WorldWideScience

Sample records for translating policy intentions

  1. Policies as translation: situating the transnational social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stubbs

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the implications of the development of an anthropology or ethnography of the transnational dimensions of policies. The fi rst part explains the basic conceptual apparatus, in terms of policies as a generator of meanings. The second part examines policies as translation and explores its implications in terms of the transnationalization of the policies and, in particular, it seeks to contrast the translation of policies with more orthodox knowledge of policies transference. The third part explores the translation of policies through a refl exive ethnographical approach, analyzing a number of cases based on the practical involvement of the authors in social policies reforms in regions of the Central Europe and the East. The fourth part presents some conclusions and indicates certain theoretical and ethical objections that can and must be raised with regard to the presented approach.

  2. Social Media, Health Policy, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Social media has been cited as a methodology for reducing the knowledge translation gap, creating communities of practice, and reducing traditional hierarchical divisions. Social movements have also embraced social media as a means of spreading their aims and reaching wide audiences. However, its impact on health policy is seldom considered. The author examines the complexity of clinicians' use of social media to influence policy and how policy and government groups may use social media to help their own objectives. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tracing Translations of ICT Policies in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cifuentes Alvarez, Gary Alberto; Duenas, Paola Ximena Valero

    2016-01-01

    , material actants and activities. The analytical strategy is deployed in the case of three Colombian higher education institutions working with ICT policies for teacher development. The cases show that agency is distributed among different entities constituting assemblages that enact policies in unexpected......Educational policy enactment is a matter of policy translation. A Latourian sociomaterial perspective is proposed to challenge traditional policy implementation frameworks. We offer analytical tools to trace processes of policy translation in practice settings as entanglements of human agents...... pathways. Equally, in all these cases routine activities or unobserved artifacts were key to trace such translations of policies. Our analysis and findings provide a critical review of hermeneutics of policies, one of the dimensions of Stephen Ball´s policy enactment theory. In doing so, a more nuanced...

  4. Incorporating translation into sociolinguistic research: translation policy in an international non-governmental organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tesseur, Wine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores aspects of translation, multilingualism and language policy in the field of transnational civil society. By focusing on translation policies at Amnesty International, an international non-governmental organisation that performs a key role in global governance, this article seeks to contribute to a globalisation-sensitive sociolinguistics. It argues that combining a sociolinguistic approach, more precisely linguistic ethnography, with translation studies leads to an incre...

  5. Chinese climate policy - Institutions and intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, William C.; Lesourne, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Until the late 1990's, the balance of Chinese energy production and consumption was treated by the rest of the world as a net figure. No one knew what was going on inside the Chinese economy - it was a black box. As far as anyone was concerned, the Chinese would not soon be a major factor in world energy markets. Energy policy-makers realized how totally blind they were in 2004 when Chinese electricity production could not keep up with internal demand and the world experienced a surge in liquids demand as Chinese entrepreneurs fired up generator sets across the economy. No country has confronted the need to collect data and formulate coherent policy for nearly a billion and a half consumers. A number of institutional arrangements have succeeded each other until now, when stronger energy policy and administrative functions of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) are gaining traction. NDRC vice-chairman Zhang Guobao has maintained a steady hand on Chinese energy-policy evolution for several years - overseeing the increasing coherence of Chinese domestic and international energy policy - but the tension with powerful state enterprises and other vested interests still effectively defies efforts to truly centralize Chinese national-level energy policy and program authority. This study identifies the nature of the forces that drive or constrain change within China's energy sector, and explores the Chinese approach to climate change. Contents: 1. The Institutions of Energy Governance in china. 2. China's Foreign Energy Policy. 3. China's position and policy on climate change

  6. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: Behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eWieber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention-behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!. It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  7. Improving the translation of intentions into health actions: The role of motivational coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Conner, Mark

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces a new construct termed motivational coherence , and tests its influence upon the process of translating intentions into health actions. Motivational coherence was defined as the extent to which predictors of intentions (e.g., attitudes, norms, perceived control) cohere or point in the same direction. The prediction tested was that motivational coherence would stabilize intentions and thereby increase intention-behavior consistency. Three studies were conducted that each involved prospective designs. Study 1 (N = 248) concerned breastfeeding among nulliparous, low-income women. Study 2 (N = 651) concerned physical activity, and Study 3 (N = 635) examined uptake of smoking among adolescents. Motivational coherence moderated intention-behavior relations in all 3 studies. Greater motivational coherence was associated with a stronger relationship between intentions and action. This finding also held when other predictors of intention (Studies 1-3) and past behavior (Studies 2-3) were taken into account. Study 3 tested and found support for the idea that temporal stability of intention mediated the moderating effect of motivational coherence. The present studies suggest that future research on predicting health behaviors should consider not only the strength of people's intentions to act but also whether the basis of respective intentions is motivationally coherent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Chinese Climate Policy - Institutions and Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, William C.; Lesourne, Jacques [Institut Francais des Relations Internationales - Ifri, 27 rue de la Procession, 75740 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Andrews-Speed, Philip [Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Yishan, Xia; Dezhao, Chen [China Institute of International Studies (China)

    2011-06-15

    Until the late 1990's, the balance of Chinese energy production and consumption was treated by the rest of the world as a net figure. No-one knew what was going on inside the Chinese economy - it was a black box. As far as anyone was concerned, the Chinese would not soon be a major factor in world energy markets. Energy policy makers realized how totally blind they were in 2004 when Chinese electricity production could not keep up with internal demand and the world experienced a surge in liquids demand as Chinese entrepreneurs fired up generator sets across the economy. The incremental Chinese demand was a factor in the price surge that year that had been building since the OPEC accord in 1999. It was probably the catalyst for the spike but we didn't have the data to know. Times are certainly changing, but it is still only twilight in that black box. No country has confronted the need to collect data and formulate coherent policy for nearly a billion and a half consumers. State enterprises were set up to manage key energy sector activities, but coordinating among them proved difficult. A number of institutional arrangements have succeeded each other until now, when stronger energy policy and administrative functions of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) are gaining traction. NDRC vice-chairman Zhang Guobao has maintained a steady hand on Chinese energy-policy evolution for several years - overseeing the increasing coherence of Chinese domestic and international energy policy - but the tension with powerful state enterprises and other vested interests still effectively defies efforts to truly centralize and co-ordinate Chinese national-level energy policy and program authority. The first of the three studies looks back into the nature of Chinese institutions and governance for insights into how they function and to identify some of their limits, so as to pinpoint the nature of the forces that drive or constrain change within China

  9. Chinese Climate Policy - Institutions and Intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, William C.; Lesourne, Jacques; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Yishan, Xia; Dezhao, Chen

    2011-06-01

    Until the late 1990's, the balance of Chinese energy production and consumption was treated by the rest of the world as a net figure. No-one knew what was going on inside the Chinese economy - it was a black box. As far as anyone was concerned, the Chinese would not soon be a major factor in world energy markets. Energy policy makers realized how totally blind they were in 2004 when Chinese electricity production could not keep up with internal demand and the world experienced a surge in liquids demand as Chinese entrepreneurs fired up generator sets across the economy. The incremental Chinese demand was a factor in the price surge that year that had been building since the OPEC accord in 1999. It was probably the catalyst for the spike but we didn't have the data to know. Times are certainly changing, but it is still only twilight in that black box. No country has confronted the need to collect data and formulate coherent policy for nearly a billion and a half consumers. State enterprises were set up to manage key energy sector activities, but coordinating among them proved difficult. A number of institutional arrangements have succeeded each other until now, when stronger energy policy and administrative functions of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) are gaining traction. NDRC vice-chairman Zhang Guobao has maintained a steady hand on Chinese energy-policy evolution for several years - overseeing the increasing coherence of Chinese domestic and international energy policy - but the tension with powerful state enterprises and other vested interests still effectively defies efforts to truly centralize and co-ordinate Chinese national-level energy policy and program authority. The first of the three studies looks back into the nature of Chinese institutions and governance for insights into how they function and to identify some of their limits, so as to pinpoint the nature of the forces that drive or constrain change within China's energy sector

  10. Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The language policy is usually inferred from the language practices that characterise various spheres of life. This article attempts to show how the language policy, which primarily influences text production in the country, has nurtured translation practice. The dominating role of English sees many texts, particularly technical ...

  11. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation: do housing and neighborhoods affect children's mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-02-01

    The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children's mental health, as addressed by Flouri et al. (Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2014), is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it is a necessary shift for improving population health.

  12. Translating Nutrition Science into Policy as Witness and Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustained effort to witness and participate in the targeted translation of nutritional science and policy forms the structure of this narrative. The memoir starts with an early career-directing experience with nutrition and cholera and proceeds with a long thread of interest in folic acid malabs...

  13. Sociology, systems and (patient) safety: knowledge translations in healthcare policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2008-03-01

    In 2000 the American Institute of Medicine, adviser to the federal government on policy matters relating to the health of the public, published the report To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which was to become a call to arms for improving patient safety across the Western world. By re-conceiving healthcare as a system, it was argued that it was possible to transform the current culture of blame, which made individuals take defensive precautions against being assigned responsibility for error - notably by not reporting adverse events, into a culture of safety. The IOM report draws on several prominent social scientists in accomplishing this re-conceptualisation. But the analyses of these authors are not immediately relevant for health policy. It requires knowledge translation to make them so. This paper analyses the process of translation. The discussion is especially pertinent due to a certain looping effect between social science research and policy concerns. The case here presented is thus doubly illustrative: exemplifying first how social science is translated into health policy and secondly how the transformation required for this to function is taken as an analytical improvement that can in turn be redeployed in social research.

  14. A questionnaire for assessing breastfeeding intentions and practices in Nigeria: validity, reliability and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Andy; Clow, Sheila E

    2017-06-07

    Validating a questionnaire/instrument (whether developed or adapted) before proceeding to the field for data collection is important. This article presents the modification of an Irish questionnaire for a Nigerian setting. The validation process and reliability testing of this questionnaire (which was used in assessing previous breastfeeding practices and breastfeeding intentions of pregnant women in English and Hausa languages) were also presented. Five experts in the field of breastfeeding and infant feeding voluntarily and independently evaluated the instrument. The experts evaluated the various items of the questionnaire based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on a Likert scale of 4. The analysis was performed to determine the content validity index (CVI).Two language experts performed the translation and back-translation. Ten pregnant women completed questionnaires which were evaluated for internal consistency. Two other pregnant women completed the questionnaire twice at an interval of two weeks to test the reliability. SPSS version 21 was used to calculate the coefficient of reliability. The content validity index was high (0.94 for relevance, clarity and ambiguity and 0.96 for simplicity). The analysis suggested that four of the seventy one items should be removed. Cronbach's Alpha was 0.81, while the reliability coefficient was 0.76. The emerged validated questionnaire was translated from English to Hausa, then, back-translated into English and compared for accuracy. The final instrument is reliable and valid for data collection on breastfeeding in Nigeria among English and Hausa speakers. Therefore, the instrument is recommended for use in assessing breastfeeding intention and practices in Nigeria.

  15. School Autonomy and Accountability in Thailand: Does the Gap between Policy Intent and Implementation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…

  16. Translator education and accreditation policies in Africa: Exploring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article questions the presuppositions on which current translator education and accreditation in South Africa and Africa are based. This is done on the basis of Tymozcko's reconceptualisation of translation studies and of Robinson's theory of translation quality. It presents sets of data as case studies that support ...

  17. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation: Do housing and neighborhoods affect children’s mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children’s mental health, as addressed by Flouri and colleagues [1], is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it’s a necessary shift for improving population health. PMID:25527210

  18. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 49

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  19. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development No. 48

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  20. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 53

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    This serial report contains translations from the world press and radio relating to worldwide political, economic and technical developments in telecommunications, computers, and satellite communications...

  1. Trump's policy may undermine pro-growth intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberson, Michael

    2016-10-01

    In terms of energy policy, the Trump presidential campaign is largely aligned with mainstream Republican positions, evoking independence and deregulation. However, Trump's rhetoric and personality might inject uncertainties into long-term energy policies, increasing the risk inherent in energy related businesses.

  2. Translating Nursing Philosophy for Practice and Healthcare Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Pamela G

    2017-07-01

    This article introduces the feature article on policy implications of integrative nursing. It describes unitary ontology in nursing, highlighting the Rogerian view of holism. The importance of linking philosophy to practice policy is emphasized.

  3. Arts Curriculum Implementation: "Adopt and Adapt" as Policy Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sian; Wright, Peter; Pascoe, Robin

    2018-01-01

    This article examines macro, meso, and micro understandings of policy enactment within Western Australian primary school arts education where a new national arts curriculum is being revised and implemented through a process colloquially known as "adopt and adapt." This article focuses on how a government-led implementation policy has…

  4. Translation as a Site of Language Policy Negotiation in Jewish Day School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how students and teachers at a non-Orthodox Jewish day school in New York City negotiate the use of translation within the context of an institutionalized language policy that stresses the use of a sacred language over that of the vernacular. Specifically, this paper analyzes the negotiation of a Hebrew-only policy through…

  5. Translating childhood tuberculosis case management research into operational policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, N; Hinderaker, S G; Baloch, N A; Enarson, D A; Khan, M A; Morkve, O

    2011-08-01

    The control of childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been of low priority in TB programmes in high-burden settings. The objective of this paper was to describe the development and testing of tools for the management of childhood TB. The Pakistan National TB Control Programme embarked on a number of activities, including the establishment of policy guidelines for the management of childhood TB and later a guidance document, 'Case Management Desk Guide and Structured Monitoring', to demonstrate the implementation of childhood TB interventions in a programme context. Initial results showed improved case finding and treatment outcome in implementation sites compared with control districts. However, further programme attention is required to improve quality.

  6. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and ch...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....

  7. Lost in Translation: Product Label Language and the Mediating Role of Authenticity on Purchase Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Traganou, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Should an exported product that is produced in a specific country keep the native language on its label or not? In this study, we explore how the role of native language of an origin-labelled product impacts consumer response. Based on an online experiment with consumers in the US (N=981) using...... as stimuli an olive oil product originating from Tunisia, our findings suggest that the presence of native language on a product’s label has a positive effect on product authenticity, which, in turn, increases purchase intention. However, this process is conditional on country of origin (COO) preferences...

  8. Translating Research into Policy: Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Carol Ferrans is internationally recognized for her work in disparities in health care and quality of life outcomes. She has a distinguished record of research that includes major grants funded by three institutes of the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute, National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities, and National Institute for Nursing Research).    Dr. Ferrans’ work has been instrumental in reducing the disparity in breast cancer mortality Chicago, which at its peak was among the worst in the nation.  Efforts led by Dr. Ferrans and colleagues led directly to statewide legislation, to address the multifaceted causes of black/white disparity in deaths from breast cancer.  She was one of the founders of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force (MCBCTF), leading the team focusing on barriers to mammography screening, to identify reasons for the growing disparity in breast cancer mortality. Their findings (citing Ferrans’ research and others) and recommendations for action were translated directly into the Illinois Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities Act and two additional laws strengthening the Act.  These laws and other statewide efforts have improved access to screening and quality of mammography throughout the Illinois. In addition, Dr. Ferrans and her team identified cultural beliefs contributing to later stage diagnosis of breast cancer in African American and Latino women in Chicago, and most importantly, showed that these beliefs can be changed.  They reached more than 8,000 African American women in Chicago with a short film on DVD, which was effective in changing beliefs and promoting screening.  Her team’s published findings were cited by the American Cancer Society in their guidelines for breast cancer screening.  The Chicago black/white disparity in breast cancer deaths has decreased by 35% since the MCBCTF first released its report, according to data from the Illinois Department of Public

  9. Policy implications of the purchasing intentions towards energy-efficient appliances among China’s urban residents: Do subsidies work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaohua; Wang, Xiaomeng; Guo, Dongxue

    2017-01-01

    Incentive policies are always used to sway purchase, retail stocking, and production decisions toward energy-efficient products by many countries or regions. So the effectiveness of such subsidies has been of much concern to scholars. This research focused on whether, or not, subsidy policies have guided people's intentions and behaviours. We investigated 436 urban residents from 22 provinces in China, covering the seven major geographic regions, and made an empirical analysis of the factors influencing Chinese urban residents’ purchasing intentions towards energy-efficient appliances based on the structural equation model. On theoretical aspect, we developed the theory of planned behaviour. Our results show that the variable “POLICY” is insignificant which indicates that policy environment and media propaganda in China do not have significant effect on Chinese residents’ willingness to pay for energy-efficient appliances. While, the residents’ environmental awareness, past purchasing experiences, social relationships, age, and level of education all exert a significant influence on Chinese residents’ purchasing intentions. Finally, based on the above research results, the corresponding policy suggestions which mainly focus on the time of subsidy, the object of subsidy and the method of subsidy are offered for policy makers. - Highlights: • We researched people’s behaviour combined with a policy implementation background. • We found that the subsidy policy didn’t change people’s purchase intentions. • Past purchasing experiences significantly influence consumers’ purchase intentions. • We proposed policy advices about the time, types and methods of incentive policies.

  10. Knowledge Translation Research: The Science of Moving Research into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hayden, Jill A.; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing…

  11. In Translation: School Leaders Learning in and from Leadership Practice While Confronting Pressing Policy Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Worldwide, principals face enormous challenges while translating policies and mandates for which they are accountable into their mission and practice. While some of these school-level challenges are technical, many are adaptive (Heifetz), requiring leaders and those in their care to grow their cognitive and affective…

  12. Language policies and sign language translation and interpreting: connections between Brazil and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aguiar dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8420.2015v16n2p101 This paper is the result of an initial attempt to establish a connection between Brazil and Mozambique regarding sign language translation and interpreting. It reviews some important landmarks in language policies aimed at sign languages in these countries and discusses how certain actions directly impact political decisions related to sign lan­guage translation and interpreting. In this context, two lines of argument are developed. The first one addresses the role of sign language translation and interpreting in the Por­tuguese-speaking context, since Portuguese is the official language in both countries; the other offers some reflections about the Deaf movements and the movements of sign lan­guage translators and interpreters, the legal recognition of sign languages, the develop­ment of undergraduate courses and the contemporary challenges in the work of transla­tion professionals. Finally, it is suggested that sign language translators and interpreters in both Brazil and Mozambique undertake efforts to press government bodies to invest in: (i area-specific training for translators and interpreters, (ii qualification of the ser­vices provided by such professionals, and (iii development of human resources at mas­ter’s and doctoral levels in order to strengthen research on sign language translation and interpreting in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries.

  13. Determinants and the Moderating Effect of Perceived Policy Effectiveness on Residents' Separation Intention for Rural Household Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chuanhui; Zhao, Dingtao; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Lanfang

    2018-04-11

    Currently, villages "besieged with garbage" have become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Separation of rural residential solid waste (RRSW) is one of the main strategies for waste reduction. Although previous studies have analyzed the social and psychological motivations of residents' separation intention for municipal solid waste (MSW), little attention has been paid to the situation in rural areas. This paper investigates key factors influencing rural residents' separation intention, as well as analyzing the moderating effects of perceived policy effectiveness on the relationship between the determinants and the intention, using survey data of 538 rural residents in the province of Sichuan in China. The results show that all the proposed key factors influence the separation intention significantly. Furthermore, the policies were divided into two types and the moderating effects were tested for each type. The results show that the perceived effectiveness of both the inducement policy and the capacity building policy moderated the relationship between attitude and separation intention positively, while the perceived effectiveness of the inducement policy moderated the relationship between subjective norms and intention negatively. The findings provide insightful information for policymakers to design effective RRSW separation policies.

  14. Determinants and the Moderating Effect of Perceived Policy Effectiveness on Residents’ Separation Intention for Rural Household Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dingtao; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Lanfang

    2018-01-01

    Currently, villages “besieged with garbage” have become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Separation of rural residential solid waste (RRSW) is one of the main strategies for waste reduction. Although previous studies have analyzed the social and psychological motivations of residents’ separation intention for municipal solid waste (MSW), little attention has been paid to the situation in rural areas. This paper investigates key factors influencing rural residents’ separation intention, as well as analyzing the moderating effects of perceived policy effectiveness on the relationship between the determinants and the intention, using survey data of 538 rural residents in the province of Sichuan in China. The results show that all the proposed key factors influence the separation intention significantly. Furthermore, the policies were divided into two types and the moderating effects were tested for each type. The results show that the perceived effectiveness of both the inducement policy and the capacity building policy moderated the relationship between attitude and separation intention positively, while the perceived effectiveness of the inducement policy moderated the relationship between subjective norms and intention negatively. The findings provide insightful information for policymakers to design effective RRSW separation policies. PMID:29641502

  15. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  16. Translating policies into practice: a framework to prevent childhood obesity in afterschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Webster, Collin; Saunders, Ruth; Huberty, Jennifer L

    2013-03-01

    Afterschool programs (3-6 p.m.) are positioned to play a critical role in combating childhood obesity. To this end, state and national organizations have developed policies related to promoting physical activity and guiding the nutritional quality of snacks served in afterschool programs. No conceptual frameworks, however, are available that describe the process of how afterschool programs will translate such policies into daily practice to reach eventual outcomes. Drawing from complex systems theory, this article describes the development of a framework that identifies critical modifiable levers within afterschool programs that can be altered and/or strengthened to reach policy goals. These include the policy environment at the national, state, and local levels; individual site, afterschool program leader, staff, and child characteristics; and existing outside organizational partnerships. Use of this framework and recognition of its constituent elements have the potential to lead to the successful and sustainable adoption and implementation of physical activity and nutrition policies in afterschool programs nationwide.

  17. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions

  18. Translating language policy into practice: Language and culture policy at a Dutch university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Dijk, Anje

    2016-01-01

    The CEFR will only achieve its potential in higher education if it is embedded in a meaningful way in the wider processes of the university. One means of embedding the CEFR is through policy, and in this article we report the development of a language policy in the broader context of

  19. Interrelations between Policymakers' Intentions and School Agents' Interpretation of Accountability Policy in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdur, Lisa; Mero-Jaffe, Irit

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the interrelations between policymakers' intentions for test-based accountability policy and school agents' perceptions and actions with regard to this policy. Mixed methods were used and encompassed 24 policymakers, 80 school principals, 168 teachers and case studies of four schools. New institutional theory, including the…

  20. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  1. Translating EU renewable energy policy for insular energy systems: Reunion Island's quest for energy autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sawatzky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the negative impacts of climate change has led to agreement on the need to decarbonise energy systems through the employment of renewable energy. With many national and transnational policies in place, the options available to insular energy systems (IES differ from those of interconnected areas due to fragility in their production and distribution networks. Based on the concepts of policy mobility and translation, this study examines the interplay of EU renewable energy policy and insular governance processes aimed at achieving energy autonomy through renewable energy development. Reunion Island, a French Overseas Department and Region, is used as a case study to examine local energy governance processes, aspects that shape regional translation of national and EU policy, and the potential effects that create structures and pathways of energy transition. The study shows that Reunion Island’s regional Energy Governance Committee has significant application potential as a governance tool in other IES and small islands within the EU, but that renewable energy development is restricted due to national policy measures and path dependent governance structural constraints.

  2. Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via

  3. Nurses' work environment and intent to leave in Lebanese hospitals: implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Dumit, Nuhad; Dimassi, Hani; Jamal, Diana; Maalouf, Salwa

    2011-02-01

    The dual burden of nursing shortages and poor work environments threatens quality of patient care and places additional pressures on resource-stretched health care systems, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). There is a paucity of research in the EMR examining the quality of nurses' work environment and its association to nurses' intent to leave their jobs/countries. Systematically examine the characteristics of nurses' work environment and their relation to nurses' intent to leave their jobs within the context of Lebanon. A secondary objective is to assess the utility and validity of the NWI-R within the context of the EMR. A cross-sectional survey design was utilized to survey a total of 1793 registered nurses in 69 Lebanese hospitals. The survey instrument included questions on nurses' background, hospital characteristics, intent to leave, and the Revised Nurse Working Index (NWI-R). Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic characteristics, t-test and ANOVA to assess differences in agreement scores, and a multinomial logistic regression model to predict intent to leave. Thematic analysis of open-ended questions was utilized to extract themes that fit under issues relating to nurses' work environment in Lebanese hospitals. The NWI-R subscale with the lowest mean score related to control. Younger nurses had lower scores on organizational support and career development. Regression analysis revealed that for every 1 point score decrease on career development there was a 93% increase in likelihood of reporting intent to leave country. Likewise, for every 1 point score decrease on participation there was an observed 51% and 53% increase in likelihood of reporting intent to leave country and hospital, respectively. Findings show that hospital characteristics (size, accreditation status and presence of a recruitment and retention strategy) were significantly associated with NWI-R subscales. Participation, control and career

  4. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  5. The birth and spread of IWRM - A case study of global policy diffusion and translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Allouche

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available How did the idea of IWRM emerge at the global level? Why has IWRM become so popular and so resilient, at least in discourse and policy? What has caused IWRM policies to diffuse across time and space? The principal goal of this article is to identify a set of concepts and mechanisms to study the global diffusion and translation of IWRM through coercion, cooperation, or learning from the ground. The article will also highlight the extent to which this global diffusion was contested and translated into different meanings in terms of policy orientation. Overall, IWRM was a mindset of a particular period where the water policy paradigm was evolving in the same direction as sustainable development and other related paradigms in a post-Rio moment. There were no clear alternatives at the time but now IWRM is being questioned. This IWRM fatigue is leading to other framings and discourses around the water-food-energy nexus and the green economy.

  6. Implementation of a health policy advisory committee as a knowledge translation platform: the Nigeria experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent times, there has been a growing demand internationally for health policies to be based on reliable research evidence. Consequently, there is a need to strengthen institutions and mechanisms that can promote interactions among researchers, policy-makers and other stakeholders who can influence the uptake of research findings. The Health Policy Advisory Committee (HPAC) is one of such mechanisms that can serve as an excellent forum for the interaction of policy-makers and researchers. Therefore, the need to have a long term mechanism that allows for periodic interactions between researchers and policy-makers within the existing government system necessitated our implementation of a newly established HPAC in Ebonyi State Nigeria, as a Knowledge Translation (KT) platform. The key study objective was to enhance the capacity of the HPAC and equip its members with the skills/competence required for the committee to effectively promote evidence informed policy-making and function as a KT platform. Methods: A series of capacity building programmes and KT activities were undertaken including: i) Capacity building of the HPAC using Evidence-to-Policy Network (EVIPNet) SUPPORT tools; ii) Capacity enhancement mentorship programme of the HPAC through a three-month executive training programme on health policy/health systems and KT in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki; iii) Production of a policy brief on strategies to improve the performance of the Government’s Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme in Ebonyi State Nigeria; and iv) Hosting of a multi-stakeholders policy dialogue based on the produced policy brief on the Government’s Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme. Results: The study findings indicated a noteworthy improvement in knowledge of evidence-to-policy link among the HPAC members; the elimination of mutual mistrust between policy-makers and researchers; and an increase in the awareness of importance of HPAC in the Ministry

  7. Implementation of a Health Policy Advisory Committee as a Knowledge Translation Platform: The Nigeria Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent times, there has been a growing demand internationally for health policies to be based on reliable research evidence. Consequently, there is a need to strengthen institutions and mechanisms that can promote interactions among researchers, policy-makers and other stakeholders who can influence the uptake of research findings. The Health Policy Advisory Committee (HPAC is one of such mechanisms that can serve as an excellent forum for the interaction of policy-makers and researchers. Therefore, the need to have a long term mechanism that allows for periodic interactions between researchers and policy-makers within the existing government system necessitated our implementation of a newly established HPAC in Ebonyi State Nigeria, as a Knowledge Translation (KT platform. The key study objective was to enhance the capacity of the HPAC and equip its members with the skills/competence required for the committee to effectively promote evidence informed policy-making and function as a KT platform. Methods A series of capacity building programmes and KT activities were undertaken including: i Capacity building of the HPAC using Evidence-to-Policy Network (EVIPNet SUPPORT tools; ii Capacity enhancement mentorship programme of the HPAC through a three-month executive training programme on health policy/health systems and KT in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki; iii Production of a policy brief on strategies to improve the performance of the Government’s Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme in Ebonyi State Nigeria; and iv Hosting of a multi-stakeholders policy dialogue based on the produced policy brief on the Government’s Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme. Results The study findings indicated a noteworthy improvement in knowledge of evidence-to-policy link among the HPAC members; the elimination of mutual mistrust between policy-makers and researchers; and an increase in the awareness of importance of HPAC in the

  8. From bench to bedside and to health policies (and back: ethics in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The medical aim of translational research is to smooth the transition of discoveries made through basic research from the laboratory bench to their diagnostic or therapeutic applications for patients. These applications may be extended to current clinical practice and to health policies. AIM: The converse is also important: health policies should provide a point of departure when identifying research priorities. Translational research poses the same ethical problems as trials with human subjects - albeit in different ways. One of the more significant problems is the risk for participants in trials: it is thus necessary to ensure that the risks to which these subjects are exposed are not out of proportion to the expected benefits. DISCUSSION: Translational research does not require new ethical principles, but existing biomedical principles need to be adjusted to the specific context. The well-being of participants should always be the primary objective; these persons should never be considered as means for the advancement of knowledge or for the improvement of applications.

  9. Lost in translation? How project actors shape REDD+ policy and outcomes in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Forest protection policies to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) are currently being implemented by international donors, governments and conservation agencies across the developing world aiming for reduction of greenhouse gases while ensuring fair distribution...... of benefits. This paper draws on a case study in northern Cambodia to analyse how conservation practitioners and the local forest management committees engaged in implementing REDD+ actively translate and influence the policy and its implementation in accordance with their respective interests through...... particular communication strategies. When assessing project progress and outcomes, the conservation practitioners involved in implementing projects show an interest in emphasising positive project assessments by downplaying potential project complications, and by primarily communicating with pro...

  10. Technical and policy approaches to balancing patient privacy and data sharing in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Bradley; Karp, David; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2010-01-01

    Clinical researchers need to share data to support scientific validation and information reuse and to comply with a host of regulations and directives from funders. Various organizations are constructing informatics resources in the form of centralized databases to ensure reuse of data derived from sponsored research. The widespread use of such open databases is contingent on the protection of patient privacy. We review privacy-related problems associated with data sharing for clinical research from technical and policy perspectives. We investigate existing policies for secondary data sharing and privacy requirements in the context of data derived from research and clinical settings. In particular, we focus on policies specified by the US National Institutes of Health and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and touch on how these policies are related to current and future use of data stored in public database archives. We address aspects of data privacy and identifiability from a technical, although approachable, perspective and summarize how biomedical databanks can be exploited and seemingly anonymous records can be reidentified using various resources without hacking into secure computer systems. We highlight which clinical and translational data features, specified in emerging research models, are potentially vulnerable or exploitable. In the process, we recount a recent privacy-related concern associated with the publication of aggregate statistics from pooled genome-wide association studies that have had a significant impact on the data sharing policies of National Institutes of Health-sponsored databanks. Based on our analysis and observations we provide a list of recommendations that cover various technical, legal, and policy mechanisms that open clinical databases can adopt to strengthen data privacy protection as they move toward wider deployment and adoption.

  11. Why do people fail to turn good intentions into action? The role of executive control processes in the translation of healthy eating intentions into action in young Scottish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Julia L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant health benefits associated with eating healthily, diet is extremely difficult to change, with the majority of people who intend to eat more healthily failing to do so. Recent evidence has suggested that the ability to turn intentions into actions may be related to individual differences in one facet of executive control – cognitive inhibition (i.e. the ability to inhibit irrelevant information and suppress prepotent responses. The present study investigates the role of this and other executive processes (inhibition, task switching, planning and cognitive flexibility in the translation of dietary intentions into action. In addition, as the literature suggests that weak executive control may be associated with hyper-responsivity to cues to action, the role of executive processes in susceptibility to environmental food cues and responses to If-Then plans designed to cue intended behaviour are investigated. Methods Future intentions about consumption of fruits and vegetables and snack foods will be measured in a sample of young adults. Actual consumption of the target foods will be recorded with computerised diaries over a subsequent 3-day period. Performance on a battery of established executive control tasks (Go-NoGo, Tower task, Verbal Fluency task and Trail-Making will be used to predict the discrepancy between intended and actual dietary behaviour. In addition, executive control scores will be used to predict reported susceptibility to environmental food cues and benefit derived from the use of 'If-Then plans' designed to cue intended behaviour. Discussion Our findings will add to understanding about the role of executive control in translating intentions into actions and may demonstrate potential for future public health interventions. If participants with weak executive control are found to be less likely to eat as they intend than those with strong executive control, then interventions that

  12. Applying knowledge translation tools to inform policy: the case of mental health in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Farah; El Jardali, Fadi

    2015-06-06

    Many reform efforts in health systems fall short because the use of research evidence to inform policy remains scarce. In Lebanon, one in four adults suffers from a mental illness, yet access to mental healthcare services in primary healthcare (PHC) settings is limited. Using an "integrated" knowledge framework to link research to action, this study examines the process of influencing the mental health agenda in Lebanon through the application of Knowledge Translation (KT) tools and the use of a KT Platform (KTP) as an intermediary between researchers and policymakers. This study employed the following KT tools: 1) development of a policy brief to address the lack of access to mental health services in PHC centres, 2) semi-structured interviews with 10 policymakers and key informants, 3) convening of a national policy dialogue, 4) evaluation of the policy brief and dialogue, and 5) a post-dialogue survey. Findings from the key informant interviews and a comprehensive synthesis of evidence were used to develop a policy brief which defined the problem and presented three elements of a policy approach to address it. This policy brief was circulated to 24 participants prior to the dialogue to inform the discussion. The policy dialogue validated the evidence synthesized in the brief, whereby integrating mental health into PHC services was the element most supported by evidence as well as participants. The post-dialogue survey showed that, in the following 6 months, several implementation steps were taken by stakeholders, including establishing national taskforce, training PHC staff, and updating the national essential drug list to include psychiatric medications. Relationships among policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders were strengthened as they conducted their own workshops and meetings after the dialogue to further discuss implementation, and their awareness about and demand for KT tools increased. This case study showed that the use of KT tools in Lebanon to

  13. Bridging the gap in ageing: Translating policies into practice in Malaysian Primary Care

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    Ambigga Krishnapillai S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population ageing is poised to become a major challenge to the health system as Malaysia progresses to becoming a developed nation by 2020. This article aims to review the various ageing policy frameworks available globally; compare aged care policies and health services in Malaysia with Australia; and discuss various issues and challenges in translating these policies into practice in the Malaysian primary care system. Fundamental solutions identified to bridge the gap include restructuring of the health care system, development of comprehensive benefit packages for older people under the national health financing scheme, training of the primary care workforce, effective use of electronic medical records and clinical guidelines; and empowering older people and their caregivers with knowledge, skills and positive attitudes to ageing and self care. Ultimately, family medicine specialists must become the agents for change to lead multidisciplinary teams and work with various agencies to ensure that better coordination, continuity and quality of care are eventually delivered to older patients across time and settings.

  14. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - Identifying Policy Translation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders' views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. In the study, interviewees referred to both 'hard and soft' elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main 'hard elements' include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The 'soft' elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years, amounting to a process best conceived as germination as opposed

  15. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  16. Contributions of attachment theory and research: a framework for future research, translation, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-11-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive "working models" and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious "transmission gap" between parental Adult Attachment Interview classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology; (b) neurobiology; (c) health and immune function; (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism; (e) school readiness; and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses.

  17. The EU’s Difficulty in Translating Interests into Effective Foreign Policy Action: A Look at the Ukraine Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Nicholas Ross

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s foreign policy response(s to the unfolding Ukraine crisis has further illustrated its difficulty in making effective foreign policy decisions. Using a neoclassical realist analytical framework, this paper argues that although the EU did have tangible collective interests in pursuing its Ukraine foreign policy, it was unable to adequately filter these through its domestic setting. Three key constraints to the EU’s Ukrainian foreign policy> were identified: decision-makers ’ miscalculations; rigid normative demands; and a reliance on consensus politics. Ultimately, the Ukraine crisis illustrated that the EU, in current incarnation, cannot translate interests into effective foreign policies, even when making policy for their direct neighbourhood.

  18. Translating for Linguistic Minorities in Northern Ireland: A Look at Translation Policy in the Judiciary, Healthcare, and Local Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Europe as a multilingual continent hosts three main types of languages: dominant languages, autochthonous minority languages, and new minority languages. From a policy standpoint, planning for speakers of these languages and their needs become a complex matter in which many actors with different interests are involved. Of the many issues which…

  19. Interactive Web-Based Learning: Translating Health Policy Into Improved Diabetes Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Briana B; Lier, Silje C; Johnson, Tisha K; Hu, Dale J

    2016-01-01

    In August 2014, the U.S. DHHS's Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion released the National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention, highlighting prevention of diabetes agent-related hypoglycemia as a key area for improvement. In support of the Action Plan, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion then developed a web-based interactive module, or eLearning lesson, based on formative research and stakeholder feedback to educate healthcare professionals on strategies to prevent adverse drug events from diabetes agents. The training incorporates health literacy principles by demonstrating, through video scenarios, how to apply shared decision making when setting individualized glycemic targets, and how to use the teach-back method to confirm patients' understanding. Prior to release in September 2014, the training went through intensive usability testing and was pilot tested using a 36-item evaluation. Six months after its release (September 2014 to March 2015), the training landing page on health.gov had 24,334 unique page views. More than 90% of the 234 participants who earned continuing education credit agreed that they will be able to apply the knowledge gained from the lesson to their practice. Online trainings that model key prevention strategies are well received by health professional users and may play an important role in translating policy into improved outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Translating epidemiology into policy to prevent childhood obesity: the case for promoting physical activity in school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Ross C; Chriqui, Jamie F; Burgeson, Charlene R; Fisher, Megan C; Ness, Roberta B

    2010-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem resulting from energy imbalance (when the intake of energy is greater than the amount of energy expended through physical activity). Numerous health authorities have identified policy interventions as promising strategies for creating population-wide improvements in physical activity. This case study focuses on energy expenditure through physical activity (with a particular emphasis on school-based physical education [PE]). Policy-relevant evidence for promoting physical activity in youth may take numerous forms, including epidemiologic data and other supporting evidence (e.g., qualitative data). The implementation and evaluation of school PE interventions leads to a set of lessons related to epidemiology and evidence-based policy. These include the need to: (i) enhance the focus on external validity, (ii) develop more policy-relevant evidence on the basis of "natural experiments," (iii) understand that policy making is political, (iv) better articulate the factors that influence policy dissemination, (v) understand the real-world constraints when implementing policy in school environments, and (vi) build transdisciplinary teams for policy progress. The issues described in this case study provide leverage points for practitioners, policy makers, and researchers as they seek to translate epidemiology to policy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perspectives on the role of stakeholders in knowledge translation in health policy development in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Marchal, Bruno; Mafigiri, DavidKaawa; Ssengooba, Freddie; Macq, Jean; Da Silveira, Valeria Campos; Criel, Bart

    2013-08-19

    Stakeholder roles in the application of evidence are influenced by context, the nature of the evidence, the policy development process, and stakeholder interactions. Past research has highlighted the role of stakeholders in knowledge translation (KT) without paying adequate attention to the peculiarities of low-income countries. Here we identify the roles, relations, and interactions among the key stakeholders involved in KT in Uganda and the challenges that they face. This study employed qualitative approaches to examine the roles of and links among various stakeholders in KT. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 key informants and focused on the key actors in KT, their perceived roles, and challenges. Major stakeholders included civil society organizations with perceived roles of advocacy, community mobilization, and implementation. These stakeholders may ignore unconvincing evidence. The community's role was perceived as advocacy and participation in setting research priorities. The key role of the media was perceived as knowledge dissemination, but respondents noted that the media may misrepresent evidence if it is received in a poorly packaged form. The perceived roles of policy makers were evidence uptake, establishing platforms for KT and stewardship; negative roles included ignoring or even misrepresenting evidence that is not in their favor. The roles of parliamentarians were perceived as advocacy and community mobilization, but they were noted to pursue objectives that may not be supported by the evidence. The researchers' main role was defined as evidence generation, but focusing disproportionately on academic interests was cited as a concern. The donors' main role was defined as funding research and KT, but respondents were concerned about the local relevance of donor-supported research. Respondents reported that links among stakeholders were weak due to the absence of institutionalized, inclusive platforms. Challenges facing the stakeholders in

  2. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  3. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey; Daniels, Karen; Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Sevene, Esperança; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2009-12-30

    Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs). We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case); and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case). We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO(4 )and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO(4 )than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO(4), and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries. Translating research knowledge into

  4. The Impact of an Online Educational Video and a Medical Amnesty Policy on College Students' Intentions to Seek Help in the Presence of Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…

  5. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010?2016

    OpenAIRE

    Grumbach, Kevin; Vargas, Roberto A.; Fleisher, Paula; Arag?n, Tom?s J.; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R.; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L.; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. Community Context We report o...

  6. Inventory of measures, typology of non-intentional effects and a framework for policy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givoni, Moshe; Macmillan, James; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    -making at the European level. Specifically, this deliverable aims to further methodological advancement with respect to the identification, classification, ex-ante prevention and ex-post mitigation of policies‘ unintended effects, and the systematic manner in which individual policy measures may be combined so...... as to improve their effectiveness, acceptability and feasibility. Overall, we argue that policy packaging can offer a far greater potential for achieving policy targets and objectives than single policy measures deployed in isolation. Yet, a careful and relatively well designed process must be undertaken...... for such packages to be effective....

  7. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Li, Ben

    2017-02-15

    A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a) examine different research translation frameworks; b) examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c) identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice) AND (framework OR model OR theory) AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine). Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or 'T' models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research-practice gap.

  8. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a examine different research translation frameworks; b examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. Methods: The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice AND (framework OR model OR theory AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine. Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. Results: The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or ‘T’ models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. Conclusion: The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research–practice gap.

  9. Canadian Campus Smoking Policies: Investigating the Gap between Intent and Outcome from a Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. Methods: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at…

  10. Adopting, manipulating, transforming: tactics used by gender practitioners in South African NGOs to translate international gender policies into local practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-11-01

    This paper looks at what is lost and gained through the process of translating international policy from a global to a local space. It does this by sharing results from a multisite ethnographic study of gender practices in foreign-funded South African health organisations. This study identifies a number of tactics used by practitioners to deal with the funding constraints and unique knowledge systems that characterise local spaces, including: using policy to appeal to donors; merging gender with better resourced programmes; and redirecting funding allocations. These tactics point to how practitioners are adopting, manipulating and transforming international policies in order to suit their everyday working realities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing Evidence for Public Health Policy and Practice: The Implementation of a Knowledge Translation Approach in a Staged, Multi-Methods Study in England, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Jane; Cattan, Mima

    2014-01-01

    Effective knowledge translation processes are critical for the development of evidence-based public health policy and practice. This paper reports on the design and implementation of an innovative approach to knowledge translation within a mixed methods study on lay involvement in public health programme delivery. The study design drew on…

  12. Factors Associated With Medical School Graduates' Intention to Work With Underserved Populations: Policy Implications for Advancing Workforce Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea N; Kuo, Tony; Arangua, Lisa; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2018-01-01

    Given projected U.S. physician shortages across all specialties that will likely impact underserved areas disproportionately, the authors sought to explore factors most correlated with medical school graduates' intention to work with underserved populations (IWUP). Data from the 2010-2012 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (n = 40,846) were analyzed. Variables (demographics, career preference, debt burden, intention to enter loan forgiveness programs) were examined using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Respondents included 49.5% (20,228/40,846) women, 16.6% (6,771/40,837) underrepresented minorities (URMs), and 32.4% (13,034/37,342) with primary care intent. The median educational debt was $160,000. Respondents who were women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49, 1.70), URMs (aOR 2.50, 95% CI 2.30, 2.72), intended to enter loan forgiveness programs (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 2.26, 2.63), intended to practice primary care (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.54, 1.76), and intended to emphasize nonclinical careers (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11, 1.37) had greater odds of reporting IWUP. Among those who chose specialties and careers with a nonclinical emphasis, and among those with greater burdens of educational and consumer debt, URMs were nearly twice as likely as other minorities and whites to report IWUP. Findings suggest physician characteristics that may be associated with filling workforce gaps in underserved areas. Restructuring financial incentive programs to support physician leaders and specialists with characteristics associated with IWUP may complement similar policies in primary care and could have key impacts on health equity in underserved areas.

  13. Promoting evidence informed policy making for maternal and child health in Nigeria: lessons from a knowledge translation workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge translation (KT is a process that ensures that research evidence gets translated into policy and practice. In Nigeria, reports indicate that research evidence rarely gets into policy making process. A major factor responsible for this is lack of KT capacity enhancement mechanisms. The objective of this study was to improve KT competence of an implementation research team (IRT, policymakers and stakeholders in maternal and child health to enhance evidence-informed policy making. Methods: This study employed a "before and after" design, modified as an intervention study. The study was conducted in Bauchi, north-eastern Nigeria. A three-day KT training workshop was organized and 15 modules were covered including integrated and end-of-grant KT; KT models,measures, tools and strategies; priority setting; managing political interference; advocacy and consensus building/negotiations; inter-sectoral collaboration; policy analysis, contextualization and legislation. A 4-point Likert scale pre-/post-workshop questionnaires were administered to evaluate the impact of the training, it was designed in terms of extent of adequacy; with "grossly inadequate" representing 1 point, and "very adequate" representing 4 points.Results: A total of 45 participants attended the workshop. There was a noteworthy improvement in the participants’ understanding of KT processes and strategies. The range of the praiseworthiness of participants knowledge of modules taught was from 2.04-2.94, the range for the post workshop mean was from 3.10–3.70 on the 4-point Likert scale. The range of percentage increase in mean for participants’ knowledge at the end of the workshop was from 13.3%–55.2%.Conclusion: The outcome of this study suggests that using a KT capacity building programme e.g., workshop, health researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders can acquire capacity and skill that will facilitate evidence-to-policy link.

  14. Assessing behavioural intention of small and medium enterprises in implementing an HIV/AIDS policy and programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parsadh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs are likely to feel the impact of an HIV/AIDS epidemic through reduced productivity and an increased percentage of absenteeism; staff turnover; recruitment and training costs; cost of employee benefits; and poor staff morale. One of the interventions is to implement an HIV/AIDS policy and programme, yet a literature search showed that psychological studies of SMEs in implementing an HIV/AIDS policy and programme are limited. The present study utilised the model of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1988, 1991, which is an extension of the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. The intention to implement an HIV/AIDS policy and programme was predicted by the theory of planned behaviour constructs such as attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The theory of planned behaviour was found to have limited use in assessing behavioural intention of SMEs in implementing an HIV/AIDS policy and programme. Opsomming Die uitwerking van die MIV/VIGS pandemie op Klein en Medium Sake-ondernemings sal tot gevolg hê ’n afname in produktiwiteit; ’n toename in personeelafwesigheid, personeelomset, personeelwerwing en –opleidingskoste, personeelvoordele; en swak personeel moraal tot gevolg hê. Een manier om die probleem aan te spreek is om ’n MIV/VIGS beleid en program te implimenteer. Navorsing toon dat psigologiese studies van klein en medium sakeondernemings om ’n HIV/VIGS beleid en program te implimenteer, beperk is. Hierdie navorsing steun op die teorie van planmatige gedrag (Ajzen, 1988; 1991, wat ’n verlenging is van die teorie van beredeneerde optrede (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. Die oogmerk met die implimentering van ’n MIV/VIGS beleid en program is bepaal deur die teorie van planmagtige gedrag soos waargeneem in houding, subjektiewe norme en waargenome gedragskontrole. Die resultate toon dat die teorie van planmagtige gedrag

  15. Factors that influence children's gambling attitudes and consumption intentions: lessons for gambling harm prevention research, policies and advocacy strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Hannah; Thomas, Samantha L; Bestman, Amy; Daube, Mike; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2017-02-17

    a range of socialisation factors, particularly family and the media (predominantly via marketing), which may be positively shaping children's gambling attitudes, behaviours and consumption intentions. There is a need for governments to develop effective policies and regulations to reduce children's exposure to gambling products and ensure they are protected from the harms associated with gambling.

  16. Determinants of knowledge translation from health technology assessment to policy-making in China: From the perspective of researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Shi, Lizheng; Pong, Raymond W.; Dong, Hengjin; Mao, Yiwei; Tang, Meng; Chen, Yingyao

    2018-01-01

    Background For health technology assessment (HTA) to be more policy relevant and for health technology-related decision-making to be truly evidence-based, promoting knowledge translation (KT) is of vital importance. Although some research has focused on KT of HTA, there is a dearth of literature on KT determinants and the situation in developing countries and transitional societies remains largely unknown. Objective To investigate the determinants of HTA KT from research to health policy-making from the perspective of researchers in China. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods A structured questionnaire which focused on KT was distributed to HTA researchers in China. KT activity levels in various fields of HTA research were compared, using one-way ANOVA. Principal component analysis was performed to provide a basis to combine similar variables. To investigate the determinants of KT level, multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results Based on a survey of 382 HTA researchers, it was found that HTA KT wasn’t widespread in China. Furthermore, results showed that no significant differences existed between the various HTA research fields. Factors, such as attitudes of researchers toward HTA and evidence utilization, academic ranks and linkages between researchers and policy-makers, had significant impact on HTA KT (p-valuespolicy-makers, policy-relevance of HTA research, practicality of HTA outcomes and making HTA reports easier to understand also contributed to predicting KT level. However, academic nature of HTA research was negatively associated with KT level. Conclusion KT from HTA to policy-making was influenced by many factors. Of particular importance were collaborations between researchers and policy-makers, ensuring policy relevance of HTA and making HTA evidence easier to understand by potential users. PMID:29300753

  17. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  18. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roberto A.; Fleisher, Paula; Aragón, Tomás J.; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R.; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L.; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. Community Context We report on 3 SFHIP prevention initiatives: reducing consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), regulating retail alcohol sales, and eliminating disparities in children’s oral health. Methods SFHIP is governed by a steering committee. Partnership working groups for each initiative collaborate to 1) develop and implement action plans emphasizing feasible, scalable, translational-science–informed interventions and 2) consider sustainability early in the planning process by including policy and structural interventions. Outcome Through SFHIP’s efforts, San Francisco enacted ordinances regulating sale and advertising of SSBs and a ballot measure establishing a soda tax. Most San Francisco hospitals implemented or committed to implementing healthy-beverage policies that prohibited serving or selling SSBs. SFHIP helped prevent Starbucks and Taco Bell from receiving alcohol licenses in San Francisco and helped prevent state authorization of sale of powdered alcohol. SFHIP increased the number of primary care clinics providing fluoride varnish at routine well-child visits from 3 to 14 and acquired a state waiver to allow dental clinics to be paid for dental services delivered in schools. Interpretation The SFHIP model of collective impact emphasizing community engagement and policy change accomplished many of its intermediate goals to create an environment promoting health and health equity. PMID:28333598

  19. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumbach, Kevin; Vargas, Roberto A; Fleisher, Paula; Aragón, Tomás J; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A

    2017-03-23

    The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. We report on 3 SFHIP prevention initiatives: reducing consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), regulating retail alcohol sales, and eliminating disparities in children's oral health. SFHIP is governed by a steering committee. Partnership working groups for each initiative collaborate to 1) develop and implement action plans emphasizing feasible, scalable, translational-science-informed interventions and 2) consider sustainability early in the planning process by including policy and structural interventions. Through SFHIP's efforts, San Francisco enacted ordinances regulating sale and advertising of SSBs and a ballot measure establishing a soda tax. Most San Francisco hospitals implemented or committed to implementing healthy-beverage policies that prohibited serving or selling SSBs. SFHIP helped prevent Starbucks and Taco Bell from receiving alcohol licenses in San Francisco and helped prevent state authorization of sale of powdered alcohol. SFHIP increased the number of primary care clinics providing fluoride varnish at routine well-child visits from 3 to 14 and acquired a state waiver to allow dental clinics to be paid for dental services delivered in schools. The SFHIP model of collective impact emphasizing community engagement and policy change accomplished many of its intermediate goals to create an environment promoting health and health equity.

  20. Design and Formative Evaluation of the Policy Liaison Initiative: A Long-Term Knowledge Translation Strategy to Encourage and Support the Use of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for Informing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sue E.; Cumpston, Miranda; Misso, Marie L.; McDonald, Steve; Murphy, Matthew J.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    The Policy Liaison Initiative (PLI) is a long-term knowledge translation initiative designed to support the use of Cochrane systematic reviews in health policy. A joint initiative between the Australasian Cochrane Centre and Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, the PLI includes: 1) a community of practice for evidence-informed…

  1. Ten years of democracy: Translating policy into practice in mathematics and science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgabo Masehela

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a 10-year (1994 – 2004 review of the state of mathematics and physical science education (SME in South Africa with respect to participation and performance, and its relationship with policy implementation.

  2. Translating research for health policy: researchers' perceptions and use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, David; Gollust, Sarah E; Pany, Maximilian; Seymour, Jane; Goss, Adeline; Kilaru, Austin; Meisel, Zachary

    2014-07-01

    As the United States moves forward with health reform, the communication gap between researchers and policy makers will need to be narrowed to promote policies informed by evidence. Social media represent an expanding channel for communication. Academic journals, public health agencies, and health care organizations are increasingly using social media to communicate health information. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now regularly tweets to 290,000 followers. We conducted a survey of health policy researchers about using social media and two traditional channels (traditional media and direct outreach) to disseminate research findings to policy makers. Researchers rated the efficacy of the three dissemination methods similarly but rated social media lower than the other two in three domains: researchers' confidence in their ability to use the method, peers' respect for its use, and how it is perceived in academic promotion. Just 14 percent of our participants reported tweeting, and 21 percent reported blogging about their research or related health policy in the past year. Researchers described social media as being incompatible with research, of high risk professionally, of uncertain efficacy, and an unfamiliar technology that they did not know how to use. Researchers will need evidence-based strategies, training, and institutional resources to use social media to communicate evidence. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. PENGARUH WORK LIFE POLICIES, WORK LIFE CONFLICT, JOB STRESS, DAN LONELINESS TERHADAP TURNOVER INTENTIONS PADA SEBUAH UNIVERSITAS SWASTA DI KOTA BATAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hielvita Ludiya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnover intention has been an important issue in any organization; management has long recognized that low turnover intention of employees is helpful for consequently obtaining high organizational performance and avoiding the potential costs related to recruiting and training new employees. This study aims to examine the impact of work life policies, work life conflict, job stress dan loneliness on turnover intentions at a private university in Batam. A total of 101 completed responses were collected in the survey. The sampling method in this research is done with the approach of non-probability sampling with the convinience sampling. The data analysis technique used was the technique of multiple regression analyisis. The findings of this research showed that work life policies and job stress have negative and significant impact on turnover intentions. Work life conflict and loneliness have positive and significant impact on turnover intentions. The managerial implications of this research have several limitations such as taking only one university and some faculties of full time lecturer which become the object of research. Moreover, researcher was not able to spend a lot of time at the organisation for collecting the data from the respondents. This research suggest that further investigation needs to be expanded by taking some of the objects that are similar research at the education industry or other industries, and by increasing the sample size to improve the results of consistency.

  4. Policies, activities, and structures supporting research mentoring: a national survey of academic health centers with clinical and translational science awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Robert E; Jang, Susan; Abedin, Zainab; Richards, Boyd F; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    To document the frequency of policies and activities in support of mentoring practices at institutions receiving a U.S. National Institutes of Health's Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). The study consisted of a 69-item survey with questions about the inclusion (formal or informal) of policies, activities, and structures supporting mentoring within CTSA-sponsored research (i.e., KL2 programs) and, more broadly, in the CTSA's home institution. The survey, conducted from November 2010 through January 2011, was sent to the 55 institutions awarded CTSAs at the time of the survey. Follow-up phone interviews were conducted to clarify responses as needed. Fifty-one of 55 (92%) institutions completed the survey for institutional programs and 53 of 55 (96%) for KL2 programs. Responses regarding policies and activities involving mentor criteria, mentor-mentee relationship, incentives, and evaluative mechanisms revealed considerable variability between KL2 and institutional programs in some areas, such as having mentor qualification criteria and processes to evaluate mentors. The survey also identified areas, such as training and women and minority mentoring programs, where there was frequent sharing of activities between the institutional and KL2 programs. KL2 programs and institutional programs tend to have different preferences for policies versus activities to optimize qualification of mentors, the mentor-mentee relationship, incentives, and evaluation mechanisms. Frequently, these elements are informal. Individuals in charge of implementing and maintaining mentoring initiatives can use the results of the study to consider their current mentoring policies, structures, and activities by comparing them with national patterns within CTSA institutions.

  5. Translating Government Policy into Recipes for Success! Nutrition Criteria Promoting Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M.; Nicolson, Clemency; Pulker, Claire E.; Binns, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop nutrition criteria consistent with Australian dietary guidelines encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption for branding recipes with the "Go for 2&5" campaign message. Design: Dietary policies, guidelines, food selection guides, nutrient targets, existing consumer education programs' nutrition criteria, food…

  6. Forest biodiversity and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services: translating science into policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian Thompson; Kimiko Okabe; Jason Tylianakis; Pushpam Kumar; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Nancy Schellhorn; John A. Parrotta; Robert Nasi

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity is integral to almost all ecosystem processes, with some species playing key functional roles that are essential for maintaining the value of ecosystems to humans. However, many ecosystem services remain nonvalued, and decisionmakers rarely consider biodiversity in policy development, in part because the relationships between biodiversity and the provision...

  7. Methodology to translate policy assessment problems into scenarios: the example of the SEAMLESS integrated framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Therond, O.; Belhouchette, H.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Ewert, F.; Bergez, J.E.; Wery, J.; Heckelei, T.; Olsson, J.A.; Leenhardt, D.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Scenario-based approaches in environmental and policy assessment studies are increasingly applied within integrated assessment and modelling frameworks. The SEAMLESS project develops such an integrated framework (SEAMLESS-IF) aiming to assess, ex-ante, impacts of alternative agro-environmental

  8. Policies lost in translation? Unravelling water reform processes in African waterscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink-Seyoum, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s a major change took place in public policies for water resources management. The role of governments shifted under this reform process from an emphasis on investment in the development, operation and maintenance of water infrastructure to a focus on managing water resources systems

  9. ["Good intentions are not enough": analysis of a health policy for the elderly in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, Elhadji Mamadou; Ridde, Valery; Kâ, Ousseynou

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Senegalese government introduced the "Plan Sésame", an unprecedented policy in West Africa aimed at reducing social vulnerability among the elderly (i.e. people aged over 60 years). This paper examines the process of implementation of the "Plan Sdsame': Using a qualitative approach, the study was based on a unique case study authorized by the Senegalese Ministry of Health. Three methods were used: i) individual interviews (n = 19), ii) discussion groups (n = 24), and iii) documentary study. Despite its social objective, the "Plan Sésame" was ultimately limited to free health care. However, even the health component of the plan has suffered from under funding. Political obstacles, inadequate accompanying measures and short staffing have resulted in late reimbursements at a local level, thus limiting the implementation of the plan. While both health professionals and elderly people are in favor of free healthcare, they are also critical of the implementation issues surrounding the "Plan Sésame": Although it appears to be a viable solution, these issues may spell the end of the plan. The task of designing solid technical foundations and developing appropriate accompanying measures should not be overlooked because of the limited interest of international partners in the "Plan Sésame" the national dimension of the plan and its electoral importance.

  10. Developing an evidence-based approach to Public Health Nutrition: translating evidence into policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetts, B; Warm, D; Yngve, A; Sjöström, M

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of an evidence-based approach to the development, implementation and evaluation of policies aimed at improving nutrition-related health in the population. Public Health Nutrition was established to realise a population-level approach to the prevention of the major nutrition-related health problems world-wide. The scope is broad and integrates activity from local, national, regional and international levels. The aim is to inform and develop coherent and effective policies that address the key rate-limiting steps critical to improving nutrition-related public health. This paper sets out the rationale for an evidence-based approach to Public Health Nutrition developed under the umbrella of the European Network for Public Health Nutrition.

  11. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Methods Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers’ abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Conclusion Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of

  12. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2012-05-06

    Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers' abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of opportunity for moving towards more evidence informed policymaking.

  13. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods: Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results: In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Conclusion: Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years

  14. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fusheini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650, in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the “success” of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity; and ownership and participation. Conclusion Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period

  15. Moving knowledge into action for more effective practice, programmes and policy: protocol for a research programme on integrated knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian D; Kothari, Anita; McCutcheon, Chris

    2018-02-02

    Health research is conducted with the expectation that it advances knowledge and eventually translates into improved health systems and population health. However, research findings are often caught in the know-do gap: they are not acted upon in a timely way or not applied at all. Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) is advanced as a way to increase the relevance, applicability and impact of research. With IKT, knowledge users work with researchers throughout the research process, starting with identification of the research question. Knowledge users represent those who would be able to use research results to inform their decisions (e.g. clinicians, managers, policy makers, patients/families and others). Stakeholders are increasingly interested in the idea that IKT generates greater and faster societal impact. Stakeholders are all those who are interested in the use of research results but may not necessarily use them for their own decision-making (e.g. governments, funders, researchers, health system managers and policy makers, patients and clinicians). Although IKT is broadly accepted, the actual research supporting it is limited and there is uncertainty about how best to conduct and support IKT. This paper presents a protocol for a programme of research testing the assumption that engaging the users of research in phases of its production leads to (a) greater appreciation of and capacity to use research; (b) the production of more relevant, useful and applicable research that results in greater impact; and (c) conditions under which it is more likely that research results will influence policy, managerial and clinical decision-making. The research programme will adopt an interdisciplinary, international, cross-sector approach, using multiple and mixed methods to reflect the complex and social nature of research partnerships. We will use ongoing and future natural IKT experiments as multiple cases to study IKT in depth, and we will take advantage of the team

  16. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  17. Translating models of antisocial behavioral development into efficacious intervention policy to prevent adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A; McCourt, Sandra N

    2010-04-01

    Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cascade. Thus, environmental interventions that focus on high-risk youth may prove effective. The Fast Track intervention and randomized controlled trial are described. The intervention is a 10-year series of efforts to produce proximal change in parenting, peer relations, social cognition, and academic performance in order to lead to distal prevention of adolescent conduct disorder. Findings indicate that conduct disorder cases can be prevented, but only in the highest risk group of children. Implications for policy are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Synthesizing evidences for policy translation: a public health discourse on rotavirus vaccine in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Samiran; Das, Aritra; Samanta, Saheli

    2014-08-11

    The debate on the relevance of rotavirus vaccine to immunization program in India, where 27 million children are born every year, rages on. We synthesized the issues raised during these debates and reviewed the current literature to identify themes that could inform public health policy decision. The paradigm we used integrated disease burden data, host and environmental factors, vaccine efficacy, immunization program issues, and economic considerations. Our synthesis reveals that substantive country specific information on disease burden and economic impact of rotavirus illness in India is constrained by lack of public discussion and qualitative studies on mothers' perceptions of the vaccine in concern. The need to improve the performance of current immunization program against six major vaccine preventable diseases (tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles) is often cited as a priority over introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Health in India being a state subject, we emphasize that the states which are in a position to reap the benefit of rotavirus vaccine, due to their good immunization program performance, should not be restrained from doing so. Meanwhile, the poorly performing states should step up their vaccination program and increase immunization coverage. Scientific, ethical and societal concerns captured through multiple sources indicate that the introduction of rotavirus vaccine would be a good investment for India. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Evolution of Humanities : Reviewing The History of Translation Movement in the Context of Public Policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shah Abadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is about forty years that some of Iran’s policy makers and experts in social and human sciences are of the opinion that there should be an evolution in humanities. They are of the view that principles and basic assumptions of current humanities are in conflict with Islamic framework and consequently these doctrines are not appropriate to address local issues of Islamic countries. Since the Islamic Revolution of Iran of 1979, any change in these doctrines has been a matter of debate. But we need a new plan for making a change in our policies. Applying interdisciplinary approach permit us to find a new way for policy making in society. History is full of lessons to guide us in our present situations. Therefore, by taking into account, the sociology of science and issues of policy-making, we study the Translation Movement. This article shows the transfer and transformation of Greek philosophy to Islamic philosophy in 7- 10 A.D. in Islamic civilization and also proposes an alternative approach for the policy makers. We identify actors of transferring knowledge, scientific translators and the Abbasid State. Research model of this paper has been chosen from the sociology of science and also makes use of "Implication Research Methodology” with regard to history. Our suggestion is "Transformational Translation (Transforlation " that includes selecting best texts, translations, correction, explanation, criticism and innovation. Accordingly, policies should be revised after identifying discipline on Transforlation Chain and structures and human resources have to be formalized on the basis of revised policies.

  20. Quit history, intentions to quit, and reasons for considering quitting among tobacco users in India: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Wave 1 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, G G; Pednekar, M S; Gupta, P C; Sansone, G C; Quah, A C K; Bansal-Travers, M; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010 revealed that more than one-third (35%) of adults in India use tobacco in some form: 21% use smokeless tobacco, 9% smoke, and 5% are mixed users (they smoke and use smokeless tobacco), and the quit rate is very low. In an effort to decrease prevalence of tobacco use, it is thus important to understand the factors that are related to intention to quit among Indian tobacco users. Research has shown consistently that intention to quit is a strong predictor of future quitting. The present study reports the factors encouraging quitting tobacco products in India. Cross-sectional data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Survey conducted in four cities and surrounding rural areas (i.e. Mumbai [Maharashtra], Patna [Bihar], Indore [Madhya Pradesh], and Kolkata [West Bengal]) between August 2010 and December 2011 were analyzed. A total of 8051 tobacco users (15+ years) were randomly sampled from 8586 households: 1255 smokers, 5991 smokeless users, and 805 mixed (smoke and smokeless) users. Validated, standardized questions were asked about current tobacco use, intention to quit, and factors encouraging quitting. Overall, 19.6% of tobacco users intended to quit. Smokers had less intention to quit as compared to smokeless tobacco users whereas mixed users had more intention to quit (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.12-1.97) compared to smokeless tobacco users. Highly educated people were more likely to report intention to quit (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.09-3.02) compared to less educated. Advice by doctors to quit tobacco had a strong impact on intention to quit (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.29-2.15). Tobacco users who were exposed to antitobacco messages at work places (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.23-2.46), at restaurants (OR = 1.65, CI = 1.12-2.43), bars (OR = 1.81, CI = 1.07-3.06), on public transportation (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.49-3.08) and on tobacco packages (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.29-2.14) also

  1. A Double-Edged Sword: The Merits and the Policy Implications of Google Translate in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Klaus; Groves, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Machine translation, specifically Google Translate, is freely available, and is improving in its ability to provide grammatically accurate translations. This development has the potential to provoke a major transformation in the internationalization process at universities, since students may be, in the future, able to use technology to circumvent…

  2. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... we must act”1 - Translation of research outcome for health policy, strategy and ... others iron-out existing gaps on Health Policy .... within the broader framework of global call and ... research: defining the terrain; identifying.

  3. Assessing the influence of knowledge translation platforms on health system policy processes to achieve the health millennium development goals in Cameroon and Uganda: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lavis, John N; Tomson, Goran; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2018-05-01

    There is a scarcity of empirical data on the influence of initiatives supporting evidence-informed health system policy-making (EIHSP), such as the knowledge translation platforms (KTPs) operating in Africa. To assess whether and how two KTPs housed in government-affiliated institutions in Cameroon and Uganda have influenced: (1) health system policy-making processes and decisions aiming at supporting achievement of the health millennium development goals (MDGs); and (2) the general climate for EIHSP. We conducted an embedded comparative case study of four policy processes in which Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Cameroon and Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH-PI) Uganda were involved between 2009 and 2011. We combined a documentary review and semi structured interviews of 54 stakeholders. A framework-guided thematic analysis, inspired by scholarship in health policy analysis and knowledge utilization was used. EVIPNet Cameroon and REACH-PI Uganda have had direct influence on health system policy decisions. The coproduction of evidence briefs combined with tacit knowledge gathered during inclusive evidence-informed stakeholder dialogues helped to reframe health system problems, unveil sources of conflicts, open grounds for consensus and align viable and affordable options for achieving the health MDGs thus leading to decisions. New policy issue networks have emerged. The KTPs indirectly influenced health policy processes by changing how interests interact with one another and by introducing safe-harbour deliberations and intersected with contextual ideational factors by improving access to policy-relevant evidence. KTPs were perceived as change agents with positive impact on the understanding, acceptance and adoption of EIHSP because of their complementary work in relation to capacity building, rapid evidence syntheses and clearinghouse of policy-relevant evidence. This embedded case study illustrates how two KTPs influenced

  4. Legalization of recreational marijuana and community sales policy in Oregon: Impact on adolescent willingness and intent to use, parent use, and adolescent use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M

    2018-02-01

    Studies investigating the impact of medical marijuana legalization have found no significant changes in adolescent use. In one of the few studies focused on recreational marijuana, we investigated how recreational marijuana legalization and community sales policy influenced factors that likely impact youth use (youth willingness and intent to use, parent use) as well as youth use. Legalization of recreational marijuana in Oregon coincided with our study on adolescent substance use. Cohort 1 transitioned from 8th to 9th grade prior to legalization and Cohort 2 made this transition during legalization (N = 444; 53% female). Communities were allowed to opt out of sales. Multivariate linear regression models estimated the impact of legalization and community sales policy on changes in attitudes and parent use (2 time points 1 year apart). Zero-inflated Poisson growth curve models estimated the effects on initial levels and rate of change from 8th through 9th grade (4 time points). In communities opting out of sales, the prior-to-legalization cohort was less likely to increase their willingness and intent to use marijuana, and the legalization cohort was more likely to increase intent to use. For youth who used marijuana, legalization was associated with increased use, and those in communities opting out of sales had greater growth in marijuana use. Community policy appears to impact youth attitudes toward, and use of, marijuana. Results suggest that legalization of recreational marijuana did not increase marijuana use for youth who did not use marijuana but did increase use in youth who were already using. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Our Policies, Their Text: German Language Students' Strategies with and Beliefs about Web-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…

  6. How effective is the plain packaging of tobacco policy on rates of intention to quit smoking and changing attitudes to smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilic, Nick; Stretton, Matthew; Prakash, Minesh

    2018-06-05

    The aim of this study is to critically appraise the evidence for the effectiveness of the plain packaging of tobacco products policy. A systematic approach to a literature review was undertaken using five databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Global Health and Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. Quantitative and qualitative studies that evaluate attitudes towards smoking, starting smoking and quitting intentions when plain packaging use is compared with standard cigarette packaging use were included. A total of 1923 studies were identified. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, nine studies were included in the review. The overall quality of the data was variable but a significant number of the studies had major methodological flaws. However, data analysed in the literature review suggest that exposure to plain packaging increases intention to quit amongst exposed individuals, increases negative attitudes to both smoking and starting smoking. Although the evidence for plain packaging of tobacco is not strong, the evidence that is available indicates that it is an effective tobacco cessation policy. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Contextual Analysis of Hong Kong Education Policy in 20 Years: The Intention of Making Future Citizens in Political Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Chung Fun Hung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Originally, the capitalist society in Hong Kong under communism is exceptional, but the “one country, two systems” formula was a makeshift stratagem by the Communist Chinese government. The twenty years of history witnessed the tension of ruling and policy implementation. Education policy in political conflicts is, of course, the other arena in the Hong Kong context which reveals competitions, controversies and struggles among the cultural hegemonic engineering. This paper can contribute to enigmatic understanding and interpretation of generating educational reform and implementing education policy in this twenty-year history of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

  8. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  9. Applying a Health Network approach to translate evidence-informed policy into practice: a review and case study on musculoskeletal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew M; Bragge, Peter; Slater, Helen; Chan, Madelynn; Towler, Simon C B

    2012-11-14

    While translation of evidence into health policy and practice is recognised as critical to optimising health system performance and health-related outcomes for consumers, mechanisms to effectively achieve these goals are neither well understood, nor widely communicated. Health Networks represent a framework which offers a possible solution to this dilemma, particularly in light of emerging evidence regarding the importance of establishing relationships between stakeholders and identifying clinical leaders to drive evidence integration and translation into policy. This is particularly important for service delivery related to chronic diseases. In Western Australia (WA), disease and population-specific Health Networks are comprised of cross-discipline stakeholders who work collaboratively to develop evidence-informed policies and drive their implementation. Since establishment of the Health Networks in WA, over 50 evidence-informed Models of Care (MoCs) have been produced across 18 condition or population-focused Networks. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Health Network framework in facilitating the translation of evidence into policy and practice with a particular focus on musculoskeletal health. A review of activities of the WA Musculoskeletal Health Network was undertaken, focussing on outcomes and the processes used to achieve them in the context of: development of policy, procurement of funding, stakeholder engagement, publications, and projects undertaken by the Network which aligned to implementation of MoCs.The Musculoskeletal Health Network has developed four MoCs which reflect Australian National Health Priority Areas. Establishment of community-based services for consumers with musculoskeletal health conditions is a key recommendation from these MoCs. Through mapping barriers and enablers to policy implementation, working groups, led by local clinical leaders and supported by the broader Network and government officers, have

  10. Applying a Health Network approach to translate evidence-informed policy into practice: A review and case study on musculoskeletal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briggs Andrew M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While translation of evidence into health policy and practice is recognised as critical to optimising health system performance and health-related outcomes for consumers, mechanisms to effectively achieve these goals are neither well understood, nor widely communicated. Health Networks represent a framework which offers a possible solution to this dilemma, particularly in light of emerging evidence regarding the importance of establishing relationships between stakeholders and identifying clinical leaders to drive evidence integration and translation into policy. This is particularly important for service delivery related to chronic diseases. In Western Australia (WA, disease and population-specific Health Networks are comprised of cross-discipline stakeholders who work collaboratively to develop evidence-informed policies and drive their implementation. Since establishment of the Health Networks in WA, over 50 evidence-informed Models of Care (MoCs have been produced across 18 condition or population-focused Networks. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Health Network framework in facilitating the translation of evidence into policy and practice with a particular focus on musculoskeletal health. Case presentation A review of activities of the WA Musculoskeletal Health Network was undertaken, focussing on outcomes and the processes used to achieve them in the context of: development of policy, procurement of funding, stakeholder engagement, publications, and projects undertaken by the Network which aligned to implementation of MoCs. The Musculoskeletal Health Network has developed four MoCs which reflect Australian National Health Priority Areas. Establishment of community-based services for consumers with musculoskeletal health conditions is a key recommendation from these MoCs. Through mapping barriers and enablers to policy implementation, working groups, led by local clinical leaders and supported by

  11. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  12. Do attitudes, intentions and actions of school food coordinators regarding public organic food procurement policy improve the eating environment at school? Results from the iPOPY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigates whether public organic food procurement policies have the potential to induce changes in the school food service environment. A comparative cross-national survey was conducted in public primary and/or secondary schools in Finland, Germany and Italy. The school food coordinators completed a web-based questionnaire on their attitudes, intentions and actions towards organic school food provision. In Germany, 122 out of 2050 schools in the state of Hesse responded. In Finland, 250 out of 998 schools across the country responded. In Italy, 215 out of 940 schools from eight provinces responded. School food coordinators in the sample of schools in the three countries. The German and Finnish school food coordinators separately most agreed with the promotion of healthy eating habits (P environment.

  13. Translation of tobacco policy into practice in disadvantaged and marginalized subpopulations: a study of challenges and opportunities in remote Australian Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Jan A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia generally, smoking prevalence more than halved after 1980 and recently commenced to decline among Australia's disadvantaged Indigenous peoples. However, in some remote Indigenous Australian communities in the Northern Territory (NT, extremely high rates of up to 83% have not changed over the past 25 years. The World Health Organisation has called for public health and political leadership to address a global tobacco epidemic. For Indigenous Australians, unprecedented policies aim to overcome disadvantage and close the 'health gap' with reducing tobacco use the top priority. This study identifies challenges and opportunities to implementing these important new tobacco initiatives in remote Indigenous communities. Methods: With little empirical evidence available, we interviewed 82 key stakeholders across the NT representing operational- and management-level service providers, local Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants to identify challenges and opportunities for translating new policies into successful tobacco interventions. Data were analysed using qualitative approaches to identify emergent themes. Results The 20 emergent themes were classified using counts of occasions each theme occurred in the transcribed data as challenge or opportunity. The 'smoke-free policies' theme occurred most frequently as opportunity but infrequently as challenge while 'health workforce capacity' occurred most frequently as challenge but less frequently as opportunity, suggesting that policy implementation is constrained by lack of a skilled workforce. 'Smoking cessation support' occurred frequently as opportunity but also frequently as challenge suggesting that support for individuals requires additional input and attention. Conclusions These results from interviews with local and operational-level participants indicate that current tobacco policies in Australia targeting Indigenous smoking are sound and comprehensive

  14. Unravelling intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Mikkel Christoffer; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies investigating the contribution of conscious intention to the generation of a sense of agency for one’s own actions tend to rely upon a narrow definition of intention. Often it is operationalized as the conscious sensation of wanting to move right before movement. Existing...... results and discussion are therefore missing crucial aspects of intentions, namely intention as the conscious sensation of wanting to move in advance of the movement. In the present experiment we used an intentional binding paradigm, in which we distinguished between immediate (proximal) intention......, as usually investigated, and longer standing (distal) intention. The results showed that the binding effect was significantly enhanced for distal intentions compared to proximal intentions, indicating that the former leads to stronger sense of agency. Our finding provides empirical support for a crucial...

  15. Translating Policy into Practice: The Role of Intermediary Agents in a Fully Centralized and Highly Hierarchical Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Anuar, Sarifah Norazah

    2013-01-01

    Variations in educational policy outcomes have always been perceived as policy failures, and they are often associated with policymakers insensitivity to what is happening down at the grass roots level, and with implementers' inefficiency and non-compliance. Based on institutional theory, the nested layers theory in particular, and the Four…

  16. A Way of Policy Bricolage or Translation: The Case of Taiwan's Higher Education Reform of Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chuo-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the process and mechanism of higher education policy change related to quality assurance in a globalized world. In particular, the purpose of the study was to identify the impact of globalization on domestic policy change in Taiwan, characterized as a peripheral country. Taiwan's experience in terms of developing a national…

  17. A translation table for patient-centered comparative effectiveness research: guidance to improve the value of research for clinical and health policy decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunis, Sean R; Messner, Donna A; Mohr, Penny; Gliklich, Richard E; Dubois, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    This article provides background and context for a series of papers stemming from a collaborative effort by Outcome Sciences, Inc., the National Pharmaceutical Council and the Center for Medical Technology Policy to use a stakeholder-driven process to develop a decision tool to select appropriate methods for comparative effectiveness research. The perceived need and origins of the 'translation table' concept for method selection are described and the legislative history and role of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute are reviewed. The article concludes by stressing the significance of this effort for future health services and clinical research, and the importance of consulting end-users--patients, providers, payers and policy-makers--in the process of defining research questions and approaches to them.

  18. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Translating Neurodevelopmental Care Policies Into Practice: The Experience of Neonatal ICUs in France-The EPIPAGE-2 Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrat, Veronique; Coquelin, Anaëlle; Cuttini, Marina; Khoshnood, Babak; Glorieux, Isabelle; Claris, Olivier; Durox, Mélanie; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Arnaud, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    To describe the implementation of neurodevelopmental care for newborn preterm infants in neonatal ICUs in France in 2011, analyze changes since 2004, and investigate factors associated with practice. Prospective national cohort study of all births before 32 weeks of gestation. Twenty-five French regions. All neonatal ICUs (n = 66); neonates surviving at discharge (n = 3,005). None. Neurodevelopmental care policies and practices were assessed by structured questionnaires. Proportions of neonates initiating kangaroo care during the first week of life and those whose mothers expressed breast milk were measured as neurodevelopmental care practices. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationships between kangaroo care or breast-feeding practices and unit policies, taking into account potential confounders. Free visiting policies, bed availability for parents, and kangaroo care encouragement significantly improved between 2004 and 2011 but with large variabilities between units. Kangaroo care initiation varied from 39% for neonates in the most restrictive units to 68% in less restrictive ones (p neurodevelopmental care significantly influenced kangaroo care initiation (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8-7.0 for Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program implementation compared with no training). Breast milk expression by mothers was greater in units with full-time availability professionals trained for breast-feeding support (60% vs 73%; p neurodevelopmental practices occurred between 2004 and 2011, but large variabilities between units persist. Practices increased in units with supportive policies. Specific neurodevelopmental care training with multifaceted interventions strengthened the implementation of policies.

  20. Translating evidence to policy: urban interventions and physical activity promotion in Bogotá, Colombia and Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo S; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-06-01

    The growing evidence of the influence of urban environment on physical activity (PA) underscore the need for novel policy solutions to address the inequality, lack of space, and limited PA resources in rapidly growing Latin American cities. This study aims to better understand the PA policy process by conducting two case studies of Bogotá's Ciclovía and Curitiba's CuritibAtiva. Literature review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed documents and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders was conducted. In the cases of Ciclovía and CuritibAtiva, most policies conducive to program development and sustainability were developed outside the health sector in sports and recreation, urban planning, environment, and transportation. Both programs were developed by governments as initiatives to overcome inequalities and provide quality of life. In both programs, multisectoral policies mainly from recreation and urban planning created a window of opportunity for the development and sustainability of the programs and environments supportive of PA.

  1. Translating Neurodevelopmental Care Policies Into Practice: The Experience of Neonatal ICUs in France—The EPIPAGE-2 Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquelin, Anaëlle; Cuttini, Marina; Khoshnood, Babak; Glorieux, Isabelle; Claris, Olivier; Durox, Mélanie; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Arnaud, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the implementation of neurodevelopmental care for newborn preterm infants in neonatal ICUs in France in 2011, analyze changes since 2004, and investigate factors associated with practice. Design: Prospective national cohort study of all births before 32 weeks of gestation. Setting: Twenty-five French regions. Participants: All neonatal ICUs (n = 66); neonates surviving at discharge (n = 3,005). Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Neurodevelopmental care policies and practices were assessed by structured questionnaires. Proportions of neonates initiating kangaroo care during the first week of life and those whose mothers expressed breast milk were measured as neurodevelopmental care practices. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationships between kangaroo care or breast-feeding practices and unit policies, taking into account potential confounders. Free visiting policies, bed availability for parents, and kangaroo care encouragement significantly improved between 2004 and 2011 but with large variabilities between units. Kangaroo care initiation varied from 39% for neonates in the most restrictive units to 68% in less restrictive ones (p neurodevelopmental care significantly influenced kangaroo care initiation (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8–7.0 for Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program implementation compared with no training). Breast milk expression by mothers was greater in units with full-time availability professionals trained for breast-feeding support (60% vs 73%; p neurodevelopmental practices occurred between 2004 and 2011, but large variabilities between units persist. Practices increased in units with supportive policies. Specific neurodevelopmental care training with multifaceted interventions strengthened the implementation of policies. PMID:27518584

  2. Data sharing in stem cell translational science: policy statement by the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenoord, Annelien L; Mostert, Menno; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-01-01

    Data and sample sharing constitute a scientific and ethical imperative but need to be conducted in a responsible manner in order to protect individual interests as well as maintain public trust. In 2014, the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) adopted a common Framework for Responsible Sharing of Genomic and Health-Related Data. The GA4GH Framework is applicable to data sharing in the stem cell field, however, interpretation is required so as to provide guidance for this specific context. In this paper, the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party discusses those principles that are specific to translational stem cell science, including engagement, data quality and safety, privacy, security and confidentiality, risk-benefit analysis and sustainability.

  3. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  4. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  5. How to do (or not to do) … translation of national health accounts data to evidence for policy making in a low resourced setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jennifer A; Guinness, Lorna; Irava, Wayne; Khan, Idrish; Asante, Augustine; Wiseman, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    For more than a decade, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank have promoted the international standardization of National Health Accounts (NHA) for reporting global statistics on public, private and donor health expenditure and improve the quality of evidence-based decision-making at country level. A 2010-2012 World Bank review of NHA activity in 50 countries found structural and technical constraints (rather than cost) were key impediments to institutionalizing NHA in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pilot projects focused resources on data production, neglecting longer-term capacity building for analysing the data, developing ownership among local stakeholders and establishing routine production, utilization and dissemination of NHA data. Hence, genuine institutionalization of NHA in most LMICs has been slow to materialize. International manuals focus on the production of NHA data and do not include practical, incremental and low-cost strategies to guide countries in translating the data into evidence for policy-making. The main aim of this article is to recommend strategies for bridging this divide between production and utilization of NHA data in low-resource settings. The article begins by discussing the origins and purpose of NHA, including factors currently undermining their uptake. The focus then turns to the development and application of strategies to assist LMICs in 'unlocking' the hidden value of their NHA. The article draws on the example of Fiji, a country currently attempting to integrate their NHA data into policy formulation, despite minimal resources, training and familiarity with economic analysis of health systems. Simple, low cost recommendations such as embedding health finance indicators in planning documents, a user-friendly NHA guide for evaluating local health priorities, and sharing NHA data for collaborative research have helped translate

  6. Joint Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koreň Ladislav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the shared intentionality hypothesis proposed by Michael Tomasello, two cognitive upgrades – joint and collective intentionality, respectively – make human thinking unique. Joint intentionality, in particular, is a mindset supposed to account for our early, species-specific capacity to participate in collaborative activities involving two (or a few agents. In order to elucidate such activities and their proximate cognitive-motivational mechanism, Tomasello draws on philosophical accounts of shared intentionality. I argue that his deference to such cognitively demanding accounts of shared intentional activities is problematic if his theoretical ambition is in part to show that and how early (prelinguistic and precultural capacities for joint action contribute to the development of higher cognitive capacities.

  7. Translating Policy into Practice for Community-Based Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Targeting Professional Development Needs among Physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fary, Robyn E; Slater, Helen; Chua, Jason; Briggs, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Contemporary health policy promotes delivery of community-based health services to people with musculoskeletal conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This emphasis requires a skilled workforce to deliver safe, effective care. We aimed to explore physiotherapy workforce readiness to co-manage consumers with RA by determining the RA-specific professional development (PD) needs in relation to work and educational characteristics of physiotherapists in Western Australia (WA). Methods. An e-survey was sent to physiotherapists regarding their confidence in co-managing people with RA and their PD needs. Data including years of clinical experience, current RA clinical caseload, professional qualifications, and primary clinical area of practice were collected. Results. 273 physiotherapists completed the survey. Overall confidence in managing people with RA was low (22.7-58.2%) and need for PD was high (45.1-95.2%). Physiotherapists with greater years of clinical experience, a caseload of consumers with RA, postgraduate qualifications in musculoskeletal physiotherapy, or who worked in the musculoskeletal area were more confident in managing people with RA and less likely to need PD. Online and face-to-face formats were preferred modes of PD delivery. Discussion. To enable community-based RA service delivery to be effectively established, subgroups within the current physiotherapy workforce require upskilling in the evidence-based management of consumers with RA.

  8. Translating Policy into Practice for Community-Based Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Targeting Professional Development Needs among Physiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn E. Fary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Contemporary health policy promotes delivery of community-based health services to people with musculoskeletal conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. This emphasis requires a skilled workforce to deliver safe, effective care. We aimed to explore physiotherapy workforce readiness to co-manage consumers with RA by determining the RA-specific professional development (PD needs in relation to work and educational characteristics of physiotherapists in Western Australia (WA. Methods. An e-survey was sent to physiotherapists regarding their confidence in co-managing people with RA and their PD needs. Data including years of clinical experience, current RA clinical caseload, professional qualifications, and primary clinical area of practice were collected. Results. 273 physiotherapists completed the survey. Overall confidence in managing people with RA was low (22.7–58.2% and need for PD was high (45.1–95.2%. Physiotherapists with greater years of clinical experience, a caseload of consumers with RA, postgraduate qualifications in musculoskeletal physiotherapy, or who worked in the musculoskeletal area were more confident in managing people with RA and less likely to need PD. Online and face-to-face formats were preferred modes of PD delivery. Discussion. To enable community-based RA service delivery to be effectively established, subgroups within the current physiotherapy workforce require upskilling in the evidence-based management of consumers with RA.

  9. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  10. The SMART Study, a Mobile Health and Citizen Science Methodological Platform for Active Living Surveillance, Integrated Knowledge Translation, and Policy Interventions: Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun Reddy; Bhawra, Jasmin; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ferguson, Leah; Longo, Justin; Rainham, Daniel; Larouche, Richard; Osgood, Nathaniel

    2018-03-27

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)-enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let's move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions. This methodology paper enumerates the SMART Study platform's conceptualization, design, implementation, data collection procedures, analytical strategies, and potential for informing policy interventions. This longitudinal investigation was designed to engage participants (ie, citizen scientists) in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, in four different seasons across 3 years. In spring 2017, pilot data collection was conducted, where 317 adult citizen scientists (≥18 years) were recruited in person and online. Citizen scientists used a custom-built smartphone app, Ethica (Ethica Data Services Inc), for 8 consecutive days to provide a complex series of objective and subjective data. Citizen scientists answered a succession of validated surveys that were assigned different smartphone triggering mechanisms (eg, user-triggered and schedule-triggered). The validated surveys captured physical activity (PA), SB, motivation, perception of outdoor and indoor environment, and eudaimonic well-being. Ecological momentary assessments were employed on each day to capture not only PA but also physical and social contexts along with barriers and facilitators of PA, as relayed by citizen scientists using geo-coded pictures and audio files. To obtain a comprehensive objective picture of participant location, motion, and compliance, 6 types of sensor-based (eg, global positioning system and accelerometer) data

  11. The SMART Study, a Mobile Health and Citizen Science Methodological Platform for Active Living Surveillance, Integrated Knowledge Translation, and Policy Interventions: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ferguson, Leah; Longo, Justin; Rainham, Daniel; Larouche, Richard; Osgood, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)–enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). Objective The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let’s move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions. This methodology paper enumerates the SMART Study platform’s conceptualization, design, implementation, data collection procedures, analytical strategies, and potential for informing policy interventions. Methods This longitudinal investigation was designed to engage participants (ie, citizen scientists) in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, in four different seasons across 3 years. In spring 2017, pilot data collection was conducted, where 317 adult citizen scientists (≥18 years) were recruited in person and online. Citizen scientists used a custom-built smartphone app, Ethica (Ethica Data Services Inc), for 8 consecutive days to provide a complex series of objective and subjective data. Citizen scientists answered a succession of validated surveys that were assigned different smartphone triggering mechanisms (eg, user-triggered and schedule-triggered). The validated surveys captured physical activity (PA), SB, motivation, perception of outdoor and indoor environment, and eudaimonic well-being. Ecological momentary assessments were employed on each day to capture not only PA but also physical and social contexts along with barriers and facilitators of PA, as relayed by citizen scientists using geo-coded pictures and audio files. To obtain a comprehensive objective picture of participant location, motion, and compliance, 6 types of sensor-based (eg, global

  12. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  13. Translating between social worlds of policy and everyday life: The development of a group-based method to support policymaking by exploring behavioural aspects of sustainable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana

    2015-10-01

    A large international literature on how lay citizens make sense of various aspects of science and technology has been generated by investigations which utilise small group methods. Within that literature, focus group and other group-based methods have come to co-exist, and to some extent, hybridise, with the use of small groups in citizen engagement initiatives. In this article, we report on how we drew upon these methodological developments in the design and operationalisation of a policymaking support tool (STAVE). This tool has been developed to gain insight, in a relatively speedy and cost-effective way, into practical details of the everyday lived experience of people's lives, as relating to the sustainability of corresponding practices. An important challenge we faced was how, in Kuhn's terms, to 'translate' between the forms of life corresponding to the world of policymaking and the world of everyday domestic life. We examine conceptual and methodological aspects of how the tool was designed and assembled, and then trialled in the context of active real-world collaborations with policymaking organisations. These trials were implemented in six European countries, where they were used to support work on live policy issues concerned with sustainable consumption. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  15. Marketing Impact of Halal Labeling toward Indonesian Muslim Consumer’s Behavioral Intention Based on Ajzen’s Planned Behavior Theory: Policy Capturing Studies on Five Different Product Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB in explaining the intention to switch from products without certified Halal labels within a wide array of purchase context, especially in the purchase of food and medicine products. A policy capturing questionnaire was used to elicit responses from consumers using a convenience sampling technique. A total of 7500 responses were obtained from 150 participating respondent in 50 different scenario cases. Data is analyzed using Multi-Group Structural Equation Modeling. The study finds that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB is not completely valid to explain both the behavioral intention of Muslim consumers in Indonesia to seek information about the Halal certification of a product and to cancel their purchase if the product did not have Halal certification. Differences in magnitude and significance of causal relationships exist between different product categories.

  16. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among University Students: Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, during the last decades entrepreneurship has been in focus. It is commonly agreed that developing entrepreneurship in the long term would be translated into sustainable economic development. Albanian economy, being an economy in transition greatly and urgently needs to invest into increasing the number of entrepreneurs in the country. Entrepreneurial intention is considered to be really important. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to observe the determinants of entrepreneurial intention in Albania. The target is university students. Many programs that foster entrepreneurship such as incubator centers, business plan competitions along with new educational practices have been developed. In addition, even though studies conducting in this field are few, Albanian education institutions have shown a willing to study the factors influencing entrepreneurship development. The reason is the belief that developing and supporting entrepreneurial activities among youth will positively influence the economy of the country in terms of economic growth. This study widely represents the Albanian students and shows the deteminants of entrepreneurial intention they have. Hopefully the findings of this study would be useful to the policy makers and the Albanian government to undertake effective policies focused on entrepreneurial activity; targeting economic development of the country.

  17. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  18. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  19. Knowledge Translation to Advance the Nurse Practitioner Role in British Columbia: Researchers and decision-makers conduct policy-relevant research to guide legislative and regulatory development and the design of a nurse practitioner education program.

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Marjorie; Regan, Sandra; Davidson, Heather; Schreiber, Rita; Crickmore, Jane; Moss, Lesley; Pinelli, Janet; Pauly, Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    This project brought together a team of researchers and decision-makers to conduct policy-relevant research to support the introduction of advanced nursing practice roles in British Columbia. All team members, including decision-makers, were actively involved in the conceptualization, design, data collection, analysis and interpretation of the study. This level of engagement, coupled with ongoing knowledge translation (KT) activities, led to the implementation by stakeholders of a majority of...

  20. Compositional translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Janssen, Theo; Jong, de F.M.G.; Landsbergen, S.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth review of machine translation by discussing in detail a particular method, called compositional translation, and a particular system, Rosetta, which is based on this method. The Rosetta project is a unique combination of fundamental research and large-scale

  1. Behavioural model in social psychology: Model development and model studies on the behavioral intentions of individuals and groups in energy policy problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergius, R; Engemann, A; Guenther, R; Kimmelmann, G; Radtke, M; Sachs, S; Schmidt, F

    1982-10-01

    We describe a model which allows to simulate inference and evaluation processes and also the resulting behavioral intentions. The model is the base of the program REASON. The program needs as input knowledge about the part of the world which is to be evaluated and values and criteria which are used to judge the conclusions of the inference process. The program provides as output the scores of the various criteria and accumulated evaluations of the options. Also if desired a protocol of the inference process is available. The program is demonstrated by examples showing support in generating concepts. A detailed concept was developed for the installation of the heating system in a new home. REASON is applied together with this concept to simulate the behavioral intentions of the home owners towards the installation of the various heating systems.

  2. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  3. "Mr Police Officer, I Thought Cannabis Was Legal"--Introducing New Policy regarding Cannabis in Belgium: A Story of Good Intentions and Babel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelders, Dave; Laenen, Freya Vander

    2007-01-01

    Over the last five years, the announced new policy on drugs, cannabis in particular, has been the subject of much debate within the Belgian Federal Government and between the government and the opposition parties. Unclear policies and poor public communication from the Federal Government, the competent minister and the other parties caused immense…

  4. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  5. Knowledge translation of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P; Lavis, John N; Hill, Sophie J; Squires, Janet E

    2012-05-31

    One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the

  6. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  7. It Is Not That Simple nor Compelling!; Comment on “Translating Evidence Into Healthcare Policy and Practice: Single Versus Multi-faceted Implementation Strategies – Is There a Simple Answer to a Complex Question?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Bucknall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare decisions are often made under pressure, with varying levels of information in a changing clinical context. With limited resources and a focus on improving patient outcomes, healthcare managers and health professionals strive to implement both clinical and cost-effective care. However, the gap between research evidence and health policy/clinical practice persists despite our best efforts. In an attempt to close the gap through behaviour change interventions, there has been a strong held belief that ‘more is better,’ without understanding the mechanisms and circumstances of knowledge translation (KT. We argue that even a singleintervention or strategy in translating evidence into healthcare policy or practice is rarely simple to implement. Nor is the evidence compelling on the best approach. As Harvey and Kitson argued, designing and evaluating KT interventions requires flexibility and responsiveness. If we are to move forward in translation science then we need to use rigorous designs such as randomised controlled trials to test effectiveness of interventions or strategies with embedded process evaluations to understand the reason interventions do or do not work!

  8. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  9. Designers' enactment of the policy intentions. An ethnographic study of the adoption of energy regulations in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata-Lancaster, Gabriela; Tweed, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The United Kingdom is aspiring to reduce the carbon emissions in the building sector, aiming to achieve nearly zero carbon buildings by 2020. The policy models in England and Wales rely on three strands: regulations; financial incentives and educational schemes. A growing body of literature suggests that the building industry is facing several barriers that hinder the delivery of the expected carbon targets outlined at policy level. This research explores the enactment of the policy aspirations by building designers using a bottom-up approach. An ethnographic study was conducted to analyse the design process of six non-domestic buildings. The work identified the designers' responses to adopt the policy agenda in routine design and overcome the challenges that emerged during the design process. The understanding of the designers' responses could inform the policy model and suggest areas that need attention for the timely delivery of the expected carbon reductions. - Highlights: • Designers' compliance of regulations may not conform to performance-driven processes. • Stakeholders' expectations and poor awareness of performance hinder compliance. • Designers implement flexible responses to adopt the low carbon policy agenda. • The engagement of the stakeholders enables the continuity of energy aspirations. • Policies may benefit from understanding the bottom-up responses in routine design

  10. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    get lost in translation here—and we have not yet mentioned the societal management of other problems, such as wars and civil wars, or 'taming' the global financial markets. After having sketched this conceptual outline in some detail, we would like to focus on three planetary boundaries for illustrative purposes: GHG emissions, nitrogen fertilization, and biodiversity loss, and highlight some similarities as well as dissimilarities in the social translation processes involved. We would limit the range of examples to the EU, USA, and India. In a last step, we would like to illustrate a promising way of translating one specific planetary boundary—anthropogenic climate change—by a case study on how it is translated into urban energy and climate policies with the example of climate neutral Berlin 2050.

  11. How Italian dialect poets translate themselves and how they translate other poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Zuccato

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this essay discusses the way most contemporary Italian dialect poets translate themselves into Italian. Part two of the essay examines examples of poetry translation into dialect made by some of the same contemporary authors. A comparison between the style of the self-translations, which is mainly lyrical, and the variety of styles of the translations from other poets, shows that each choice is an intentional strategy rather than a missed opportunity for a more creative self-translation, as some scholars have argued.

  12. Innovators Intent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Maria Luisa; Rai, Sudhanshu

    With this paper we want to explore further the innovators intent, where social enterprises use imaginative ways to take advantage of information technology to create, share and manage the knowledge pool of their small enterprise. We draw on several perspectives on how information processing needs...... are addressed, as well as the manner in which IT enables and facilitates sense-making. Studies exploring the role of IT in organisations abound, however our focus is not large organisations but small social enterprises (SEs) and how they use IT to further their business objectives. Hence there is still a lack......, and less the collaborative work and communication among enterprise members. However, it was established that SEs were using different technologies, such as, cloud solutions and web 2.0 tools to manage informally their knowledge. The possible impediments for SEs to support themselves more on IT solutions...

  13. Knowledge of Health Effects and Intentions to Quit Among Smokers in India: Findings From the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP India Pilot Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh S. Pednekar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of the health risks of smoking is an important factor in predicting smoking-related behaviour; however, little is known about the knowledge of health risks in low-income countries such as India. The present study examined beliefs about the harms of smoking and the impact of health knowledge on intentions to quit among a sample of 249 current smokers in both urban and rural areas in two states (Maharashtra and Bihar from the 2006 TCP India Pilot Survey, conducted by the ITC Project. The overall awareness among smokers in India of the specific health risks of smoking was very low compared to other ITC countries, and only 10% of respondents reported that they had plans to quit in the next six months. In addition, smokers with higher knowledge were significantly more likely to have plans to quit smoking. For example, 26.2% of respondents who believed that smoking cause CHD and only 5.5% who did not believe that smoking causes CHD had intentions to quit (χ2 = 16.348, p < 0.001. Important differences were also found according to socioeconomic factors and state: higher levels of knowledge were found in Maharashtra than in Bihar, in urban compared to rural areas, among males, and among smokers with higher education. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness about the health risks of smoking in India, particularly in rural areas, where levels of education and health knowledge are lower.

  14. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  15. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  16. Translating Harbourscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    -specific design are proposed for all actors involved in harbour transformation. The study ends with an invitation to further investigate translation as a powerful metaphor for the way existing qualities of a site can be transformed, rather than erased or rewritten, and to explore how this metaphor can foster new...

  17. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied....... In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  18. "The Road to Hell Is Paved with Good Intentions": A Historical, Theoretical, and Legal Analysis of Zero-Tolerance Weapons Policies in American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongan, Philip; Walker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    With the passing of the Gun Free School Act of 1994, the 1990s bore witness to the birth of zero-tolerance policies. During the remainder of that decade, several school shootings occurred that solidified zero-tolerance in schools across the United States. With the possibility of threats constantly increasing, school personnel having a thorough…

  19. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  20. Introductory Overview of the Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes 2.0 (NEXT-D2) Network: Examining the Impact of US Health Policies and Practices to Prevent Diabetes and Its Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, O Kenrik; Mangione, Carol M; Rodriguez, Hector P; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wharam, J Frank; Black, Bernard; Kho, Abel; Huguet, Nathalie; Angier, Heather; Mayer, Victoria; Siscovick, David; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Shi, Lizheng; Nauman, Elizabeth; Gregg, Edward W; Ali, Mohammed K; Thornton, Pamela; Clauser, Steven

    2018-02-05

    Diabetes incidence is rising among vulnerable population subgroups including minorities and individuals with limited education. Many diabetes-related programs and public policies are unevaluated while others are analyzed with research designs highly susceptible to bias which can result in flawed conclusions. The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes 2.0 (NEXT-D2) Network includes eight research centers and three funding agencies using rigorous methods to evaluate natural experiments in health policy and program delivery. NEXT-D2 research studies use quasi-experimental methods to assess three major areas as they relate to diabetes: health insurance expansion; healthcare financing and payment models; and innovations in care coordination. The studies will report on preventive processes, achievement of diabetes care goals, and incidence of complications. Some studies assess healthcare utilization while others focus on patient-reported outcomes. NEXT-D2 examines the effect of public and private policies on diabetes care and prevention at a critical time, given ongoing and rapid shifts in the US health policy landscape.

  1. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  2. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  3. Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Liñán; Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Cohard; José Manuel Rueda-Cantuche

    2005-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is becoming a very relevant instrument to promote economic growth and development in different regional and national economies. However, social scientists have not still agreed on the determinants of the decision to become an entrepreneur. Therefore, there is some concern that policies may not be sufficiently efficient in achieving this objective. From a psychological point of view, the intention to become an entrepreneur has been described as the single best predictor of act...

  4. Lost in translation? Theory, policy and practice in systems-based environmental approaches to obesity prevention in the Healthy Towns programme in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautkina, Elena; Goodwin, Denise; Jones, Andy; Ogilvie, David; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Cummins, Steven

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores how system-wide approaches to obesity prevention were 'theorised' and translated into practice in the 'Healthy Towns' programme implemented in nine areas in England. Semi-structured interviews with 20 informants, purposively selected to represent national and local programme development, management and delivery were undertaken. Results suggest that informants articulated a theoretical understanding of a system-wide approach to obesity prevention, but simplifying this complex task in the context of uncertainty over programme aims and objectives, and absence of a clear direction from the central government, resulted in local programmes relying on traditional multi-component approaches to programme delivery. The development of clear, practical guidance on implementation should form a central part of future system-wide approaches to obesity prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic barriers may pose problems for politicians trying to communicate delicate decisions to a European-wide public, as well as for citizens wishing to protest at the European level. In this article I present a counter-intuitive position on the language question, one that explores how...... Forum (ESF). I compare deliberative practices in the multilingual ESF preparatory meetings with those in monolingual national Social Forum meetings in three Western European countries. My comparison shows that multilingualism does not reduce the inclusivity of democratic deliberation as compared...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  6. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  8. Understanding strength exercise intentions and behavior in hematologic cancer survivors: an analysis of the intention-behavior gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, James R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Walker, Gordon J; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-12-01

    Strength exercise improves many health outcomes in cancer survivors but the prevalence and correlates of strength exercise have not been well-described. Moreover, no study has examined the critical intention-behavior gap for exercise in cancer survivors. The aims of this study are to quantify the intention-behavior gap for strength exercise in hematologic cancer survivors (HCS) and examine correlates of both intention formation and translation using the multi-process action control framework (M-PAC). A random sample of 2100 HCS in Alberta, Canada, were mailed a survey assessing strength exercise behavior, the M-PAC, and demographic/medical variables. Separate logistic regressions were used to analyze the relationships between the correlates and intention formation and translation. Surveys were completed by 606 HCS with 58 % (n = 353) intending to do strength exercise. HCS who were not retired (OR = 1.56, p = 0.001), were highly educated (OR = 1.32, p = 0.001), and had a favorable attitude (OR = 1.56, p exercise intention. Of those with an exercise intention, 51 % (n = 181) reported regular strength exercise. HCS with a detailed plan (OR = 1.86, p attitude (OR = 1.68, p = 0.001), sense of obligation (OR = 1.38, p = 0.010), and self-regulated their affinity for competing activities (OR = 1.35, p = 0.012), were more likely to translate their intention into behavior. Just over half of HCS intended to do strength exercise and only half of intenders translated that intention into behavior. Interventions targeting both intention formation and translation may provide the best approach for increasing strength exercise in HCS.

  9. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T; Malone, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand's perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications.

  10. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T.; Malone, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand’s perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications. PMID:24403815

  11. Translation: between what can be translated and what must be translated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Jeanrenaud

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a disconcerting interpretation of Jacques Derrida, our analysis aims at investigating and also tries to explain the blockage which appears in the English, French and Romanian translations (signed by Maurice de Gandillac, Antoine Berman, Laurent Lamy, Alexis Nouss, Harry Zohn, Steven Rendall, Martine Broda, Catrinel Pleșu etc. of a well-known text of Walter Benjamin, Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers, when translators transpose in their target languages the two quotations given by Benjamin: one of Mallarmé, left untranslated in the source text, and another, signed by Pannwitz. The fact is that both quotations have something in common: a discoursive form which results from an unusual syntax, as if they were already, in a certain sense, „translations”. As if the translators feared—a feature of the translator’s psychology?—not to render their text sufficiently accessible, even when the source text is not intended to be accessible. Hence the painful dilemma of the intentional fallacy (not only of the text to be translated.

  12. Adamantios Korais and the Greek Language Policy at the Turn of the 18th to the 19th Centuries (translated by Jerneja Kavčič

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Mutavdžić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study outlines and examines the attempts at a standardisation of the Modern Greek language made during the crucial period of national formation, which coincided with the Greek Enlightenment (Νεοελληνικός Διαφωτισμός. The turn of the 18th to the 19th centuries was the period when the Greek language question (το ελληνικό γλωσσικό ζήτημα first appeared in Greek society. Marked by the complicated diglossia situation, this question itself and the suggested solutions were strongly influenced by four different socio-political visions of an independent Greek society, as well as by the conflicting opinions on, and calls for, language codification and standardisation. Although several proposals for a language reform were put forward, none of them was found satisfactory or widely accepted, since they were unable to solve the diglossia and offer a good language basis for the education of the generations to come. In terms of language policy and language planning, the proposal of the first modern Greek linguist, Adamantios Korais, represented a so-called ‘middle way’ (μέση οδός. Korais neither fully accepted common vernacular Greek nor rejected Ancient Greek, which was impossible to neglect with its weight of ancient heritage. While his proposal initially seemed likely to solve the Greek diglossic situation, it unfortunately failed to do so and in fact exacerbated the situation.

  13. Translating vaccine policy into action: a report from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Consultation on the prevention of maternal and early infant influenza in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Ahonkhai, Vincent I; Gellin, Bruce G; Salisbury, David M; Read, Jennifer S; Adegbola, Richard A; Abramson, Jon S

    2012-11-26

    Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is a promising strategy to protect the mother, fetus, and young infant from influenza-related diseases. The burden of influenza during pregnancy, the vaccine immunogenicity during this period, and the robust influenza vaccine safety database underpin recommendations that all pregnant women receive the vaccine to decrease complications of influenza disease during their pregnancies. Recent data also support maternal immunization for the additional purpose of preventing disease in the infant during the first six months of life. In April 2012, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization recommended revisions to the WHO position paper on influenza vaccines. For the first time, SAGE recommended pregnant women should be made the highest priority for inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. However, the variable maternal influenza vaccination coverage in countries with pre-existing maternal influenza vaccine recommendations underscores the need to understand and to address the discrepancy between recommendations and implementation success. We present the outcome of a multi-stakeholder expert consultation on inactivated influenza vaccination in pregnancy. The creation and implementation of vaccine policies and regulations require substantial resources and capacity. As with all public health interventions, the existence of perceived and real risks of vaccination will necessitate effective and transparent risk communication. Potential risk allocation and sharing mechanisms should be addressed by governments, vaccine manufacturers, and other stakeholders. In resource-limited settings, vaccine-related issues concerning supply, formulation, regulation, evidence evaluation, distribution, cost-utility, and post-marketing safety surveillance need to be addressed. Lessons can be learned from the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative as well as efforts to increase vaccine coverage among pregnant

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  17. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  18. Government's contribution to the development of translation in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African government has contributed tremendously to the development of translation, a contribution which is not always rightfully acknowledged or valued. The development of translation benefited significantly from the country's official bilingualism policy of 1910 which necessitated the translation of a variety of text ...

  19. Investigators find hundreds of intentional nuclear releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Investigators with the federal Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments have said that the category of intentional releases is now known to be larger, in variety and quantity, than the 13 releases identified prior to the committee's formation in January 1994 by President Clinton. The committee is now aware of hundreds of additional intentional releases. In addition to the intentional releases, the committee said it had compiled documents on 400 biomedical experiments involving radiation prior to 1975, and had at least fragmentary evidence of more than 1,000 more. The committee also discovered a top secret 1953 Defense Department policy statement on human experimentation that was based on the World War II-era Nuremberg Code. The committee said it was looking into how or whether the policy was implemented. The committee is expected to issue a final report, including recommendations on possible compensation for victims by April 1995

  20. Translating Fashion into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels Melchior, Marie; Skov, Lise; Csaba, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish...... a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify...... the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT) is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt...

  1. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  2. 3. Depiction and Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Blumson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the analysis of meaning in terms of intention is orthodoxy in the philosophy of language, it is highly controversial in the philosophy of art. So even if it is agreed that inserting resemblance into the analysis of speaker meaning in terms of intention escapes counterexamples to the sufficiency of resemblance for depiction, it’s likely to be argued that defining depiction as a kind of intentional representation draws too close an analogy between depiction and description. Counterexamp...

  3. Intention and Normative Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Chislenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.

  4. From intention to action: Can nudges help consumers to choose renewable energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momsen, Katharina; Stoerk, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In energy consumption, individuals feature a gap between intention and action. Survey data from the US, the UK, and other European countries show that 50–90% of respondents favour energy from renewable sources, even at a small premium. Yet less than 3% actually buy renewable energy. We investigate how nudges – a slight change in the information set that an individual faces when taking a decision – can help individuals align behaviour with intention. We present evidence from an original survey experiment on which nudges affect the choice whether to contract renewable energy or conventional energy. We find that only a default nudge has a significant effect, while all other nudges prove ineffective. In our setting, a default nudge increases the share of individuals who choose renewable energy by 44.6%. - Highlights: • Preferences concerning renewable energy contracts do not translate into action. • Nudges are cheap policy tools, easily scaled up, coercion-free, and usually unavoidable. • We design and implement a survey experiment to test various nudges. • A default nudge proves effective in aligning intention and action

  5. Retrospective Review of Student Research Projects in a Canadian Master of Science in Physical Therapy Programme and the Perceived Impact on Advisors' Research Capacity, Education, Clinical Practice, Knowledge Translation, and Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Courtney; Scodras, Stephanie; Ardron, Julie; Sellan, Ryan; Garbaczewska, Martyna; O'Brien, Kelly K; Salbach, Nancy M

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study's aim was to characterize the nature of students' research conducted for a Master of Science in Physical Therapy (MScPT) degree programme at a Canadian university and evaluate the lead advisors' perspectives of its impact on their research capacity, education, clinical practice, knowledge translation, and health policy. Methods: We conducted a quantitative, cross-sectional, retrospective review of research reports from 2003 to 2014 to characterize the MScPT students' research and a quantitative, cross-sectional e-survey of lead research advisors to evaluate the impact of this research. Results: Data were abstracted from reports of 201 research projects completed between 2003 and 2014. Projects were conducted primarily in university-affiliated hospitals (41.6%) or the university's physical therapy department (41.1%), and the majority (52.5%) had a clinical focus. Of the 95 lead advisors of 201 projects, 59 advisors (response rate 62.1%) of 119 projects completed the survey questionnaire. The respondents most frequently identified clinical practice (45.1%) and advisors' research capacity (31.4%) as areas positively affected by the students' research. Conclusions: The MScPT students' research projects facilitate the conduct of extensive research internally and across affiliated hospitals. This research appears to advance not only clinical practice but also the ability of lead advisors to undertake research.

  6. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  7. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  8. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  9. Bounded Intention Planning Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte

    2014-01-01

    Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.

  10. The intention interference effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Kantner, Justin; Dixon, Roger A; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Intentions have been shown to be more accessible (e.g., more quickly and accurately recalled) compared to other sorts of to-be-remembered information; a result termed an intention superiority effect (Goschke & Kuhl, 1993). In the current study, we demonstrate an intention interference effect (IIE) in which color-naming performance in a Stroop task was slower for words belonging to an intention that participants had to remember to carry out (Do-the-Task condition) versus an intention that did not have to be executed (Ignore-the-Task condition). In previous work (e.g., Cohen et al., 2005), having a prospective intention in mind was confounded with carrying a memory load. In Experiment 1, we added a digit-retention task to control for effects of cognitive load. In Experiment 2, we eliminated the memory confound in a new way, by comparing intention-related and control words within each trial. Results from both Experiments 1 and 2 revealed an IIE suggesting that interference is very specific to the intention, not just to a memory load.

  11. Intentionality and Consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierna, Carlo; Jacquette, Dale

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter I concentrate on the notion of intentionality and its relation to consciousness. Ever since its re-introduction into contemporary philosophy in the works of Franz Brentano, intentionality has been associated in various ways with consciousness. In the continental and analytic

  12. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  13. Evilness as intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine on which psychological foundation we might be able to identify evil as an independent psychological phenomenon which requires its own. non-clinical concept and diagnostics. An evil act, it is proposed, is something which a person does intentionally and can...... be held responsible for. A basic model of human activity is presented based on human connectedness to the world in general and on co-existence as a core of the human condition in particular. Genuine evilness is defined as intentional detachment from and destruction of human co-existence. This definition...... presupposes a level of selforganization where co-existence can be an intentional project in itself. Only beings that can have co-existence as an intentional project in itself can intentionally detach from it and act destructively towards it in a genuinely evil manner....

  14. Revisiting Phenomenal Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Masrour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two goals. The goal of the first section is to raise a few clarificatory questions about the exact contour of Crane’s account of intentionality, its relation to phenomenology, and his motivation for it. The second section aims to describe a general worry about programs that combine a broadly anti-externalist outlook on intentionality with the idea that there is an intimate connection between phenomenology and intentionality. I argue that programs like this either suffer from a problem that I call intentional luck or, in the attempt to avoid this problem, have to weaken the connection between intentionality and phenomenology. Since Crane’s general outlook falls under this program, it is subject to this worry.

  15. Evilness as intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2005-01-01

    be held responsible for. A basic model of human activity is presented based on human connectedness to the world in general and on co-existence as a core of the human condition in particular. Genuine evilness is defined as intentional detachment from and destruction of human co-existence. This definition...... presupposes a level of selforganization where co-existence can be an intentional project in itself. Only beings that can have co-existence as an intentional project in itself can intentionally detach from it and act destructively towards it in a genuinely evil manner.......The purpose of this article is to examine on which psychological foundation we might be able to identify evil as an independent psychological phenomenon which requires its own. non-clinical concept and diagnostics. An evil act, it is proposed, is something which a person does intentionally and can...

  16. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  17. Impact of Online Versus Hardcopy Dictionaries‟ Application on Translation Quality of Iranian M. A. Translation Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Zarei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at investigating the impact of online versus hardcopy dictionaries‟ application on translation quality of senior M.A. students of translation based on Bleu model introduced by Papineni et al. (2002. To this end, using Oxford Proficiency test 50 (out of 70 female senior M.A. students of translation were selected and they were assigned to two groups: Online and hardcopy, using systematic sampling. Next, an English text was selected as the reference text. This reference text was given to three translators: 1 A male English translation expert with a Ph.D. degree in Computational Linguistics (Ref. 1; 2 A female English translation expert with an M.A. degree working at an English Translation Center and with more than 5 years of experience (Ref. 2, and 3 A male Ph.D. candidate in English translation (Ref. 3. These three versions were used as reference Persian standard translations to be entered into Bleu. Later, the English text was given to the hardcopy and online groups. Then, the translations of the participants were compared with the three reference Persian translations using Bleu. The time taken by each student to translate the text into Persian was also recorded. The results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the translations of the hardcopy and online groups from fluency/precision points of view. Comparison of the speed of translation in the two groups indicated that the online group was meaningfully faster. The possible beneficiaries of the findings of this research can be university professors, policy makers, and students in the realm of translation.

  18. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    such as prototypes in order to travel. It was made mobile via relational sites or situations providing safe and accessible connections with Chureca residents. Paradoxically, these places also allowed extraordinary connections between actors located in different scales and spaces, facilitating unexpected local...

  19. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    such as prototypes in order to travel. It was made mobile via relational sites or situations providing safe and accessible connections with Chureca residents. Paradoxically, these places also allowed extraordinary connections between actors located in different scales and spaces, facilitating unexpected local...

  20. Why Translation Is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper develops a definition of translation literality that is based on the syntactic and semantic similarity of the source and the target texts. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that absolute literal translations are easy to produce. Based on a multilingual corpus of alternative...... translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....

  1. Unravelling intention: distal intentions increase the subjective sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinding, Mikkel C; Pedersen, Michael N; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-09-01

    Experimental studies investigating the contribution of conscious intention to the generation of a sense of agency for one's own actions tend to rely upon a narrow definition of intention. Often it is operationalized as the conscious sensation of wanting to move right before movement. Existing results and discussion are therefore missing crucial aspects of intentions, namely intention as the conscious sensation of wanting to move in advance of the movement. In the present experiment we used an intentional binding paradigm, in which we distinguished between immediate (proximal) intention, as usually investigated, and longer standing (distal) intention. The results showed that the binding effect was significantly enhanced for distal intentions compared to proximal intentions, indicating that the former leads to stronger sense of agency. Our finding provides empirical support for a crucial distinction between at least two types of intention when addressing the efficacy of conscious intentions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematic reviews and knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-08-01

    Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings.

  3. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  4. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  5. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified......The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...

  6. How to bridge the intention-behavior gap in food parenting: Automatic constructs and underlying techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Vink, J.M.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Ruiter, E.L.M.; Fisher, J.O.

    2018-01-01

    Although parents often report positive intentions to promote and create a healthy food environment for their children (e.g., setting limits to snacks offered), they also experience difficulties in translating these intentions into actual behaviors. In this position paper, we argue that automatic

  7. Ethics without Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm...... of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf...

  8. Memetics and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Chesterman

    2000-01-01

    Translation Studies is a branch of memetics. This is a claim, a hypothesis. More specifically, it is an interpretive hypothesis: I claim that Translation Studies can be thus interpreted, and that this is a useful thing to do because it offers a new and beneficial way of understanding translation.

  9. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    ), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  10. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of

  11. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  12. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  13. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  14. The Temple Translator's Workstation Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanni, Michelle; Zajac, Remi

    1996-01-01

    .... The Temple Translator's Workstation is incorporated into a Tipster document management architecture and it allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation...

  15. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  16. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  17. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  18. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...

  19. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  20. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Martha Pulido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  1. A Principle of Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  2. Discourse Analysis in Translator Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gülfidan Ayvaz

    2015-01-01

    Translator training enables students to gain experience in both linguistic parameters and translation practice. Discourse Analysis is one of the strategies that lead to a better translation process and quality in translation. In that regard, this study aims to present DA as a translation strategy for translation practice and a useful tool for translator training. The relationship between DA and Translator Training is not widely studied. Therefore this study aims to define DA and how it can be...

  3. Program Officer, Knowledge Translation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Key tasks include the translation of evidence generated for policy makers and practitioners, ... Designs, drafts and commissions user-friendly summative documents and ... Prepares and coordinates written, graphic, visual materials, web site content and other ... Follow us; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube · Linked In · RSS Feed.

  4. Husserl on Collective Intentionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    , respectively. On this background, I will concentrate on Husserl’s alternative construal and demonstrate how it entails a robust anti-individualism regarding both the form and the subject of we-intentions. I will suggest that, contrary to appearances, Husserl does not fall prey to committing a content/vehicle...... type of fallacy, by inferring from the jointness of the contents of collective intentionality that there is one joint vehicle or, worse, some collectively conscious bearer of such. Rather, the Husserlian alternative yields a robust formal-cum-subject anti-individualism and undercuts the need...

  5. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  6. Behavioural responses to climate change: Asymmetry of intentions and impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine E.

    2009-01-01

    In seeking to determine whether climate change mitigation strategies are effective, researchers and policy-makers typically use energy consumption as an indicator. UK government data show that energy use amongst the public is rising, despite measures to encourage energy conservation. Yet, research to date has not explicitly asked which actions the public are taking with the express intention of mitigating climate change. Using Stern's classification of impact-oriented and intent-oriented beha...

  7. Africa Centre for Systematic Reviews and Knowledge Translation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Several initiatives focused on bridging the "know-do" gap emphasize ... and knowledge translation to bridge the gaps between research and health policy. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  8. Translation and Intertextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intends to describe and Presents a new theory of translation based on the "Intertextuality" unlike the Translation theories that presented to date, what all are based on the principle of "Equivalence". Our theory is based on the examples of Arabic poetry translated into Persian poetry. The major findings of this study show that the Intertextuality can serve as a link between the original text and the target. it can also interact with other texts is the translation result in the target language, Whtich is the book of poetic eloquence is addressed and was mentioned Literary robbery.

  9. Literary Translation as a Tool for Critical Language Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooneeram, Roshni

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that Dev Virahsawmy, an author who manipulates literary translation for the purposes of linguistic prestige formation and re-negotiation, is a critical language-policy practitioner, as his work fills an important gap in language planning scholarship. A micro-analysis of the translation of a Shakespearean sonnet into Mauritian…

  10. Africa Centre for Systematic Reviews and Knowledge Translation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa Centre for Systematic Reviews and Knowledge Translation ... It will also establish greater self-reliance for evidence synthesis and knowledge translation to bridge the gaps between research and health policy. ... Institution. Makerere University. Pays d' institution. Uganda. Site internet. http://www.makerere.ac.ug ...

  11. Lost in Translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Translating sacred scriptures is not only a praxis that is crucial for the fruitful, i.e. non-distorted and unbiased dialogue between different religious traditions, but also raises some fundamental theoretical questions when it comes to translating the sacred texts of the religious other or

  12. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  13. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  14. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  15. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  16. Measuring Translation Literality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Tirkkonen-Condit (2005: 407–408) argues that “It looks as if literal translation is [the result of] a default rendering procedure”. As a corollary, more literal translations should be easier to process, and less literal ones should be associated with more cognitive effort. In order to assess this...

  17. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  18. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.

  19. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  20. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory...

  1. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  2. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  3. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  4. Raster Metafile and Raster Metafile Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nancy L.; Everton, Eric L.; Randall, Donald P.; Gates, Raymond L.; Skeens, Kristi M.

    1989-01-01

    The intent is to present an effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center to design a generic raster image format and to develop tools for processing images prepared in this format. Both the Raster Metafile (RM) format and the Raster Metafile Translator (RMT) are addressed. This document is intended to serve a varied audience including: users wishing to display and manipulate raster image data, programmers responsible for either interfacing the RM format with other raster formats or for developing new RMT device drivers, and programmers charged with installing the software on a host platform.

  5. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  6. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  7. Daniel Dennett: intentionality system. An interpretation of intentional strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ROTILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we show some of the meanings in which Daniel Dennett uses the term intentionality, in an attempt to establish to it the quality of key concept for understanding the mind, namely consciousness. By analyzing the American thinker’s ideas, we consider that in all of them an intentionality system can be identified, which includes the approaches and different names that he dedicates to this concept. Qualitative differences in the discourse about intentionality can open the way of the approach of intentionality from an evolutionary perspective, indicating the changes over time. The intentionality system is a proposal for understanding Dennett’s thinking in a coherent paradigm.

  8. Mental Disorders and Suicidal Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…

  9. Linguistic Precautions that to be Considered when Translating the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gumaa Siddiek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to raise some points that should be considered when translating the Quranic Text into English. We have looked into some samples of translations, selected from well known English translations of the Holy Quran and critically examined them. There were some errors in those translations, due to linguistic factors, owing to the differences between the Arabic and the English Language systems. Some errors were due to the cultural background of the translator which intentionally or unintentionally has affected the translation. Many samples were discussed and suggestions for corrections were made. Then further recommendations were given to be used as guidelines for similar future attempts. We concluded that the simulation of old words in drafting a translation does not fit with the English language as a target language. As this use of archaic stylistics would lead to further complications, which makes the language of translation look strange and complicated

  10. NUDGING FOR HEALTH: ON PUBLIC POLICY AND DESIGNING CHOICE ARCHITECTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    There have been recent policy moves aimed at encouraging individuals to lead healthier lives. The Cabinet Office has set up a ‘nudge unit’ with health as one of its priorities and behavioural approaches have started to be integrated into health-related domestic policy in a number of areas. Behavioural research has shown that that the way the environment is constructed can shape a person's choices within it. Thus, it is hoped that, by using insights from such research, people can be nudged towards making decisions which are better for their health. This article outlines how nudges can be conceived of as part of an expanding arsenal of health-affecting regulatory tools being used by the Government and addresses some concerns which have been expressed regarding behavioural research-driven regulation and policy. In particular, it makes the case that, regardless of new regulatory and policy strategies, we cannot escape the myriad of influences which surround us. As such, we can view our health-affecting decisions as already being in some sense shaped and constructed. Further, it argues we may in fact have reason to prefer sets of health-affecting options which have been intentionally designed by the state, rather than those that stem from other sources or result from random processes. Even so, in closing, this article draws attention to the largely unanswered questions about how behavioural research translates into policy and regulatory initiatives. PMID:24081425

  11. Nudging for health: on public policy and designing choice architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    There have been recent policy moves aimed at encouraging individuals to lead healthier lives. The Cabinet Office has set up a 'nudge unit' with health as one of its priorities and behavioural approaches have started to be integrated into health-related domestic policy in a number of areas. Behavioural research has shown that that the way the environment is constructed can shape a person's choices within it. Thus, it is hoped that, by using insights from such research, people can be nudged towards making decisions which are better for their health. This article outlines how nudges can be conceived of as part of an expanding arsenal of health-affecting regulatory tools being used by the Government and addresses some concerns which have been expressed regarding behavioural research-driven regulation and policy. In particular, it makes the case that, regardless of new regulatory and policy strategies, we cannot escape the myriad of influences which surround us. As such, we can view our health-affecting decisions as already being in some sense shaped and constructed. Further, it argues we may in fact have reason to prefer sets of health-affecting options which have been intentionally designed by the state, rather than those that stem from other sources or result from random processes. Even so, in closing, this article draws attention to the largely unanswered questions about how behavioural research translates into policy and regulatory initiatives.

  12. Intention Understanding in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boria, Sonia; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi; Sparaci, Laura; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Santelli, Erica; Cossu, Giuseppe; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup) done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping) and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking). Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD) children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the “why” trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object (“why-use” trials), in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object (“why-place” trials). The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the “why-place” trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues. PMID:19440332

  13. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  14. Intention understanding in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boria

    Full Text Available When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking. Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the "why" trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object ("why-use" trials, in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object ("why-place" trials. The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the "why-place" trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues.

  15. Intention-to-treat

    OpenAIRE

    Molenberghs, Geert

    2005-01-01

    The randomized clinical trial paradigm is sketched, as well as the foundations on which its validity is based. Issues that jeopardize this validity, such as patient noncompliance and early withdrawal, are discussed. Intention to treat, being an important historical answer to this problem, is introduced, together with a set of criticisms and an indication of alternative approaches. as-treated analysis;clinical trial;incomplete data;last observation carried forward;randomization

  16. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  17. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  18. Translation of feminine: Szymborska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Donata Guerizoli Kempinska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v1n33p35 The paper discusses the problems present in the process of the translation of the feminine, related to the discursive articulations of the gender and to the socio-historical conditions of its construction. The differences between languages make this articulation hard to transpose and such is the case in some of Wisława Szymborska’s poems. An attentive reading of her work and of its translations in different languages reveals that the transposition of its specifically feminine humor is also a challenge for the translator

  19. Solving the Policy Implementation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg A. Garn

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available When Republican legislators in Arizona failed to approve educational vouchers in four consecutive legislative sessions, a charter school program was approved as a compromise. The charter school policy was written during a special summer session and within three years, over 30,000 students were enrolled in 260 charter schools across the state. Republican policy makers, who failed to enact voucher legislation, proclaimed the charter school program to be an overwhelming success and protected it from amendments by Democrats and potential actions of bureaucrats that could have altered the policy intent. Research on the implementation of policy indicates that state and local implementors frequently undermine or alter legislative intentions. However, when Arizona policy makers approved the charter school policy, they overcame this persistent implementation phenomenon and, in fact, succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions in the working program. This policy study analyzes how they were able to achieve this elusive result. Key policy makers attended to four significant features of policy implementation in creating the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. Manipulating these key variables allowed policy makers to reduce implementation slippage.

  20. Grasping intentions: from thought experiments to empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBecchio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Skepticism has been expressed concerning the possibility to understand others’ intentions by simply observing their movements: Since a number of different intentions may have produced a particular action, motor information – it has been argued - might be sufficient to understand what an agent is doing, but not her remote goal in performing that action. Here we challenge this conclusion by showing that in the absence of contextual information, intentions can be inferred from body movement. Based on recent empirical findings, we shall contend that: i intentions translate into differential kinematic patterns; ii observers are especially attuned to kinematic information and can use early differences in visual kinematics to anticipate the intention of an agent in performing a given action; iii during interacting activities, predictions about the future course of others’ actions tune online action planning; iv motor activation during action observation subtends a complementary understanding of what the other is doing. These findings demonstrate that intention understanding is deeply rooted in social interaction: by simply observing others’ movements, we might know what they have in mind to do and how we should act in response.

  1. Beliefs underlying Women's intentions to consume alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Helen M; Obst, Patricia L; Lewis, Ioni

    2016-07-13

    Changing trends demonstrate that women, in a number of economically-developed countries, are drinking at higher levels than ever before. Exploring key targets for intervention, this study examined the extent to which underlying beliefs in relation to alcohol consumption predicted intentions to drink in three different ways (i.e. low risk drinking, frequent drinking and binge drinking). Utilizing a prospective design survey, women (N = 1069), aged 18-87 years, completed a questionnaire measuring their beliefs and intentions regarding alcohol consumption. Then, two weeks later, 845 of the original sample, completed a follow-up questionnaire reporting their engagement in the drinking behaviors. A mixed design ANOVA was conducted to examine potential differences between women of different age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55 years and above) and their intentions to engage in the three different drinking behaviors. Based upon The Theory of Planned Behavior, critical beliefs analyses were carried out to identify key determinants underlying intentions to engage in the three different drinking behaviors. Significant effects of age were found in relation to frequent and binge drinking. The critical beliefs analyses revealed that a number of behavioral, control and normative beliefs were significant predictors of intentions. These beliefs varied according to age group and drinking behavior. Previously unidentified key factors that influence women's decisions to drink in certain ways have been established. Overall, future interventions and public policy may be better tailored so as to address specific age groups and drinking behaviors.

  2. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

  3. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  4. A phased translation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)

  5. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  6. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  7. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  8. School Board Policies on Leaves and Absences. Educational Policies Development Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This report provides board policy samples and other policy resources on leaves and absences. The intent in providing policy samples is to encourage thinking in policy terms and to provide working papers that can be edited, modified, or adapted to meet local requirements. Topics covered in the samples include (1) sick leave, (2) maternity leave,…

  9. Factors influencing early retirement intentions in Australian rural general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, S W; Hansen, V

    2014-06-01

    The Australian general practice workforce is ageing. This and a trend towards higher exit intentions and earlier retirement make it increasingly important to identify those work and personal factors affecting intention to leave, which are amenable to change. To assess the various work, occupational and individual health factors associated with early retirement intentions among Australian rural general practitioners (GPs) that may be amenable to intervention. A cross-sectional study of GPs practising in rural Australia. Odds ratios of early retirement intentions across work, occupational and individual health factors were calculated. There were 92 participants (response rate 56%), and 47% of responders intended to retire before 65. GPs with medium to high burnout levels had higher odds of intending to retire. Increased job satisfaction and work ability scores were associated with decreased retirement intentions, whereas increased physical and mental work ability demands were associated with an increase in retirement intentions. Absenteeism was not related to retirement intentions but presenteeism was. GPs reporting any work-related sleep problems were found to have a 3-fold increase in the odds of early retirement intentions. The odds of early retirement intentions also increased with higher psychological distress, worsening general health and longer working hours. From a health policy reform perspective, the greatest impact on reducing early retirement intentions among ageing GPs could potentially be made by intervening in areas of working hours, burnout and work-related sleep issues, followed by job satisfaction, psychological distress, health, general workability and mental and physical work ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zethsen, Karen Korning; Askehave, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  11. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  12. Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Janů, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...

  13. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among University Students: Case of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Garo, E.; Kume, V.; Basho, S.

    2015-01-01

    [EN] In Albania, during the last decades entrepreneurship has been in focus. It is commonly agreed that developing entrepreneurship in the long term would be translated into sustainable economic development. Albanian economy, being an economy in transition greatly and urgently needs to invest into increasing the number of entrepreneurs in the country. Entrepreneurial intention is considered to be really important. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to observe the determinants of entrepreneuri...

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  16. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  17. Integrated knowledge translation: digging deeper, moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Wathen, C Nadine

    2017-06-01

    Integrated knowledge translation has risen in popularity as a solution to the underuse of research in policy and practice settings. It engages knowledge users-policymakers, practitioners, patients/consumers or their advocates, and members of the wider public-in mutually beneficial research that can involve the joint development of research questions, data collection, analysis and dissemination of findings. Knowledge that is co-produced has a better chance of being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to update developments in the field of integrated knowledge translation through a deeper analysis of the approach in practice-oriented and policy-oriented health research. We present collaborative models that fall outside the scope of integrated knowledge translation, but then explore consensus-based approaches and networks as alternate sites of knowledge co-production. We discuss the need to advance the field through the development, or use, of data collection and interpretation tools that creatively engage knowledge users in the research process. Most importantly, conceptually relevant outcomes need to be identified, including ones that focus on team transformation through the co-production of knowledge. We explore some of these challenges and benefits in detail to help researchers understand what integrated knowledge translation means, and whether the approach's potential added value is worth the investment of time, energy and other resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  19. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  20. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  1. Letters of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Thursday 5 November was another major milestone en route to the establishment of the experimental programme for CERN's LHC protonproton collider to be built in the 27- kilometre LEP tunnel. After initial discussions of 'Expressions of Interest' at the specially arranged meeting at Evian-les-Bains, France, earlier this year (May, page 1), three Letters of Intent have emerged, together involving nearly 2000 physicists from research institutes all over the world. As well as these researchers listed on the documents, the plans in fact involve many additional technical specialists who work behind the scenes. It was a historic moment as these three detector proposals were aired at the first open meeting of the new LHC Experiments Committee. CERN's main auditorium and a large overflow room receiving relayed video pictures were both packed. From these three schemes - ATLAS, CMS and L3P - and the first reactions to their letters of intent, eventually two projects will emerge, for which full technical proposals will be prepared, including construction plans and credible costings

  2. Translating culture: Matthee’s Kringe in ’n bos as a case in point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Cloete

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The translation of “cultural identity” in a novel such as “Kringe in ’n bos” contributes towards the definition of a uniquely South African representation of time and space in the global context. When translation is studied as a product of its socio-historical context, the translator is faced with problems of translating ideology and cultural identity in literature. Realia constitute a particular challenge to the translator because, according to the definition, precise equivalents of these words do not exist in other languages, which could cause shifts in the target language text. This article considers the concept of translatability and concludes that, despite the problems encountered, an adequate and satisfactory German translation from the Afrikaans original should be possible. The question of translatability assumes an interesting dimension as the Afrikaans novel was translated into English by the author herself. The privileged position of author-translator granted Matthee a near-perfect understanding of the different layers of meaning and intention of the source text and eliminated the gap between the author and translator. However, one gains the impression that the German translator (Stege resorted to transference as a strategy to avoid translation and it emerges that most instances of definite mistranslations are, indeed, attributable to Stege’s unfamiliarity with the South African context.

  3. Finite translation surfaces with maximal number of translations

    OpenAIRE

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph; Weitze-Schmithuesen, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The natural automorphism group of a translation surface is its group of translations. For finite translation surfaces of genus g > 1 the order of this group is naturally bounded in terms of g due to a Riemann-Hurwitz formula argument. In analogy with classical Hurwitz surfaces, we call surfaces which achieve the maximal bound Hurwitz translation surfaces. We study for which g there exist Hurwitz translation surfaces of genus g.

  4. Intention to seek information on cancer genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Andrews

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The public has a high interest in seeking personal genetic information, which holds implications for health information seeking research and health care policy. Rapid advances in cancer genetics research promise early detection, prevention and treatment, yet consumers may have greater difficulty finding and using the information they may need to make informed decisions regarding their personal health and the future of their families. Design. A statewide telephone survey was conducted of non-institutionalized Kentucky residents 18 years of age or older to investigate factors associated with the intention to seek cancer genetics information, including the need for such information seeking help. Results. The results show that intention to seek cancer genetics information, if testing were readily available, is moderately high (62.5% of those responding; n=835, and that status as a racial minority, the perception that cancer runs in one's family, and frequent worrying about cancer risk are statistically significant predictors of intent to seek genetics information. Conclusion. . We argue that an already complex health information environment will be even more difficult for individuals to navigate as genetic research becomes more ubiquitous in health care. An increase in demand for genetics information in various forms, as suggested by these results and those of other studies, implies that enduring intervention strategies are needed to help individuals acquire necessary health information literacy skills, with special attention given to racial minorities.

  5. Intention to stay and nurses' satisfaction dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Ashraf A; Al-Hussaini, Mashael F; Al-Bassam, Nora K

    2008-08-01

    The study was conducted to identify the satisfaction dimensions in relation to anticipated nurse turnover in an academic medical institution using an ordinal regression model. A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed to describe nurse job satisfaction in relation to their intention to stay at King Faisal University's Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. All nurses available at the time of the study were included (499 nurses in different departments). The response rate was 55.3% (276 questionnaires suitable for analysis). A self-administered questionnaire with 26 items was developed for this study with a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = highly dissatisfied to 5 = highly satisfied). Nurses were least satisfied with the hospital's benefits (1.2 ± 0.4), hospital policies (1.4 ± 0.5), bonuses (1.1 ± 0.3), fairness of the performance appraisal system (1.5 ± 0.5) paid time off (1.5 ± 0.5), and recognition of achievements (1.5 ± 0.5). The mean general job satisfaction score was 2.2 ± 0.4. Ordinal regression analysis revealed leadership styles and challenging opportunities as predictive dimensions for the intention to stay. There are nurse job satisfaction dimensions other than salary and incentive that may be anticipated with the intention to stay in the health facility. Namely, leadership styles in the health organization and challenging opportunities at work.

  6. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a s...

  7. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  8. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  9. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  10. Translational Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  11. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  12. Kolm Eesti Robinsoni: Daniel Defoe romaan eesti tõlkes / Three Estonian Robinsons: Daniel Defoe’s Novel in Estonian Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene-Reet Soovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses three Estonian translations of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe into Estonian with the focus on the completeness of the translated texts and the characterisation given to these in paratextual information. While there are several translations and versions of the tex t available in E stonian that have either used a mediating language or do not proceed directly from Defoe’s novel, three editions explicitly list Defoe’s English-language Robinson Crusoe as their source text. These are Rudolf Sirge’s translation from 1950 and two editions translated by Valter Rummel that appeared in 1984 (reprinted in 2001 and 2007, respectively. The article sets out to discover the main differences between the three editions and the possible reasons that may have triggered their publication in Estonia at those particular times. In order to approach the issues, a general framework derived from descriptive translation studies is employed with an emphasis on Gideon Toury’s chrestomatic treatment of translation norms. Thus an attempt is made to detect the preliminary translational norms regarding translation policy, particularly the choice of texts to be translated, as well as the matricial norms that concern the fullness of the translated text and are part of operational norms manifested in the translator’s decisions which, in two of the cases at hand, may also have been decisions made by the editor or the censor. Rudolf Sirge’s translation appeared at a time when Estonia had fairly recently been incorporated into the Soviet Union and there was a lack of children’s literature ideologically appreciated by the regime. This may account for the packaging of the book as a work with a strong didactic bent, while its primary audience was taken to be children and young adults for whom the protagonist served as an example of a hard-working and tenacious hero to be emulated by young Soviets. The target text has been considerably shortened as

  13. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  14. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  15. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lucy V; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A

    2018-02-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs. Finally, replicating previous findings, fewer IFAMs had a field perspective than AMs, IFAMs were less vivid than AMs, and IFAMs contained more motion words (indicative of increased cognitive load). Taken together, these findings show a pattern of systematic differences that mark out IFAMs, and they also show that IFAMs can be identified indirectly by lowered performance on concurrent tasks that increase cognitive load.

  16. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  17. George Sigerson: Charcot's translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J B

    1997-04-01

    Senator George Sigerson (1836-1925), Dublin's first neurologist, was also a significant contributor to Anglo-Irish literature. His medical career and literary accomplishments are outlined, the focus of the article being Sigerson's friendly relationship with Charcot (with whom he corresponded), and whose Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux he translated.

  18. Intermediation, Brokerage and Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönke, Jana; Müller, Markus-Michael; Risse, Thomas; Draude, Anke; Börzel, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    Brokerage, a term prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, has returned. A huge literature analyses how brokers and intermediators— such as government officials, heads of non-governmental organization (NGOs), translators, neo-traditional authorities— strategically negotiate flows of resources and political

  19. Made in translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Evolution of highly functionalized DNA could enable the discovery of artificial nucleic acid sequences with different properties to natural DNA. Now, an artificial translation system has been designed that can support the evolution of non-natural sequence-defined nucleic acid polymers carrying eight different functional groups on 32 codons.

  20. The policy trail methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana

    of ‘policy trail’, arguing that it can overcome ‘methodological nationalism’ and link structure and agency in research on the ‘European educational space’. The ‘trail’ metaphor, she suggests, captures the intentionality and the erratic character of policy. The trail connects sites and brings about change......, but – although policy may be intended to be linear, with specific outcomes – policy often has to bend, and sometimes meets insurmountable obstacles. This symposium outlines and develops the methodology, but also reports on research undertaken within a major FP7 project (LLLIght’in’Europe, 2012-15) which made use......In recent years, the “policy trail” has been proposed as a methodology appropriate to the shifting and fluid governance of lifelong learning in the late modern world (Holford et al. 2013, Holford et al. 2013, Cort 2014). The contemporary environment is marked by multi-level governance (global...

  1. Intentionality, consciousness, and creating community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinski, Violet M

    2009-01-01

    Intentionality is briefly explored from the perspective of seminal written works on therapeutic touch and recorded conversations with Martha E. Rogers. This overview hints at possible interrelationships among intentionality, consciousness, and creating community, along with conceptual ambiguities, which are explored in detail by Zahourek and Larkin in this column.

  2. Classification schemes for knowledge translation interventions: a practical resource for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Zimmermann, Gabrielle L; Nuspl, Megan; Hanson, Heather M; Albrecht, Lauren; Esmail, Rosmin; Sauro, Khara; Newton, Amanda S; Donald, Maoliosa; Dyson, Michele P; Thomson, Denise; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-12-06

    As implementation science advances, the number of interventions to promote the translation of evidence into healthcare, health systems, or health policy is growing. Accordingly, classification schemes for these knowledge translation (KT) interventions have emerged. A recent scoping review identified 51 classification schemes of KT interventions to integrate evidence into healthcare practice; however, the review did not evaluate the quality of the classification schemes or provide detailed information to assist researchers in selecting a scheme for their context and purpose. This study aimed to further examine and assess the quality of these classification schemes of KT interventions, and provide information to aid researchers when selecting a classification scheme. We abstracted the following information from each of the original 51 classification scheme articles: authors' objectives; purpose of the scheme and field of application; socioecologic level (individual, organizational, community, system); adaptability (broad versus specific); target group (patients, providers, policy-makers), intent (policy, education, practice), and purpose (dissemination versus implementation). Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the development of each classification scheme using an adapted version of the AGREE II tool. Based on these assessments, two independent reviewers reached consensus about whether to recommend each scheme for researcher use, or not. Of the 51 original classification schemes, we excluded seven that were not specific classification schemes, not accessible or duplicates. Of the remaining 44 classification schemes, nine were not recommended. Of the 35 recommended classification schemes, ten focused on behaviour change and six focused on population health. Many schemes (n = 29) addressed practice considerations. Fewer schemes addressed educational or policy objectives. Twenty-five classification schemes had broad applicability

  3. Mirror neurons and motor intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Sinigaglia, Corrado

    2007-01-01

    Our social life rests to a large extent on our ability to understand the intentions of others. What are the bases of this ability? A very influential view is that we understand the intentions of others because we are able to represent them as having mental states. Without this meta-representational (mind-reading) ability their behavior would be meaningless to us. Over the past few years this view has been challenged by neurophysiological findings and, in particular, by the discovery of mirror neurons. The functional properties of these neurons indicate that intentional understanding is based primarily on a mechanism that directly matches the sensory representation of the observed actions with one's own motor representation of those same actions. These findings reveal how deeply motor and intentional components of action are intertwined, suggesting that both can be fully comprehended only starting from a motor approach to intentionality.

  4. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2017-01-01

    This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience ...... social entrepreneurship electives students enroll in is predicted by social entrepreneurial intentions.......This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience...... predicts social entrepreneurial intentions. This effect is mediated by the antecedents suggested by Mair and Noboa. Social entrepreneurial self-efficacy has both the largest impact on intentions as well as being itself most responsive to prior experience. Lastly, the study shows that the amount of optional...

  5. Proposal for a telehealth concept in the translational research model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angélica Baptista; Morel, Carlos Médicis; Moraes, Ilara Hämmerli Sozzi de

    2014-04-01

    To review the conceptual relationship between telehealth and translational research. Bibliographical search on telehealth was conducted in the Scopus, Cochrane BVS, LILACS and MEDLINE databases to find experiences of telehealth in conjunction with discussion of translational research in health. The search retrieved eight studies based on analysis of models of the five stages of translational research and the multiple strands of public health policy in the context of telehealth in Brazil. The models were applied to telehealth activities concerning the Network of Human Milk Banks, in the Telemedicine University Network. The translational research cycle of human milk collected, stored and distributed presents several integrated telehealth initiatives, such as video conferencing, and software and portals for synthesizing knowledge, composing elements of an information ecosystem, mediated by information and communication technologies in the health system. Telehealth should be composed of a set of activities in a computer mediated network promoting the translation of knowledge between research and health services.

  6. On Deletion of Sutra Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-juan

    2017-01-01

    Dao An's the metaphor of translation "wine diluted with water' ' expressed a view about translation that had been abridged.Later Kumarajiva provided metaphor "rice chewed—tasteless and downright disgusting".Both of them felt regretted at the weakening of taste,sometimes even the complete loss of flavor caused by deletion in translation of Buddhist sutras.In early sutra translation,deletion is unavoidable which made many sutra translators felt confused and drove them to study it further and some even managed to give their understanding to this issue.This thesis will discuss the definition,and what causes deletion and the measures adopted by the sutra translators.

  7. Challenges in translational research: the views of addiction scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place.

  8. The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.

  9. (Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, ...

  10. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  11. Translation and identity: Translation of the Freedom Charter into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the Afrikaans translations reveals how the respective translators struggled sporadically through certain ideological constraints in order to provide a satisfactory narrative. Their inability to internalise the principles contained in the Freedom Charter resulted in them presenting a 'framed' translation ...

  12. A Writer's Thoughts on Translation and Always Living in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosin, Marjorie; Jones, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how it feels to be a poet who writes in Spanish and has her work translated, examining the author's immigration experiences and noting the translator's contributions in making her work accessible across languages, borders, and cultures. Explains that writing in Spanish is a gesture of survival, and translation allows her memories to…

  13. 'Inhabiting' the Translator's Habitus – Antjie Krog as Translator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on the Bourdieusian concept of habitus and its applicability in the field of translation, this article discusses Antjie Krog's profile in the practice of translation in. South Africa. Bourdieu's conceptualisation of the relationship between the initiating activities of translators and the structures which constrain and enable ...

  14. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    , place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative...... projects played a major role in this process. First, they acted as a vehicle that assembled planners, politicians and stakeholders to work towards strategic visions across multiple scales. Second and consequently, they stimulated considerable second and third order effects in the form of shared problem...

  15. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    formations. After presenting the two theories the article put forward Twitter as an example making it possible to compare the two theories. Hereby the article also provides two analysis of how Twitter changes the communication milieu of modern society. In systems theory media can be seen as the mechanisms...... and translations the social medium of Twitter opens for. The second, but most prioritized, aim of the paper is to present, compare and discuss the two theories: How do they understand what becomes visible in their different optics, which observations become possible in the one or the other – and is it possible...... creating networks consisting in both humans and non-humans. Then the two appearing frameworks are used to observe Twitter and discuss which structural couplings and translations are made possible by this medium. In the end of the paper the two theories are discussed and compared....

  16. Translation of Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...

  17. CADAT network translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.

  18. The Impact of Power on Translation of News Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Azodi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation has always undergone the impact of various metalinguistic factors which impose their impact during the process of translation and rendering its final linguistic product. News stories or better to say political discourses are among those linguistic materials that more than other textual materials undergo the impact of factors such as ideology. Not being aware of such discursive practices leads the so-called translator to suffice to linguistic substitutions without observing imbedded intentions. For the purpose of this study through a qualitative type of research and based on critical discourse analysis (CDA approach for textual analysis and following Tymoczko’s concept of power (2002 in translation this study aimed to scrutinize the impact of power on Persian translations of different pieces of news stories in English in 2012. The corpus consists of some pieces of English news stories in worldwide news agencies (namely, Reuters, Washington Post, New York Post, and Forbes about Iran’s nuclear program. Results of the study showed that ideology is the very important stimulus which can control and direct the purpose of the news stories being translated from English to Persian and reveal its impact in a desired way as news stories for target audience.

  19. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  20. Antecedents of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a contribution towards Mair and Noboa ‘s (2006) model of the antecedents of social entrepreneurial intentions. The Mair/Noboa model builds on Krueger’s (1993) proposal of a theory of planned behavior for entrepreneurial intention formation by suggesting that social entrepreneurial...... intentions are driven by an individual’s perceived desirability and perceived feasibility of starting a social venture. This article proposes and validates measures of the antecedents of social entrepreneurial behavior with a sample of nascent social entrepreneurs. The measures developed adapt constructs...

  1. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes.......  It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...

  2. [English translation of the title of ancient Chinese medical books and documents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fang; Shao, Xin; Zhang, Pei-Hai

    2008-11-01

    The title of a book is, generally, the high concentration of the writer's intention and the theme of content. Translate the title of an ancient Chinese medical book or document accurately and plainly is meaningful for exhibiting the style of the book, also for promoting the international communication of TCM. The principle should be followed is to choose the translating terms accurately to reveal the theme of content and express the cultural connotation of the book perfectly.

  3. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  4. TEACHING TRANSLATION: OBJECTIVES AND METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Kobyakova, Iryna; Shvachko, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on the set of items: teaching translation, objectives, exercises and assignments (both word-centered and text-centered translation), translation analysis. The choice of the items is motivated by the dominant functions of transatology (nominative and communicative). The latter succeed in identification of adequate, congruent, equivalent translation. The article discusses the problems of professional validity, theoretical insertions, textocentric analysis. Gains, achievem...

  5. Intention to leave the profession: antecedents and role in nurse turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Julianne

    2008-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the relationship between intention to change profession and intention to change employer among newly graduated nurses. Few studies of the worldwide nursing workforce shortage consider the contribution of changing professions to the shortage. Organizational behaviour research has identified that professional commitment and organizational commitment have an important role in organizational turnover and that professional commitment and intention to change professions may have a greater role in organizational turnover than is presently understood. A model of the relationships between affective professional commitment job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intention to change professions and organizational turnover intention was developed through review of the organizational behaviour literature and tested using path analysis. The sample was drawn from all nurses in Queensland, Australia, entering the workforce for the first time in 2005. The model was tested with a final sample size of 131 nurses in the initial period of exposure to the workplace. Affective professional commitment and organizational commitment were statistically significantly related to intention to change professions. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to change professions were statistically significantly related to intention to change employer. Turnover research in nursing should include intention to change professions as well as intention to change employer. Policies and practices that enhance the development of affective professional commitment prior to exposure to the workplace and support affective professional commitment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the workplace are needed to help reduce nurse turnover.

  6. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  7. Translational Implications of Tamil "Hamlets."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraj, S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of translation when teaching English as a Second Language in a Tamil context. Singles out the fencing episode in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" to illustrate the difficulties of translating cultural aspects. Concludes that successful translations of Shakespeare into Indian languages should involve collaboration between…

  8. MULTIFUNCTION OF INTERNET IN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Budiharjo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology affects almost all areas, including translation. Many products of technology have made translational works easier, one of which is internet. Despite the wide use of internet, the potentials it has are sometimes unnoticed. While web-based dictionaries or thesaurus often serve as translators’ assistants and online Machine Translation issues become topics of many researches, other uses of internet related to translation may not be known by many. Internet can help disseminate newborn ideas, theories and findings worldwide to enhance translation theories. Besides, the contact between internet and translation generates new areas to examine. Internet also provides helping hand in the area of translation research. Researcher or anyone conducting research in the field of translation can find a range of research gaps as well as reference. Those who need group discussions to collect required data from informants, or researchers of the same interest coming from all over the world can meet and conduct Focus Group Discussion (FGD on virtual world. Furthermore, internet offers various forms of assistance for translation practitioners. The commonly used internet assistance consists of dictionaries, thesaurus and Machine Translations available on the internet. Other forms of aid provided by internet take form of parallel texts, images, and videos, which can be very helpful. Internet provides many things which can be utilized for the purpose of translation. Internet keeps on providing more as it develops from time to time in line with the development of technology. Internet awaits utilization of theorists, researchers, practitioners and those having concern on translation.

  9. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  10. Translational plant proteomics: A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic

  11. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  12. Assessment of Prospective Memory – a Validity Study of Memory for Intentions Screening Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdicek, O.; Raskin, S.A.; Altgassen, A.M.; Ruzicka, E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal of the present study was to validate the Czech version of the Memory for Intentions (Screening) Test (MIST, 2010). We included standardized testing material, translation of administration and scoring, and assessment of normative data for the MIST in the Czech population. Introduction:

  13. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  14. Intentional Learning Vs Incidental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This study is conducted to demonstrate the knowledge of intentional learning and incidental learning. Hypothesis of this experiment is intentional learning is better than incidental learning, participants were demonstrated and were asked to learn the 10 non sense syllables in a specific sequence from the colored cards in the end they were asked to recall the background color of each card instead of non-sense syllables. Independent variables of the experiment are the colored cards containing n...

  15. Decoding intention at sensorimotor timescales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Salvaris

    Full Text Available The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a 'holy grail' of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered.

  16. Mamma Mia, A Singable Translation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.

  17. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  18. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially......The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...

  19. Against the Intentional Fallacy: Legocentrism and Continuity in the Rhetoric of Indian Dispossession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The road of US Indian law and policy, like its companion to hell, is paved with good intentions. Critics of its generally diabolic outcomes have had little difficulty demonstrating the moral chasm between the appealing rhetoric in which a policy or judgment was framed and the oppressive consequences to which it practically conduced. With a nod to…

  20. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-16

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  1. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  2. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Anam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  3. PERSONALITY TYPE AND TRANSLATION PERFORMANCE OF PERSIAN TRANSLATOR TRAINEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between the personality typology of a sample of Iranian translation students and their translation quality in terms of expressive, appellative, and informative text types. The study also attempted to identify the personality types that can perform better in English to Persian translation of the three text types. For that purpose, the personality type and the translation quality of the participants was assessed using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI personality test and translation quality assessment (TQA, respectively. The analysis of the data revealed that the personality type of the participants seemed relevant to the translation quality of all the text types. The translation quality of the participants with intuitive and thinking types was significantly better than the sensing type counterparts in translating expressive texts. The participants with intuitive and feeling types also performed better than their counterparts with sensing type in translation of the informative text. Moreover, the participants with intuitive, feeling, and thinking personality types performed more successfully than the participants with sensing type in translation of the appellative text. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the existing research literature.

  4. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutopo, Anam

    2018-02-01

    Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex) thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  5. Innovative teaching methods for capacity building in knowledge translation

    OpenAIRE

    Wahabi, Hayfaa A; Al-Ansary, Lubna A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In some current healthcare settings, there is a noticeable absence of national institutions committed to the synthesis and use of evidence in healthcare decision- and policy-making. This absence creates a need to broaden the responsibilities of healthcare providers to include knowledge brokering and advocacy in order to optimize knowledge translation to other stakeholders, especially policy-makers. However, this process requires practitioners and researchers to acquire cer...

  6. Never the twain shall meet?--a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Per; Ståhl, Christian; Roback, Kerstin; Cairney, Paul

    2013-06-10

    policy implementation research and implementation science. Research in both fields deals with the challenges of translating intentions into desired changes. Important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research.

  7. Never the twain shall meet? - a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    There are many common issues in policy implementation research and implementation science. Research in both fields deals with the challenges of translating intentions into desired changes. Important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research. PMID:23758952

  8. Magnetic translator bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  9. Effects of cognitive variables on entrepreneurial intention levels

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan C.; Rueda, José M.; Martínez, Jesús S.; Kirby, David (Coordinador)

    2005-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is becoming a very relevant instrument to promote economic growth and development in different regional and national economies. However, social scientists have not still agreed on the determinants of the decision to become an entrepreneur. Therefore, there is some concern that policies may not be sufficiently efficient in achieving this objective. From a psychological point of view, the intention to become an entrepreneur has been described as the single best predictor of ...

  10. Unbounding entrepreneurial intents of university students: a multidisciplinary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora A.C. Teixeira; Rosa Portela Forte

    2009-01-01

    Entrepreneurial activities are seen as key drivers of innovation, job creation, and economic growth. Recent efforts are being pursued by several entities, including governments to promote entrepreneurial skills amongst the youngest. However, to design effective programs, policy makers have to uncover the determinants of entrepreneurship. To avoid that such efforts would be fruitless we argue that a multidisciplinary account of entrepreneurial intents among students is mandatory, circumventing...

  11. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  12. Translation goes to the movies

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This highly accessible introduction to translation theory, written by a leading author in the field, uses the genre of film to bring the main themes in translation to life. Through analyzing films as diverse as the Marx Brothers' A Night at the Opera, The Star Wars Trilogies and Lost in Translation, the reader is encouraged to think about both issues and problems of translation as they are played out on the screen and issues of filmic representation through examining the translation dimension of specific films. In highlighting how translation has featured in both mainstream commercial and arthouse films over the years, Cronin shows how translation has been a concern of filmmakers dealing with questions of culture, identity, conflict and representation. This book is a lively and accessible text for translation theory courses and offers a new and largely unexplored approach to topics of identity and representation on screen. Translation Goes to the Movies will be of interest to those on translation studies...

  13. Pauses by Student and Professional Translators in Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Noor Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation as a process of meaning making activity requires a cognitive process one of which is realized in a pause, a temporary stop or a break indicating doing other than typing activities in a certain period of translation process. Scholars agree that pauses are an indicator of cognitive process without which there will never be any translation practices. Despite such agreement, pauses are debatable as well, either in terms of their length or in terms of the activities managed by a translator while taking pauses. This study, in particular, aims at finding out how student translators and professional translators managed the pauses in a translation process. This was a descriptive research taking two student translators and two professional translators as the participants who were asked to translate a text from English into bahasa Indonesia. The source text (ST was a historical recount text entitled ‘Early History of Yellowstone National Park’ downloaded from http://www.nezperce.com/yelpark9.html composed of 230-word long from English into bahasa Indonesia. The data were collected using Translog protocols, think aloud protocols (TAPs and screen recording. Based on the data analysis, it was found that student translators took the longest pauses in the drafting phase spent to solve the problems related to finding out the right equivalent for the ST words or terms and to solve the difficulties encountered in encoding their ST understanding in the TL; meanwhile, professional translators took the longest pauses in the pos-drafting phase spent to ensure whether their TT had been natural and whether their TT had corresponded to the prevailing grammatical rules of the TL.

  14. 75 FR 22836 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Eastern Washington and San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLORW00000 L16100000.DO0000; HAG10-0117] Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Eastern Washington and San Juan Planning... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: In compliance with the National Environmental Policy...

  15. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLORE00000 L63500000.DO0000.LXSS021H0000.HAG11-0203] Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: In compliance with the National Environmental Policy...

  16. Topical Review: Translating Translational Research in Behavioral Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Kevin A; Modi, Avani C; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Myers, James D

    2015-01-01

    To present a model of translational research for behavioral science that communicates the role of behavioral research at each phase of translation. A task force identified gaps in knowledge regarding behavioral translational research processes and made recommendations regarding advancement of knowledge. A comprehensive model of translational behavioral research was developed. This model represents T1, T2, and T3 research activities, as well as Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 clinical trials. Clinical illustrations of translational processes are also offered as support for the model. Behavioral science has struggled with defining a translational research model that effectively articulates each stage of translation and complements biomedical research. Our model defines key activities at each phase of translation from basic discovery to dissemination/implementation. This should be a starting point for communicating the role of behavioral science in translational research and a catalyst for better integration of biomedical and behavioral research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. An Evergreen Challenge for Translators – The Translation of Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating idioms has always been a challenging decision-making process for translators mainly because not all idioms have direct equivalents in the target language. Translators usually and ideally have a solid knowledge of the target language and its cultural aspects, but even so they cannot match the ability of a native speaker in deciding when – i.e. in what context and text type – an idiom would or would not be appropriate. This study aims to explore the main characteristics of idioms and the difficulties which might occur when translating them. A needs analysis will also be presented, where the various solutions which a group of translator trainees chose while translating certain idioms from the novel “A Game of Thrones” by George R. R. Martin into Hungarian are examined. Their strategies and the appropriateness of their choices are analysed and compared with the options of the experienced literary translator (Tamás Pétersz. We consider this an important endeavour because, based on our experience, we believe that the topic of the translation of idioms should be included into the curriculum and appropriate materials and tasks should be designed to develop the translator trainees’ knowledge and skills in this domain. Therefore, the aim of this analysis is to obtain a clearer view of the difficulties they are dealing with and bear them in mind when designing teaching materials for them.

  18. Beyond Human Intentions and Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa eJuan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON, these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person’s position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/ bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in an interpersonal and emotional context. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of fMRI studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions versus those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help further develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding.

  19. The fate of completed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Francis T; Einstein, Gilles O

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether and how people deactivate prospective memory (PM) intentions after they have been completed. One view proposes that PM intentions can be deactivated after completion, such that they no longer come to mind and interfere with current tasks. Another view is that now irrelevant completed PM intentions exhibit persisting activation, and continue to be retrieved. In Experiment 1, participants were given a PM intention embedded within the ongoing task during Phase 1, after which participants were told either that the PM task had been completed or suspended until later. During Phase 2, participants were instructed to perform only the ongoing task and were periodically prompted to report their thoughts. Critically, the PM targets from Phase 1 reappeared in Phase 2. All of our measures, including thoughts reported about the PM task, supported the existence of persisting activation. In Experiment 2, we varied conditions that were expected to mitigate persisting activation. Despite our best attempts to promote deactivation, we found evidence for the persistence of spontaneous retrieval in all groups after intentions were completed. The theoretical and practical implications of this potential dark side to spontaneous retrieval are discussed.

  20. The Adaptation of Intentional Immigrant Entrepreneurs: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prue Cruickshank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes the experiences of a group of intentional immigrant entrepreneurs (IIEs who have successfully set up a business within three years of arrival in a new country. It shows how various forms of symbolic capital are successfully deployed at each stage of the entrepreneurial process and asserts that the study of intentional, well-resourced immigrants, can contribute to understanding immigrant entrepreneurs’ adaptation to their new settings and also inform immigration policy. Research Design & Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of New Zealand intentional immigrant entrepreneurs. The iterative analytical process used revealed the various dimensions of symbolic capital necessary for adaptation to the host country and to fulfilling visa requirements to gain residency. Findings: This paper demonstrates that the successful adaptation of IIEs, while in the first instance requiring adequate financial capital, also requires the strategic use of human, cultural and social capital, in different ways and at different times in the entrepreneurial process, to overcome the obstacles and barriers to success. Implications & Recommendations: As immigration policy makers seek to balance global migrant pressures and international obligations against internal national economic and political demands, the results of this study could resonate with both global policy analysts and scholars engaged in immigrant entrepreneurship. Contribution & Value Added: This article adds to the relatively small body of scholarship on IIEship, particularly those who, unlike the majority of immigrant entrepreneurs, do not establish a business within ethnic communities.

  1. Rendering of Foreign Language Inclusions in the Russian Translations of the Novels by Graham Greene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Martynova, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the problem under discussion is preconditioned by the scientific inquiry of the best variants of foreign language inclusions translation which would suite original narration in the source text stylistically, emotionally and conceptually and also fully projects the author's communicative intention in every particular case. The…

  2. Policy entrepreneurs and strategies for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Stijn; Huitema, Dave

    2018-01-01

    Despite the fact that we currently witness an increasing interest in the study of the role of agency in policy dynamics, it remains in many respects a puzzle how policy change can be explained, let alone directed. This paper focusses intently on the concept, incidence, and strategic behaviour of

  3. Econocomics: Teaching Translation of Economic and Financial Texts through Comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Falco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Comics have commonly be seen as a popular genre, having the main purpose of entertaining people. Recent research has shown that comic books and graphic novels can also deal with serious topics and, as a consequence, be used for educational purposes (Babic 2013. This paper describes the results of a study focusing on the use of comic books for the didactics of economic (Goodwin 2012 and of economic translation, in a classroom of MA students in specialized translation. It shows how the translation of comics dealing with economic and financial topics can be a hard task for university students in specialized translation. As a matter of fact, the blending of different registers, the informal one in the characters’ balloons and the formal one in the narrative frames, as well as the interaction of words and images, may cause significant troubles to students as comics entail different translation strategies (Zanettin 2008 as well as intercultural competences. The paper illustrates the results of two case studies. The first one focuses on some parallel texts, including samples from the English source text and their Italian translations, and comments on the decisions made by professionals in order to manage translation problems. The second case study describes the problems encountered by a group of MA students in specialized translation, who were asked to translate, from American English to Italian, a frame taken from The Economic Meltdown Funnies, a comic book co-published by Jobs with Justice and the Institute for Policy Studies’ Program on Inequality and the Common Good. In both cases, the analysis was carried out using a methodology inspired to the contributions from visual grammar (Kress and Leeuwen 2006, cognitive linguistics (Evans and Green 2006 and functionalist approaches to translation (Nord 2007.

  4. Workplace experiences and turnover intention among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Ness, Kirsten K; Martinez, Larry R; Hebl, Michelle R; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Brinkman, Tara M

    2018-03-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate workplace experiences and turnover intention (consideration of leaving or changing a job) and to examine factors associated with turnover intention among survivors. Adult survivors of childhood cancer with a history of employment (n = 289) completed measures of workplace experiences (n = 50, 18-29 years; n = 183, 30-44 years; n = 56; > 45 years of age at follow-up). Turnover intention was assessed using three items from the Job Satisfaction Scale. Responses were dichotomized as reflecting high vs. low turnover intention. Path analysis was used to estimate the influence of demographic characteristics, treatment exposures (cranial radiation therapy [CRT]), and workplace experiences on turnover intention. Thirty percent of survivors reported high turnover intention (95% CL, 25 to 36%). Exposure to CRT (P = 0.003), older attained age (P workplace discrimination (P = 0.008), and having lower continuance (P discrimination, mediated through job satisfaction, also influenced survivors' reported intent to leave their jobs. One third of adult survivors of childhood cancer report turnover intention, which is related to their cancer treatment, but more temporally proximal, workplace discrimination. Additional research is needed to understand the consequences of turnover intention among survivors. Survivors and their health care providers should be aware of legislative policies related to workplace discrimination (e.g., American with Disabilities Act) and related implications for job turnover.

  5. Analysis of the morality of intention in nuclear deterrence, with special reference to final retaliation. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Quite apart from its apparent political obsolescence, the policy of nuclear deterrence is vulnerable to attack for its seemingly obvious immorality. Nuclear war is blatantly immoral, and nuclear deterrence requires a genuine intention to resort to the nuclear retaliation which would precipitate such a war. Therefore, since it is wrong to intend that which is wrong to do, deterrence is immoral. This thesis seeks to examine the nature of the deterrent intention as a means of verifying the soundness of the above deontological argument. This examination is carried out by first suggesting an acceptable notion of intention in general and then, after analysing the views of deterrent intention by other writers, proceeding to demonstrate the uniqueness of that intention. Having done this, and having explored the possibility that deterrence need not contain a genuine intention to retaliate, the thesis moves on to suggest and defend a moral principle which states that endeavours requiring the formation of an immoral intention may nevertheless be moral. Called the Principle of Double Intention (and based on the Principle of Double Effect), it offers a method for the moral assessment of agents who form immoral intentions within larger contexts. By applying this principle to nuclear deterrence, it is demonstrated that agents who undertake such a policy may be morally justified in doing so, provided certain conditions are met. The thesis closes with a refutation of the objection that an agent cannot rationally form an intention (such as that required in deterrence) which he has no reason to carry out.

  6. Building translational ecology communities of practice: insights from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Dawn M.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Yung, Laurie; Enquist, Carolyn A. F.

    2017-01-01

    Translational ecology (TE) prioritizes the understanding of social systems and decision contexts in order to address complex natural resource management issues. Although many practitioners in applied fields employ translational tactics, the body of literature addressing such approaches is limited. We present several case studies illustrating the principles of TE and the diversity of its applications. We anticipate that these examples will help others develop scientific products that decision makers can use “off the shelf” when solving critical ecological and social challenges. Our collective experience suggests that research of such immediate utility is rare. Long‐term commitment to working directly with partners to develop and reach shared goals is central to successful translation. The examples discussed here highlight the benefits of translational processes, including actionable scientific results, more informed policy making, increased investment in science‐driven solutions, and inspiration for partnerships. We aim to facilitate future TE‐based projects and build momentum for growing this community of practice.

  7. 76 FR 28209 - Notice of Intent To Reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council, and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... appointed members will be from the general public including leaders in, fields of public policy, trade... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council, and Request for Nominations AGENCY: Agricultural Research...

  8. Found in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    activities and uses, and people’s ideas and desires for future development can be a pertinent starting point. Furthermore, a clearly defined programming phase where design problems are formulated by different representational media and collectively assessed by students and teachers proved helpful...... analysis. Second, it presents the applied educational procedure, with a focus on the decisive step from inventory to intervention which is the formulation of a design problem. The teaching experiment shows that onsite studies of spatial controversies in the form of recent physical changes, emerging new...... for the students. Overall, the produced design work and the student evaluations show that translation offers an operational framework for teaching a creative approach to site analysis....

  9. Holography without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.

  10. Cognitive effects on entrepreneurial intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Rezaei, Shahamak; Wherry, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive characteristics of individuals have previously been established as important predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. Yet, we know little about this relationship in a transnational and ethnic entrepreneurship context. In this paper, we examine if and how émigrés differs from those...... individuals staying at home with regard to entrepreneurial intentions and with regard to their cognitive make-up. Also, we examine differences in the impact of cognitions of émigrés and homeland individuals respectively on their entrepreneurial intentions. We use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor...... also find that both first and second generation émigrés are less likely to have entrepreneurially oriented cognitions....

  11. The Challenge of Translating Children’s Literature: Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Translated by Vladimir Nabokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author focuses on Vladimir Nabokov’s translation of Lewis Carroll’s novel Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, made in 1923. The main intention of the article is to analyze Nabokov’s translation strategies of domestication, realized in the text as substitution and localization, and to explain possible reasons for his decision in favour of almost complete Russification of the original. It is possible that Nabokov considered children’s attitude towards the final result as the most important part of the translation process. Thus, he used domesticated strategies to transfer for Russian children the humour, the originality and brightness of the paradoxical and attractive world of Lewis Carroll, his sense of the absurd and his amazing gift for games of logic and language, providing a recognizable and familiar atmosphere for the readers. Undoubtedly, his young Russian readers were able to identify themselves with the story and to comprehend the complex world created by Lewis Carroll. On the other hand, Nabokov refuses to oversimplify his translation or to patronize its young audience through simplistic translation solutions.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-01-01

    Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more...

  13. Transferring communicative clues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Errasti, María Pilar

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I make use of the category communicative clue, as defined by Gutt (1991/2000), to explain certain differences between an original work and its various translations. Communicative clues are very useful analytical devices that show nuances of meaning and style. In the source texts, they sometimes go unnoticed. But when a translation is done the translator may come across these features and must desirably transfer them. Very frequently, however, they are ignored. Here a particular ...

  14. Cultural adaptation in translational research: field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Samuels, Deanne; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Jacobs, Robin

    2005-06-01

    The increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among minorities in the United States and in certain developing nations has prompted new intervention priorities, stressing the adaptation of efficacious interventions for diverse and marginalized groups. The experiences of Florida International University's AIDS Prevention Program in translating HIV primary and secondary prevention interventions among these multicultural populations provide insight into the process of cultural adaptations and address the new scientific emphasis on ecological validity. An iterative process involving forward and backward translation, a cultural linguistic committee, focus group discussions, documentation of project procedures, and consultations with other researchers in the field was used to modify interventions. This article presents strategies used to ensure fidelity in implementing the efficacious core components of evidence-based interventions for reducing HIV transmission and drug use behaviors and the challenges posed by making cultural adaptation for participants with low literacy. This experience demonstrates the importance of integrating culturally relevant material in the translation process with intense focus on language and nuance. The process must ensure that the level of intervention is appropriate for the educational level of participants. Furthermore, the rights of participants must be protected during consenting procedures by instituting policies that recognize the socioeconomic, educational, and systemic pressures to participate in research.

  15. Identifying translational science within the triangle of biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Griffin M

    2013-05-24

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap places special emphasis on "bench-to-bedside" research, or the "translation" of basic science research into practical clinical applications. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium is one example of the large investments being made to develop a national infrastructure to support translational science, which involves reducing regulatory burdens, launching new educational initiatives, and forming partnerships between academia and industry. However, while numerous definitions have been suggested for translational science, including the qualitative T1-T4 classification, a consensus has not yet been reached. This makes it challenging to tract the impact of these major policy changes. In this study, we use a bibliometric approach to map PubMed articles onto a graph, called the Triangle of Biomedicine. The corners of the triangle represent research related to animals, cells and molecules, and humans; and, the position of a publication on the graph is based on its topics, as determined by its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We define translation as movement of a collection of articles, or the articles that cite those articles, towards the human corner. The Triangle of Biomedicine provides a quantitative way of determining if an individual scientist, research organization, funding agency, or scientific field is producing results that are relevant to clinical medicine. We validate our technique using examples that have been previously described in the literature and by comparing it to prior methods of measuring translational science. The Triangle of Biomedicine is a novel way to identify translational science and track changes over time. This is important to policy makers in evaluating the impact of the large investments being made to accelerate translation. The Triangle of Biomedicine also provides a simple visual way of depicting this impact, which can be far more powerful than numbers alone.

  16. Strategy Of Translating Gadget Brochure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Kusuma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title of this writing is strategy of translating gadget brochure. There were two problems discussed in this thesis, namely (1 terms found in the gadget manual book and its equivalence in Indonesia, (2 strategies applied in translating gadget brochure. Based on the analysis result, it was found that the terms and its equivalent words found in the gadget brochure were classified based on: 1 simple words or compound words and terminology forming phrase. 2 words category found are: noun and verb. The recommended pattern to determine the equivalent word was pure borrowing strategy, not adaptation borrowing strategy. The adaptation borrowing in this context was related to the spellings, the pronunciation or sound adaptation in the TL rather than adaptation for the cultural substitutes that conceptually mismatches with the standardized terminology in the SL. In addition, the result of the analysis that there were seven strategies found in gadget brochure, they were translation by more general word (Superordinate, translation by a more neutral/expressive word, translation by cultural substitution, translation by using loan word or loan word plus explanation, translation by paraphrase using related word, translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  17. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...... the needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents...

  18. Research Translation Strategies to Improve the Readability of Workplace Health Promotion Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alison; Joss, Nerida

    2016-01-01

    Without deliberate and resourced translation, research evidence is unlikely to inform policy and practice. This paper describes the processes and practical solutions used to translate evaluation research findings to improve the readability of print materials in a large scale worksite health programme. It is argued that a knowledge brokering and…

  19. Academic Perspectives and Experiences of Knowledge Translation: A Qualitative Study of Public Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…

  20. Onomastics and Translation: The Case of Igbo→English Translation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The qualitative research method will be used to translate, analyze and explain the data from the anthroponomical, semiotic and linguistic perspectives to show that contrary to the view held in some Western circles that names are obscure and may consist of words that can hardly be interpreted or translated, they, as symbols ...

  1. The Translation and the Translator of the Peshitta of Hosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…

  2. The wise translator: reflecting on judgement in translator education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of how one goes about teaching students to be translators is a central area of concern for translation teachers. As a reflective practitioner, I have a hunch about how to solve my problem. This paper is therefore in itself part of a reflective practicum, part of my reflection-in-action. I am in the process of restructuring ...

  3. A Study of Translation Institutional Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoXianfeng; ZhouJin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional translation ethics characterized by translators' ethics cannot provide a strong moral support to the translation practice,or guarantee the moral requirement towards translation activities in the social transformation caused by the market economy,because it does not have the power of punishment.Translation institutional ethics,however,a new form of translation ethics,integrates the translation ethic norm,translation regulations and relative laws together.As an inevitable outcome in the new era,it can escort the orderly and healthy translation activities.Its purpose is to strengthen the translators' moral consciousness,to sublimate their moral notions and to transfer from heteronomy to autonomy.

  4. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  5. Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise - (Korean translation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge.......Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge....

  6. The influence of tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking intentions via normative beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-08-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123 in Wave 3 (mid-ban) and 1159 in Wave 4 (post-ban). Structural equation modelling was used to assess the direct effect of tobacco advertising and promotion on intentions at each wave, and also the indirect effect, mediated through normative influences. Pre-ban, higher levels of awareness of advertising and promotion were independently associated with higher levels of perceived sibling approval which, in turn, was positively related to intentions. Independent paths from perceived prevalence and benefits fully mediated the effects of advertising and promotion awareness on intentions mid- and post-ban. Advertising awareness indirectly affected intentions via the interaction between perceived prevalence and benefits pre-ban, whereas the indirect effect on intentions of advertising and promotion awareness was mediated by the interaction of perceived prevalence and benefits mid-ban. Our findings indicate that policy measures such as the TAPA can significantly reduce adolescents' smoking intentions by signifying smoking to be less normative and socially unacceptable.

  7. Intention-Aware Autonomous Driving Decision-Making in an Uncontrolled Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles need to perform social accepted behaviors in complex urban scenarios including human-driven vehicles with uncertain intentions. This leads to many difficult decision-making problems, such as deciding a lane change maneuver and generating policies to pass through intersections. In this paper, we propose an intention-aware decision-making algorithm to solve this challenging problem in an uncontrolled intersection scenario. In order to consider uncertain intentions, we first develop a continuous hidden Markov model to predict both the high-level motion intention (e.g., turn right, turn left, and go straight and the low level interaction intentions (e.g., yield status for related vehicles. Then a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP is built to model the general decision-making framework. Due to the difficulty in solving POMDP, we use proper assumptions and approximations to simplify this problem. A human-like policy generation mechanism is used to generate the possible candidates. Human-driven vehicles’ future motion model is proposed to be applied in state transition process and the intention is updated during each prediction time step. The reward function, which considers the driving safety, traffic laws, time efficiency, and so forth, is designed to calculate the optimal policy. Finally, our method is evaluated in simulation with PreScan software and a driving simulator. The experiments show that our method could lead autonomous vehicle to pass through uncontrolled intersections safely and efficiently.

  8. Sleep to implement an intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of new memories. However, this effect has mainly been shown for memories of past events. Here we investigated the role of sleep for the implementation of intentions for the future. Subjects were instructed on a plan that had to be executed after a delay of 2 days. After plan instruction, subjects were either allowed to sleep or stayed awake for one night (Exp. 1) or had a 3-h sleep period either during the early night (SWS-rich sleep) or late night (REM-rich sleep; Exp. 2). In both experiments, retesting took place 2 days later after one recovery night. Sleep laboratory. A total of 56 healthy young adults participated in the study. N/A. All of the subjects who were allowed to sleep after plan instruction executed the intention 2 days later, whereas only 61% of wake subjects did so (P = 0.004; Exp. 1). Also after early SWS-rich sleep all of the subjects remembered to execute the intention, but only 55% did so after late REM-rich sleep (P = 0.015; Exp. 2). Sleep, especially SWS, plays an important role for the successful implementation of delayed intentions.

  9. Modeling intentional inhibition of actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thilakarathne, D.J.; Treur, J.

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by cognitive and neurological literature on action ownership and action awareness, in this paper a computational cognitive model for intentional inhibition (i.e.; the capacity to voluntarily suspend or inhibit an action) is introduced. The interplay between (positive) potential selection of

  10. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  11. Intentional learning: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollman, Sarah; Candela, Lori

    2018-01-01

    To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices. A concept analysis following the eight-step method developed by Walker and Avant (2011). Empirical and descriptive literature.  Five defining attributes were identified: (1) self-efficacy for learning, (2) active, effortful, and engaged learning, (3) mastery of goals where learning is the goal, (4) self-directed learning, and (5) self-regulation of learning. Through this concept analysis, nursing will have a clear definition of intentional learning. This will enable nurse educators to generate, evaluate, and test learning experiences that promote further development of intentional learning in nursing students. Nurses in practice will also be able to evaluate if the stated benefits are demonstrated and how this impacts patient care and outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Software that meets its Intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Bos, Herbert; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; van Deursen, Arie; Groote, Jan Friso; Lago, Patricia; van de Pol, Jaco; Visser, Eelco; Margaria, Tiziana; Steffen, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Software is widely used, and society increasingly depends on its reliability. However, software has become so complex and it evolves so quickly that we fail to keep it under control. Therefore, we propose intents: fundamental laws that capture a software systems’ intended behavior (resilient,

  13. Entrepreneurial intention of Danish students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fietze, Simon; Boyd, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the entrepreneurial intention (EI) among Danish university students applying the theory of planned behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – Using cross-sectional data from the Danish Global University Student Spirit Survey 2013 (n=1...

  14. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  15. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous

  16. Human rights and the challenges of science and technology: Commentary on Meier et al. "Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform" and Hall et al. "The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of the corpus of international human rights to include the right to water and sanitation has implications both for the process of recognizing human rights and for future developments in the relationships between technology, engineering and human rights. Concerns with threats to human rights resulting from developments in science and technology were expressed in the early days of the United Nations (UN), along with the recognition of the ambitious human right of everyone "to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications." This comment explores the hypothesis that the emerging concepts most likely to follow recognition of the human right to water primarily involve issues of science and technology, such as access to medicines or clean and healthy environment. Many threats to human rights from advances in science, which were identified in the past as potential, have become real today, such as invasion of privacy from electronic recording, deprivation of health and livelihood as a result of climate change, or control over individual autonomy through advances in genetics and neuroscience. This comment concludes by urging greater engagement of scientists and engineers, in partnership with human rights specialists, in translating normative pronouncements into defining policy and planning interventions.

  17. Reconceptualising translation in agricultural innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, Julie; Dwyer, Janet; Gaskell, Peter; Mills, Jane; Wolf, de Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Scientific research continues to play a significant role in meeting the multiple innovation challenges in agriculture. If this role is to be fulfilled, provision needs to be made for effective translation of research outputs, where translation is understood to be the process whereby science becomes

  18. PATRAN-STAGS translator (PATSTAGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Neil

    1990-01-01

    A a computer program used to translate PATRAN finite element model data into Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) input data is presented. The program supports translation of nodal, nodal constraints, element, force, and pressure data. The subroutine UPRESS required for the readings of live pressure data into STAGS is also presented.

  19. Hale and Hearty Policies: How Psychological Science Can Create and Maintain Healthy Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Alexander J; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Grant, Adam M; Neal, David T; Sheeran, Paschal; Wood, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Strategies are needed to ensure that the U.S. Government meets its goals for improving the health of the nation (e.g., Healthy People 2020). To date, progress toward these goals has been undermined by a set of discernible challenges: People lack sufficient motivation, they frequently fail to translate healthy intentions into action, their efforts are undermined by the persistence of prior unhealthy habits, and they have considerable difficulty maintaining new healthy patterns of behavior. Guided by advances in psychological science, we provide innovative, evidence-based policies that address each of these challenges and, if implemented, will enhance people's ability to create and maintain healthy behavioral practices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  1. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  2. Translational plant proteomics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Pedreschi, Romina; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Cramer, Rainer; Sarkar, Abhijit; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-08-03

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic values of plants, food security and safety, and energy sustainability. In this review, we highlight the substantial progress reached in plant proteomics during the past decade which has paved the way for translational plant proteomics. Increasing proteomics knowledge in plants is not limited to model and non-model plants, proteogenomics, crop improvement, and food analysis, safety, and nutrition but to many more potential applications. Given the wealth of information generated and to some extent applied, there is the need for more efficient and broader channels to freely disseminate the information to the scientific community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solving the Policy Implementation Problem: The Case of Arizona Charter Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Gregg A.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes how Arizona charter school policymakers succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions of the state's charter school program. Identifies four key features of policy implementation that created the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. (SLD)

  4. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (DOC) is... United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to...

  5. TRANSLATING BLACKNESS: A CHALLENGE TO TRANSLATION STUDIES IN CONTEMPORANEITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Andrade Salgueiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents aspects of a work in progress about both African-American and Afro-Brazilian Literatures as well as Translation Studies. As it makes observations about how blackness has been translated in different contexts and geographical spaces, it calls the reader’s attention to power relations, processes of colonial and post-colonial identity construction, the rising of literary canons, cultural hegemony and globalization, demystifying spaces and showing translation as an activity that does not take place in a neutral space, but, for sure, inside social and political concrete situations.

  6. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, David; Raisamo, Susanna; Wiium, Nora

    2012-08-15

    In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%). In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths' future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  7. When Regional Innovation Policies Meet Policy Rationales and Evidence:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Jordana, Jacint

    regions, and to understand how rationales and evidence can be translated into policy-making. To this purpose, this paper develops a framework to study the extent to which regional innovation policies have changed during the past few years. Since the mid-2000s there has been an important development......In spite of recent advancements regarding regional innovation policy rationales and evidence, there are few analyses about the actual features of existing regional innovation policies. Nevertheless, a policy analysis perspective is important in order to recognise their distinctive patterns across...... of innovation policy rationales, advocating for more specialisation; likewise, greater data availability at the regional level has allowed more sophisticated assessment of innovation performance. Finally, the crisis since 2008 has had ravaging effects in some regions, with job losses and severe economic...

  8. When Regional Innovation Policies Meet Policy Rationales and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Jordana, Jacint

    2016-01-01

    regions, and to understand how rationales and evidence can be translated into policy-making. To this purpose, this paper develops a framework to study the extent to which regional innovation policies have changed during the past few years. Since the mid-2000s, there has been an important development......In spite of recent advancements regarding regional innovation policy rationales and evidence, there are few analyses about the actual features of existing regional innovation policies. Nevertheless, a policy analysis perspective is important in order to recognize their distinctive patterns across...... of innovation policy rationales, advocating for more specialization; likewise, greater data availability at the regional level has allowed more sophisticated assessment of innovation performance. Finally, the crisis since 2008 has had ravaging effects in some regions, with job losses and severe economic...

  9. The "Pedagogue as Translator" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is…

  10. A Protocol of Japanese-English Translation

    OpenAIRE

    三浦, 勲夫; MIURA, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Every year I translate Japanes enewspaper articles into English and publish them in book form containing 12 or more translations. In translating there are regular procedures I go through:1)initial translation done by me and 2) corrected translation done through discussion between a native English speaker and me.

  11. Viewpoints in the Translation of the Holy QURAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gumaa Siddiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is too much literature about the untranslatability of the Quran from its Arabic text into another language. Most Muslims: Arab and Non-Arab, and almost everyone with Arabic language background, will not find any difficulty to prove the untranslatability of the Holy Quran into another language. The Quran is the Word of Allah Almighty to his messenger Mohammed (PBUH in Arabic. It was intentionally revealed in Arabic to serve specific purpose: To defy the Arabs in their own trade and craftsmanship of producing highly rhetorical and poetic composition in their literature.  Although all the scientific, geographical and historical facts mentioned in the Quran have been found true, nevertheless, the Quran remains a book of miracles, but its miraculous ability is in its inimitability (as no one has made similar sura the like of it since its revelation and untranslatability into another form  of reproduction in other languages (as  hundreds of translations were made and are still made, but would not come to the absolute final perfect  form of translation. These translations are incomplete, as they are mere human efforts. This paper aims to shed some light on the opinions of some Islamic scholars on this issue, as well as to suggest some strategies to help in coming out with some sound translations to help Non-Arab Muslims and other Non-Arabic speakers to understand the truth about the Quran as a true WORD from Allah to all human beings on Earth.

  12. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  13. Harold Pinter in Slovene Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Hribar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the translation of Harold Pinter’s most notable stylistic peculiarities into Slovene, illustrating its main points with examples taken from his play The Homecoming. The findings demonstrate above all a marked degree of non-observance of the special verbal pattern (special cohesion of the originals, a failure to convey Pinter’s special configuration of meaning (special coherence, and a disregard for internal unifying coincidences. It argues that the Slovene translations of Pinter rely mostly on traditional theories of meaning and of language norms, thus preventing the reproduction of those emotional and psychological actions of Pinter’s characters which are usually not expressed by means of the rhetorical, informative elements of his dialogue, but by its form and sonority, i. e. the length, strength, and level of articulation of verbal expression. This blurs Pinter’s famous logic of emotion, narrows the proverbial openness and conceptual uncertainty of his plays, and limits their potential vitality in translation. Taking into account current drama and theatre translation practices in Slovenia, i.e. the rarity of published drama translation and the dependence on a translated performance text for subsequent theatrical productions, the article argues that in such cases the drama translation should be retrospective, i.e. aiming at a maximum reconstruction of all relevant linguistic, stylistic, and textual properties of the original, leaving expressly subjective interventions in the text to the theatre practitioners.

  14. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  15. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  16. The intentional stance and cultural learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John Andrew

    2015-01-01

    that (partially) explainsthe reliability of the intentional stance, and does so – contra Dennett’s realist critics – without appealing to a realist interpretation of the descriptions speakers attach to intentional terms. However, I also suggest that this developmental perspective provides grist to the mill...... conceptualize the assumption of rationality that is at the core of the intentional stance theory....

  17. Translating the covenant: The behavior analyst as ambassador and translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R M

    1996-01-01

    Behavior analysts should be sensitive to how others react to and interpret our language because it is inextricably related to our image. Our use of conceptual revision, with such terms as punishment, has created communicative confusion and hostility on the part of general and professional audiences we have attempted to influence. We must, therefore, adopt the role of ambassador and translator in the nonbehavioral world. A number of recommendations are offered for promoting, translating, and disseminating behavior analysis.

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more economical than dubbing. In Indonesia, the use of dubbing as well as subtitle are found.

  19. Translation and spaces of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own experimental translations from contemporary French poetry.

  20. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    texts as well as both eye-tracking and keylogging data. Based on this database, I present a large-scale analysis of gaze on the source text based on 91 translators' translations of six different texts from English into four different target languages. I use mixed-effects modelling to compare from......, and variables indexing the alignment between the source and target texts. The results are related to current models of translation processes and reading and compared to a parallel analysis of production time....

  1. Remembered Experiences and Revisit Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Stuart; Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is an experience-intensive sector in which customers seek and pay for experiences above everything else. Remembering past tourism experiences is also crucial for an understanding of the present, including the predicted behaviours of visitors to tourist destinations. We adopt a longitudinal...... approach to memory data collection from psychological science, which has the potential to contribute to our understanding of tourist behaviour. In this study, we examine the impact of remembered tourist experiences in a safari park. In particular, using matched survey data collected longitudinally and PLS...... path modelling, we examine the impact of positive affect tourist experiences on the development of revisit intentions. We find that longer-term remembered experiences have the strongest impact on revisit intentions, more so than predicted or immediate memory after an event. We also find that remembered...

  2. Waste Management Policy Implementation in South Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation process, and the role of powerful actor networks in the ... Affairs and Tourism indicated his intention to rid South Africa of their 'national flower' when ... broadens policy process analysis to include both the material and social.

  3. Early Educational Provision--Emphasised in Education Policy Reforms in Norway? An Analysis of Education Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Nilsen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses how the intentions of early provision in Norwegian schools have been expressed in the education policy reforms in Norway from the 1970s to the present day. The first area deals with the intentions that most explicitly cover early provision; prevention, early detection and intervention. The second area of analysis relates to…

  4. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  5. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    This paper tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions and behavior. This study tests the Mair and Noboa model and extends it by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable...... entrepreneurial behavior of master students such as evidenced in the number of electives selected which have a social entrepreneurial profile....

  6. Founding Intentions: A Gender Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheiner, Ch.; Laspita, S.; Brem, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In contradiction to previous research, which concentrates almost exclusively onentrepreneurs during their professional activity, this study concentrates on an earlier point in time and that is before the working life begins. Therefore, the micro-social environment (family background) and specific ...... and womenequally.We could also show that the self-employment of the parents does have an influence on the founding intention of the children....

  7. “What Cultural Policies?” Explicit and Implicit Cultural Policies in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia von Maltzahn

    2017-01-01

    Cultural policies define a vision for culture, and provide frameworks for institutional practice to translate this vision on the ground. A 1981 study on Lebanese cultural policy reached the conclusion that one cannot speak of cultural policies in Lebanon if one refers to state laws, regulations and plans. However, if cultural policy was understood as the method of a state to give its citizens the space to develop themselves in a way that they could create culture, one could certainly speak of...

  8. Intersectionality in Transnational Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A.; Yu, Min

    2018-01-01

    This review assesses intersectionality as a theoretical and methodological approach to transnational education policy research. In particular, we are concerned with how the concept is translated and interpreted to interrogate globally circulating education policies and how that transformation might inform the concept within Western and Northern…

  9. From policies to aspects in KLAIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Egilsson, Einar

    2008-01-01

    The aspect oriented programming paradigm facilitates the separation of cross cutting concerns in system development. Security policies are a typical such concern and in this paper we present a simple policy language, LUNAR, and show how it can be translated into aspect definitions. We perform...

  10. Intention concepts and brain-machine interfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eThinnes-Elker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed subjects. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret (‘decode’ the agent’s intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent’s intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications.

  11. Intention concepts and brain-machine interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret ("decode") the agent's intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent's intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications.

  12. The role of organizational culture in policy mobilities – the case of South Korean climate change adaptation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of policies as mobile and mutable knowledge is the key feature of the recent debate on policy mobilities. Policy mobility studies have focused on the movement and translation of policies as well as on the impact of mobile policies on policy-making processes and governed spaces. Given that policy mobilities have mainly been examined in comparable institutional contexts, the current debate has neglected the role of organizational culture in the translation of policies. Organizational culture is understood as a set of shared assumptions that guide what happens in organizations by defining appropriate practices of policy making. The case study, South Korean adaptation policy, illustrates that organizational culture has a significant impact on the translation of mobile adaptation policy. Besides the claim to consider organizational culture more prominently in the field of policy mobility studies, this paper illustrates the translation process of adaptation policy in the South Korean political system. The practices in South Korean political institutions dealing with climate change adaptation are highly characterized by the avoidance of risks. The propensity to avoid risks leads policy makers to focus on technical solutions to climate change adaptation and to neglect the participation of civil society.

  13. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  14. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher......Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...

  15. Translating English Idioms and Collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochayah Machali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Learners of English should be made aware of the nature, types, and use of English idioms. This paper disensses the nature of idioms and collocations and translation issues related to them

  16. Coordinator, Translation Services | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Coordinator, Translation Services coordinates the overall operations of the ... services in IDRC by acting as the main resource person for internal clients ... all operational issues in order to ensure good quality products delivered on time.

  17. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development No. 57

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-27

    international traffic center and the Tiwanacu satellite communications station may be dedicated in December this year. [La Paz PRESENCIA in Spanish 17 Sep 78 p...cooperation for political, economic, social and cultural security and defence and science and technological development. He said he was glad that the...in a different political and social environment". 75 10576 CSO: 5500 FINLAND TURKU FIRM DEVELOPS ANTENNA FOR NORDSAT Helsinki HELSINGIN

  18. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 49

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-11

    Desenvolvimento Economico --was one of the four firms selected by Capre for the production of national minicomputers. [Text] [Rio de Janeiro 0 GLOBO in...the exception—who de- liberately operate properly modulated jamming transmitters. In other words, you can also"hear malice and unfortunately also

  19. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development No. 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-02

    BRENCI, P. F. CHECCACCI, F. COSI, R. FALCIAI, A. M. SCHEGGI: Progressi nella tecnologia delle fibre ottiche in silice plastica realizzate presso...notably for signaling-toward subscribers with digital equipment, or for common channel systems as well. It also includes 3D registers that require

  20. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character. PMID:24452252

  1. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    OpenAIRE

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible i...

  2. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-12-19

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  3. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Braks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  4. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 53

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-14

    Aguada, and provision of new service in housing complexes such as Parque Posadas, Carbe Aguada and Zapican. IDB Contract One of the milestones...Paysandu, Salto, La Paz, Fray Bentos, Maldonado, Peninsula, La Barra de Maldonado and Young; work began on networks for Parque del Plata, Salinas

  5. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development No. 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-27

    Rico and El Dorado, with an alternative route toward Brazil, through Foz do Iguazu and the enlarged radio connection between Buenos Aires and Campo ...nor the more recently studied infrasound. By sound, in and of itself, we understand noise, music and speech. The first of these, about which there...is used for television audio, and for special radio music . 3. Single sideband (SSB). In this type of transmission, we work with only one of the

  6. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, Number 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-09

    digital electronics technology — is confident that the 12-watt I’KP (Peak En- velope Tower) single side band radio will perform better and be...PRODUCED WITH FUJITSU TECHNOLOGY, EQUIPMENT Rio de Janeiro 0 GLOBO in Portuguese 21 Dec 77 p 21 [Text] Porto Alegre (0 GLOBO). EDISA [ Digital ...10042 CSO: 5500 25 PERU TELEPHONE SERVICE TO UNDERGO COSTLY EXPANSION Plan To Add Lines Approved Lima EL COMERCIO in Spanish 1? Nov 77 Front

  7. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand for citizen engagement in areas traditionally belonging exclusively to experts, such as health, law and technology has given rise to the necessity of making expert knowledge available to the general public through genres such as instruction manuals for consumer goods, patien...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....

  8. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  9. The Society for Translational Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shugeng; Zhang, Zhongheng; Aragón, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy. Recommendati......The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy...

  10. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  11. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  12. THE INTENTIONAL ASPECT OF MODERN STYLISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Klushina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are cognitive, communicative, and pragmatic scientific methods in the modern anthropocentric linguistic paradigm. We have created the intentional method as a new integrative linguistic method for studying modern Russian discourse. The main scientific categories of the intentional method include: intention, intentionality, intentional categories, author, and addressee. The intention of the addressee consists of cognitive, communicative, and pragmatic constituents. We can divide intention into cognitive intention, which helps to understand the world, and communicative intention, which organizes communication between addressee and addresser. The intentional method can help to search out creative and subjective factors of human communication. This method can help to understand the nonlinearity and creativity of the communicative processes. The different types of effects of modern communication are analysed in this article. The effect holds not only a perlocutive quality in integral communication; therefore we announce that there are both positive and negative intentional effects in modern communication. Communicative failures are situations when an addressee refuses to carry on a dialogue or experiences indifference to the interlocutor.

  13. Servicios del Centro de Soluciones Para la Energia Limpia (Spanish Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Spanish translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  14. Developing a translational ecology workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Hiers, J. Kevin; Davis, Frank W.; Garfin, Gregg; Jackson, Stephen T.; Terando, Adam J.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Morelli, Toni; Williamson, Matthew A.; Brunson, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    We define a translational ecologist as a professional ecologist with diverse disciplinary expertise and skill sets, as well as a suitable personal disposition, who engages across social, professional, and disciplinary boundaries to partner with decision makers to achieve practical environmental solutions. Becoming a translational ecologist requires specific attention to obtaining critical non‐scientific disciplinary breadth and skills that are not typically gained through graduate‐level education. Here, we outline a need for individuals with broad training in interdisciplinary skills, use our personal experiences as a basis for assessing the types of interdisciplinary skills that would benefit potential translational ecologists, and present steps that interested ecologists may take toward becoming translational. Skills relevant to translational ecologists may be garnered through personal experiences, informal training, short courses, fellowships, and graduate programs, among others. We argue that a translational ecology workforce is needed to bridge the gap between science and natural resource decisions. Furthermore, we argue that this task is a cooperative responsibility of individuals interested in pursuing these careers, educational institutions interested in training scientists for professional roles outside of academia, and employers seeking to hire skilled workers who can foster stakeholder‐engaged decision making.

  15. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host. PMID:28357358

  16. Translational repression in malaria sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Turque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1, is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  17. Reasons for Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS data security breaches: Intentional versus non-intentional breaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo B. Mahlaola

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to explore the nature of and reasons for confidentiality breaches by PACS users in a South African context. Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 115 health professionals employed in a private hospital setting, including its radiology department and a second independent radiology department. The questionnaire sought to explore the attitudes of participants towards confidentiality breeches and reasons for suchbehaviour. Results: Breach incidences were expressed as percentage compliance and classified according to the nature and reasons provided by Sarkar's breach classification. Cross tabulations indicated a statistical significance (p < 0.00 between the expected and observed confidentiality practices of participants and also the adequacy of training, system knowledge and policy awareness. Conclusion: Our study supports previous findings that, in the absence of guidelines, most security breaches were non-intentional acts committed due to ignorance. Of concern are incidents in which sensitive information was intentionally shared via social media.

  18. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    perspective, this paper investigates the relationship between machines and humans in the field of translation, analysing a CAT process in which machine-translation (MT) technology was integrated into a translation-memory (TM) suite. After a review of empirical research into the impact of CAT tools......Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI......, the study indicates that the tool helps the translator conform to project and customer requirements....

  19. An Ethics Of Discomfort: Supplementing Ricœur On Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Foran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article compares Paul Ricoeur and Jacques Derrida on the theme of translation and in particular the ethical implications of the different ways in which they approach the untranslatable.  While Ricoeur’s account of translation as linguistic hospitality does offer a model for an ethical encounter with the other, I argue that this account does not go far enough. My central claim is that Ricoeur’s treatment of translation overemphasizes the movement of appropriation and integration.  While it may not be his intention, this emphasis could lead to a certain kind of complacency that would challenge the ethical claims Ricoeur makes in favour of translation as a paradigm.  I propose to supplement Ricoeur’s hospitality with Derrida’s untranslatable, in order to create a situation of constant discomfort thereby guarding against ethical complacency.

  20. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.

  1. Knowledge translation is the use of knowledge in health care decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Graham, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    To provide an overview of the science and practice of knowledge translation. Narrative review outlining what knowledge translation is and a framework for its use. Knowledge translation is defined as the use of knowledge in practice and decision making by the public, patients, health care professionals, managers, and policy makers. Failures to use research evidence to inform decision making are apparent across all these key decision maker groups. There are several proposed theories and frameworks for achieving knowledge translation. A conceptual framework developed by Graham et al., termed the knowledge-to-action cycle, provides an approach that builds on the commonalities found in an assessment of planned action theories. Review of the evidence base for the science and practice of knowledge translation has identified several gaps including the need to develop valid strategies for assessing the determinants of knowledge use and for evaluating sustainability of knowledge translation interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Green brand awareness and customer purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Braimah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Green environmental issues have been of topical interest to both researchers and industrialists for some time now. Research on green brands is relatively limited, especially in developing countries, such as Ghana. This study is therefore designed to determine the relationship between customer awareness of green brand issues and their everyday purchase intentions. Using quantitative techniques, the study interviewed 316 people, conveniently selected from various shopping points in Accra. The study found that, the overwhelming majority of respondents though familiar with green issues did not concern themselves with green issues in their everyday purchase decisions. Again, majority of respondents (54% familiar with environmental issues confirmed they would not switch from their preferred brands to less fancied brands even if the less fancied brands were more environmentally friendly. It was also confirmed in the study that price, brand name and convenience, performed better than customer concerns for green issues, in influencing respondents’ purchase decisions. It would therefore be strategically significance if advocates, policy makers and business leaders reduce the cost of green products to the final consumer, intensive public education campaigns, coupled with strategic brand building efforts to enhance the level of green brand consumption.

  3. On the Systematicity of Human Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover character......While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover...... characteristic steps in human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles, which are characteristic for different kinds of translators. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis...

  4. Investigating turnover intentions by role overload, job satisfaction and social support moderation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pienaar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold mining in South Africa has played a significant role in the economic development of the country. However, the current economic, personnel and rationalisation pressures could imply a loss of production in this industry. The focus of this research fell on investigating the role that social support may play in the translation of employees’ role overload and job satisfaction on their intentions to leave the organisation. A cross-sectional survey design with a random sample was used (n = 206. Results indicate that job satisfaction is the most significant predictor of turnover intention, but that collegial support plays an important role in moderating the effects of role overload on turnover intention.

  5. Analysis of the Effect of Customer Citizenship Behavior on Repurchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Grillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, customer citizenship behavior (CCB is assessed as a manifestation of value co-creation in the costumer-organization relations. Considering the extant marketing literature proposition that postulates that value co-creation, in the long run, is translated to the organization into customer purchase and repurchase behavior, as explained by the relation between value-in-use and value-in-exchange, this article aims to analyze the effect of CCB upon repurchase intention. In order to conduct such analysis, the CCB scale developed by Yi and Gong (2013 was adapted to the Brazilian context. The assessments of the adapted scale and of the relation between CCB and repurchase intention were conducted with structural equation modeling. Results indicate a lack of consistency of one of the CCB dimensions proposed by Yi and Gong (2013 and suggest that CCB is a determinant that presents an expressive effect upon repurchase intention.

  6. Tõlkepoeetikast teksti ja keele taustal / On the Poetics of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lange

    2016-01-01

    In order to illustrate the practical implications of this approach, the article highlights translational solutions that cannot be explained in linguistic terms given that they attempt to maintain the specifics of the original. The translator proceeds by pretending to know what a text (and its author is doing; it is the cognitive filter of the translator that gives the source text its meaning. In an account of her translation of Jaan Malin’s ”Keele meel“ into English, Miriam McIlfatrick-Ksenofontov begins with the analysis of the poem. This entails separating the whole into its component parts and identifying their relations. Reading with a view to translating unravels the texture of a poem, exposing the lexical, semantic and phonetic strands that constitute its coherence. The article then offers an account of how the translator experiences the original and navigates through it towards a new poem in translation, recognising that languages differ in what they can and must do. The latter, primarily a grammatical reality, is accompanied by a semantic one: the implications that stem from lexical connotations are inevitably different in the original poem and in the new poem. However, the supposed intent of the original is what a cognitive approach sees as a possibility of translation. This does not involve the transferral of isolated lexicalised items, but allows the translator to overcome the dilemma of retaining both form and content by adopting the role of writer, by working with language that is at no more at her disposal than it is for the writer of the original. The analysis of the original enables the translator to avoid seeing the poem as fixed language in a solid object or searching for a single invariant meaning. Between the reader and the poem a situation of dialogue is established that involves asking questions of the poem in order to find what meanings it insists on. Questions like what does this word (image, rhyme, comma, etc. do in/to the poem? how

  7. The moderating role of gender on entrepreneurial intentions: A TPB perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ruizalba Robledo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To disentangle the ways in which social norms shape the entrepreneurial intention of university students and to analyse the moderating effect of gender that may arise.Design/methodology/approach: We use the entrepreneurial intention model based on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB literature and moderated by students’ gender affecting this intention. We tested some hypotheses using data from undergraduate business students in Spain and their entrepreneurial intentions.Findings: Our results suggest that perceived behavioural control and attitudes affect the entrepreneurial intentions of university students towards entrepreneurship while subjective norms don’t. Furthermore, our findings reveal that the moderating effect of gender has a positive influence effect for women on the relationship between those subjective norms and the perceived behavioural control. However, as to some research done so far, the moderating role of gender does not seem to have a particular effect on predicting entrepreneurial intentions when moderating TPB dimensions.Practical implications: Given the socio-economic benefits attributed to entrepreneurship results allow the design of more effective education initiatives and policy makers.Originality/value: This research provides support to the application of the TPB allowing for a better understanding of gender differences in entrepreneurial intention.

  8. Policy implications for familial searching

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforce...

  9. Factors That Impact on Entrepreneurial Intention of Tertiary Students in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Denanyoh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been found as an important driver of economic growth, productivity and social development; hence the need for entrepreneurial graduate is on the increase. Thus the purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that impact on the entrepreneurial intentions of polytechnic students in Ghana. In the study a model was proposed and empirically tested on a sample of 228 polytechnic students in Ghana. In the model, entrepreneurial intention is taken as a function of educational, community and family supports. The result of the survey showed that all the support factors impacts on students entrepreneurial intentions. The findings of this study have important implications for those who formulate, deliver and evaluate educational policies in Ghana. Based on the findings policy makers may make changes to foster students interest in entrepreneurship.

  10. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    CERN Document Server

    Roturier, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  11. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system...... allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...

  12. Translational research: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, M Cecilia; Kirkbride, Geri; Wade, Kristen; Ferrell, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Little is known about which approaches facilitate adoption and sustainment of evidence-based practice change in the highly complex care environments that constitute clinical practice today. The purpose of this article was to complete a concept analysis of translational research using a modified Walker and Avant approach. DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION: Using a rigorous and thorough review of the recent health care literature generated by a deep electronic search from 2004-2011, 85 appropriate documents were retrieved. Close reading of the articles by three coresearchers yielded an analysis of the emerging concept of translational research. Using the iterative process described by Walker and Avant, a tentative definition of the concept of translational research, along with antecedents and consequences were identified. Implications for health care professionals in education, practice, and research are offered. Further research is needed to determine the adequacy of the definition, to identify empirical referents, and to guide theory development. The study resulted in a theoretical definition of the concept of translational research, along with identification of antecedents and consequences and a description of an ideal or model case to illustrate the definition. Implications for practice and education include the importance of focusing on translational research approaches that may reduce the research-practice gap in health care, thereby improving patient care delivery. Research is needed to determine the usefulness of the definition in health care clinical practice.

  13. Dirty pretty language: translation and the borders of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Payson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the politics of English, and translation into Englishness, in the film Dirty Pretty Things (Frears. With a celebrated multilingual cast, some of whom did not speak much English, the film nevertheless unfolds in English as it follows migrant characters living illegally and on the margins in London. We take up the filmic representation of migrants in the “compromised, impure and internally divided” border spaces of Britain (Gibson 694 as one of translation into the imagined nation (Anderson. Dirty Pretty Things might seem in its style to be a kind of multicultural “foreignized translation” which reflects a heteropoetics of difference (Venuti; instead, we argue that Dirty Pretty Things, through its performance of the labour of learning and speaking English, strong accents, and cultural allusions, is a kind of domesticated translation (Venuti that homogenises cultural difference into a literary, mythological English and Englishness. Prompted by new moral panics over immigration and recent UK policies that heap further requirements on migrants to speak English in order to belong to “One Nation Britain” (Cameron, we argue that the film offers insights into how the politics of British national belonging continue to be defined by conformity to a type of deserving subject, one who labours to learn English and to translate herself into narrow, recognizably English cultural forms. By attending to the subtleties of language in the film, we trace the pressure on migrants to translate themselves into the linguistic and mythological moulds of their new host society.

  14. Distinct electrophysiological potentials for intention in action and prior intention for action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Mikkel C; Jensen, Mads; Overgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The role of conscious intention in relation to motoric movements has become a major topic of investigation in neuroscience. Traditionally, reports of conscious intention have been compared to various features of the readiness-potential (RP) – an electrophysiological signal that appears before...... electrophysiological “intention potential” above the mid-frontal areas at the time participants formed a distal intention. This potential was only found when the distal intention was self-paced and not when the intention was formed in response to an external cue....

  15. 78 FR 69669 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform... guarantee, the value of the transaction, and the amount of new foreign production capacity are not included... date this notice appears in the Federal Register. James C. Cruse, Senior Vice President, Policy and...

  16. 78 FR 70318 - Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice of Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...-FF04R02000] Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice of Intent To... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and associated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Cat... NEPA documents for Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge NWR, West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, in a...

  17. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  18. 75 FR 1650 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed HB Potash, LLC-“In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...) Carlsbad Field Office, Carlsbad, New Mexico, intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and...] Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed HB Potash, LLC--``In-Situ... Intent. SUMMARY: In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, (NEPA) and...

  19. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  20. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  1. Working with Corpora in the Translation Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to illustrate possible applications of electronic corpora in the translation classroom. Starting with a survey of corpus use within corpus-based translation studies, the didactic value of corpora in the translation classroom and their epistemic value in translation teaching and practice will be elaborated. A typology of…

  2. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  3. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  4. Barriers vs Creativity in Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Mine

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses translation problems awaiting Turkish students as well as the creative solutions they develop in overcoming them. It consists of two parts; The first part studies the barriers concerning translation procedures from the perspective of translation theory and Turkish translation history; The second parts analyses the impact of…

  5. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye...

  6. Update of strategies to translate evidence from cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews for use by various audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Tamara; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Stacey, Dawn; Ghogomu, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Lara J; Welch, Vivian A; Singh, Jasvinder A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Légaré, France; Santesso, Nancy; Toupin April, Karine; O'Connor, Annette M; Wells, George A; Winzenberg, Tania M; Johnston, Renea; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-02-01

    For rheumatology research to have a real influence on health and well-being, evidence must be tailored to inform the decisions of various audiences. The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. While systematic reviews provided by the CMSG fill a major gap in meeting the need for high-quality evidence syntheses, our work does not end at the completion of a review. The term "knowledge translation" (KT) refers to the activities involved in bringing research evidence to various audiences in a useful form so it can be used to support decision making and improve practices. Systematic reviews give careful consideration to research methods and analysis. Because the review is often long and detailed, the clinically relevant results may not be apparent or in the optimal form for use by patients and their healthcare practitioners. This paper describes 10 formats, many of them new, for ways that evidence from Cochrane Reviews can be translated with the intention of meeting the needs of various audiences, including patients and their families, practitioners, policy makers, the press, and members of the public (the "5 Ps"). Current and future knowledge tools include summary of findings tables, patient decision aids, plain language summaries, press releases, clinical scenarios in general medical journals, frequently asked questions (Cochrane Clinical Answers), podcasts, Twitter messages, Journal Club materials, and the use of storytelling and narratives to support continuing medical education. Future plans are outlined to explore ways of improving the influence and usefulness of systematic reviews by providing results in formats suitable to our varied audiences.

  7. Translational informatics: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.

  8. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation.......While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based...

  9. History and theory of Scripture translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these “theoretical frames”, namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  10. Policy learning and policy change: Theorizing their relations from different perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Moyson (Stéphane); P.W.A. Scholten (Peter); Weible, C.M. (Christopher M.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAll politics and policy issues involve the accumulation of data about problems and solutions in context of social interactions. Drawing on these data, policy actors acquire, translate, and disseminate new information and knowledge toward achieving political endeavors and for revising or

  11. Career intentions of Australian physical education teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers’ career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers’ work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the respondents wanted a change from their current PE teacher job and 39.8% were intending to leave PE teaching. The most frequent reasons for wanting to...

  12. Tourists' perceptions and intention to revisit Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Ana Florina; Komolikova-Blindheim, Galyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The overall purpose of this study is to explore tourists' perceptions and their intention to revisit Norway. The aim is to find out what are the factors that drive the overall satisfaction, the willingness to recommend and the revisit intention of international tourists that spend their holiday in Norway. Design-Method-Approach - the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1991), is used as a framework to investigate tourists' intention and behavior towards Norway as destination. The o...

  13. Translation Technologies: A Dilemma between Translation Industry and Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakul, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Today, physical and virtual borders are shrinking thanks to technology whose footprints are greater and faster than one can imagine. Beyond the shadow of a doubt, technology is associated with the areas for which it offers solutions such as education technologies, health technologies and translation technologies. Nowadays using translation…

  14. The translator status, the translation market and developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... article is an attempt to examine the sociology of translation in the development context of ten countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam).

  15. Nurturing and Testing Translation Competence for Text-Translating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubakirova, Karlygash Adilkhanovna

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the problems of contemporary professional education. As its instance, we examine the developmental scheme for training professional translators. Optimal ways of organizing the learning process are suggested from the point of view of the competence approach, which is widely recognized for training a modern specialist. The…

  16. JavaScript DNA translator: DNA-aligned protein translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William L

    2002-12-01

    There are many instances in molecular biology when it is necessary to identify ORFs in a DNA sequence. While programs exist for displaying protein translations in multiple ORFs in alignment with a DNA sequence, they are often expensive, exist as add-ons to software that must be purchased, or are only compatible with a particular operating system. JavaScript DNA Translator is a shareware application written in JavaScript, a scripting language interpreted by the Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer Web browsers, which makes it compatible with several different operating systems. While the program uses a familiar Web page interface, it requires no connection to the Internet since calculations are performed on the user's own computer. The program analyzes one or multiple DNA sequences and generates translations in up to six reading frames aligned to a DNA sequence, in addition to displaying translations as separate sequences in FASTA format. ORFs within a reading frame can also be displayed as separate sequences. Flexible formatting options are provided, including the ability to hide ORFs below a minimum size specified by the user. The program is available free of charge at the BioTechniques Software Library (www.Biotechniques.com).

  17. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...

  18. Medical Representatives' Intention to Use Information Technology in Pharmaceutical Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Eun-Seon; Chang, Hyejung

    2016-10-01

    Electronic detailing (e-detailing), the use of electronic devices to facilitate sales presentations to physicians, has been adopted and expanded in the pharmaceutical industry. To maximize the potential outcome of e-detailing, it is important to understand medical representatives (MRs)' behavior and attitude to e-detailing. This study investigates how information technology devices such as laptop computers and tablet PCs are utilized in pharmaceutical marketing, and it analyzes the factors influencing MRs' intention to use devices. This study has adopted and modified the theory of Roger's diffusion of innovation model and the technology acceptance model. To test the model empirically, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 221 MRs who were working in three multinational or eleven domestic pharmaceutical companies in Korea. Overall, 28% and 35% of MRs experienced using laptop computers and tablet PCs in pharmaceutical marketing, respectively. However, the rates were different across different groups of MRs, categorized by age, education level, position, and career. The results showed that MRs' intention to use information technology devices was significantly influenced by perceived usefulness in general. Perceived ease of use, organizational and individual innovativeness, and several MR characteristics were also found to have significant impacts. This study provides timely information about e-detailing devices to marketing managers and policy makers in the pharmaceutical industry for successful marketing strategy development by understanding the needs of MRs' intention to use information technology. Further in-depth study should be conducted to understand obstacles and limitations and to improve the strategies for better marketing tools.

  19. Determinants of attitude and buying intention of organic milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Faletar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of organic milk is increasing rapidly. However, the behaviour of organic milk consumers is still not enough investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine variables which influence the attitude towards organic milk consumption, as well as variables which influence the buying intention of organic milk. Thereat, factors such as positive opinion toward organic milk and food related lifestyle, as well as level of trust in home as in EU organic food label, objective knowledge and gender of respondents showed to have a significant influence on organic milk buying intention. More precisely, a significant and positive influence on buying intention of organic milk was observed considering the belief in positive aspects of organic milk, subjective knowledge, objective knowledge, and attitude towards buying organic milk. According to the results of this study recommendations for marketing practice and especially for communication policy might be created. Communication directed to female population should use classic advertising based on functional information, while the one directed to male population should use more emotional advertising. By using classic advertising education of consumers should be performed in order to promote benefits of organic milk in regards to conventional milk.

  20. Nurses' leaving intentions: antecedents and mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamashita, Noriko; Oba, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate how nurses' work values, perceptions of environmental characteristics, and organizational commitment are related to their leaving intentions. Nurse leaving is a serious international problem as it contributes to the nursing shortage that threatens the welfare of society. The characteristics of nurses, the work environment and nurses' feelings towards their jobs (or organizations) have an impact on their leaving intentions. A convenience sample of 849 Registered Nurses was recruited from three public hospitals in the central-west region of Japan during 2006 and 319 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 39%). Data were analysed using regression analysis. Nurses' work values and their perceptions of their workplace environment interacted to influence leaving intentions. When there was a match between the importance nurses placed on being able to challenge current clinical practices and the number of the actual opportunities to do so, leaving intentions were low. When there was a mismatch, intention to quit the job became stronger. In addition, organizational commitment intervened between nurses' perceptions of the match in clinical challenges and leaving intention. Nurses' leaving intentions, deserve extensive exploration of their causes. Such exploration should include attending to both nurses' needs and organizational characteristics, investigating how the match between them could affect nurses' leaving intention, and exploring factors that intervene between nurses' perceptions of the match and leaving intention.