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Sample records for translational research vincent

  1. Groundwater quality at Alabama Plating and Vincent Spring, Vincent, Alabama, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Gill, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The former Alabama Plating site in Vincent, Alabama, includes the location where the Alabama Plating Company operated an electroplating facility from 1956 until 1986. The operation of the facility generated waste containing cyanide, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, and other heavy metals. Contamination resulting from the site operations was identified in groundwater, soil, and sediment. Vincent Spring, used as a public water supply by the city of Vincent, Alabama, is located about ½ mile southwest of the site. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted an investigation at Vincent Spring and the Alabama Plating site, Vincent, Alabama, during 2007–2008 to evaluate the groundwater quality and evaluate the potential effect of contaminated groundwater on the water quality of Vincent Spring. The results of the investigation will provide scientific data and information on the occurrence, fate, and transport of contaminants in the water resources of the area and aid in the evaluation of the vulnerability of the public water supply to contamination. Samples were analyzed to evaluate the water quality at the former plating site, investigate the presence of possible contaminant indicators at Vincent Spring, and determine the usefulness of stable isotopes and geochemical properties in understanding groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the area. Samples collected from 16 monitor wells near the plating site and Vincent Spring were analyzed for major constituents, trace metals, nutrients, and the stable isotopes for hydrogen (2H/H) and oxygen (18O/16O). Groundwater collected from Vincent Spring was characterized as a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type with total dissolved solids concentrations ranging from 110 to 120 milligrams per liter and pH ranging from about 7.5 to 7.9 units. Groundwater chemistry at the monitor wells at the Alabama Plating site was highly variable by location and depth

  2. Kaks kirja vennale = Two Letters from Vincent van Gogh to his brother / Vincent van Gogh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gogh, Vincent van, 1853-1890

    2008-01-01

    Kunstnik Vincent van Goghi kaks kirja oma vennale Theole. Tõlge vene keelest ja kommentaar Mehis Heinsaarelt. Ingliskeelsed kirjad raamatust "The Complete Letters of Vincent van Gogh", Thames and Hudson, 1979

  3. Vincent's Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Official publication to accompany the important exhibition Vincent's Choice, Van Gogh's 'musee imaginaire' at the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam marking the 150th anniversary of the artist's birth. The exhibition runs from 14th February to 15th June 2003.Thanks to van Gogh's correspondence, it has been

  4. Vincent vender virkeligheden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    Filosofien er i virkeligheden i den grad som virkeligheden er i filosofien. Til tider kan det dog være svært nok at se skoven for bare træer. Her er 30,1 klummer med filosofi på tværs, hvor Vincent F. Hendricks tager et tema op fra hverdagen og, både indsigtsfuldt og underholdende, endevender det...

  5. De keuze van Vincent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Official publication to accompany the important exhibition Vincent's Choice, Van Gogh's 'musee imaginaire' at the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam marking the 150th anniversary of the artist's birth.Thanks to van Gogh's correspondence, it has been possible to identify the works he knew and admired. The

  6. Vincent J. Schaefer (1906-1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droessler, Earl G.

    In 1946, Vincent Schaefer carried out two simple experiments, the results of which echoed around the world in the meteorological research community.As the afternoon temperatures in the General Electric Research Laboratory at Schenectady, N.Y., inched higher on a hot day in 1946, Schaefer noticed that his cold box (an ordinary home freezer he had lined with black velvet and into which was directed a narrow beam of light) was not as cold as usual, so he placed a block of dry ice in the bottom of the freezer. Within seconds the entire cloud of water droplets in the cold box was turned into millions of tiny, sparkling ice crystals. Serendipitously, Schaefer found the trigger that converted super-cooled droplets into ice crystals.

  7. Topical Review: Translating Translational Research in Behavioral Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Kevin A; Modi, Avani C; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Myers, James D

    2015-01-01

    To present a model of translational research for behavioral science that communicates the role of behavioral research at each phase of translation. A task force identified gaps in knowledge regarding behavioral translational research processes and made recommendations regarding advancement of knowledge. A comprehensive model of translational behavioral research was developed. This model represents T1, T2, and T3 research activities, as well as Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 clinical trials. Clinical illustrations of translational processes are also offered as support for the model. Behavioral science has struggled with defining a translational research model that effectively articulates each stage of translation and complements biomedical research. Our model defines key activities at each phase of translation from basic discovery to dissemination/implementation. This should be a starting point for communicating the role of behavioral science in translational research and a catalyst for better integration of biomedical and behavioral research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  9. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  10. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  11. Maailmakuulus kirjandusteoreetik Uku Masingust / Vincent B Leitch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leitch, Vincent B

    1999-01-01

    Refereering ameerika professori Vincent B. Leitchi 25 aastat tagasi ajakirjas Journal of Baltic Studies avaldatud artiklist "Usuline nägemus uuemas luules. Uku Masing võrdluses Hopkinsi ja Eliotiga"

  12. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  13. Translational Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  14. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes.......  It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...

  15. Vincent Vuillemin: Consolidating CERN’s technical base

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Former head of the Technical Support Department, Vincent Vuillemin is pursuing his mission as the head of the new Engineering Department. The remodelled department is working towards the resumption of LHC operations, on the Laboratory’s numerous projects and consolidation of the existing facilities. Vincent Vuillemin studies the table spread out on his broad office desk, showing his department’s projects. Red shows top-priority projects, blue is for projects under development and yellow is for future projects. Of course, the top red slot is reserved for the LHC. "Getting the LHC back into service is our absolute top priority," states Vuillemin. Whenever a technical difficulty arose with the LHC project—from defects in the cryogenic distribution line to the manufacturing problems that affected the collimators—the teams of the Technical Support Department (TS), now the Engineering Department (EN), were at the forefront, making u...

  16. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  17. Knowledge translation of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P; Lavis, John N; Hill, Sophie J; Squires, Janet E

    2012-05-31

    One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the

  18. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  19. Lionfish on the Loose in the Waters off Saint Vincent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, J S; Young, J; Gupta, R

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the exotic venomous species, Pterois volitans (lionfish) had reached as far south as St Vincent in the Caribbean. This predatory marine fish has successfully invaded the waters of the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. Such success as an exotic invasive species is rare for a predatory marine fish. It is possible that the fish are growing larger and spreading faster than anticipated, thanks to a lower burden of parasites and a paucity of natural predators in their new environment. But prior to this report, no sightings of this species this far south had been reported. The authors conducted a search along with the help of local divers and fishermen in the waters of St Vincent. Approximately one year after the initiation of the search, a juvenile specimen was positively confirmed and captured off the southern coast of St Vincent. The exotic predatory and venomous red lionfish, Pterois volitans, has successfully invaded marine waters as far south as the Windward Islands. Fishermen in these regions should be aware of this venomous species in the region and physicians must be aware of how to manage stings from such animals.

  20. St Vincent Youth and Careers in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole; Ganpat, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Given the ageing farming population in the Caribbean and the importance of agriculture to economy, there is cause for concern about the future of farming. This study seeks to explore the extent to which students pursuing agriculture in secondary schools in St Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) were likely to engage in farming as well as…

  1. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  2. Lionfish on the Loose in the Waters off St Vincent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, JS; Young, J; Gupta, R

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if the exotic venomous species, Pterois volitans (lionfish) had reached as far south as St Vincent in the Caribbean. This predatory marine fish has successfully invaded the waters of the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. Such success as an exotic invasive species is rare for a predatory marine fish. It is possible that the fish are growing larger and spreading faster than anticipated, thanks to a lower burden of parasites and a paucity of natural predators in their new environment. But prior to this report, no sightings of this species this far south had been reported. Methods The authors conducted a search along with the help of local divers and fishermen in the waters of St Vincent. Results Approximately one year after the initiation of the search, a juvenile specimen was positively confirmed and captured off the southern coast of St Vincent. Conclusions The exotic predatory and venomous red lionfish, Pterois volitans, has successfully invaded marine waters as far south as the Windward Islands. Fishermen in these regions should be aware of this venomous species in the region and physicians must be aware of how to manage stings from such animals. PMID:25303255

  3. Translational Science Research: Towards Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Festic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though it is considered a 21st century term, translational research has been present for much longer. Idea of translating experimental discovery to its’ clinical application and use is old as research itself. However, it is the understanding of missing links between the basic science research and clinical research that emerged in the past decade and mobilized scientific and clinical communities and organizations worldwide. Hence term, translational research, which represents an “enterprise of harnessing knowledge from basic sciences to produce new drugs, devices, and treatment options for patients” (1. It has been also characterized as “effective translation of the new knowledge, mechanisms, and techniques generated by advances in basic science research into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, which is essential for improving health” (2.This translation is a complex process and involves more than one step for transfer of research knowledge. At least 3 such roadblocks have been identified (Figure 1 ; T1 translation: “The transfer of new understandings of disease mechanisms gained in the laboratory into the development of new methods for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention and their first testing in humans”, T2 translation: “The translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making”, and T3 translation: “Practice-based research, which is often necessary before distilled knowledge (e.g., systematic reviews, guidelines can be implemented in practice” (3-5.The international research community rapidly recognized importance for promotion of translational research and made it their priority(5. In the USA, National Institutes of Health, (NIH expects to fund 60 translational research centers with a budget of $500 million per year by 2012 (6. Besides academic centers, foundations, industry, disease-related organizations, and individual hospitals and

  4. Translational research: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, M Cecilia; Kirkbride, Geri; Wade, Kristen; Ferrell, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Little is known about which approaches facilitate adoption and sustainment of evidence-based practice change in the highly complex care environments that constitute clinical practice today. The purpose of this article was to complete a concept analysis of translational research using a modified Walker and Avant approach. DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION: Using a rigorous and thorough review of the recent health care literature generated by a deep electronic search from 2004-2011, 85 appropriate documents were retrieved. Close reading of the articles by three coresearchers yielded an analysis of the emerging concept of translational research. Using the iterative process described by Walker and Avant, a tentative definition of the concept of translational research, along with antecedents and consequences were identified. Implications for health care professionals in education, practice, and research are offered. Further research is needed to determine the adequacy of the definition, to identify empirical referents, and to guide theory development. The study resulted in a theoretical definition of the concept of translational research, along with identification of antecedents and consequences and a description of an ideal or model case to illustrate the definition. Implications for practice and education include the importance of focusing on translational research approaches that may reduce the research-practice gap in health care, thereby improving patient care delivery. Research is needed to determine the usefulness of the definition in health care clinical practice.

  5. 76 FR 29811 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-St. Vincent and the Grenadines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Insurance or Pension System--St. Vincent and the Grenadines AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA) ACTION: Notice of Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System--St. Vincent and the... country which the Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system...

  6. 2690-IJBCS-Article-N'goran David Vincent K

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    régime fourrager supplémenté par la farine de poisson et/ou du maïs-grain durant le cycle de reproduction. N'Goran David Vincent KOUAKOU* et Yao Brice Savier BROU. Département de Formation et de Recherche Agriculture et Ressources animales, Institut National. Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny, B.P. 1313 ...

  7. Translating Alcohol Research: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M; Miles, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of stream-lining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD.

  8. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.

  9. Evaluating Translational Research: A Process Marker Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochim, William; Kane, Cathleen; Graham, Mark J.; Pincus, Harold A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We examine the concept of translational research from the perspective of evaluators charged with assessing translational efforts. One of the major tasks for evaluators involved in translational research is to help assess efforts that aim to reduce the time it takes to move research to practice and health impacts. Another is to assess efforts that are intended to increase the rate and volume of translation. Methods: We offer an alternative to the dominant contemporary tendency to define translational research in terms of a series of discrete “phases.”Results: We contend that this phased approach has been confusing and that it is insufficient as a basis for evaluation. Instead, we argue for the identification of key operational and measurable markers along a generalized process pathway from research to practice. Conclusions: This model provides a foundation for the evaluation of interventions designed to improve translational research and the integration of these findings into a field of translational studies. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 153–162 PMID:21707944

  10. Magmagenesis at Soufriere volcano St Vincent, Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, E.; Macdonald, R.; Belkin, H.; Hawkesworth, C.; Sigurdsson, Haraldur

    1998-01-01

    Soufriere volcano of St Vincent (3 wt %, whereas various projections onto phase diagrams are more consistent with relatively anhydrous magmas. Primary magmas at Soufriere were generated by around 15% melting of mid-ocean ridge basalt type mantle sources which had been modified by addition of fluids released from the slab containing contributions from subducted sediments and mafic crust.

  11. Design and Statistics in Quantitative Translation (Process) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, translation research has been qualitative, but quantitative research is becoming increasingly important, especially in translation process research but also in other areas of translation studies. This poses problems to many translation scholars since this way of thinking...... is unfamiliar. In this article, we attempt to mitigate these problems by outlining our approach to good quantitative research, all the way from research questions and study design to data preparation and statistics. We concentrate especially on the nature of the variables involved, both in terms of their scale...... and their role in the design; this has implications for both design and choice of statistics. Although we focus on quantitative research, we also argue that such research should be supplemented with qualitative analyses and considerations of the translation product....

  12. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... we must act”1 - Translation of research outcome for health policy, strategy and ... others iron-out existing gaps on Health Policy .... within the broader framework of global call and ... research: defining the terrain; identifying.

  14. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2015-06-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  16. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  17. How should we assess knowledge translation in research organizations; designing a knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Jaleh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nedjat, Sima; Maleki, Katayoun; Ashoorkhani, Mahnaz; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh

    2011-02-22

    The knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI) was designed to assess the status of knowledge translation in research institutes. The objective was, to identify the weaknesses and strengths of knowledge translation in research centres and faculties associated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). The tool, consisting of 50 statements in four main domains, was used in 20 TUMS-affiliated research centres and departments after its reliability was established. It was completed in a group discussion by the members of the research council, researchers and research users' representatives from each centre and/or department. The mean score obtained in the four domains of 'The question of research', 'Knowledge production', 'Knowledge transfer' and 'Promoting the use of evidence' were 2.26, 2.92, 2 and 1.89 (out of 5) respectively.Nine out of 12 interventional priorities with the lowest quartile score were related to knowledge transfer resources and strategies, whereas eight of them were in the highest quartile and related to 'The question of research' and 'Knowledge production'. The self-assessment tool identifies the gaps in capacity and infrastructure of knowledge translation support within research organizations. Assessment of research institutes using SATORI pointed out that strengthening knowledge translation through provision of financial support for knowledge translation activities, creating supportive and facilitating infrastructures, and facilitating interactions between researchers and target audiences to exchange questions and research findings are among the priorities of research centres and/or departments.

  18. 33 CFR 207.610 - St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor and U.S. breakwater. 207.610 Section 207... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.610 St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  19. Vincent Alexander Bochdalek (1801-1883).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; El-Sedfy, Abraham; Tubbs, R Shane; Gribben, Walter B; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Cermakova, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Vincent Alexander Bochdalek, Czech anatomist and professor, was one of the pioneers in describing congenital diaphragmatic hernias in newborns. Interestingly, there is very little in the literature and almost nothing in the English literature regarding this important medical figure. A dedicated individual, Bochdalek had great perseverance, which allowed him to surpass obstacles in both his personal life and career. He is recognized for his accurate description of posterior diaphragmatic herniation, for which during his lifetime, there was no treatment. In addition, Bochdalek has multiple eponyms in his honor: ganglion Bochdalecki, Bochdalek's basket, and the valves of Bochdalek. Always steadfast in his beliefs, Bochdalek fought for the creation of anatomy labs in Prague against society pressures. His devoted study of anatomy, especially of congenital diaphragmatic hernias, laid the foundation for the successful surgical correction of this once lethal anomaly.

  20. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe...... itself, into regions like cognitive psychology, psycho- and neurolinguistics, and neuroscience, where the interest in what goes on in our heads is also very strong.......The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer...... which simultaneously tracks the translator’s eye movements across a screen displaying both a source text and the translator’s emerging translation. This research method was developed as a means of qualifying and strengthening translation process hypotheses based on verbal reports by providing additional...

  1. Bringing translation out of the shadows: translation as an issue of methodological significance in cross-cultural qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai

    2010-04-01

    Translation is an integral component of cross-cultural research that has remained invisible. It is commonly assumed that translation is an objective and neutral process, in which the translators are "technicians" in producing texts in different languages. Drawing from the field of translation studies and the findings of a translation exercise conducted with three bilingual Cantonese-English translators, the authors highlight some of the methodological issues about translation in cross-cultural qualitative research. They argue that only by making translation visible and through open dialogue can researchers uncover the richness embedded in the research data and facilitate multiple ways of knowing.

  2. Type 2 Translational Research for CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuttle, Katherine R.; Tuot, Delphine S.; Corbett, Cynthia L.; Setter, Stephen M.; Powe, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies to effectively treat people with CKD have been identified by conventional clinical research. Despite this evidence, awareness, screening, detection, diagnosis, risk factor control, treatment, and outcomes remain substandard. Translating clinical evidence into actionable measures that reduce the burden of CKD is a pressing need. Expansion from a “bench-to-bedside” paradigm (conventional type 1 translation) to research that encompasses “clinic and community” is the core concept of ty...

  3. The Culture of Translational Science Research: Participants' Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Wooten, Kevin; Freeman, Jean; Brasier, Allan R

    2013-01-01

    We apply a symbolic interactionist framework and a qualitative methodology to the examination of the everyday reality of translational science research (TSR). This is a growing scientific movement that aims to facilitate the efficient application of basic research to clinical service design and delivery. We describe the emerging culture of translational research at a mid-size medical center that received a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health. The stories related by scientists, clinicians, and students in interviews indicate that they make sense of the emerging inter- and cross-disciplinary, team-oriented culture of TSR through the refinement and redefinition of the significant symbols that inform their work while they attempt to master translational research by addressing the dilemmas it produces for them and their work. We see the strength, currency, adaptability, and energy of the core self-definition of "scientist" to be significant in shaping the emerging culture of translational research. We conclude by celebrating the value of interpretive ethnography for evaluation research.

  4. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  5. Situation Reports--Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, Surinam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, and Surinam. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth and death rates, G. N. P.,…

  6. The Continuing Challenges of Translational Research: Clinician-Scientists’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, revolutionary advances in biomedicine including gene therapy, stem cell research, proteomics, genomics and nanotechnology have highlighted the progressive need to restructure traditional approaches to basic and clinical research in order to facilitate the rapid, efficient integration and translation of these new technologies into novel effective therapeutics. Over the past ten years, funding bodies in the USA and UK such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH and the Medical Research Council (MRC have been driving translational research by defining and tackling the hurdles but more still remains to be achieved. This article discusses the ongoing challenges translational researchers face and outlines recent initiatives to tackle these including the new changes to translational funding schemes proposed by the NIH and the MRC and the launch of the “European Advanced Translational Research InfraStructure in Medicine” (EATRIS. It is anticipated that initiatives such as these will not only strengthen translational biomedical research programmes already initiated but should lead to rapid benefits to patients and society.

  7. Quantifying complexity in translational research: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, David A; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify complexity in translational research. The impact of major operational steps and technical requirements is calculated with respect to their ability to accelerate moving new discoveries into clinical practice. A three-phase integrated quality function deployment (QFD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to quantify complexity in translational research. A case study in obesity was used to usability. Generally, the evidence generated was valuable for understanding various components in translational research. Particularly, the authors found that collaboration networks, multidisciplinary team capacity and community engagement are crucial for translating new discoveries into practice. As the method is mainly based on subjective opinion, some argue that the results may be biased. However, a consistency ratio is calculated and used as a guide to subjectivity. Alternatively, a larger sample may be incorporated to reduce bias. The integrated QFD-AHP framework provides evidence that could be helpful to generate agreement, develop guidelines, allocate resources wisely, identify benchmarks and enhance collaboration among similar projects. Current conceptual models in translational research provide little or no clue to assess complexity. The proposed method aimed to fill this gap. Additionally, the literature review includes various features that have not been explored in translational research.

  8. Bastyr/UW Oncomycology Translational Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: FungiProgram: Partnerships for CAM Clinical Translational ResearchDescription:Trametes versicolor is an immunologically active medicinal mushroom that...

  9. The quality of translated medical research questionnaires | Fourie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various steps researchers follow when translating their questionnaires or other texts are considered, ... The design, translation approach and quality of the original translations are explained, along with the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  11. DW4TR: A Data Warehouse for Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Correll, Mick; Kvecher, Leonid; Osmond, Michelle; Clark, Jim; Bekhash, Anthony; Schwab, Gwendolyn; Gao, De; Gao, Jun; Kubatin, Vladimir; Shriver, Craig D; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Maxwell, Larry G; Kovatich, Albert J; Sheldon, Jonathan G; Liebman, Michael N; Mural, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    The linkage between the clinical and laboratory research domains is a key issue in translational research. Integration of clinicopathologic data alone is a major task given the number of data elements involved. For a translational research environment, it is critical to make these data usable at the point-of-need. Individual systems have been developed to meet the needs of particular projects though the need for a generalizable system has been recognized. Increased use of Electronic Medical Record data in translational research will demand generalizing the system for integrating clinical data to support the study of a broad range of human diseases. To ultimately satisfy these needs, we have developed a system to support multiple translational research projects. This system, the Data Warehouse for Translational Research (DW4TR), is based on a light-weight, patient-centric modularly-structured clinical data model and a specimen-centric molecular data model. The temporal relationships of the data are also part of the model. The data are accessed through an interface composed of an Aggregated Biomedical-Information Browser (ABB) and an Individual Subject Information Viewer (ISIV) which target general users. The system was developed to support a breast cancer translational research program and has been extended to support a gynecological disease program. Further extensions of the DW4TR are underway. We believe that the DW4TR will play an important role in translational research across multiple disease types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership Development Lead (TPDL) who will work closely with the Office of Translational Resources (OTR) within the Office of the Director (OD) of NCI’s Center for Cancer Research (CCR) to facilitate the successful translation of CCR’s basic and preclinical research advances into new therapeutics and diagnostics. The TPDL with be strategically aligned within FNLCR’s Partnership Development Office (PDO), to maximally leverage the critical mass of expertise available within the PDO. CCR comprises the basic and clinical components of the NCI’s Intramural Research Program (IRP) and consists of ~230 basic and clinical Investigators located at either the NIH main campus in Bethesda or the NCI-Frederick campus. CCR Investigators are focused primarily on cancer and HIV/AIDS, with special emphasis on the most challenging and important high-risk/high-reward problems driving the fields. (See https://ccr.cancer.gov for a full delineation of CCR Investigators and their research activities.) The process of developing research findings into new clinical applications is high risk, complex, variable, and requires multiple areas of expertise seldom available within the confines of a single Investigator’s laboratory. To accelerate this process, OTR serves as a unifying force within CCR for all aspects of translational activities required to achieve success and maintain timely progress. A key aspect of OTR’s function is to develop and strengthen essential communications and collaborations within NIH, with extramural partners and with industry to bring together experts in chemistry, human subjects research

  13. Can Tymoczko be translated into Africa? Refractions of research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers the implications of current developments in research methodology in translation studies for translation studies in Africa. It makes use of Tymoczko's (2006, 2007) arguments in favour of the internationalisation of translation studies as well as her notions on the underlying logic of research and definition ...

  14. Challenges in translational research: the views of addiction scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place.

  15. A Translational Model of Research-Practice Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Dina; Hershenberg, Rachel; Teachman, Bethany A.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Wolfe, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-level, recursive Research-Practice Integration framework as a heuristic to (a) integrate and reflect on the articles in this Special Section as contributing to a bidirectional bridge between research and practice, and (b) consider additional opportunities to address the research–practice gap. Level 1 addresses Treatment Validation studies and includes an article by Lochman and colleagues concerning the programmatic adaptation, implementation, and dissemination of the empirically supported Coping Power treatment program for youth aggression. Level 2 translation, Training in Evidence-Based Practice, includes a paper by Hershenberg, Drabick, and Vivian, which focuses on the critical role that predoctoral training plays in bridging the research–practice gap. Level 3 addresses the Assessment of Clinical Utility and Feedback to Research aspects of translation. The articles by Lambert and Youn, Kraus, and Castonguay illustrate the use of commercial outcome packages that enable psychotherapists to integrate ongoing client assessment, thus enhancing the effectiveness of treatment implementation and providing data that can be fed back to researchers. Lastly, Level 4 translation, the Cross-Level Integrative Research and Communication, concerns research efforts that integrate data from clinical practice and all other levels of translation, as well as communication efforts among all stakeholders, such as researchers, psychotherapists, and clients. Using a two-chair technique as a framework for his discussion, Wolfe's article depicts the struggle inherent in research–practice integration efforts and proposes a rapprochement that highlights advancements in the field. PMID:22642522

  16. Bridging the Gap: A Canadian Perspective on Translational Kidney Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber O Molnar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of review: Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 3 million Canadians. Ongoing investment in high quality kidney research is needed to improve the care of patients with kidney disease. The barriers to translating such research are discussed in this review. Sources of information: Personal knowledge, research funding body websites, and published reports. Findings: In this review, we discuss the meaning of the term translational research and present some of the programs aimed at ensuring efficient translation of scientific discoveries with a discussion of the barriers to translation. We highlight some successes and barriers to kidney research translation using recent examples of research in Canadian nephrology. We present the following examples of kidney research: (1 research aimed at identifying the causative genes for inherited kidney diseases; (2 recent discoveries in cell-based therapies for kidney disease; (3 an examination of the impact of acute kidney injury in renal transplant patients; and (4 the development of a kidney failure risk equation to improve prognosis accuracy. Limitations: This review focuses on research conducted by the authors. Implications: The process of research translation is prolonged and challenging and therefore requires resources, patience, and careful planning. With increased awareness and understanding of the barriers to research translation, researchers and funding bodies can work together to increase the rate at which important research findings reach clinical practice and improve the care of patients with kidney disease.

  17. A. Balasopoulos on Vincent Geoghegan’s Utopianism and Marxism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Geoghegan, Utopianism and Marxism. Oxford et al: Peter Lang, 2008. pp. 189. ISBN: 3039101374In his contribution to Lenin Reloaded: Toward a Politics of Truth, Alain Badiou forcefully argues that the century, “between 1917 and the end of the 1970s, is not at all a century of ideologies, or the imaginary or of utopias, as the liberals would have it today. Its subjective determination is Leninist. It is the passion of the real, of what is immediately practicable, here and now.” These wo...

  18. From Translational Research to Translational Effectiveness: The “Patient-Centered Dental Home” Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chiappelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Toward revitalizing the Nation’s primary medical care system, the Agency for Health Research & Quality (AHRQ stated that new foundational measures must be crafted for achieving high-quality, accessible, efficient health care for all Americans. The efficiency of medical care is viewed along two dimensions: first, we must continue to pursue translational research; and second, we must translate research to optimize effectiveness in specific clinical settings. It is increasingly evident that the efficiency of both translational processes is critical to the revitalization of health care, and that it rests on the practical functionality of the nexus among three cardinal entities: the researcher, the clinician, and the patient. A novel model has evolved that encapsulates this notion, and that proposes the advanced pri-mary care “medical home”, more commonly referred to as the “patient-centered medical home” (PCMH. It is a promising model for transforming the organization and delivery of primary medical care, because it is not simply a place per se, but it is a function-ing unit that delivers medical care along the fundamental principles of being patient-centered, comprehensive, coordinated, and accessible. It is energized by translational research, and its principal aim and ultimate goal is translational effectiveness. The PCMH is a model that works well within the priorities set by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and the Health Care Reform Act of 2010. However, while dentistry has a clearly defined place in both Acts, the PCMH is designed for medical and nursing care. A parallel model of the “patient-centered dental home” (PCDH must be realized.

  19. Translational research-the need of a new bioethics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan

    2016-01-15

    Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research.

  20. Lost in translation: Review of identification bias, translation bias and research waste in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To review how articles are retrieved from bibliographic databases, what article identification and translation problems have affected research, and how these problems can contribute to research waste and affect clinical practice. This literature review sought and appraised articles regarding identification- and translation-bias in the medical and dental literature, which limit the ability of users to find research articles and to use these in practice. Articles can be retrieved from bibliographic databases by performing a word or index-term (for example, MeSH for MEDLINE) search. Identification of articles is challenging when it is not clear which words are most relevant, and which terms have been allocated to indexing fields. Poor reporting quality of abstracts and articles has been reported across the medical literature at large. Specifically in dentistry, research regarding time-to-event survival analyses found the allocation of MeSH terms to be inconsistent and inaccurate, important words were omitted from abstracts by authors, and the quality of reporting in the body of articles was generally poor. These shortcomings mean that articles will be difficult to identify, and difficult to understand if found. Use of specialized electronic search strategies can decrease identification bias, and use of tailored reporting guidelines can decrease translation bias. Research that cannot be found, or cannot be used results in research waste, and undermines clinical practice. Identification- and translation-bias have been shown to affect time-to-event dental articles, are likely affect other fields of research, and are largely unrecognized by authors and evidence seekers alike. By understanding that the problems exist, solutions can be sought to improve identification and translation of our research. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  2. Translational Environmental Research: Improving the Usefulness and Usability of Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, requests for proposals more frequently emphasize outreach to stakeholder communities, decision support, and science that serves societal needs. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and Western States Water Council emphasize the need for science translation and outreach, in order to address societal concerns with climate extremes, such as drought, the use of climate predictions, and the growing challenges of climate change. In the 1990s, the NOAA Climate Program Office developed its Regional Integrated Sciences and Asssessments program to help bridge the gap between climate science (notably, seasonal predictions) and society, to improve the flow of information to stakeholders, and to increase the relevance of climate science to inform decisions. During the same time period, the National Science Foundation initiated multi-year Science and Technology Centers and Decision Making Under Uncertainty Centers, with similar goals, but different metrics of success. Moreover, the combination of population growth, climate change, and environmental degradation has prompted numerous research initiatives on linking knowledge and action for sustainable development. This presentation reviews various models and methodologies for translating science results from field, lab, or modeling work to use by society. Lessons and approaches from cooperative extension, boundary organizations, co-production of science and policy, and medical translational research are examined. In particular, multi-step translation as practiced within the health care community is examined. For example, so- called "T1" (translation 1) research moves insights from basic science to clinical research; T2 research evaluates the effectiveness of clinical practice, who benefits from promising care regimens, and develops tools for clinicians, patients, and policy makers. T3 activities test the implementation, delivery, and spread of research results and clinical practices in order to foster

  3. Writing and translation process research: Bridging the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Dam-Jensen & Carmen Heine

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Writing and translation are traditionally addressed as two different objects of study. However, they also share many characteristics - as revealed by the research carried out in the two fields, which often uses the same methods to investigate both areas. In this introduction, it is suggested that writing and translation can be studied as types of text production. Different dimensions of text production are sketched as examples of research topics at the interface between writing and translation. The two articles that follow this introduction explore two such dimensions: competence and profiles.

  4. Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symposium Title: Social Determinants of Health, Environmental Exposures, and Disproportionately Impacted Communities: What We Know and How We Tell Others Topic 3: Community Engagement and Research Translation Title: Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communicati...

  5. Eruption of soufriere volcano on st. Vincent island, 1971-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, W P; Sigurdsson, H; Shepherd, J B

    1973-07-13

    The Soufrière volcano in St. Vincent erupted from October 1971 to March 1972, as 80 x 10(6) m(3) of basaltic andesite lava was quietly extruded inside the mile-wide crater. The eruption was largely subaqueous, taking place in the 180-m-deep crater lake, and resulted in the emergence of a steep-sided island. The mild character of the eruption and the absence of seismic activity stand in direct contrast to the highly explosive character of the eruption of 1902 to 1903.

  6. Proposal for a telehealth concept in the translational research model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angélica Baptista; Morel, Carlos Médicis; Moraes, Ilara Hämmerli Sozzi de

    2014-04-01

    To review the conceptual relationship between telehealth and translational research. Bibliographical search on telehealth was conducted in the Scopus, Cochrane BVS, LILACS and MEDLINE databases to find experiences of telehealth in conjunction with discussion of translational research in health. The search retrieved eight studies based on analysis of models of the five stages of translational research and the multiple strands of public health policy in the context of telehealth in Brazil. The models were applied to telehealth activities concerning the Network of Human Milk Banks, in the Telemedicine University Network. The translational research cycle of human milk collected, stored and distributed presents several integrated telehealth initiatives, such as video conferencing, and software and portals for synthesizing knowledge, composing elements of an information ecosystem, mediated by information and communication technologies in the health system. Telehealth should be composed of a set of activities in a computer mediated network promoting the translation of knowledge between research and health services.

  7. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  8. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  9. Toward a Framework for Translational Research in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses a translational research framework for school psychology. Translational research uses outcomes of basic and applied science to enhance the overall well-being of persons. This transdisciplinary framework connects disciplines and uses their resources, capacities, systems, and procedures to advance prevention, intervention, and…

  10. Lost in Translation: Methodological Considerations in Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2007-01-01

    In cross-cultural child development research there is often a need to translate instruments and instructions to languages other than English. Typically, the translation process focuses on ensuring linguistic equivalence. However, establishment of linguistic equivalence through translation techniques is often not sufficient to guard against…

  11. Is translational research compatible with preclinical publication strategies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Stig; Shoshan, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    The term 'translational research' is used to describe the transfer of basic biological knowledge into practical medicine, a process necessary for motivation of public spending. In the area of cancer therapeutics, it is becoming increasingly evident that results obtained in vitro and in animal models are difficult to translate into clinical medicine. We here argue that a number of factors contribute to making the translation process inefficient. These factors include the use of sensitive cell lines and fast growing experimental tumors as targets for novel therapies, and the use of unrealistic drug concentrations and radiation doses. We also argue that aggressive interpretation of data, successful in hypothesis-building biological research, does not form a solid base for development of clinically useful treatment modalities. We question whether 'clean' results obtained in simplified models, expected for publication in high-impact journals, represent solid foundations for improved treatment of patients. Open-access journals such as Radiation Oncology have a large mission to fulfill by publishing relevant data to be used for making actual progress in translational cancer research

  12. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Caldas, Carlos; van Luenen, Henri; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim H

    2013-10-29

    It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in translational cancer research; improving the quality and efficiency of the translational cancer research process. This can help build networks of excellent Centres by aiding focused partnerships. In this paper we report on a consensus building exercise that was undertaken to construct an excellence assessment framework for translational cancer research in Europe. We used mixed methods to reach consensus: a systematic review of existing translational research models critically appraised for suitability in performance assessment of Cancer Centres; a survey among European stakeholders (researchers, clinicians, patient representatives and managers) to score a list of potential excellence criteria, a focus group with selected representatives of survey participants to review and rescore the excellence criteria; an expert group meeting to refine the list; an open validation round with stakeholders and a critical review of the emerging framework by an independent body: a committee formed by the European Academy of Cancer Sciences. The resulting excellence assessment framework has 18 criteria categorized in 6 themes. Each criterion has a number of questions/sub-criteria. Stakeholders favoured using qualitative excellence criteria to evaluate the translational research "process" rather than quantitative criteria or judging only the outputs. Examples of criteria include checking if the Centre has mechanisms that can be rated as excellent for: involvement of basic researchers and clinicians in translational research (quality of supervision and incentives provided to clinicians to do a PhD in translational research) and well designed clinical trials based on ground-breaking concepts (innovative

  13. From translational research to open technology innovation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, Clive; Fortune, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to question whether the emphasis placed within translational research on a linear model of innovation provides the most effective model for managing health technology innovation. Several alternative perspectives are presented that have potential to enhance the existing model of translational research. A case study is presented of innovation of a clinical decision support system. The paper concludes from the case study that an extending the triple helix model of technology transfer, to one based on a quadruple helix, present a basis for improving the performance translational research. A case study approach is used to help understand development of an innovative technology within a teaching hospital. The case is then used to develop and refine a model of the health technology innovation system. The paper concludes from the case study that existing models of translational research could be refined further through the development of a quadruple helix model of heath technology innovation that encompasses greater emphasis on user-led and open innovation perspectives. The paper presents several implications for future research based on the need to enhance the model of health technology innovation used to guide policy and practice. The quadruple helix model of innovation that is proposed can potentially guide alterations to the existing model of translational research in the healthcare sector. Several suggestions are made for how innovation activity can be better supported at both a policy and operational level. This paper presents a synthesis of the innovation literature applied to a theoretically important case of open innovation in the UK National Health Service. It draws in perspectives from other industrial sectors and applies them specifically to the management and organisation of innovation activities around health technology and the services in which they are embedded.

  14. Group Organization and Communities of Practice in Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Krawczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.

  15. Translation of an instrument. The US-Nordic Family Dynamics Nursing Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M; Elander, G

    1992-01-01

    Translation of a research instrument questionnaire from English to another language is analyzed in relation to principles involved, procedures followed, and problems confronted by nurse researchers from the US-Nordic Family Dynamics Nursing Research Project. Of paramount importance in translation are translation equivalency, congruent value orientation, and careful use of colloquialisms. It is important to recognize that copyright guidelines apply in the translation of an instrument. Approaches to solving instrument translation problems are discussed.

  16. On using ethical principles of community-engaged research in translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Mikesell, Lisa; Schraiber, Ron; Booth, Marika; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The transfer of new discoveries into both clinical practice and the wider community calls for reliance on interdisciplinary translational teams that include researchers with different areas of expertise, representatives of health care systems and community organizations, and patients. Engaging new stakeholders in research, however, calls for a reconsideration or expansion of the meaning of ethics in translational research. We explored expert opinion on the applicability of ethical principles commonly practiced in community-engaged research (CEnR) to translational research. To do so, we conducted 2 online, modified-Delphi panels with 63 expert stakeholders who iteratively rated and discussed 9 ethical principles commonly used in CEnR in terms of their importance and feasibility for use in translational research. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used to analyze the data and determine agreement and disagreement among participating experts. Both panels agreed that ethical translational research should be "grounded in trust." Although the academic panel endorsed "culturally appropriate" and "forthcoming with community about study risks and benefits," the mixed academic-community panel endorsed "scientifically valid" and "ready to involve community in interpretation and dissemination" as important and feasible principles of ethical translational research. These findings suggest that in addition to protecting human subjects, contemporary translational science models need to account for the interests of, and owe ethical obligations to, members of the investigative team and the community at large. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Translational Research: It's Not 1960s Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Edwards, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors find Critchfield's article ("Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior," "The Behavior Analyst," v34, p3-17, 2011) scholarly, clear, and insightful. In it, Critchfield provides an excellent overview of translational research in behavior analysis and suggests several general strategies for increasing the…

  18. Reorganizing the General Clinical Research Center to improve the clinical and translational research enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Ripley, Elizabeth; Coe, Antoinette; Clore, John

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) was granted a Clinical and Translational Science Award which prompted reorganization and expansion of their clinical research infrastructure. A case study approach is used to describe the implementation of a business and cost recovery model for clinical and translational research and the transformation of VCU's General Clinical Research Center and Clinical Trials Office to a combined Clinical Research Services entity. We outline the use of a Plan, Do, Study, Act cycle that facilitated a thoughtful transition process, which included the identification of required changes and cost recovery processes for implementation. Through this process, the VCU Center for Clinical and Translational Research improved efficiency, increased revenue recovered, reduced costs, and brought a high level of fiscal responsibility through financial reporting.

  19. Integrating Bioethics into Clinical and Translational Science Research: A Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.; Layde, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent initiatives to improve human health emphasize the need to effectively and appropriately translate new knowledge gleaned from basic biomedical and behavioral research to clinical and community application. To maximize the beneficial impact of scientific advances in clinical practice and community health, and to guard against potential deleterious medical and societal consequences of such advances, incorporation of bioethics at each stage of clinical and translational science research is essential. At the earliest stage, bioethics input is critical to address issues such as whether to limit certain areas of scientific inquiry. Subsequently, bioethics input is important to assure not only that human subjects trials are conducted and reported responsibly, but also that results are incorporated into clinical and community practices in a way that promotes and protects bioethical principles. At the final stage of clinical and translational science research, bioethics helps to identify the need and approach for refining clinical practices when safety or other concerns arise. The framework we present depicts how bioethics interfaces with each stage of clinical and translational science research, and suggests an important research agenda for systematically and comprehensively assuring bioethics input into clinical and translational science initiatives. PMID:20443821

  20. Translational educational research: a necessity for effective health-care improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Issenberg, S Barry; Cohen, Elaine R; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Wayne, Diane B

    2012-11-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research.

  1. Establishment of research-oriented hospital: an important way for translational medicine development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEINA LI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, one of the major trends is the development of translational medicine. The traditional hospital structure could not meet the demands of translational medicine development any longer and to explore a novel hospital structure is imperative. Following the times, China proposed and implemented a development strategy for a first-class modern research-oriented hospital. To establish a research-oriented hospital has become an important strategy to guide the scientific development of high-quality medical institutions and to advance translational medicine development. To facilitate translational medicine by developing research-oriented hospital, the Chinese Research Hospital Association (CRHA has been established, which provides service of medicine, talents cultivation, scientific research and clinical teaching and covers areas of theoretical research, academic exchange, translational medicine, talents training and practice guiding. On the whole, research-oriented hospital facilitated translational medicine by developing interdisciplinary platform, training core competencies in clinical and translational research, providing financial support of translational research, and hosting journals on translational medicine, etc.

  2. The Benefits of Patient Involvement for Translational Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, L. van der; Garcia, E.; Laan, A.L. van der; Burg, S. van der; Boenink, M.

    2017-01-01

    The question we raise in this paper is, whether patient involvement might be a beneficial way to help determine and achieve the aims of translational (TR) research and, if so, how to proceed. TR is said to ensure a more effective movement ('translation') of basic scientific findings to relevant and

  3. Broadening measures of success: results of a behavioral health translational research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A; Williamson, Heather J; Eaves, Emery R; Levin, Bruce L; Burton, Donna L; Massey, Oliver T

    2017-07-24

    While some research training programs have considered the importance of mentoring in inspiring professionals to engage in translational research, most evaluations emphasize outcomes specific to academic productivity as primary measures of training program success. The impact of such training or mentoring programs on stakeholders and local community organizations engaged in translational research efforts has received little attention. The purpose of this evaluation is to explore outcomes other than traditional academic productivity in a translational research graduate certificate program designed to pair graduate students and behavioral health professionals in collaborative service-learning projects. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with scholars, community mentors, and academic mentors were conducted regarding a translational research program to identify programmatic impacts. Interviews were transcribed and coded by the research team to identify salient themes related to programmatic outcomes. Results are framed using the Translational Research Impact Scale which is organized into three overarching domains of potential impact: (1) research-related impacts, (2) translational impacts, and (3) societal impacts. This evaluation demonstrates the program's impact in all three domains of the TRIS evaluation framework. Graduate certificate participants (scholars) reported that gaining experience in applied behavioral health settings added useful skills and expertise to their present careers and increased their interest in pursuing translational research. Scholars also described benefits resulting from networks gained through participation in the program, including valuable ties between the university and community behavioral health organizations. This evaluation of the outcomes of a graduate certificate program providing training in translational research highlights the need for more community-oriented and practice-based measures of success. Encouraging practitioner

  4. Translational research in kidney transplantation and the role of patient engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farragher, Janine F; Elliott, Meghan J; Silver, Samuel A; Lichner, Zsuzsanna; Tsampalieros, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Translational research is an evolving discipline that is intended to bridge the gaps between basic science research, clinical research, and implementation in clinical practice. It is a fluid, multidirectional process that requires strong interdisciplinary collaboration to produce research that is relevant to end-users. This review summarizes current perspectives on translational research and outlines its relevance and importance to kidney transplantation research. Sources of information used for this review include published reports, articles, and research funding websites. Tissue typing is used as an in-depth example of how translational research has been applied in the field of kidney transplant medicine, and how it has resulted in successful implementation of diagnostic and management options for sensitized individuals undergoing kidney transplantation. The value of actively involving kidney transplant stakeholders (patients, caregivers, and clinicians) in setting research priorities and determining relevant outcomes for future investigation is also discussed. This is a narrative review of the literature which has been partly influenced by the perspectives and experiences of its authors. Translational and patient-oriented research practices should be incorporated into future research endeavours in the field of kidney transplantation in order to create beneficial change in clinical practice and improve patient outcomes. Translational research which engages patients in the investigative process can enhance the likelihood that medical discoveries will have a meaningful impact at the bedside. This article applies current perspectives on translational research and patient engagement to the field of kidney transplantation, illustrating how these approaches have led to significant advancements in the field. It provides further justification for deliberate, targeted efforts to cross-collaborate and incorporate the patient voice into kidney transplant research.

  5. Implementing 'translational' biomedical research: convergence and divergence among clinical and basic scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Myfanwy; Barry, Christine A; Donovan, Jenny L; Sandall, Jane; Wolfe, Charles D A; Boaz, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Universities are increasingly regarded as key actors in the new 'knowledge economy', with requirements to produce market-oriented knowledge and engage in commercialization. This is of particular significance in the biomedical field, reflecting the perceived gap between success in terms of scientific discoveries and its transformation into products. The dominant discourse attributes this situation to 'blocks' in the translational pathway from 'bench to bedside', leading to policies to 'reengineer' the research enterprise. This study examines a pilot initiative established by the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC). This involved employing a change agent (Research Translator) supported by a small amount of translational funding to promote the culture and practice of translational research at a university/hospital site in England. An ethnographically informed case study involving semi-structured and open exploratory interviews, observation and document review, was conducted in 2008. Analysis and interpretation were informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice applied to science. The requirements of translational research promoted by the Research Translator and its sources of capital (authority, prestige etc) were largely congruent with the 'field' of clinical science. In contrast, translational research diverged from perceptions of 'legitimate' science and requirements for capital accumulation held by the majority of basic scientists who often described this research as 'high risk' and were resistant to the Research Translator's advice. However some differences in motivations and practices were identified within groups of scientists associated with career stage, work environment and specialty. We argue that there are convergent and divergent forces that influence scientists' readiness to adopt a market-oriented translational research model and in turn facilitate or constrain the effectiveness of a knowledge broker. We also identify ways in which current structures and

  6. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Li, Ben

    2017-02-15

    A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a) examine different research translation frameworks; b) examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c) identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice) AND (framework OR model OR theory) AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine). Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or 'T' models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research-practice gap.

  7. Knowledge Translation for Cardiovascular Disease Research and Management in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shommu, Nusrat S; Turin, Tanvir C

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge translation is an essential and emerging arena in healthcare research. It is the process of aiding the application of research knowledge into clinical practice or policymaking. Individuals at all levels of the health care system, including patients, healthcare professionals, and policymakers, are affected by the gaps that exist between research evidence and practice; the process of knowledge translation plays a role in bridging these gaps and incorporating high-quality clinical research into decision-making. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) management is a crucial area of healthcare where information gaps are known to exist. Although Japan has one of the lowest risks and mortality rates from CVDs, an increasing trend of cardiovascular incidence and changes in the risk factor conditions have been observed in recent years. This article provides an overview of knowledge translation and its importance in the cardiovascular health of the Japanese population, and describes the key steps of a typical knowledge translation strategy.

  8. Translating Health Services Research into Practice in the Safety Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan L; Fischer, Ilana; Havranek, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    To summarize research relating to health services research translation in the safety net through analysis of the literature and case study of a safety net system. Literature review and key informant interviews at an integrated safety net hospital. This paper describes the results of a comprehensive literature review of translational science literature as applied to health care paired with qualitative analysis of five key informant interviews conducted with senior-level management at Denver Health and Hospital Authority. Results from the literature suggest that implementing innovation may be more difficult in the safety net due to multiple factors, including financial and organizational constraints. Results from key informant interviews confirmed the reality of financial barriers to innovation implementation but also implied that factors, including institutional respect for data, organizational attitudes, and leadership support, could compensate for disadvantages. Translating research into practice is of critical importance to safety net providers, which are under increased pressure to improve patient care and satisfaction. Results suggest that translational research done in the safety net can better illuminate the special challenges of this setting; more such research is needed. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Translational Cellular Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of Translational Research aims to coalesce interdisciplinary findings from basic science for biomedical applications. To complement spaceflight research using human subjects, translational studies can be designed to address aspects of space-related human health risks and help develop countermeasures to prevent or mitigate them, with therapeutical benefits for analogous conditions experienced on Earth. Translational research with cells and model organisms is being conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in connection with various human systems impacted by spaceflight, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. Examples of recent cell-based translational investigations on the ISS include the following. The JAXA investigation Cell Mechanosensing seeks to identify gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop muscle atrophy countermeasures by analyzing tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane, which changes the expression of key proteins and genes. Earth applications of this study include therapeutic approaches for some forms of muscular dystrophy, which appear to parallel aspects of muscle wasting in space. Spheroids is an ESA investigation examining the system of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of all blood vessels in terms of vessel formation, cellular proliferation, and programmed cell death, because injury to the endothelium has been implicated as underpinning various cardiovascular and musculoskeletal problems arising during spaceflight. Since endothelial cells are involved in the functional integrity of the vascular wall, this research has applications to Earth diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. The goal of the T-Cell Activation in Aging NASA investigation is to understand human immune system depression in microgravity by identifying gene expression patterns of candidate molecular regulators, which will provide further insight into factors that may play a

  10. Language translation challenges with Arabic speakers participating in qualitative research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how a research team negotiated the challenges of language differences in a qualitative study that involved two languages. The lead researcher shared the participants' language and culture, and the interviews were conducted using the Arabic language as a source language, which was then translated and disseminated in the English language (target language). The challenges in relation to translation in cross-cultural research were highlighted from a perspective of establishing meaning as a vital issue in qualitative research. The paper draws on insights gained from a study undertaken among Arabic-speaking participants involving the use of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study was undertaken using a purposive sample of 15 participants with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and co-existing depression and explored their perception of self-care management behaviours. Data analysis was performed in two phases. The first phase entailed translation and transcription of the data, and the second phase entailed thematic analysis of the data to develop categories and themes. In this paper there is discussion on the translation process and its inherent challenges. As translation is an interpretive process and not merely a direct message transfer from a source language to a target language, translators need to systematically and accurately capture the full meaning of the spoken language. This discussion paper highlights difficulties in the translation process, specifically in managing data in relation to metaphors, medical terminology and connotation of the text, and importantly, preserving the meaning between the original and translated data. Recommendations for future qualitative studies involving interviews with non-English speaking participants are outlined, which may assist researchers maintain the integrity of the data throughout the translation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New burns and trauma journal celebrating translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Gullo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the journal of Burns & Trauma launched in 2013 and published by the prestigious Wolters Kluwer Health. We are grateful to promote a cultural challenge toward a new horizon in the field of translational research (TR. We enjoy to work together with the common objective to perform continuous medical education programs, exploring the methods in research, designing study, and to improve multidisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration in the basic sciences and in the clinical trials. Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. Epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure and what are its limits? More broadly, epistemology is about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry as defined and revisiting at the beginning of the last decades. Translational medicine (TM should meet the demands to maintain or expanding the biomedical workforce and education programs that attract and retain young people in the translational and biomedical sciences. With this present contributes, we invite the members of the editorial board of Burns & Trauma to encourage submitting, in a special section, their personal experience about the philosophy of "Translation research." If this has a chance, welcome to the researchers, clinicians, and the allied people for their decisive contributions to strengthen the importance of a common way about the principles and methods of basic and clinical research. TR and TM represent a dynamic entity making a link, a sort of bridge, "from bench to bedside", or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. Epistemological pluralism is a critical point for conducting innovative, collaborative research which can lead to more successful integrated and successfully study

  12. Contextual analysis and the success of translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony; Levin, Michael E

    2016-03-01

    The success of translational research can ultimately be judged by the degree to which it reduces the incidence and prevalence of psychological, behavioral, and physical disorders and the major factors influencing them. In our view, we currently place insufficient emphasis on assessing our impact on the social determinants of disorders. As a result, we are failing to affect the incidence and prevalence of critical disorders. Moreover, translational research fails to take into account the full range of interventions that could significantly reduce the incidence and prevalence of our most pressing disorders. These include policy changes, media, and broad cultural change movements. In this paper, we discuss the momentous achievements the tobacco prevention movement made over the last half-century, describe how the lessons gleaned from this success can apply to other prevention efforts, and contrast this success with progress made in battling other major public health concerns. We call for an expansion of the translational research agenda to develop and evaluate broader and more comprehensive strategies to affect well-being in entire populations.

  13. A community translational research pilot grants program to facilitate community--academic partnerships: lessons from Colorado's clinical translational science awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Deborah S; Felzien, Maret C; Magid, David J; Calonge, B Ned; O'Brien, Ruth A; Kempe, Allison; Nearing, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    National growth in translational research has increased the need for practical tools to improve how academic institutions engage communities in research. One used by the Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) to target investments in community-based translational research on health disparities is a Community Engagement (CE) Pilot Grants program. Innovative in design, the program accepts proposals from either community or academic applicants, requires that at least half of requested grant funds go to the community partner, and offers two funding tracks: One to develop new community-academic partnerships (up to $10,000), the other to strengthen existing partnerships through community translational research projects (up to $30,000). We have seen early success in both traditional and capacity building metrics: the initial investment of $272,742 in our first cycle led to over $2.8 million dollars in additional grant funding, with grantees reporting strengthening capacity of their community- academic partnerships and the rigor and relevance of their research.

  14. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a examine different research translation frameworks; b examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. Methods: The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice AND (framework OR model OR theory AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine. Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. Results: The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or ‘T’ models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. Conclusion: The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research–practice gap.

  15. A research mentor training curriculum for clinical and translational researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, Christine; House, Stephanie; Spencer, Kimberly; Asquith, Pamela; Carney, Paula; Masters, Kristyn S; McGee, Richard; Shanedling, Janet; Vecchiarelli, Stephanie; Fleming, Michael

    2013-02-01

    To design and evaluate a research mentor training curriculum for clinical and translational researchers. The resulting 8-hour curriculum was implemented as part of a national mentor training trial. The mentor training curriculum was implemented with 144 mentors at 16 academic institutions. Facilitators of the curriculum participated in a train-the-trainer workshop to ensure uniform delivery. The data used for this report were collected from participants during the training sessions through reflective writing, and following the last training session via confidential survey with a 94% response rate. A total of 88% of respondents reported high levels of satisfaction with the training experience, and 90% noted they would recommend the training to a colleague. Participants also reported significant learning gains across six mentoring competencies as well as specific impacts of the training on their mentoring practice. The data suggest the described research mentor training curriculum is an effective means of engaging research mentors to reflect upon and improve their research mentoring practices. The training resulted in high satisfaction, self-reported skill gains as well as behavioral changes of clinical and translational research mentors. Given success across 16 diverse sites, this training may serve as a national model. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Translation through argumentation in medical research and physician-citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R; McTigue, Kathleen M

    2012-06-01

    While many "benchtop-to-bedside" research pathways have been developed in "Type I" translational medicine, vehicles to facilitate "Type II" and "Type III" translation that convert scientific data into clinical and community interventions designed to improve the health of human populations remain elusive. Further, while a high percentage of physicians endorse the principle of citizen leadership, many have difficulty practicing it. This discrepancy has been attributed, in part, to lack of training and preparation for public advocacy, time limitation, and institutional resistance. As translational medicine and physician-citizenship implicate social, political, economic and cultural factors, both enterprises require "integrative" research strategies that blend insights from multiple fields of study, as well as rhetorical acumen in adapting messages to reach multiple audiences. This article considers how argumentation theory's epistemological flexibility, audience attentiveness, and heuristic qualities, combined with concepts from classical rhetoric, such as rhetorical invention, the synecdoche, and ethos, yield tools to facilitate translational medicine and enable physician-citizenship.

  17. The early career researcher's toolkit: translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Qasim A; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I; Wilson, Samantha L; Patel, Asha K; Barnes, Amanda L; Adams, Christopher F; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine translation, we discuss common pitfalls associated with translational research, providing practical solutions and important considerations which will aid process and product development. Suggestions range from effective project management, consideration of key manufacturing, clinical and regulatory matters and means of exploiting research for successful commercialization.

  18. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  19. The not-for-profit form and translational research: Kerr revisited?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joiner Keith A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational research conducted in academic health centers is confounded by the organizational structure in which the work is performed. Investigators must obtain research funding and appropriate recognition as a part of a research team in a not-for-profit environment which has more readily rewarded basic work, and individual accomplishments. What results is a unique form of conflict of interest, best understood by relating the basic principles underlying the not-for-profit form to the conduct of translational research in the AHC setting.

  20. Legacy Clinical Data from the Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0026 TITLE: Legacy Clinical Data from the Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium PRINCIPAL...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Legacy Clinical Data from the Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Consortium 5b. GRANT...mTBI) Translational Research Consortium was to improve the diagnosis and treatment of mTBI. We enrolled a total of 88 mTBI patients and 73 orthopedic

  1. The neuropsychiatric ailment of Vincent Van Gogh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Van Gogh is one of the most celebrated creative artists of all time. All his life, he was afflicted by some kind of neurological or psychiatric disorder, which remains a mystery even today. Many historians and his personal physicians believe that he suffered from epilepsy while others felt that he was affected by Ménière′s disease. Features such as hypergraphia, atypical sexuality, and viscosity of thinking suggest the possibility of Gastaut-Geschwind phenomenon, a known complication of complex partial seizure. On the contrary, some historians feel that he was forced to sever his right ear in order to get relief from troublesome tinnitus, a complication of Ménière′s disease. He was addicted to the liquor absinthe, which is known to lead to xanthopsia, and many authorities argue that this was the reason for his penchant for the deep and bright yellow color in many of his paintings. Others have suggested the possibility of bipolar disorder, sunstroke, acute intermittent porphyria, and digitalis toxicity as well.

  2. The early career researcher's toolkit:translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiq, Qasim A.; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I.; Wilson, Samantha L.; Patel, Asha K.; Barnes, Amanda L.; Adams, Christopher F.; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in...

  3. Knowledge Translation Research: The Science of Moving Research into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hayden, Jill A.; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing…

  4. Using a Historical Lens to Envision the Next Generation of Genomic Translation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Abrams, Leah R; Koehly, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed successive and exponential advances in genomic discovery and technology, with a broad scientific imperative pushing for continual advancements. The most consistent critique of these advances is that they have vastly outpaced translation of new knowledge into improvements in public health and medicine. We employ a historical and epistemological analysis to characterize how prevailing scientific meta-narratives have shaped the pace and priorities of research applying genomics to health promotion. We use four 'pivotal events' - the genetic characterization of Down syndrome, the launch of the Human Genome Research Project, the discovery of BRCA1, and the emergence of direct-to- consumer genetic testing - to illustrate how these scientific meta-narratives have inhibited genomic translation research. The notion that discovery should precede translation research has over-focused translation research on the latest genetic testing platform. The idea that genetic-related research has an exceptional potential for public harm has encouraged research on worst case scenarios. The perceived competition between genetics and social determinants of health has discouraged a unified research agenda to move genomic translation forward. We make a case for creating new scientific meta-narratives in which discovery and translation research agendas are envisioned as an interdependent enterprise. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The applicability of Lean and Six Sigma techniques to clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhart, Sharon A; Dembe, Allard E

    2009-10-01

    Lean and Six Sigma are business management strategies commonly used in production industries to improve process efficiency and quality. During the past decade, these process improvement techniques increasingly have been applied outside the manufacturing sector, for example, in health care and in software development. This article concerns the potential use of Lean and Six Sigma in improving the processes involved in clinical and translational research. Improving quality, avoiding delays and errors, and speeding up the time to implementation of biomedical discoveries are prime objectives of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research and the NIH's Clinical and Translational Science Award program. This article presents a description of the main principles, practices, and methods used in Lean and Six Sigma. Available literature involving applications of Lean and Six Sigma to health care, laboratory science, and clinical and translational research is reviewed. Specific issues concerning the use of these techniques in different phases of translational research are identified. Examples of Lean and Six Sigma applications that are being planned at a current Clinical and Translational Science Award site are provided, which could potentially be replicated elsewhere. We describe how different process improvement approaches are best adapted for particular translational research phases. Lean and Six Sigma process improvement methods are well suited to help achieve NIH's goal of making clinical and translational research more efficient and cost-effective, enhancing the quality of the research, and facilitating the successful adoption of biomedical research findings into practice.

  6. Cultural adaptation in translational research: field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Samuels, Deanne; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Jacobs, Robin

    2005-06-01

    The increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among minorities in the United States and in certain developing nations has prompted new intervention priorities, stressing the adaptation of efficacious interventions for diverse and marginalized groups. The experiences of Florida International University's AIDS Prevention Program in translating HIV primary and secondary prevention interventions among these multicultural populations provide insight into the process of cultural adaptations and address the new scientific emphasis on ecological validity. An iterative process involving forward and backward translation, a cultural linguistic committee, focus group discussions, documentation of project procedures, and consultations with other researchers in the field was used to modify interventions. This article presents strategies used to ensure fidelity in implementing the efficacious core components of evidence-based interventions for reducing HIV transmission and drug use behaviors and the challenges posed by making cultural adaptation for participants with low literacy. This experience demonstrates the importance of integrating culturally relevant material in the translation process with intense focus on language and nuance. The process must ensure that the level of intervention is appropriate for the educational level of participants. Furthermore, the rights of participants must be protected during consenting procedures by instituting policies that recognize the socioeconomic, educational, and systemic pressures to participate in research.

  7. The Role of Integrated Knowledge Translation in Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-04-01

    There is widespread recognition across the full range of applied research disciplines, including health and social services, about the challenges of integrating scientifically derived research evidence into policy and/or practice decisions. These "disconnects" or "knowledge-practice gaps" between research production and use have spawned a new research field, most commonly known as either "implementation science" or "knowledge translation." The present paper will review key concepts in this area, with a particular focus on "integrated knowledge translation" (IKT)-which focuses on researcher-knowledge user partnership-in the area of mental health and prevention of violence against women and children using case examples from completed and ongoing work. A key distinction is made between the practice of KT (disseminating, communicating, etc.), and the science of KT, i.e., research regarding effective KT approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance of IKT for mental health intervention research with children and adolescents.

  8. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership

  9. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  10. Deficiência e autodeterminação humana: compaixão e insensibilidade no caso Vincent Humbert Human handicap and self-determination: compassion and insensibility in the Vincent Humbert case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Pereira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Discute a questão da autodeterminação de pessoas com deficiência, sem comprometimento das funções cognitivas. Traz como pano de fundo a história de Vincent Humbert, francês de 22 anos que ficou tetraplégico, cego e mudo após um acidente automobilístico. O sofrimento intenso do rapaz durou vários meses, resultando em insistente pedido de eutanásia aos médicos e à sua mãe. A morte de Humbert, após uma tentativa frustrada de eutanásia praticada pela mãe, reabre a polêmica em torno da eutanásia e do suicídio assistido. Partindo desse contexto, apresenta aspectos históricos da deficiência e analisa criticamente a autonomia e a eutanásia de Humbert.This work has the objective of discussing human self-determination among handicapped people with unaffected cognitive functions. The background for the article is the history of 22 year-old Vincent Humbert, who became tetraplegic, blind and speech-impaired after a car accident. The young man intense suffering lasted for several months and resulted in an insistent request for euthanasia to his mother. Humbert's death, after his mother's unsuccessful effort to conduct the euthanasia, restates the polemics concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide. In this context, the article presents historical aspects of human handicap and critically analyzes Humbert's autonomy and euthanasia.

  11. 78 FR 3025 - St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge, FL; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... island history and ecosystem as they relate to the coastal environment, and management style..., totaling 1,625 acres in six counties. The 12,490-acre refuge boundary includes two islands--St. Vincent (12... objectives will continue as long as we have sufficient staff to support the program. In addition to the...

  12. Translation research: from accurate diagnosis to appropriate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pass Harvey I

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review article focuses on the various aspects of translational research, where research on human subjects can ultimately enhance the diagnosis and treatment of future patients. While we will use specific examples relating to the asbestos related cancer mesothelioma, it should be stressed that the general approach outlined throughout this review is readily applicable to other diseases with an underlying molecular basis. Through the integration of molecular-based technologies, systematic tissue procurement and medical informatics, we now have the ability to identify clinically applicable "genotype"-"phenotype" associations across cohorts of patients that can rapidly be translated into useful diagnostic and treatment strategies. This review will touch on the various steps in the translational pipeline, and highlight some of the most essential elements as well as possible roadblocks that can impact success of the program. Critical issues with regard to Institutional Review Board (IRB and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA compliance, data standardization, sample procurement, quality control (QC, quality assurance (QA, data analysis, preclinical models and clinical trials are addressed. The various facets of the translational pipeline have been incorporated into a fully integrated computational system, appropriately named Dx2Tx. This system readily allows for the identification of new diagnostic tests, the discovery of biomarkers and drugable targets, and prediction of optimal treatments based upon the underlying molecular basis of the disease.

  13. Mapping research questions about translation to methods, measures, and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berninger, V.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Fayol, M.L.; Fayol, M.; Alamargot, D.; Berninger, V.W.

    2012-01-01

    About the book: Translation of cognitive representations into written language is one of the most important processes in writing. This volume provides a long-awaited updated overview of the field. The contributors discuss each of the commonly used research methods for studying translation; theorize

  14. Integrative review of implementation strategies for translation of research-based evidence by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchner, Staci S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize and critique experimental and/or quasi-experimental research that has evaluated implementation strategies for translation of research-based evidence into nursing practice. Successfully implementing evidence-based research can improve patient outcomes. Identifying successful implementation strategies is imperative to move research-based evidence into practice. As implementation science gains popularity, it is imperative to understand the strategies that most effectively translate research-based evidence into practice. The review used the CINAHL and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases. Articles were included if they were experimental and/or quasi-experimental research designs, were written in English, and measured nursing compliance to translation of research-based evidence. An independent review was performed to select and critique the included articles. A wide array of interventions were completed, including visual cues, audit and feedback, educational meetings and materials, reminders, outreach, and leadership involvement. Because of the complex multimodal nature of the interventions and the variety of research topics, comparison across interventions was difficult. Many difficulties exist in determining what implementation strategies are most effective for translation of research-based evidence into practice by nurses. With these limited findings, further research is warranted to determine which implementation strategies most successfully translate research-based evidence into practice.

  15. Stimulating translational research: several European life science institutions put their heads together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Kubicek, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Saarela, Janna; Cook, Simon J; Van Minnebruggen, Geert; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Maurer, Cornelia; Erler, Janine T; Bertero, Michela G

    2015-09-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Addressing informatics challenges in Translational Research with workflow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulah, Simon A; Correll, Mick A; Munro, Robin E J; Sheldon, Jonathan G

    2008-09-01

    Interest in Translational Research has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this collision of different data, technologies and cultures lie tremendous opportunities for the advancement of science and business for organisations that are able to integrate, analyse and deliver this information effectively to users. Workflow-based integration and analysis systems are becoming recognised as a fast and flexible way to build applications that are tailored to scientific areas, yet are built on a common platform. Workflow systems are allowing organisations to meet the key informatics challenges in Translational Research and improve disease understanding and patient care.

  17. Reengineering the National Clinical and Translational Research Enterprise: The Strategic Plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Steven E.; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R.; Califf, Robert M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Johnson, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process in turn depends upon observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public-health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation’s academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding. To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006, the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program’s overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation’s academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  18. The translation research in a dental setting (TRiaDS programme protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Lorna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that the translation of knowledge into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. This is no less true for dental healthcare than other types of healthcare. One common policy strategy to help promote knowledge translation is the production of clinical guidance, but it has been demonstrated that the simple publication of guidance is unlikely to optimise practice. Additional knowledge translation interventions have been shown to be effective, but effectiveness varies and much of this variation is unexplained. The need for researchers to move beyond single studies to develop a generalisable, theory based, knowledge translation framework has been identified. For dentistry in Scotland, the production of clinical guidance is the responsibility of the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP. TRiaDS (Translation Research in a Dental Setting is a multidisciplinary research collaboration, embedded within the SDCEP guidance development process, which aims to establish a practical evaluative framework for the translation of guidance and to conduct and evaluate a programme of integrated, multi-disciplinary research to enhance the science of knowledge translation. Methods Set in General Dental Practice the TRiaDS programmatic evaluation employs a standardised process using optimal methods and theory. For each SDCEP guidance document a diagnostic analysis is undertaken alongside the guidance development process. Information is gathered about current dental care activities. Key recommendations and their required behaviours are identified and prioritised. Stakeholder questionnaires and interviews are used to identify and elicit salient beliefs regarding potential barriers and enablers towards the key recommendations and behaviours. Where possible routinely collected data are used to measure compliance with the guidance and to inform decisions about whether a knowledge translation intervention is

  19. Mentoring in Clinical-Translational Research: A Study of Participants in Master’s Degree Programs

    OpenAIRE

    McGinn, Aileen P; Lee, Linda S; Baez, Adriana; Zwanziger, Jack; Anderson, Karl E; Seely, Ellen W; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Research projects in translational science are increasingly complex and require interdisciplinary collaborations. In the context of training translational researchers, this suggests that multiple mentors may be needed in different content areas. This study explored mentoring structure as it relates to perceived mentoring effectiveness and other characteristics of masters-level trainees in clinical-translational research training programs.

  20. Nanotechnology: Advancing the translational respiratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Dua, Kamal; Shukla, Shakti Dhar; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Hansbro, Philip Michael

    2017-01-01

    Considering the various limitations associated with the conventional dosage forms, nanotechnology is gaining increased attention in drug delivery particularly in respiratory medicine and research because of its advantages like targeting effects, improved pharmacotherapy, and patient compliance. This paper provides a quick snapshot about the recent trends and applications of nanotechnology to various translational and formulation scientists working on various respiratory diseases, which can he...

  1. The Borrowers: Researching the cognitive aspects of translation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the interdisciplinary interaction of research on the cognitive aspects of translation. Examples of influence from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, reading and writing research and language technology are given, with examples from specific sub-disciplines within each one. The breadth of borrowing by researchers in cognitive translatology is made apparent, but the minimal influence of cognitive translatology on the respective disciplines themselves i...

  2. Partnering with patients in translational oncology research: ethical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamzer, Marie-France; Duchange, Nathalie; Darquy, Sylviane; Marvanne, Patrice; Rambaud, Claude; Marsico, Giovanna; Cerisey, Catherine; Scotté, Florian; Burgun, Anita; Badoual, Cécile; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Hervé, Christian

    2017-04-08

    The research program CARPEM (cancer research and personalized medicine) brings together the expertise of researchers and hospital-based oncologists to develop translational research in the context of personalized or "precision" medicine for cancer. There is recognition that patient involvement can help to take into account their needs and priorities in the development of this emerging practice but there is currently no consensus about how this can be achieved. In this study, we developed an empirical ethical research action aiming to improve patient representatives' involvement in the development of the translational research program together with health professionals. The aim is to promote common understanding and sharing of knowledge between all parties and to establish a long-term partnership integrating patient's expectations. Two distinct committees were settled in CARPEM: an "Expert Committee", gathering healthcare and research professionals, and a "Patient Committee", gathering patients and patient representatives. A multidisciplinary team trained in medical ethics research ensured communication between the two committees as well as analysis of discussions, minutes and outputs from all stakeholders. The results highlight the efficiency of the transfer of knowledge between interested parties. Patient representatives and professionals were able to identify new ethical challenges and co-elaborate new procedures to gather information and consent forms for adapting to practices and recommendations developed during the process. Moreover, included patient representatives became full partners and participated in the transfer of knowledge to the public via conferences and publications. Empirical ethical research based on a patient-centered approach could help in establishing a fair model for coordination and support actions during cancer research, striking a balance between the regulatory framework, researcher needs and patient expectations. Our approach addresses

  3. How US institutional review boards decide when researchers need to translate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Informed consent is crucial in research, but potential participants may not all speak the same language, posing questions that have not been examined concerning decisions by institutional review boards (IRBs) and research ethics committees' (RECs) about the need for researchers to translate consent forms and other study materials. Sixty US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by The National Institutes of Health funding) were contacted, and leaders (eg, chairs) from 34 (response rate=57%) and an additional 12 members and administrators were interviewed. IRBs face a range of problems about translation of informed consent documents, questionnaires and manuals-what, when and how to translate (eg, for how many or what proportion of potential subjects), why to do so and how to decide. Difficulties can arise about translation of specific words and of broader cultural concepts regarding processes of informed consent and research, especially in the developing world. In these decisions, IRBs weigh the need for autonomy (through informed consent) and justice (to ensure fair distribution of benefits and burdens of research) against practical concerns about costs to researchers. At times IRBs may have to compromise between these competing goals. These data, the first to examine when and how IRBs/RECs require researchers to translate materials, thus highlight a range of problems with which these committees struggle, suggesting a need for further normative and empirical investigation of these domains, and consideration of guidelines to help IRBs deal with these tensions.

  4. Translation of questionnaires into Arabic in cross-cultural research: techniques and equivalence issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2013-10-01

    To describe the translation process of nursing instruments into Arabic and discuss the equivalence issues arising from this process. Review of the literature. The Arabic language is essentially three different languages: Classical Arabic; Modern Standard Arabic (fuS-Ha or MSA); and colloquial Arabic (Lahja A'mmeya), which is itself divided into five different regional Arabic dialects. The Arabic fuS-Ha language is the dialect most widely used in the translation of instruments into Arabic. The literature reveals that only a few studies focused on the linguistic issues in the translation of instruments into Arabic. Brislin's back-translation emerged as the most common method widely used by researchers in studies with Arabic-speaking subjects, but not the perfect one. Linguistic issues in nursing research have not been sufficiently described and discussed in the context of Arabic language and culture. Although there is no standard guideline for instrument translation, the combined translation model is the most recommended procedure to use in cross-cultural research. Linguistic differences between the source culture and the target Arabic culture should be taken into account. Finally, we recommend the use of the fuS-Ha dialect and trilingual translators in the translation of nursing instruments into Arabic.

  5. Research Translation Strategies to Improve the Readability of Workplace Health Promotion Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alison; Joss, Nerida

    2016-01-01

    Without deliberate and resourced translation, research evidence is unlikely to inform policy and practice. This paper describes the processes and practical solutions used to translate evaluation research findings to improve the readability of print materials in a large scale worksite health programme. It is argued that a knowledge brokering and…

  6. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact.

  7. Translational research in pediatrics III: bronchoalveolar lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka; Yamashita, Cory; Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Fraser, Douglas D

    2014-07-01

    The role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the care of children with airway and pulmonary diseases is well established, with collected BAL fluid most often used clinically for microbiologic pathogen identification and cellular analyses. More recently, powerful analytic research methods have been used to investigate BAL samples to better understand the pathophysiological basis of pediatric respiratory disease. Investigations have focused on the cellular components contained in BAL fluid, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, as well as the noncellular components such as serum molecules, inflammatory proteins, and surfactant. Molecular techniques are frequently used to investigate BAL fluid for the presence of infectious pathologies and for cellular gene expression. Recent advances in proteomics allow identification of multiple protein expression patterns linked to specific respiratory diseases, whereas newer analytic techniques allow for investigations on surfactant quantification and function. These translational research studies on BAL fluid have aided our understanding of pulmonary inflammation and the injury/repair responses in children. We review the ethics and practices for the execution of BAL in children for translational research purposes, with an emphasis on the optimal handling and processing of BAL samples. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Intra-professional dynamics in translational health research: the perspective of social scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Graeme; El Enany, Nellie; Lockett, Andy

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to previous studies, which focus upon the professional dynamics of translational health research between clinician scientists and social scientists (inter-professional contestation), we focus upon contestation within social science (intra-professional contestation). Drawing on the empirical context of Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) in England, we highlight that although social scientists accept subordination to clinician scientists, health services researchers attempt to enhance their position in translational health research vis-à-vis organisation scientists, whom they perceive as relative newcomers to the research domain. Health services researchers do so through privileging the practical impact of their research, compared to organisation scientists' orientation towards development of theory, which health services researchers argue is decoupled from any concern with healthcare improvement. The concern of health services researchers lies with maintaining existing patterns of resource allocation to support their research endeavours, working alongside clinician scientists, in translational health research. The response of organisation scientists is one that might be considered ambivalent, since, unlike health services researchers, they do not rely upon a close relationship with clinician scientists to carry out research, or more generally, garner resource. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TRANSAUTOPHAGY: European network for multidisciplinary research and translation of autophagy knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Caty; Codogno, Patrice; Pinti, Marcello; Batoko, Henri; Morán, María; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula; Reggiori, Fulvio; Sirko, Agnieszka; Soengas, María S; Velasco, Guillermo; Lafont, Frank; Lane, Jon; Faure, Mathias; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    abstract A collaborative consortium, named “TRANSAUTOPHAGY,” has been created among European research groups, comprising more than 150 scientists from 21 countries studying diverse branches of basic and translational autophagy. The consortium was approved in the framework of the Horizon 2020 Program in November 2015 as a COST Action of the European Union (COST means: CO-operation in Science and Technology), and will be sponsored for 4 years. TRANSAUTOPHAGY will form an interdisciplinary platform for basic and translational researchers, enterprises and stakeholders of diverse disciplines (including nanotechnology, bioinformatics, physics, chemistry, biology and various medical disciplines). TRANSAUTOPHAGY will establish 5 different thematic working groups, formulated to cooperate in research projects, share ideas, and results through workshops, meetings and short term exchanges of personnel (among other initiatives). TRANSAUTOPHAGY aims to generate breakthrough multidisciplinary knowledge about autophagy regulation, and to boost translation of this knowledge into biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27046256

  10. TRANSAUTOPHAGY: European network for multidisciplinary research and translation of autophagy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Caty; Codogno, Patrice; Pinti, Marcello; Batoko, Henri; Morán, María; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula; Reggiori, Fulvio; Sirko, Agnieszka; Soengas, María S; Velasco, Guillermo; Lafont, Frank; Lane, Jon; Faure, Mathias; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative consortium, named "TRANSAUTOPHAGY," has been created among European research groups, comprising more than 150 scientists from 21 countries studying diverse branches of basic and translational autophagy. The consortium was approved in the framework of the Horizon 2020 Program in November 2015 as a COST Action of the European Union (COST means: CO-operation in Science and Technology), and will be sponsored for 4 years. TRANSAUTOPHAGY will form an interdisciplinary platform for basic and translational researchers, enterprises and stakeholders of diverse disciplines (including nanotechnology, bioinformatics, physics, chemistry, biology and various medical disciplines). TRANSAUTOPHAGY will establish 5 different thematic working groups, formulated to cooperate in research projects, share ideas, and results through workshops, meetings and short term exchanges of personnel (among other initiatives). TRANSAUTOPHAGY aims to generate breakthrough multidisciplinary knowledge about autophagy regulation, and to boost translation of this knowledge into biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  11. Estimating Return on Investment in Translational Research: Methods and Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochim, William; Dilts, David M.; Kirk, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSA). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This paper provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities. PMID:23925706

  12. Estimating return on investment in translational research: methods and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Trochim, William M; Dilts, David M; Kirk, Rosalind

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSAs). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program, and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This article provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities.

  13. The 1902-3 eruptions of the Soufrière, St Vincent: Impacts, relief and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, David M.; Barclay, Jenni; Armijos, Maria Teresa

    2018-05-01

    Retrospective analysis of the contemporary colonial and scientific records of a major explosive eruption of the Soufrière of St Vincent from 1902 to 1903 reveals how this significant and prolonged event presented challenges to the authorities charged with managing the crisis and its aftermath. In a small-island setting vulnerable to multiple hazards, the spatial footprint of the volcanic hazard and the nature and intensity of the hazard effects were rather different to those of other recurrent hazards such as hurricanes. The eruption affected the same parts of the island that had been impacted by prior explosive eruptions in 1718 and 1812, and hurricanes in 1831 and 1898, with consequences that disproportionately affected those working in and around the large sugar estates. The official response to the eruption, both in terms of short-term relief and remediation, was significantly accelerated by the existence of mature plans for land-reform following the collapse of the sugar market, and ongoing plans for rebuilding in the aftermath of the destructive hurricane of 1898. The picture that this analysis helps to illuminate provides insights both into the nature of the particular eruptive episode, and the human and social response to that episode. This not only informs discussion and planning for future explosive eruptions on St Vincent, but provides important empirical evidence for building effective responses in similar multihazard contexts.

  14. Using knowledge translation as a framework for the design of a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Suzanne; Martorella, Géraldine; Catallo, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge translation has been defined as the synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health, resulting in a stronger health-care system. Using KT activities to aid in the adoption of evidence into practice can address current health-care challenges such as increasing organizational practice standards, alleviating the risk for adverse events and meeting practitioner needs for evidence at the bedside. Two general forms of KT have been identified. These being integrated KT and end-of-grant KT. Integrated KT involves the knowledge users in the research team and in the majority of stages of the research process. End-of-grant KT relates to the translation of findings through a well-developed dissemination plan. This paper describes the process of using an integrated knowledge translation approach to design a research protocol that will examine the effectiveness of a web-based patient educational intervention. It begins with a description of integrated knowledge translation, followed by the presentation of a specific case example in which integrated knowledge translation is used to develop a nursing intervention. The major elements of integrated knowledge translation pertain to need for a knowledge user who represents the broad target user group, and who is knowledgeable in the area under investigation and who as authority to enact changes to practice. Use of knowledge users as equal partners within the research team; exploring all feasible opportunities for knowledge exchange; and working with knowledge users to identify all outcomes related to knowledge translation are the other major elements of integrated knowledge translation that are addressed throughout this paper. Furthermore, the relevance of psychosocial or educational interventions to knowledge translation is also discussed as a source of knowledge. In summary, integrated knowledge translation is an important tool for the development of new interventions, as

  15. Cumulate xenoliths from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles Island Arc: a window into upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, P. M. E.; Bindeman, I.; Blundy, J. D.

    2012-02-01

    In order to shed light on upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas in a subduction zone setting, we have determined the mineral chemistry and oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of individual cumulus minerals in plutonic blocks from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Plutonic rock types display great variation in mineralogy, from olivine-gabbros to troctolites and hornblendites, with a corresponding variety of cumulate textures. Mineral compositions differ from those in erupted basaltic lavas from St. Vincent and in published high-pressure (4-10 kb) experimental run products of a St. Vincent high-Mg basalt in having higher An plagioclase coexisting with lower Fo olivine. The oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) of cumulus olivine (4.89-5.18‰), plagioclase (5.84-6.28‰), clinopyroxene (5.17-5.47‰) and hornblende (5.48-5.61‰) and hydrogen isotope composition of hornblende (δD = -35.5 to -49.9‰) are all consistent with closed system magmatic differentiation of a mantle-derived basaltic melt. We employed a number of modelling exercises to constrain the origin of the chemical and isotopic compositions reported. δ18OOlivine is up to 0.2‰ higher than modelled values for closed system fractional crystallisation of a primary melt. We attribute this to isotopic disequilibria between cumulus minerals crystallising at different temperatures, with equilibration retarded by slow oxygen diffusion in olivine during prolonged crustal storage. We used melt inclusion and plagioclase compositions to determine parental magmatic water contents (water saturated, 4.6 ± 0.5 wt% H2O) and crystallisation pressures (173 ± 50 MPa). Applying these values to previously reported basaltic and basaltic andesite lava compositions, we can reproduce the cumulus plagioclase and olivine compositions and their associated trend. We conclude that differentiation of primitive hydrous basalts on St. Vincent involves crystallisation of olivine and Cr-rich spinel at depth

  16. Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M; Perreault, Eric J; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  17. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research......-calculation with evidence-based ratings for option performance on those criteria to produce a preference-sensitive assessment or opinion. Results: The first example shows the framework connecting nursing informatics and nursing ethics in the clinical context of a nurse’s decision to disclose or not disclose information......, satisfaction, Quality of Life), organization-related (staff and work environment, internal and external communication and relationships) and economics-related (start-up costs, financial implications and externalities)). Conclusion: Web-based decision support can provide nursing with a template, technique...

  18. NeuPAT: an intranet database supporting translational research in neuroblastic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamón, Eva; Piqueras, Marta; Meseguer, Javier; Blanquer, Ignacio; Berbegall, Ana P; Tadeo, Irene; Hernández, Vicente; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Translational research in oncology is directed mainly towards establishing a better risk stratification and searching for appropriate therapeutic targets. This research generates a tremendous amount of complex clinical and biological data needing speedy and effective management. The authors describe the design, implementation and early experiences of a computer-aided system for the integration and management of data for neuroblastoma patients. NeuPAT facilitates clinical and translational research, minimizes the workload in consolidating the information, reduces errors and increases correlation of data through extensive coding. This design can also be applied to other tumor types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Translational nutrition research at UC-Davis – the key role of the clinical and translational science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the facility and equipment needs for human clinical nutrition research the New York Academy of Sciences presented a symposium. This paper is the result of that symposium and provides information into how clinical nutrition research is conducted at the Clinical and Translational ...

  20. Challenge Based Innovation: Translating Fundamental Research into Societal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikka, Joona; Utriainen, Tuuli; Repokari, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on work done at IdeaSquare, a new innovation experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The paper explores the translation of fundamental research into societal applications with the help of multidisciplinary student teams, project- and problem-based learning and design thinking methods. The theme is…

  1. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The translational science training program at NIH: Introducing early career researchers to the science and operation of translation of basic research to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E

    2017-01-02

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Mentoring in Clinical-Translational Research: A Study of Participants in Master's Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Aileen P; Lee, Linda S; Baez, Adriana; Zwanziger, Jack; Anderson, Karl E; Seely, Ellen W; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-12-01

    Research projects in translational science are increasingly complex and require interdisciplinary collaborations. In the context of training translational researchers, this suggests that multiple mentors may be needed in different content areas. This study explored mentoring structure as it relates to perceived mentoring effectiveness and other characteristics of master's-level trainees in clinical-translational research training programs. A cross-sectional online survey of recent graduates of clinical research master's program was conducted. Of 73 surveys distributed, 56.2% (n = 41) complete responses were analyzed. Trainees were overwhelmingly positive about participation in their master's programs and the impact it had on their professional development. Overall the majority (≥75%) of trainees perceived they had effective mentoring in terms of developing skills needed for conducting clinical-translational research. Fewer trainees perceived effective mentoring in career development and work-life balance. In all 15 areas of mentoring effectiveness assessed, higher rates of perceived mentor effectiveness was seen among trainees with ≥2 mentors compared to those with solo mentoring (SM). In addition, trainees with ≥2 mentors perceived having effective mentoring in more mentoring aspects (median: 14.0; IQR: 12.0-15.0) than trainees with SM (median: 10.5; IQR: 8.0-14.5). Results from this survey suggest having ≥2 mentors may be beneficial in fulfilling trainee expectations for mentoring in clinical-translational training. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mentoring in Clinical‐Translational Research: A Study of Participants in Master's Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda S.; Baez, Adriana; Zwanziger, Jack; Anderson, Karl E.; Seely, Ellen W.; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Research projects in translational science are increasingly complex and require interdisciplinary collaborations. In the context of training translational researchers, this suggests that multiple mentors may be needed in different content areas. This study explored mentoring structure as it relates to perceived mentoring effectiveness and other characteristics of master's‐level trainees in clinical‐translational research training programs. A cross‐sectional online survey of recent graduates of clinical research master's program was conducted. Of 73 surveys distributed, 56.2% (n = 41) complete responses were analyzed. Trainees were overwhelmingly positive about participation in their master's programs and the impact it had on their professional development. Overall the majority (≥75%) of trainees perceived they had effective mentoring in terms of developing skills needed for conducting clinical‐translational research. Fewer trainees perceived effective mentoring in career development and work‐life balance. In all 15 areas of mentoring effectiveness assessed, higher rates of perceived mentor effectiveness was seen among trainees with ≥2 mentors compared to those with solo mentoring (SM). In addition, trainees with ≥2 mentors perceived having effective mentoring in more mentoring aspects (median: 14.0; IQR: 12.0–15.0) than trainees with SM (median: 10.5; IQR: 8.0–14.5). Results from this survey suggest having ≥2 mentors may be beneficial in fulfilling trainee expectations for mentoring in clinical‐translational training. PMID:26534872

  5. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Caldas, C.; van Luenen, H.; Saghatchian, M.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in

  6. Improving research questionnaires by means of intralingual translation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clear research questionnaires ultimately help to ensure the reliability and comparability of the data that they gather (Fowler 1992; Lenzner 2012; Moroney and Cameron 2016). This paper explores the intersection of best practices in the fields of questionnaire design and intralingual translation as a means to ensure clarity ...

  7. Changing the Translational Research Landscape: A Review of the Impacts of Biomedical Research Units in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Soper, Bryony; Ismail, Sharif; Reding, Anais; Ling, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a review of the Biomedical Research Units (BRU) scheme, undertaken for the Department of Health. This review was a perceptions audit of senior executives involved in the scheme, and explored what impact they felt the scheme is having on the translational research landscape. More specifically, we investigated whether and how institutional relationships between NHS and academic partners, industry and other health research system players are changing because of the scheme; how the scheme is helping build critical mass in specific priority disease areas; and the effects of any changes on efforts to deliver the broader goals set out in Best Research for Best Health. The views presented are those of study informants only. The information obtained through our interviews suggests that the BRU scheme is significantly helping shape the health research system to pursue translational research and innovation, with the clear goal of realising patient benefit. The BRUs are already contributing to observable changes in institutional relationships between the NHS and academic partners: trusts and medical schools are collaborating more closely than in the past, have signed up to the same vision of translational research from bench to bedside, and are managing and governing targeted research resources more professionally and transparently than in the past. There is also a stronger emphasis on engaging industry and more strategic thinking about strengthening regional and national collaboration with other hospital trusts, PCTs, research organisations, networks and development agencies. The scheme is also transforming capacity building in the health research system. This includes (i) developing and modernising facilities and equipment for translation; (ii) building a critical mass of human resources through recruitment and training, as well as improving retention of existing expertise; and (iii) helping ensure a steady flow of funds needed to sustain research

  8. 78 FR 76812 - In the Matter of: Andrew Vincent O'Donnell, Inmate Number-62355-019, USP Atlanta, U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Andrew Vincent O'Donnell... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22... 750.8 of the Regulations states that the Bureau of Industry and Security's Office of Exporter Services...

  9. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.

  10. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured.

  11. The importance of rat social behavior for translational research : An ethological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.

    2018-01-01

    At present, the preclinical research interest in rodent social behavior is focused on its use as readout parameter in animal models for neuropsychiatric disorders (‘translational research’). However, there are some major limitations that hamper progress. Pivotal is the limited translational value of

  12. Towards discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Moreira, José M A; Gromova, Irina

    2005-01-01

    , promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic...

  13. The benefits of patient involvement for translational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Garcia, Elisa; van der Laan, A.L.; van der Burg, Simone; Boenink, Marianne

    The question we raise in this paper is, whether patient involvement might be a beneficial way to help determine and achieve the aims of translational (TR) research and, if so, how to proceed. TR is said to ensure a more effective movement (‘translation’) of basic scientific findings to relevant and

  14. Inside the "Black Box" of a Knowledge Translation Program in Applied Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Janet; Day, Jo; Britten, Nicky

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present the findings of a participatory realistic evaluation of a 5-year program of health care research intended to promote the translation of knowledge into routine clinical practice. The program was one of the nine pilot Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care funded by the English National Institute for Health Research between 2008 and 2013. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms by which, and circumstances in which, some projects carried out under the program achieved success in knowledge translation while others were frustrated. Using qualitative methods, we examined how closer collaboration between academics and clinicians worked in four purposefully chosen case studies. In a synthesis of the findings, we produced a "black box" model of how knowledge translation was enabled by the activation of nine mechanisms. These are summarized in the form of five simple rules for promoting knowledge translation through collaborations based on principles of coproduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claude; Waters, Michael; Allen, David; Obasanjo, Iyabo

    2013-09-30

    Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures.The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan; 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models; 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for: 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics.

  16. Translations of Developmental Screening Instruments: An Evidence Map of Available Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Behadli, Ana F; Neger, Emily N; Perrin, Ellen C; Sheldrick, R Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Children whose parents do not speak English experience significant disparities in the identification of developmental delays and disorders; however, little is known about the availability and validity of translations of developmental screeners. The goal was to create a map of the scientific evidence regarding translations of the 9 Academy of Pediatrics-recommended screening instruments into languages other than English. The authors conducted a systematic search of Medline and PsycINFO, references of identified articles, publishers' Web sites, and official manuals. Through evidence mapping, a new methodology supported by AHRQ and the Cochrane Collaboration, the authors documented the extent and distribution of published evidence supporting translations of developmental screeners. Data extraction focused on 3 steps of the translation and validation process: (1) translation methods used, (2) collection of normative data in the target language, and (3) evidence for reliability and validity. The authors identified 63 distinct translations among the 9 screeners, of which 44 had supporting evidence published in peer-reviewed sources. Of the 63 translations, 35 had at least some published evidence regarding translation methods used, 28 involving normative data, and 32 regarding reliability and/or construct validity. One-third of the translations found were of the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Specific methods used varied greatly across screeners, as did the level of detail with which results were reported. Few developmental screeners have been translated into many languages. Evidence map of the authors demonstrates considerable variation in both the amount and the comprehensiveness of information available about translated instruments. Informal guidelines exist for conducting translation of psychometric instruments but not for documentation of this process. The authors propose that uniform guidelines be established for reporting translation research in peer

  17. The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.

  18. The Sydney West Knowledge Portal: Evaluating the Growth of a Knowledge Portal to Support Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anna; Robinson, Tracy Elizabeth; Provan, Pamela; Shaw, Tim

    2016-06-29

    The Sydney West Translational Cancer Research Centre is an organization funded to build capacity for translational research in cancer. Translational research is essential for ensuring the integration of best available evidence into practice and for improving patient outcomes. However, there is a low level of awareness regarding what it is and how to conduct it optimally. One solution to addressing this gap is the design and deployment of web-based knowledge portals to disseminate new knowledge and engage with and connect dispersed networks of researchers. A knowledge portal is an web-based platform for increasing knowledge dissemination and management in a specialized area. To measure the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal for increasing individual awareness of translational research and to build organizational capacity for the delivery of translational research projects in cancer. An adaptive methodology was used to capture the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal in cancer. This involved stakeholder consultations to inform initial design of the portal. Once the portal was live, site analytics were reviewed to evaluate member usage of the portal and to measure growth in membership. Knowledge portal membership grew consistently for the first 18 months after deployment, before leveling out. Analysis of site metrics revealed members were most likely to visit portal pages with community-generated content, particularly pages with a focus on translational research. This was closely followed by pages that disseminated educational material about translational research. Preliminary data from this study suggest that knowledge portals may be beneficial tools for translating new evidence and fostering an environment of communication and collaboration.

  19. PERSPECTIVE: Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  20. The Community Mentorship Program: Providing Community-Engagement Opportunities for Early-Stage Clinical and Translational Scientists to Facilitate Research Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Cecilia M; Kubicek, Katrina; Robles, Marisela; Kiger, Holly; Dzekov, Jeanne

    2017-02-01

    A goal of the Southern California Clinical and Translational Science Institute (SC-CTSI) at the University of Southern California and Children's Hospital Los Angeles is to train early-stage clinical and translational scientists (CTSs) to conduct research that improves the health of diverse communities. This goal aligns well with the Institute of Medicine's recommendations emphasizing community engagement in biomedical research that facilitates research translation. The Community Mentorship Program (CMP), created to complement community-engaged research didactics, matches CTSs with community mentors who help them identify and complete community-engaged experiences that inform their research. The CMP was piloted in 2013-2015 by the SC-CTSI Workforce Development and Community Engagement cores. The CMP team matched three CTSs (assistant professors pursuing mentored career development awards) with mentors at community-based organizations (CBOs) aligned with their research interests. Each mentor-mentee pair signed a memorandum of understanding. The CMP team checked in regularly, monitoring progress and addressing challenges in CTSs' completion of their community-engaged experience. Each pair completed at least one community-engaged activity informing the CTS's research. In exit interviews, the CTSs and CBO mentors expressed satisfaction with the program and stated that they would continue to work together. The CTSs reported that the program provided opportunities to develop networks outside academia, build trust within the community, and receive feedback and learn from individuals in communities affected by their research. The CMP will be expanded to include all eligible early-career CTSs and promoted for use in similar settings outside the SC-CTSI.

  1. Harmonization in preclinical epilepsy research: A joint AES/ILAE translational initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S; French, Jacqueline A; O'Brien, Terence; Simonato, Michele

    2017-11-01

    Among the priority next steps outlined during the first translational epilepsy research workshop in London, United Kingdom (2012), jointly organized by the American Epilepsy Society (AES) and the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), are the harmonization of research practices used in preclinical studies and the development of infrastructure that facilitates multicenter preclinical studies. The AES/ILAE Translational Task Force of the ILAE has been pursuing initiatives that advance these goals. In this supplement, we present the first reports of the working groups of the Task Force that aim to improve practices of performing rodent video-electroencephalography (vEEG) studies in experimental controls, generate systematic reviews of preclinical research data, and develop preclinical common data elements (CDEs) for epilepsy research in animals. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. FES in Europe and beyond: Current Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators. Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies.

  3. Translational behavioral medicine for population and individual health: gaps, opportunities, and vision for practice-based translational behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Lewis, Megan A; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    In this commentary, we propose a vision for "practice-based translational behavior change research," which we define as clinical and public health practice-embedded research on the implementation, optimization, and fundamental mechanisms of behavioral interventions. This vision intends to be inclusive of important research elements for behavioral intervention development, testing, and implementation. We discuss important research gaps and conceptual and methodological advances in three key areas along the discovery (development) to delivery (implementation) continuum of evidence-based interventions to improve behavior and health that could help achieve our vision of practice-based translational behavior change research. We expect our proposed vision to be refined and evolve over time. Through highlighting critical gaps that can be addressed by integrating modern theoretical and methodological approaches across disciplines in behavioral medicine, we hope to inspire the development and funding of innovative research on more potent and implementable behavior change interventions for optimal population and individual health.

  4. The ECOUTER methodology for stakeholder engagement in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Minion, Joel T; Turner, Andrew; Wilson, Rebecca C; Blell, Mwenza; Ochieng, Cynthia; Murtagh, Barnaby; Roberts, Stephanie; Butters, Oliver W; Burton, Paul R

    2017-04-04

    Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement is, by its nature, reciprocal and relational: the process of engaging research participants, patients, citizens and others (the many 'publics' of engagement) brings them closer to the research but also brings the research closer to them. When translating research into practice, engaging the public and other stakeholders is explicitly intended to make the outcomes of translation relevant to its constituency of users. In practice, engagement faces numerous challenges and is often time-consuming, expensive and 'thorny' work. We explore the epistemic and ontological considerations and implications of four common critiques of engagement methodologies that contest: representativeness, communication and articulation, impacts and outcome, and democracy. The ECOUTER (Employing COnceptUal schema for policy and Translation Engagement in Research) methodology addresses problems of representation and epistemic foundationalism using a methodology that asks, "How could it be otherwise?" ECOUTER affords the possibility of engagement where spatial and temporal constraints are present, relying on saturation as a method of 'keeping open' the possible considerations that might emerge and including reflexive use of qualitative analytic methods. This paper describes the ECOUTER process, focusing on one worked example and detailing lessons learned from four other pilots. ECOUTER uses mind-mapping techniques to 'open up' engagement, iteratively and organically. ECOUTER aims to balance the breadth, accessibility and user-determination of the scope of engagement. An ECOUTER

  5. A Transcription and Translation Protocol for Sensitive Cross-Cultural Team Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lauren; Birkhead, Ana Sanchez; Fernandez, Cecilia; Egger, Marlene J

    2017-10-01

    Assurance of transcript accuracy and quality in interview-based qualitative research is foundational for data accuracy and study validity. Based on our experience in a cross-cultural ethnographic study of women's pelvic organ prolapse, we provide practical guidance to set up step-by-step interview transcription and translation protocols for team-based research on sensitive topics. Beginning with team decisions about level of detail in transcription, completeness, and accuracy, we operationalize the process of securing vendors to deliver the required quality of transcription and translation. We also share rubrics for assessing transcript quality and the team protocol for managing transcripts (assuring consistency of format, insertion of metadata, anonymization, and file labeling conventions) and procuring an acceptable initial translation of Spanish-language interviews. Accurate, complete, and systematically constructed transcripts in both source and target languages respond to the call for more transparency and reproducibility of scientific methods.

  6. [The Contribution of GMP-grade Hospital Preparation to Translational Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Atsushi; Kajiwara, Moto; Minami, Ikuko; Omura, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Shunsaku; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Translational research is important for applying the outcomes of basic research studies to practical medical treatments. In exploratory early-phase clinical trials for an innovative therapy, researchers should generally manufacture investigational agents by themselves. To provide investigational agents with safety and high quality in clinical studies, appropriate production management and quality control are essential. In the Department of Pharmacy of Kyoto University Hospital, a manufacturing facility for sterile drugs was established, independent of existing manufacturing facilities. Manuals on production management and quality control were developed according to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for Investigational New Drugs (INDs). Advanced clinical research has been carried out using investigational agents manufactured in our facility. These achievements contribute to both the safety of patients and the reliability of clinical studies. In addition, we are able to do licensing-out of our technique for the manufacture of investigational drugs. In this symposium, we will introduce our GMP grade manufacturing facility for sterile drugs and discuss the role of GMP grade hospital preparation in translational research.

  7. Was that Infinity or Affinity? Applying Insights from Translation Studies to Qualitative Research Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Ross

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a small but compelling body of literature arguing that transcription represents a key moment of choice and the exercise of power in the research process, many qualitative researchers appear to believe (or at least proceed as if they believe that transcription is relatively unproblematic. Translation studies and its engagement with visibility, power, authenticity and fidelity has a lot to offer to qualitative researchers working critically with transcription theory and practice. This paper explores the translation studies theories of equivalence, overt and covert translation, foreignisation and domestication, and the remainder, and demonstrates some fertile connections between transcription and translation. These connections help us to think about some broader political and cultural issues in relation to transcription and academic discourse, the complexity of equivalence and the central role of the situated transcriber. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100223

  8. Knowledge translation research in population health: establishing a collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurendeau Marie-Claire

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing mobilization of researchers and funding organizations around knowledge translation (KT in Canada and elsewhere, many questions have been only partially answered, particularly in the field of population health. This article presents the results of a systematic process to draw out possible avenues of collaboration for researchers, practitioners and decision-makers who work in the area of KT. The main objective was to establish a research agenda on knowledge translation in population health. Methods Using the Concept Mapping approach, the research team wanted to identify priority themes for the development of research on KT in population health. Mapping is based on multivariate statistical analyses (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis in which statements produced during a brainstorming session are grouped in weighted clusters. The final maps are a visual representation of the priority themes of research on KT. Especially designed for facilitating consensus in the understanding and organization of various concepts, the Concept Mapping method proved suitable for achieving this objective. Results The maps were produced by 19 participants from university settings, and from institutions within the health and social services network. Three main perspectives emerge from this operation: (1 The evaluation of the effectiveness of KT efforts is one of the main research priorities; (2 The importance of taking into consideration user contexts in any KT effort; (3 The challenges related to sharing power for decision-making and action-taking among various stakeholder groups. These perspectives open up avenues of collaboration for stakeholders who are involved in research on KT. Besides these three main perspectives, the concept maps reveal three other trends which should be emphasized. Conclusion The Concept Mapping process reported in this article aimed to provoke collective reflection on the

  9. Human rights assessment in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kimberly A; Ivers, Louise C

    2010-12-15

    Months after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Port-au-Prince, Haiti, over one million remain homeless and living in spontaneous internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Billions of dollars from aid organizations and government agencies have been pledged toward the relief effort, yet many basic human needs, including food, shelter, and sanitation, continue to be unmet. The Sphere Project, "Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response," identifies the minimum standards to be attained in disaster response. From a human rights perspective and utilizing key indicators from the Sphere Project as benchmarks, this article reports on an assessment of the living conditions approximately 12 weeks after the earthquake in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, a spontaneous IDP camp in Port-au-Prince. A stratified random sample of households in the camp, proportionate to the number of families living in each sector, was selected. Interview questions were designed to serve as "key indicators" for the Sphere Project minimum standards. A total of 486 interviews were completed, representing approximately 5% of households in each of the five sectors of the camp. Our assessment identified the relative achievements and shortcomings in the provision of relief services in Parc Jean Marie Vincent. At the time of this survey, the Sphere Project minimum standards for access to health care and quantity of water per person per day were being met. Food, shelter, sanitation, and security were below minimum accepted standard and of major concern. The formal assessment reported here was completed by September 2010, and is necessarily limited to conditions in Haiti before the cholera outbreak in October. Copyright © 2010 Cullen and Ivers. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any

  10. Interview Vincent de Waal over zijn proefschrift: De vooruitgeschoven middenvelder. De innovatiekracht van middenmanagers van welzijnsorganisaties met het oog op actief burgerschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent de Waal; Eveline Bolt

    2015-01-01

    Vincent de Waal (1951) promoveerde in 2014 aan de Universiteit voor Humanistiek. Hij is werkzaam als docent- onderzoeker bij Hogeschool Utrecht (HU), Instituut Social Work. Sinds 2002 is hij onderzoeker binnen het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie van de HU en vanaf 2012 betrokken bij de

  11. Critical appraisal of the suitability of translational research models for performance assessment of cancer institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.

  12. Navigating through translational research: a social marketing compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharf Higgins, Joan

    2011-01-01

    When prominent health issues are chronic, rooted in complex behaviors, and influenced by cognitive, behavioral, social, cultural, economical, and environmental variables, layered and coordinated interventions are needed. Finding solutions that are valid, reliable, and transferable represents a daunting task for researchers. We know that converting science into action is critical for advancing health, but we have failed to appropriately disseminate evidenced-informed research to practitioners. The purpose of this article is to suggest that a social marketing framework can be the compass down this road less traveled in academic research. An experience developing an evaluation toolkit is described as an example of applying social marketing strategies to knowledge translation.

  13. Understanding factors associated with the translation of cardiovascular research: a multinational case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Funders of health research increasingly seek to understand how best to allocate resources in order to achieve maximum value from their funding. We built an international consortium and developed a multinational case study approach to assess benefits arising from health research. We used that to facilitate analysis of factors in the production of research that might be associated with translating research findings into wider impacts, and the complexities involved. Methods We built on the Payback Framework and expanded its application through conducting co-ordinated case studies on the payback from cardiovascular and stroke research in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. We selected a stratified random sample of projects from leading medical research funders. We devised a series of innovative steps to: minimize the effect of researcher bias; rate the level of impacts identified in the case studies; and interrogate case study narratives to identify factors that correlated with achieving high or low levels of impact. Results Twenty-nine detailed case studies produced many and diverse impacts. Over the 15 to 20 years examined, basic biomedical research has a greater impact than clinical research in terms of academic impacts such as knowledge production and research capacity building. Clinical research has greater levels of wider impact on health policies, practice, and generating health gains. There was no correlation between knowledge production and wider impacts. We identified various factors associated with high impact. Interaction between researchers and practitioners and the public is associated with achieving high academic impact and translation into wider impacts, as is basic research conducted with a clinical focus. Strategic thinking by clinical researchers, in terms of thinking through pathways by which research could potentially be translated into practice, is associated with high wider impact. Finally, we identified the complexity of

  14. Advancing the management of Obstructive Airways Diseases through Translational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Sverrild, Asger; Baines, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    Obstructive airways diseases (OAD) represent a huge burden of illness worldwide, and in spite of the development of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality related to asthma and COPD still remains. Over the past decade, our understanding of OAD has improved vastly, and novel...... treatments have evolved. This evolution is the result of successful translational research, which has connected clinical presentations of OAD and underlying disease mechanisms, thereby enabling the development of targeted treatments. The next challenge of translational research will be to position...... these novel treatments for OAD for optimal clinical use. At the same time, there is great potential in these treatments providing even better insights into disease mechanisms in OAD, by studying the effects of blocking individual immunological pathways. To optimise this potential, there is a need to ensure...

  15. A META-COMPOSITE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT APPROACH FOR TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S.; Tanik, Murat M.

    2013-01-01

    Translational researchers conduct research in a highly data-intensive and continuously changing environment and need to use multiple, disparate tools to achieve their goals. These researchers would greatly benefit from meta-composite software development or the ability to continuously compose and recompose tools together in response to their ever-changing needs. However, the available tools are largely disconnected, and current software approaches are inefficient and ineffective in their support for meta-composite software development. Building on the composite services development approach, the de facto standard for developing integrated software systems, we propose a concept-map and agent-based meta-composite software development approach. A crucial step in composite services development is the modeling of users’ needs as processes, which can then be specified in an executable format for system composition. We have two key innovations. First, our approach allows researchers (who understand their needs best) instead of technicians to take a leadership role in the development of process models, reducing inefficiencies and errors. A second innovation is that our approach also allows for modeling of complex user interactions as part of the process, overcoming the technical limitations of current tools. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a real-world translational research use case. We also present results of usability studies evaluating our approach for future refinements. PMID:23504436

  16. A meta-composite software development approach for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Tanik, Murat M

    2013-06-01

    Translational researchers conduct research in a highly data-intensive and continuously changing environment and need to use multiple, disparate tools to achieve their goals. These researchers would greatly benefit from meta-composite software development or the ability to continuously compose and recompose tools together in response to their ever-changing needs. However, the available tools are largely disconnected, and current software approaches are inefficient and ineffective in their support for meta-composite software development. Building on the composite services development approach, the de facto standard for developing integrated software systems, we propose a concept-map and agent-based meta-composite software development approach. A crucial step in composite services development is the modeling of users' needs as processes, which can then be specified in an executable format for system composition. We have two key innovations. First, our approach allows researchers (who understand their needs best) instead of technicians to take a leadership role in the development of process models, reducing inefficiencies and errors. A second innovation is that our approach also allows for modeling of complex user interactions as part of the process, overcoming the technical limitations of current tools. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a real-world translational research use case. We also present results of usability studies evaluating our approach for future refinements.

  17. Translational research: bridging the gap between long-term weight loss maintenance research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Estabrooks, Paul A; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-10-01

    The number of US adults classified as overweight or obese has dramatically increased in the past 25 years, resulting in a significant body of research addressing weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, little is known about the potential of weight loss maintenance interventions to be translated into actual practice settings. Thus, the purpose of this article is to determine the translation potential of published weight loss maintenance intervention studies by determining the extent to which they report information across the reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A secondary purpose is to provide recommendations for research based on these findings. To identify relevant research articles, a literature search was conducted using four databases; 19 weight loss maintenance intervention studies were identified for inclusion. Each article was evaluated using the RE-AIM Coding Sheet for Publications to determine the extent to which dimensions related to internal and external validity were reported. Approximately half of the articles provided information addressing three RE-AIM dimensions, yet only a quarter provided information addressing adoption and maintenance. Significant gaps were identified in understanding external validity, and metrics that could facilitate the translation of these interventions from research to practice are presented. Based upon this review, it is unknown how effective weight loss maintenance interventions could be in real-world situations, such as clinical or community practice settings. Future studies should be planned to address how weight loss maintenance intervention programs will be adopted and maintained, with special attention to costs for participants and for program implementation. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Translator/Revisor | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On request, performs quality control of texts translated or written by clients or ... of the Official Languages Act, the IDRC Translation Unit provides service for the ... Resources and Communications documents for the purposes of internal and ...

  19. German translation of the Alberta context tool and two measures of research use: methods, challenges and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Methods Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. Results We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons’ unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Conclusion Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument

  20. On Dallas Smythe’s “Audience Commodity”: An Interview with Lee McGuigan and Vincent Manzerolle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Adam Svec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This interview with Lee McGuigan and Vincent Manzerolle explores some concepts and debates charted by their new co-edited book, The Audience Commodity in a Digital Age: Revisiting a Critical Theory of Commercial Media, which both celebrates and scrutinizes Dallas Smythe’s canonical 1977 essay, “Communications: Blindspot of Western Marxism”. The discussion covers Smythe’s contribution to the field of media studies and the state of current debates pertaining to the theory of the audience commodity, and it also touches on questions of Smythe’s mainstream reception and legacy.

  1. Integrated Knowledge Translation and Grant Development: Addressing the Research Practice Gap through Stakeholder-informed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Rosenkranz, Susan; Chaim, Gloria; Beitchman, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We describe our stakeholder engagement process for grant application development that occurred as part of our integrated knowledge translation plan and make recommendations for researchers. In phase 1, a stakeholder consultation group was developed. In phase 2, surveys regarding knowledge gathering, research agenda, and research collaboration preferences were sent to 333 cross-sectoral youth-serving organizations in Ontario, including family and consumer organizations. In phase 1, 28 stakeholders from six sectors participated in the consultation group and provided input on multiple aspects of the proposal. Through this process, 19 stakeholders adopted formal roles within the project. In phase 2, 206 surveys were received (response rate = 62%). Survey responses supported the grant focus (concurrent youth mental health and substance use problems). Respondents also prioritized project goals and provided specific feedback on research and knowledge translation. Finally, although some stakeholders chose greater involvement, most survey respondents indicated a preference for a moderate level of participation in research rather than full team membership. Despite short timelines and feasibility challenges, stakeholders can be meaningfully engaged in and contribute to the grant proposal development process. Consideration is needed for the practical challenges that stakeholder organizations face in supporting and participating in research.

  2. Chemical and isotopic composition of high-temperature gases from the new Andesitic lava dome in the Soufriere of Saint-Vincent (Lesser Antilles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Patrick

    1981-01-01

    High-temperature gases emitted by the new lava dome built within the crater of the Soufriere of Saint-Vincent, in 1979, were collected. Their chemical composition and a possible deep-seated origin for carbon (mean delta 13 C=-5.5 0/00 vs PDB) are discussed here [fr

  3. Chemical and isotopic composition of high-temperature gases from the new Andesitic lava dome in the Soufriere of Saint-Vincent (Lesser Antilles)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, P. (Centre des Faibles radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1981-11-09

    High-temperature gases emitted by the new lava dome built within the crater of the Soufriere of Saint-Vincent, in 1979, were collected. Their chemical composition and a possible deep-seated origin for carbon (mean delta/sup 13/C=-5.5 0/00 vs PDB) are discussed here.

  4. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim; Bug, William; Samwald, Matthias; Bodenreider, Olivier; Chen, Helen; Doherty, Donald; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gao, Yong; Kashyap, Vipul; Kinoshita, June; Luciano, Joanne; Marshall, M Scott; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Rees, Jonathan; Stephens, Susie; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Wu, Elizabeth; Zaccagnini, Davide; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Neumann, Eric; Herman, Ivan; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2007-01-01

    Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG), set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need for a critical mass of

  5. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim; Bug, William; Samwald, Matthias; Bodenreider, Olivier; Chen, Helen; Doherty, Donald; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gao, Yong; Kashyap, Vipul; Kinoshita, June; Luciano, Joanne; Marshall, M Scott; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Rees, Jonathan; Stephens, Susie; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Wu, Elizabeth; Zaccagnini, Davide; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Neumann, Eric; Herman, Ivan; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2007-05-09

    A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG), set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need for a critical mass of practitioners and installed base

  6. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall M Scott

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG, set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need

  7. Terpene-induced porphyria and the illness of Vincent van Gogh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, R.; Cable, E.; Cable, J.; Clements, E.; Donohue, S.; Greene, Y.; Srivastava, K.; Arnold, W.; Bonkovsky, H. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (United States) Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Vincent van Gogh suffered from recurrent bouts of an illness that may have been acute porphyria and abused camphor and alcohol, the latter particularly in the form of absinthe, a liqueur distilled from wormwood that was popular in 19th C France. To learn whether camphor or terpenes found in absinthe are porphyrogenic, the authors studied them in cultures of chick embryo liver cells. All were found to be porphyrogenic, especially in the presence of deferoxamine. The terpenes also induced the activity and protein amount of 5-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase, and induced activities of benzphetamine demethylase. The degree of porphyrin and enzyme induction produced by 1mM camphor was similar to that produced by 50uM glutethimide, a potent porphyrogen. Potency of pinene and thujone were lower. Camphor and glutethimide both produced accumulations of 8- and 7-COOH porphyrins, whereas pinene and thujone produced 4- and 2-COOH porphyrin accumulation. The authors conclude that camphor, pinen and thujone are porphyrogenic, cable of exacerbating acute porphyria, and may have done so in van Gogh.

  8. Breaking Free of Sample Size Dogma to Perform Innovative Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetti, Peter; Deeks, Steven G.; McCune, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Innovative clinical and translational research is often delayed or prevented by reviewers’ expectations that any study performed in humans must be shown in advance to have high statistical power. This supposed requirement is not justifiable and is contradicted by the reality that increasing sample size produces diminishing marginal returns. Studies of new ideas often must start small (sometimes even with an N of 1) because of cost and feasibility concerns, and recent statistical work shows that small sample sizes for such research can produce more projected scientific value per dollar spent than larger sample sizes. Renouncing false dogma about sample size would remove a serious barrier to innovation and translation. PMID:21677197

  9. Application of proteomics to translational research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, L.A.; Petricoin, E.; Garaci, E.; De Maria, R.; Belluco, C.

    2009-01-01

    Deriving public benefit from basic biomedical research requires a dedicated and highly coordinated effort between basic scientists, physicians, bioinformaticians, clinical trial coordinators, MD and PhD trainees and fellows, and a host of other skilled participants. The Istituto Superiore di Sanita/George Mason University US-Italy Oncoproteomics program, established in 2005, is a successful example of a synergistic creative collaboration between basic scientists and clinical investigators conducting translational research. This program focuses on the application of the new field of proteomics to three urgent and fundamental clinical needs in cancer medicine: 1.) Biomarkers for early diagnosis of cancer, when it is still treatable, 2.) Individualizing patient therapy for molecular targeted inhibitors that block signal pathways driving cancer pathogenesis and 3.) Cancer Progenitor Cells (CSCs): When do the lethal progenitors of cancer first emerge, and how can we treat these CSCs with molecular targeted inhibitors

  10. 40 Years of Research Put p53 in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel, Virginie; Nguyen Van Long, Flora; Diaz, Jean-Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1979, p53 has shown multiple facets. Initially the tumor suppressor p53 protein was considered as a stress sensor able to maintain the genome integrity by regulating transcription of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. However, it rapidly came into light that p53 regulates gene expression to control a wider range of biological processes allowing rapid cell adaptation to environmental context. Among them, those related to cancer have been extensively documented. In addition to its role as transcription factor, scattered studies reported that p53 regulates miRNA processing, modulates protein activity by direct interaction or exhibits RNA-binding activity, thus suggesting a role of p53 in regulating several layers of gene expression not restricted to transcription. After 40 years of research, it appears more and more clearly that p53 is strongly implicated in translational regulation as well as in the control of the production and activity of the translational machinery. Translation control of specific mRNAs could provide yet unsuspected capabilities to this well-known guardian of the genome.

  11. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  12. Research Strategies for Academic Medical Centers: A Framework for Advancements toward Translational Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Rand; Champagne, Thomas J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This review article presents a simplified framework for thinking about research strategy priorities for academic medical centers (AMCs). The framework can serve as a precursor to future advancements in translational medicine and as a set of planning guideposts toward ultimate translational excellence. While market pressures, reform uncertainties,…

  13. Model for bridging the translational "valleys of death" in spinal cord injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrable B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bill Barrable,1 Nancy Thorogood,1 Vanessa Noonan,1,2 Jocelyn Tomkinson,1 Phalgun Joshi,1 Ken Stephenson,1 John Barclay,1 Katharina Kovacs Burns3 1Rick Hansen Institute, 2Division of Spine, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Health Sciences Council, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: To improve health care outcomes with cost-effective treatments and prevention initiatives, basic health research must be translated into clinical application and studied during implementation, a process commonly referred to as translational research. It is estimated that only 14% of health-related scientific discoveries enter into medical practice and that it takes an average of 17 years for them to do so. The transition from basic research to clinical knowledge and from clinical knowledge to practice or implementation is so fraught with obstacles that these transitions are often referred to as “valleys of death”. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed a unique praxis model for translational research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI. The praxis model involves three components. The first is a coordinated program strategy of cure, care, consumer engagement, and commercialization. The second is a knowledge cycle that consists of four phases, ie, environmental scanning, knowledge generation and synthesis, knowledge validation, and implementation. The third is the provision of relevant resources and infrastructure to overcome obstacles in the “valleys of death”, ie, funding, clinical research operations, informatics, clinical research and best practice implementation, consumer engagement, collaborative networks, and strategic partnerships. This model, which is to be independently evaluated in 2018 to determine its strengths and limitations, has been used to advance treatments for pressure ulcers in SCI. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed an innovative solution to move knowledge into action by

  14. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  15. Plan of Action for Real-World Translation of LGBTQ Health and Aging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; McKenzie, Glenise L; Krinsky, Lisa; Emlet, Charles A

    2017-12-01

    Despite accumulating evidence of health disparities, there exists limited translational research to enhance optimal health and aging of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-identified * (LGBTQ) older adults. Based on the Health Equity Promotion Model that addresses the distinct needs and strengths of LGBTQ older adults, we underscore the important role of collaborations among researchers, practitioners, and communities to build community capacity. Given the rapidly shifting context, we advance principles to guide future work that will enhance translational research and the development of evidence-based practice so that LGBTQ older adults can reach their full health potential.

  16. Élisée RECLUS. Géographe, anarchiste, écologiste, Jean-Didier VINCENT, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lire la biographie d'un géographe écrite par un non géographe est un grand plaisir ! Jean-Didier VINCENT, comme Élisée RECLUS, est natif, de Sainte-Foy-la-Grande. C'est peut être la raison pour laquelle il s'est lancé dans cette biographie hommage qui, comme il l'écrit lui-même en fin de son ouvrage est "une histoire d'amour". On citera les dernières lignes de son livre, qui donnent tout l'objectif de cet ouvrage : "J'ai voulu écrire une histoire d'amour. L'œuvre d'Élisée RECLUS a suscité bie...

  17. Proposed Model for Translational Research at a Teaching-Intensive College of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Erin; Grady, Sarah; Vonderhaar, Jacqueline; Ruplin, Andrew

    2017-08-08

    Many American colleges of pharmacy are small, private, teaching institutions. Faculty are required to maintain a research agenda, although the publication quota is less compared with their publicly funded college of pharmacy peers. Faculty at these smaller schools conduct research with very little internal or external funding. This tends to lead to smaller, less impactful research findings. Translational research is becoming popular for research faculty as it bridges theory to practice. The Knowledge-to-Action (KTA) framework presents the steps to conduct translational research. To apply and determine if the KTA framework would be able to produce practice-impactful research at an institution that does not depend on grant funding as part of faculty research agendas. An interdisciplinary team was formed with providers at the clinical faculty's practice site. As the team moved through the KTA steps, authors documented the roles of each team member. It was clear that many different types of teams were formed throughout the KTA process. These teams were then categorized according to the Interdisciplinary Teamwork System. The final result is a proposed model of types of teams and required member roles that are necessary within each KTA step for faculty to conduct practice-impactful research at a small, private, teaching institution without substantial grant funding awards. Applying the KTA framework, two impactful original research manuscripts were developed over two academic years. Furthermore, the practitioners at the clinical faculty member's site were very pleased with the ease of conducting research, as they were never required to take a lead role. In addition, both faculty members alternated lead and support role allowing for a decreased burden of workload while producing theory-driven research. The KTA framework can create a model for translational research and may be particularly beneficial to small teaching institutions to conduct impactful research. Copyright

  18. Recommendations for the future of translational radiobiology research: a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of molecular medicine is now merging into clinical practice with the advent of molecular targeting agents, molecular pathology and molecular imaging for both diagnosis and treatment response. Radiation oncologists must therefore gain expertise in utilizing this information to drive new treatment protocols. Recognizing the importance of this issue, the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncologists (CARO) charged a Task Force in Translational Radiobiology to: (1) critically assess training programs and research infrastructure in relation to current and future translational radiobiology requirements; and (2) make specific recommendations to accelerate the implementation of translational science into day-to-day practice. Selected Task Force recommendations included the principle that universities and departmental Chairs increase the opportunities for academic promotion, funding, and tenure track positions of radiobiologists and translational radiation oncologists. The dedication of 4 to 5 national centers as translational 'hubs', can serve as an interface between clinicians, clinical specimens and radiobiological sciences within the context of correlative clinical trials. The model of the clinician-scientist was encouraged as an important adjunct to good clinical care to be associated with strong enticement, training and mentoring programs and 75%-protected research time. Finally, an integrated model of radiobiological training programs and mutual continuing education between clinicians and basic scientists can be facilitated through a new national radiobiology meeting sponsored by CARO. These recommendations have been accepted by the national radiation oncology membership. Such a framework may serve useful for national programs wishing to develop rapid conduits from the lab to the clinic as a means of integrating molecular biology and the day-to-day practice of radiation oncology

  19. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  20. Translational Research in NeuroAIDS: A Neuroimmune Pharmacology-Related Course

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Amanda; Shiramizu, Bruce; Nath, Avindra; Wojna, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimmune pharmacology (NIP) can be considered a multidisciplinary science where areas of neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect in neurological disorders. The R25 training program titled “Translational Research in NeuroAIDS and Mental Health (TR-NAMH): An innovative mentoring program to promote diversity in NeuroAIDS Research (R25 MH080661)” at the Johns Hopkins University is a web-based interactive course with the goal to improve the capacity of high quality research by deve...

  1. Distributed cognition and process management enabling individualized translational research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Links

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similarly complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team therefore built the NIH UDP Integrated Collaboration System (UDPICS to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  2. Distributed Cognition and Process Management Enabling Individualized Translational Research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Amanda E; Draper, David; Lee, Elizabeth; Guzman, Jessica; Valivullah, Zaheer; Maduro, Valerie; Lebedev, Vlad; Didenko, Maxim; Tomlin, Garrick; Brudno, Michael; Girdea, Marta; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Haendel, Melissa A; Mungall, Christopher J; Smedley, Damian; Hochheiser, Harry; Arnold, Andrew M; Coessens, Bert; Verhoeven, Steven; Bone, William; Adams, David; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Gahl, William A; Sincan, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP) applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similar complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team, therefore, built the NIH UDP integrated collaboration system (UDPICS) to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  3. Once upon a time: Storytelling as a knowledge translation strategy for qualitative researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Anne; Michaud, Cécile

    2018-06-10

    Qualitative research should strive for knowledge translation toward the goal of closing the gap between knowledge and practice. However, it is often a challenge in nursing to identify knowledge translation strategies able to illustrate the usefulness of qualitative results in any given context. This article defines storytelling and uses pragmatism to examine storytelling as a strategy to promote the knowledge translation of qualitative results. Pragmatism posits that usefulness is defined by the people affected by the problem and that usefulness is promoted by modalities, like storytelling, that increase sensitivity to an experience. Indeed, stories have the power to give meaning to human behaviors and to trigger emotions, and in doing so bring many advantages. For example, by contextualizing research results and appealing to both the reason and the emotions of audiences, storytelling can help us grasp the usefulness of these research results. Various strategies exist to create stories that will produce an emotional experience capable of influencing readers' or listeners' actions. To illustrate the potential of storytelling as a knowledge translation strategy in health care, we will use our story of discovering this strategy during a qualitative study in a nursing home as an example. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Translational Research on Habit and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Theresa H; Shnitko, Tatiana A; Robinson, Donita L; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Habitual actions enable efficient daily living, but they can also contribute to pathological behaviors that resistant change, such as alcoholism. Habitual behaviors are learned actions that appear goal-directed but are in fact no longer under the control of the action's outcome. Instead, these actions are triggered by stimuli, which may be exogenous or interoceptive, discrete or contextual. A major hallmark characteristic of alcoholism is continued alcohol use despite serious negative consequences. In essence, although the outcome of alcohol seeking and drinking is dramatically devalued, these actions persist, often triggered by environmental cues associated with alcohol use. Thus, alcoholism meets the definition of an initially goal-directed behavior that converts to a habit-based process. Habit and alcohol have been well investigated in rodent models, with comparatively less research in non-human primates and people. This review focuses on translational research on habit and alcohol with an emphasis on cross-species methodology and neural circuitry.

  5. Incorporating translation into sociolinguistic research: translation policy in an international non-governmental organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tesseur, Wine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores aspects of translation, multilingualism and language policy in the field of transnational civil society. By focusing on translation policies at Amnesty International, an international non-governmental organisation that performs a key role in global governance, this article seeks to contribute to a globalisation-sensitive sociolinguistics. It argues that combining a sociolinguistic approach, more precisely linguistic ethnography, with translation studies leads to an incre...

  6. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Christine H.; Wong, Stuart; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth H.; Dicker, Adam P.; Harari, Paul M.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2007-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  7. Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Research: Conceptual Issues, Methodology, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.

  8. Applying Process Improvement Methods to Clinical and Translational Research: Conceptual Framework and Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudelin, Denise H; Selker, Harry P; Leslie, Laurel K

    2015-12-01

    There is growing appreciation that process improvement holds promise for improving quality and efficiency across the translational research continuum but frameworks for such programs are not often described. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework and case examples of a Research Process Improvement Program implemented at Tufts CTSI. To promote research process improvement, we developed online training seminars, workshops, and in-person consultation models to describe core process improvement principles and methods, demonstrate the use of improvement tools, and illustrate the application of these methods in case examples. We implemented these methods, as well as relational coordination theory, with junior researchers, pilot funding awardees, our CTRC, and CTSI resource and service providers. The program focuses on capacity building to address common process problems and quality gaps that threaten the efficient, timely and successful completion of clinical and translational studies. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Behavioral Response Research Evaluation Workshop (BRREW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Len Thomas & Catriona Harris Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling (CREEM) University of St Andrews St Andrews , UK...Specifically Dr. Hans Slabbekoorn (University of Leiden), Professor Vincent Janik (University of St Andrews ) and Professor Douglas Wartzok (Florida

  10. Translational research needs us to go back to basics and collaborate: interview with Lars Sundstrom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Lars Sundstrom is Director of Enterprise and Translation at the West of England Academic Health Sciences Network [1] (UK), a Professor of Practice in Translational Medicine and Co-Director of the Elizabeth Blackwell Institute for Health Research at Bristol University [2] (UK), and an honorary Professor of Medicine at Cardiff University (UK). He has extensive experience in translational medicine and clinical neurosciences, holding positions at several eminent universities. He has also held executive and board-level positions at several SMEs, developing new therapeutics for neurological conditions and tools for drug discovery. He has also been an advisor to several UK and local government task forces and to the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industry Associations. He was a founding member of the European Brain Council in Brussels, and set up the Severnside Alliance for Translational Research, developing a regional network partnership to link clinical and basic scientists. He was also involved in the creation of Health Research Wales.

  11. From bench to bedside and to health policies (and back: ethics in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The medical aim of translational research is to smooth the transition of discoveries made through basic research from the laboratory bench to their diagnostic or therapeutic applications for patients. These applications may be extended to current clinical practice and to health policies. AIM: The converse is also important: health policies should provide a point of departure when identifying research priorities. Translational research poses the same ethical problems as trials with human subjects - albeit in different ways. One of the more significant problems is the risk for participants in trials: it is thus necessary to ensure that the risks to which these subjects are exposed are not out of proportion to the expected benefits. DISCUSSION: Translational research does not require new ethical principles, but existing biomedical principles need to be adjusted to the specific context. The well-being of participants should always be the primary objective; these persons should never be considered as means for the advancement of knowledge or for the improvement of applications.

  12. [Translation of knowledge on cervical cancer: is there a gap between research on causes and research on patient care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ochoa, Héctor; García, Luis; Castaño, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    This article constructs a map on the translation of knowledge concerning cervical cancer, based on citation networks analysis and the use of Gene Ontology terms and Medical Subject Headings. We identified two areas of research that are poorly interconnected and differ in structure, content, and evolution. One focuses on causes of cancer and the other on patient care. The first research area showed a knowledge translation process where basic research and clinical research are communicated through a set of articles that consolidate human papillomavirus infection as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. The first area aims to prevent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer, while the second aims to stage and treat the disease.

  13. Collective intelligence for translational medicine: Crowdsourcing insights and innovation from an interdisciplinary biomedical research community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Eleanor Jane; Tsoti, Sandra Maria; Howgate, Daniel James; Sivakumar, Shivan; Jalali, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine bridges the gap between discoveries in biomedical science and their safe and effective clinical application. Despite the gross opportunity afforded by modern research for unparalleled advances in this field, the process of translation remains protracted. Efforts to expedite science translation have included the facilitation of interdisciplinary collaboration within both academic and clinical environments in order to generate integrated working platforms fuelling the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and tools to align biomedical research with clinical need. However, barriers to scientific translation remain, and further progress is urgently required. Collective intelligence and crowdsourcing applications offer the potential for global online networks, allowing connection and collaboration between a wide variety of fields. This would drive the alignment of biomedical science with biotechnology, clinical need, and patient experience, in order to deliver evidence-based innovation which can revolutionize medical care worldwide. Here we discuss the critical steps towards implementing collective intelligence in translational medicine using the experience of those in other fields of science and public health.

  14. The Ethics of Translational Science: Imagining Public Benefit in Gene-Environment Interaction Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research is increasingly informed by expectations of “translation,” which call for the production of scientific knowledge that can be used to create services and products that improve health outcomes. In this paper, we ask how translation, in particular the idea of social responsibility, is understood and enacted in the post-genomic life sciences. Drawing on theories examining what constitutes “good science,” and interviews with 35 investigators who study the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, we describe the dynamic and unsettled ethics of translational science through which the expected social value of scientific knowledge about complex disease causation is negotiated. To describe how this ethics is formed, we first discuss the politics of knowledge production in interdisciplinary research collectives. Researchers described a commitment to working across disciplines to examine a wide range of possible causes of disease, but they also pointed to persistent disciplinary and ontological divisions that rest on the dominance of molecular conceptions of disease risk. The privileging of molecular-level causation shapes and constrains the kinds of knowledge that can be created about gene-environment interactions. We then turn to scientists’ ideas about how this knowledge should be used, including personalized prevention strategies, targeted therapeutics, and public policy interventions. Consensus about the relative value of these anticipated translations was elusive, and many scientists agreed that gene-environment interaction research is part of a shift in biomedical research away from considering important social, economic, political and historical causes of disease and disease disparities. We conclude by urging more explicit engagement with questions about the ethics of translational science in the post-genomic life sciences. This would include a consideration

  15. Mapping the Ethics of Translational Genomics: Situating Return of Results and Navigating the Research-Clinical Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Burke, Wylie; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Both bioethics and law have governed human genomics by distinguishing research from clinical practice. Yet the rise of translational genomics now makes this traditional dichotomy inadequate. This paper pioneers a new approach to the ethics of translational genomics. It maps the full range of ethical approaches needed, proposes a “layered” approach to determining the ethics framework for projects combining research and clinical care, and clarifies the key role that return of results can play in advancing translation. PMID:26479558

  16. Scientific retreats with 'speed dating': networking to stimulate new interdisciplinary translational research collaborations and team science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranwala, Damayanthi; Alberg, Anthony J; Brady, Kathleen T; Obeid, Jihad S; Davis, Randal; Halushka, Perry V

    2017-02-01

    To stimulate the formation of new interdisciplinary translational research teams and innovative pilot projects, the South Carolina Clinical and Translational Research (SCTR) Institute (South Carolina Clinical and Translational Science Award, CTSA) initiated biannual scientific retreats with 'speed dating' networking sessions. Retreat themes were prioritized based on the following criteria; cross-cutting topic, unmet medical need, generation of novel technologies and methodologies. Each retreat begins with an external keynote speaker followed by a series of brief research presentations by local researchers focused on the retreat theme, articulating potential areas for new collaborations. After each session of presentations, there is a 30 min scientific 'speed dating' period during which the presenters meet with interested attendees to exchange ideas and discuss collaborations. Retreat attendees are eligible to compete for pilot project funds on the topic of the retreat theme. The 10 retreats held have had a total of 1004 participants, resulted in 61 pilot projects with new interdisciplinary teams, and 14 funded projects. The retreat format has been a successful mechanism to stimulate novel interdisciplinary research teams and innovative translational research projects. Future retreats will continue to target topics of cross-cutting importance to biomedical and public health research. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  17. Research on Translation Strategy of English Subtitle Television Drama for College Students based on Cultural Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Translation strategy is closely-tied with the translation of ESTD (English Subtitle Television Drama. The research of translation strategy is to serve translations of ESTD in earlier days. The 21 S century is the information times. The development of science and technology is quick. Quantities of ESTD grow explosively. Translations of English Subtitle Television Dramas play a significant role in the progress of Chinese science and technology. Although the quality of traditional manual translations is very good, the speed of translation is too slow. Traditional manual translations can not meet the need of translations of ESTD day by day. It is a new topic to face the new stern challenge and follow the development's steps of the times for technical translators. The paper will discuss the transformation of translation idea, and suggest carrying on translation strategy, web page translation and software translation. Finally, the author states her views on the implementation of computer assistant translation, the managements of translation projects and information-shared platform.

  18. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  19. Translational research strategy: an essential approach to fight the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Peschel, Andreas; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2014-11-01

    Translation research strategy in infectious diseases, combining the results from basic research with patient-orientated research, aims to bridge the gap between laboratory findings and clinical infectious disease practice to improve disease management. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, there are four main areas of clinical and scientific uncertainty that need to be urgently addressed by translational research: (i) early diagnosis of antibiotic-resistant infections and the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy; (ii) the identification of reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; (iii) the development of new antibiotics with lower propensities to evoke resistance; and (iv) the development of new non-antibiotic drugs to be used in the prevention of the spread of resistant bacterial strains. Strict European collaboration among major stakeholders is therefore essential. Appropriate educational tools to train a new generation of scientists with regard to a multifaceted approach to antimicrobial resistance research should be developed. Key areas include the support and implementation of European networks focused on translational research and related education activities, making potential therapeutics more attractive to investors and helping academic investigators to determine whether new molecules can be developed with clinical applicability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A Metadata based Knowledge Discovery Methodology for Seeding Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.

  1. Identification of Translational Dermatology Research Priorities in the UK; Results of an e-Delphi Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, E.; Reynolds, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Translational research is the direct application of basic and applied research to patient care. It is estimated that there are at least 2,000 different skin diseases, thus there are considerable challenges in seeking to undertake research on each of these disorders. Objective This eDelphi exercise was conducted in order to generate a list of translational dermatology research questions which are regarded as a priority for further investigations. Results During the first phase of the eDelphi, 228 research questions were generated by an expert panel which included clinical academic dermatologists, clinical dermatologists, non-clinical scientists, dermatology trainees and representatives from patient support groups. Following completion of the second and third phases, 40 questions on inflammatory skin disease, 20 questions on structural skin disorders / genodermatoses, 37 questions on skin cancer and 8 miscellaneous questions were designated as priority translational dermatology research questions (PRQs). In addition to PRQs on a variety of disease areas (including multiple PRQs on psoriasis, eczema, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma), there were a number of cross-cutting themes which identified a need to investigate mechanisms / pathogenesis of disease and the necessity to improve treatments for patients with skin disease. Conclusion It is predicted that this list of PRQs will help to provide a strategic direction for translational dermatology research in the UK and that addressing this list of questions will ultimately provide clinical benefit for substantial numbers of subjects with skin disorders. PMID:26149834

  2. Academic Perspectives and Experiences of Knowledge Translation: A Qualitative Study of Public Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…

  3. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G.; Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can infor...

  4. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text......The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...

  5. MULTIFUNCTION OF INTERNET IN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Budiharjo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology affects almost all areas, including translation. Many products of technology have made translational works easier, one of which is internet. Despite the wide use of internet, the potentials it has are sometimes unnoticed. While web-based dictionaries or thesaurus often serve as translators’ assistants and online Machine Translation issues become topics of many researches, other uses of internet related to translation may not be known by many. Internet can help disseminate newborn ideas, theories and findings worldwide to enhance translation theories. Besides, the contact between internet and translation generates new areas to examine. Internet also provides helping hand in the area of translation research. Researcher or anyone conducting research in the field of translation can find a range of research gaps as well as reference. Those who need group discussions to collect required data from informants, or researchers of the same interest coming from all over the world can meet and conduct Focus Group Discussion (FGD on virtual world. Furthermore, internet offers various forms of assistance for translation practitioners. The commonly used internet assistance consists of dictionaries, thesaurus and Machine Translations available on the internet. Other forms of aid provided by internet take form of parallel texts, images, and videos, which can be very helpful. Internet provides many things which can be utilized for the purpose of translation. Internet keeps on providing more as it develops from time to time in line with the development of technology. Internet awaits utilization of theorists, researchers, practitioners and those having concern on translation.

  6. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's

  7. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  8. TRANSAUTOPHAGY : European network for multidisciplinary research and translation of autophagy knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, Caty; Codogno, Patrice; Pinti, Marcello; Batoko, Henri; Morán, María; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula; Reggiori, Fulvio; Sirko, Agnieszka; Soengas, María S; Velasco, Guillermo; Lafont, Frank; Lane, Jon; Faure, Mathias; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative consortium, named "TRANSAUTOPHAGY," has been created among European research groups, comprising more than 150 scientists from 21 countries studying diverse branches of basic and translational autophagy. The consortium was approved in the framework of the Horizon 2020 Program in

  9. The Afrikaans Bible translations and apartheid: research | Naude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second translation of the Afrikaans Bible goes pari passu with acquiescent social consciousness among the Afrikaners. This translation as a target text oriented translation introduces a new vocabulary of reconciliation, clearly apparent from the quotes contained in the document on church and society. The strategies of ...

  10. Scientific Retreats with ‘Speed Dating’: Networking to Stimulate New Interdisciplinary Translational Research Collaborations and Team Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberg, Anthony J.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Obeid, Jihad S.; Davis, Randal; Halushka, Perry V.

    2016-01-01

    To stimulate the formation of new interdisciplinary translational research teams and innovative pilot projects, the South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research (SCTR) Institute (South Carolina Clinical and Translational Science Award, CTSA) initiated biannual scientific retreats with “speed dating” networking sessions. Retreat themes were prioritized based on the following criteria; cross-cutting topic, unmet medical need, generation of novel technologies and methodologies. Each retreat commences with an external keynote speaker followed by a series of brief research presentations by local researchers focused on the retreat theme, articulating potential areas for new collaborations. After each session of presentations, there is a 30 minute scientific “speed dating” period during which the presenters meet with interested attendees to exchange ideas and discuss collaborations. Retreat attendees are eligible to compete for pilot project funds on the topic of the retreat theme. The 10 retreats held have had a total of 1004 participants, resulted in 61 pilot projects with new interdisciplinary teams, and 14 funded projects. The retreat format has been a successful mechanism to stimulate novel interdisciplinary research teams and innovative translational research projects. Future retreats will continue to target topics of cross-cutting importance to biomedical and public health research. PMID:27807146

  11. Translating research into practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB: a protocol for a programme of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibby John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR has funded nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs. Each CLAHRC is a partnership between higher education institutions (HEIs and the NHS in nine UK regional health economies. The CLAHRC for Leeds, York, and Bradford comprises two 'research themes' and three 'implementation themes.' One of these implementation themes is Translating Research into Practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB. TRiPLaB aims to develop, implement, and evaluate methods for inducing and sustaining the uptake of research knowledge into practice in order to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford. Methods TRiPLaB is built around a three-stage, sequential, approach using separate, longitudinal case studies conducted with collaborating NHS organisations, TRiPLaB will select robust innovations to implement, conduct a theory-informed exploration of the local context using a variety of data collection and analytic methods, and synthesise the information collected to identify the key factors influencing the uptake and adoption of targeted innovations. This synthesis will inform the development of tailored, multifaceted, interventions designed to increase the translation of research findings into practice. Mixed research methods, including time series analysis, quasi-experimental comparison, and qualitative process evaluation, will be used to evaluate the impact of the implementation strategies deployed. Conclusion TRiPLaB is a theory-informed, systematic, mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating tailored implementation strategies aimed at increasing the translation of research-based findings into practice in one UK health economy. Through active collaboration with its local NHS, TRiPLaB aims to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford and to contribute to research knowledge regarding the

  12. Experimental psychopathology paradigms for alcohol use disorders: Applications for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Ray, Lara A

    2016-11-01

    In spite of high prevalence and disease burden, scientific consensus on the etiology and treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) has yet to be reached. The development and utilization of experimental psychopathology paradigms in the human laboratory represents a cornerstone of AUD research. In this review, we describe and critically evaluate the major experimental psychopathology paradigms developed for AUD, with an emphasis on their implications, strengths, weaknesses, and methodological considerations. Specifically we review alcohol administration, self-administration, cue-reactivity, and stress-reactivity paradigms. We also provide an introduction to the application of experimental psychopathology methods to translational research including genetics, neuroimaging, pharmacological and behavioral treatment development, and translational science. Through refining and manipulating key phenotypes of interest, these experimental paradigms have the potential to elucidate AUD etiological factors, improve the efficiency of treatment developments, and refine treatment targets thus advancing precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Translational research in oncology: Implications for palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunangshu Ghoshal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The label “translational research” (TR has become ever more popular in the biomedical domain in recent years. It is usually presented as an attempt to bridge a supposed gap between knowledge produced at the laboratory bench and its use at the clinical bedside. This is claimed to help society harvest the benefits of its investments in scientific research. The past decade has witnessed a remarkable acceleration in the pace of translational cancer medicine – genome sequencing of various human cancers has been broadly deployed in drug discovery programs, diagnostic tests have been developed to predict molecularly targeted anticancer agents, advent of cancer immunotherapies, an enhanced appreciation of the complex interactions that exist between tumor cells and their microenvironment have revolutionized the management of cancers. Treatment for cancer and palliative care (PC go hand in hand and the role of TR in PC can no longer be ignored. This paper discusses about the scientific discourse of TR in cancer care and its implications for the practice of PC. It starts with a brief reconstruction of the history of the concept and subsequently unravels how the label is used in clinical/research practice. In conclusion, TR seems to be driven by a changed relationship between science and society. “Translation” has become important because society is thought to deserve a tangible return in terms of health and quality of life on its investment in basic biomedical science.

  14. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Donna; Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Teitcher, Jennifer; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Barnes, Mark; Purpura, James; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  15. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications – US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  16. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Hanrahan

    Full Text Available Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN, regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1 context, (2 process, (3 content and (4 translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level, and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh, syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent; and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several

  17. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  18. Translation of interviews from a source language to a target language: examining issues in cross-cultural health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-05-01

    To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately

  19. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  20. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  1. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.

  2. Implementing Knowledge Translation Strategies in Funded Research in Canada and Australia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging literature describing the use of knowledge translation strategies to increase the relevance and usability of research, yet there are few real-world examples of how this works in practice. This case study reports on the steps taken to embed knowledge translation strategies in the Movember Foundation's Men’s Mental Health Grant Rounds in 2013–14, which were implemented in Australia and Canada, and on the support provided to the applicants in developing their knowledge translation plans. It identifies the challenges faced by the Men’s Mental Health Program Team and how these were resolved. The strategies explored include articulating knowledge translation requirements, ensuring a common understanding of knowledge translation, assessing knowledge translation plans, methods of engaging end users, and building capacity with applicants. An iterative approach to facilitating knowledge translation planning within project development was rolled out in Australia just prior to Canada so that lessons learned were immediately available to refine the second roll out. Implementation included the use of external knowledge translation expertise, the development of knowledge translation plans, and the need for internal infrastructure to support monitoring and reporting. Differences in the Australian and Canadian contexts may point to differential exposure to the concepts and practices of knowledge translation. This case study details an example of designing and implementing an integrated knowledge translation strategy that moves beyond traditional dissemination models. Lessons learned point to the importance of a long lead-up time, the use of knowledge translation expertise for capacity building, the need for flexible implementation, and the need for efficiencies in supporting applicants.

  3. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  4. Data Integration Tool: From Permafrost Data Translation Research Tool to A Robust Research Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, H.; Schaefer, K. M.; Jafarov, E. E.; Strawhacker, C.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Thurmes, N.

    2016-12-01

    The United States National Science Foundation funded PermaData project led by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) with a team from the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) aimed to improve permafrost data access and discovery. We developed a Data Integration Tool (DIT) to significantly speed up the time of manual processing needed to translate inconsistent, scattered historical permafrost data into files ready to ingest directly into the GTN-P. We leverage this data to support science research and policy decisions. DIT is a workflow manager that divides data preparation and analysis into a series of steps or operations called widgets. Each widget does a specific operation, such as read, multiply by a constant, sort, plot, and write data. DIT allows the user to select and order the widgets as desired to meet their specific needs. Originally it was written to capture a scientist's personal, iterative, data manipulation and quality control process of visually and programmatically iterating through inconsistent input data, examining it to find problems, adding operations to address the problems, and rerunning until the data could be translated into the GTN-P standard format. Iterative development of this tool led to a Fortran/Python hybrid then, with consideration of users, licensing, version control, packaging, and workflow, to a publically available, robust, usable application. Transitioning to Python allowed the use of open source frameworks for the workflow core and integration with a javascript graphical workflow interface. DIT is targeted to automatically handle 90% of the data processing for field scientists, modelers, and non-discipline scientists. It is available as an open source tool in GitHub packaged for a subset of Mac, Windows, and UNIX systems as a desktop application with a graphical workflow manager. DIT was used to completely translate one dataset (133 sites) that was successfully added to GTN-P, nearly translate three datasets

  5. Identification of translational dermatology research priorities in the U.K.: results of an electronic Delphi exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, E; Brown, S J; Langan, S M; Nicholls, S G; Shams, K; Reynolds, N J

    2015-11-01

    Translational research is the direct application of basic and applied research to patient care. It is estimated that there are at least 2000 different skin diseases; thus, there are considerable challenges in seeking to undertake research on each of these disorders. This electronic Delphi (e-Delphi) exercise was conducted in order to generate a list of translational dermatology research questions that are regarded as a priority for further investigations. During the first phase of the e-Delphi exercise, 228 research questions were generated by an expert panel that included clinical academic dermatologists, clinical dermatologists, nonclinical scientists, dermatology trainees and representatives from patient support groups. Following completion of the second and third phases, 40 questions on inflammatory skin disease, 20 questions on structural skin disorders/genodermatoses, 37 questions on skin cancer and eight miscellaneous questions were designated as priority translational dermatology research questions (PRQs). In addition to PRQs on a variety of disease areas (including multiple PRQs on psoriasis, eczema, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma), there were a number of cross-cutting themes that identified a need to investigate mechanisms/pathogenesis of disease and the necessity to improve treatments for patients with skin disease. It is predicted that this list of PRQs will help to provide a strategic direction for translational dermatology research in the U.K. and that addressing this list of questions will ultimately provide clinical benefit for substantial numbers of patients with skin disorders. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation Strategies to Promote Research Uptake in Child Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Archibald, Mandy; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Scott, Shannon D

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to assist evidence-based decision-making for healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure high quality patient care and outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on knowledge translation interventions aimed at putting explicit research evidence into child health practice. A comprehensive search of thirteen electronic databases was conducted, restricted by date (1985-2011) and language (English). Articles were included if: 1) studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), or controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies; 2) target population was child health professionals; 3) interventions implemented research in child health practice; and 4) outcomes were measured at the professional/process, patient, or economic level. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Study data were aggregated and analyzed using evidence tables. Twenty-one studies (13 RCT, 2 CCT, 6 CBA) were included. The studies employed single (n=9) and multiple interventions (n=12). The methodological quality of the included studies was largely moderate (n=8) or weak (n=11). Of the studies with moderate to strong methodological quality ratings, three demonstrated consistent, positive effect(s) on the primary outcome(s); effective knowledge translation interventions were two single, non-educational interventions and one multiple, educational intervention. This multidisciplinary systematic review in child health setting identified effective knowledge translation strategies assessed by the most rigorous research designs. Given the overall poor quality of the research literature, specific recommendations were made to improve knowledge translation efforts in child health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Miller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  8. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Judy M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  9. Studies on the Mental Processes in Translation Memory-assisted Translation – the State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the mental translation processes involved in translation memory-assisted translation. First, based on recent developments in cognitive science the article provides a working definition of mental TM research. Next the article analyses a selection of mental TM studies...... with a view to discovering their aims, data, methods and results. In doing so, the paper attempts to find out what we know by now about the mental aspects of translation memory-assisted translation. The analysis suggests fruitful avenues for future research and concludes that particularly more research...... is needed which takes into account the recent developments within TM technology and looks into both internal and external translation processes....

  10. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium, Post Traumatic Hypopituitarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    10 Aug 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Mission Connect MTBI Translational Research Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Post traumatic hypopituitarism 5b...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to identify the incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism ...June 21, 2010; however, none have reached the six month milestone for blood testing 15. SUBJECT TERMS post traumatic hypopituitarism 16. SECURITY

  11. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  12. [Qualitative translational science in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Pei-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative translational research refers to the "bench-to-bedside" enterprise of harnessing knowledge from the basic sciences to produce new treatment options or nursing interventions for patients. Three evidence-based translational problems related to qualitative translational research discussed this year address the interfaces among the nursing paradigm, the basic sciences, and clinical nursing work. This article illustrates the definition of translational science and translational blocks of evidence-based practice; discusses the qualitative research perspective in evidence synthesis, evidence translation and evidence utilization; and discusses the research questions that must be answered to solve the problems of the three translational gaps from the qualitative research perspective. Qualitative inquiry has an essential role to play in efforts to improve current healthcare-provider nursing interventions, experiences, and contexts. Thus, it is vital to introduce qualitative perspectives into evidence-based practice from the knowledge discovery through to the knowledge implementation process.

  13. Problems in Translating Figures of Speech: A Review of Persian Translations of Harry Potter Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Masroor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of figures of speech in prose, the present research tried to investigate the figures of speech in the novel, Harry Potter Series, and their Persian translations. The main goal of this research was to investigate the translators’ problems in translating figures of speech from English into Persian. To achieve this goal, the collected data were analyzed and compared with their Persian equivalents. Then, the theories of Newmark (1988 & 2001, Larson (1998, and Nolan (2005 were used in order to find the applied strategies for rendering the figures of speech by the translators. After identifying the applied translation strategies, the descriptive and inferential analyses were applied to answer the research question and test its related hypothesis. The results confirmed that the most common pitfalls in translating figures of speech from English into Persian based on Nolan (2005 were, not identifying of figures of speech, their related meanings and translating them literally. Overall, the research findings rejected the null hypothesis. The findings of present research can be useful for translators, especially beginners. They can be aware of the existing problems in translating figures of speech, so they can avoid committing the same mistakes in their works.

  14. Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Feidt, Raheleh; Ienca, Marcello; Elger, Bernice Simone; Folcher, Marc

    2017-12-18

    Advances at the interface between the biological sciences and engineering are giving rise to emerging research fields such as synthetic biology. Harnessing the potential of synthetic biology requires timely and adequate translation into clinical practice. However, the translational research enterprise is currently facing fundamental obstacles that slow down the transition of scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient bedside. These obstacles including scarce financial resources and deficiency of organizational and logistic settings are widely discussed as primary impediments to translational research. In addition, a number of socio-ethical considerations inherent in translational research need to be addressed. As the translational capacity of synthetic biology is tightly linked to its social acceptance and ethical approval, ethical limitations may-together with financial and organizational problems-be co-determinants of suboptimal translation. Therefore, an early assessment of such limitations will contribute to proactively favor successful translation and prevent the promising potential of synthetic biology from remaining under-expressed. Through the discussion of two case-specific inventions in synthetic biology and their associated ethical implications, we illustrate the socio-ethical challenges ahead in the process of implementing synthetic biology into clinical practice. Since reducing the translational lag is essential for delivering the benefits of basic biomedical research to society at large and promoting global health, we advocate a moral obligation to accelerating translational research: the "translational imperative."

  15. Lost in translation?: Comparing three Scandinavian translations of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-08-01

    The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward completely different meaning. Some dissimilarities reflect different cultural beliefs about medicines. When translating questionnaires, bilingual researchers should scrutinize translations across similar languages to address content validity across different countries and languages. Our findings are of relevance to other BMQ translations in non-English countries, as direct comparisons between different translations might not be reliable or valid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A cloud-based data network approach for translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data.

  17. Compositional translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Janssen, Theo; Jong, de F.M.G.; Landsbergen, S.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth review of machine translation by discussing in detail a particular method, called compositional translation, and a particular system, Rosetta, which is based on this method. The Rosetta project is a unique combination of fundamental research and large-scale

  18. Translational research in behavior analysis: historical traditions and imperative for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2010-05-01

    "Pure basic" science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. "Pure applied" work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translational thinking has always occurred in behavior analysis, progress often has been constrained by a functional separation of basic and applied communities. A review of translational traditions in behavior analysis suggests that innovation is most likely when individuals with basic and applied expertise collaborate. Such innovation may have to accelerate for behavior analysis to be taken seriously as a general-purpose science of behavior. We discuss the need for better coordination between the basic and applied sectors, and argue that such coordination compromises neither while benefiting both.

  19. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions

  20. PERSONALITY TYPE AND TRANSLATION PERFORMANCE OF PERSIAN TRANSLATOR TRAINEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between the personality typology of a sample of Iranian translation students and their translation quality in terms of expressive, appellative, and informative text types. The study also attempted to identify the personality types that can perform better in English to Persian translation of the three text types. For that purpose, the personality type and the translation quality of the participants was assessed using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI personality test and translation quality assessment (TQA, respectively. The analysis of the data revealed that the personality type of the participants seemed relevant to the translation quality of all the text types. The translation quality of the participants with intuitive and thinking types was significantly better than the sensing type counterparts in translating expressive texts. The participants with intuitive and feeling types also performed better than their counterparts with sensing type in translation of the informative text. Moreover, the participants with intuitive, feeling, and thinking personality types performed more successfully than the participants with sensing type in translation of the appellative text. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the existing research literature.

  1. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  2. A new spin on research translation: the Boston Consensus Conference on Human Biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessica W; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Webster, Thomas F; Ozonoff, David M

    2009-04-01

    Translating research to make it more understandable and effective (research translation) has been declared a priority in environmental health but does not always include communication to the public or residents of communities affected by environmental hazards. Their unique perspectives are also commonly missing from discussions about science and technology policy. The consensus conference process, developed in Denmark, offers a way to address this gap. The Boston Consensus Conference on Human Biomonitoring, held in Boston, Massachusetts, in the fall of 2006, was designed to educate and elicit input from 15 Boston-area residents on the scientifically complex topic of human biomonitoring for environmental chemicals. This lay panel considered the many ethical, legal, and scientific issues surrounding biomonitoring and prepared a report expressing their views. The lay panel's findings provide a distinct and important voice on the expanding use of biomonitoring. In some cases, such as a call for opt-in reporting of biomonitoring results to study participants, they mirror recommendations raised elsewhere. Other conclusions have not been heard previously, including the recommendation that an individual's results should be statutorily exempted from the medical record unless permission is granted, and the opportunity to use biomonitoring data to stimulate green chemistry. The consensus conference model addresses both aspects of a broader conception of research translation: engaging the public in scientific questions, and bringing their unique perspectives to bear on public health research, practice, and policy. In this specific application, a lay panel's recommendations on biomonitoring surveillance, communication, and ethics have practical implications for the conduct of biomonitoring studies and surveillance programs.

  3. Encouraging translation and assessing impact of the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement: rationale and protocol for a research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shanthi; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Bailie, Ross Stewart; Bailie, Jodie; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Cunningham, Frances; Doran, Christopher; McPhail Bell, Karen; Searles, Andrew

    2017-12-04

    There is growing recognition among health researchers and funders that the wider benefits of research such as economic, social and health impacts ought to be assessed and valued alongside academic outputs such as peer-reviewed papers. Research translation needs to increase and the pathways to impact ought to be more transparent. These processes are particularly pertinent to the Indigenous health sector given continued concerns that Indigenous communities are over-researched with little corresponding improvement in health outcomes. This paper describes the research protocol of a mixed methods study to apply FAIT (Framework to Assess the Impact from Translational health research) to the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement (CRE-IQI). FAIT will be applied to five selected CRE-IQI Flagship projects to encourage research translation and assess the wider impact of that research. Phase I will develop a modified programme logic model for each Flagship project including identifying process, output and impact metrics so progress can be monitored. A scoping review will inform potential benefits. In phase II, programme logic models will be updated to account for changes in the research pathways over time. Audit and feedback will be used to encourage research translation and collect evidence of achievement of any process, output and interim impacts. In phase III, three proven methodologies for measuring research impact-Payback, economic assessment and narratives-will be applied. Data on the application of FAIT will be collected and analysed to inform and improve FAIT's performance. This study is funded by a nationally competitive grant (ID 1078927) from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Newcastle's Human Research Ethics Committee (ID: H-2017-0026). The results from the study will be presented in several peer-reviewed publications, through conference presentations and via

  4. Encouraging translation and assessing impact of the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement: rationale and protocol for a research impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shanthi; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Bailie, Ross Stewart; Bailie, Jodie; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Cunningham, Frances; Doran, Christopher; McPhail Bell, Karen; Searles, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is growing recognition among health researchers and funders that the wider benefits of research such as economic, social and health impacts ought to be assessed and valued alongside academic outputs such as peer-reviewed papers. Research translation needs to increase and the pathways to impact ought to be more transparent. These processes are particularly pertinent to the Indigenous health sector given continued concerns that Indigenous communities are over-researched with little corresponding improvement in health outcomes. This paper describes the research protocol of a mixed methods study to apply FAIT (Framework to Assess the Impact from Translational health research) to the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement (CRE-IQI). FAIT will be applied to five selected CRE-IQI Flagship projects to encourage research translation and assess the wider impact of that research. Methods and analysis Phase I will develop a modified programme logic model for each Flagship project including identifying process, output and impact metrics so progress can be monitored. A scoping review will inform potential benefits. In phase II, programme logic models will be updated to account for changes in the research pathways over time. Audit and feedback will be used to encourage research translation and collect evidence of achievement of any process, output and interim impacts. In phase III, three proven methodologies for measuring research impact—Payback, economic assessment and narratives—will be applied. Data on the application of FAIT will be collected and analysed to inform and improve FAIT’s performance. Ethics and dissemination This study is funded by a nationally competitive grant (ID 1078927) from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Newcastle’s Human Research Ethics Committee (ID: H-2017–0026). The results from the study will be presented in several

  5. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Assessments for Use in Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Gómez Soler, Inmaculada; Dell'Aquilla, Julia; Uribe, Patricia Martinez

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a 6-step process for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of counseling assessments from source document into a target language. An illustrative example is provided using the Brief Resilience Scale (Smith et al., 2008) and considerations for counseling researchers are discussed.

  6. The Translation of Basic Behavioral Research to School Psychology: A Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, school psychology has become increasingly grounded in data-based decision making and intervention design, based upon behavior analytic principles. This paradigm shift has occurred in part by recent federal legislation, as well as through advances in experimental research replicating laboratory based studies. Translating basic…

  7. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  8. So, You Think You Have an Idea: A Practical Risk Reduction-Conceptual Model for Academic Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schwartz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Translational research for new drugs, medical devices, and diagnostics encompasses aspects of both basic science and clinical research, requiring multidisciplinary skills and resources that are not all readily available in either a basic laboratory or clinical setting alone. We propose that, to be successful, “translational” research ought to be understood as a defined process from basic science through manufacturing, regulatory, clinical testing all the way to market. The authors outline a process which has worked well for them to identify and commercialize academic innovation. The academic environment places a high value on novelty and less value on whether, among other things, data are reproducible, scalable, reimbursable, or have commercial freedom to operate. In other words, when investors, strategic companies, or other later stage stakeholders evaluate academic efforts at translational research the relative lack of attention to clinical, regulatory, reimbursement, and manufacturing and intellectual property freedom to operate almost universally results in more questions and doubts about the potential of the proposed product, thereby inhibiting further interest. This contrasts with industry-based R&D, which often emphasizes manufacturing, regulatory and commercial factors. Academics do not so much choose to ignore those necessary and standard elements of translation development, but rather, they are not built into the culture or incentive structure of the university environment. Acknowledging and addressing this mismatch of approach and lack of common language in a systematic way facilitates a more effective “translation” handoffs of academic project concepts into meaningful clinical solutions help translational researchers more efficiently develop and progress new and better medical products which address validated needs. The authors provide an overview and framework for academic researchers to use which will help them define the

  9. The Metropolitan Studies Institute at USC Upstate: Translational Research that Drives Community Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The Metropolitan Studies Institute (MSI) at the University of South Carolina Upstate (USC Upstate) demonstrates a robust and unique record of community impact through community indicators research and other translational research. The MSI's work drives programmatic priorities and funding decisions, generates revenue, and increases the community's…

  10. Setting global standards for stem cell research and clinical translation : The 2016 ISSCR guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daley, George Q.; Hyun, Insoo; Apperley, Jane F.; Barker, Roger A.; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bredenoord, Annelien L.; Breuer, Christopher K.; Caulfield, Timothy; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Heslop, Helen E.; Jin, Ying; Lee, Richard T.; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Murry, Charles E.; Piantadosi, Steven; Rao, Mahendra; Rooke, Heather M.; Sipp, Douglas; Studer, Lorenz; Sugarman, Jeremy; Takahashi, Masayo; Zimmerman, Mark; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016). The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008) to address new and emerging areas of

  11. Integrating Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation for Better Translation Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    translations, combining machine translation with computer assisted translation has drawn attention in current research. This combines two prospects: the opportunity of ensuring high quality translation along with a significant performance gain. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is another important area......, which caters important functionalities in language processing and natural language understanding tasks. In this work we integrate automatic speech recognition and machine translation in parallel. We aim to avoid manual typing of possible translations as dictating the translation would take less time...... to the n-best list rescoring, we also use word graphs with the expectation of arriving at a tighter integration of ASR and MT models. Integration methods include constraining ASR models using language and translation models of MT, and vice versa. We currently develop and experiment different methods...

  12. Advancing Transdisciplinary and Translational Research Practice: Issues and Models of Doctoral Education in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Neuhauser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional public health training has tended to focus more narrowly on diseases and risk factors, and has not adequately leveraged the rich contributions of sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, communication, political science, and other disciplines. Further, students are often not sufficiently trained to work across sectors to translate research findings into effective, large-scale sustainable actions.During the past 2 decades, national and international organizations have called for more effective interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and translational approaches to graduate education. Although it has been difficult to work across traditional academic boundaries, some promising models draw on pedagogical theory and feature cross-disciplinary training focused on real-world problems, linkage between research, professional practice, community action, and cultivation of leadership skills.We describe the development the Doctor of Public Health program at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and its efforts to improve transdisciplinary and translational research education. We stress the need for international collaboration to improve educational approaches and better evaluate their impact.

  13. Translation procedures for standardised quality of life questionnaires: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael; Aaronson, Neil K; Blazeby, Jane; Bottomley, Andrew; Dewolf, Linda; Fayers, Peter; Johnson, Colin; Ramage, John; Scott, Neil; West, Karen

    2007-08-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life (EORTC QL) questionnaires are used in international trials and therefore standardised translation procedures are required. This report summarises the EORTC translation procedure, recent accomplishments and challenges. Translations follow a forward-backward procedure, independently carried out by two native-speakers of the target language. Discrepancies are arbitrated by a third consultant, and solutions are reached by consensus. Translated questionnaires undergo a pilot-testing. Suggestions are incorporated into the final questionnaire. Requests for translations originate from the module developers, physicians or pharmaceutical industry, and most translations are performed by professional translators. The translation procedure is managed and supervised by a Translation Coordinator within the EORTC QL Unit in Brussels. To date, the EORTC QLQ-C30 has been translated and validated into more than 60 languages, with further translations in progress. Translations include all major Western, and many African and Asian languages. The following translation problems were encountered: lack of expressions for specific symptoms in various languages, the use of old-fashioned language, recent spelling reforms in several European countries and different priorities of social issues between Western and Eastern cultures. The EORTC measurement system is now registered for use in over 9000 clinical trials worldwide. The EORTC provides strong infrastructure and quality control to produce robust translated questionnaires. Nevertheless, translation problems have been identified. The key to improvements may lie in the particular features and strengths of the group, consisting of researchers from 21 countries representing 25 languages and include the development of simple source versions, the use of advanced computerised tools, rigorous pilot-testing, certification procedures and insights from a unique cross

  14. Audiovisual Translation:A Critical Review on Sino-western Perspectives of Film Subtitle Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Junchen Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The paper argues the development of audiovisual translation (mainly focuses on the strand of film subtitle translation) in the West and China. Firstly, the paper discusses film translation from the perspective of the West and critically reviews the achievements produced by western researchers. Secondly, the paper analyzes film translation from Chinese perspective and outlines its change and development in Mainland China. Thirdly, some major issues exited in film translation such as cultural p...

  15. Translational researches on leaf senescence for enhancing plant productivity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongfeng; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Leaf senescence is a very important trait that limits yield and biomass accumulation of agronomic crops and reduces post-harvest performance and the nutritional value of horticultural crops. Significant advance in physiological and molecular understanding of leaf senescence has made it possible to devise ways of manipulating leaf senescence for agricultural improvement. There are three major strategies in this regard: (i) plant hormone biology-based leaf senescence manipulation technology, the senescence-specific gene promoter-directed IPT system in particular; (ii) leaf senescence-specific transcription factor biology-based technology; and (iii) translation initiation factor biology-based technology. Among the first strategy, the P SAG12 -IPT autoregulatory senescence inhibition system has been widely explored and successfully used in a variety of plant species for manipulating senescence. The vast majority of the related research articles (more than 2000) showed that crops harbouring the autoregulatory system displayed a significant delay in leaf senescence without any abnormalities in growth and development, a marked increase in grain yield and biomass, dramatic improvement in horticultural performance, and/or enhanced tolerance to drought stress. This technology is approaching commercialization. The transcription factor biology-based and translation initiation factor biology-based technologies have also been shown to be very promising and have great potentials for manipulating leaf senescence in crops. Finally, it is speculated that technologies based on the molecular understanding of nutrient recycling during leaf senescence are highly desirable and are expected to be developed in future translational leaf senescence research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Onomastics and Translation: The Case of Igbo→English Translation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The qualitative research method will be used to translate, analyze and explain the data from the anthroponomical, semiotic and linguistic perspectives to show that contrary to the view held in some Western circles that names are obscure and may consist of words that can hardly be interpreted or translated, they, as symbols ...

  17. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  18. Eye tracking and the translation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Eye tracking has become increasingly popular as a quantitative research method in translation research. This paper discusses some of the major methodological issues involved in the use of eye tracking in translation research. It focuses specifically on challenges in the analysis and interpretation...... of eye-tracking data as reflections of cognitive processes during translation. Four types of methodological issues are discussed in the paper. The first part discusses the preparatory steps that precede the actual recording of eye-tracking data. The second part examines critically the general assumptions...... linking eye movements to cognitive processing in the context of translation research. The third part of the paper discusses two popular eye-tracking measures often used in translation research, fixations and pupil size, while the fourth part proposes a method to evaluate the quality of eye-tracking data....

  19. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Q. Daley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016. The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008 to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.

  20. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...

  1. How Do English Translation Majors Use Translation Strategies? A Survey of the Iranian EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarian, Amir; Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva

    2015-01-01

    Translation language learning strategies, especially in relation to translation students, have not received adequate attention in the research to date. Therefore, the present study attempted to explore Iranian translation students' use of translation strategies, related beliefs, and academic achievement. It was a survey study involving…

  2. Translating Management Practices in Hierarchical Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    structures affect translators’ approaches taken towards management ideas. This paper reports the findings from a longitudinal case study of the translation of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study......This study examines how translators in a hierarchical context approach the translation of management practices. Although current translation theory and research emphasize the importance of contextual factors in translation processes, little research has investigated how strongly hierarchical...... finds that translation does not necessarily imply transformation of the management idea, pointing instead to aspects of exact imitation and copying of an ”original” idea. It also highlights how translation is likely to involve multiple and successive translation modes and, furthermore, that strongly...

  3. From a Viewpoint of Clinical Settings: Pharmacoepidemiology as Reverse Translational Research (rTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology and pharmacoepidemiology research may converge in practise. Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of pharmacotherapy and risk management in patient groups. For many drugs, adverse reaction(s) that were not seen and/or clarified during research and development stages have been reported in the real world. Pharmacoepidemiology can detect and verify adverse drug reactions as reverse translational research. Recently, development and effective use of medical information databases (MID) have been conducted in Japan and elsewhere for the purpose of post-marketing safety of drugs. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan has been promoting the development of 10-million scale database in 10 hospitals and hospital groups as "the infrastructure project of medical information database (MID-NET)". This project enables estimation of the frequency of adverse reactions, the distinction between drug-induced reactions and basal health-condition changes, and usefulness verification of administrative measures of drug safety. However, because the database information is different from detailed medical records, construction of methodologies for the detection and evaluation of adverse reactions is required. We have been performing database research using medical information system in some hospitals to establish and demonstrate useful methods for post-marketing safety. In this symposium, we aim to discuss the possibility of reverse translational research from clinical settings and provide an introduction to our research.

  4. What's missing? Discussing stem cell translational research in educational information on stem cell "tourism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Zarzeczny, Amy; Rachul, Christen; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell tourism is a growing industry in which patients pursue unproven stem cell therapies for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions. It is a challenging market to regulate due to a number of factors including its international, online, direct-to-consumer approach. Calls to provide education and information to patients, their families, physicians, and the general public about the risks associated with stem cell tourism are mounting. Initial studies examining the perceptions of patients who have pursued stem cell tourism indicate many are highly critical of the research and regulatory systems in their home countries and believe them to be stagnant and unresponsive to patient needs. We suggest that educational material should include an explanation of the translational research process, in addition to other aspects of stem cell tourism, as one means to help promote greater understanding and, ideally, curb patient demand for unproven stem cell interventions. The material provided must stress that strong scientific research is required in order for therapies to be safe and have a greater chance at being effective. Through an analysis of educational material on stem cell tourism and translational stem cell research from patient groups and scientific societies, we describe essential elements that should be conveyed in educational material provided to patients. Although we support the broad dissemination of educational material on stem cell translational research, we also acknowledge that education may simply not be enough to engender patient and public trust in domestic research and regulatory systems. However, promoting patient autonomy by providing good quality information to patients so they can make better informed decisions is valuable in itself, irrespective of whether it serves as an effective deterrent of stem cell tourism. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Improving the care of people with traumatic brain injury through the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET program: protocol for a program of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Sally E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research program. The overarching aims of the program are threefold: to improve outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury; to create a network of neurotrauma clinicians and researchers with expertise in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice; and to contribute knowledge to the field of knowledge translation research. The program comprises a series of interlinked projects spanning varying clinical environments and disciplines relevant to neurotrauma, anchored within four themes representing core knowledge translation activities: reviewing research evidence; understanding practice; developing and testing interventions for practice change; and building capacity for knowledge translation in neurotrauma. The program uses a range of different methods and study designs, including: an evidence fellowship program; conduct of and training in systematic reviews; mixed method study designs to describe and understand factors that influence current practices (e.g., semi-structured interviews and surveys; theory-based methods to develop targeted interventions aiming to change practice; a cluster randomised trial to test the effectiveness of a targeted theory-informed intervention; stakeholder involvement activities; and knowledge translation events such as consensus conferences.

  6. Translating Research about Domestic and Family Violence into Practice in Australia: Possibilities and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, Laura; Humphreys, Cathy; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    The volume of research being conducted into domestic and family violence is increasing, yet knowledge translation in this area lags behind other fields such as healthcare. Little is known about how to effectively harness and implement research findings in the "real world," and there continue to be barriers to the use of rigorous research…

  7. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part I: Clinical and network analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Felix; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. Part I includes the clinical phenotyping and diagnostic methods, EEG network-analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches. In Part II, experimental and translational approaches will be discussed (Bauer et al., 2017) [1]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  8. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard

    2016-12-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  9. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Richard Gold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  10. IPRs in biobanking- risks and opportunities for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Verlinden, Michiel; Huys, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The gradual shift from traditional closed innovation systems to more “open” and “transparent” innovation models, rapid technological advances and bio-pharmaceutical innovation gaps have highlighted the importance of an effective governance and use of biobanks. This raises important legal questions...... such as how to deal with intellectual property rights (‘IPRs’) that might arise out of the collection and use of samples and data in research. Only a few projects highlighted the opportunities and potential benefits of user-generated solutions and proper governance of IPRs. This paper aims to provide...... an overview and analysis of the most relevant IPRs in biobanking and to discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with an effective use of biobanks in translational research and innovation. Section 1 specifies challenges in finding a balance between an open and a close collaboration model. Section 2...

  11. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  12. LSP Translation in the New Millenium - A Cross-Baltic Symposium on Didactics and Research. Hermes Skriftserie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The compilation of articles found in this volume is a selection of the papers given at "LSP Translation in the New Millennium - a Cross-Baltic Symposium on Didactics and Research". A symposium sponsored by The Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, arranged by the Aarhus School of Business......, Denmark, and hosted by the University of Tartu, Estonia, in November of 2001. The aim of this volume is twofold: First of all it aims at reflecting current trends within the LSP translation communities of these countries; both in terms of research interests and didactics as well as professional...

  13. Implementing stakeholder-informed research in the substance abuse treatment sector: strategies used by Connections, a Canadian knowledge translation and exchange project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna; Sword, Wendy; Niccols, Alison; Dobbins, Maureen

    2014-05-29

    Researcher-stakeholder collaboration has been identified as critical to bridging research and health system change. While collaboration models vary, meaningful stakeholder involvement over time ("integrated knowledge translation") is advocated to improve the relevance of research to knowledge users. This short report describes the integrated knowledge translation efforts of Connections, a knowledge translation and exchange project to improve services for women with substance abuse problems and their children, and implementation barriers and facilitators. Strategies of varying intensities were used to engage diverse stakeholders, including policy makers and people with lived experience, and executive directors, program managers, and service providers from Canadian addiction agencies serving women. Barriers to participation included individual (e.g., interest), organizational (e.g., funding), and system level (e.g., lack of centralized stakeholder database) barriers. Similarly, facilitators included individual (e.g., perceived relevance) and organizational (e.g., support) facilitators, as well as initiative characteristics (e.g., multiple involvement opportunities). Despite barriers, Connections' stakeholder-informed research efforts proved essential for developing clinically relevant and feasible processes, measures, and implementation strategies. Stakeholder-researcher collaboration is possible and robust integrated knowledge translation efforts can be productive. Future work should emphasize developing and evaluating a range of strategies to address stakeholders' knowledge translation needs and to facilitate sustained and meaningful involvement in research.

  14. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system...... allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...

  15. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  16. From Polarity to Plurality in Translation Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolla Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of the literature in translation studies shows that translation scholarship can be discussed in 3 Macro-levels including 1 Corpus-based studies, 2 Protocol-based studies, and 3 Systems- based studies. Researchers in the corpus-based studies test the hypothesis about the universals of translation. They also try to identify translation norms and regular linguistic patterns. This scholarship aims at showing that the language of translation is different from that of non-translation. The other purpose is to identify the techniques and strategies adopted by the translators. In protocol –based studies, the researchers study the mental activities and the individual behaviors of the translators while translating. They aim to describe the behavior of professional translators (versus translator trainees during the process of translation in a bid to identify how they chunk the source text (unit of translation and to describe how the translation trainees develop their translation competence. These studies are longitudinal for the reason that they aim to investigate the change of intended behaviors in the subjects of the study. Like corpus-based studies, they are experimental and data for analysis are collected by various methods including the translators’ verbal report, keystroke logging, eye tracking, and so on. Recently, in a method called “triangulation”, they combine the above-mentioned methods of data collection to test their hypotheses on a stronger experimental basis. To collect the data, they also employ the methods used in neurology (for example the technology of Electroencephalogram in order to obtain information on the physiological processes in the brains of the translators while translating. And finally in the systems-based studies, the researchers analyze more extended systems of production, distribution, and consumption of translations and their impacts on the target culture in a specific socio-cultural context. Differentiating

  17. Translational Research 2.0: a framework for accelerating collaborative discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakiewicz, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The world wide web has revolutionized the conduct of global, cross-disciplinary research. In the life sciences, interdisciplinary approaches to problem solving and collaboration are becoming increasingly important in facilitating knowledge discovery and integration. Web 2.0 technologies promise to have a profound impact - enabling reproducibility, aiding in discovery, and accelerating and transforming medical and healthcare research across the healthcare ecosystem. However, knowledge integration and discovery require a consistent foundation upon which to operate. A foundation should be capable of addressing some of the critical issues associated with how research is conducted within the ecosystem today and how it should be conducted for the future. This article will discuss a framework for enhancing collaborative knowledge discovery across the medical and healthcare research ecosystem. A framework that could serve as a foundation upon which ecosystem stakeholders can enhance the way data, information and knowledge is created, shared and used to accelerate the translation of knowledge from one area of the ecosystem to another.

  18. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2003-01-01

    The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedside...

  19. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository--research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Bruce H; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-05-10

    Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  20. [Translational/regulatory science researches of NIHS for regenerative medicine and cellular therapy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Japanese Diet passed the Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act and the revisions to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act, which was also renamed as the Therapeutic Products Act (TPA). One of the aims of the new/revised Acts is to promote the development and translation of and access to regenerative/cellular therapies. In the TPA, a product derived from processing cells is categorized as a subgroup of "regenerative medicine, cellular therapy and gene therapy products" (RCGPs), products distinct from pharmaceuticals and medical devices, allowing RCGPs to obtain a conditional and time- limited marketing authorization much earlier than that under the conventional system. To foster not only RCGPs, but also innovative pharmaceuticals and medical devices, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recently launched Translational Research Program for Innovative Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices and RCGPs. This mini-review introduces contributions of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) to research projects on RCGPs in the Program.

  1. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  2. International Meeting on Needs and Challenges in Translational Medicine: filling the gap between basic research and clinical applications. Book of abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, F.; Belardelli, F.; Romero, M.

    2008-01-01

    This multidisciplinary international meeting is organized by the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, in collaboration with Alleanza Contro il Cancro (Alliance Against Cancer, the Network of the Italian Comprehensive Cancer Centres) and EATRIS (European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine). The primary goal of the meeting is to provide a scientific forum to discuss the recent progress in translational research. Moreover, a particular focus will be devoted to the identification of needs, obstacles and new opportunities to promote translational research in biomedicine. The scientific programme will cover a broad range of fields including: cancer; neurosciences; rare diseases; cardiovascular diseases and infectious and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, special attention will be given to the discussion of how comprehensive initiatives for addressing critical regulatory issues for First-In-Man - Phase I clinical studies can potentially improve the efficiency and quality of biomedical and translational research at an international level [it

  3. Pauses by Student and Professional Translators in Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Noor Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation as a process of meaning making activity requires a cognitive process one of which is realized in a pause, a temporary stop or a break indicating doing other than typing activities in a certain period of translation process. Scholars agree that pauses are an indicator of cognitive process without which there will never be any translation practices. Despite such agreement, pauses are debatable as well, either in terms of their length or in terms of the activities managed by a translator while taking pauses. This study, in particular, aims at finding out how student translators and professional translators managed the pauses in a translation process. This was a descriptive research taking two student translators and two professional translators as the participants who were asked to translate a text from English into bahasa Indonesia. The source text (ST was a historical recount text entitled ‘Early History of Yellowstone National Park’ downloaded from http://www.nezperce.com/yelpark9.html composed of 230-word long from English into bahasa Indonesia. The data were collected using Translog protocols, think aloud protocols (TAPs and screen recording. Based on the data analysis, it was found that student translators took the longest pauses in the drafting phase spent to solve the problems related to finding out the right equivalent for the ST words or terms and to solve the difficulties encountered in encoding their ST understanding in the TL; meanwhile, professional translators took the longest pauses in the pos-drafting phase spent to ensure whether their TT had been natural and whether their TT had corresponded to the prevailing grammatical rules of the TL.

  4. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  5. Expectations for methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2015-05-07

    Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans. After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were compared using Chi-square, with P methodological quality, most respondents expect that: AR is done to high quality; costs and difficulty are not acceptable justifications for low quality; findings should be reproducible between laboratories and strains of the same species; and guidelines for AR funded with public money should be consistent with these expectations. Asked about benefits of AR, most thought that there are sometimes/often large benefits to humans from AR, and disagreed that "AR rarely produces benefit to humans." Asked about expectations of translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and treatment findings), most: expect translation >40% of the time; thought that misleading AR results should occur methodological quality of, and the translation rate to humans of findings from AR. These expectations are higher than the empirical data show having been achieved. Unless these areas of AR significantly improve, HCW support of AR may be tenuous.

  6. Information technology for clinical, translational and comparative effectiveness research. Findings from the section clinical research informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Choquet, R

    2013-01-01

    To summarize advances of excellent current research in the new emerging field of Clinical Research Informatics. Synopsis of four key articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2013. The selection was performed by querying PubMed and Web of Science with predefined keywords. From the original set of 590 papers, a first subset of 461 articles which was in the scope of Clinical Research Informatics was refined into a second subset of 79 relevant articles from which 15 articles were retained for peer-review. The four selected articles exemplify current research efforts conducted in the areas of data representation and management in clinical trials, secondary use of EHR data for clinical research, information technology platforms for translational and comparative effectiveness research and implementation of privacy control. The selected articles not only illustrate how innovative information technology supports classically organized randomized controlled trials but also demonstrate that the long promised benefits of electronic health care data for research are becoming a reality through concrete platforms and projects.

  7. Accelerating translational research by clinically driven development of an informatics platform--a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Abugessaisa

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is becoming increasingly dependent upon data generated from health care, clinical research, and molecular investigations. This increasing rate of production and diversity in data has brought about several challenges, including the need to integrate fragmented databases, enable secondary use of patient clinical data from health care in clinical research, and to create information systems that clinicians and biomedical researchers can readily use. Our case study effectively integrates requirements from the clinical and biomedical researcher perspectives in a translational medicine setting. Our three principal achievements are (a a design of a user-friendly web-based system for management and integration of clinical and molecular databases, while adhering to proper de-identification and security measures; (b providing a real-world test of the system functionalities using clinical cohorts; and (c system integration with a clinical decision support system to demonstrate system interoperability. We engaged two active clinical cohorts, 747 psoriasis patients and 2001 rheumatoid arthritis patients, to demonstrate efficient query possibilities across the data sources, enable cohort stratification, extract variation in antibody patterns, study biomarker predictors of treatment response in RA patients, and to explore metabolic profiles of psoriasis patients. Finally, we demonstrated system interoperability by enabling integration with an established clinical decision support system in health care. To assure the usefulness and usability of the system, we followed two approaches. First, we created a graphical user interface supporting all user interactions. Secondly we carried out a system performance evaluation study where we measured the average response time in seconds for active users, http errors, and kilobits per second received and sent. The maximum response time was found to be 0.12 seconds; no server or client errors of any

  8. Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project

    OpenAIRE

    Lillehagen, Ida; V?llestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. T...

  9. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  10. Contributions of attachment theory and research: a framework for future research, translation, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-11-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive "working models" and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious "transmission gap" between parental Adult Attachment Interview classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology; (b) neurobiology; (c) health and immune function; (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism; (e) school readiness; and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses.

  11. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Anam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  12. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutopo, Anam

    2018-02-01

    Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex) thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  13. Team building: electronic management-clinical translational research (eM-CTR) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetti, Alfred A; Parmanto, Bambang; Vecchio, Marcella L; Ahmad, Sjarif; Buch, Shama; Zgheib, Nathalie K; Groark, Stephen J; Vemuganti, Anupama; Romkes, Marjorie; Sciurba, Frank; Donahoe, Michael P; Branch, Robert A

    2009-12-01

    Classical drug exposure: response studies in clinical pharmacology represent the quintessential prototype for Bench to Bedside-Clinical Translational Research. A fundamental premise of this approach is for a multidisciplinary team of researchers to design and execute complex, in-depth mechanistic studies conducted in relatively small groups of subjects. The infrastructure support for this genre of clinical research is not well-handled by scaling down of infrastructure used for large Phase III clinical trials. We describe a novel, integrated strategy, whose focus is to support and manage a study using an Information Hub, Communication Hub, and Data Hub design. This design is illustrated by an application to a series of varied projects sponsored by Special Clinical Centers of Research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at the University of Pittsburgh. In contrast to classical informatics support, it is readily scalable to large studies. Our experience suggests the culture consequences of research group self-empowerment is not only economically efficient but transformative to the research process.

  14. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  15. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    perspective, this paper investigates the relationship between machines and humans in the field of translation, analysing a CAT process in which machine-translation (MT) technology was integrated into a translation-memory (TM) suite. After a review of empirical research into the impact of CAT tools......Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI......, the study indicates that the tool helps the translator conform to project and customer requirements....

  16. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher......Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...

  17. Reconceptualising translation in agricultural innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, Julie; Dwyer, Janet; Gaskell, Peter; Mills, Jane; Wolf, de Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Scientific research continues to play a significant role in meeting the multiple innovation challenges in agriculture. If this role is to be fulfilled, provision needs to be made for effective translation of research outputs, where translation is understood to be the process whereby science becomes

  18. Translational research: cells, tissues and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to the complex space radiation environment poses an important health hazard for astronauts in long-term space missions. The central theme of NASA's space radiation health research effort is to acquire scientific knowledge to understand the mechanisms of particle radiation effects in biological systems and to use this knowledge to set exposure limits and to design countermeasures that will protect the astronauts. During the past few decades, a rich body of data has been developed to characterize HZE-induced biological responses both in vitro and in vivo using ground-based accelerator facilities available in a number of facilities around the world. Although much is known about particle-radiation-induced DNA damage and cell killing in cultured cell lines, recent evidence suggest that numerous other factors, such as membrane effects, altered gene expression, bystander effects and specific cell-type dependent features also play critical roles in cellular responses. Dose- and particle-dependent studies are also available for multicellular tissues and animal model systems where emerging information demonstrates complex interactions between cells including intercellular communications, activation of proteins, alterations in the microenvironment, tissue-specificity, and genetic status and these contribute in determining the consequences of HZE radiation. Due to the lack of human data, risk estimates depend on the extrapolation of experimental results in animals and cultured cell systems to man. In this presentation, selected topics reviewing particle radiation effects in cells, tissues and animal will be used to illustrate the importance of translational research and some of the limitations of such approaches

  19. Roles of contract research organizations in translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Shu Shih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transitional medicine/science is shifting the medical research paradigm from compound-based to evidence-based drug/device discovery. It is increasing interdisciplinary collaborations, enhancing usage of advanced technologies, and facilitating therapeutics reaching patients faster. The fundamental theme of evidence-based discovery is to apply what is revealed in preclinical experimentation and to bring the resulting safety and efficacy to clinics. In the medical fields, a contract research organization (CRO works like a hired agent who has corresponding knowledge and experience to conduct and complete tasks for a sponsor. The relationship is business, and the contract is for deliverables. The increasingly high volume of sponsored outsourcing work has made this for-profit business boom in the past decade. Location boundaries are being blurred under globalization in the sciences and cross-border regulatory reviews. Getting from bench to bedside is a winding road with many obstacles and high hurdles. Efficient teamwork becomes essential to materialize ideas and bring them to the market. The professionals within team communities include drug/device makers and CROs. It has become increasingly obvious that CROs play pivotal roles in the chain of discovery/design, developing product to market through in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo testing during preclinical experimentations and clinical trials. Project management teams are responsible for nurturing the materialization in a collaborative manner and enhancing the productivity of the pipelines. CROs have many functional aspects and specialties, and no one organization is fully capable of serving, i.e., integrated services, with expertise in each step of the chain to the needs of a variety of sponsors. Instead of competition among the CROs themselves, the continuously expanding market demands can be shared by Expertise-Based Integrated Services among allied CROs, in contrast to the few large CROs

  20. Hurdles in Basic Science Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Perry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past century there have been incredible advances in the field of medical research, but what hinders translation of this knowledge into effective treatment for human disease? There is an increasing focus on the failure of many research breakthroughs to be translated through the clinical trial process and into medical practice. In this mini review, we will consider some of the reasons that findings in basic medical research fail to become translated through clinical trials and into basic medical practices. We focus in particular on the way that human disease is modeled, the understanding we have of how our targets behave in vivo, and also some of the issues surrounding reproducibility of basic research findings. We will also look at some of the ways that have been proposed for overcoming these issues. It appears that there needs to be a cultural shift in the way we fund, publish and recognize quality control in scientific research. Although this is a daunting proposition, we hope that with increasing awareness and focus on research translation and the hurdles that impede it, the field of medical research will continue to inform and improve medical practice across the world.

  1. An Evaluation of Twenty Years of EU Framework Programme-funded Immune-mediated Inflammatory Translational Research in Non-human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Geraldine Haanstra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing western societies are facing an increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which often no effective treatments exist, resulting in increasing health care expenditure. Despite high investments in drug development, the number of promising new drug candidates decreases. We propose that preclinical research in non-human primate can help to bridge the gap between drug discovery and drug prescription.Translational research covers various stages of drug development of which pre-clinical efficacy tests in valid animal models is usually the last stage. Pre-clinical research in non-human primates may be essential in the evaluation of new drugs or therapies when a relevant rodent model is not available. Non-human primate models for life-threatening or severely debilitating diseases in humans are available at the Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC. These have been instrumental in translational research for several decades.In order to stimulate European health research and innovation from bench to bedside, the European Commission (EC has invested heavily in access to non-human primate research for more than 20 years. BPRC has hosted European users in a series of transnational access programs covering a wide range of research areas with the common theme being immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. We present an overview of the results and give an account of the studies performed as part of European Union Framework Programme (EU FP-funded translational non-human primate research performed at the BPRC. The data illustrate value of translational non-human primate research for the development of new therapies and emphasize the importance of EU FP funding

  2. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  3. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  4. Translational neonatology research: transformative encounters across species and disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Mie S; Sangild, Per T; Svendsen, Mette N

    2018-01-22

    This paper explores the laborious and intimate work of turning bodies of research animals into models of human patients. Based on ethnographic research in the interdisciplinary Danish research centre NEOMUNE, we investigate collaboration across species and disciplines, in research aiming at improving survival for preterm infants. NEOMUNE experimental studies on piglets evolved as a platform on which both basic and clinical scientists exercised professional authority. Guided by the field of multi-species research, we explore the social and material agency of research animals in the production of human health. Drawing on Anna Tsing's concept of "collaborative survival", we show that sharing the responsibility of the life and death of up to twenty-five preterm piglets fostered not only a collegial solidarity between basic and clinical scientists, but also a transformative cross-fertilization across species and disciplines-a productive "contamination"-facilitating the day-to-day survival of piglets, the academic survival of scientists and the promise of survival of preterm infants. Contamination spurred intertwined identity shifts that increased the porosity between the pig laboratory and the neonatal intensive care unit. Of particular significance was the ability of the research piglets to flexibly become animal-infant-patient hybrids in need of a united effort from basic and clinical researchers. However, 'hybrid pigs' also entailed a threat to the demarcation between humans and animals that consolidates the use of animals in biomedical research, and efforts were continuously done to keep contamination within spatial limits. We conclude that contamination facilitates transformative encounters, yet needs spatial containment to materialize bench-to-bedside translation.

  5. Understanding mechanisms of autoimmunity through translational research in vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, James P; Harris, John E

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that leads to life-altering depigmentation and remains difficult to treat. However, clinical observations and translational studies over 30-40 years have led to the development of an insightful working model of disease pathogenesis: Genetic risk spanning both immune and melanocyte functions is pushed over a threshold by known and suspected environmental factors to initiate autoimmune T cell-mediated killing of melanocytes. While under cellular stress, melanocytes appear to signal innate immunity to activate T cells. Once the autoimmune T cell response is established, the IFN-γ-STAT1-CXCL10 signaling axis becomes the primary inflammatory pathway driving both progression and maintenance of vitiligo. This pathway is a tempting target for both existing and developing pharmaceuticals, but further detailing how melanocytes signal their own demise may also lead to new therapeutic targets. Research in vitiligo may be the future key to understand the pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmunity, as vitiligo is common, reversible, progresses over the life of the individual, has been relatively well-defined, and is quite easy to study using translational and clinical approaches. What is revealed in these studies can lead to innovative treatments and also help elucidate the principles that underlie similar organ-specific autoimmune diseases, especially in cases where the target organ is less accessible. PMID:27764715

  6. The Hermeneutical Approach in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Stefanink

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to convince the reader of the validity of the hermeneutical approach in translation studies. In a first part, we will show that this validity is based on the fact that the hermeneutical approach integrates factors like subjectivity, intuition, corporeality and creativity in its theoretical reflection, being thus close to the reality of the translation process. In a second part, we will situate this approach in the context of the development of modern translation studies since the 1950s, and show that this development was characterized by a dominating tendency that led from an atomistic to a more and more holistic view of the translation unit, legitimating the holistic approach, which is fundamental in translational hermeneutics. Our third part relates the history of philosophical hermeneutics as the legitimate foundation of translational hermeneutics. In a fourth part, devoted to the “outcoming perspectives”, we will try to reinforce the legitimacy of the hermeneutical approach by showing how it is supported by recent results of research in cognitive science. In order to foster further research in translational hermeneutics we also offer a methodology based on hermeneutic principles to study the translation process. Finally, we give an example of legitimation of a creative problemsolving based on a hermeneutical approach of a translation problem which finds its validation in the results of cognitive research.

  7. Translational research to improve the treatment of severe extremity injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kate V; Penn-Barwell, J G; Rand, B C; Wenke, J C

    2014-06-01

    Severe extremity injuries are the most significant injury sustained in combat wounds. Despite optimal clinical management, non-union and infection remain common complications. In a concerted effort to dovetail research efforts, there has been a collaboration between the UK and USA, with British military surgeons conducting translational studies under the auspices of the US Institute of Surgical Research. This paper describes 3 years of work. A variety of studies were conducted using, and developing, a previously validated rat femur critical-sized defect model. Timing of surgical debridement and irrigation, different types of irrigants and different means of delivery of antibiotic and growth factors for infection control and to promote bone healing were investigated. Early debridement and irrigation were independently shown to reduce infection. Normal saline was the most optimal irrigant, superior to disinfectant solutions. A biodegradable gel demonstrated superior antibiotic delivery capabilities than standard polymethylmethacrylate beads. A polyurethane scaffold was shown to have the ability to deliver both antibiotics and growth factors. The importance of early transit times to Role 3 capabilities for definitive surgical care has been underlined. Novel and superior methods of antibiotic and growth factor delivery, compared with current clinical standards of care, have been shown. There is the potential for translation to clinical studies to promote infection control and bone healing in these devastating injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Tracking the impact of translational research in psychiatry: state of the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Personalized treatments have become a primary goal in translational psychiatric research. They include the identification of neural circuits associated with psychiatric disorders and definition of treatment according to individual characteristics. Many new tools and technologies have been developed but further efforts are required to provide clues on how these scientific advances in psychiatry may be translated into more effective therapeutic approaches. Obstacles to the progress of translational psychiatry also involve numerous scientific, financial, ethical, logistics and regulatory aspects. Also, the goal of DSM-5 to expand “signs and symptoms” classification to incorporate biological measures may help the development of new multifactorial and dimensional models able to better understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and develop improved treatments. Finally, a better understanding on the significant response variability, cognitive functioning, role of comorbidities and treatment-resistant cases are critical for the development of prevention and intervention strategies that are more effective. PMID:22929586

  9. Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange

  10. Translating DVD Subtitles English-German, English-Japanese, Using Example-based Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Due to limited budgets and an ever-diminishing time-frame for the production of subtitles for movies released in cinema and DVD, there is a compelling case for a technology-based translation solution for subtitles. In this paper we describe how an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach...... to the translation of English DVD subtitles into German and Japanese can aid the subtitler. Our research focuses on an EBMT tool that produces fully automated translations, which in turn can be edited if required. To our knowledge this is the first time that any EBMT approach has been used with DVD subtitle...

  11. Big data from electronic health records for early and late translational cardiovascular research: challenges and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Harry; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Danesh, John; Dobson, Richard; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Maggioni, Aldo; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M; Cronin, Maureen; Brobert, Gunnar; Vardas, Panos; Anker, Stefan D; Grobbee, Diederick E; Denaxas, Spiros

    2018-04-21

    Cohorts of millions of people's health records, whole genome sequencing, imaging, sensor, societal and publicly available data present a rapidly expanding digital trace of health. We aimed to critically review, for the first time, the challenges and potential of big data across early and late stages of translational cardiovascular disease research. We sought exemplars based on literature reviews and expertise across the BigData@Heart Consortium. We identified formidable challenges including: data quality, knowing what data exist, the legal and ethical framework for their use, data sharing, building and maintaining public trust, developing standards for defining disease, developing tools for scalable, replicable science and equipping the clinical and scientific work force with new inter-disciplinary skills. Opportunities claimed for big health record data include: richer profiles of health and disease from birth to death and from the molecular to the societal scale; accelerated understanding of disease causation and progression, discovery of new mechanisms and treatment-relevant disease sub-phenotypes, understanding health and diseases in whole populations and whole health systems and returning actionable feedback loops to improve (and potentially disrupt) existing models of research and care, with greater efficiency. In early translational research we identified exemplars including: discovery of fundamental biological processes e.g. linking exome sequences to lifelong electronic health records (EHR) (e.g. human knockout experiments); drug development: genomic approaches to drug target validation; precision medicine: e.g. DNA integrated into hospital EHR for pre-emptive pharmacogenomics. In late translational research we identified exemplars including: learning health systems with outcome trials integrated into clinical care; citizen driven health with 24/7 multi-parameter patient monitoring to improve outcomes and population-based linkages of multiple EHR sources

  12. The European General Practice Research Network Presents the Translations of Its Comprehensive Definition of Multimorbidity in Family Medicine in Ten European Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy; Sowinska, Agnieska; Van Marwijk, Harm; Lietard, Claire; Van Royen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. Objective To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. Method Forward translation of the EGPRN’s definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached Results 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. Conclusion A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care. PMID:25607642

  13. Synergies and Distinctions between Computational Disciplines in Biomedical Research: Perspective from the Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V.; Hersh, William R.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Chute, Christopher G.; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P.; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P.; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin B.; Harris, Paul A.; Smith, Jack W.; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Krusch, David A.; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally-oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays and sub-optimal results. Although written from the perspective of clinical and translational science award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, the paper addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers. PMID:19550198

  14. Turkish EFL Academicians' Problems Concerning Translation Activities and Practices, Attitudes towards the Use of Online and Printed Translation Tools, and Suggestions for Quality Translation Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Bugra; Kacar, Isil Gunseli

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method research study aimed to highlight the problems of EFL academicians concerning their current translation practices, their attitudes towards the use of various translation tools, and offer suggestions for more quality translation practices. Seventy-three EFL academicians from three Turkish universities participated in the study.…

  15. Machine Translation as a Model for Overcoming Some Common Errors in English-into-Arabic Translation among EFL University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Banna, Adel I.; Naeem, Marwa A.

    2016-01-01

    This research work aimed at making use of Machine Translation to help students avoid some syntactic, semantic and pragmatic common errors in translation from English into Arabic. Participants were a hundred and five freshmen who studied the "Translation Common Errors Remedial Program" prepared by the researchers. A testing kit that…

  16. Networks of Collaboration among Scientists in a Center for Diabetes Translation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K.; Wong, Roger; Thompson, Kellie; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Background Transdisciplinary collaboration is essential in addressing the translation gap between scientific discovery and delivery of evidence-based interventions to prevent and treat diabetes. We examined patterns of collaboration among scientists at the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research. Methods Members (n = 56) of the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research were surveyed about collaboration overall and on publications, presentations, and grants; 87.5% responded (n = 49). We used traditional and network descriptive statistics and visualization to examine the networks and exponential random graph modeling to identify predictors of collaboration. Results The 56 network members represented nine disciplines. On average, network members had been affiliated with the center for 3.86 years (s.d. = 1.41). The director was by far the most central in all networks. The overall and publication networks were the densest, while the overall and grant networks were the most centralized. The grant network was the most transdisciplinary. The presentation network was the least dense, least centralized, and least transdisciplinary. For every year of center affiliation, network members were 10% more likely to collaborate (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00–1.21) and 13% more likely to write a paper together (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Network members in the same discipline were over twice as likely to collaborate in the overall network (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.40–3.15); however, discipline was not associated with collaboration in the other networks. Rank was not associated with collaboration in any network. Conclusions As transdisciplinary centers become more common, it is important to identify structural features, such as a central leader and ongoing collaboration over time, associated with scholarly productivity and, ultimately, with advancing science and practice. PMID:26301873

  17. National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank: A standard based biospecimen and clinical data resource to enhance translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdivieso Federico A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in translational research have led to the need for well characterized biospecimens for research. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is an initiative which collects annotated datasets relevant to human mesothelioma to develop an enterprising biospecimen resource to fulfill researchers' need. Methods The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank architecture is based on three major components: (a common data elements (based on College of American Pathologists protocol and National North American Association of Central Cancer Registries standards, (b clinical and epidemiologic data annotation, and (c data query tools. These tools work interoperably to standardize the entire process of annotation. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank tool is based upon the caTISSUE Clinical Annotation Engine, developed by the University of Pittsburgh in cooperation with the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™, see http://cabig.nci.nih.gov. This application provides a web-based system for annotating, importing and searching mesothelioma cases. The underlying information model is constructed utilizing Unified Modeling Language class diagrams, hierarchical relationships and Enterprise Architect software. Result The database provides researchers real-time access to richly annotated specimens and integral information related to mesothelioma. The data disclosed is tightly regulated depending upon users' authorization and depending on the participating institute that is amenable to the local Institutional Review Board and regulation committee reviews. Conclusion The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank currently has over 600 annotated cases available for researchers that include paraffin embedded tissues, tissue microarrays, serum and genomic DNA. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is a virtual biospecimen registry with robust translational biomedical informatics support to facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational

  18. Sustaining Transfers through Affordable Research Translation (START): study protocol to assess knowledge translation interventions in continuing care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Estabrooks, Carole A; Jones, C Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S; Eliasziw, Misha

    2013-10-26

    Bridging the research-practice gap is an important research focus in continuing care facilities, because the population of older adults (aged 65 years and over) requiring continuing care services is the fastest growing demographic among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Unlicensed practitioners, known as health care aides, provide the majority of care for residents living in continuing care facilities. However, little research examines how to sustain health care aide behavior change following initial adoption of current research evidence. We will conduct a phase III, multicentre, cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) using a stratified 2 × 2 additive factorial design, including an embedded process evaluation, in 24 supportive living facilities within the health zone of Edmonton, AB, Canada. We will determine which combination of frequency and intensity of reminders most effectively sustains the completion of the sit-to-stand activity by health care aides with residents. Frequency refers to how often a reminder is implemented; intensity refers to whether a reminder is social or paper-based. We will compare monthly reminders with reminders implemented every 3 months, and we will compare low intensity, paper-based reminders and high intensity reminders provided by a health care aide peer.Using interviews, questionnaires, and observations, Sustaining Transfers through Affordable Research Translation (START) will evaluate the processes that inhibit or promote the mobility innovation's sustainability among health care aides in daily practice. We will examine how the reminders are implemented and perceived by health care aides and licensed practical nurses, as well as how health care aides providing peer reminders are identified, received by their peers, and supported by their supervisors. START will connect up-to-date innovation research with the practice of health care aides providing direct care to a growing population

  19. Translating the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders into Malay: evaluation of content and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Suan-Phaik; Yap, Adrian U Jin; Chan, Yiong Huak; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2008-01-01

    To develop a Malay-language version of the Axis II Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) through a formal translation/back-translation process and to summarize available data about the psychometric properties of the translated scales. To cross-culturally adapt the instrument, the RDC/TMD underwent translation using a forward-backward method. Subjects were recruited to test the congruency between translated and original versions of the RDC/TMD. The psychometric properties of 3 domains (Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, and Depression) of the RDC/TMD were examined, and the literature on this topic was reviewed. All the items scored 93% to 100% congruency. Cronbach's alphas for Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, and Depression were 0.77, 0.71, and 0.88, respectively (n = 40). The test-retest reliability of scores (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) and levels (Spearman's rho) for these domains showed ICCs of 0.97, 0.94, and 0.95, respectively, with a lowest ICC value of 0.84 (n = 40); the Spearman's rho values were 0.93, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively. The discriminant validity between patients with pain symptoms (n = 40) and normal pain-free controls (n = 40) were statistically significant (P cultural adaptation of the RDC/TMD into the Malay language is suitable for use in Malaysia.

  20. Exploring arts-based knowledge translation: sharing research findings through performing the patterns, rehearsing the results, staging the synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kendra; Schultz, Annette S H

    2014-04-01

    Cultivation of knowledge translation (KT) strategies that actively engage health professionals in critical reflection of their practice and research-based evidence are imperative to address the research-practice gap. While research-based evidence is exponentially growing, our ability to facilitate uptake by nurses and other health professionals has not kept pace. Innovative approaches that extend epistemological bias beyond a singular standpoint of postpositivism, such as the utilization of arts-based methods, expand the possibility to address the complexities of context, engage audience members, promote dissemination within communities of practice, and foster new audiences interested in research findings. In this paper, we address the importance of adopting a social constructivist epistemological stance to facilitate knowledge translation to diverse audiences, explore various arts-based knowledge translation (ABKT) strategies, and open a dialogue concerning evaluative tenets of ABKT. ABKT utilizes various art forms to disseminate research knowledge to diverse audiences and promote evidence-informed practice. ABKT initiatives translate knowledge not based upon a linear model, which views knowledge as an objective entity, but rather operate from the premise that knowledge is socially situated, which demands acknowledging and engaging the learner within their context. Theatre, dance, photography, and poetry are art forms that are commonly used to communicate research findings to diverse audiences. Given the emerging interest and importance of utilizing this KT strategy situated within a social constructivist epistemology, potential challenges and plausible evaluative criteria specific to ABKT are presented. ABKT is an emerging KT strategy that is grounded in social constructivist epistemological tenets, and holds potential for meaningfully sharing new research knowledge with diverse audiences. ABKT is an innovative and synergistic approach to traditional

  1. Closing the translation gap for justice requirements in international research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Lwin, Khin Maung; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe

    2012-09-01

    Bioethicists have long debated the content of sponsors and researchers' obligations of justice in international clinical research. However, there has been little empirical investigation as to whether and how obligations of responsiveness, ancillary care, post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening are upheld in low- and middle-income country settings. In this paper, the authors argue that research ethics guidelines need to be more informed by international research practice. Practical guidance on how to fulfil these obligations is needed if research groups and other actors are to successfully translate them into practice because doing so is often a complicated, context-specific process. Case study research methods offer one avenue for collecting data to develop this guidance. The authors describe how such methods have been used in relation to the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit's vivax malaria treatment (VHX) trial (NCT01074905). Relying on the VHX trial example, the paper shows how information can be gathered from not only international clinical researchers but also trial participants, community advisory board members and research funder representatives in order to: (1) measure evidence of responsiveness, provision of ancillary care, access to post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening in international clinical research; and (2) identify the contextual factors and roles and responsibilities that were instrumental in the fulfilment of these ethical obligations. Such empirical work is necessary to inform the articulation of obligations of justice in international research and to develop guidance on how to fulfil them in order to facilitate better adherence to guidelines' requirements.

  2. Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2008-01-01

    As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend...

  3. Exploring factors related to the translation of collaborative research learning experiences into clinical practice: Opportunities and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Simon; Whiting, Cheryl; Boaz, Annette; Reeves, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Providing training opportunities to develop research skills for clinical staff has been prioritised in response to the need for improving the evidence base underpinning the delivery of care. By exploring the experiences of a number of former participants of a multidisciplinary postgraduate research course, this article explores the factors that have enabled and impeded staff to translate their learnt research skills into clinical practice. Adopting an exploratory case study approach, 16 interviews with 5 cohorts of Masters by Research in Clinical Practice (MResCP) graduates were undertaken. The interviews explored graduates' course experiences and their subsequent attempts to undertake clinical research. Analysis of the data indicated that although participants valued their interactions with colleagues from different professions and felt they gained useful research skills/knowledge, upon returning to clinical practice, they encountered a number of barriers which restricted their ability to apply their research expertise. Professional isolation, issues of hierarchy, and a lack of organisational support were key to limiting their ability to undertake clinical research. Further work is needed to explore in more depth how (i) these barriers can be overcome and (ii) how taught collaborative research skills can be more effectively translated into practice.

  4. Models of Interinstitutional Partnerships between Research Intensive Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) across the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Alecia; Norris, Keith; Verbalis, Joseph G.; Poland, Russell; Bernard, Gordon; Stephens, David S.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Imperato‐McGinley, Julianne; Dottin, Robert P.; Pulley, Jill; West, Andrew; Brown, Arleen; Mellman, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Health disparities are an immense challenge to American society. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) housed within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) are designed to accelerate the translation of experimental findings into clinically meaningful practices and bring new therapies to the doorsteps of all patients. Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) program at the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) are designed to build capacity for biomedical research and training at minority serving institutions. The CTSA created a mechanism fostering formal collaborations between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) supported by the RCMI program. These consortium‐level collaborations activate unique translational research approaches to reduce health disparities with credence to each academic institutions history and unique characteristics. Five formal partnerships between research intensive universities and MSI have formed as a result of the CTSA and RCMI programs. These partnerships present a multifocal approach; shifting cultural change and consciousness toward addressing health disparities, and training the next generation of minority scientists. This collaborative model is based on the respective strengths and contributions of the partnering institutions, allowing bidirectional interchange and leveraging NIH and institutional investments providing measurable benchmarks toward the elimination of health disparities. PMID:24119157

  5. Balancing exploration and exploitation in transferring research into practice: a comparison of five knowledge translation entity archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Prince, Karl; Racko, Girts

    2013-09-05

    Translating knowledge from research into clinical practice has emerged as a practice of increasing importance. This has led to the creation of new organizational entities designed to bridge knowledge between research and practice. Within the UK, the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) have been introduced to ensure that emphasis is placed in ensuring research is more effectively translated and implemented in clinical practice. Knowledge translation (KT) can be accomplished in various ways and is affected by the structures, activities, and coordination practices of organizations. We draw on concepts in the innovation literature--namely exploration, exploitation, and ambidexterity--to examine these structures and activities as well as the ensuing tensions between research and implementation. Using a qualitative research approach, the study was based on 106 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with the directors, theme leads and managers, key professionals involved in research and implementation in nine CLAHRCs. Data was also collected from intensive focus group workshops. In this article we develop five archetypes for organizing KT. The results show how the various CLAHRC entities work through partnerships to create explorative research and deliver exploitative implementation. The different archetypes highlight a range of structures that can achieve ambidextrous balance as they organize activity and coordinate practice on a continuum of exploration and exploitation. This work suggests that KT entities aim to reach their goals through a balance between exploration and exploitation in the support of generating new research and ensuring knowledge implementation. We highlight different organizational archetypes that support various ways to maintain ambidexterity, where both exploration and exploitation are supported in an attempt to narrow the knowledge gaps. The KT entity archetypes offer insights on strategies in structuring

  6. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  7. IQ and Reading Comprehension in Translation Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Askari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Having a deeper understanding of determining factors in the quality of translation is in the interest of almost all scholars of translation studies. Students’ intelligence is being measured constantly in order to determine their aptitude for entering into different programs. However, in translation studies, the variable of intelligence quotient (IQ has been curiously ignored among researchers. This study aimed to explore the strength of both IQ and reading comprehension in predicting translation quality among Iranian translation students.  A sample of forty-six translation students from Alborz University of Qazvin participated in this study. Data were collected using three tests including Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, Colina’s (2008 componential translation quality rating scheme and the reading comprehension test of IELTS. The results show IQ test scores and reading comprehension significantly predict translation quality assessment. Surprisingly, the most significant finding is that IQ score is by far a better predictor of translation quality than reading comprehension. Overall, it is concluded that translation quality assessment is more of a deeper cognitive function than solely language process, which could lead to more research on cognitive aspects of translation.

  8. Six questions about translational due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Evan

    2010-04-28

    To maintain stable respect and support, translational research must be guided by appropriate ethical, social, legal, and political concerns and carry out culturally competent practices. Considering six key questions concerning due diligence will enable the translational research community to examine critically how it approaches these endeavors.

  9. A One Health overview, facilitating advances in comparative medicine and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Cheryl; Dmitriev, Igor; Kashentseva, Elena; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Curiel, David T; Rindt, Hans; Reinero, Carol; Henry, Carolyn J; Bergman, Philip J; Mason, Nicola J; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Engiles, Julie B; Gray, Falon; Laughlin, Danielle; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Wallecha, Anu; Huebner, Margie; Paterson, Yvonne; O'Connor, Daniel; Treml, Laura S; Stannard, James P; Cook, James L; Jacobs, Marc; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Likins, Lee; Sabbagh, Ubadah; Skaff, Andrew; Guloy, Amado S; Hays, Harlen D; LeBlanc, Amy K; Coates, Joan R; Katz, Martin L; Lyons, Leslie A; Johnson, Gayle C; Johnson, Gary S; O'Brien, Dennis P; Duan, Dongsheng; Calvet, James P; Gandolfi, Barbara; Baron, David A; Weiss, Mark L; Webster, Debra A; Karanu, Francis N; Robb, Edward J; Harman, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    A1 One health advances and successes in comparative medicine and translational researchCheryl StroudA2 Dendritic cell-targeted gorilla adenoviral vector for cancer vaccination for canine melanomaIgor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Jeffrey N. Bryan, David T. CurielA3 Viroimmunotherapy for malignant melanoma in the companion dog modelJeffrey N. Bryan, David Curiel, Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Hans Rindt, Carol Reinero, Carolyn J. HenryA4 Of mice and men (and dogs!): development of a commercially licensed xenogeneic DNA vaccine for companion animals with malignant melanomaPhilip J. BergmanA5 Successful immunotherapy with a recombinant HER2-expressing Listeria monocytogenes in dogs with spontaneous osteosarcoma paves the way for advances in pediatric osteosarcomaNicola J. Mason, Josephine S. Gnanandarajah, Julie B. Engiles, Falon Gray, Danielle Laughlin, Anita Gaurnier-Hausser, Anu Wallecha, Margie Huebner, Yvonne PatersonA6 Human clinical development of ADXS-HER2Daniel O'ConnorA7 Leveraging use of data for both human and veterinary benefitLaura S. TremlA8 Biologic replacement of the knee: innovations and early clinical resultsJames P. StannardA9 Mizzou BioJoint Center: a translational success storyJames L. CookA10 University and industry translational partnership: from the lab to commercializationMarc JacobsA11 Beyond docking: an evolutionarily guided OneHealth approach to drug discoveryGerald J. Wyckoff, Lee Likins, Ubadah Sabbagh, Andrew SkaffA12 Challenges and opportunities for data applications in animal health: from precision medicine to precision husbandryAmado S. GuloyA13 A cloud-based programmable platform for healthHarlen D. HaysA14 Comparative oncology: One Health in actionAmy K. LeBlancA15 Companion animal diseases bridge the translational gap for human neurodegenerative diseaseJoan R. Coates, Martin L. Katz, Leslie A. Lyons, Gayle C. Johnson, Gary S. Johnson, Dennis P. O'BrienA16 Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapyDongsheng DuanA17 Polycystic

  10. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey; Daniels, Karen; Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Sevene, Esperança; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2009-12-30

    Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs). We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case); and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case). We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO(4 )and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO(4 )than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO(4), and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries. Translating research knowledge into

  11. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  12. THE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF AUTHENTIC TEXTS-BASED TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusiana .

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Translation requires lots of practice. As it is generally known, authentic texts provide fruitful experience for students to translate either Indonesian-English or vice versa. Authentic texts give many real uses of language in varied meaningful contexts The texts used were advertisement, abstract, local stories, tourist attraction, community service and project for money. This research is aimed at investigating whether the use of authentic texts benefits the students and describing the students’ perceptions toward the use of authentic texts in Translation class. It is a qualitative research. Questionnaires were used to obtain the students’ perceptions on the use of authentic texts in translation. The findings show that authentic texts-based translation benefits students in experiencing better translation. Advertisement was considered to be the most relevant text. On the contrary, they find it difficult to cope with authentic texts particularly dealing with words/terms/vocabulary, meanings, culture, and grammar. The recommendations are that the students have to be exposed to many authentic texts of varied topics in both English and Indonesian in order that they understand both the SL and TL well. For further researchers, it would be possible to research on the influence of authentic texts based translation on the students’ translation skill.

  13. tranSMART: An Open Source and Community-Driven Informatics and Data Sharing Platform for Clinical and Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, Brian D; Braxenthaler, Michael; Haas, Magali; Guo, Yike

    2013-01-01

    tranSMART is an emerging global open source public private partnership community developing a comprehensive informatics-based analysis and data-sharing cloud platform for clinical and translational research. The tranSMART consortium includes pharmaceutical and other companies, not-for-profits, academic entities, patient advocacy groups, and government stakeholders. The tranSMART value proposition relies on the concept that the global community of users, developers, and stakeholders are the best source of innovation for applications and for useful data. Continued development and use of the tranSMART platform will create a means to enable "pre-competitive" data sharing broadly, saving money and, potentially accelerating research translation to cures. Significant transformative effects of tranSMART includes 1) allowing for all its user community to benefit from experts globally, 2) capturing the best of innovation in analytic tools, 3) a growing 'big data' resource, 4) convergent standards, and 5) new informatics-enabled translational science in the pharma, academic, and not-for-profit sectors.

  14. Literary Translation, Translating Culture: The Case of Shahriyar, the Famous Iranian Azeri Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, Saijad

    2016-01-01

    A literary translation is a device of art used to release the text from its dependence on prior cultural knowledge (Herzfeld, 2003). The present research investigates the use of pragmatic equivalence in two translations of the Azeri Turkish long poem "Haydar Babaye Salam" by "Shahriyar." Based on Koller's theory of equivalence…

  15. MO-C-BRB-00: President’s Symposium: Revitalizing Scientific Excellence: Turning Research Into Clinical Reality Through Translational Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  16. MO-C-BRB-00: President’s Symposium: Revitalizing Scientific Excellence: Turning Research Into Clinical Reality Through Translational Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  17. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  18. Creating a Knowledge Translation Platform: nine lessons from the Zambia Forum for Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasonde Joseph M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy–makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR’s experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries – in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training – a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues.

  19. Classification schemes for knowledge translation interventions: a practical resource for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Zimmermann, Gabrielle L; Nuspl, Megan; Hanson, Heather M; Albrecht, Lauren; Esmail, Rosmin; Sauro, Khara; Newton, Amanda S; Donald, Maoliosa; Dyson, Michele P; Thomson, Denise; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-12-06

    As implementation science advances, the number of interventions to promote the translation of evidence into healthcare, health systems, or health policy is growing. Accordingly, classification schemes for these knowledge translation (KT) interventions have emerged. A recent scoping review identified 51 classification schemes of KT interventions to integrate evidence into healthcare practice; however, the review did not evaluate the quality of the classification schemes or provide detailed information to assist researchers in selecting a scheme for their context and purpose. This study aimed to further examine and assess the quality of these classification schemes of KT interventions, and provide information to aid researchers when selecting a classification scheme. We abstracted the following information from each of the original 51 classification scheme articles: authors' objectives; purpose of the scheme and field of application; socioecologic level (individual, organizational, community, system); adaptability (broad versus specific); target group (patients, providers, policy-makers), intent (policy, education, practice), and purpose (dissemination versus implementation). Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the development of each classification scheme using an adapted version of the AGREE II tool. Based on these assessments, two independent reviewers reached consensus about whether to recommend each scheme for researcher use, or not. Of the 51 original classification schemes, we excluded seven that were not specific classification schemes, not accessible or duplicates. Of the remaining 44 classification schemes, nine were not recommended. Of the 35 recommended classification schemes, ten focused on behaviour change and six focused on population health. Many schemes (n = 29) addressed practice considerations. Fewer schemes addressed educational or policy objectives. Twenty-five classification schemes had broad applicability

  20. Linguistic Levels of Translation: A Generic Exploration of Translation Difficulties in Literary Textual Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Madkour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study research was based on a generic exploration of the translation problems that graduate students face in literary translation. Literary translation is fundamental to translation programs at higher education due to the upsurge that has occurred in publishing classical and modern literary works from various cultures. However, literary texts have special characteristics that make the process of transferring them from one language into another a daunting task. Translating literary texts is difficult even for professional translators because misinterpreting the messages of the source texts can lead to distorting the aesthetic aspects of the literary work. Students need to learn various linguistic levels of literary translation as well as strategies and methods of translation. Learning the linguistics levels of translation necessitates providing adequate training that is based on enhancing students’ cognitive abilities. Cognitive-based translation training helps students learn the procedures of solving the problems of translating sound and literary devices. Cognitive approaches are relevant to the translation process since cognition implies mental activities that students can use to understand and synthesize the literary text, and reconstruct it creatively. Therefore, the current study aimed at examining the relationship between cognitive teaching methodologies and students’ performance in literary translation. To examine this relationship, qualitative and quantitative data was collected from graduate students at the College of Languages and Translation at Imam Mohammed bin Saud Islamic University (IMAMU University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, corpus data was gathered from authentic literary texts including, novels, short stories, and poetry, to investigate the effect of linguistic analysis and cognitive strategies on the quality of literary translation. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the

  1. LGBTQ Bullying: Translating Research to Action in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Reisner, Sari L; Juvonen, Jaana; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Perrotti, Jeff; Schuster, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth experience significant bullying that undermines their mental and physical health. National health organizations have called for the development of innovative strategies to address LGBTQ bullying. Pediatricians and other clinicians, medical and public health students, interdisciplinary researchers, government officials, school leaders, community members, parents, and youth from around the country came together at a national symposium entitled "LGBTQ Bullying: Translating Research to Action to Improve the Health of All Youth" in May 2016 to generate strategies to prevent LGBTQ bullying and meet the needs of LGBTQ youth experiencing bullying. This article describes key scientific findings on bullying, LGBTQ stigma, and LGBTQ bullying interventions that were shared at the symposium and provides recommendations for pediatricians to address LGBTQ bullying via clinical care, research, interventions, and policy. Symposium participants recommended that pediatricians engage in efforts to foster inclusive and affirming health care environments wherein LGBTQ youth feel comfortable discussing their identities and experiences, identify youth experiencing LGBTQ bullying, and prevent the negative health consequences of bullying among youth. Moreover, pediatricians can attend to how multiple identities (eg, sexual orientation, gender identity, race and/or ethnicity, disability, and others) shape youth experiences of bullying and expand intervention efforts to address LGBTQ bullying in health care settings. Pediatricians can further advocate for evidence-based, antibullying policies prohibiting bullying on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. Collaboration between pediatricians and diverse stakeholders can contribute to the development and implementation of lasting change in all forms of bullying, including LGBTQ bullying. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. A data-rich recruitment core to support translational clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Rhonda G; Corregano, Lauren M; Rainer, Tyler-Lauren; Melendez, Caroline; Coller, Barry S

    2015-04-01

    Underenrollment of clinical studies wastes resources and delays assessment of research discoveries. We describe the organization and impact of a centralized recruitment core delivering comprehensive recruitment support to investigators. The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science supports a centralized recruitment core, call center, Research Volunteer Repository, data infrastructure, and staff who provide expert recruitment services to investigators. During protocol development, consultations aim to optimize enrollment feasibility, develop recruitment strategy, budget, and advertising. Services during study conduct include advertising placement, repository queries, call management, prescreening, referral, and visit scheduling. Utilization and recruitment outcomes are tracked using dedicated software. For protocols receiving recruitment services during 2009-2013: median time from initiation of recruitment to the first enrolled participant was 10 days; of 4,047 first-time callers to the call center, 92% (n = 3,722) enrolled in the Research Volunteer Repository, with 99% retention; 23% of Repository enrollees subsequently enrolled in ≥1 research studies, with 89% retention. Of volunteers referred by repository queries, 49% (280/537) enrolled into the study, with 92% retained. Provision of robust recruitment infrastructure including expertise, a volunteer repository, data capture and real-time analysis accelerates protocol accrual. Application of recruitment science improves the quality of clinical investigation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Data‐Rich Recruitment Core to Support Translational Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corregano, Lauren M.; Rainer, Tyler‐Lauren; Melendez, Caroline; Coller, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Underenrollment of clinical studies wastes resources and delays assessment of research discoveries. We describe the organization and impact of a centralized recruitment core delivering comprehensive recruitment support to investigators. Methods The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science supports a centralized recruitment core, call center, Research Volunteer Repository, data infrastructure, and staff who provide expert recruitment services to investigators. During protocol development, consultations aim to optimize enrollment feasibility, develop recruitment strategy, budget, and advertising. Services during study conduct include advertising placement, repository queries, call management, prescreening, referral, and visit scheduling. Utilization and recruitment outcomes are tracked using dedicated software. Results For protocols receiving recruitment services during 2009–2013: median time from initiation of recruitment to the first enrolled participant was 10 days; of 4,047 first‐time callers to the call center, 92% (n = 3,722) enrolled in the Research Volunteer Repository, with 99% retention; 23% of Repository enrollees subsequently enrolled in ≥1 research studies, with 89% retention. Of volunteers referred by repository queries, 49% (280/537) enrolled into the study, with 92% retained. Conclusions Provision of robust recruitment infrastructure including expertise, a volunteer repository, data capture and real‐time analysis accelerates protocol accrual. Application of recruitment science improves the quality of clinical investigation. PMID:25381717

  4. The patterns of interaction between professional translators and online resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and the recent developments in translation technology, the way translators carry out their translation-oriented research has changed dramatically. Resources used by translators to conduct such research have diversified and largely moved from paper to online. However, whilst the number and the variety of online resources available to translators is growing exponentially, little is known about the interactions between translators and these resources. The pr...

  5. caTIES: a grid based system for coding and retrieval of surgical pathology reports and tissue specimens in support of translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Rebecca S; Castine, Melissa; Mitchell, Kevin; Chavan, Girish; McSherry, Tara; Feldman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the development of the Cancer Tissue Information Extraction System (caTIES)--an application that supports collaborative tissue banking and text mining by leveraging existing natural language processing methods and algorithms, grid communication and security frameworks, and query visualization methods. The system fills an important need for text-derived clinical data in translational research such as tissue-banking and clinical trials. The design of caTIES addresses three critical issues for informatics support of translational research: (1) federation of research data sources derived from clinical systems; (2) expressive graphical interfaces for concept-based text mining; and (3) regulatory and security model for supporting multi-center collaborative research. Implementation of the system at several Cancer Centers across the country is creating a potential network of caTIES repositories that could provide millions of de-identified clinical reports to users. The system provides an end-to-end application of medical natural language processing to support multi-institutional translational research programs.

  6. Translational ethics? The theory-practice gap in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Translational research is now a critically important current in academic medicine. Researchers in all health-related fields are being encouraged not only to demonstrate the potential benefits of their research but also to help identify the steps through which their research might be 'made practical'. This paper considers the prospects of a corresponding movement of 'translational ethics'. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of focusing upon the translation of ethical scholarship are reviewed. While emphasising the difficulties of crossing the gap between scholarship and practice, the paper concludes that a debate about the business of translation would be useful for medical ethics.

  7. Evidence-Based Scholarly Communication: Information Professionals Unlocking Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Kroth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Evidence-Based Scholarly Communication Conference (EBSCC was held March 11-12, 2010 in Albuquerque, NM. The conference addressed the perceived gap in knowledge and training for scholarly communication principles in the National Institutes of Health (NIH Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA Program. The EBSCC brought together librarians and information specialists to share evidence based strategies for developing effective local scholarly communication support and training and, it is hoped, to form new coalitions to address this topic at the local and national levels. This brief communication summarizes the need for theconference, highlights the general sessions in order of presentation, and introduces the EBSCC research papers appearing in this issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice (EBLIP. It also includes a description of a unique peer-review process methodology pioneered at EBSCC.

  8. Privacy and security in the era of digital health: what should translational researchers know and do about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, Barbara L; Kim, Ju Young; Roberts, Bruce; Armstrong, Winston; Miller, Mark A; Hultner, Michael L; Castillo, Anthony P; Ducom, Jean-Christophe; Topol, Eric J; Steinhubl, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in the availability and incorporation of digital technologies in almost every aspect of our lives creates extraordinary opportunities but brings with it unique challenges. This is especially true for the translational researcher, whose work has been markedly enhanced through the capabilities of big data aggregation and analytics, wireless sensors, online study enrollment, mobile engagement, and much more. At the same time each of these tools brings distinctive security and privacy issues that most translational researchers are inadequately prepared to deal with despite accepting overall responsibility for them. For the researcher, the solution for addressing these challenges is both simple and complex. Cyber-situational awareness is no longer a luxury-it is fundamental in combating both the elite and highly organized adversaries on the Internet as well as taking proactive steps to avoid a careless turn down the wrong digital dark alley. The researcher, now responsible for elements that may/may not be beyond his or her direct control, needs an additional level of cyber literacy to understand the responsibilities imposed on them as data owner. Responsibility lies with knowing what you can do about the things you can control and those you can’t. The objective of this paper is to describe the data privacy and security concerns that translational researchers need to be aware of, and discuss the tools and techniques available to them to help minimize that risk. PMID:27186282

  9. Privacy and security in the era of digital health: what should translational researchers know and do about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, Barbara L; Kim, Ju Young; Roberts, Bruce; Armstrong, Winston; Miller, Mark A; Hultner, Michael L; Castillo, Anthony P; Ducom, Jean-Christophe; Topol, Eric J; Steinhubl, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in the availability and incorporation of digital technologies in almost every aspect of our lives creates extraordinary opportunities but brings with it unique challenges. This is especially true for the translational researcher, whose work has been markedly enhanced through the capabilities of big data aggregation and analytics, wireless sensors, online study enrollment, mobile engagement, and much more. At the same time each of these tools brings distinctive security and privacy issues that most translational researchers are inadequately prepared to deal with despite accepting overall responsibility for them. For the researcher, the solution for addressing these challenges is both simple and complex. Cyber-situational awareness is no longer a luxury-it is fundamental in combating both the elite and highly organized adversaries on the Internet as well as taking proactive steps to avoid a careless turn down the wrong digital dark alley. The researcher, now responsible for elements that may/may not be beyond his or her direct control, needs an additional level of cyber literacy to understand the responsibilities imposed on them as data owner. Responsibility lies with knowing what you can do about the things you can control and those you can't. The objective of this paper is to describe the data privacy and security concerns that translational researchers need to be aware of, and discuss the tools and techniques available to them to help minimize that risk.

  10. Topical Review: Mind Your Language-Translation Matters (A Narrative Review of Translation Challenges).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiing, Jennifer S H; Rajgor, Dimple; Toh, Teck-Hock

    2016-11-01

    Translation of developmental-behavioral screening tools for use worldwide can be daunting. We summarize issues in translating these tools.  METHODS:  Instead of a theoretical framework of "equivalence" by Pena and International Test Commission guidelines, we decided upon a practical approach used by the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS). We derived vignettes from the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status manual and published literature and mapped them to AAOS.  RESULTS:  We found that a systematic approach to planning and translating developmental-behavioral screeners is essential to ensure "equivalence" and encourage wide consultation with experts.  CONCLUSION:  Our narrative highlights how translations can result in many challenges and needed revisions to achieve "equivalence" such that the items remain consistent, valid, and meaningful in the new language for use in different cultures. Information sharing across the community of researchers is encouraged. This narrative may be helpful to novice researchers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  12. BRIDG: a domain information model for translational and clinical protocol-driven research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Lauren B; Hastak, Smita; Ver Hoef, Wendy; Milius, Robert P; Slack, MaryAnn; Wold, Diane; Glickman, Michael L; Brodsky, Boris; Jaffe, Charles; Kush, Rebecca; Helton, Edward

    2017-09-01

    It is critical to integrate and analyze data from biological, translational, and clinical studies with data from health systems; however, electronic artifacts are stored in thousands of disparate systems that are often unable to readily exchange data. To facilitate meaningful data exchange, a model that presents a common understanding of biomedical research concepts and their relationships with health care semantics is required. The Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) domain information model fulfills this need. Software systems created from BRIDG have shared meaning "baked in," enabling interoperability among disparate systems. For nearly 10 years, the Clinical Data Standards Interchange Consortium, the National Cancer Institute, the US Food and Drug Administration, and Health Level 7 International have been key stakeholders in developing BRIDG. BRIDG is an open-source Unified Modeling Language-class model developed through use cases and harmonization with other models. With its 4+ releases, BRIDG includes clinical and now translational research concepts in its Common, Protocol Representation, Study Conduct, Adverse Events, Regulatory, Statistical Analysis, Experiment, Biospecimen, and Molecular Biology subdomains. The model is a Clinical Data Standards Interchange Consortium, Health Level 7 International, and International Standards Organization standard that has been utilized in national and international standards-based software development projects. It will continue to mature and evolve in the areas of clinical imaging, pathology, ontology, and vocabulary support. BRIDG 4.1.1 and prior releases are freely available at https://bridgmodel.nci.nih.gov . © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Pitt Innovation Challenge (PInCh): Driving Innovation in Translational Research Through an Incentive-Based, Problem-Focused Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Nicole Edgar; Maier, John; Yasko, Laurel; Mathias, David; Qua, Kacy; Wagner, Erika; Miller, Elizabeth; Reis, Steven E

    2017-05-01

    Translational research aims to move scientific discoveries across the biomedical spectrum from the laboratory to humans, and to ultimately transform clinical practice and public health policies. Despite efforts to accelerate translational research through national initiatives, several major hurdles remain. The authors created the Pitt Innovation Challenge (PInCh) as an incentive-based, problem-focused approach to solving identified clinical or public health problems at the University of Pittsburgh Clinical and Translational Science Institute in spring 2014. With input from a broad range of stakeholders, PInCh leadership arrived at the challenge question: How do we empower individuals to take control of their own health outcomes? The authors developed the PInCh's three-round proposal submission and review process as well as an online contest management tool to support the process. Ninety-two teams submitted video proposals in round one. Proposals included mobile applications (29; 32%), other information technology (19; 21%), and community program (22; 24%) solutions. Ten teams advanced to the final round, where three were awarded $100,000 to implement their solution over 12 months. In a 6-month follow-up survey, 6/11 (55%) team leaders stated the PInCh helped to facilitate connections outside their normal sphere of collaborators. Additional educational training sessions related to problem-focused research will be developed. The PInCh will be expanded to engage investment and industry communities to facilitate the translation of solutions to clinical practice via commercialization pathways. External organizations and other universities will be engaged to use the PInCh as a mechanism to fuel innovation in their spaces.

  15. TRANSLATING ECONOMICS TEXTBOOKS: A CASE STUDY OF EPISTEMICIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARNEDI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of discourse in the social sciences, economics textbooks written in English in which knowledge has been transferred to other languages through translation have brought a certain impact on both the target language and the target culture. In terms of ideology, this article argues about the hegemonic status of the dominant language or culture that creates socalled epistemicide or the erosion of knowledge, partly due to translation strategies adopted by the translator. Investigation is done using the corpusbased approach, theories of translation strategies and the comparative model. The study reveals that the translator in the macro-level text adopts the ideology of foreignising strategy rather than domesticating strategy when translating an economics textbook from English into Indonesian. This is supported by the use of the number of the source language-orientated translation techniques leading to two translation methods (i.e. literal translation and faithful translation adopted in the micro-level text. This research strongly supports another relevant study pertaining to the globalisation of knowledge through translation and also the translation theories of equivalence (i.e. overt and covert translation. The research findings also have some pedagogical implications on teaching English for Specific Purposes in higher education.

  16. Assessment of and Response to Data Needs of Clinical and Translational Science Researchers and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah F. Norton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Setting: As universities and libraries grapple with data management and “big data,” the need for data management solutions across disciplines is particularly relevant in clinical and translational science (CTS research, which is designed to traverse disciplinary and institutional boundaries. At the University of Florida Health Science Center Library, a team of librarians undertook an assessment of the research data management needs of CTS researchers, including an online assessment and follow-up one-on-one interviews. Design and Methods: The 20-question online assessment was distributed to all investigators affiliated with UF’s Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI and 59 investigators responded. Follow-up in-depth interviews were conducted with nine faculty and staff members. Results: Results indicate that UF’s CTS researchers have diverse data management needs that are often specific to their discipline or current research project and span the data lifecycle. A common theme in responses was the need for consistent data management training, particularly for graduate students; this led to localized training within the Health Science Center and CTSI, as well as campus-wide training. Another campus-wide outcome was the creation of an action-oriented Data Management/Curation Task Force, led by the libraries and with participation from Research Computing and the Office of Research. Conclusions: Initiating conversations with affected stakeholders and campus leadership about best practices in data management and implications for institutional policy shows the library’s proactive leadership and furthers our goal to provide concrete guidance to our users in this area.

  17. International Meeting on Needs and Challenges in Translational Medicine: filling the gap between basic research and clinical applications. Book of abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, F; Belardelli, F [Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Romero, M [Alleanza Contro il Cancro, Rome, (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    This multidisciplinary international meeting is organized by the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, in collaboration with Alleanza Contro il Cancro (Alliance Against Cancer, the Network of the Italian Comprehensive Cancer Centres) and EATRIS (European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine). The primary goal of the meeting is to provide a scientific forum to discuss the recent progress in translational research. Moreover, a particular focus will be devoted to the identification of needs, obstacles and new opportunities to promote translational research in biomedicine. The scientific programme will cover a broad range of fields including: cancer; neurosciences; rare diseases; cardiovascular diseases and infectious and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, special attention will be given to the discussion of how comprehensive initiatives for addressing critical regulatory issues for First-In-Man - Phase I clinical studies can potentially improve the efficiency and quality of biomedical and translational research at an international level. [Italian] Questo convegno internazionale multidisciplinare e organizzato dall'Istituto Superiore di Sanita, in collaborazione con Alleanza Contro il Cancro (la rete italiana degli IRCCS oncologici) ed EATRIS (European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine). L'obiettivo principale del convegno e di rappresentare un forum scientifico per lo scambio di informazioni e di opinioni sui nuovi progressi nel campo della ricerca traslazionale. Un interesse particolare sara rivolto inoltre all'identificazione dei bisogni, degli ostacoli e delle nuove opportunita per promuovere la ricerca traslazionale in biomedicina. Il programma scientifico coprira una vasta area di campi di ricerca, tra cui cancro, neuroscienze, malattie rare, malattie cardiovascolari, malattie infettive ed autoimmuni. Particolare attenzione sara rivolta poi al dibattito sul modo in cui iniziative di vasta portata, che riguardano gli aspetti

  18. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions

  19. Biobanking for research in surgery: are surgeons in charge for advancing translational research or mere assistants in biomaterial and data preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thasler, Wolfgang E; Thasler, Reinhard M K; Schelcher, Celine; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2013-04-01

    High-quality biospecimens of human origin with annotated clinical and procedural data are an important tool for biomedical research, not only to map physiology, pathophysiology and aetiology but also to go beyond in translational research. This has opened a new special field of research known as 'biobanking', which focuses on how to collect, store and provide these specimens and data, and which is substantially supported by national and European funding. An overview on biobanking is given, with a closer look on a clinical setting, concerning a necessary distinction from clinical trials and studies as well as a comparison of prospective sample collection with secondary use of archived samples from diagnostics. Based on a summary of possible use and scientific impact of human tissue in research, it is shown how surgical expertise boosts the scientific value of specimens and data. Finally, an assessment of legal and ethical issues especially from a surgical perspective is given, followed by a model of interdisciplinary biobanking within a joint 'centre' that as synergistic structure merges essential input from surgery as well as laboratory medicine, pathology and biometry. Within the domain of biobanking, surgeons have to develop a better awareness of their role within translational research, not only on the level of medical faculties but also as nationally and internationally funded initiatives. Therefore, the authors suggest a platform for biobanking within the German association of surgeons in analogy to the existing special interest group for clinical trials.

  20. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  1. Translating Regenerative Biomaterials Into Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Edward T; Dakin, Stephanie G; Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Globally health care spending is increasing unsustainably. This is especially true of the treatment of musculoskeletal (MSK) disease where in the United States the MSK disease burden has doubled over the last 15 years. With an aging and increasingly obese population, the surge in MSK related spending is only set to worsen. Despite increased funding, research and attention to this pressing health need, little progress has been made toward novel therapies. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies could provide the solutions required to mitigate this mounting burden. Biomaterial-based treatments in particular present a promising field of potentially cost-effective therapies. However, the translation of a scientific development to a successful treatment is fraught with difficulties. These barriers have so far limited translation of TERM science into clinical treatments. It is crucial for primary researchers to be aware of the barriers currently restricting the progression of science to treatments. Researchers need to act prospectively to ensure the clinical, financial, and regulatory hurdles which seem so far removed from laboratory science do not stall or prevent the subsequent translation of their idea into a treatment. The aim of this review is to explore the development and translation of new treatments. Increasing the understanding of these complexities and barriers among primary researchers could enhance the efficiency of biomaterial translation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Researching for sustained translation from site cluster permeability into building courtyard and interior atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy Badai Samodra, FX; Defiana, Ima; Setyawan, Wahyu

    2018-03-01

    Many previous types of research have discussed the permeability of site cluster. Because of interaction and interconnected attribute, it will be better that there is its translation into lower context such as building and interior scale. In this paper, the sustainability design performance of both similar designs of courtyard and atrium are investigated continuing the recommendation of site space permeability. By researching related literature review and study through Ecotect Analysis and Ansys Fluent simulations, the pattern transformation and optimum courtyard and atrium design could comply the requirement. The results highlighted that the air movement from the site could be translated at the minimum of 50% higher to the building and indoor environment. Thus, it has potency for energy efficiency when grid, loop, and cul-de-sac site clusters, with 25% of ground coverage, have connectivity with building courtyard compared to the atrium. Energy saving is higher when using low thermal transmittance of transparent material and its lower area percentages for the courtyard walls. In general, it was more energy efficient option as part of a low rise building, while the courtyard building performed better with increasing irregular building height more than 90% of the difference.

  3. Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2008-01-01

    As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend...... is likely to continue. The  paper also provides recommendations for academic programs interested in adjusting to the trend....

  4. An Analysis of "Rank-Shift" of Compound Complex Sentence Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widarwati, Nunun Tri

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the research is to describe the "rank-shift" of compound complex sentence translation in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix novel translation by Listiana Srisanti and also to describe the accuracy of those translation. This research belongs to qualitative descriptive research which document and informants are being…

  5. From English to Chinese, Japanese, and Russian: extending research visibility with language translations of a conference slide presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Hoffecker, PhD, MLS

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Language translation can be a difficult and time-consuming task. However, translation of a conference slide presentation with limited text is an achievable activity and engages an international audience for information that is often not noticed or lost. Although English is by far the primary language of science and other disciplines, it is not necessarily the first or preferred language of global researchers. By offering appropriate language versions, the authors of presentations can expand the reach of their work.

  6. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network Translational Pharmacogenetics Program: Overcoming Challenges of Real-World Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuldiner, AR; Relling, MV; Peterson, JF; Hicks, JK; Freimuth, RR; Sadee, W; Pereira, NL; Roden, DM; Johnson, JA; Klein, TE

    2013-01-01

    The pace of discovery of potentially actionable pharmacogenetic variants has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the implementation of this new knowledge for individualized patient care has been slow. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) Translational Pharmacogenetics Program seeks to identify barriers and develop real-world solutions to implementation of evidence-based pharmacogenetic tests in diverse health-care settings. Dissemination of the resulting toolbox of “implementation best practices” will prove useful to a broad audience. PMID:23588301

  7. How to create innovation by building the translation bridge from basic research into medicinal drugs: an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Paul G; Schuhmacher, Alexander; Harrison, Juan; Law, Ronald; Haug, Kevin; Wong, Gordon

    2013-03-05

    The global healthcare industry is undergoing substantial changes and adaptations to the constant decline of approved new medical entities. This decrease in internal research productivity is resulting in a major decline of patent-protected sales (patent cliff) of most of the pharmaceutical companies. Three major global adaptive trends as driving forces to cope with these challenges are evident: cut backs of internal research and development jobs in the western hemisphere (Europe and USA), following the market growth potential of Asia by building up internal or external research and development capabilities there and finally, 'early innovation hunting' with an increased focus on identifying and investing in very early innovation sources within academia and small start-up companies. Early innovation hunting can be done by different approaches: increased corporate funding, establishment of translational institutions to bridge innovation, increasing sponsored collaborations and formation of technology hunting groups for capturing very early scientific ideas and concepts. This emerging trend towards early innovation hunting demands special adaptations from both the pharmaceutical industry and basic researchers in academia to bridge the translation into new medicines which deliver innovative medicines that matters to the patient. This opinion article describes the different modalities of cross-fertilisation between basic university or publicly funded institutional research and the applied research and development activities within the pharmaceutical industry. Two key factors in this important translational bridge can be identified: preparation of both partnering organisations to open up for new and sometime disruptive ideas and creation of truly trust-based relationships between the different groups allowing long-term scientific collaborations while acknowledging that value-creating differences are an essential factor for successful collaboration building.

  8. Developmental Status of Translational Medicine on Cerebral Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-chuan WU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine, as a new research theory and disciplinary branch, aims at the translation from bench to bedside. It can shorten the gap between basic scientific research and clinical treatment, and promote the highly efficient application of basic research results in clinical practice through bidirectional connection and feedback process between them. Cerebral stroke, as a common cerebrovascular circulatory disorder in clinic, is characterized by high morbidity, high disability rate and high mortality. After disease onset, patients are frequently complicated with severe functional disorders and sequelae, such as aphasia, paralysis, and partial or complete loss of self-care capacity, thus bringing about great burdens to the patients’ families and to the society. In China, there are more than 2 000 000 new cases with cerebral stroke annually, > 50% of whom are complicated with different-degree neurological functional decrease or deletion, and more than 1 000 000 die of cerebral stroke annually. Therefore, cerebral stroke is also an important concern in translational medicine study. In recent years, International Stroke Conference has emphasized the necessity of translational medicine research, and the bidirectional translation of bench to bedside (B2B is of great significance in guiding the development of depth and width of translational medicine on stroke. This study mainly reviewed the advances of translational medicine at home and abroad and its significance in guiding the clinical treatment of cerebral stroke.

  9. From bench to clinic and back: Perspective on the 1st IQPC Translational Research conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörig Heidi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational Research (TR provides a set of tools and communication context for scientists and clinicians to optimize the drug discovery and development process. In the proceedings of a Princeton conference on this timely topic, the strengths and needs of this developing field were debated. Outcomes and key points from these discussions are summarized in this article which covers the topics of defining what we mean by translational research (both theoretically and in operational terms, ways in which to engender the TR mindset and embed it in organizations such as the pharmaceutical industry in order to optimize the impact of available technologies (including imaging methods, the scientific basis and under-pinnings of TR including genomics knowledge, information sharing, as well as examples of application to drug discovery and development. Importantly, it should be noted that collaborations and communications between the stakeholders in this field, namely academia, industry and regulatory authorities, must be strengthened in order for the promise of TR to be delivered as better therapies to patients.

  10. Contribution of Large Animals to Translational Research on Prenatal Programming of Obesity and Associated Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    The awareness of factors causing obesity and associated disorders has grown up in the last years from genome to a more complicated concept (developmental programming) in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions markedly modify the phenotype and homeostasis of the individuals and determine juvenile growth, life-time fitness/obesity and disease risks. Experimentation in human beings is impeded by ethical issues plus inherent high variability and confounding factors (genetics, lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity) and preclinical studies in adequate translational animal models are therefore decisive. Most of the studies have been performed in rodents, whilst the use of large animals is scarce. Having in mind body-size, handlingeasiness and cost-efficiency, the main large animal species for use in biomedical research are rabbits, sheep and swine. The choice of the model depends on the research objectives. To outline the main features of the use of rabbits, sheep and swine and their contributions as translational models in prenatal programming of obesity and associated disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. The free translation in the slogan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晨

    2015-01-01

    With the further development of world economy and globalization,the relationship between China and the outside world has become closer than ever before. There is no doubt that commercial advertisements play a dispensable role in forming the relationship between them. However,because the existence of cultural diference between China and Western countries,there are lots of dificulties in translating slogan in diferent cultural background. Therefore,figuring out some proper methods in free translation in slogan becomes much more important in this special era. In order to improve the quality of free translation in slogan and make contribution to explore the new market,this essay wil make research on the similarity in English and Chinese free translation in slogan which wil be expressed in the aspect of rhetoric,sentence using and structure using. At the same time,the research on the intimate link between brand and culture from the angle of intercultural have been conducted. Based on the principles of free translation in slogan to introduce the methods of free translation in slogan and try to put forward the strategies in terms of economic,products’ characters and other factors.

  12. Neuropathological biomarker candidates in brain tumors: key issues for translational efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainfellner, J A; Heinzl, H

    2010-01-01

    Brain tumors comprise a large spectrum of rare malignancies in children and adults that are often associated with severe neurological symptoms and fatal outcome. Neuropathological tumor typing provides both prognostic and predictive tissue information which is the basis for optimal postoperative patient management and therapy. Molecular biomarkers may extend and refine prognostic and predictive information in a brain tumor case, providing more individualized and optimized treatment options. In the recent past a few neuropathological brain tumor biomarkers have translated smoothly into clinical use whereas many candidates show protracted translation. We investigated the causes of protracted translation of candidate brain tumor biomarkers. Considering the research environment from personal, social and systemic perspectives we identified eight determinants of translational success: methodology, funding, statistics, organization, phases of research, cooperation, self-reflection, and scientific progeny. Smoothly translating biomarkers are associated with low degrees of translational complexity whereas biomarkers with protracted translation are associated with high degrees. Key issues for translational efficiency of neuropathological brain tumor biomarker research seem to be related to (i) the strict orientation to the mission of medical research, that is the improval of medical practice as primordial purpose of research, (ii) definition of research priorities according to clinical needs, and (iii) absorption of translational complexities by means of operatively beneficial standards. To this end, concrete actions should comprise adequate scientific education of young investigators, and shaping of integrative diagnostics and therapy research both on the local level and the level of influential international brain tumor research platforms.

  13. Detecting dissonance in clinical and research workflow for translational psychiatric registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofiel, Luciana; Bassi, Débora U; Ray, Ryan Kumar; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Brentani, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between the workflow for clinical tasks and research data collection is often overlooked, ultimately making it ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have developed standards that allow for the comparison of workflow models derived from clinical and research tasks toward the improvement of data collection processes. In this study we used the term dissonance for the occurrences where there was a discord between clinical and research workflows. We developed workflow models for a translational research study in psychiatry and the clinic where its data collection was carried out. After identifying points of dissonance between clinical and research models we derived a corresponding classification system that ultimately enabled us to re-engineer the data collection workflow. We considered (1) the number of patients approached for enrollment and (2) the number of patients enrolled in the study as indicators of efficiency in research workflow. We also recorded the number of dissonances before and after the workflow modification. We identified 22 episodes of dissonance across 6 dissonance categories: actor, communication, information, artifact, time, and space. We were able to eliminate 18 episodes of dissonance and increase the number of patients approached and enrolled in research study trough workflow modification. The classification developed in this study is useful for guiding the identification of dissonances and reveal modifications required to align the workflow of data collection and the clinical setting. The methodology described in this study can be used by researchers to standardize data collection process.

  14. Phenylketonuria: translating research into novel therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine. It is an autosomal recessive disorder with a rate of incidence of 1 in 10,000 in Caucasian populations. Mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene are the major cause of PKU, due to the loss of the catalytic activity of the enzyme product PAH. Newborn screening for PKU allows early intervention, avoiding irreparable neurological damage and intellectual disability that would arise from untreated PKU. The current primary treatment of PKU is the limitation of dietary protein intake, which in the long term may be associated with poor compliance in some cases and other health problems due to malnutrition. The only alternative therapy currently approved is the supplementation of BH4, the requisite co-factor of PAH, in the orally-available form of sapropterin dihydrochloride. This treatment is not universally available, and is only effective for a proportion (estimated 30%) of PKU patients. Research into novel therapies for PKU has taken many different approaches to address the lack of PAH activity at the core of this disorder: enzyme replacement via virus-mediated gene transfer, transplantation of donor liver and recombinant PAH protein, enzyme substitution using phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) to provide an alternative pathway for the metabolism of phenylalanine, and restoration of native PAH activity using chemical chaperones and nonsense read-through agents. It is hoped that continuing efforts into these studies will translate into a significant improvement in the physical outcome, as well as quality of life, for patients with PKU. PMID:26835324

  15. Methodological Issues in Cross-Cultural Counseling Research: Equivalence, Bias, and Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegisdottir, Stefania; Gerstein, Lawrence A.; Cinarbas, Deniz Canel

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the cross-cultural validity of constructs are discussed, including equivalence, bias, and translation procedures. Methods to enhance equivalence are described, as are strategies to evaluate and minimize types of bias. Recommendations for translating instruments are also presented. To illustrate some challenges of cross-cultural…

  16. Design and Implementation of the International Genetics and Translational Research in Transplantation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Genetic association studies of transplantation outcomes have been hampered by small samples and highly complex multifactorial phenotypes, hindering investigations of the genetic architecture of a range of comorbidities which significantly impact graft and recipient life expectancy. We describe here the rationale and design of the International Genetics & Translational Research in Transplantation Network. The network comprises 22 studies to date, including 16494 transplant recipients and 11669 donors, of whom more than 5000 are of non-European ancestry, all of whom have existing genomewide genotype data sets. We describe the rich genetic and phenotypic information available in this consortium comprising heart, kidney, liver, and lung transplant cohorts. We demonstrate significant power in International Genetics & Translational Research in Transplantation Network to detect main effect association signals across regions such as the MHC region as well as genomewide for transplant outcomes that span all solid organs, such as graft survival, acute rejection, new onset of diabetes after transplantation, and for delayed graft function in kidney only. This consortium is designed and statistically powered to deliver pioneering insights into the genetic architecture of transplant-related outcomes across a range of different solid-organ transplant studies. The study design allows a spectrum of analyses to be performed including recipient-only analyses, donor-recipient HLA mismatches with focus on loss-of-function variants and nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  17. Exploration of Disease Markers under Translational Medicine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease markers are defined as the biomarkers with specific characteristics during the general physical, pathological or therapeutic process, the detection of which can inform the progression of present biological process of organisms. However, the exploration of disease markers is complicated and difficult, and only a few markers can be used in clinical practice and there is no significant difference in the mortality of cancers before and after biomarker exploration. Translational medicine focuses on breaking the blockage between basic medicine and clinical practice. In addition, it also establishes an effective association between researchers engaged on basic scientific discovery and clinical physicians well informed of patients' requirements, and gives particular attentions on how to translate the basic molecular biological research to the most effective and appropriate methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, hoping to translate basic research into the new therapeutic methods in clinic. Therefore, this study mainly summarized the exploration of disease markers under translational medicine model so as to provide a basis for the translation of basic research results into clinical application.

  18. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  19. Revisiting interaction in knowledge translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackheim Lisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the study of research utilization is not new, there has been increased emphasis on the topic over the recent past. Science push models that are researcher driven and controlled and demand pull models emphasizing users/decision-maker interests have largely been abandoned in favour of more interactive models that emphasize linkages between researchers and decisionmakers. However, despite these and other theoretical and empirical advances in the area of research utilization, there remains a fundamental gap between the generation of research findings and the application of those findings in practice. Methods Using a case approach, the current study looks at the impact of one particular interaction approach to research translation used by a Canadian funding agency. Results Results suggest there may be certain conditions under which different levels of decisionmaker involvement in research will be more or less effective. Four attributes are illuminated by the current case study: stakeholder diversity, addressability/actionability of results, finality of study design and methodology, and politicization of results. Future research could test whether these or other variables can be used to specify some of the conditions under which different approaches to interaction in knowledge translation are likely to facilitate research utilization. Conclusion This work suggests that the efficacy of interaction approaches to research translation may be more limited than current theory proposes and underscores the need for more completely specified models of research utilization that can help address the slow pace of change in this area.

  20. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden; Technische Univ. Dresden; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2014-01-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  1. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Thute, Prasad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krause, Mechthild [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Enghardt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Radiooncology

    2014-07-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  2. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face…

  3. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J.; Jorna, M.; Hume, C.; Arundell, L.; Chahine, N.; Tienstra, M.L.; Crawford, D.

    2011-01-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered

  4. Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine – AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research, March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Act, signed in 1971, aimed to eliminate cancer deaths through a massive increase in research funding. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine, observed the 40th anniversary of the Cancer Act in 2011, with special research articles and features, found in all three journals, on the state of cancer research 40 years later. This collection of articles explores both breakthroughs and the challenges in cancer research over the last four decades, and lets us know what we might expect in the future.

  5. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Translational Rodent Models for Research on Parasitic Protozoa-A Review of Confounders and Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Totta; Torelli, Francesca; Klotz, Christian; Pedersen, Amy B; Seeber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Rodents, in particular Mus musculus , have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents) that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models.

  7. Translational Rodent Models for Research on Parasitic Protozoa—A Review of Confounders and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totta Ehret

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rodents, in particular Mus musculus, have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models.

  8. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 49

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  9. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development No. 48

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  10. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 53

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  11. Synthesizing Marketing, Community Engagement, and Systems Science Approaches for Advancing Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Leeman, Jennifer; McCall, Pamela; Hassmiller-Lich, Kristen; Bobashev, Georgiy; Schwartz, Todd A; Gilmore, Robert; Riggan, Scott; Gil, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are the goals of translational research; however, potential end-users' perceptions of an EBI value have contributed to low rates of adoption. In this article, we describe our application of emerging dissemination and implementation science theoretical perspectives, community engagement, and systems science principles to develop a novel EBI dissemination approach. Using consumer-driven, graphics-rich simulation, the approach demonstrates predicted implementation effects on health and employment outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the local level and is designed to increase adoption interest of county program managers accountable for improving these outcomes in their communities.

  12. Sustaining the Clinical and Translational Research Workforce: Training and Empowering the Next Generation of Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Helen L; Gabrilove, Janice; Jackson, Rebecca; Sweeney, Carol; Fair, Alecia M; Toto, Robert

    2015-07-01

    There is mounting concern that clinician-scientists are a vanishing species and that the pipeline for clinical and translational research (CTR) investigators is in jeopardy. For the majority of current junior CTR investigators, the career path involves first obtaining a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded K-type career development award, particularly K08 and K23, and subsequently an NIH R01. This transition, popularly referred to as K2R, is a major hurdle with a low success rate and gaps in funding. In this Perspective, the authors identify factors that facilitate K2R transition and important aspects of increasing and sustaining the pipeline of CTR investigators. They also highlight significant differences in success rates of women and those underrepresented in biomedical research. Early career exposure to research methodology, protected time, multidisciplinary mentoring, and institutional "culture shift" are important for fostering and rewarding team science. Mentoring is the single most important contributor to K2R success, and emerging evidence suggests that formal mentor training and team mentoring are effective. Leadership training can empower junior investigators to thrive as independent CTR investigators. Future research should focus on delineating the difference between essential and supplemental factors to achieve this transition, and mentoring methods that foster success, including those that promote K2R transition of women and those underrepresented in biomedical research. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards National Consortium is well positioned to test existing models aimed at shortening the time frame, increasing the rate of K2R transition, and identifying strategies that improve success.

  13. Translation and Manipulation in Renaissance England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Denton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This supplementary volume to JEMS is part of an ongoing research project which began with a series of articles published by the author in the 1990s on the translation of Classical historical texts in Renaissance England. The methodology followed is that of Descriptive Translation Studies as developed by scholars such as Lefevere and Hermans with the accent on manipulation of the source text in line with the ideological stance of the translator and the need to ensure that readers of the translation received the ‘correct’ moral lessons.  Particular attention is devoted to a case study of the strategies followed in Thomas North’s domesticating English translation of Jacques Amyot’s French translation of Plutarch’s Lives and the consequences for Shakespeare’s perception of Plutarch.Biography John Denton was associate professor of English Language and Translation at the University of Florence until retirement in 2015. He  has published on contrastive analysis, history of translation (with special reference to the Early Modern England, religious discourse, literary and audiovisual translation

  14. COLLABORATING WITH THE COMMUNITY: THE EXTRA-TERRITORIAL TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH TEAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Croisant, Sharon A; Elferink, Cornelis; Scott, Lauren E

    2014-12-05

    The purpose of the present study is to suggest a revision of the team science concept to the more inclusive extra-territorial research team (ETRT). Translational thinking is largely marked by the perception of the team as a thing-like structure at the center of the scientific activity. Collaboration accordingly involves bringing external others (e.g., scientists, community members, and clinicians) into the team through limited or dependent participation. We suggest that a promising and innovative way to see the team is as an idea : a schema for assembling and managing relationships among otherwise disparate individuals with vested interests in the problem at hand. Thus, the ETRT can be seen as a process as well as an object . We provide a case study derived from a qualitative analysis of the impact of the logic of translational science on a team assessment of environmental health following an off-coast oil disaster. The ETRT in question displayed the following principles of constructive relationship management: a high sense of adventure given the quick pace and timeliness given the relevance of the oil spill to all team members; regular meetings in the community to avoid the appearance of academic hegemony; open access by lay as well as institutional scientists; integration of emergency management coordinators into the group; and the languages of public health, environmental pharmacology/toxicology and coastal culture seamlessly interwoven in discussion. The ETRT model is an appropriate strategy for mobilizing and integrating the knowledge and skills needed for comprehensive science and service responses, especially during crisis.

  15. Overview of the Inland California Translational Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkas, Linda H.

    2017-05-01

    The mission of the Inland California Translational Consortium (ICTC), an independent research consortium comprising a unique hub of regional institutions (City of Hope [COH], California Institute of Technology [Caltech], Jet Propulsion Laboratory [JPL], University of California Riverside [UCR], and Claremont Colleges Keck Graduate Institute [KGI], is to institute a new paradigm within the academic culture to accelerate translation of innovative biomedical discoveries into clinical applications that positively affect human health and life. The ICTC actively supports clinical translational research as well as the implementation and advancement of novel education and training models for the translation of basic discoveries into workable products and practices that preserve and improve human health while training and educating at all levels of the workforce using innovative forward-thinking approaches.

  16. Critical inquiry and knowledge translation: exploring compatibilities and tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J.; Lynam, M. Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of

  17. Critical inquiry and knowledge translation: exploring compatibilities and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Lynam, M Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather

    2009-07-01

    Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of

  18. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Assessment Instruments Used in Psychological Research with Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; de Beurs, Edwin; Siebelink, Bart M.; Koudijs, Els

    2005-01-01

    With the increased globalization of psychology and related fields, having reliable and valid measures that can be used in a number of languages and cultures is critical. Few guidelines or standards have been established in psychology for the translation and cultural adaptation of instruments. Usually little is reported in research publications…

  19. Translational research in NeuroAIDS: a neuroimmune pharmacology-related course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Shiramizu, Bruce; Nath, Avindra; Wojna, Valerie

    2011-03-01

    Neuroimmune pharmacology (NIP) can be considered a multidisciplinary science where areas of neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect in neurological disorders. The R25 training program titled "Translational Research in NeuroAIDS and Mental Health (TR-NAMH): An innovative mentoring program to promote diversity in NeuroAIDS Research (R25 MH080661)" at the Johns Hopkins University is a web-based interactive course with the goal to improve the capacity of high quality research by developing mentoring programs for (1) doctoral and postdoctoral candidates and junior faculty from racial and ethnic minorities and (2) non-minority individuals at the same levels, whose research focuses on NeuroAIDS disparity issues such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). This web-based interactive course overcomes the limitations of traditional education such as access to expert faculty and financial burden of scientists from racial and ethnic minority groups in the field of NeuroAIDS research and NIP and identifies rich nurturing environments for investigators to support their careers. The TR-NAMH program identifies a cadre of talented students and investigators eager to commit to innovative educational and training sessions in NeuroAIDS and NIP. The interplay between NIP changes precipitated by HIV infection in the brain makes the study of HAND an outstanding way to integrate important concepts from these two fields. The course includes activities besides those related to didactic learning such as research training and long-term mentoring; hence, the newly learned topics in NIP are continually reinforced and implemented in real-time experiences. We describe how NIP is integrated in the TR-NAMH program in the context of HAND.

  20. Literary Translation and Cultural Challenges: JhumpaLahiri's The Namesake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura M. Khrais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how the nature of literary translation differs from other forms of translation by looking at practical difficulties and challenges notable in the Arabic translation of Lahiri's novel The Namesake (2003. The difficulties discussed are cultural differences which have created “untranslatable” cultural-bound words and phrases, as well as specialized vocabulary. The paper explores the conflict between the translator's duty to accuracy and his/her duty to literary translation as an art form. One problem faced by the prose-translator is finding terms in his or her own language that are faithful as much as possible to the meaning of certain words in S.L. For example, there are words which describe specific rituals or those related to typical architecture, fabrics, and cookery; these and many others represent the specific culture of the original text and the translator needs to be careful when translating them. The researcher finally suggests that there is a need to expand the perimeters of  translation studies specially those dealing with literary prose because the translators and researchers lay more emphasis on the translation of poetry.

  1. Vincent Lambert, Dignity in Dying and the European Court: A Critical Evaluation and the Global Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, R R

    2016-04-01

    In this article I analyse the verdict of the European Court of Human Rights in the Case of Lambert and Others v. France, delivered on 5 June 2015, affirming the Conseil d'État's decision holding that the withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration from Vincent Lambert, a French national lying in tetraplegia and persistent vegetative state, was consistent with French domestic law and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. In order to make a comparative evaluation I give an account of judicial decisions across the world and find that the European Court's decision is an affirmative pronouncement, in the prevailing milieu of judicial heterogeneity, as it recognizes a person's right to die with dignity in the face of conflicting claims and arguments, by giving supremacy to a person's autonomy and right of self-determination over the deep-rooted religious beliefs and undue paternalistic postures. I conclude that right to die with dignity is a profound area where judge-made law is not the answer. The situation calls for greater consensus and uniformity by evolving suitable legislative strategies.

  2. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology--a bidirectional translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Bütof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Illustrating idiographic methods for translation research: moderation effects, natural clinical experiments, and complex treatment-by-subgroup interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Ty A; Wittenborn, Andrea K; Raiff, Bethany R; Benedict, Neal; Kane-Gill, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    A critical juncture in translation research involves the preliminary studies of intervention tools, provider training programs, policies, and other mechanisms used to leverage knowledge garnered at one translation stage into another stage. Potentially useful for such studies are rigorous techniques for conducting within-subject clinical trials, which have advanced incrementally over the last decade. However, these methods have largely not been utilized within prevention or translation contexts. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the flexibility, wide applicability, and rigor of idiographic clinical trials for preliminary testing of intervention mechanisms. Specifically demonstrated are novel uses of state-space modeling for testing intervention mechanisms of short-term outcomes, identifying heterogeneity in and moderation of within-person treatment mechanisms, a horizontal line plot to refine sampling design during the course of a clinic-based experimental study, and the need to test a treatment's efficacy as treatment is administered along with (e.g., traditional 12-month outcomes).

  4. The Ovine Cerebral Venous System: Comparative Anatomy, Visualization, and Implications for Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Björn; Lobsien, Donald; Seeger, Johannes; Schneider, Holm; Boltze, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are significant causes of death and disability in humans. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches strongly rely on adequate gyrencephalic, large animal models being demanded for translational research. Ovine stroke models may represent a promising approach but are currently limited by insufficient knowledge regarding the venous system of the cerebral angioarchitecture. The present study was intended to provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the intracranial venous system in sheep as a reliable basis for the interpretation of experimental results in such ovine models. We used corrosion casts as well as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography to scrutinize blood drainage from the brain. This combined approach yielded detailed and, to some extent, novel findings. In particular, we provide evidence for chordae Willisii and lateral venous lacunae, and report on connections between the dorsal and ventral sinuses in this species. For the first time, we also describe venous confluences in the deep cerebral venous system and an ‘anterior condylar confluent’ as seen in humans. This report provides a detailed reference for the interpretation of venous diagnostic imaging findings in sheep, including an assessment of structure detectability by in vivo (imaging) versus ex vivo (corrosion cast) visualization methods. Moreover, it features a comprehensive interspecies-comparison of the venous cerebral angioarchitecture in man, rodents, canines and sheep as a relevant large animal model species, and describes possible implications for translational cerebrovascular research. PMID:24736654

  5. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  6. Impact of Online Versus Hardcopy Dictionaries‟ Application on Translation Quality of Iranian M. A. Translation Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Zarei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at investigating the impact of online versus hardcopy dictionaries‟ application on translation quality of senior M.A. students of translation based on Bleu model introduced by Papineni et al. (2002. To this end, using Oxford Proficiency test 50 (out of 70 female senior M.A. students of translation were selected and they were assigned to two groups: Online and hardcopy, using systematic sampling. Next, an English text was selected as the reference text. This reference text was given to three translators: 1 A male English translation expert with a Ph.D. degree in Computational Linguistics (Ref. 1; 2 A female English translation expert with an M.A. degree working at an English Translation Center and with more than 5 years of experience (Ref. 2, and 3 A male Ph.D. candidate in English translation (Ref. 3. These three versions were used as reference Persian standard translations to be entered into Bleu. Later, the English text was given to the hardcopy and online groups. Then, the translations of the participants were compared with the three reference Persian translations using Bleu. The time taken by each student to translate the text into Persian was also recorded. The results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the translations of the hardcopy and online groups from fluency/precision points of view. Comparison of the speed of translation in the two groups indicated that the online group was meaningfully faster. The possible beneficiaries of the findings of this research can be university professors, policy makers, and students in the realm of translation.

  7. Advancing Translational Space Research Through Biospecimen Sharing: Amplified Impact of Studies Utilizing Analogue Space Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, B.; Moyer, E.; Vizir, V.; Gompf, H.; Hoban-Higgins, T.; Lewis, L.; Ronca, A.; Fuller, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Biospecimen Sharing Programs (BSPs) have been organized by NASA Ames Research Center since the 1960s with the goal of maximizing utilization and scientific return from rare, complex and costly spaceflight experiments. BSPs involve acquiring otherwise unused biological specimens from primary space research experiments for distribution to secondary experiments. Here we describe a collaboration leveraging Ames expertise in biospecimen sharing to magnify the scientific impact of research informing astronaut health funded by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element. The concept expands biospecimen sharing to one-off ground-based studies utilizing analogue space platforms (e.g., Hindlimb Unloading (HLU), Artificial Gravity) for rodent experiments, thereby significantly broadening the range of research opportunities with translational relevance for protecting human health in space and on Earth.

  8. eTRIKS platform: Conception and operation of a highly scalable cloud-based platform for translational research and applications development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussery, Justin; Denis, Leslie-Alexandre; Guillon, Benjamin; Liu, Pengfeï; Marchetti, Gino; Rahal, Ghita

    2018-04-01

    We describe the genesis, design and evolution of a computing platform designed and built to improve the success rate of biomedical translational research. The eTRIKS project platform was developed with the aim of building a platform that can securely host heterogeneous types of data and provide an optimal environment to run tranSMART analytical applications. Many types of data can now be hosted, including multi-OMICS data, preclinical laboratory data and clinical information, including longitudinal data sets. During the last two years, the platform has matured into a robust translational research knowledge management system that is able to host other data mining applications and support the development of new analytical tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A descriptive qualitative examination of knowledge translation practice among health researchers in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Kathryn M; Roche, Patricia L; Bell, Courtney P; Temple, Beverley; Wittmeier, Kristy D M

    2017-09-06

    The importance of effective translation of health research findings into action has been well recognized, but there is evidence to suggest that the practice of knowledge translation (KT) among health researchers is still evolving. Compared to research user stakeholders, researchers (knowledge producers) have been under-studied in this context. The goals of this study were to understand the experiences of health researchers in practicing KT in Manitoba, Canada, and identify their support needs to sustain and increase their participation in KT. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 researchers studying in biomedical; clinical; health systems and services; and social, cultural, environmental and population health research. Interview questions were open-ended and probed participants' understanding of KT, their experiences in practicing KT, barriers and facilitators to practicing KT, and their needs for KT practice support. KT was broadly conceptualized across participants. Participants described a range of KT practice experiences, most of which related to dissemination. Participants also expressed a number of negative emotions associated with the practice of KT. Many individual, logistical, and systemic or organizational barriers to practicing KT were identified, which included a lack of institutional support for KT in both academic and non-academic systems. Participants described the presence of good relationships with stakeholders as a critical facilitator for practicing KT. The most commonly identified needs for supporting KT practice were access to education and training, and access to resources to increase awareness and promotion of KT. While there were few major variations in response trends across most areas of health research, the responses of biomedical researchers suggested a unique KT context, reflected by distinct conceptualizations of KT (such as commercialization as a core component), experiences (including frustration and lack of

  10. Translational research of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C; Ma, X; Tian, J

    2013-12-01

    In the medical imaging field, molecular imaging is a rapidly developing discipline and forms many imaging modalities, providing us effective tools to visualize, characterize, and measure molecular and cellular mechanisms in complex biological processes of living organisms, which can deepen our understanding of biology and accelerate preclinical research including cancer study and medicine discovery. Among many molecular imaging modalities, although the penetration depth of optical imaging and the approved optical probes used for clinics are limited, it has evolved considerably and has seen spectacular advances in basic biomedical research and new drug development. With the completion of human genome sequencing and the emergence of personalized medicine, the specific drug should be matched to not only the right disease but also to the right person, and optical molecular imaging should serve as a strong adjunct to develop personalized medicine by finding the optimal drug based on an individual's proteome and genome. In this process, the computational methodology and imaging system as well as the biomedical application regarding optical molecular imaging will play a crucial role. This review will focus on recent typical translational studies of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future development of optical molecular imaging are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the review is then concluded.

  11. Identifying translational science within the triangle of biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Griffin M

    2013-05-24

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap places special emphasis on "bench-to-bedside" research, or the "translation" of basic science research into practical clinical applications. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium is one example of the large investments being made to develop a national infrastructure to support translational science, which involves reducing regulatory burdens, launching new educational initiatives, and forming partnerships between academia and industry. However, while numerous definitions have been suggested for translational science, including the qualitative T1-T4 classification, a consensus has not yet been reached. This makes it challenging to tract the impact of these major policy changes. In this study, we use a bibliometric approach to map PubMed articles onto a graph, called the Triangle of Biomedicine. The corners of the triangle represent research related to animals, cells and molecules, and humans; and, the position of a publication on the graph is based on its topics, as determined by its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We define translation as movement of a collection of articles, or the articles that cite those articles, towards the human corner. The Triangle of Biomedicine provides a quantitative way of determining if an individual scientist, research organization, funding agency, or scientific field is producing results that are relevant to clinical medicine. We validate our technique using examples that have been previously described in the literature and by comparing it to prior methods of measuring translational science. The Triangle of Biomedicine is a novel way to identify translational science and track changes over time. This is important to policy makers in evaluating the impact of the large investments being made to accelerate translation. The Triangle of Biomedicine also provides a simple visual way of depicting this impact, which can be far more powerful than numbers alone.

  12. The nursing professorial unit: translating acute and critical care nursing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Christensen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and context: Implementation of current research in practice is challenging for ward-based nursing staff. However, university-based nursing academics are seen as the research experts and are perhaps well placed to support clinical nursing research. The problem lies with the divide between practice and academia; universities often use the clinical environment as the place to conduct research but this is often not translated effectively into practice. The development of a nursing professorial unit for acute and critical care was undertaken to meet this challenge. The unit’s key aim is to develop, mentor and support a nursing research culture that is wholly situated within and driven by the requirements of the clinical environment. Aim: The aim of this article is to offer some insights as to how staff set about engaging with and developing the nursing professorial unit to support nursing research in our local hospital. Conclusions: The article highlights how an effective and coordinated approach to supporting clinical nursing research is possible. The nursing professorial unit has been successful in bridging the divide between academia and practice by using a non-university approach to supporting nursing research. Instead we have adopted the philosophy that practice is the sole driver for research and as academics our role is to support that position. Implications for practice: The adoption of the nursing professorial unit model for supporting clinical nursing research is beneficial in closing the divide between clinical practice and the university The continual presence of the academics in the clinical environment has had a positive impact on research development and implementation in practice The nursing professorial unit has become an integral part of the nursing culture in the hospital environment

  13. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  14. Teaching Translational Research to Medical Students: The New York University School of Medicine's Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation Dual‐Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, Michael; Plottel, Claudia S.; Galeano, Claudia; Maddalo, Scott; Hochman, Judith S.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Gold‐von Simson, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To develop the next generation of translational investigators, New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the NYU‐NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation Clinical and Translational Science Institute (NYU‐HHC CTSI) developed the Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation dual‐degree (MD/MSCI) program. This 5‐year program dedicates 1 year to coursework and biomedical research, followed by a medical school/research overlap year, to prepare students for academic research careers. This paper details the MD/MSCI program's curriculum and approach to mentorship, describes the research/professional interests of students, and reports student productivity. In the first 4 years of the program (2010–2014) 20 students were matriculated; 7 (35%) were women, and 12 (60%) research projects were in surgical specialties. To date, 14 students have applied to residency, and half pursued surgical residency programs. Our students have produced 68 accepted abstracts, 15 abstracts in submission, 38 accepted papers, and 24 papers in submission. Despite the time‐limited nature of this program, additional training in research design and implementation has promoted a high level of productivity. We conclude that dual‐degree training in medicine and translational research is feasible for medical students and allows for meaningful participation in valuable projects. Follow‐up is warranted to evaluate the academic trajectory of these students. PMID:26365704

  15. Teaching Translational Research to Medical Students: The New York University School of Medicine's Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation Dual-Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Jennifer; Pillinger, Michael; Plottel, Claudia S; Galeano, Claudia; Maddalo, Scott; Hochman, Judith S; Cronstein, Bruce N; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2015-12-01

    To develop the next generation of translational investigators, New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the NYU-NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation Clinical and Translational Science Institute (NYU-HHC CTSI) developed the Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation dual-degree (MD/MSCI) program. This 5-year program dedicates 1 year to coursework and biomedical research, followed by a medical school/research overlap year, to prepare students for academic research careers. This paper details the MD/MSCI program's curriculum and approach to mentorship, describes the research/professional interests of students, and reports student productivity. In the first 4 years of the program (2010-2014) 20 students were matriculated; 7 (35%) were women, and 12 (60%) research projects were in surgical specialties. To date, 14 students have applied to residency, and half pursued surgical residency programs. Our students have produced 68 accepted abstracts, 15 abstracts in submission, 38 accepted papers, and 24 papers in submission. Despite the time-limited nature of this program, additional training in research design and implementation has promoted a high level of productivity. We conclude that dual-degree training in medicine and translational research is feasible for medical students and allows for meaningful participation in valuable projects. Follow-up is warranted to evaluate the academic trajectory of these students. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Improving research questionnaires by means of intralingual translation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    all instances of summarising by means of intralingual translation related to the parameter of space. Annotated publications are a good example of the extension of text that this parameter encompasses. I would like to suggest that the “physical space of the text” also includes its layout and visual organisation on the page.

  17. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  18. Translating research into practice in nursing homes: can we close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anna N; Applebaum, Robert A; Schnelle, John F; Simmons, Sandra F

    2012-10-01

    A gap between research and practice in many nursing home (NH) care areas persists despite efforts by researchers, policy makers, advocacy groups, and NHs themselves to close it. The reasons are many, but two factors that have received scant attention are the dissemination process itself and the work of the disseminators or change agents. This review article examines these two elements through the conceptual lens of Roger's innovation dissemination model. The application of general principles of innovation dissemination suggests that NHs are characteristically slow to innovate and thus may need more time as well as more contact with outside change agents to adopt improved practices. A review of the translation strategies used by NH change agents to promote adoption of evidence-based practice in NHs suggests that their strategies inconsistently reflect lessons learned from the broader dissemination literature. NH-related research, policy, and practice recommendations for improving dissemination strategies are presented. If we can make better use of the resources currently devoted to disseminating best practices to NHs, we may be able to speed NHs' adoption of these practices.

  19. Analysis and research of influence factors ranking of fuzzy language translation accuracy in literary works based on catastrophe progression method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the problem of decline in translation accuracy caused by language “vagueness” in literary translation, and proposes to use the catastrophe model for importance ranking of various factors affecting the fuzzy language translation accuracy in literary works, and finally gives out the order of factors to be considered before translation. The multi-level evaluation system can be used to construct the relevant catastrophe progression model, and the normalization formula can be used to calculate the relative membership degree of each system and evaluation index, and make evaluation combined with the evaluation criteria table. The results show that, in the fuzzy language translation, in order to improve the translation accuracy, there is a need to consider the indicators ranking: A2 fuzzy language context → A1 words attribute → A3 specific meaning of digital words; B2 fuzzy semantics, B3 blur color words → B1 multiple meanings of words → B4 fuzzy digital words; C3 combination with context and cultural background, C4 specific connotation of color words → C1 combination with words emotion, C2 selection of words meaning → C5 combination with digits and language background.

  20. Agreement of 8 January 1992 between the Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The document reproduces the text of an agreement by exchange of letters with Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 18 March 1997 and entered into force on that date

  1. An Overview of Models, Methods, and Reagents Developed for Translational Autoimmunity Research in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagessar, S. Anwar; Vierboom, Michel; Blezer, Erwin L. A.; Bauer, Jan; 't Hart, Bert A.; Kap, Yolanda S.

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS established

  2. An overview of models, methods, and reagents developed for translational autoimmunity research in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Jagessar (Anwar); M.P.M. Vierboom (Michel); E. Blezer (Erwin); J. Bauer; B.A. 't Hart (Bert); Y.S. Kap (Yolanda)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS

  3. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  4. [Paris 1633--a milestone in the development of modern nursing. Vincent de Paul and the sisterhood of the Daughters of charity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitz, Bernhard

    The development of nursing is analysed from the perspective of its situation in Germany today, and the requirements expected for the next years to come. It becomes apparent that nursing as a profession regulated by the state is a young profession, just some one hundred years old. During the 19th century nursing in Germany was mostly performed by sisterhoods bound to the church and organised as collectives. But it was stimulated and challenged by the development from a philosophically oriented library medicine to a scientifically oriented hospital medicine. Thus its transformation into a profession regulated by the state ended for the time being in 1906. Nursing sisterhoods in Germany were modelled for the French Daughters of Charity that had been planted in 1633 by Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marillac in Paris. Models for this planting are pointed to.

  5. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  6. On-going collaborative priority-setting for research activity: a method of capacity building to reduce the research-practice translational gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jo; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Christine; Read, Jennifer

    2015-05-07

    International policy suggests that collaborative priority setting (CPS) between researchers and end users of research should shape the research agenda, and can increase capacity to address the research-practice translational gap. There is limited research evidence to guide how this should be done to meet the needs of dynamic healthcare systems. One-off priority setting events and time-lag between decision and action prove problematic. This study illustrates the use of CPS in a UK research collaboration called Collaboration and Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC). Data were collected from a north of England CLAHRC through semi-structured interviews with 28 interviewees and a workshop of key stakeholders (n = 21) including academics, NHS clinicians, and managers. Documentary analysis of internal reports and CLAHRC annual reports for the first two and half years was also undertaken. These data were thematically coded. Methods of CPS linked to the developmental phase of the CLAHRC. Early methods included pre-existing historical partnerships with on-going dialogue. Later, new platforms for on-going discussions were formed. Consensus techniques with staged project development were also used. All methods demonstrated actual or potential change in practice and services. Impact was enabled through the flexibility of research and implementation work streams; 'matched' funding arrangements to support alignment of priorities in partner organisations; the size of the collaboration offering a resource to meet project needs; and the length of the programme providing stability and long term relationships. Difficulties included tensions between being responsive to priorities and the possibility of 'drift' within project work, between academics and practice, and between service providers and commissioners in the health services. Providing protected 'matched' time proved difficult for some NHS managers, which put increasing work pressure on them. CPS is more time

  7. Translational ethics: an analytical framework of translational movements between theory and practice and a sketch of a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bærøe, Kristine

    2014-09-30

    Translational research in medicine requires researchers to identify the steps to transfer basic scientific discoveries from laboratory benches to bedside decision-making, and eventually into clinical practice. On a parallel track, philosophical work in ethics has not been obliged to identify the steps to translate theoretical conclusions into adequate practice. The medical ethicist A. Cribb suggested some years ago that it is now time to debate 'the business of translational' in medical ethics. Despite the very interesting and useful perspective on the field of medical ethics launched by Cribb, the debate is still missing. In this paper, I take up Cribb's invitation and discuss further analytic distinctions needed to base an ethics aiming to translate between theory and practice. The analytic distinctions needed to base an ethics aiming to translate between theory and practice are identified as 'movements of translation'. I explore briefly what would constitute success and limitations to these intended translational movements by addressing the challenges of the epistemological gap between philosophical and practical ethics. The categories of translational movements I suggest can serve as a starting point for a systematic, collective self-inspection and discussion of the merits and limitations of the various academic and practical activities that bioethicists are engaged in. I further propose that translational ethics could be considered as a new discipline of ethical work constructively structured around compositions of translational movements. Breaking the idea of translational ethics into distinct translational movements provide us with a nuanced set of conditions to explore and discuss the justification and limitations of various efforts carried out in the field of bioethics. In this sense, the proposed framework could be a useful vehicle for augmented collective, self-reflexivity among both philosophers and practitioners who are 'doing bioethics'. Also

  8. Methods of cell purification: a critical juncture for laboratory research and translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Peter J; Cagavi Bozkulak, Esra; Qyang, Yibing

    2012-01-01

    Research in cell biology and the development of translational technologies are driven by competition, public expectations, and regulatory oversight, putting these fields at a critical juncture. Success in these fields is quickly becoming dependent on the ability of researchers to identify and isolate specific cell populations from heterogeneous mixtures accurately and efficiently. Many methods for cell purification have been developed, and each has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered in light of the intended application. Current cell separation strategies make use of surface proteins, genetic expression, and physics to isolate specific cells by phenotypic traits. Cell purification is also dependent on the cellular reagents available for use and the intended application, as these factors may preclude certain mechanisms used in the processes of labeling and sorting cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. TRANSLATORS’ CENSORSHIP IN ENGLISH-INDONESIAN TRANSLATION OF DONALD DUCK COMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issy Yuliasri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Not all aspects of Western culture, reflected in the language used in Walt Disney’s Donald Duck comics, are acceptable in Indonesia. So, in translating the comics, the translators have to manipulate the text for it to be acceptable by the target readers and parents. This research aims at finding out censorship through the translation techniques used by the translators in translating the English humorous texts in the Walt Disney’s Donald Duck comics into Indonesian and the reasons underlying the translators’ choice of the translation techniques. It also aims at analysing whether or not the choice of the translation techniques affects the rendering of meaning, maintenance of humour, and acceptability of the translation. For these purposes a qualitative method was employed with content analysis technique and reader response analysis. Content analysis was used in comparing the source text (ST and target text (TT to find out the translation techniques used as a means of censorship and to find out the translators’ reasons for choosing the techniques. Reader-response analysis was done to find out the readers’ response to the rendering of meaning and maintenance of humour in the translation. The research findings discovered that the translators performed censorship through the dominant use of reduction and generalisation techniques so as to reduce sarcasm and insults. The interview with the publisher’s Senior Editor also revealed that “decency” was the first priority in the translation decision making, followed by clarity of meaning and maintenance of humour.  Further research to investigate other elements censored, and compared with other translated comics is recommended.

  10. 2014 section on pediatrics knowledge translation lecture: clinicians and researchers on the same path toward facilitating family goals for mobility and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L; Leonard, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge translation (KT) lecture at the Combined Sections Meeting 2014 was a personal perspective from a researcher who had been a therapist and a longtime clinician, now a PhD candidate. To better integrate research and clinical care, KT is a seamless rather than separate process. Knowledge translation can be enhanced by improved receptivity to evidence, and increasing use of research designs that encourage and even require clinician involvement, from single-subject designs to large-scale pragmatic trials. Clinical practice databases and hiring therapists to provide intervention in research efforts also serve to integrate research and clinical care. Limitations of applying mean group research results to an individual patient were also discussed and suggest an important unanswered topic for future research. We all need to assume responsibility for the researcher-clinician partnership, making our jobs more joyful and fulfilling, and hopefully the biggest beneficiaries will be our current and future patients.

  11. National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM): advancing the field of translational medicine and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallak, Jaime E C; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Quevedo, João; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2010-03-01

    Translational medicine has been described as the integrated application of innovative pharmacology tools, biomarkers, clinical methods, clinical technologies and study designs to improve the understanding of medical disorders. In medicine, translational research offers an opportunity for applying the findings obtained from basic research to every-day clinical applications. The National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is comprised of six member institutions (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade de São Paulo-Ribeirão Preto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina and a core facility that serves all centers). The objectives of the project are divided into four areas: Institutional, Research, Human Resources and Technology for the Community and Productive Sector. In this manuscript, we describe some of the approaches used to attain the main objectives of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine, which include the development of 1) animal models for bipolar disorder; 2) strategies to investigate neurobehavioral function and cognitive dysfunction associated with brain disorders; 3) experimental models of brain function and behavior, neuropsychiatric disorders, cell proliferation, and cancer; 4) Simulated Public Speaking and 5) Virtual reality simulation for inducing panic disorder and agoraphobia. The main focus of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is the development of more useful methods that allow for a better application of basic research-based knowledge to the medical field.

  12. Translating Measures of Biological Aging to Test Effectiveness of Geroprotective Interventions: What Can We Learn from Research on Telomeres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waylon J. Hastings

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention studies in animals suggest molecular changes underlying age-related disease and disability can be slowed or reversed. To speed translation of these so-called “geroprotective” therapies to prevent age-related disease and disability in humans, biomarkers are needed that can track changes in the rate of human aging over the course of intervention trials. Algorithm methods that measure biological processes of aging from combinations of DNA methylation marks or clinical biomarkers show promise. To identify next steps for establishing utility of these algorithm-based measures of biological aging for geroprotector trials, we considered the history a candidate biomarker of aging that has received substantial research attention, telomere length. Although telomere length possesses compelling biology to recommend it as a biomarker of aging, mixed research findings have impeded clinical and epidemiologic translation. Strengths of telomeres that should be established for algorithm biomarkers of aging are correlation with chronological age across the lifespan, prediction of disease, disability, and early death, and responsiveness to risk and protective exposures. Key challenges in telomere research that algorithm biomarkers of aging must address are measurement precision and reliability, establishing links between longitudinal rates of change across repeated measurements and aging outcomes, and clarity over whether the biomarker is a causal mechanism of aging. These strengths and challenges suggest a research agenda to advance translation of algorithm-based aging biomarkers: establish validity in young-adult and midlife individuals; test responsiveness to exposures that shorten or extend healthy lifespan; and conduct repeated-measures longitudinal studies to test differential rates of change.

  13. SPEECH ACT OF ILTIFAT AND ITS INDONESIAN TRANSLATION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaka Al Farisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Iltifat (shifting speech act is distinctive and considered unique style of Arabic. It has potential errors when it is translated into Indonesian. Therefore, translation of iltifat speech act into another language can be an important issue. The objective of the study is to know translation procedures/techniques and ideology required in dealing with iltifat speech act. This research is directed at translation as a cognitive product of a translator. The data used in the present study were the corpus of Koranic verses that contain iltifat speech act along with their translation. Data analysis typically used descriptive-evaluative method with content analysis model. The data source of this research consisted of the Koran and its translation. The purposive sampling technique was employed, with the sample of the iltifat speech act contained in the Koran. The results showed that more than 60% of iltifat speech act were translated by using literal procedure. The significant number of literal translation of the verses asserts that the Ministry of Religious Affairs tended to use literal method of translation. In other words, the Koran translation made by the Ministry of Religious Affairs tended to be oriented to the source language in dealing with iltifat speech act. The number of the literal procedure used shows a tendency of foreignization ideology. Transitional pronouns contained in the iltifat speech act can be clearly translated when thick translations were used in the form of description in parentheses. In this case, explanation can be a choice in translating iltifat speech act.

  14. From English to Chinese, Japanese, and Russian: extending research visibility with language translations of a conference slide presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffecker, Lilian; Abbey, Dana

    2017-01-01

    The research demonstrates that a conference slide presentation translated into non-English languages reaches significantly larger and different audiences than an English presentation alone. The slides of a presentation from the Medical Library Association annual meeting were translated from English to Chinese, Japanese, and Russian and posted along with the English version to SlideShare, an open slide-hosting website. View counts, traffic sources, and geographic origins of the traffic for each language version were tracked over a twenty-two-month period. Total view counts for all 4 language versions amounted to 3,357 views, with the Chinese version accounting for 71% of the total views. The trends in view counts over time for the Japanese, Russian, and English versions were similar, with high interest at the beginning and a rapid drop and low level of viewing activity thereafter. The pattern of view counts for the Chinese version departed considerably from the other language versions, with very low activity at the beginning but a sharp rise 10 months later. This increase in activity was related to access to the presentations via a Taiwanese website that embedded the SlideShare website code. Language translation can be a difficult and time-consuming task. However, translation of a conference slide presentation with limited text is an achievable activity and engages an international audience for information that is often not noticed or lost. Although English is by far the primary language of science and other disciplines, it is not necessarily the first or preferred language of global researchers. By offering appropriate language versions, the authors of presentations can expand the reach of their work.

  15. Education in health research methodology: use of a wiki for knowledge translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele P Hamm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A research-practice gap exists between what is known about conducting methodologically rigorous randomized controlled trials (RCTs and what is done. Evidence consistently shows that pediatric RCTs are susceptible to high risk of bias; therefore novel methods of influencing the design and conduct of trials are required. The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a wiki designed to educate pediatric trialists and trainees in the principles involved in minimizing risk of bias in RCTs. The focus was on preliminary usability testing of the wiki. METHODS: The wiki was developed through adaptation of existing knowledge translation strategies and through tailoring the site to the identified needs of the end-users. The wiki was evaluated for usability and user preferences regarding the content and formatting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 trialists and systematic reviewers, representing varying levels of experience with risk of bias or the conduct of trials. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Participants found the wiki to be well organized, easy to use, and straightforward to navigate. Suggestions for improvement tended to focus on clarification of the text or on esthetics, rather than on the content or format. Participants liked the additional features of the site that were supplementary to the text, such as the interactive examples, and the components that focused on practical applications, adding relevance to the theory presented. While the site could be used by both trialists and systematic reviewers, the lack of a clearly defined target audience caused some confusion among participants. CONCLUSIONS: Participants were supportive of using a wiki as a novel educational tool. The results of this pilot test will be used to refine the risk of bias wiki, which holds promise as a knowledge translation intervention for education in medical research methodology.

  16. Integrated knowledge translation: digging deeper, moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Wathen, C Nadine

    2017-06-01

    Integrated knowledge translation has risen in popularity as a solution to the underuse of research in policy and practice settings. It engages knowledge users-policymakers, practitioners, patients/consumers or their advocates, and members of the wider public-in mutually beneficial research that can involve the joint development of research questions, data collection, analysis and dissemination of findings. Knowledge that is co-produced has a better chance of being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to update developments in the field of integrated knowledge translation through a deeper analysis of the approach in practice-oriented and policy-oriented health research. We present collaborative models that fall outside the scope of integrated knowledge translation, but then explore consensus-based approaches and networks as alternate sites of knowledge co-production. We discuss the need to advance the field through the development, or use, of data collection and interpretation tools that creatively engage knowledge users in the research process. Most importantly, conceptually relevant outcomes need to be identified, including ones that focus on team transformation through the co-production of knowledge. We explore some of these challenges and benefits in detail to help researchers understand what integrated knowledge translation means, and whether the approach's potential added value is worth the investment of time, energy and other resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  18. Towards Vocational Translation in German Studies in Nigeria and Beyond: Lessons from Translation Teaching and Practice in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Oyetoyan, Oludamilola Iyadunni

    2016-01-01

    The argument in this research work has been that Vocational Translation Teaching (VOTT) can serve as the bridge between Translation Studies and Foreign Language Studies, a study field from which several graduates may proceed to take up translation jobs. The use of the VOTT-model can also lead to benefits of motivation in terms of job prospects and increase the work skills of students. The declarative and procedural knowledge necessary for implementing VOTT in an FLL environment have been...

  19. Researchers and the translational reality. Interview with Karen Aboody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboody, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Karen Aboody has first-hand experience of taking a potential therapy from the laboratory into clinical trials. Here, she shares with us the challenges and rewards of going from bench to bedside, and why all biomedical researchers need to know what it takes to make the transition if they want the best chance of seeing their discoveries used to help patients. Karen Aboody received her MD at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and completed her post-doctoral training in Molecular Neurogenetics at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School. After gaining experience in pathology, gene therapy and biotechnology, she joined City of Hope (COH) in 2003 to head a translational research laboratory focused on therapeutic stem cell applications for invasive and metastatic solid tumors. In 2010, she received US FDA approval for a first-in-human clinical trial for neural stem cell-mediated therapy for high-grade glioma patients. This Phase I study is ongoing at COH, supported by NCI/NIH funding. In 2010, she received an US$18 million California Institute of Regenerative Medicine Disease Team Award to develop a second-generation enzyme/prodrug stem cell-mediated brain tumor therapy for clinical trials that may also have applications for other metastatic cancers. Honors include the 2000 AANS Young Investigator Award, and 2008 ASGCT Outstanding New Investigator Award. She recently founded a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, TheraBiologics Inc., to support clinical development of neural stem cell-mediated cancer therapies.

  20. IQ and Reading Comprehension in Translation Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Askari; Azam Samadi Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Having a deeper understanding of determining factors in the quality of translation is in the interest of almost all scholars of translation studies. Students’ intelligence is being measured constantly in order to determine their aptitude for entering into different programs. However, in translation studies, the variable of intelligence quotient (IQ) has been curiously ignored among researchers. This study aimed to explore the strength of both IQ and reading comprehension in predicting transla...

  1. TRANSLATION PROBLEMS OF IDIOMS AND FIGURATIVE LANGUAGES FROM ENGLISH INTO INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hartono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research reports the problems and solutions of novel translation particularly translation of idioms, metaphors, similes, personifications, and alliterations from English into Indonesian. Those problems are taken from three main factors that consist of objective factor, generic factor, and affective factor. The objective factor covers translation of idiom, metaphor, simile, personification, and alliteration from English into Indonesian in the novel entitled ―To Kill a Mockingbird‖ (TKM written by Harper Lee. The generic factor consists of the novel translator‘s education background and experiences on translating the novel. The affective factor is readers‘ responses on the novel translation quality. Through this evaluative qualitative research that is based on the holistic criticism approach, it is found that idioms were translated by using idiomatic translation method while metaphors, similes, personifications, and alliterations were translated by using literal translation method. Idioms were translated accurately, while metaphors, similes, personifications, alliterations were not accurate yet. Based on the naturalness level, the translation of idioms is natural, while metaphors, similes, personifications, and alliterations are not natural yet. Then, it is suggested that the novel translator has to use the Tripartire Cycle Model when she translates a novel from English into Indonesian.

  2. Some experiences and opportunities for big data in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Christopher G; Ullman-Cullere, Mollie; Wood, Grant M; Lin, Simon M; He, Min; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2013-10-01

    Health care has become increasingly information intensive. The advent of genomic data, integrated into patient care, significantly accelerates the complexity and amount of clinical data. Translational research in the present day increasingly embraces new biomedical discovery in this data-intensive world, thus entering the domain of "big data." The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics consortium has taught us many lessons, while simultaneously advances in commodity computing methods enable the academic community to affordably manage and process big data. Although great promise can emerge from the adoption of big data methods and philosophy, the heterogeneity and complexity of clinical data, in particular, pose additional challenges for big data inferencing and clinical application. However, the ultimate comparability and consistency of heterogeneous clinical information sources can be enhanced by existing and emerging data standards, which promise to bring order to clinical data chaos. Meaningful Use data standards in particular have already simplified the task of identifying clinical phenotyping patterns in electronic health records.

  3. Working with corpora in the translation classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Krüger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to illustrate possible applications of electronic corpora in the translation classroom. Starting with a survey of corpus use within corpus-based translation studies, the didactic value of corpora in the translation classroom and their epistemic value in translation teaching and practice will be elaborated. A typology of translation practice-oriented corpora will be presented, and the use of corpora in translation will be positioned within two general models of translation competence. Special consideration will then be given to the design and application of so-called Do-it-yourself (DIY corpora, which are compiled ad hoc with the aim of completing a specific translation task. In this context, possible sources for retrieving corpus texts will be presented and evaluated and it will be argued that, owing to time and availability constraints in real-life translation, the Internet should be used as a major source of corpus data. After a brief discussion of possible Internet research techniques for targeted and quality-focused corpus compilation, the possible use of the Internet itself as a macro-corpus will be elaborated. The article concludes with a brief presentation of corpus use in translation teaching in the MA in Specialised Translation Programme offered at Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Germany.

  4. The Difficult Unity of the Mediterranean in the Works and Expeditions of Bory de Saint-Vincent (1778-1846

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañete, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time consigned to oblivion, the figure of the soldier and naturalist Bory de Saint-Vincent has been during recent years the subject of a renewed but timid interest. This recovery is justified especially for his role as leader of the French missions in the Morea and Algeria, which replicated the military-scientific model that started in Egypt. Indeed, this leadership and the works of anthropology or botany that he produced as a result are now considered key elements in the process of construction of a modern unitary representation of the Mediterranean. These recent contributions, however, often do not consider other of his works that offer a much more complex and contradictory image of his thought. This article offers a review of recent interpretation by giving examples of his works on the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. It aims to show his representation of the Mediterranean not as a homogeneous and linear process but as the result of an ambivalent approach that led to both a unitary image and a simultaneous internal differentiation of the region.

    Durante largo tiempo relegada al olvido, la figura del militar y naturalista Bory de Saint-Vincent ha sido en los últimos años objeto de un renovado aunque tímido interés. Esta recuperación se justifica especialmente por su papel como líder de las misiones francesas en Morea y Argelia, que reprodujeron el modelo de expedición científico-militar planteado en Egipto. Precisamente, este liderazgo y los trabajos de antropología o botánica que él mismo llevó a cabo en dichas misiones se consideran actualmente como elementos fundamentales en el proceso de construcción de una moderna representación unitaria del Mediterráneo. Estas aportaciones recientes, sin embargo, no suelen considerar otros trabajos del militar-naturalista que ofrecen una imagen mucho más compleja y contradictoria de su pensamiento. En este artículo se ofrece una revisión de la reciente

  5. Problems Related to the Translation of Political Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sárosi-Márdirosz Krisztina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the problems related to the translation of political texts in the theoretical framework elaborated by the researchers working in the field of translation studies and reflects on the terminological peculiarities of the special language used for this text type. Consideration of the theoretical framework is followed by the analysis of a specific text spoken then written in English and translated into Hungarian and Romanian. The conclusions are intended to highlight the fact that there are no recipes for translating a political speech, because translation is not only a technical process that uses translation procedures and applies transfer operations, but also a matter of understanding cultural, historical and political situations and their significance.

  6. Outcomes-focused knowledge translation: a framework for knowledge translation and patient outcomes improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane M; Sidani, Souraya

    2007-01-01

    Regularly accessing information that is current and reliable continues to be a challenge for front-line staff nurses. Reconceptualizing how nurses access information and designing appropriate decision support systems to facilitate timely access to information may be important for increasing research utilization. An outcomes-focused knowledge translation framework was developed to guide the continuous improvement of patient care through the uptake of research evidence and feedback data about patient outcomes. The framework operationalizes the three elements of the PARIHS framework at the point of care. Outcomes-focused knowledge translation involves four components: (a) patient outcomes measurement and real-time feedback about outcomes achievement; (b) best-practice guidelines, embedded in decision support tools that deliver key messages in response to patient assessment data; (c) clarification of patients' preferences for care; and (d) facilitation by advanced practice nurses and practice leaders. In this paper the framework is described and evidence is provided to support theorized relationships among the concepts in the framework. The framework guided the design of a knowledge translation intervention aimed at continuous improvement of patient care and evidence-based practice, which are fostered through real-time feedback data about patient outcomes, electronic access to evidence-based resources at the point of care, and facilitation by advanced practice nurses. The propositions in the framework need to be empirically tested through future research.

  7. Solving the Puzzle of Recruitment and Retention-Strategies for Building a Robust Clinical and Translational Research Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Kathryn A; Hunt, Cerise; Presley, Jessica H; Nuechterlein, Bridget M; Moss, Marc; Manson, Spero M

    2015-10-01

    This paper is the first in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline and presents strategies to support recruitment and retention to create diverse pathways into clinical and translational research (CTR). The strategies address multiple levels or contexts of persistence decisions and include: (1) creating a seamless pipeline by forming strategic partnerships to achieve continuity of support for scholars and collective impact; (2) providing meaningful research opportunities to support identity formation as a scientist and sustain motivation to pursue and persist in CTR careers; (3) fostering an environment for effective mentorship and peer support to promote academic and social integration; (4) advocating for institutional policies to alleviate environmental pull factors; and, (5) supporting program evaluation-particularly, the examination of longitudinal outcomes. By combining institutional policies that promote a culture and climate for diversity with quality, evidence-based programs and integrated networks of support, we can create the environment necessary for diverse scholars to progress successfully and efficiently through the pipeline to achieve National Institutes of Health's vision of a robust CTR workforce. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Willingness to participate and Pay for a proposed national health insurance in St. Vincent and the grenadines: a cross-sectional contingent valuation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rosmond; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Pu, Christy

    2015-04-09

    Numerous Caribbean countries are considering implementing National Health Insurance (NHI) and pooling resources to finance their health sectors. Based on this increased interest in health insurance, we investigated the willingness to participate and to pay for NHI in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, an upper-middle-income Caribbean country. Four hundred heads of household in St. Vincent and the Grenadines were interviewed in August 2012 and September 2012. The samples were selected through simple random sampling, including the stratification of rural, semiurban, and urban communities to ensure the representativeness of the sample. A contingent valuation method with a pretested interviewer-led questionnaire was used. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical NHI plan. Chi-squared analysis was performed to identify factors that are associated with the willingness to participate. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the factors that influence respondents' willingness to pay. In total, 69.5% (n = 278) of the respondents indicated that they were willing to participate in the proposed NHI plan, of whom 72.3% were willing to pay for the first bid (EC$50). When the bid was reduced to EC$25, all of the remaining respondents who indicated they were willing to participate were willing to pay this lowered bid. Overall, the respondents were willing to pay EC$77.83 (US$28.83) per month for each person to enroll in the NHI plan. Age, income, and having some form of health insurance were significantly associated with a willingness to participate in the plan. A higher socioeconomic status was the principal determinant factor for the willingness to participate. This is similar to studies on developing economies. The government can use these findings to guide the successful implementation of the proposed NHI program. People with a lower socioeconomic status must be engaged from the start of and throughout the development process to enhance their understanding of

  9. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  10. Going Online: Helping Technical Communicators Help Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Patricia; Lord van Slyke, Melanie; Starke-Meyerring, Doreen; Thompson, Aimee

    1999-01-01

    Explains why technical communicators should help translators. Offers tips for creating "translation-friendly" documentation. Describes the research and design process used by the authors to create an online tutorial that provides technical communicators at a medical technology company the information they need to help them write and…

  11. Knowledge translation in rehabilitation engineering research and development: a knowledge ecosystem framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tom; Moghimi, Saba; Popovic, Milos R

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitation engineering is concerned with technology innovations and technology-mediated treatments for the improvement of quality of care and quality of life of individuals with disability. Unlike many other fields of health research, the knowledge translation (KT) cycle of rehabilitation engineering research and development (R&D) is often considered incomplete until a technology product or technology-facilitated therapy is available to target clientele. As such, the KT journey of rehabilitation engineering R&D is extremely challenging, necessarily involving knowledge exchange among numerous players across multiple sectors. In this article, we draw on recent literature about the knowledge trichotomy in technology-based rehabilitation R&D and propose a knowledge ecosystem to frame the rehabilitation engineering KT process from need to product. Identifying the principal process of the ecosystem as one of knowledge flow, we elucidate the roles of repository and networked knowledge, identify key consumers and producers in a trinity of communities of practice, and draw on knowledge management literature to describe different knowledge flows. The article concludes with instantiations of this knowledge ecosystem for 2 local rehabilitation engineering research-development-commercialization endeavors. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. Methods More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer ‘stem’ cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. Results The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease

  13. Finite translation surfaces with maximal number of translations

    OpenAIRE

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph; Weitze-Schmithuesen, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The natural automorphism group of a translation surface is its group of translations. For finite translation surfaces of genus g > 1 the order of this group is naturally bounded in terms of g due to a Riemann-Hurwitz formula argument. In analogy with classical Hurwitz surfaces, we call surfaces which achieve the maximal bound Hurwitz translation surfaces. We study for which g there exist Hurwitz translation surfaces of genus g.

  14. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  15. An Overview of Models, Methods, and Reagents Developed for Translational Autoimmunity Research in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jagessar, S. Anwar; Vierboom, Michel; Blezer, Erwin L.A.; Bauer, Jan; Hart, Bert A. ‘t; Kap, Yolanda S.

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS established in marmosets has proven their value for exploratory research into (etio) pathogenic mechanisms and for the evaluation of new therapies that cannot be tested in lower species because of t...

  16. Translating cell-based regenerative medicines from research to successful products: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Egloff, Matthieu; Snykers, Sarah; Salinas, Gabriella Franco; Thomas, Robert; Girling, Alan; Lilford, Richard; Clermont, Gaelle; Kemp, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine International Society-Europe (TERMIS-EU) Industry Committee as well as its TERMIS-Americas (AM) counterpart intend to address the specific challenges and needs facing the industry in translating academic research into commercial products. Over the last 3 years, the TERMIS-EU Industry Committee has worked with commercial bodies to deliver programs that encourage academics to liaise with industry in proactive collaborations. The TERMIS-EU 2013 Industry Symposium aimed to build on this commercial agenda by focusing on two topics: Operations Management (How to move a process into the good manufacturing practice [GMP] environment) and Clinical Translation (Moving a GMP process into robust trials). These topics were introduced by providing the synergistic business perspective of partnering between the multiple regenerative medicine stakeholders, throughout the life cycle of product development. Seven industry leaders were invited to share their experience, expertise, and strategies. Due to the complex nature of regenerative medicine products, partnering for their successful commercial development seems inevitable to overcome all obstacles by sharing experiences and expertise of all stakeholders. When ideally implemented, the "innovation quotient" of a virtual team resulting from the combination of internal and external project teams can be maximized through maximizing the three main dimensions: core competences, technology portfolio, and alliance management.

  17. Utility of the Hebb-Williams Maze Paradigm for Translational Research in Fragile X Syndrome: A Direct Comparison of Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Isabelle; Collin, Charles A; MacLeod, Lindsey S; Messier, Claude; Holahan, Matthew R; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Gandhi, Reno M; Kogan, Cary S

    2018-01-01

    To generate meaningful information, translational research must employ paradigms that allow extrapolation from animal models to humans. However, few studies have evaluated translational paradigms on the basis of defined validation criteria. We outline three criteria for validating translational paradigms. We then evaluate the Hebb-Williams maze paradigm (Hebb and Williams, 1946; Rabinovitch and Rosvold, 1951) on the basis of these criteria using Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as model disease. We focused on this paradigm because it allows direct comparison of humans and animals on tasks that are behaviorally equivalent (criterion #1) and because it measures spatial information processing, a cognitive domain for which FXS individuals and mice show impairments as compared to controls (criterion #2). We directly compared the performance of affected humans and mice across different experimental conditions and measures of behavior to identify which conditions produce comparable patterns of results in both species. Species differences were negligible for Mazes 2, 4, and 5 irrespective of the presence of visual cues, suggesting that these mazes could be used to measure spatial learning in both species. With regards to performance on the first trial, which reflects visuo-spatial problem solving, Mazes 5 and 9 without visual cues produced the most consistent results. We conclude that the Hebb-Williams mazes paradigm has the potential to be utilized in