created through bringing into focus broad movements in Julian M�ller�s theoretical academic development. Rather than explaining at length the epistemological concepts characterising M�ller�s theoretical development � rightly because of the importance of narrative in Julian M�ller�s work � the article sought to link a social psychological dimension of both M�ller and the author to these concepts. Resulting from M�ller�s work, the author regarded a narrative approach, social constructionism and postfoundationalism as important epistemological conversational partners in practical theological facilitation.

  5. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2015-11-01

    The Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP) was held on August 18-21, 2014 in Boston, MA, where it had a record attendance of 374 registrants from 27 countries. The Congress included 8 invited keynote lectures, 12 symposia, 1 featured science session, more than 200 oral and poster free communication sessions, 8 thematic poster sessions, and a Warfighter Readiness Roundtable. Collectively, the presentations focused on a fundamental premise that soldiers are the center of warfighting capability, and the human service member is the prime resource and key enabler of all warfighting systems. The intent of the ICSPP series is to focus on the soldier-the individual service member. As we move forward with focus placed on the human dimension of soldiering, the key to our scientific success and what will prove to be transformative will be the extent to which we can operationalize and disseminate our scientific knowledge for the benefit of our soldiers on the ground. The Congress fostered important scientific exchange, and dialog centered on improving military physical performance and readiness. As countries around the globe respond to current and emerging threats to their national security, it is increasingly clear that we must ensure optimal human performance of our military personnel. By taking advantage of the science and applications of physical fitness and injury prevention research, we can leverage our increased understanding for the optimal application of physical readiness processes while minimizing the injury risk potential. We believe that the continued scientific and evidence-based dialog across international partners will prove to be transformative in identifying the most effective strategies for human performance optimization in the 21st century. Innovation, leveraging current state-of-the-science, and international partnerships were all key themes throughout the Congress. From the ICSPP scientific program, it was clear that there

  6. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation - Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic Agent (cTLA4-Ig) and Donor Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation – Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic Agent (cTLA4-Ig) and...Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation – Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic...wider application. Thus the purpose of this project is to develop novel clinically relevant regimens for immunomodulation and tolerance induction after

  7. Teaching neuroscience to science teachers: facilitating the translation of inquiry-based teaching instruction to the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, G H; Michlin, M; Schmitt, L; MacNabb, C; Dubinsky, J M

    2012-01-01

    In science education, inquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning provide a framework for students to building critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Teacher professional development has been an ongoing focus for promoting such educational reforms. However, despite a strong consensus regarding best practices for professional development, relatively little systematic research has documented classroom changes consequent to these experiences. This paper reports on the impact of sustained, multiyear professional development in a program that combined neuroscience content and knowledge of the neurobiology of learning with inquiry-based pedagogy on teachers' inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations demonstrated the value of multiyear professional development in solidifying adoption of inquiry-based practices and cultivating progressive yearly growth in the cognitive environment of impacted classrooms.

  8. Prolegomena to any future metaphysics that will be able to come forward as science the Paul Carus translation

    CERN Document Server

    Kant, Immanuel

    1977-01-01

    Kant’s Prolegomena -- its full title, in the eighteenth-century manner, is Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Which Will Be Able to Come Forth as Science -- is a classic in metaphysics and the theory of knowledge. It deals with the perennially baffling questions: How do we know? How much can we know? Its answers to these questions are interesting especially now. We live in one of the recurring periods of intellectual and cultural history that are skeptical and impatient of systems of speculative metaphysics, and a distrust of speculation is the leading motif of the Prolegomena. Though Kant's arguments against speculative metaphysics differ from those of our contemporaries, in some of his results he anticipates their negative conclusions. The Prolegomena, however, is not interesting merely as an historical anticipation of recent views; indeed, as such it has been as it were condemned in advance by Kant (Prolegomena, Introduction). Rather, its chief interest to the student of philosophy is probably the way...

  9. Caring Science or Science of Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, Marian C; Watson, Jean; Giovannoni, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The concepts caring science and science of caring have different meanings; however, they are often used interchangeably. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the synthesis of the scholarly literature on the definitions of the science of caring and caring science and to affirm the authors' perspective relating to the language of caring science. Caring science advances the epistemology and ontology of caring. Ideas related to caring science inquiry are presented, and the authors acknowledge the future of caring science as unitary caring science.

  10. Common Sense dalam Epistemologi George Edward Moore dan Implikasinya terhadap Perkembangan Ilmu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hamami Mintaredja

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The birth of Moore's philosophy has a background in Bradley's Idealism-The philosophy of Bradley is rooted in Hegelianistic philosophy- and in Berkeley's immaterialism. Moore tried to revive English Realism tradition. Long before Bradley thoughts. The matterials of this research are all drawn from English philosophy that deals with Common Sense, both influencing and influenced by Moore's philsophy. The objective of this research is describe the function of Common Sense in Moore's philosophy. The aims of this research are (1 to determine the meaning of Common Sense, (2 to determine the realization of epistemology of Common Sense, and (3 to identify the contribution of epistemological Common Sense in the development of philosophy of science. This research uses three methods, (1 Factual-Historical Method, which is used to retrace the stream of development of the meaning of Common Sense in English philosophy. (2 Synthetico-Analitic method, which is used to find out specific meaning of the term Common Sense. (3 Hermeneutics. Which is useng to mediate the messeage drawn from realities (objects. The results of this research are (1 historically, the conception of Common Sense used by many philosophers. Despite differents of terminilogy and meaning according to them. (2 Synthetic-analitically, the meaning of Common Sense depends on the approaches of the respective philosophers. (3 Hermeneurtically, the meaning of Common Sense in Moore philosophy is to be understood as a unifeid ability of sense activities and consciuosness to grasp and understand material objects. Common Sense denotes to human capacity, that is a universal belief that produces certainty of knowledge of material things. Common Sense epistemology is specific ally Moore's epistemology. It is sparates the subjects from the objects distinictively. A subject sees factual objects in direct experiences, so that he gets the sense-data. Tp apprehend sense-data directly involves conscious activity

  11. Narrative inquiry: Locating Aboriginal epistemology in a relational methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Sylvia S

    2004-03-01

    This methodology utilizes narrative analysis and the elicitation of life stories as understood through dimensions of interaction, continuity, and situation. It is congruent with Aboriginal epistemology formulated by oral narratives through representation, connection, storytelling and art. Needed for culturally competent scholarship is an experience of research whereby inquiry into epiphanies, ritual, routines, metaphors and everyday experience creates a process of reflexive thinking for multiple ways of knowing. Based on the sharing of perspectives, narrative inquiry allows for experimentation into creating new forms of knowledge by contextualizing diabetes from the experience of a researcher overlapped with experiences of participants--a reflective practice in itself. The aim of this paper is to present narrative inquiry as a relational methodology and to analyse critically its appropriateness as an innovative research approach for exploring Aboriginal people's experience living with diabetes. Narrative inquiry represents an alternative culture of research for nursing science to generate understanding and explanation of Aboriginal people's 'diabetic self' stories, and to coax open a window for co-constructing a narrative about diabetes as a chronic illness. The ability to adapt a methodology for use in a cultural context, preserve the perspectives of Aboriginal peoples, maintain the holistic nature of social problems, and value co-participation in respectful ways are strengths of an inquiry partial to a responsive and embodied scholarship.

  12. Social constructivism and positive epistemology: On establishing of scientific facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author is dealing with the problem of genesis and establishing of scientific fact. In the first part is given philosophical treatment of the problem and its futility, for the reason given in Minhausen trilema as a conclusion of this kind of treatment. Second part of the article contains the review of Ludvik Fleck's positive epistemology and of social constructivism. After the short historical review of the roots of social constructivism in the Mannheim's sociology of knowledge, author describes how it goes with erstablishing of scientific fact. Solution is set forth by elaboration of triad physis-nomos-logos within the constitutive elements of society known as authority-institution-reason-discourse. Author's concluding thesis claims that there is no fact without convention, i.e. that nature and scientific fact are connected by institution (scientific or social. It does not mean that there is no sound established facts but that obstacle toward it is provided just with institutional mediation that make condition of possibility of very truth. Therefore, the question: what among known facts are really truthful amounts to eternal problem of science and common sense in every epoch of history. .

  13. Epistemological limitation for attributing health effects to natural radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Abel J.

    2010-01-01

    The attribution of health effects to prolonged radiation exposure situations, such as those experienced in nature, is a challenging problem. The paper describes the epistemological limitations for such attribution it demonstrate that in most natural exposure situations, the theory of radiation-related sciences is not capable to provide the scientific evidence that health effects actually occur (or do not occur) and, therefore, that radiation effects are attributable to natural exposure situations and imputable to nature. Radiation exposure at high levels is known to provoke health effects as tissue reactions. If individuals experience these effects they can be attributed to the specific exposure with a high degree of confidence under the following conditions: the dose incurred have been higher that the relevant dose-threshold for the specific effect; and an unequivocal pathological diagnosis is attainable ensuring that possible competing causes have been eliminated. Only under these conditions, the occurrence of the effect may be properly attested and attributed to the exposure. However, even high levels of natural radiation exposure are lower than relevant dose-thresholds for tissue reactions and, therefore, natural radiation exposure is generally unable to cause these type of effects. One exception to this general rule could be situations of high levels of natural radiation exposure that might be sufficient to induce opacities in the lens of the eyes (which could be considered a tissue-reaction type of effect)

  14. Translational plant proteomics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Pedreschi, Romina; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Cramer, Rainer; Sarkar, Abhijit; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-08-03

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic values of plants, food security and safety, and energy sustainability. In this review, we highlight the substantial progress reached in plant proteomics during the past decade which has paved the way for translational plant proteomics. Increasing proteomics knowledge in plants is not limited to model and non-model plants, proteogenomics, crop improvement, and food analysis, safety, and nutrition but to many more potential applications. Given the wealth of information generated and to some extent applied, there is the need for more efficient and broader channels to freely disseminate the information to the scientific community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  16. Developing a questionnaire for measuring epistemological beliefs in history education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, Gerhard; Logtenberg, Albert; Wansink, Bjorn; Huijgen, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Developing pupils’ understanding of history with its own disciplinary and epistemological problems can contribute to the education of a critical and peaceful diverse society. This symposium discusses results of four studies from the Netherlands, Germany and the USA addressing theoretical,

  17. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bartley, W W

    1993-01-01

    This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

  18. STUDYING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN’S REASONING THROUGH EPISTEMOLOGICAL MOVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpter, Lovisa; Hedefalk, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a theoretical tool for analysing mathematical reasoning using Epistemological Move Analysis (EMA) in combination with a framework focusing on arguments and the foundation of these. We also suggest the addition of evaluative arguments when talking about different types of arguments besides predictive and verifying arguments. The tool was applied on data of preschool children’s mathematical reasoning. The results indicate that different types of epistemological moves a...

  19. Epistemologi Pendidikan Islam: Melacak Metodologi Pengetahuan Perguruan Tinggi Islam Klasik

    OpenAIRE

    Hery, Musnur

    2008-01-01

    Islamic higher college not only limited to higher education that famous at Islamic history like madrasah (e.g. Nizamiyah), and al-Jami'ah (e.g. al-Azhar). Yet, Islamic higher college is the implementation of learning process that can be categorized in higher education stage, that being practiced in Moslem society, even still in non-formal or informal form before madrasah existence. Several epistemologies branch indeed take place at formal institution, while some epistemologies branch theoreti...

  20. Epistemologi Pendidikan Islam: Melacak Metodologi Pengetahuan Perguruan Tinggi Islam Klasik

    OpenAIRE

    Hery, Musnur

    2015-01-01

    Islamic higher college not only limited to higher education that famous at Islamic history like madrasah (e.g. Nizamiyah), and al-Jami’ah (e.g. al-Azhar). Yet, Islamic higher college is the implementation of learning process that can be categorized in higher education stage, that being practiced in Moslem society, even still in non-formal or informal form before madrasah existence. Several epistemologies branch indeed take place at formal institution, while some epistemologies branch theoreti...

  1. Kajian Kritis Pemikiran Epistemologi Frithjof Schuon (1907–1998)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinar Dewi Kania

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to construct and employ a critical study to Frithjof Schuon’ thought on epistemology which includes the nature of knowledge, the object of knowledge and the process of acquiring knowledge. This study is a literature research which utilize his scientific works both primary and secondary sources. The results showed that Schuon epistemology could not eluded the paradigm of Western dualism as truth and certainty viewed double, which are relative truth and absolute t...

  2. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  3. Classroom culture in a course on History and Epistemology of Physics for prospective physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Teresinha Massoni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the construction process of a contextualized descriptive comprehension of the classroom culture of a subject on History and Epistemology of Physics pertaining to the curriculum of a teacher preparation course in a federal public university. In order to do that, participative observation of daily classroom activities was carried out during a one year period of time. The narrative of this process is extensive full of details that suggest some charges in students’ conceptions of science and, at the same time, how deeply rosted are some other ones.

  4. EFL Teachers’ Epistemological Beliefs and Their Assessment Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismail

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological beliefs—beliefs about the nature of knowledge, where it resides, and how knowledge is constructed and evaluated—have been the target of increased research interest lately. Heretofore, emphasis has been directed to language teaching/learning aspects and strategies. Language assessment practices have not yet received due attention in epistemic research literature. The current study examined the relationship between pre-service EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs and their assessment orientations. Dimensions of epistemological beliefs were assessed via a questionnaire designed and validated by the researcher based on Schommer’s work. Two assessment orientations were examined including: (a transmissive surface- processing orientation and (b constructive deep-processing orientation. The study involved 114 preservice EFL teachers enrolled in the Professional Diploma in Teaching Program in the Abu Dhabi University, the United Arab Emirates. Results of the study showed that EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs have a direct bearing on their assessment orientations and practices. EFL teachers with naive epistemological beliefs tended more to adopt surface-level assessment orientations whereas those with sophisticated epistemological beliefs showed more tendency to adopt deeper level approaches to assessment in language settings. Results are discussed in terms of backwash effects on foreign language instruction, curriculum development, and teacher education. Suggestions for further research are also discussed.

  5. Scrutinizing The Epistemology of Islamic Economics: A Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurizal Ismail

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The first International Conference on Islamic Economics was held in Makkah, in 1976. Economists, jurists and scholars met together to discuss issues of Muslim ummah. However, there was many books written related to Islamic economics in the history of Islamic civilization, especially in the period of Abbasid caliphate. The fact, development of knowledge in Islamic medieval had established the epistemology of Islamic economics itself. Moreover, the epistemology is a study of the theory of knowledge, the source of knowledge, the application of knowledge and limitation of knowledge. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the contribution of earlier Muslim thinkers to the source of Islamic economics and to identify the epistemology of Islamic economics as proposed by the Muslim thinkers in medieval period. As a result, this paper will propose the epistemology of Islamic economics by integrating Islamic heritage and modern economics that is not conflict with Islamic principles and values. To achieve its objectives; this study employs qualitative research by applying content and descriptive analysis. The finding of this study is that the earlier Muslim thinkers have contributed to the construction of epistemology in Islamic economics. Then, to construct the genuine of Islamic economics, tawhid must be put as a core of Islamic economic epistemology that directs the sources of knowledge which are rooted firstly from revealed and then rational knowledge by using appropriate methods.

  6. Théodule Ribot's ambiguous positivism: philosophical and epistemological strategies in the founding of French scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillin, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Théodule Ribot (1839-1916) is regarded by many historians of psychology as the "father" of the discipline in France. Ribot contributed to the development of a "new psychology" independent from philosophy, relying on the methods of the natural sciences. However, such an epistemological transition encountered fierce opposition from both the champions of the old-fashioned metaphysical psychology and the representatives of the "scientific spirit." This article focuses on the objections raised by the latter, and especially philosophers of science, against the possibility of a scientific psychology. For instance, according to Auguste Comte, psychology does not satisfy certain basic methodological requirements. To overcome these objections, Ribot, in his La Psychologie Anglaise Contemporaine (1870/1914), devised an epistemological strategy that amounted to invoking criticisms of Comte's views made by other representatives of the positivist school, such as John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Critical inquiry and knowledge translation: exploring compatibilities and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Lynam, M Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather

    2009-07-01

    Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of

  8. Critical inquiry and knowledge translation: exploring compatibilities and tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J.; Lynam, M. Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of

  9. OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium: Linking a Clinical and Translational Science Institute With a Community-Based Distributive Medical Education Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Elizabeth; Hurt, Myra; Hogan, William; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Smith, Steven; Brickman, Andrew; Nelson, David

    2018-03-01

    Developing a national pragmatic clinical trial infrastructure is central to understanding the effectiveness of interventions applied under usual conditions and where people receive health care. To address this challenge, three Florida universities-the University of Florida Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Florida State University (with its community-based distributive medical education model), and the University of Miami-created (2010-2013) a statewide consortium, the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium, to support the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and provide mentored research experiences for medical and graduate students in real-world practice settings. OneFlorida has four programs, which report to a steering committee with membership from each partner, community members, and the state Medicaid agency and Department of Health to ensure shared governance. The Clinical Research Program provides support to conduct research in the network and uses champions to engage community clinicians. The Citizen Scientist Program has community members who provide input on health topics of importance to them, study design, recruitment and retention strategies, and the interpretation of findings. The Data Trust Program contains electronic health record and health care claims data for 10.6 million Floridians. The Minority Education Program, in collaboration with three historically black colleges and universities, offers minority junior faculty mentoring in pragmatic clinical trials and implementation science. OneFlorida has implemented 27 studies with diverse patient populations and in diverse community practice settings. To identify evidence-based best practices from the clinical trials conducted in the network, foster their implementation, and expand research training opportunities.

  10. Exploring the entanglement of personal epistemologies and emotions in students' thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew; Danielak, Brian A.

    2018-06-01

    Evidence from psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience suggests that cognition and emotions are coupled. Education researchers have also documented correlations between emotions (such as joy, anxiety, fear, curiosity, boredom) and academic performance. Nonetheless, most research on students' reasoning and conceptual change within the learning sciences and physics and science education research has not attended to the role of learners' emotions in describing or modeling the fine timescale dynamics of their conceptual reasoning. The few studies that integrate emotions into models of learners' cognition have mostly done so at a coarse grain size. In this study, toward the long-term goal of incorporating emotions into models of in-the-moment cognitive dynamics, we present a case study of Judy, an undergraduate electrical engineering and physics major. We show that shifts in the intensity of a fine-grained aspect of Judy's emotions, her annoyance at conceptual homework problems, co-occur with shifts in her epistemological stance toward differentiating knowledge about and the practical utility of real circuits and idealized circuit models. We then argue for the plausibility of a cognitive model in which Judy's emotions and epistemological stances mutually affect each other. We end with discussions on how models of learners' cognition that incorporate their emotions are generative for instructional purposes and research on learning.

  11. Harvard Catalyst | The Clinical Translational Science Center IND/IDE Consult Service: Providing an IND/IDE Consult Service in a Decentralized Network of Academic Healthcare Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Sabune J.; Bierer, Barbara E.; Wolf, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations require sponsors of clinical investigations involving an investigational drug or device to submit an Investigational New Drug (IND) or Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) application. Strict adherence to applicable regulations is vital to the success of clinical research. Unlike most major pharmaceutical sponsors, investigator sponsors often do not fully appreciate their regulatory obligations nor have resources to ensure compliance. As a result they can place themselves and their institutions at risk. Nevertheless, investigator‐initiated clinical trials are vital to the further development of innovative drugs, biologics, and medical devices. The IND/IDE Subcommittee under the Regulatory Knowledge and Support Program at Harvard Catalyst, The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center worked in collaboration with Harvard and Harvard affiliated institutions to create and launch an IND/IDE Consult Service in a decentralized network of collaborating Academic Healthcare Centers (AHC). The IND/IDE Consult Service offers expertise, resources, and shared experiences to assist sponsor‐investigators and IRBs in meeting regulatory requirements for conducting and reviewing investigator‐initiated IND/IDE studies. The scope of the services provided by the Harvard Catalyst IND/IDE Consult Service are described, including the specifics of the service, lessons learned, and challenges faced, in a scalable model that builds inter‐institutional capacity. PMID:24455986

  12. Harvard Catalyst | The Clinical Translational Science Center IND/IDE Consult Service: providing an IND/IDE consult service in a decentralized network of academic healthcare centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min J; Winkler, Sabune J; Bierer, Barbara E; Wolf, Delia

    2014-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations require sponsors of clinical investigations involving an investigational drug or device to submit an Investigational New Drug (IND) or Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) application. Strict adherence to applicable regulations is vital to the success of clinical research. Unlike most major pharmaceutical sponsors, investigator sponsors often do not fully appreciate their regulatory obligations nor have resources to ensure compliance. As a result they can place themselves and their institutions at risk. Nevertheless, investigator-initiated clinical trials are vital to the further development of innovative drugs, biologics, and medical devices. The IND/IDE Subcommittee under the Regulatory Knowledge and Support Program at Harvard Catalyst, The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center worked in collaboration with Harvard and Harvard affiliated institutions to create and launch an IND/IDE Consult Service in a decentralized network of collaborating Academic Healthcare Centers (AHC). The IND/IDE Consult Service offers expertise, resources, and shared experiences to assist sponsor-investigators and IRBs in meeting regulatory requirements for conducting and reviewing investigator-initiated IND/IDE studies. The scope of the services provided by the Harvard Catalyst IND/IDE Consult Service are described, including the specifics of the service, lessons learned, and challenges faced, in a scalable model that builds inter-institutional capacity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quantum Mechanics and the Social Sciences: After Hermeneutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Patrick A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the hermeneutical aspect of quantum mechanical measurement reveals close analogs with the hermeneutical social/historical sciences. Suggests that the hermeneutical analysis of science requires the move from the epistemological attitude to an ontological view. (LZ)

  14. Teaching Science Is a Sacred Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Science, as enterprise and epistemology, has been politicized. This essay recounts one science teacher educator's perspective and experience on this politicization of science and describes the necessity for preservice and practicing teachers to understand the nature and process of science. The role of teachers in advocating for science is clearly…

  15. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  16. Translating Harbourscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    -specific design are proposed for all actors involved in harbour transformation. The study ends with an invitation to further investigate translation as a powerful metaphor for the way existing qualities of a site can be transformed, rather than erased or rewritten, and to explore how this metaphor can foster new...

  17. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied....... In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  18. Clinical Psychology and Research: epistemological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Coppola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a reflection on the relationship between clinical psychology and research, highlighting the constant epistemological crossing the two practices, empirical and professional. The paper warns against the pitfalls of reductionism that, in both cases, may impact the effectiveness of therapeutic results. In fact, both in clinical practice and is in psychological research, the mere application of techniques contradicts the specificity of the object of study (the mind which, rather, requires the constant attention to a complexity of variables and contextual elements essential for the understanding the psychic. Qualitative research has been a prolific space for dialogue and joint trials between research and clinical practice that has rehabilitated scientific dignity of affective and subjective for a long time confined to the ephemeral world of poetry and literature. It must therefore be a further extension of the convergence not only of qualitative and quantitative methods but also of training modules for researchers and practitioners are able to stimulate, in daily practice, confidence in the utility of scientific monitoring and detection of inter-subjective variables in research devices.

  19. The epistemological status of general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehle, Craig

    2018-03-01

    Forecasts of both likely anthropogenic effects on climate and consequent effects on nature and society are based on large, complex software tools called general circulation models (GCMs). Forecasts generated by GCMs have been used extensively in policy decisions related to climate change. However, the relation between underlying physical theories and results produced by GCMs is unclear. In the case of GCMs, many discretizations and approximations are made, and simulating Earth system processes is far from simple and currently leads to some results with unknown energy balance implications. Statistical testing of GCM forecasts for degree of agreement with data would facilitate assessment of fitness for use. If model results need to be put on an anomaly basis due to model bias, then both visual and quantitative measures of model fit depend strongly on the reference period used for normalization, making testing problematic. Epistemology is here applied to problems of statistical inference during testing, the relationship between the underlying physics and the models, the epistemic meaning of ensemble statistics, problems of spatial and temporal scale, the existence or not of an unforced null for climate fluctuations, the meaning of existing uncertainty estimates, and other issues. Rigorous reasoning entails carefully quantifying levels of uncertainty.

  20. How does epistemological knowledge on modelling influence students' engagement in the issue of climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasquier, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Involvement in climate change has been proven to be hindered by emotional and social barriers, as well as by conceptual difficulties that students may encounter in dealing with scientific content related to particular issues such as the greenhouse effect. In this study, we start from the conjecture that behind many conceptual difficulties and emotional barriers lie particular epistemological obstacles related to a naive and stereotypical view of science. These include, in particular, the belief that science still has the role and power to provide a unique, unquestionable, and certain explanation of events and processes. Such a naive idea clashes strongly with the intrinsic complexity of climate science. This paper sets out to investigate if and how the improvement of epistemological knowledge can influence behavioural habits and foster students’ engagement in climate change. In order to explore such an issue, we focus on five interviews collected at the end of a teaching experience on climate change, carried out with secondary school students (grade 11; 16-year olds). This study is a follow-up of other two analytical studies aimed at investigating, respectively, the impact of the experience on students’ epistemological knowledge and on their behavioural habits.

  1. Taking Advantage of the Paradigmatic Crisis: Brazilian Everyday Life Studies as a New Epistemological Approach to the Understanding of Teachers' Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssekind, Maria Luiza

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an epistemological overview of abyssal thinking and its impact on the field of education, particularly in relation to teachers' work, as it is done and understood. It argues that the clearest expression of abyssal thinking is the hegemony of science which explains two school phenomena: the historical subalternisation of the…

  2. Caring-ethical phronetic research: Epistemological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delmar, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to open discussion about the traditional health science research view of what constitutes valid knowledge and theory. Using an approach from the philosophy of science, this article breaks with the paradigm of "science as usual." It argues that scholars who study...

  3. Surrealism, art, and modern science relativity, quantum mechanics, epistemology

    CERN Document Server

    Parkinson, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    During the same period that Surrealism originated and flourished between the wars, great advances were being made in the field of physics. This book offers the first full history, analysis and interpretation of Surrealism's engagement with the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, and its reception of the philosophical consequences of those two major turning points in our understanding of the physical world. After surveying the revolution in physics in the early twentieth century and the discoveries of Planck, Bohr, Einstein, Schrodinger, and others, Gavin Parkinson explores the diverse uses of physics by individuals in and around the Surrealist group in Paris. In so doing, he offers exciting new readings of the art and writings of such key figures of the Surrealist milieu as André Breton, Georges Bataille, Salvador Dalí, Roger Caillois, Max Ernst, and Tristan Tzara.

  4. Advancing sustainability science in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burns, MER

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available sources of knowledge. A response to this situation has seen the emergence of 'sustainability science’, which aims to overcome divisions between knowledge sources of various forms, including the social and natural sciences and alternative epistemologies...

  5. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  6. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  7. Mathematical foundations of epistemology based on experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Krylov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with basic prerequisites for the development of epistemology, which uses information concerning real experiments in the real world (with real objects. Such experiments are conducted by “formal-technological” analogs of Turing Machines. These analogs are called “universal synthesizers-analyzers”. They can perform syntheses and analyses of various objects or constructions (obtained by conjunctions of finite number of smaller objects called basic elements with the help of various algorithmic systems having some restrictions. Such algorithmic systems are called Formal Technologies. They have formal structures that are very similar to the formal structure of Maltsev's algebraic systems. This formal closeness allows us, first, to set up a hypothesis concerning algorithmic basis of almost all surrounding physical processes, as understandable as well as till non-understandable ones, that partially explains the wide applicability of mathematics to the outer world; second, this closeness allows one to formulate and prove some theorems (called assertions concerning features and peculiar properties of cognitive algorithms in one-, two- or three-dimensional surroundings for various formal technological systems, including a so called “acquired knowledge effectiveness theorem”. The theorem (assertion can be applied to a very wide class of formal technologies which use an equality predicate for objects analyses. In the paper various cognitive algorithms are listed and proved. These algorithms have different sets of technological operations resembling syntheses and decompositions, as well as different sets of analytical operations including equality predicates, “random stationary mapping” operations (which use unknown algorithms to obtain stationary results, therefore these operations are very similar to oracles in Turing Machines, operations that define object shapes, and so on. The structure of automatic cognitive devices called

  8. Meaning: lost, found or 'made' in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi......-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools......' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus....

  9. Epistemología Pedagógica (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel GARCÍA DEL DUJO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo los autores analizan dos tipos de cuestiones: los presupuestos ontológicos y los problemas gnoselógicos que conlleva la construcción de la Pedagogía en cuanto campo de conocimientos sobre los fenómenos educativos. Desde la perspectiva de los sistemas dinámicos, y distinguiendo en educación entre lo que podemos llamar procesos adaptativos primarios, vitalmente necesarios, y aquellos otros componentes o niveles propios de la evolución cultural, los autores concluyen en la necesidad no sólo de adoptar formas plurales de conocimiento y hasta pluralidad de ciencias sino también de tomar en consideración aspectos tales como la emoción, la sensibilidad, la afectividad para un análisis global de los procesos educativos. El artículo termina, en consecuencia, con una propuesta global de caracterización epistemológica de la Pedagogía y, como contrapunto, una visión analítica de lo que los autores denominan realismo pedagógico ingenuo.SUMMARY: In this article the authors study two kinds of questions: the ontological assumptiones and the constructing the Pedagogy problems as a field of knowledge about educational phenomena. In view of the dynamic systems, and distinguishing in education the primary process of adaptation, vitally necessary, from another typical components or levels of the cultural development, the authors think it's necessary not only to assume a lot of forms of knowledge and sciences but to bear in mind aspects just as the emotion, the sensibilty, the affectivity for a comprehensive study of educational process. The article finish, therefore, with a global epistemological caracterization of the Pedagogy and, as contraposition, a analytical view of that the authors call pedagogical ingenuous realism.

  10. EPISTEMOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MODERN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONAL PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Tokovenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is finding the reasonability of using bio-evolutionary paradigm for researching ratio morphic cognitive activity. Methodology. Methodological grounds consist of the original principles and conceptual apparatus of evolutionary epistemology. Scientific novelty. The article identifies opportunities for using of biological and evolutionary paradigm to study the peculiarities of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds and their influence on the formation and development of human knowledge. Conclusions. The article concludes that together with the idea of hyper cycles (feedback loop with mutual transmission of information in cognitive process the concept of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds, as well as attempts to examine cognitive processes based on the scientific criteria (empirical verification, explanatory power and ability to predict should be certainly considered as a positive contribution to the development of evolutionary epistemology into modern epistemological research. However, it is also indicated the fact of narrowing the heuristic possibilities of this epistemological direction because of excessive metaphor of bio-evolutionary paradigm. Further development of evolutionary epistemological research is considered in shifting the emphasis from biological and evolutionary towards cultural and evolutionary paradigm.

  11. The SMART Study, a Mobile Health and Citizen Science Methodological Platform for Active Living Surveillance, Integrated Knowledge Translation, and Policy Interventions: Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun Reddy; Bhawra, Jasmin; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ferguson, Leah; Longo, Justin; Rainham, Daniel; Larouche, Richard; Osgood, Nathaniel

    2018-03-27

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)-enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let's move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions. This methodology paper enumerates the SMART Study platform's conceptualization, design, implementation, data collection procedures, analytical strategies, and potential for informing policy interventions. This longitudinal investigation was designed to engage participants (ie, citizen scientists) in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, in four different seasons across 3 years. In spring 2017, pilot data collection was conducted, where 317 adult citizen scientists (≥18 years) were recruited in person and online. Citizen scientists used a custom-built smartphone app, Ethica (Ethica Data Services Inc), for 8 consecutive days to provide a complex series of objective and subjective data. Citizen scientists answered a succession of validated surveys that were assigned different smartphone triggering mechanisms (eg, user-triggered and schedule-triggered). The validated surveys captured physical activity (PA), SB, motivation, perception of outdoor and indoor environment, and eudaimonic well-being. Ecological momentary assessments were employed on each day to capture not only PA but also physical and social contexts along with barriers and facilitators of PA, as relayed by citizen scientists using geo-coded pictures and audio files. To obtain a comprehensive objective picture of participant location, motion, and compliance, 6 types of sensor-based (eg, global positioning system and accelerometer) data

  12. The SMART Study, a Mobile Health and Citizen Science Methodological Platform for Active Living Surveillance, Integrated Knowledge Translation, and Policy Interventions: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ferguson, Leah; Longo, Justin; Rainham, Daniel; Larouche, Richard; Osgood, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)–enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). Objective The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let’s move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions. This methodology paper enumerates the SMART Study platform’s conceptualization, design, implementation, data collection procedures, analytical strategies, and potential for informing policy interventions. Methods This longitudinal investigation was designed to engage participants (ie, citizen scientists) in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, in four different seasons across 3 years. In spring 2017, pilot data collection was conducted, where 317 adult citizen scientists (≥18 years) were recruited in person and online. Citizen scientists used a custom-built smartphone app, Ethica (Ethica Data Services Inc), for 8 consecutive days to provide a complex series of objective and subjective data. Citizen scientists answered a succession of validated surveys that were assigned different smartphone triggering mechanisms (eg, user-triggered and schedule-triggered). The validated surveys captured physical activity (PA), SB, motivation, perception of outdoor and indoor environment, and eudaimonic well-being. Ecological momentary assessments were employed on each day to capture not only PA but also physical and social contexts along with barriers and facilitators of PA, as relayed by citizen scientists using geo-coded pictures and audio files. To obtain a comprehensive objective picture of participant location, motion, and compliance, 6 types of sensor-based (eg, global

  13. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  14. PENGEMBANGAN EPISTEMOLOGI ILMU HUKUM BERBASIS TRANSENDENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Sapto Nugroho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The views of positivism, the spiritual dimension by all perspectives such as religion, ethics and morality are put as a separate part of the unitary construction of modern civilization. Modern law in its development has lost an essential element, namely the spiritual values that modern masyarakaat have a crisis in defining the meaning of life in the world (the crisis of meaning. Epistimologi transcendental science of law based approach emphasizes the integration between science and values in various views. Legal science base transcendental understand people and their life in an intact form (holistic, not merely material nature but also his soul. Human explore, process and formulate science with the aim not only to science but also to the policy, the benefit of society at large, by the blessing and mercy of Allah.

  15. Positioning oneself within an epistemology: refining our thinking about integrative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Victoria C

    2010-09-01

    Integrative approaches seem to be paramount in the current climate of family therapy and other psychotherapies. However, integration between and among theories and practices can only occur within a specific epistemology. This article makes a distinction between three different epistemologies: individualizing, systems, and poststructural. It then makes the argument that one can integrate theories within epistemologies and one can adopt practices and some theoretical concepts across theories and across epistemologies, but that it is impossible to integrate theories across epistemologies. It further states that although social constructionism has influenced much of contemporary psychological thinking, because of the divergence between a structural and a poststructural approach, constructionism looks different depending upon one's epistemological stance. Examples of integration within epistemologies and of what looks like integration across epistemologies (but is not) further illustrate these important distinctions. The conclusions reached here are crucial to our philosophical considerations, our pedagogical assumptions, and implications for both research and a reflexive clinical practice. 2010 © FPI, Inc.

  16. A Brief Philosophical Encounter with Science and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ehsan Karbasizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  17. A brief philosophical encounter with science and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  18. A GRAMMATICAL ADJUSTMENT ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION METHOD USED BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE COMPARED TO HUMAN TRANSLATION IN TRANSLATING ENGLISH TEXT TO INDONESIAN

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    Eko Pujianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Google translate is a program which provides fast, free and effortless translating service. This service uses a unique method to translate. The system is called ―Statistical Machine Translation‖, the newest method in automatic translation. Machine translation (MT is an area of many kinds of different subjects of study and technique from linguistics, computers science, artificial intelligent (AI, translation theory, and statistics. SMT works by using statistical methods and mathematics to process the training data. The training data is corpus-based. It is a compilation of sentences and words of the languages (SL and TL from translation done by human. By using this method, Google let their machine discovers the rules for themselves. They do this by analyzing millions of documents that have already been translated by human translators and then generate the result based on the corpus/training data. However, questions arise when the results of the automatic translation prove to be unreliable in some extent. This paper questions the dependability of Google translate in comparison with grammatical adjustment that naturally characterizes human translators' specific advantage. The attempt is manifested through the analysis of the TL of some texts translated by the SMT. It is expected that by using the sample of TL produced by SMT we can learn the potential flaws of the translation. If such exists, the partial of more substantial undependability of SMT may open more windows to the debates of whether this service may suffice the users‘ need.

  19. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. I.

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  20. Rehumanisasi Pendidikan Akuntansi melalui Pendekatan Epistemologi 3ling

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    Kurnia Ekasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to rehumanize accounting education by employing 3ling epistemology. The method used in this research consisted of 3 steps: ngerti, ngrasa, and ngelakoni. This research concluded that dehumanization in accounting education has become accepted reality. Humanization in accounting education could be implemented by integrating ethics, moral and spirituality both in accounting and accounting education and it could be done by inserting ngrasa in learning process. Humanizing accounting education will lead to human welfare. The implementation of 3ling epistemology could change the student’s perception about accounting.

  1. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  2. Kepercayaan Epistemologis dan Faktor-faktor yang Memengaruhinya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur Ghufron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to: (1 finding out whether there was conformity between the theoretical model of factors affecting students’ epistemological beliefs and the empirical models, (2 assessing whether interdependent self-construal, level of education, constructivist learning environment and metacognition predicted of epistemological beliefs as measured by belief about knowledge and belief about learning, (3 assessing whether interdependent self-construal, level of education, constructivist learning environment and metacognition predicted of epistemological beliefs as measured by belief about knowledge and (4 assessing whether interdependent self-construal, level of education, constructivist learning environment and metacognition predicted of epistemological beliefs as measured by belief about learning.The population in this research consists of the first to eight semesters students of “X” Department of STAIN Kudus , Central Java. The sample was as many as study 268 students, taken through stratified random sampling method. The data collection techniques used in this research was questionnaire in the form of scales and checklists.The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Models (SEM. The research resulted: (1 The (theoretical model designed in the research is proper, and conforms with the data collected (empirical model, (2 The determination (R² of the students’ epistemological beliefs is 0.80, which means that 80 percent of epistemological beliefs can be explained or predicted through the variables of interdependent self-construal, level of education and constructivist learning environment, (3 The determination (R² of the students’ beliefs about knowledge is 0.52, which means that 52 percent can be explained or predicted through the variables of interdependent self-construal, level of education and constructivist learning environment, (4 The determination (R² of the students’ beliefs about learning is 0.28, which means that

  3. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

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    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  4. New epistemological foundations for cultural psychology: from an atomistic to a self-organizing view of living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Adele

    2014-01-01

    An epistemological foundation for cultural psychology is essential to neuro- and behavioural sciences for the challenge psychological sciences must currently face: searching for an explanation of how a brain can become a mind and how individuals assign a sense to the world and their life. Biological systems are very likely determined by physical and chemical laws of spontaneous self-organization and endogenous constraints but, even if the major result of the Darwinian revolution is "the discovery that living species are their story", the modern synthesis of the evolution theory adopted only continuist and gradualist hypotheses. This nourished the analogy between the theory of natural selection and the theory of operant conditioning, thereby supporting empiricist associationism and the methodological positivism of behavioural and "classical" cognitive psychologists. Current scientific contributions provide evidence to the need for psychotherapy and psychopathology of a new epistemological approach in order to connect research stemming from animal models, up to the most abstract levels of personal meaning. The complex system oriented approach, here described, called "post-rationalism", shaped by a change initiated by evolutionary epistemology. The regulation of emotions initially develops within interpersonal relationships and evolves during both phylogeny and ontogeny, according to complex self-organization processes, leading to the acquisition of Self-organizing abilities and the construction of personal meaning. Endorsing the epistemological similarities of neo-Darwinism and behaviourism, and differentiating from this, the above mentioned approach, emphasises the fact that clinical and psycho-therapeutical practice must be founded on the laws of biological organisation: the ongoing activity of neurobiological systems, including the more abstract domains of thought and language.

  5. New epistemological foundations for cultural psychology: from an atomistic to a self-organizing view of living systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele De Pascale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An epistemological foundation for cultural psychology is essential to neuro- and behavioural sciences for the challenge psychological sciences must currently face: searching for an explanation of how a brain can become a mind and how individuals assign a sense to the world and their life. Biological systems are very likely determined by physical and chemical laws of spontaneous self-organization and endogenous constraints but, even if the major result of the Darwinian revolution is "the discovery that living species are their story", the modern synthesis of the evolution theory adopted only continuist and gradualist hypotheses. This nourished the analogy between the theory of natural selection and the theory of operant conditioning, thereby supporting empiricist associationism and the methodological positivism of behavioural and "classical" cognitive psychologists. Current scientific contributions provide evidence to the need for psychotherapy and psychopathology of a new epistemological approach in order to connect research stemming from animal models, up to the most abstract levels of personal meaning. The complex system oriented approach, here described, called "post-rationalism", shaped by a change initiated by evolutionary epistemology. The regulation of emotions initially develops within interpersonal relationships and evolves during both phylogeny and ontogeny, according to complex self-organization processes, leading to the acquisition of Self-organizing abilities and the construction of personal meaning. Endorsing the epistemological similarities of neo-Darwinism and behaviourism, and differentiating from this, the above mentioned approach, emphasises the fact that clinical and psycho-therapeutical practice must be founded on the laws of biological organisation: the ongoing activity of neurobiological systems, including the more abstract domains of thought and language.

  6. The French Roots of Duhem’s early Historiography and Epistemology

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    Stefano Bordoni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Duhem can be looked upon as one of the heirs of a tradition of historical and philosophical researches that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century. This tradition opposed the naïve historiography and epistemology of the positivist school. Beside the positivists of different leanings such as Littré, Laffitte, Wyrouboff, and Berthelot, we find Cournot, Naville, and Tannery, who developed sophisticated histories and philosophies of science focusing on the real scientific practice and its history. They unfolded elements of continuity and discontinuity in the history of science, and enlightened the complex relationship among experimental, mathematical, logical and philosophical components in scientific practice. In Pierre Duhem we find a systematic and vivid interpretation of these meta-theoretical issues, and a meaningful development of a cultural tradition that re-emerged in the second half of the twentieth century.

  7. Prolegomena to the epistemology of languages for non-specialists: the example of CLIL

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    Chaplier Claire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CLIL has attracted the attention of LSP teachers worldwide and generated much literature. As a teaching and learning tool, it is frequently referred to in pedagogy, but a lot less in the epistemology of didactics. The present contribution aims to show how CLIL is an interface between conceptual research and practical implementation but that it cannot serve as a conceptual tool in the shaping of didactics as a field of research. Instead, concepts should be understood as context-dependent; they also vary with the subject matter to which language is connected (English for law differs from English for science and therefore need the contribution of human sciences to emerge in their own rights.

  8. Translation through argumentation in medical research and physician-citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R; McTigue, Kathleen M

    2012-06-01

    While many "benchtop-to-bedside" research pathways have been developed in "Type I" translational medicine, vehicles to facilitate "Type II" and "Type III" translation that convert scientific data into clinical and community interventions designed to improve the health of human populations remain elusive. Further, while a high percentage of physicians endorse the principle of citizen leadership, many have difficulty practicing it. This discrepancy has been attributed, in part, to lack of training and preparation for public advocacy, time limitation, and institutional resistance. As translational medicine and physician-citizenship implicate social, political, economic and cultural factors, both enterprises require "integrative" research strategies that blend insights from multiple fields of study, as well as rhetorical acumen in adapting messages to reach multiple audiences. This article considers how argumentation theory's epistemological flexibility, audience attentiveness, and heuristic qualities, combined with concepts from classical rhetoric, such as rhetorical invention, the synecdoche, and ethos, yield tools to facilitate translational medicine and enable physician-citizenship.

  9. Relations among Epistemological Beliefs, Academic Achievement, and Task Performance in Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken R.

    2007-01-01

    Students with differing profiles of epistemological beliefs--their beliefs about personal epistemology, intelligence, and learning--vary in thinking, reasoning, motivation, and use of strategies while working on academic tasks, each of which affect learning. This study examined students' epistemological beliefs according to gender, school…

  10. An Epistemological Analysis of the Application of an Online Inquiry-Based Program in Tourism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper was designed to investigate the application of an online inquiry-based program to European tourism from an epistemological perspective. Fifty tourism students (n = 50) participated in this study and their epistemological beliefs were measured with the Epistemological Belief Scale. A set of pre-, post-, and delayed tests were utilised to…

  11. Testimony in Narrative Educational Research: A Qualitative Interview, Narrative Analysis and Epistemological Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess issues that arise in the context of epistemological claims in narrative educational research by means of narrative analysis and epistemological evaluation. The research questions which guided the study were: 1) To what extent is epistemology considered by narrative educational researchers?; 2) What issues do…

  12. Multiple Epistemological Coherences in an Eighth-Grade Discussion of the Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Seth; Hammer, David; Phelan, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Research on personal epistemologies (Hofer & Pintrich, 2002) has mostly conceptualized them as stable beliefs or stages of development. On these views, researchers characterize individual students' epistemologies with single, coherent descriptions. Evidence of variability in student epistemologies, however, suggests the need for more complex…

  13. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic barriers may pose problems for politicians trying to communicate delicate decisions to a European-wide public, as well as for citizens wishing to protest at the European level. In this article I present a counter-intuitive position on the language question, one that explores how...... Forum (ESF). I compare deliberative practices in the multilingual ESF preparatory meetings with those in monolingual national Social Forum meetings in three Western European countries. My comparison shows that multilingualism does not reduce the inclusivity of democratic deliberation as compared...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  14. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  16. Systems of psychology as epistemology of psychology: technical supplies and conceptual bases for psychology education

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    Catriel Fierro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resuming the framework outlined in a previous analysis, the present work describes a proposal for teaching systems of psychology based on parameters of meta-theoretical analysis and specific meta-scientific models, with the aim of relocating psychological systems’ courses in systematology of psychology as a component of the epistemology of psychology. Three central issues for systematology in psychologists’ education are described: the importance of working with primary sources through specific pedagogical resources with the aim of developing scientific competences and attitudes, the need to have one (or several sets of fixed parameters to comparatively analyze theoretical systems, and the problems, criteria and options available when contextualizing such comparative meta-theoretical analysis in comprehensive meta-scientific models which belong to the philosophy of science and of psychology. We conclude on the need to transcend the teaching of systematology as a verbal enunciation of concepts proposed by 'great authors', and on certain risks and limitations regarding the teaching of psychological systems conceived as an epistemological exercise.

  17. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

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    Benjamin M. Zwickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS evaluates students’ epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students’ reflections on their course’s expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  18. Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Assumptions: Qualitative versus Quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    The review to follow is a comparative analysis of two studies conducted in the field of TESOL in Education published in "TESOL QUARTERLY." The aspects to be compared are as follows. First, a brief description of each study will be presented. Second, the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions underlying each study…

  19. Students' Epistemological Framing in Quantum Mechanics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modir, Bahar; Thompson, John D.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-01-01

    Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not a fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of epistemological framing, we investigated four…

  20. Epistemological Development and Judgments and Reasoning about Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct instruction by…