WorldWideScience

Sample records for translate public health

  1. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  2. A knowledge translation project on community-centred approaches in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, J; South, J

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the development and impact of a national knowledge translation project aimed at improving access to evidence and learning on community-centred approaches for health and wellbeing. Structural changes in the English health system meant that knowledge on community engagement was becoming lost and a fragmented evidence base was seen to impact negatively on policy and practice. A partnership started between Public Health England, NHS England and Leeds Beckett University in 2014 to address these issues. Following a literature review and stakeholder consultation, evidence was published in a national guide to community-centred approaches. This was followed by a programme of work to translate the evidence into national strategy and local practice.The article outlines the key features of the knowledge translation framework developed. Results include positive impacts on local practice and national policy, for example adoption within National Institute for Health and Care Evidence (NICE) guidance and Local Authority public health plans and utilization as a tool for local audit of practice and commissioning. The framework was successful in its non-linear approach to knowledge translation across a range of inter-connected activity, built on national leadership, knowledge brokerage, coalition building and a strong collaboration between research institute and government agency.

  3. Modeling workflow to design machine translation applications for public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Brownstein, Megumu K; Cole, Kate; Karasz, Hilary; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Provide a detailed understanding of the information workflow processes related to translating health promotion materials for limited English proficiency individuals in order to inform the design of context-driven machine translation (MT) tools for public health (PH). We applied a cognitive work analysis framework to investigate the translation information workflow processes of two large health departments in Washington State. Researchers conducted interviews, performed a task analysis, and validated results with PH professionals to model translation workflow and identify functional requirements for a translation system for PH. The study resulted in a detailed description of work related to translation of PH materials, an information workflow diagram, and a description of attitudes towards MT technology. We identified a number of themes that hold design implications for incorporating MT in PH translation practice. A PH translation tool prototype was designed based on these findings. This study underscores the importance of understanding the work context and information workflow for which systems will be designed. Based on themes and translation information workflow processes, we identified key design guidelines for incorporating MT into PH translation work. Primary amongst these is that MT should be followed by human review for translations to be of high quality and for the technology to be adopted into practice. The time and costs of creating multilingual health promotion materials are barriers to translation. PH personnel were interested in MT's potential to improve access to low-cost translated PH materials, but expressed concerns about ensuring quality. We outline design considerations and a potential machine translation tool to best fit MT systems into PH practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.

    2011-01-01

    contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...... into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [ health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could...... medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed...

  5. The contribution of health technology assessment, health needs assessment, and health impact assessment to the assessment and translation of technologies in the field of public health genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, N; Vondeling, H; Blancquaert, I; Mekel, O C L; Kristensen, F B; Brand, A

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed or to identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health applications. They are broad in scope and go beyond the continuum of T1-T4 translational research regarding policy translation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Academic Perspectives and Experiences of Knowledge Translation: A Qualitative Study of Public Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…

  7. Social media, knowledge translation, and action on the social determinants of health and health equity: A survey of public health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumbe-Eyoh, Sume; Mazzucco, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    The growth of social media presents opportunities for public health to increase its influence and impact on the social determinants of health and health equity. The National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health at St. Francis Xavier University conducted a survey during the first half of 2016 to assess how public health used social media for knowledge translation, relationship building, and specific public health roles to advance health equity. Respondents reported that social media had an important role in public health. Uptake of social media, while relatively high for personal use, was less present in professional settings and varied for different platforms. Over 20 per cent of those surveyed used Twitter or Facebook at least weekly for knowledge exchange. A lesser number used social media for specific health equity action. Opportunities to enhance the use of social media in public health persist. Capacity building and organizational policies that support social media use may help achieve this.

  8. Wanted: interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and knowledge translation and exchange training for students of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Lipi; Banerjee, Ananya T; MacLennan, Mary E; Gorczynski, Paul F; Zinszer, Kate A

    2011-01-01

    Students vocalized their concern with public health training programs in Canada at the 2010 CPHA Centennial Conference. Given these concerns, we reviewed the objectives and curricula of public health graduate (master's) programs in Canada. Our objective was to understand to what extent public and population health graduate programs in Canada support interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) training. This was achieved through a review of all public and population health master's programs in Canada identified from the public health graduate programs listed on the Public Health Agency of Canada website (n = 33) plus an additional four programs that were not originally captured on the list. Of the 37 programs reviewed, 28 (76%) stated that interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary or cross-disciplinary training opportunities are of value to their program, with 12 programs (32%) providing multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary training opportunities in their curriculum. Only 14 (38%) of the 37 programs provided value statements of KTE activities in their program goals or course objectives, with 10 (27%) programs offering KTE training in their curriculum. This review provides a glimpse into how public health programs in Canada value and support interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration as well as KTE activities.

  9. Advancing Transdisciplinary and Translational Research Practice: Issues and Models of Doctoral Education in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Neuhauser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional public health training has tended to focus more narrowly on diseases and risk factors, and has not adequately leveraged the rich contributions of sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, communication, political science, and other disciplines. Further, students are often not sufficiently trained to work across sectors to translate research findings into effective, large-scale sustainable actions.During the past 2 decades, national and international organizations have called for more effective interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and translational approaches to graduate education. Although it has been difficult to work across traditional academic boundaries, some promising models draw on pedagogical theory and feature cross-disciplinary training focused on real-world problems, linkage between research, professional practice, community action, and cultivation of leadership skills.We describe the development the Doctor of Public Health program at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and its efforts to improve transdisciplinary and translational research education. We stress the need for international collaboration to improve educational approaches and better evaluate their impact.

  10. Translational science matters: forging partnerships between biomedical and behavioral science to advance the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, George A; Czajkowski, Susan M

    2018-03-29

    The prevention and effective treatment of many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are dependent on behaviors such as not smoking, adopting a physically-active lifestyle, eating a healthy diet, and adhering to prescribed medical and behavioral regimens. Yet adoption and maintenance of these behaviors pose major challenges for individuals, their families and communities, as well as clinicians and health care systems. These challenges can best be met through the integration of the biomedical and behavioral sciences that is achieved by the formation of strategic partnerships between researchers and practitioners in these disciplines to address pressing clinical and public health problems. The National Institutes of Health has supported a number of clinical trials and research initiatives that demonstrate the value of biomedical and behavioral science partnerships in translating fundamental discoveries into significant improvements in health outcomes. We review several such examples of collaborations between biomedical and behavioral researchers, describe key initiatives focused on advancing a transdisciplinary translational perspective, and outline areas which require insights, tools and findings from both the biomedical and behavioral sciences to advance the public's health.

  11. The Registry of Knowledge Translation Methods and Tools: a resource to support evidence-informed public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirson, Leslea; Catallo, Cristina; Chera, Sunita

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the development of a globally accessible online Registry of Knowledge Translation Methods and Tools to support evidence-informed public health. A search strategy, screening and data extraction tools, and writing template were developed to find, assess, and summarize relevant methods and tools. An interactive website and searchable database were designed to house the registry. Formative evaluation was undertaken to inform refinements. Over 43,000 citations were screened; almost 700 were full-text reviewed, 140 of which were included. By November 2012, 133 summaries were available. Between January 1 and November 30, 2012 over 32,945 visitors from more than 190 countries accessed the registry. Results from 286 surveys and 19 interviews indicated the registry is valued and useful, but would benefit from a more intuitive indexing system and refinements to the summaries. User stories and promotional activities help expand the reach and uptake of knowledge translation methods and tools in public health contexts. The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools' Registry of Methods and Tools is a unique and practical resource for public health decision makers worldwide.

  12. Local health department translation processes: potential of machine translation technologies to help meet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Mandel, Hannah; Capurro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP), defined as a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English, is associated with health disparities. Despite federal and state requirements to translate health information, the vast majority of health materials are solely available in English. This project investigates barriers to translation of health information and explores new technologies to improve access to multilingual public health materials. We surveyed all 77 local health departments (LHDs) in the Northwest about translation needs, practices, barriers and attitudes towards machine translation (MT). We received 67 responses from 45 LHDs. Translation of health materials is the principle strategy used by LHDs to reach LEP populations. Cost and access to qualified translators are principle barriers to producing multilingual materials. Thirteen LHDs have used online MT tools. Many respondents expressed concerns about the accuracy of MT. Overall, respondents were positive about its potential use, if low costs and quality could be assured.

  13. 77 FR 41406 - Request for Public Comment on a Nomination to the Office of Health Assessment and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ..., which was nominated for a possible evaluation by the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT... substances, or mixtures (collectively referred to as ``substances'') cause adverse health effects and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Request for Public Comment on a Nomination to the Office...

  14. Entry-to-practice public health nursing competencies: A Delphi method and knowledge translation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Ruth; Chircop, Andrea; Baker, Cynthia; Dietrich Leurer, Marie; Duncan, Susan; Wotton, Donalda

    2018-06-01

    Sustaining and strengthening nurses 'contributions to public and population health in the 21st century depends in part on nursing education. Clearly articulated entry-to-practice competencies will contribute to the capacity of undergraduate nursing education programs to prepare graduates to promote local, national and global population health. The Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing created the Public Health Task Force to develop consensus on core, national entry-to-practice competencies in public health nursing for undergraduate nursing students and to support these competencies with corresponding online teaching strategies. Delphi approach. Nurses with public health experience in education and practice, and representatives from other public health professional organizations across Canada. The three-phased competency development included: 1) an environmental scan; 2) an iterative process to draft competencies; and 3) a modified Delphi process to confirm the final competency framework using face to face consultations and a survey. The knowledge translation strategy involved soliciting submissions of teaching strategies for peer-review and subsequent inclusion in an interactive online resource. 242 public health educators and practitioners participated in the consensus consultation. The final document outlined five competency statements with 19 accompanying indicators. A total of 123 teaching strategies were submitted for the online resource, of which 50 were accepted as exemplary teaching strategies. This competency development process can provide guidance for the development of competencies in other countries, thus strengthening public health nursing education globally. The decision to intentionally level the competencies to entry-to-practice, as opposed to an advanced level, enhanced their application to undergraduate nursing education. The development of the additional inventory of teaching strategies created a sustainable innovative resource for public

  15. Developing Evidence for Public Health Policy and Practice: The Implementation of a Knowledge Translation Approach in a Staged, Multi-Methods Study in England, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Jane; Cattan, Mima

    2014-01-01

    Effective knowledge translation processes are critical for the development of evidence-based public health policy and practice. This paper reports on the design and implementation of an innovative approach to knowledge translation within a mixed methods study on lay involvement in public health programme delivery. The study design drew on…

  16. The effectiveness of knowledge translation strategies used in public health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaRocca Rebecca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature related to the effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT strategies used in public health is lacking. The capacity to seek, analyze, and synthesize evidence-based information in public health is linked to greater success in making policy choices that have the best potential to yield positive outcomes for populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of KT strategies used to promote evidence-informed decision making (EIDM among public health decision makers. Methods A search strategy was developed to identify primary studies published between 2000–2010. Studies were obtained from multiple electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Searches were supplemented by hand searching and checking the reference lists of included articles. Two independent review authors screened studies for relevance, assessed methodological quality of relevant studies, and extracted data from studies using standardized tools. Results After removal of duplicates, the search identified 64, 391 titles related to KT strategies. Following title and abstract review, 346 publications were deemed potentially relevant, of which 5 met all relevance criteria on full text screen. The included publications were of moderate quality and consisted of five primary studies (four randomized controlled trials and one interrupted time series analysis. Results were synthesized narratively. Simple or single KT strategies were shown in some circumstances to be as effective as complex, multifaceted ones when changing practice including tailored and targeted messaging. Multifaceted KT strategies led to changes in knowledge but not practice. Knowledge translation strategies shown to be less effective were passive and included access to registries of pre-processed research evidence or print materials. While knowledge brokering did not have a significant effect generally

  17. Health Narratives in the Greek Translated Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themis Panagiotis Kaniklidou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks see how meaning is constructed in translated news texts about health and science and awards a narrative potential to unforced translation shifts, moving along the theoretical lines of Baker's Narrative Theory (2006. The thematic thread of health zooms in on “emotional frames” (Nabi, 2003 of risk and fear of human health that is narrated as being 'under attack’ by potentially dangerous diseases. Themes also orbit around schemas that promote hope and optimism about science represented as coming to the rescue of man from fear of the disease. The data consists of 21 pairs of English-Greek health news articles culled from the Greek newspapers I Kathimerini, To Vima and Ta Nea. Findings point towards translation as a process that employs lexicogrammatical and intrasentential configurations to a give emphasis to the risk or hope dimensions underlying a heath or science story, b enable the reflection or emergence of a cascade of public, conceptual and master narratives.

  18. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Braks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  19. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-12-19

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  20. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character. PMID:24452252

  1. Designing a post-genomics knowledge ecosystem to translate pharmacogenomics into public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Faraj, Samer A; Kolker, Eugene; Ozdemir, Vural

    2012-01-01

    Translation of pharmacogenomics to public health action is at the epicenter of the life sciences agenda. Post-genomics knowledge is simultaneously co-produced at multiple scales and locales by scientists, crowd-sourcing and biological citizens. The latter are entrepreneurial citizens who are autonomous, self-governing and increasingly conceptualizing themselves in biological terms, ostensibly taking responsibility for their own health, and engaging in patient advocacy and health activism. By studying these heterogeneous 'scientific cultures', we can locate innovative parameters of collective action to move pharmacogenomics to practice (personalized therapeutics). To this end, we reconceptualize knowledge-based innovation as a complex ecosystem comprising 'actors' and 'narrators'. For robust knowledge translation, we require a nested post-genomics technology governance system composed of first-order narrators (for example, social scientists, philosophers, bioethicists) situated at arm's length from innovation actors (for example, pharmacogenomics scientists). Yet, second-order narrators (for example, an independent and possibly crowd-funded think-tank of citizen scholars, marginalized groups and knowledge end-users) are crucial to prevent first-order narrators from gaining excessive power that can be misused in the course of steering innovations. To operate such 'self-calibrating' and nested innovation ecosystems, we introduce the concept of 'wiki-governance' to enable mutual and iterative learning among innovation actors and first- and second-order narrators. '[A] scientific expert is someone who knows more and more about less and less, until finally knowing (almost) everything about (almost) nothing.' [1] 'Ubuntu: I am because you are.' [2].

  2. Public-private partnerships in translational medicine: concepts and practical examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijten, Peter R; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Moonen, Chrit T; Storm, Gert; Crommelin, Daan J A

    2012-07-20

    The way forward in multidisciplinary research according to former NIH's director Elias Zerhouni is to engage in predictive, personalized, preemptive and participatory medicine. For the creation of the optimal innovation climate that would allow for such a strategy, public-private partnerships have been widely proposed as an important instrument. Public-private partnerships have become an important instrument to expedite translational research in medicine. The Netherlands have initiated three large public-private partnerships in the life sciences and health area to facilitate the translation of valuable basic scientific concepts to new products and services in medicine. The focus of these partnerships has been on drug development, improved diagnosis and regenerative medicine. The Dutch model of public-private partnership forms the blueprint of a much larger European initiative called EATRIS. This paper will provide practical examples of public-private partnerships initiated to expedite the translation of new technology for drug development towards the clinic. Three specific technologies are in focus: companion diagnostics using nuclear medicine, the use of ultra high field MRI to generate sensitive surrogate endpoints based on endogenous contrast, and MRI guidance for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound mediated drug delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The limits of simplification in translated isiZulu health texts | Ndlovu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simplification, defined as the practice of simplifying the language used in translation, is regarded as one of the universal features of translation. This article investigates the limitations of simplification encountered in efforts to make translated isiZulu health texts more accessible to the target readership. The focus is on public ...

  4. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    OpenAIRE

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible i...

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis infections and subfertility: opportunities to translate host pathogen genomic data into public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, J A; Malogajski, J; Verweij, S P; de Boer, P; Ambrosino, E; Brand, A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections in women can result in tubal pathology (TP). Worldwide 10-15% of all couples are subfertile, meaning they did not get pregnant after 1 year. Part of the routine subfertility diagnostics is the Chlamydia Antibody Test (CAT) to decide for laparoscopy or not in order to diagnose TP. The CAT positive and negative predictive value is such that many unneeded laparoscopies are done and many TP cases are missed. Addition of host genetic markers related to infection susceptibility and severity could potentially improve the clinical management of couples who suffer from subfertility. In the present study, the potential translational and clinical value of adding diagnostic host genetic marker profiles on the basis of infection and inflammation to the current clinical management of subfertility was investigated. This review provides an overview of the current state of the art of host genetic markers in relation to CT infection, proposes a new clinical diagnostic approach, and investigates how the Learning-Adapting-Leveling model (LAL, a public health genomic (PHG) model) can be of value and provide insight to see whether these host genetic markers can be translated into public health. This review shows that the preliminary basis of adding host genetic marker profiles to the current diagnostic procedures of subfertility is present but has to be further developed before implementation into health care can be achieved. CT infection is an example in the field of PHG with potential diagnostic to be taken up in the future in the field of subfertility diagnosis with a time line for integration to be dependent on enhanced participation of many stakeholders in the field of PHG which could be advanced through the LAL model. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Implementing and translating change in health care and public organizations - what researchers know and what to do about it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    In Denmark as well in other countries, new innovative ideas are continuously introduced in order to change health care and other public organizations. As a consequence health care and other professionals are often asking themselves how to introduce these ideas effectively. When asking...... such questions professionals often turn their attention toward science in their search for answers.  As a consequence the research of three different communities of researchers doing research related to health care and public organizations are analyzed. It is concluded that each of these communities base...... their research on different metaphorical understandings of organizational change - a metaphorical understanding of change as intervention, implementation and translation. It is also concluded that some evidence about the nature of organizational change exists but that it has turned out to be difficult to reach...

  7. Experiences of Knowledge Brokering for Evidence-Informed Public Health Policy and Practice: Three Years of the Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Helen; Geddes, Rosemary; Haw, Sally; Jackson, Caroline A.; Jepson, Ruth; Mooney, John D.; Frank, John

    2012-01-01

    Despite a burgeoning literature on, and widespread interest in, knowledge translation and exchange in public health, few articles provide an account of the actual experiences of knowledge brokerage organisations. The Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy (SCPHRP) was formed in 2008 to: identify public health interventions…

  8. Translating genomics: cancer genetics, public health and the making of the (de)molecularised body in Cuba and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how cancer genetics has emerged as a focus for research and healthcare in Cuba and Brazil. Drawing on ethnographic research undertaken in community genetics clinics and cancer genetics services, the article examines how the knowledge and technologies associated with this novel area of healthcare are translated and put to work by researchers, health professionals, patients and their families in these two contexts. It illuminates the comparative similarities and differences in how cancer genetics is emerging in relation to transnational research priorities, the history and contemporary politics of public health and embodied vulnerability to cancer that reconfigures the scope and meaning of genomics as "personalised" medicine.

  9. 37 CFR 1.417 - Submission of translation of international publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of translation of... Provisions General Information § 1.417 Submission of translation of international publication. The submission of an English language translation of the publication of an international application pursuant to 35...

  10. Intercultural competency in public health: a call for action to incorporate training into public health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eFleckman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultural roles needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. In focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  11. A knowledge management tool for public health: health-evidence.ca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbins Maureen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultimate goal of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE activities is to facilitate incorporation of research knowledge into program and policy development decision making. Evidence-informed decision making involves translation of the best available evidence from a systematically collected, appraised, and analyzed body of knowledge. Knowledge management (KM is emerging as a key factor contributing to the realization of evidence-informed public health decision making. The goal of health-evidence.ca is to promote evidence-informed public health decision making through facilitation of decision maker access to, retrieval, and use of the best available synthesized research evidence evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Methods The systematic reviews that populate health evidence.ca are identified through an extensive search (1985-present of 7 electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, BIOSIS, and SportDiscus; handsearching of over 20 journals; and reference list searches of all relevant reviews. Reviews are assessed for relevance and quality by two independent reviewers. Commonly-used public health terms are used to assign key words to each review, and project staff members compose short summaries highlighting results and implications for policy and practice. Results As of June 2010, there are 1913 reviews in the health-evidence.ca registry in 21 public health and health promotion topic areas. Of these, 78% have been assessed as being of strong or moderate methodological quality. Health-evidence.ca receives approximately 35,000 visits per year, 20,596 of which are unique visitors, representing approximately 100 visits per day. Just under half of all visitors return to the site, with the average user spending six minutes and visiting seven pages per visit. Public health nurses, program managers, health promotion workers, researchers, and program coordinators are

  12. Public mental health: the time is ripe for translation of evidence into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-02-01

    Public mental health deals with mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and suicide, reducing mental health inequalities, and governance and organization of mental health service provision. The full impact of mental health is largely unrecognized within the public health sphere, despite the increasing burden of disease attributable to mental and behavioral disorders. Modern public mental health policies aim at improving psychosocial health by addressing determinants of mental health in all public policy areas. Stigmatization of mental disorders is a widespread phenomenon that constitutes a barrier for help-seeking and for the development of health care services, and is thus a core issue in public mental health actions. Lately, there has been heightened interest in the promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing. Effective programmes have been developed for promoting mental health in everyday settings such as families, schools and workplaces. New evidence indicates that many mental disorders and suicides are preventable by public mental health interventions. Available evidence favours the population approach over high-risk approaches. Public mental health emphasizes the role of primary care in the provision of mental health services to the population. The convincing evidence base for population-based mental health interventions asks for actions for putting evidence into practice. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  13. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  14. Public mental health: the time is ripe for translation of evidence into practice

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Public mental health deals with mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and suicide, reducing mental health inequalities, and governance and organization of mental health service provision. The full impact of mental health is largely unrecognized within the public health sphere, despite the increasing burden of disease attributable to mental and behavioral disorders. Modern public mental health policies aim at improving psychosocial health by addressing determinants of mental ...

  15. Public health research: lost in translation or speaking the wrong language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Susan M; Farley, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Public health leaders, like physicians, need to make decisions that impact health based on strong evidence. To generate useful evidence for public health leaders, research must focus on interventions that have potential to impact population-level health. Often policy and environmental changes are the interventions with the greatest potential impact on population health, but studying these is difficult because of limitations in the methods typically used and emphasized in health research. To create useful evidence for policy and environmental interventions, other research methods are needed, including observational studies, the use of surveillance data for evaluation, and predictive mathematical modeling. More emphasis is needed on these types of study designs by researchers, funding agencies, and scientific journals.

  16. Dissemination, Implementation, and Improvement Science Research in Population Health: Opportunities for Public Health and CTSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N; Inkelas, Moira

    2015-12-01

    The complex, dynamic nature of health systems requires dissemination, implementation, and improvement (DII) sciences to effectively translate emerging knowledge into practice. Although they hold great promise for informing multisector policies and system-level changes, these methods are often not strategically used by public health. More than 120 stakeholders from Southern California, including the community, federal and local government, university, and health services were convened to identify key priorities and opportunities for public health departments and Clinical and Translational Science Awards programs (CTSAs) to advance DII sciences in population health. Participants identified challenges (mismatch of practice realities with narrowly focused research questions; lack of iterative learning) and solutions (using methods that fit the dynamic nature of the real world; aligning theories of change across sectors) for applying DII science research to public health problems. Pragmatic steps that public health and CTSAs can take to facilitate DII science research include: employing appropriate study designs; training scientists and practicing professionals in these methods; securing resources to advance this work; and supporting team science to solve complex-systems issues. Public health and CTSAs represent a unique model of practice for advancing DII research in population health. The partnership can inform policy and program development in local communities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Deciphering the imperative: translating public health quality improvement into organizational performance management gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitsch, Leslie M; Yeager, Valerie A; Moran, John

    2015-03-18

    With the launching of the national public health accreditation program under the auspices of the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB), health department momentum around quality improvement adoption has accelerated. Domain 9 of the PHAB standards (one of 12 domains) focuses on evaluation and improvement of performance and is acting as a strong driver for quality improvement and performance management implementation within health departments. Widespread adoption of quality improvement activities in public health trails that in other US sectors. Several performance management models have received broad acceptance, including models among government and nonprofits. A model specifically for public health has been developed and is presented herein. All models in current use reinforce customer focus; streamlined, value-added processes; and strategic alignment. All are structured to steer quality improvement efforts toward organizational priorities, ensuring that quality improvement complements performance management. High-performing health departments harness the synergy of quality improvement and performance management, providing powerful tools to achieve public health strategic imperatives.

  18. Genomics in Public Health: Perspective from the Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgely Fisk Green

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The national effort to use genomic knowledge to save lives is gaining momentum, as illustrated by the inclusion of genomics in key public health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, and the recent launch of the precision medicine initiative. The Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC partners with state public health departments and others to advance the translation of genome-based discoveries into disease prevention and population health. To do this, OPHG has adopted an “identify, inform, and integrate” model: identify evidence-based genomic applications ready for implementation, inform stakeholders about these applications, and integrate these applications into public health at the local, state, and national level. This paper addresses current and future work at OPHG for integrating genomics into public health programs.

  19. Genomics in Public Health: Perspective from the Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Dotson, W David; Bowen, Scott; Kolor, Katherine; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-01-01

    The national effort to use genomic knowledge to save lives is gaining momentum, as illustrated by the inclusion of genomics in key public health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, and the recent launch of the precision medicine initiative. The Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partners with state public health departments and others to advance the translation of genome-based discoveries into disease prevention and population health. To do this, OPHG has adopted an "identify, inform, and integrate" model: identify evidence-based genomic applications ready for implementation, inform stakeholders about these applications, and integrate these applications into public health at the local, state, and national level. This paper addresses current and future work at OPHG for integrating genomics into public health programs.

  20. Translating in the public sphere: Birth pangs of a developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Translating in the public sphere: Birth pangs of a developing democracy in today's Russia. ... the article considers the dramatic consequences of the failure to give full consideration to translation as a major factor in the public sphere, especially in countries with developing democracies, such as present-day Putinite Russia.

  1. Public health terminology: Hindrance to a Health in All Policies approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnevåg, Ellen S; Amdam, Roar; Fosse, Elisabeth

    2018-02-01

    National public health policies in Norway are based on a Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach. At the local level, this means that public health, as a cross-sectional responsibility, should be implemented in all municipal sectors by integrating public health policies in municipal planning and management systems. The paper investigates these local processes, focusing on the use of public health terminology and how this terminology is translated from national to local contexts. We ask whether the terms 'public health' and 'public health work' are suitable when implementing an HiAP approach. A qualitative case study based on analyses of interviews and planning documents was performed in three Norwegian municipalities. The results present dilemmas associated with using public health terminology when implementing an HiAP approach. On the one hand, the terms are experienced as wide, complex, advanced and unnecessary. On the other hand, the terms are experienced as important for a systematic approach towards understanding public health ideology and cross-sectional responsibility. One municipality used alternative terminology. This paper promotes debate about the appropriateness of using the terms 'public health' and 'public health work' at the local level. It suggests that adaptation is suitable and necessary, unless it compromises knowledge, responsibility and a systematic approach. This study concludes that the use of terminology is a central factor when implementing the Norwegian Public Health Act at the local level.

  2. Developing an evidence-based approach to Public Health Nutrition: translating evidence into policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetts, B; Warm, D; Yngve, A; Sjöström, M

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of an evidence-based approach to the development, implementation and evaluation of policies aimed at improving nutrition-related health in the population. Public Health Nutrition was established to realise a population-level approach to the prevention of the major nutrition-related health problems world-wide. The scope is broad and integrates activity from local, national, regional and international levels. The aim is to inform and develop coherent and effective policies that address the key rate-limiting steps critical to improving nutrition-related public health. This paper sets out the rationale for an evidence-based approach to Public Health Nutrition developed under the umbrella of the European Network for Public Health Nutrition.

  3. Policy, politics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David

    2017-10-01

    If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010?2016

    OpenAIRE

    Grumbach, Kevin; Vargas, Roberto A.; Fleisher, Paula; Arag?n, Tom?s J.; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R.; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L.; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. Community Context We report o...

  5. Is translational research compatible with preclinical publication strategies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Stig; Shoshan, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    The term 'translational research' is used to describe the transfer of basic biological knowledge into practical medicine, a process necessary for motivation of public spending. In the area of cancer therapeutics, it is becoming increasingly evident that results obtained in vitro and in animal models are difficult to translate into clinical medicine. We here argue that a number of factors contribute to making the translation process inefficient. These factors include the use of sensitive cell lines and fast growing experimental tumors as targets for novel therapies, and the use of unrealistic drug concentrations and radiation doses. We also argue that aggressive interpretation of data, successful in hypothesis-building biological research, does not form a solid base for development of clinically useful treatment modalities. We question whether 'clean' results obtained in simplified models, expected for publication in high-impact journals, represent solid foundations for improved treatment of patients. Open-access journals such as Radiation Oncology have a large mission to fulfill by publishing relevant data to be used for making actual progress in translational cancer research

  6. Better Communication for Better Public Health: Perspectives From an Interdisciplinary Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gower, Amy L; Bearinger, Linda H

    2016-03-01

    Myriad factors determine the health of young people-biological, psychological, familial, contextual, environmental, and political, to name a few. Improving the health of adolescents means that leaders in health care and public health must have the requisite skills for translating research into priorities, practices, and policies that influence a wide array of health determinants. While adolescent health training programs may give emphasis to effective communication with adolescents as patients or as priority populations in health education/promotion efforts, are we adequately preparing our future leaders with the skill sets necessary for moving scientific evidence into practice, programs, and policies? Internship and fellowship programs may invest heavily in teaching skills for conducting research and health education/promotion, but they may not focus enough on how to translate scientific evidence into practice, programs, and policy. In this commentary, we share our experiences equipping professionals working with adolescents in health care and public health settings with skills for scientific writing, public speaking, and advocacy on behalf of young people, and discuss the need for more collaboration across disciplines. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Translational Science Research: Towards Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Festic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though it is considered a 21st century term, translational research has been present for much longer. Idea of translating experimental discovery to its’ clinical application and use is old as research itself. However, it is the understanding of missing links between the basic science research and clinical research that emerged in the past decade and mobilized scientific and clinical communities and organizations worldwide. Hence term, translational research, which represents an “enterprise of harnessing knowledge from basic sciences to produce new drugs, devices, and treatment options for patients” (1. It has been also characterized as “effective translation of the new knowledge, mechanisms, and techniques generated by advances in basic science research into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, which is essential for improving health” (2.This translation is a complex process and involves more than one step for transfer of research knowledge. At least 3 such roadblocks have been identified (Figure 1 ; T1 translation: “The transfer of new understandings of disease mechanisms gained in the laboratory into the development of new methods for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention and their first testing in humans”, T2 translation: “The translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making”, and T3 translation: “Practice-based research, which is often necessary before distilled knowledge (e.g., systematic reviews, guidelines can be implemented in practice” (3-5.The international research community rapidly recognized importance for promotion of translational research and made it their priority(5. In the USA, National Institutes of Health, (NIH expects to fund 60 translational research centers with a budget of $500 million per year by 2012 (6. Besides academic centers, foundations, industry, disease-related organizations, and individual hospitals and

  8. Strategies for public health research in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Olivier; McCarthy, Mark; Conceição, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    'Health' is an identifiable theme within the European Union multi-annual research programmes. Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe (PHIRE), led by the European Public Health Association, sought to identify public health research strategies in EU member states. Within PHIRE, national public health associations reviewed structures for health research, held stakeholder workshops and produced reports. This information, supplemented by further web searches, including using assisted translation, was analysed for national research strategies and health research strategies. All countries described general research strategies, outlining organizational and capacity objectives. Thematic fields, including health, are mentioned in some strategies. A health research strategy was identified for 15 EU countries and not for 12. Ministries of health led research strategies for nine countries. Public health research was identified in only three strategies. National research strategies did not refer to the European Union's health research programme. Public health research strategies of European countries need to be developed by ministries of health, working with the research community to achieve the European Research Area.

  9. Stakeholder consultation insights on the future of genomics at the clinical-public health interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Stephen M; Kardia, Sharon L R; Citrin, Toby

    2014-05-01

    In summer 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Public Health Genomics conducted a stakeholder consultation, administered by the University of Michigan Center for Public Health and Community Genomics, and Genetic Alliance, to recommend priorities for public health genomics from 2012 through 2017. Sixty-two responses from health professionals, administrators, and members of the public were pooled with 2 sets of key informant interviews and 3 discussion groups. NVivo 9 and manual methods were used to organize themes. This review offers an interim analysis of progress with respect to the final recommendations, which demonstrated a strong interest in moving genomic discoveries toward implementation and comparative effectiveness (T3/T4) translational research. A translational research continuum exists with familial breast and ovarian cancer at one end and prostate cancer at the other. Cascade screening for inherited arrhythmia syndromes and hypercholesterolemia lags stakeholder recommendations in the United States but not in Europe; implementation of health service-based screening for Lynch syndrome, and integration into electronic health information systems, is on pace with the recommended timeline. A number of options exist to address deficits in the funding of translational research, particularly for oncogenomic gene expression profiling. The goal of personalized risk assessment necessitates both research progress (eg, in whole genome sequencing, as well as provider education in the differentiation of low- vs high-risk status. The public health approach supports an emphasis on genetic test validation while endorsing clinical translation research inclusion of an environmental and population-based perspective. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Big data from electronic health records for early and late translational cardiovascular research: challenges and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Harry; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Danesh, John; Dobson, Richard; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Maggioni, Aldo; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M; Cronin, Maureen; Brobert, Gunnar; Vardas, Panos; Anker, Stefan D; Grobbee, Diederick E; Denaxas, Spiros

    2018-04-21

    Cohorts of millions of people's health records, whole genome sequencing, imaging, sensor, societal and publicly available data present a rapidly expanding digital trace of health. We aimed to critically review, for the first time, the challenges and potential of big data across early and late stages of translational cardiovascular disease research. We sought exemplars based on literature reviews and expertise across the BigData@Heart Consortium. We identified formidable challenges including: data quality, knowing what data exist, the legal and ethical framework for their use, data sharing, building and maintaining public trust, developing standards for defining disease, developing tools for scalable, replicable science and equipping the clinical and scientific work force with new inter-disciplinary skills. Opportunities claimed for big health record data include: richer profiles of health and disease from birth to death and from the molecular to the societal scale; accelerated understanding of disease causation and progression, discovery of new mechanisms and treatment-relevant disease sub-phenotypes, understanding health and diseases in whole populations and whole health systems and returning actionable feedback loops to improve (and potentially disrupt) existing models of research and care, with greater efficiency. In early translational research we identified exemplars including: discovery of fundamental biological processes e.g. linking exome sequences to lifelong electronic health records (EHR) (e.g. human knockout experiments); drug development: genomic approaches to drug target validation; precision medicine: e.g. DNA integrated into hospital EHR for pre-emptive pharmacogenomics. In late translational research we identified exemplars including: learning health systems with outcome trials integrated into clinical care; citizen driven health with 24/7 multi-parameter patient monitoring to improve outcomes and population-based linkages of multiple EHR sources

  11. Knowledge translation is the use of knowledge in health care decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Graham, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    To provide an overview of the science and practice of knowledge translation. Narrative review outlining what knowledge translation is and a framework for its use. Knowledge translation is defined as the use of knowledge in practice and decision making by the public, patients, health care professionals, managers, and policy makers. Failures to use research evidence to inform decision making are apparent across all these key decision maker groups. There are several proposed theories and frameworks for achieving knowledge translation. A conceptual framework developed by Graham et al., termed the knowledge-to-action cycle, provides an approach that builds on the commonalities found in an assessment of planned action theories. Review of the evidence base for the science and practice of knowledge translation has identified several gaps including the need to develop valid strategies for assessing the determinants of knowledge use and for evaluating sustainability of knowledge translation interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multidirectional Translation of Environmental Health Science in Community Settings: The Case of Oxidative Stress Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Natalie R; Tetteh, Myra M; Schulz, Amy J; Ramirez, Erminia; Wilkins, Donele; de Majo, Ricardo; Mentz, Graciela; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Translation of environmental health science in vulnerable communities is particularly important to promote public health and reduce health inequities. We describe a structured, multidirectional process used to develop a suite of health promotion tools (e.g., fact sheets, video, maps) documenting patterning of local air pollution sources and availability of antioxidant-rich foods in Detroit, Michigan as factors that jointly affect oxidative stress (OS). OS underlies many pathological processes associated with air pollution, including asthma, metabolic syndrome, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. This translational effort involved a 2-year dialogue among representatives from community-based and environmental organizations, health service providers, and academic researchers. This dialogue led to development of tools, as well as new opportunities to inform related policies and research. Through this example, we highlight how collaborative partnerships can enhance multidirectional dialogue to inform translation of environmental health science by promoting consideration of multilevel risk factors, local priorities and context, and diverse audiences.

  13. Probiotics and prebiotics: prospects for public health and nutritional recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Salminen, Seppo; Merenstein, Daniel J.; Gibson, Glenn R.; Petschow, Bryon W.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Jacques, Paul; Pot, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are useful interventions for improving human health through direct or indirect effects on the colonizing microbiota. However, translation of these research findings into nutritional recommendations and public health policy endorsements has not been achieved in a manner

  14. Translational behavioral medicine for population and individual health: gaps, opportunities, and vision for practice-based translational behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Lewis, Megan A; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    In this commentary, we propose a vision for "practice-based translational behavior change research," which we define as clinical and public health practice-embedded research on the implementation, optimization, and fundamental mechanisms of behavioral interventions. This vision intends to be inclusive of important research elements for behavioral intervention development, testing, and implementation. We discuss important research gaps and conceptual and methodological advances in three key areas along the discovery (development) to delivery (implementation) continuum of evidence-based interventions to improve behavior and health that could help achieve our vision of practice-based translational behavior change research. We expect our proposed vision to be refined and evolve over time. Through highlighting critical gaps that can be addressed by integrating modern theoretical and methodological approaches across disciplines in behavioral medicine, we hope to inspire the development and funding of innovative research on more potent and implementable behavior change interventions for optimal population and individual health.

  15. Evidence Translation in a Youth Mental Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Bailey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An evidence–practice gap is well established in the mental health field, and knowledge translation is identified as a key strategy to bridge the gap. This study outlines a knowledge translation strategy, which aims to support clinicians in using evidence in their practice within a youth mental health service (headspace. We aim to evaluate the strategy by exploring clinicians’ experiences and preferences. The translation strategy includes the creation and dissemination of evidence translation resources that summarize the best available evidence and practice guidelines relating to the management of young people with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 youth mental health clinicians covering three topics: experiences with evidence translation resources, preferences for evidence presentation, and suggestions regarding future translation efforts. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes were both predetermined by interview topic and identified freely from the data. Clinicians described their experiences with the evidence translation resources as informing decision making, providing a knowledge base, and instilling clinical confidence. Clinicians expressed a preference for brief, plain language summaries and for involvement and consultation during the creation and dissemination of resources. Suggestions to improve the dissemination strategy and the development of new areas for evidence resources were identified. The knowledge translation efforts described support clinicians in the provision of mental health services for young people. The preferences and experiences described have valuable implications for services implementing knowledge translation strategies.

  16. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Challenges in translational research: the views of addiction scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place.

  18. 78 FR 12764 - Draft Office of Health Assessment and Translation Approach for Systematic Review and Evidence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... study will evaluate the association of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure with obesity and the other will... Health Assessments--February 2013; Request for Comments; Notice of a Meeting SUMMARY: The National Toxicology Program (NTP) requests public comments on the Draft Office of Health Assessment and Translation...

  19. 'Only connect': the case for public health humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Lise

    2014-12-01

    Humanities in health has until now been primarily understood to mean humanities in medicine and has generally failed to include public health. I will argue in this paper that the common justifications for the former--including increased empathy among practitioners--are at least as applicable, if not more, to the latter. Growing emphasis on the social determinants of health and cultural competency in public health require public health students and professionals to develop a nuanced understanding of the influence of social context on health behaviour and to empathise with people in difficult circumstances. Literary fiction has been demonstrated to have an impact on skills related to empathy and social intelligence. Further, translating epidemiological evidence into public policy is a core task of public health and there is a growing body of research to indicate that statistical evidence is more persuasive when combined with narrative evidence. In this article I explore similarities and differences between proposed humanities in public health and programmes in humanities in medicine and highlight research gaps and possible implications of a more expansive view of humanities in health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Equity, social determinants and public health programmes - the case of oral health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2011-01-01

    is that means are available for breaking poverty and reduce if not eliminate social inequalities in oral health. Whether public health actions are initiated simply depends on the political will. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) and subsequent charters have emphasized the importance of policy......', with the aim of translating knowledge into concrete, workable actions. Poor oral health was flagged as a severe public health problem. Oral disease and illness remain global problems and widening inequities in oral health status exist among different social groupings between and within countries. The good news......The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health issued the 2008 report 'Closing the gap within a generation - health equity through action on the social determinants of health' in response to the widening gaps, within and between countries, in income levels, opportunities, life expectancy...

  1. Translating public diplomacy and nation branding in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassinger, Cecilia; Merkelsen, Henrik; Eksell, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    Nation branding has been criticised for leading to the homogenisation and depoliticisation of national interest and identity. This study examines the politics of nation branding in relation to its configuration with public diplomacy and the institutional policy context in which they are embedded....... Informed by Scandinavian institutionalism and the analytical concept of translation, the study reveals that the way that nation branding relates to public diplomacy within an institutional context sets the frame for its politicisation. Translation enables the understanding of nation branding as a dynamic...... process of becoming that unfolds in relation to time and place. The research contributes to a more nuanced view on nation branding in presenting its toolbox practices as less determined by a corporate marketing logic. Despite the uniformity that allegedly characterises nation branding practices...

  2. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 1: Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik L. Carlton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. Purpose. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to understand the context of leadership local health departments.Methods. Leadership styles among local health department directors (n=13 were examined using survey methodology. Quantitative analysis methods included descriptive statistics, boxplots, and Pearson bivariate correlations using SPSS v18.0. Findings. Self-reported leadership styles were highly correlated to leadership outcomes at the organizational level. However, they were not related to county health rankings. Results suggest the preeminence of leader behaviors and providing individual consideration to staff as compared to idealized attributes of leaders, intellectual stimulation, or inspirational motivation. Implications. Holistic leadership assessment instruments, such as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ can be useful in assessing public health leaders approaches and outcomes. Comprehensive, 360-degree reviews may be especially helpful. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of public health leadership development models, as well as the extent that public health leadership impacts public health outcomes.

  3. Equity, social determinants and public health programmes--the case of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2011-12-01

    The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health issued the 2008 report 'Closing the gap within a generation - health equity through action on the social determinants of health' in response to the widening gaps, within and between countries, in income levels, opportunities, life expectancy, health status, and access to health care. Most individuals and societies, irrespective of their philosophical and ideological stance, have limits as to how much unfairness is acceptable. In 2010, WHO published another important report on 'Equity, Social Determinants and Public Health Programmes', with the aim of translating knowledge into concrete, workable actions. Poor oral health was flagged as a severe public health problem. Oral disease and illness remain global problems and widening inequities in oral health status exist among different social groupings between and within countries. The good news is that means are available for breaking poverty and reduce if not eliminate social inequalities in oral health. Whether public health actions are initiated simply depends on the political will. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) and subsequent charters have emphasized the importance of policy for health, healthy environments, healthy lifestyles, and the need for orientation of health services towards health promotion and disease prevention. This report advocates that oral health for all can be promoted effectively by applying this philosophy and some major public health actions are outlined. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  5. Development of a replicable process for translating science into practical health education messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyus, Nadra C; Freeman, Randall J; Gibbons, M Christopher

    2006-09-01

    There has been considerable discussion about translating science into practical messages, especially among urban minority and "hard-to-reach" populations. Unfortunately, many research findings rarely make it back in useful format to the general public. Few innovative techniques have been established that provide researchers with a systematic process for developing health awareness and prevention messages for priority populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the early development and experience of a unique community-based participatory process used to develop health promotion messages for a predominantly low-income, black and African-American community in Baltimore, MD. Scientific research findings from peer-reviewed literature were identified by academic researchers. Researchers then taught the science to graphic design students and faculty. The graphic design students and faculty then worked with both community residents and researchers to transform this information into evidence-based public health education messages. The final products were culturally and educationally appropriate, health promotion messages reflecting urban imagery that were eagerly desired by the community. This early outcome is in contrast to many previously developed messages and materials created through processes with limited community involvement and by individuals with limited practical knowledge of local community culture or expertise in marketing or mass communication. This process may potentially be utilized as a community-based participatory approach to enhance the translation of scientific research into desirable and appropriate health education messages.

  6. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Judy M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  7. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Robert K D; Graham, Ian D; Bosompra, Kwadwo; Choudhry, Yumna; Coen, Stephanie E; Macleod, Martha; Manuel, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan; Mota, Adrian; Peckham, David; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Tucker, Joanne

    2012-06-22

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has defined knowledge translation (KT) as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding interventions, and how KT can best be evaluated.

  8. Reducing health inequities: the contribution of core public health services in BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Within Canada, many public health leaders have long identified the importance of improving the health of all Canadians especially those who face social and economic disadvantages. Future improvements in population health will be achieved by promoting health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Many Canadian documents, endorsed by government and public health leaders, describe commitments to improving overall health and promoting health equity. Public health has an important role to play in strengthening action on the social determinants and promoting health equity. Currently, public health services in British Columbia are being reorganized and there is a unique opportunity to study the application of an equity lens in public health and the contribution of public health to reducing health inequities. Where applicable, we have chosen mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and harms of substance use as exemplars within which to examine specific application of an equity lens. Methods/design This research protocol is informed by three theoretical perspectives: complex adaptive systems, critical social justice, and intersectionality. In this program of research, there are four inter-related research projects with an emphasis on both integrated and end of grant knowledge translation. Within an overarching collaborative and participatory approach to research, we use a multiple comparative case study research design and are incorporating multiple methods such as discourse analysis, situational analysis, social network analysis, concept mapping and grounded theory. Discussion An important aim of this work is to help ensure a strong public health system that supports public health providers to have the knowledge, skills, tools and resources to undertake the promotion of health equity. This research will contribute to increasing the effectiveness and contributions of public health in reducing unfair and inequitable differences

  9. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  10. The Social Impact of Communication during Epidemics: Bioethical and Public Health Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alfredo Duro

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health communication and, especially during a crisis scenario such as an epidemics, is mediated by ethical conflicts ranging from values to deontology. In an intercommunicated world, the social support during outbreaks and epidemics becomes global and the state presence is a key to social protection. This should also be translated into timely, urgent and effective communication strategies from the public health perspective as well as efforts to prevent and avoid fake news or skewed information from any sources. Scenarios with lack of connection and obstacles in mass communication in public health major threats are described.

  11. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: knowledge translation and effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayah, Richard; Jessani, Nasreen; Mafuta, Eric M

    2014-06-02

    Local health systems research (HSR) provides policymakers and practitioners with contextual, evidence-based solutions to health problems. However, producers and users of HSR rarely understand the complexities of the context within which each operates, leading to the "know-do" gap. Universities are well placed to conduct knowledge translation (KT) integrating research production with uptake. The HEALTH Alliance Africa Hub, a consortium of seven schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa, was formed to build capacity in HSR. This paper presents information on the capacity of the various SPHs to conduct KT activities. In 2011, each member of the Africa Hub undertook an institutional HSR capacity assessment using a context-adapted and modified self-assessment tool. KT capacity was measured by several indicators including the presence of a KT strategy, an organizational structure to support KT activities, KT skills, and institutional links with stakeholders and media. Respondents rated their opinions on the various indicators using a 5-point Likert scale. Averages across all respondents for each school were calculated. Thereafter, each school held a results validation workshop. A total of 123 respondents from all seven SPHs participated. Only one school had a clear KT strategy; more commonly, research was disseminated at scientific conferences and workshops. While most respondents perceived their SPH as having strong institutional ties with organizations interested in HSR as well as strong institutional leadership, the organizational structures required to support KT activities were absent. Furthermore, individual researchers indicated that they had little time or skills to conduct KT. Additionally, institutional and individual links with policymakers and media were reported as weak. Few SPHs in Africa have a clear KT strategy. Strengthening the weak KT capacity of the SPHs requires working with institutional leadership to develop KT strategies designed

  12. Expectations for methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2015-05-07

    Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans. After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were compared using Chi-square, with P methodological quality, most respondents expect that: AR is done to high quality; costs and difficulty are not acceptable justifications for low quality; findings should be reproducible between laboratories and strains of the same species; and guidelines for AR funded with public money should be consistent with these expectations. Asked about benefits of AR, most thought that there are sometimes/often large benefits to humans from AR, and disagreed that "AR rarely produces benefit to humans." Asked about expectations of translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and treatment findings), most: expect translation >40% of the time; thought that misleading AR results should occur methodological quality of, and the translation rate to humans of findings from AR. These expectations are higher than the empirical data show having been achieved. Unless these areas of AR significantly improve, HCW support of AR may be tenuous.

  13. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  14. Healthy publics: enabling cultures and environments for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Stephen; Jackson, Mark A.; Wyatt, Katrina; Barlow, Anne E.; Barreto, Manuela; Clare, Linda; Depledge, Michael H.; Durie, Robin; Fleming, Lora E.; Groom, Nick; Morrissey, Karyn; Salisbury, Laura; Thomas, Felicity

    2018-01-01

    Despite extraordinary advances in biomedicine and associated gains in human health and well-being, a growing number of health and well-being related challenges have remained or emerged in recent years. These challenges are often ‘more than biomedical’ in complexion, being social, cultural and environmental in terms of their key drivers and determinants, and underline the necessity of a concerted policy focus on generating healthy societies. Despite the apparent agreement on this diagnosis, the means to produce change are seldom clear, even when the turn to health and well-being requires sizable shifts in our understandings of public health and research practices. This paper sets out a platform from which research approaches, methods and translational pathways for enabling health and well-being can be built. The term ‘healthy publics’ allows us to shift the focus of public health away from ‘the public’ or individuals as targets for intervention, and away from the view that culture acts as a barrier to efficient biomedical intervention, towards a greater recognition of the public struggles that are involved in raising health issues, questioning what counts as healthy and unhealthy and assembling the evidence and experience to change practices and outcomes. Creating the conditions for health and well-being, we argue, requires an engaged research process in which public experiments in building and repairing social and material relations are staged and sustained even if, and especially when, the fates of those publics remain fragile and buffeted by competing and often more powerful public formations. PMID:29862036

  15. The Ethics of Translational Science: Imagining Public Benefit in Gene-Environment Interaction Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research is increasingly informed by expectations of “translation,” which call for the production of scientific knowledge that can be used to create services and products that improve health outcomes. In this paper, we ask how translation, in particular the idea of social responsibility, is understood and enacted in the post-genomic life sciences. Drawing on theories examining what constitutes “good science,” and interviews with 35 investigators who study the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, we describe the dynamic and unsettled ethics of translational science through which the expected social value of scientific knowledge about complex disease causation is negotiated. To describe how this ethics is formed, we first discuss the politics of knowledge production in interdisciplinary research collectives. Researchers described a commitment to working across disciplines to examine a wide range of possible causes of disease, but they also pointed to persistent disciplinary and ontological divisions that rest on the dominance of molecular conceptions of disease risk. The privileging of molecular-level causation shapes and constrains the kinds of knowledge that can be created about gene-environment interactions. We then turn to scientists’ ideas about how this knowledge should be used, including personalized prevention strategies, targeted therapeutics, and public policy interventions. Consensus about the relative value of these anticipated translations was elusive, and many scientists agreed that gene-environment interaction research is part of a shift in biomedical research away from considering important social, economic, political and historical causes of disease and disease disparities. We conclude by urging more explicit engagement with questions about the ethics of translational science in the post-genomic life sciences. This would include a consideration

  16. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Li, Ben

    2017-02-15

    A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a) examine different research translation frameworks; b) examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c) identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice) AND (framework OR model OR theory) AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine). Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or 'T' models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research-practice gap.

  17. An evidence-based public health approach to climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jeremy J; Eidson, Millicent; Tlumak, Jennifer E; Raab, Kristin K; Luber, George

    2014-11-01

    Public health is committed to evidence-based practice, yet there has been minimal discussion of how to apply an evidence-based practice framework to climate change adaptation. Our goal was to review the literature on evidence-based public health (EBPH), to determine whether it can be applied to climate change adaptation, and to consider how emphasizing evidence-based practice may influence research and practice decisions related to public health adaptation to climate change. We conducted a substantive review of EBPH, identified a consensus EBPH framework, and modified it to support an EBPH approach to climate change adaptation. We applied the framework to an example and considered implications for stakeholders. A modified EBPH framework can accommodate the wide range of exposures, outcomes, and modes of inquiry associated with climate change adaptation and the variety of settings in which adaptation activities will be pursued. Several factors currently limit application of the framework, including a lack of higher-level evidence of intervention efficacy and a lack of guidelines for reporting climate change health impact projections. To enhance the evidence base, there must be increased attention to designing, evaluating, and reporting adaptation interventions; standardized health impact projection reporting; and increased attention to knowledge translation. This approach has implications for funders, researchers, journal editors, practitioners, and policy makers. The current approach to EBPH can, with modifications, support climate change adaptation activities, but there is little evidence regarding interventions and knowledge translation, and guidelines for projecting health impacts are lacking. Realizing the goal of an evidence-based approach will require systematic, coordinated efforts among various stakeholders.

  18. Greening Australia's public health system: the role of public hospitals in responding to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primozic, Lauren

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most important social, economic, ecological and ethical issues of the 21st century. The effects of climate change on human health are now widely accepted as a genuine threat and the Australian Government has initiated policy and legislative responses. In addition, in the 2009-2010 budget the Australian Government has committed A$64 billion to public health and hospital reform. But will this Commonwealth funding support--and should it support--the government's high-profile climate change policy? Does Commonwealth funding translate to an obligation to support Commonwealth policies? This article explores the role of public hospitals as champions and role models of the Australian Government's climate change policy and how this might be done without detracting from the primary purpose of public hospital funding: improving patient care.

  19. On Management Matters: Why We Must Improve Public Health Management Through Action: Comment on "Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willacy, Erika; Bratton, Shelly

    2015-09-30

    Public health management is a pillar of public health practice. Only through effective management can research, theory, and scientific innovation be translated into successful public health action. With this in mind, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an innovative program called Improving Public Health Management for Action (IMPACT) which aims to address this critical need by building an effective cadre of public health managers to work alongside scientists to prepare for and respond to disease threats and to effectively implement public health programs. IMPACT is a 2-year, experiential learning program that provides fellows with the management tools and opportunities to apply their new knowledge in the field, all while continuing to serve the Ministry of Health (MoH). IMPACT will launch in 2016 in 2 countries with the intent of expanding to additional countries in future years resulting in a well-trained cadre of public health managers around the world. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. Neuroimaging in Mental Health Care: Voices in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L. Borgelt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Images of brain function, popularly called neuroimages, have become a mainstay of contemporary communication about neuroscience and mental health. Paralleling media coverage of neuroimaging research and the high visibility of clinics selling scans is pressure from sponsors to move basic research about brain function along the translational pathway. Indeed, neuroimaging benefit mental health care with early or tailored intervention, opportunities for education and planning, and access to resources afforded by objectification of disorder. However, risks of premature technology transfer, such as misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and increased stigmatization, could compromise patient care.Stakeholder views on neuroimaging for mental health care are a largely untapped resource of information and guidance for translational efforts. We argue that the insights of key stakeholders – researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and families - have an essential role to play upstream in professional, critical, and ethical discourse about neuroimaging in mental health. Here we integrate previously orthogonal lines of inquiry involving stakeholder research to describe the translational landscape as well as challenges on its horizon.

  1. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a examine different research translation frameworks; b examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. Methods: The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice AND (framework OR model OR theory AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine. Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. Results: The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or ‘T’ models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. Conclusion: The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research–practice gap.

  2. Knowledge translation in health care as a multimodal interactional accomplishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Malene

    2014-01-01

    of their education where they are in clinical practice. The analysis is made possible through video recordings of how student nurses translate their theoretical knowledge into a professional situational conduct in everyday interactional accomplishments among supervisors and patients. The analysis shows how some......In the theory of health care, knowledge translation is regarded as a crucial phenomenon that makes the whole health care system work in a desired manner. The present paper studies knowledge translation from the student nurses’ perspective and does that through a close analysis of the part...... knowledge gets translated through the use of rich multimodal embodied interactions, whereas the more abstract aspects of knowledge remain untranslated. Overall, the study contributes to the understanding of knowledge translation as a multimodal, locally situated accomplishment....

  3. Artemisinin-resistant malaria: research challenges, opportunities, and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Rick M; Nayyar, Gaurvika M L; Breman, Joel G; Hallett, Rachel; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L; Duong, Socheat; Ringwald, Pascal; Wellems, Thomas E; Plowe, Christopher V; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2012-08-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies are the most effective drugs to treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Reduced sensitivity to artemisinin monotherapy, coupled with the emergence of parasite resistance to all partner drugs, threaten to place millions of patients at risk of inadequate treatment of malaria. Recognizing the significance and immediacy of this possibility, the Fogarty International Center and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the U.S. National Institutes of Health convened a conference in November 2010 to bring together the diverse array of stakeholders responding to the growing threat of artemisinin resistance, including scientists from malarious countries in peril. This conference encouraged and enabled experts to share their recent unpublished data from studies that may improve our understanding of artemisinin resistance. Conference sessions addressed research priorities to forestall artemisinin resistance and fostered collaborations between field- and laboratory-based researchers and international programs, with the aim of translating new scientific evidence into public health solutions. Inspired by this conference, this review summarizes novel findings and perspectives on artemisinin resistance, approaches for translating research data into relevant public health information, and opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration to combat artemisinin resistance.

  4. Public Health Activist Skills Pyramid: A Model for Implementing Health in All Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damari, Behzad; Ehsani Chimeh, Elham

    2017-01-01

    Affecting public health for society requires various competencies. In fact, the prerequisite for the implementation of health in all policies should be effectiveness of public health activists (PHAs) in these competencies. This study aims to determine the competencies of the activists in public health. The present qualitative study reviewed the literature and adopted qualitative methods like content analysis, stakeholder interviews, and conducted focus group discussions with related experts. In each stage, the required competencies were extracted through drawing the main action processes of a PHA. Thereafter, the authors reached an ultimately best-suited working model by classifying and approving extracted competencies. The competencies comprise a pyramid set of three main categories of basic, specialized/professional, and individual updating competencies. Personal management, communication, teamwork, project management, ability to apply principles and concepts of public health, anatomy, physiology, and pathology in the organizations of the society should be included in the basic category. Specialized skills should include ability to plan, public participation, intersectoral collaboration, social marketing, working with the media/media friendly attitude, advocacy, research management and knowledge translation, evaluation of health programs, network establishment and management, deployment and institutionalization, operational research, empowerment and consultation, and protocol and service pack design. Last but not least, individual updating is defined as being informed of the latest scientific articles and reports about health and its situation in different countries as well as determinants that affect health. Implementation of this pyramid requires design and establishment of specific centers for transferring effective public health competencies. This pyramid has also functional use for the revision of educational curriculums in all health study fields. Moreover

  5. Introduction--Knowledge translation and urban health equity: advancing the agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, an interdisciplinary symposium was organized in Toronto, Canada to investigate prevailing models of health policy change in the knowledge translation literature and to assess the applicability of these models for equity-focused urban health research. The papers resulting from the symposium have been published together, in the Journal of Urban Health, along with this introductory essay. This essay describes how the different papers grapple in different ways with how to understand and to bridge the gaps between urban health research and action. The breadth of perspectives reflected in the papers (e.g., social epidemiology, public health, political science, sociology, critical labor studies, and educational psychology) shed much light on core tensions in the relationship between KT and health equity. The first tension is whether the content of evidence or the context of decision making is the strong determinate of research impact in relation to health equity policy. The second tension is whether relationships between health equity researchers and decision makers are best viewed in terms of collaboration or of conflict. The third concerns the role that power plays in evidence-based policy making, when the issues at stake are not only empirical but also normative.

  6. [Health services research for the public health service (PHS) and the public health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, A; Wildner, M

    2015-03-01

    There is a great need for health services research in the public health system and in the German public health service. However, the public health service is underrepresented in health services research in Germany. This has several structural, historical and disciplinary-related reasons. The public health service is characterised by a broad range of activities, high qualification requirements and changing framework conditions. The concept of health services research is similar to that of the public health service and public health system, because it includes the principles of multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionalism and daily routine orientation. This article focuses on a specified system theory based model of health services research for the public health system and public health service. The model is based on established models of the health services research and health system research, which are further developed according to specific requirements of the public health service. It provides a theoretical foundation for health services research on the macro-, meso- and microlevels in public health service and the public health system. Prospects for public health service are seen in the development from "old public health" to "new public health" as well as in the integration of health services research and health system research. There is a significant potential for development in a better linkage between university research and public health service as is the case for the "Pettenkofer School of Public Health Munich". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. The use of tacit and explicit knowledge in public health: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Rudman, Debbie; Dobbins, Maureen; Rouse, Michael; Sibbald, Shannon; Edwards, Nancy

    2012-03-20

    Planning a public health initiative is both a science and an art. Public health practitioners work in a complex, often time-constrained environment, where formal research literature can be unavailable or uncertain. Consequently, public health practitioners often draw upon other forms of knowledge. Through use of one-on-one interviews and focus groups, we aimed to gain a better understanding of how tacit knowledge is used to inform program initiatives in public health. This study was designed as a narrative inquiry, which is based on the assumption that we make sense of the world by telling stories. Four public health units were purposively selected for maximum variation, based on geography and academic affiliation. Analysis revealed different ways in which tacit knowledge was used to plan the public health program or initiative, including discovering the opportunity, bringing a team together, and working out program details (such as partnering, funding). The findings of this study demonstrate that tacit knowledge is drawn upon, and embedded within, various stages of the process of program planning in public health. The results will be useful in guiding the development of future knowledge translation strategies for public health organizations and decision makers.

  8. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenköttera, N.; Vondeling, Hindrik; Blancquaert, I.; Mekel, O.C.L.; Kristensen, F.B.; Brand, A.

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the

  9. Environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity: potential public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczylo, Emma L; Jacobs, Miriam N; Gant, Timothy W

    2016-09-01

    Throughout our lives, epigenetic processes shape our development and enable us to adapt to a constantly changing environment. Identifying and understanding environmentally induced epigenetic change(s) that may lead to adverse outcomes is vital for protecting public health. This review, therefore, examines the present understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the mammalian life cycle, evaluates the current evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in human cohorts and rodent models and highlights the research considerations and implications of this emerging knowledge for public health and regulatory toxicology. Many hundreds of studies have investigated such toxicity, yet relatively few have demonstrated a mechanistic association among specific environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and adverse health outcomes in human epidemiological cohorts and/or rodent models. While this small body of evidence is largely composed of exploratory in vivo high-dose range studies, it does set a precedent for the existence of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity. Consequently, there is worldwide recognition of this phenomenon, and discussion on how to both guide further scientific research towards a greater mechanistic understanding of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in humans, and translate relevant research outcomes into appropriate regulatory policies for effective public health protection.

  10. Nataniel, NAFTA, and Public Health at the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Tom; Tapia, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Advocating overall improvements in health for individuals and communities is a daunting but important task for nurses in particular, and for health care professionals in general. This is particularly true when focusing on the population along the 2,000-mile U.S.-Mexico border, a unique region in which distinct cultures, economies, and political systems meet. The purpose of this paper is to confront the assumption that trade and economic expansion automatically translate into improved public health, and to explore policy implications of the public health situation at the border. It uses a meta-narrative, an overarching story that draws on and illustrates collective stories from 300 participants in a study of mental health disparities, to argue for a more nuanced and complex understanding of health among the largely Hispanic population in this region.

  11. Knowledge translation in eHealth: building a virtual community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Jesdeep; Lau, Francis; Hagens, Simon; Leaver, Chad; Price, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge can be powerful in eliciting positive change when it is put into action. This is the belief that drives knowledge translation. The University of Victoria (UVic) eHealth Observatory is focused on deriving knowledge from health information system (HIS) evaluation, which needs to be shared with HIS practitioners. Through an application of the Knowledge-to-Action Framework and the concept of a virtual community, we have established the virtual eHealth Benefits Evaluation Knowledge Translation (KT) Community. This paper describes the foundational elements of the KT Community and our overall KT strategy.

  12. Public health genomics and personalized prevention: lessons from the COGS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, N; Hall, A; Chowdhury, S; Dent, T; Pharoah, P D P; Burton, H

    2013-11-01

    Using the principles of public health genomics, we examined the opportunities and challenges of implementing personalized prevention programmes for cancer at the population level. Our model-based estimates indicate that polygenic risk stratification can potentially improve the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. However, compared with 'one-size-fits-all' screening programmes, personalized screening adds further layers of complexity to the organization of screening services and raises ethical, legal and social challenges. Before polygenic inheritance is translated into population screening strategy, evidence from empirical research and engagement with and education of the public and the health professionals are needed. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  13. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact.

  14. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health OutcomesComment on "Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Janine

    2016-04-30

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  15. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response.

  16. Training public health superheroes: five talents for public health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Matthew; Shickle, Darren; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Public health leaders have been criticized for their policy stances, relationships with governments and failure to train the next generation. New approaches to the identification and training of public health leaders may be required. To inform these, lessons can be drawn from public health 'superheroes'; public health leaders perceived to be the most admired and effective by their peers. Members and Fellows of the UK Faculty of Public Health were contacted via e-newsletter and magazine and asked to nominate their 'Public Health Superhero'. Twenty-six responses were received, nominating 40 different people. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis, based on 'grounded theory', was conducted. Five leadership 'talents' for public health were identified: mentoring-nurturing, shaping-organizing, networking-connecting, knowing-interpreting and advocating-impacting. Talent-based approaches have been effective for leadership development in other sectors. These talents are the first specific to the practice of public health and align with some aspects of existing frameworks. An increased focus on identifying and developing talents during public health training, as opposed to 'competency'-based approaches, may be effective in strengthening public health leadership. Further research to understand the combination and intensity of talents across a larger sample of public health leaders is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Knowledge brokering in public health: a tale of two studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, R; DeCorby, K; Dobbins, M

    2014-06-01

    A Knowledge Broker is one approach for facilitating the integration of evidence-informed decision making in public health practice. In this paper, the findings from two studies investigating a Knowledge Broker intervention as a means of enhancing capacity for evidence-informed decision making are presented. Contextual factors that facilitate this strategy are also identified. This paper describes work done through a single mixed-methods study (randomized controlled trial with a qualitative component) and a case study. The Health Evidence team conducted two studies examining Knowledge Broker impact in Canadian public health departments. The effectiveness of knowledge translation strategies of varying intensities for promoting the use of research evidence in decisions related to child obesity prevention were explored via a randomized controlled trial with a fundamental descriptive component (2003-2007). In a case study (2010-2013), the authors partnered with three health departments to develop and implement tailored strategies targeted at the organization. Knowledge Brokers worked with designated staff in these studies via one-on-one consultations, small group meetings, and/or workshops and presentations. The Knowledge Broker role was assessed by analysing data from close-ended surveys, interviews, organizational documents, and reflective journals. In this paper, the authors focus on findings from the qualitative analysis of implementing the Knowledge Broker role in both studies and explore several contextual factors that impacted study outcomes. Knowledge Brokers were shown to enhance individual capacity by improving knowledge and skill in searching for, critically appraising, and applying research evidence to practice-based issues. Organizational capacity was also enhanced with strong management support and policies. Effective Knowledge Broker attributes included both expertise in research methodology and public health, as well as intangible traits such as

  18. [Public health services between "new public health" and "new public management"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppen, M

    1996-04-01

    Today, a substantial reorientation of the Public Health services in the Federal Republic of Germany is broadly seen necessary. Patterns of functional and organisational restructuring of Public Health services on the regional and the communal level are closely linked with concepts of prevention and health promotion. Hence, a number of agencies have already adopted new tasks and functions like comprehensive and transorganizational planning, coordination and evaluation as well as the establishment of new reporting systems. Presently, the transformation process from the bureaucratic mode of administering matters of health to a new Public Health orientation receives new impacts from the international "New Public Management" movement. Comparatively late, with the beginning of the 1990s, a growing number of German municipalities has introduced new concepts of administration. Local government administrations, of which the Public Health services are a part, follow the model of modern service organizations producing services in a more efficient, professionalized and consumer-oriented way. Specific elements of economising modernisation programmes like re-distribution of tasks, de-centralisation, extension of managerial capacities, setting of stimulating working conditions that provide employees with greater independence of action as well as career opportunities, are at the same time prerequisites for innovative strategies of health protection and coordination policies of Public Health services.

  19. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Joop T V M

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed.

  20. Improving the utilization of research knowledge in agri-food public health: a mixed-method review of knowledge translation and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajić, Andrijana; Young, Ian; McEwen, Scott A

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge translation and transfer (KTT) aims to increase research utilization and ensure that the best available knowledge is used to inform policy and practice. Many frameworks, methods, and terms are used to describe KTT, and the field has largely developed in the health sector over the past decade. There is a need to review key KTT principles and methods in different sectors and evaluate their potential application in agri-food public health. We conducted a structured mixed-method review of the KTT literature. From 827 citations identified in a comprehensive search, we characterized 160 relevant review articles, case studies, and reports. A thematic analysis was conducted on a prioritized and representative subset of 33 articles to identify key principles and characteristics for ensuring effective KTT. The review steps were conducted by two or more independent reviewers using structured and pretested forms. We identified five key principles for effective KTT that were described within two contexts: to improve research utilization in general and to inform policy-making. To ensure general research uptake, there is a need for the following: (1) relevant and credible research; (2) ongoing interactions between researchers and end-users; (3) organizational support and culture; and (4) monitoring and evaluation. To inform policy-making, (5) researchers must also address the multiple and competing contextual factors of the policy-making process. We also describe 23 recommended and promising KTT methods, including six synthesis (e.g., systematic reviews, mixed-method reviews, and rapid reviews); nine dissemination (e.g., evidence summaries, social media, and policy briefs); and eight exchange methods (e.g., communities of practice, knowledge brokering, and policy dialogues). A brief description, contextual example, and key references are provided for each method. We recommend a wider endorsement of KTT principles and methods in agri-food public health, but there are

  1. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  2. Translating Health Services Research into Practice in the Safety Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan L; Fischer, Ilana; Havranek, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    To summarize research relating to health services research translation in the safety net through analysis of the literature and case study of a safety net system. Literature review and key informant interviews at an integrated safety net hospital. This paper describes the results of a comprehensive literature review of translational science literature as applied to health care paired with qualitative analysis of five key informant interviews conducted with senior-level management at Denver Health and Hospital Authority. Results from the literature suggest that implementing innovation may be more difficult in the safety net due to multiple factors, including financial and organizational constraints. Results from key informant interviews confirmed the reality of financial barriers to innovation implementation but also implied that factors, including institutional respect for data, organizational attitudes, and leadership support, could compensate for disadvantages. Translating research into practice is of critical importance to safety net providers, which are under increased pressure to improve patient care and satisfaction. Results suggest that translational research done in the safety net can better illuminate the special challenges of this setting; more such research is needed. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Mental health service utilization in sub-Saharan Africa: is public mental health literacy the problem? Setting the perspectives right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka

    2016-06-01

    The severely constrained resources for mental health service in less-developed regions like sub-Saharan Africa underscore the need for good public mental health literacy as a potential additional mental health resource. Several studies examining the level of public knowledge about the nature and dynamics of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade had concluded that such knowledge was poor and had called for further public enlightenment. What was thought to be mental health 'ignorance' has also been blamed for poor mainstream service utilization. These views however assume that non-alignment of the views of community dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa with the biomedical understanding of mental illness connotes 'ignorance', and that correcting such 'ignorance' will translate to improvements in service utilization. Within the framework of contemporary thinking in mental health literacy, this paper argues that such assumptions are not culturally nuanced and may have overrated the usefulness of de-contextualized public engagement in enhancing mental health service utilization in the region. The paper concludes with a discourse on how to contextualize public mental health enlightenment in the region and the wider policy initiatives that can improve mental health service utilization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand for citizen engagement in areas traditionally belonging exclusively to experts, such as health, law and technology has given rise to the necessity of making expert knowledge available to the general public through genres such as instruction manuals for consumer goods, patien...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....

  5. Health Service Quality Scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira, Paulo Rocha; Song, Elaine Horibe; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-01-17

    The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.

  6. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions

  7. Twitter and Public Health (Part 2): Qualitative Analysis of How Individual Health Professionals Outside Organizations Use Microblogging to Promote and Disseminate Health-Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mark; Stetten, Nichole; Islam, Sabrina; Pizarro, Katherine

    2017-10-04

    Twitter is the most popular form of microblogging that is being utilized in public health to engage audiences and to communicate health-related information. Although there is some research showing the various forms of Twitter use in public health, little is known about how individual public health professionals are using their personal Twitter accounts to disseminate health information. The purpose of this research was to categorize public health professionals' tweets to evaluate how individual public health professionals are furthering the mission of public health. Twitter accounts held by public health professionals were identified, and researchers proceeded to record 6 months' worth of each individual's Twitter feed. During the 6-month period, a total of 15,236 tweets were collected and analyzed using the constant comparison method. A total of 23 tweet categories among the 15,236 tweets were initially identified. Some of the most common topics among the 23 categories included the following: health nutrition (n=2008), conferences (n=815), Ebola (n=789), Affordable Care Act (ACA)/health care (n=627), and social justice (n=626). Each of these categories were then stratified into one of four themes: (1) informing and educating, (2) monitoring health statuses and trends, (3) social justice, and (4) professional development. Using Twitter, public health professionals are helping dispel misinformation through education and by translating technical research into lay terms, advocating for health inequalities, and using it as a means to promote professional development. ©Mark Hart, Nichole Stetten, Sabrina Islam, Katherine Pizarro. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 04.10.2017.

  8. Harnessing and blending the power of two research networks to improve prevention science and public health practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpool, Robin C.; Brownson, Ross C.; Mays, Glen P.; Crosby, Richard A.; Wyatt, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic collaborations are essential in moving public health research and practice forward1, particularly in light of escalating fiscal and environmental challenges facing the public health community. This commentary provides background and context for an emerging partnership between two national networks, Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) and Public Health Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs), to impact public health practice. Supported by CDC, PRCs are celebrating over 25 years of transdisciplinary applied prevention research grounded in community and stakeholder engagement. Public Health PBRNs, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, conduct innovative public health services and systems research with public health agencies and community partners to improve public health decision-making. By utilizing each of the networks’ respective strengths and resources, collaborative ventures between PRCs and Public Health PBRNs can enhance the translation of applied prevention research to evidence-based practice and empirically investigate novel public health practices developed in the field. Three current PRC-Public Health PBRNs projects are highlighted and future research directions are discussed. Improving the interconnectedness of prevention research and public health practice is essential to improve the health of the Nation. PMID:24237918

  9. Integrating Genetic Studies of Nicotine Addiction into Public Health Practice: Stakeholder Views on Challenges, Barriers and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingel, M.J.; Hicks, A.D.; Robinson, M.E.; Koenig, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Will emerging genetic research strengthen tobacco control programs? In this empirical study, we interview stakeholders in tobacco control to illuminate debates about the role of genomics in public health. Methods: The authors performed open-ended interviews with 86 stakeholders from 5 areas of tobacco control: basic scientists, clinicians, tobacco prevention specialists, health payers, and pharmaceutical industry employees. Interviews were qualitatively analyzed using standard techniques. Results: The central tension is between the hope that an expanding genomic knowledge base will improve prevention and smoking cessation therapies and the fear that genetic research might siphon resources away from traditional and proven public health programs. While showing strong support for traditional public health approaches to tobacco control, stakeholders recognize weaknesses, specifically the difficulty of countering the powerful voice of the tobacco industry when mounting public campaigns and the problem of individuals who are resistant to treatment and continue smoking. Conclusions: In order for genetic research to be effectively translated into efforts to minimize the harm of smoking-related disease, the views of key stakeholders must be voiced and disagreements reconciled. Effective translation requires honest evaluation of both the strengths and limitations of genetic approaches. PMID:21757875

  10. Cross-cultural equivalence in translations of the oral health impact profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEntee, Michael I; Brondani, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) has been translated for comparisons across cultural boundaries. This report on a systematic search of literature published between 1994 and 2014 aims to identify an acceptable method of translating psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence, and how they were used to translate the OHIP. An electronic search used the keywords 'cultural adaptation', 'validation', 'Oral Health Impact Profile' and 'OHIP' in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases supplemented by reference links and grey literature. It included papers on methods of cross-cultural translation and translations of the OHIP for dentulous adults and adolescents, and excluded papers without translational details or limited to specific disorders. The search identified eight steps to cross-cultural equivalence, and 36 (plus three supplemental) translations of the OHIP. The steps involve assessment of (i) forward/backward translation by committee, (ii) constructs, (iii) item interpretations, (iv) interval scales, (v) convergent validity, (vi) discriminant validity, (vii) responsiveness to clinical change and (viii) pilot tests. Most (>60%) of the translations involved forward/backward translation by committee, item interpretations, interval scales, convergence, discrimination and pilot tests, but fewer assessed the underlying theory (47%) or responsiveness to clinical change (28%). An acceptable method for translating quality of life-related psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence has eight procedural steps, and most of the 36 OHIP translations involved at least five of the steps. Only translations to Saudi Arabian Arabic, Chinese Mandarin, German and Japanese used all eight steps to claim cultural equivalence with the original OHIP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Partners in Public Health: Public Health Collaborations With Schools of Pharmacy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Ochs, Leslie; Ranelli, Paul L; Kahaleh, Abby A; Lahoz, Monina R; Patel, Radha V; Garza, Oscar W; Isaacs, Diana; Clark, Suzanne

    To collect data on public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy, we sent a short electronic survey to accredited and preaccredited pharmacy programs in 2015. We categorized public health collaborations as working or partnering with local and/or state public health departments, local and/or state public health organizations, academic schools or programs of public health, and other public health collaborations. Of 134 schools, 65 responded (49% response rate). Forty-six (71%) responding institutions indicated collaborations with local and/or state public health departments, 34 (52%) with schools or programs of public health, and 24 (37%) with local and/or state public health organizations. Common themes of collaborations included educational programs, community outreach, research, and teaching in areas such as tobacco control, emergency preparedness, chronic disease, drug abuse, immunizations, and medication therapy management. Interdisciplinary public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy provide additional resources for ensuring the health of communities and expose student pharmacists to opportunities to use their training and abilities to affect public health. Examples of these partnerships may stimulate additional ideas for possible collaborations between public health organizations and schools of pharmacy.

  12. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumbach, Kevin; Vargas, Roberto A; Fleisher, Paula; Aragón, Tomás J; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A

    2017-03-23

    The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. We report on 3 SFHIP prevention initiatives: reducing consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), regulating retail alcohol sales, and eliminating disparities in children's oral health. SFHIP is governed by a steering committee. Partnership working groups for each initiative collaborate to 1) develop and implement action plans emphasizing feasible, scalable, translational-science-informed interventions and 2) consider sustainability early in the planning process by including policy and structural interventions. Through SFHIP's efforts, San Francisco enacted ordinances regulating sale and advertising of SSBs and a ballot measure establishing a soda tax. Most San Francisco hospitals implemented or committed to implementing healthy-beverage policies that prohibited serving or selling SSBs. SFHIP helped prevent Starbucks and Taco Bell from receiving alcohol licenses in San Francisco and helped prevent state authorization of sale of powdered alcohol. SFHIP increased the number of primary care clinics providing fluoride varnish at routine well-child visits from 3 to 14 and acquired a state waiver to allow dental clinics to be paid for dental services delivered in schools. The SFHIP model of collective impact emphasizing community engagement and policy change accomplished many of its intermediate goals to create an environment promoting health and health equity.

  13. Translating Scientific Conclusions about Risk for Public Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change has been aptly described as a problem of risk management, yet the scientific community has not been successful in helping the public engage in risk management effectively. Behavioral science studies demonstrate that, while the public generally accepts the reality of anthropogenic climate change today, the immanence of impacts and scale of risk and opportunities for effective mitigation are poorly understood. Helping the public overcome these misperceptions and engage in decision-making about climate risks is, perhaps, the climate communication community’s most urgent priority. Scientific writing and graphic conventions are poorly suited for communicating with non-scientists. Using examples from the IPCC 4th Assessment, this session will demonstrate how specific conventions in science writing and graph making have obscured critical information about climate risks. The session will further demonstrate how reformatting the graphical information can create an exceptionally clear picture of where humanity stands and the implications of various emissions pathways for the future. Attendees will appreciate how presentations of science results can be tailored to answer the public’s questions more effectively by highlighting useful information in accurate, yet accessible ways. Decision-makers and the public urgently need information about climate impact risks and the consequences of various emissions pathways. Yet written and graphic descriptions from the IPCC and other assessment agencies burden non-scientists with multiple temperature baselines (e.g., pre-Industrial, mid-20th century, late 20th century, today), two confusingly similar measures for the key human contribution to atmospheric composition (CO2 and CO2-eq), and multiple ways of describing probability and certainty. The public is further confounded by inconsistent graphic conventions in scientific figures, including inconsistent color-coding, labeling, axis orientation, and treatment of

  14. Making texts in electronic health records comprehensible to consumers: a prototype translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Goryachev, Sergey; Kim, Hyeoneui; Keselman, Alla; Rosendale, Douglas

    2007-10-11

    Narrative reports from electronic health records are a major source of content for personal health records. We designed and implemented a prototype text translator to make these reports more comprehensible to consumers. The translator identifies difficult terms, replaces them with easier synonyms, and generates and inserts explanatory texts for them. In feasibility testing, the application was used to translate 9 clinical reports. Majority (68.8%) of text replacements and insertions were deemed correct and helpful by expert review. User evaluation demonstrated a non-statistically significant trend toward better comprehension when translation is provided (p=0.15).

  15. Public health and valorization of genome-based technologies: a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Jonathan A; Schulte In den Bäumen, Tobias; Morré, Servaas A; Brand, Angela

    2011-12-05

    The success rate of timely translation of genome-based technologies to commercially feasible products/services with applicability in health care systems is significantly low. We identified both industry and scientists neglect health policy aspects when commercializing their technology, more specifically, Public Health Assessment Tools (PHAT) and early on involvement of decision makers through which market authorization and reimbursements are dependent. While Technology Transfer (TT) aims to facilitate translation of ideas into products, Health Technology Assessment, one component of PHAT, for example, facilitates translation of products/processes into healthcare services and eventually comes up with recommendations for decision makers. We aim to propose a new model of valorization to optimize integration of genome-based technologies into the healthcare system. The method used to develop our model is an adapted version of the Fish Trap Model and the Basic Design Cycle. We found although different, similarities exist between TT and PHAT. Realizing the potential of being mutually beneficial justified our proposal of their relative parallel initiation. We observed that the Public Health Genomics Wheel should be included in this relative parallel activity to ensure all societal/policy aspects are dealt with preemptively by both stakeholders. On further analysis, we found out this whole process is dependent on the Value of Information. As a result, we present our LAL (Learning Adapting Leveling) model which proposes, based on market demand; TT and PHAT by consultation/bi-lateral communication should advocate for relevant technologies. This can be achieved by public-private partnerships (PPPs). These widely defined PPPs create the innovation network which is a developing, consultative/collaborative-networking platform between TT and PHAT. This network has iterations and requires learning, assimilating and using knowledge developed and is called absorption capacity. We

  16. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  17. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities.

  18. Improved Diagnosis and Care for Rare Diseases through Implementation of Precision Public Health Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynam, Gareth; Bowman, Faye; Lister, Karla; Walker, Caroline E; Pachter, Nicholas; Goldblatt, Jack; Boycott, Kym M; Gahl, William A; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Adachi, Takeya; Ishii, Ken; Mahede, Trinity; McKenzie, Fiona; Townshend, Sharron; Slee, Jennie; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Vasudevan, Anand; Hawkins, Anne; Broley, Stephanie; Schofield, Lyn; Verhoef, Hedwig; Groza, Tudor; Zankl, Andreas; Robinson, Peter N; Haendel, Melissa; Brudno, Michael; Mattick, John S; Dinger, Marcel E; Roscioli, Tony; Cowley, Mark J; Olry, Annie; Hanauer, Marc; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Taruscio, Domenica; Posada de la Paz, Manuel; Lochmüller, Hanns; Bushby, Kate; Thompson, Rachel; Hedley, Victoria; Lasko, Paul; Mina, Kym; Beilby, John; Tifft, Cynthia; Davis, Mark; Laing, Nigel G; Julkowska, Daria; Le Cam, Yann; Terry, Sharon F; Kaufmann, Petra; Eerola, Iiro; Norstedt, Irene; Rath, Ana; Suematsu, Makoto; Groft, Stephen C; Austin, Christopher P; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Weeramanthri, Tarun S; Molster, Caron; Dawkins, Hugh J S

    2017-01-01

    Public health relies on technologies to produce and analyse data, as well as effectively develop and implement policies and practices. An example is the public health practice of epidemiology, which relies on computational technology to monitor the health status of populations, identify disadvantaged or at risk population groups and thereby inform health policy and priority setting. Critical to achieving health improvements for the underserved population of people living with rare diseases is early diagnosis and best care. In the rare diseases field, the vast majority of diseases are caused by destructive but previously difficult to identify protein-coding gene mutations. The reduction in cost of genetic testing and advances in the clinical use of genome sequencing, data science and imaging are converging to provide more precise understandings of the 'person-time-place' triad. That is: who is affected (people); when the disease is occurring (time); and where the disease is occurring (place). Consequently we are witnessing a paradigm shift in public health policy and practice towards 'precision public health'.Patient and stakeholder engagement has informed the need for a national public health policy framework for rare diseases. The engagement approach in different countries has produced highly comparable outcomes and objectives. Knowledge and experience sharing across the international rare diseases networks and partnerships has informed the development of the Western Australian Rare Diseases Strategic Framework 2015-2018 (RD Framework) and Australian government health briefings on the need for a National plan.The RD Framework is guiding the translation of genomic and other technologies into the Western Australian health system, leading to greater precision in diagnostic pathways and care, and is an example of how a precision public health framework can improve health outcomes for the rare diseases population.Five vignettes are used to illustrate how policy

  19. Beacon communities' public health initiatives: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach

  20. Beacon Communities’ Public Health Initiatives: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Marcial, Laura H.; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. Background: The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Methods: Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Findings: Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7–14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4–6). Discussion: Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. Conclusions: A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for

  1. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. Results One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. Conclusions The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality. PMID:23327598

  2. [Geography of science makes a difference: an appeal for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria Cristina Soares

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a perspective for analyzing the relationship between geographic space and scientific practice and the possible contribution by the geography of science to understanding and developing strategies in favor of public health. Contributions by the field of social studies of science, specifically from the Actor-Network Theory and its concept of translation, and the geography of Milton Santos, form the theoretical framework that allows exploring the spatial dimensions of the production and circulation of scientific knowledge. The article discusses how this approach both enriches and challenges the recent international policies in favor of knowledge translation. The article identifies a possible contribution by the field of Information Science to favor the movement of knowledge, aiming to help minimize the imbalance between what is known in theory and what is applied in practice in health, or the so-called 'know-do gap'.

  3. Applying a Health Network approach to translate evidence-informed policy into practice: a review and case study on musculoskeletal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew M; Bragge, Peter; Slater, Helen; Chan, Madelynn; Towler, Simon C B

    2012-11-14

    While translation of evidence into health policy and practice is recognised as critical to optimising health system performance and health-related outcomes for consumers, mechanisms to effectively achieve these goals are neither well understood, nor widely communicated. Health Networks represent a framework which offers a possible solution to this dilemma, particularly in light of emerging evidence regarding the importance of establishing relationships between stakeholders and identifying clinical leaders to drive evidence integration and translation into policy. This is particularly important for service delivery related to chronic diseases. In Western Australia (WA), disease and population-specific Health Networks are comprised of cross-discipline stakeholders who work collaboratively to develop evidence-informed policies and drive their implementation. Since establishment of the Health Networks in WA, over 50 evidence-informed Models of Care (MoCs) have been produced across 18 condition or population-focused Networks. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Health Network framework in facilitating the translation of evidence into policy and practice with a particular focus on musculoskeletal health. A review of activities of the WA Musculoskeletal Health Network was undertaken, focussing on outcomes and the processes used to achieve them in the context of: development of policy, procurement of funding, stakeholder engagement, publications, and projects undertaken by the Network which aligned to implementation of MoCs.The Musculoskeletal Health Network has developed four MoCs which reflect Australian National Health Priority Areas. Establishment of community-based services for consumers with musculoskeletal health conditions is a key recommendation from these MoCs. Through mapping barriers and enablers to policy implementation, working groups, led by local clinical leaders and supported by the broader Network and government officers, have

  4. Applying a Health Network approach to translate evidence-informed policy into practice: A review and case study on musculoskeletal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briggs Andrew M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While translation of evidence into health policy and practice is recognised as critical to optimising health system performance and health-related outcomes for consumers, mechanisms to effectively achieve these goals are neither well understood, nor widely communicated. Health Networks represent a framework which offers a possible solution to this dilemma, particularly in light of emerging evidence regarding the importance of establishing relationships between stakeholders and identifying clinical leaders to drive evidence integration and translation into policy. This is particularly important for service delivery related to chronic diseases. In Western Australia (WA, disease and population-specific Health Networks are comprised of cross-discipline stakeholders who work collaboratively to develop evidence-informed policies and drive their implementation. Since establishment of the Health Networks in WA, over 50 evidence-informed Models of Care (MoCs have been produced across 18 condition or population-focused Networks. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Health Network framework in facilitating the translation of evidence into policy and practice with a particular focus on musculoskeletal health. Case presentation A review of activities of the WA Musculoskeletal Health Network was undertaken, focussing on outcomes and the processes used to achieve them in the context of: development of policy, procurement of funding, stakeholder engagement, publications, and projects undertaken by the Network which aligned to implementation of MoCs. The Musculoskeletal Health Network has developed four MoCs which reflect Australian National Health Priority Areas. Establishment of community-based services for consumers with musculoskeletal health conditions is a key recommendation from these MoCs. Through mapping barriers and enablers to policy implementation, working groups, led by local clinical leaders and supported by

  5. Proposal for a telehealth concept in the translational research model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angélica Baptista; Morel, Carlos Médicis; Moraes, Ilara Hämmerli Sozzi de

    2014-04-01

    To review the conceptual relationship between telehealth and translational research. Bibliographical search on telehealth was conducted in the Scopus, Cochrane BVS, LILACS and MEDLINE databases to find experiences of telehealth in conjunction with discussion of translational research in health. The search retrieved eight studies based on analysis of models of the five stages of translational research and the multiple strands of public health policy in the context of telehealth in Brazil. The models were applied to telehealth activities concerning the Network of Human Milk Banks, in the Telemedicine University Network. The translational research cycle of human milk collected, stored and distributed presents several integrated telehealth initiatives, such as video conferencing, and software and portals for synthesizing knowledge, composing elements of an information ecosystem, mediated by information and communication technologies in the health system. Telehealth should be composed of a set of activities in a computer mediated network promoting the translation of knowledge between research and health services.

  6. Towards quality criteria for regional public health reporting: concept mapping with Dutch experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; Achterberg, Peter W; van de Goor, Ien A M; van Oers, Hans A M

    2012-06-01

    In the Netherlands, municipal health assessments are carried out by 28 Regional Health Services, serving 418 municipalities. In the absence of guidelines, regional public health reports were developed in two pilot regions on the basis of the model and experience of national health reporting. Though they were well received and positively evaluated, it was not clear which specific characteristics determined 'good public health reporting'. Therefore, this study was set up to develop a theoretical framework for the quality of regional public health reporting in The Netherlands. Using concept mapping as a standardized tool for conceptualization, 35 relevant reporting experts formulated short statements in two different brainstorming sessions, describing specific quality criteria of regional public health reports. After the removal of duplicates, the list was supplemented with international criteria, and the statements were sent to each participant for rating and sorting. The results were processed statistically and represented graphically. The output was discussed and interpreted, leading to the final concept map. The final concept map consisted of 97 criteria, grouped into 13 clusters, and plotted in two dimensions: a 'product' dimension, ranging from 'production' to 'content', and a 'context' dimension, ranging from 'science' to 'policy'. The three most important clusters were: (i) 'solution orientation', (ii) 'policy relevance' and (iii) 'policy impact'. This study provided a theoretical framework for the quality of regional public health reporting, indicating relevant domains and criteria. Further work should translate domains and criteria into operational indicators for evaluating regional public health reports.

  7. Translation and adaptation of the Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los recursos humanos en salud 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maria de Lourdes; Peres, Aida Maris; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the document named Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los Recursos Humanos en Salud de la Región de las Américas (Regional Framework of Core Competencies in Public Health for Health Human Resources in the Region of Americas) from Spanish to Brazilian Portuguese. Method: a methodological study comprising the following phases: authorization for translation; initial translation; synthesis of translations and consensus; back-translation and formation of an expert committee. Result: in the translation of domain names, there was no difference in 66.7% (N = 4); in the translation of domain description and competencies there were divergences in 100% of them (N = 6, N = 56). A consensus of more than 80% was obtained in the translation and improvement in the expert committee by the change of words and expressions for approximation of meanings to the Brazilian context. Conclusion: the translated and adapted document has the potential of application in research, and use in the practice of collective/public health care in Brazil. PMID:28591302

  8. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  9. Epidemiological reflections of the contribution of anthropology to public health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John D H

    2006-01-01

    Academic disciplines like anthropology and epidemiology provide a niche for researchers to speak the same language, and to interrogate the assumptions that they use to investigate problems. How anthropological and epidemiological methods communicate and relate to each other affects the way public health policy is created but the philosophical underpinnings of each discipline makes this difficult. Anthropology is reflective, subjective and investigates complexity and the individual; epidemiology, in contrast, is objective and studies populations. Within epidemiological methods there is the utilitarian concept of potentially sacrificing the interests of the individual for the benefits of maximizing population welfare, whereas in anthropology the individual is always included. Other strengths of anthropology in the creation of public health policy include: its attention to complexity, questioning the familiar; helping with language and translation; reconfiguring boundaries to create novel frameworks; and being reflective. Public health requires research that is multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary. To do this, there is a need for each discipline to respect the 'dignity of difference' between disciplines in order to help create appropriate and effective public health policy.

  10. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  11. Translating Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Measures: Are There Alternative Methodologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondani, Mario; He, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Translating existing sociodental indicators to another language involves a rigorous methodology, which can be costly. Free-of-charge online translator tools are available, but have not been evaluated in the context of research involving quality of life measures. To explore the value of using online translator tools to develop oral health-related…

  12. [Brazilian bibliographical output on public oral health in public health and dentistry journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.

  13. Intra-professional dynamics in translational health research: the perspective of social scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Graeme; El Enany, Nellie; Lockett, Andy

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to previous studies, which focus upon the professional dynamics of translational health research between clinician scientists and social scientists (inter-professional contestation), we focus upon contestation within social science (intra-professional contestation). Drawing on the empirical context of Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) in England, we highlight that although social scientists accept subordination to clinician scientists, health services researchers attempt to enhance their position in translational health research vis-à-vis organisation scientists, whom they perceive as relative newcomers to the research domain. Health services researchers do so through privileging the practical impact of their research, compared to organisation scientists' orientation towards development of theory, which health services researchers argue is decoupled from any concern with healthcare improvement. The concern of health services researchers lies with maintaining existing patterns of resource allocation to support their research endeavours, working alongside clinician scientists, in translational health research. The response of organisation scientists is one that might be considered ambivalent, since, unlike health services researchers, they do not rely upon a close relationship with clinician scientists to carry out research, or more generally, garner resource. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Translational educational research: a necessity for effective health-care improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Issenberg, S Barry; Cohen, Elaine R; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Wayne, Diane B

    2012-11-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research.

  15. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roberto A.; Fleisher, Paula; Aragón, Tomás J.; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R.; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L.; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. Community Context We report on 3 SFHIP prevention initiatives: reducing consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), regulating retail alcohol sales, and eliminating disparities in children’s oral health. Methods SFHIP is governed by a steering committee. Partnership working groups for each initiative collaborate to 1) develop and implement action plans emphasizing feasible, scalable, translational-science–informed interventions and 2) consider sustainability early in the planning process by including policy and structural interventions. Outcome Through SFHIP’s efforts, San Francisco enacted ordinances regulating sale and advertising of SSBs and a ballot measure establishing a soda tax. Most San Francisco hospitals implemented or committed to implementing healthy-beverage policies that prohibited serving or selling SSBs. SFHIP helped prevent Starbucks and Taco Bell from receiving alcohol licenses in San Francisco and helped prevent state authorization of sale of powdered alcohol. SFHIP increased the number of primary care clinics providing fluoride varnish at routine well-child visits from 3 to 14 and acquired a state waiver to allow dental clinics to be paid for dental services delivered in schools. Interpretation The SFHIP model of collective impact emphasizing community engagement and policy change accomplished many of its intermediate goals to create an environment promoting health and health equity. PMID:28333598

  16. Opportunities for Public Relations Research in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Considers how communication researchers have developed a solid body of knowledge in the health field but know little about the activities of public relations practitioners in public health bodies. Suggests that public relations scholarship and practice have much to offer the field of public health in helping public health bodies meet their…

  17. Navajo nation public health nurses inspire thoughts on health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kathy S

    2012-01-01

    The wisdom and experience of pubic health nurses serving on a Navajo Reservation, who work far from the typical hospital setting, may well hold some of the keys to how we can successfully plan for and navigate the future of our shifting health care system. As more of the nursing workforce moves outside the walls of the hospital, competencies in autonomy, clinical judgment, decision making, and communication will increase in importance. long with safety and quality implications, this may also influence changes in nursing education, job requirements, hiring, and measuring performance. In addition, there may be implications around how new nurses are oriented and how they get the experience needed to function in more independent roles. Within their routine days, the conditions they work in, the situations they face, and the many ways public health nurses find to meet the needs of the people they serve, is a wealth of knowledge that may well translate into solutions for some of the challenges our nation's health care system is facing.

  18. A systematic evaluation of payback of publicly funded health and health services research in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Doris SY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health and Health Services Research Fund (HHSRF is dedicated to support research related to all aspects of health and health services in Hong Kong. We evaluated the fund's outcomes and explored factors associated with the translation of research findings to changes in health policy and provider behaviour. Methods A locally suitable questionnaire was developed based on the "payback" evaluation framework and was sent to principal investigators of the completed research projects supported by the fund since 1993. Research "payback" in six outcome areas was surveyed, namely knowledge production, use of research in the research system, use of research project findings in health system policy/decision making, application of the research findings through changed behaviour, factors influencing the utilization of research, and health/health service/economic benefits. Results Principal investigators of 178 of 205 (87% completed research projects returned the questionnaire. Investigators reported research publications in 86.5% (mean = 5.4 publications per project, career advancement 34.3%, acquisition of higher qualifications 38.2%, use of results in policy making 35.4%, changed behaviour in light of findings 49.4%, evidence of health service benefit 42.1% and generated subsequent research in 44.9% of the projects. Payback outcomes were positively associated with the amount of funding awarded. Multivariate analysis found participation of investigators in policy committees and liaison with potential users were significantly associated with reported health service benefit (odds ratio [OR]participation = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28–6.40; ORliaison = 2.03, 95% CI 1.05–3.91, policy and decision-making (ORparticipation = 10.53, 95% CI 4.13–26.81; ORliaison = 2.52, 95% CI 1.20–5.28, and change in behavior (ORparticipation = 3.67, 95% CI 1.53–8.81. Conclusion The HHSRF has produced substantial outcomes and compared

  19. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Flynn, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. PMID:27694672

  20. Biomedical optics centers: forty years of multidisciplinary clinical translation for improving human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Anderson, R. Rox; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf; Berns, Michael W.; Parrish, John A.; Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Despite widespread government and public interest, there are significant barriers to translating basic science discoveries into clinical practice. Biophotonics and biomedical optics technologies can be used to overcome many of these hurdles, due, in part, to offering new portable, bedside, and accessible devices. The current JBO special issue highlights promising activities and examples of translational biophotonics from leading laboratories around the world. We identify common essential features of successful clinical translation by examining the origins and activities of three major international academic affiliated centers with beginnings traceable to the mid-late 1970s: The Wellman Center for Photomedicine (Mass General Hospital, USA), the Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (University of California, Irvine, USA), and the Medical Laser Center Lübeck at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Major factors driving the success of these programs include visionary founders and leadership, multidisciplinary research and training activities in light-based therapies and diagnostics, diverse funding portfolios, and a thriving entrepreneurial culture that tolerates risk. We provide a brief review of how these three programs emerged and highlight critical phases and lessons learned. Based on these observations, we identify pathways for encouraging the growth and formation of similar programs in order to more rapidly and effectively expand the impact of biophotonics and biomedical optics on human health.

  1. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies.

  2. Broadening measures of success: results of a behavioral health translational research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A; Williamson, Heather J; Eaves, Emery R; Levin, Bruce L; Burton, Donna L; Massey, Oliver T

    2017-07-24

    While some research training programs have considered the importance of mentoring in inspiring professionals to engage in translational research, most evaluations emphasize outcomes specific to academic productivity as primary measures of training program success. The impact of such training or mentoring programs on stakeholders and local community organizations engaged in translational research efforts has received little attention. The purpose of this evaluation is to explore outcomes other than traditional academic productivity in a translational research graduate certificate program designed to pair graduate students and behavioral health professionals in collaborative service-learning projects. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with scholars, community mentors, and academic mentors were conducted regarding a translational research program to identify programmatic impacts. Interviews were transcribed and coded by the research team to identify salient themes related to programmatic outcomes. Results are framed using the Translational Research Impact Scale which is organized into three overarching domains of potential impact: (1) research-related impacts, (2) translational impacts, and (3) societal impacts. This evaluation demonstrates the program's impact in all three domains of the TRIS evaluation framework. Graduate certificate participants (scholars) reported that gaining experience in applied behavioral health settings added useful skills and expertise to their present careers and increased their interest in pursuing translational research. Scholars also described benefits resulting from networks gained through participation in the program, including valuable ties between the university and community behavioral health organizations. This evaluation of the outcomes of a graduate certificate program providing training in translational research highlights the need for more community-oriented and practice-based measures of success. Encouraging practitioner

  3. A systematic review of instruments to assess organizational readiness for knowledge translation in health care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Gagnon

    Full Text Available The translation of research into practices has been incomplete. Organizational readiness for change (ORC is a potential facilitator of effective knowledge translation (KT. However we know little about the best way to assess ORC. Therefore, we sought to systematically review ORC measurement instruments.We searched for published studies in bibliographic databases (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, etc. up to November 1st, 2012. We included publications that developed ORC measures and/or empirically assessed ORC using an instrument at the organizational level in the health care context. We excluded articles if they did not refer specifically to ORC, did not concern the health care domain or were limited to individual-level change readiness. We focused on identifying the psychometric properties of instruments that were developed to assess readiness in an organization prior to implementing KT interventions in health care. We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to assess the psychometric properties of identified ORC measurement instruments.We found 26 eligible instruments described in 39 publications. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 18 (69% of a total of 26 measurement instruments presented both validity and reliability criteria. The Texas Christian University -ORC (TCU-ORC scale reported the highest instrument validity with a score of 4 out of 4. Only one instrument, namely the Modified Texas Christian University - Director version (TCU-ORC-D, reported a reliability score of 2 out of 3. No information was provided regarding the reliability and validity of five (19% instruments.Our findings indicate that there are few valid and reliable ORC measurement instruments that could be applied to KT in the health care sector. The TCU-ORC instrument presents the best evidence in terms of validity testing. Future studies using this instrument could provide more knowledge on its

  4. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  5. Genetics, health care, and public policy: an introduction to public health genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Alison

    2007-01-01

    ... initiative About this book Further reading and resources Principles of public health The emergence of public health genetics The human genome project and 'genomic medicine' Community genetics Current developments in public health genetics Genomics and global health 2 Genetic science and technology Basic molecular genetics Genes and the geno...

  6. Using Corpus Management Tools in Public Service Translator Training: An Example of Its Application in the Translation of Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Ramos, María Del Mar; Vigier Moreno, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    As stated by Valero-Garcés (2006, p. 38), the new scenario including public service providers and users who are not fluent in the language used by the former has opened up new ways of linguistic and cultural mediation in current multicultural and multilingual societies. As a consequence, there is an ever increasing need for translators and…

  7. Towards a public health profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders

    2015-01-01

    in the theoretical as well as the practical potential of the public health professional. Thus, he and she must be able to perform, what WHO Europe has developed as Essential Public Health Operations (EPHOs).3 This, in turn, implies that the public health professional possesses the set of intellectual (knowledge...... endorsed by WHO Europe’s member states as the basis for the public health education in Europe.5 The sections of the lists include: Public health methods; Population health and: Its social and economic determinants, and: Its material environmental determinants; Man-made interventions and systems, namely...... Health policy, health economics, organizational theory, health legislation, and public health leadership and management; Health promotion—health education, health protection, disease prevention; public health ethics. This should form the central part of the basis for all public health professionals...

  8. Translational science by public biotechnology companies in the IPO "class of 2000": the impact of technological maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Laura; Ledley, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science.

  9. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  10. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  11. Using a Historical Lens to Envision the Next Generation of Genomic Translation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Abrams, Leah R; Koehly, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed successive and exponential advances in genomic discovery and technology, with a broad scientific imperative pushing for continual advancements. The most consistent critique of these advances is that they have vastly outpaced translation of new knowledge into improvements in public health and medicine. We employ a historical and epistemological analysis to characterize how prevailing scientific meta-narratives have shaped the pace and priorities of research applying genomics to health promotion. We use four 'pivotal events' - the genetic characterization of Down syndrome, the launch of the Human Genome Research Project, the discovery of BRCA1, and the emergence of direct-to- consumer genetic testing - to illustrate how these scientific meta-narratives have inhibited genomic translation research. The notion that discovery should precede translation research has over-focused translation research on the latest genetic testing platform. The idea that genetic-related research has an exceptional potential for public harm has encouraged research on worst case scenarios. The perceived competition between genetics and social determinants of health has discouraged a unified research agenda to move genomic translation forward. We make a case for creating new scientific meta-narratives in which discovery and translation research agendas are envisioned as an interdependent enterprise. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Profile of Public Health Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Ruth Gaskins; Greer, Annette; Clay, Maria; McFadden, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Public health leaders play pivotal roles in ensuring the population health for our nation. Since 2000, the number of schools of public health has almost doubled. The scholarly credentials for leaders of public health in academic and practice are important, as they make decisions that shape the future public health workforce and important public health policies. This research brief describes the educational degrees of deans of schools of public health and state health directors, as well as their demographic profiles, providing important information for future public health leadership planning. Data were extracted from a database containing information obtained from multiple Web sites including academic institution Web sites and state government Web sites. Variables describe 2 sets of public health leaders: academic deans of schools of public health and state health directors. Deans of schools of public health were 73% males and 27% females; the PhD degree was held by 40% deans, and the MD degree by 33% deans. Seventy percent of deans obtained their terminal degree more than 35 years ago. State health directors were 60% males and 40% females. Sixty percent of state health directors had an MD degree, 4% a PhD degree, and 26% no terminal degree at all. Sixty-four percent of state health directors received their terminal degree more than 25 years ago. In addition to terminal degrees, 56% of deans and 40% of state health directors held MPH degrees. The findings call into question competencies needed by future public health professionals and leadership and the need to clarify further the level of public health training and degree type that should be required for leadership qualifications in public health.

  13. Public Health Departments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — State and Local Public Health Departments in the United States Governmental public health departments are responsible for creating and maintaining conditions that...

  14. How did the public respond to the 2015 expert consensus public health guidance statement on workplace sedentary behaviour? A qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Gardner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In June 2015, an expert consensus guidance statement was published recommending that office workers accumulate 2–4 h of standing and light activity daily and take regular breaks from prolonged sitting. This paper describes public responses to media coverage of the guidance, so as to understand public acceptability of the recommendations within the guidance, and perceptions of sitting and standing as health behaviours. Methods UK news media websites that had reported on the sedentary workplace guidance statement, and permitted viewers to post comments responding to the story, were identified. 493 public comments, posted in a one-month period to one of six eligible news media websites, were thematically analysed. Results Three themes were extracted: (1 challenges to the credibility of the sedentary workplace guidance; (2 challenges to the credibility of public health; and (3 the guidance as a spur to knowledge exchange. Challenges were made to the novelty of the guidance, the credibility of its authors, the strength of its evidence base, and its applicability to UK workplaces. Public health was commonly mistrusted and viewed as a tool for controlling the public, to serve a paternalistic agenda set by a conspiracy of stakeholders with hidden non-health interests. Knowledge exchanges focused on correcting others’ misinterpretations, raising awareness of historical or scientific context, debating current workplace health policies, and sharing experiences around sitting and standing. Conclusions The guidance provoked exchanges of health-promoting ideas among some, thus demonstrating the potential for sitting reduction messages to be translated into everyday contexts by lay champions. However, findings also demonstrated confusion, misunderstanding and misapprehension among some respondents about the health value of sitting and standing. Predominantly unfavourable, mistrusting responses reveal significant hostility towards

  15. Inside the "Black Box" of a Knowledge Translation Program in Applied Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Janet; Day, Jo; Britten, Nicky

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present the findings of a participatory realistic evaluation of a 5-year program of health care research intended to promote the translation of knowledge into routine clinical practice. The program was one of the nine pilot Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care funded by the English National Institute for Health Research between 2008 and 2013. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms by which, and circumstances in which, some projects carried out under the program achieved success in knowledge translation while others were frustrated. Using qualitative methods, we examined how closer collaboration between academics and clinicians worked in four purposefully chosen case studies. In a synthesis of the findings, we produced a "black box" model of how knowledge translation was enabled by the activation of nine mechanisms. These are summarized in the form of five simple rules for promoting knowledge translation through collaborations based on principles of coproduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  17. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Lister

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  18. Reengineering the National Clinical and Translational Research Enterprise: The Strategic Plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Steven E.; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R.; Califf, Robert M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Johnson, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process in turn depends upon observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public-health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation’s academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding. To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006, the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program’s overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation’s academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  19. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  20. A pilot use of team-based learning in graduate public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Putten, Marc; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn

    2010-05-01

    This pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of team-based learning (TBL) on graduate students of public health in a Thai context. The pilot project adopted Michaelsen's approach with the aim of improving learning among Thai graduate students enrolled in public health ethics. This TBL approach attempted to motivate students to do pre-class reading and be active "in-class" learners. Pre-class preparation allowed teachers to address and concentrate on learning gaps, while team work promoted peer interaction and active learning. TBL was found to be useful in fostering student preparedness and to transform "passive" into "active" learning, which especially benefited students "academically at risk" through peer teaching opportunities. With TBL, students valued the relevance of the course content and learning materials. They had positive opinions regarding the effect of TBL on individual and group learning. TBL was perceived to be instrumental in translating conceptual into applicable knowledge, and stimulated individual efforts as well as accountability. This study should be useful to those considering using TBL for public health education.

  1. Bridging the gap between knowledge and health: the epidemiologist as Accountable Health Advocate ("AHA!").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, David W; Pai, Madhukar

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiology occupies a unique role as a knowledge-generating scientific discipline with roots in the knowledge translation of public health practice. As our fund of incompletely-translated knowledge expands and as budgets for health research contract, epidemiology must rediscover and adapt its historical skill set in knowledge translation. The existing incentive structures of academic epidemiology - designed largely for knowledge generation - are ill-equipped to train and develop epidemiologists as knowledge translators. A useful heuristic is the epidemiologist as Accountable Health Advocate (AHA) who enables society to judge the value of research, develops new methods to translate existing knowledge into improved health, and actively engages with policymakers and society. Changes to incentive structures could include novel funding streams (and review), alternative publication practices, and parallel frameworks for professional advancement and promotion.

  2. Translational informatics: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.

  3. Communication and marketing as climate change-intervention assets a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The understanding that global climate change represents a profound threat to the health and well-being of human and nonhuman species worldwide is growing. This article examines the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behavior in ways consistent with climate change prevention and adaptation objectives. Specifically, using a framework based on an ecologic model of public health, the paper examines: (1) the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behaviors of concern, including support for appropriate public policies; (2) potential target audiences for such programs; and (3) the attributes of effective climate change messages. Communication and marketing interventions appear to have considerable potential to promote important population behavior change objectives, but there is an urgent need for additional translational research to effectively harvest this potential to combat climate change.

  4. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation: do housing and neighborhoods affect children's mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-02-01

    The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children's mental health, as addressed by Flouri et al. (Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2014), is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it is a necessary shift for improving population health.

  5. The next public health revolution: public health information fusion and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ali S; Fleischauer, Aaron; Casani, Julie; Groseclose, Samuel L

    2010-07-01

    Social, political, and economic disruptions caused by natural and human-caused public health emergencies have catalyzed public health efforts to expand the scope of biosurveillance and increase the timeliness, quality, and comprehensiveness of disease detection, alerting, response, and prediction. Unfortunately, efforts to acquire, render, and visualize the diversity of health intelligence information are hindered by its wide distribution across disparate fields, multiple levels of government, and the complex interagency environment. Achieving this new level of situation awareness within public health will require a fundamental cultural shift in methods of acquiring, analyzing, and disseminating information. The notion of information "fusion" may provide opportunities to expand data access, analysis, and information exchange to better inform public health action.

  6. Feminism and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  7. Public health and Plowshare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill, Jr, J G [Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, U.S. PubIic Health Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  8. Public health and Plowshare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, J.G. Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  9. Plan of Action for Real-World Translation of LGBTQ Health and Aging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; McKenzie, Glenise L; Krinsky, Lisa; Emlet, Charles A

    2017-12-01

    Despite accumulating evidence of health disparities, there exists limited translational research to enhance optimal health and aging of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-identified * (LGBTQ) older adults. Based on the Health Equity Promotion Model that addresses the distinct needs and strengths of LGBTQ older adults, we underscore the important role of collaborations among researchers, practitioners, and communities to build community capacity. Given the rapidly shifting context, we advance principles to guide future work that will enhance translational research and the development of evidence-based practice so that LGBTQ older adults can reach their full health potential.

  10. Gambling and the Health of the Public: Adopting a Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, David A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade there has been an unprecedented expansion of legalized gambling throughout North America. Three primary forces appear to be motivating this growth: (1) the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; (2) tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and (3) the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (e.g., video lottery terminals, powerball mega-lotteries, and computer offshore gambling). Associated with this phenomenon, there has been an increase in the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling among the general adult population, as well as a sustained high level of gambling-related problems among youth. To date there has been little dialogue within the public health sector in particular, or among health care practitioners in general, about the potential health impact of gambling or gambling-related problems. This article encourages the adoption of a public health perspective towards gambling. More specifically, this discussion has four primary objectives:1. Create awareness among health professionals about gambling, its rapid expansion and its relationship with the health care system;2. Place gambling within a public health framework by examining it from several perspectives, including population health, human ecology and addictive behaviors;3. Outline the major public health issues about how gambling can affect individuals, families and communities;4. Propose an agenda for strengthening policy, prevention and treatment practices through greater public health involvement, using the framework of The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion as a guide.By understanding gambling and its potential impacts on the public's health, policy makers and health practitioners can minimize gambling's negative impacts and appreciate its potential benefits.

  11. Ethical, legal, and social issues in the translation of genomics into health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badzek, Laurie; Henaghan, Mark; Turner, Martha; Monsen, Rita

    2013-03-01

    The rapid continuous feed of new information from scientific discoveries related to the human genome makes translation and incorporation of information into the clinical setting difficult and creates ethical, legal, and social challenges for providers. This article overviews some of the legal and ethical foundations that guide our response to current complex issues in health care associated with the impact of scientific discoveries related to the human genome. Overlapping ethical, legal, and social implications impact nurses and other healthcare professionals as they seek to identify and translate into practice important information related to new genomic scientific knowledge. Ethical and legal foundations such as professional codes, human dignity, and human rights provide the framework for understanding highly complex genomic issues. Ethical, legal, and social concerns of the health provider in the translation of genomic knowledge into practice including minimizing harms, maximizing benefits, transparency, confidentiality, and informed consent are described. Additionally, nursing professional competencies related to ethical, legal, and social issues in the translation of genomics into health care are discussed. Ethical, legal, and social considerations in new genomic discovery necessitate that healthcare professionals have knowledge and competence to respond to complex genomic issues and provide appropriate information and care to patients, families, and communities. Understanding the ethical, legal, and social issues in the translation of genomic information into practice is essential to provide patients, families, and communities with competent, safe, effective health care. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. An Agenda for Research on the Sustainability of Public Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Funders of programs in public health and community health are increasingly concerned about the sustainability of changes they initiate. Despite a recent increase in sustainability research and evaluation, this literature has not developed a widely used paradigm for conducting research that can accumulate into generalizable findings. We provide guidance for research and evaluation of health program sustainability, including definitions and types of sustainability, specifications and measurements of dependent variables, definitions of independent variables or factors that influence sustainability, and suggestions for designs for research and data collection. We suggest viewing sustainability research as a further stage in the translation or dissemination of research-based interventions into practice. This perspective emphasizes ongoing relationships with earlier stages of a broader diffusion framework, including adoption and implementation processes. PMID:21940916

  13. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eFernandez-Moure

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Born out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies have all seen successes under this paradigm yet today it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increase, and financial support declines, clinician protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time and resource consuming translational research to focus on publication generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science have surged, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient.

  14. Development of an online tool for public health: the European Public Health Law Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, P

    2011-09-01

    The European Public Health Law Network was established in 2007 as part of the European Union (EU) co-funded Public Health Law Flu project. The aims of the website consisted of designing an interactive network of specialist information and encouraging an exchange of expertise amongst members. The website sought to appeal to academics, public health professionals and lawyers. The Public Health Law Flu project team designed and managed the website. Registered network members were recruited through publicity, advertising and word of mouth. Details of the network were sent to health organizations and universities throughout Europe. Corresponding website links attracted many new visitors. Publications, news, events and a pandemic glossary became popular features on the site. Although the website initially focused only on pandemic diseases it has grown into a multidisciplinary website covering a range of public health law topics. The network contains over 700 publications divided into 28 public health law categories. News, events, front page content, legislation and the francophone section are updated on a regular basis. Since 2007 the website has received over 15,000 views from 156 countries. Newsletter subscribers have risen to 304. There are now 723 followers on the associated Twitter site. The European Public Health Law Network has been a successful and innovative site in the area of public health law. Interest in the site continues to grow. Future funding can contribute to a bigger site with interactive features and pages in a wider variety of languages to attract a wider global audience. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Public health and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli

    2002-04-01

    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  16. Public Health's Falling Share of US Health Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-01-01

    We examined trends in US public health expenditures by analyzing historical and projected National Health Expenditure Accounts data. Per-capita public health spending (inflation-adjusted) rose from $39 in 1960 to $281 in 2008, and has fallen by 9.3% since then. Public health's share of total health expenditures rose from 1.36% in 1960 to 3.18% in 2002, then fell to 2.65% in 2014; it is projected to fall to 2.40% in 2023. Public health spending has declined, potentially undermining prevention and weakening responses to health inequalities and new health threats.

  17. Research Translation Strategies to Improve the Readability of Workplace Health Promotion Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alison; Joss, Nerida

    2016-01-01

    Without deliberate and resourced translation, research evidence is unlikely to inform policy and practice. This paper describes the processes and practical solutions used to translate evaluation research findings to improve the readability of print materials in a large scale worksite health programme. It is argued that a knowledge brokering and…

  18. Ontology mapping and data discovery for the translational investigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynden, Rob; Weiner, Mark G; Sim, Ida; Gabriel, Davera; Casale, Marco; Carini, Simona; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Tu, Samson; Gennari, John H; Anderson, Nick; Mobed, Ketty; Lakshminarayanan, Prakash; Massary, Maggie; Cucina, Russ J

    2010-03-01

    An integrated data repository (IDR) containing aggregations of clinical, biomedical, economic, administrative, and public health data is a key component of an overall translational research infrastructure. But most available data repositories are designed using standard data warehouse architecture that employs arbitrary data encoding standards, making queries across disparate repositories difficult. In response to these shortcomings we have designed a Health Ontology Mapper (HOM) that translates terminologies into formal data encoding standards without altering the underlying source data. We believe the HOM system promotes inter-institutional data sharing and research collaboration, and will ultimately lower the barrier to developing and using an IDR.

  19. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  20. Public awareness of income-related health inequalities in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankardass Ketan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Continued action is needed to tackle health inequalities in Canada, as those of lower income continue to be at higher risk for a range of negative health outcomes. There is arguably a lack of political will to implement policy change in this respect. As a result, we investigated public awareness of income-related health inequalities in a generally representative sample of Ontarians in late 2010. Methods Data were collected from 2,006 Ontario adults using a telephone survey. The survey asked participants to agree or disagree with various statements asserting that there are or are not health inequalities in general and by income in Ontario, including questions pertaining to nine specific conditions for which inequalities have been described in Ontario. A multi-stage process using binary logistic regression determined whether awareness of health inequalities differed between participant subgroups. Results Almost 73% of this sample of Ontarians agreed with the general premise that not all people are equally healthy in Ontario, but fewer participants were aware of health inequalities between the rich and the poor (53%–64%, depending on the framing of the question. Awareness of income-related inequalities in specific outcomes was considerably lower, ranging from 18% for accidents to 35% for obesity. Conclusions This is the first province-wide study in Canada, and the first in Ontario, to explore public awareness on health inequalities. Given that political will is shaped by public awareness and opinion, these results suggest that greater awareness may be required to move the health equity agenda forward in Ontario. There is a need for health equity advocates, physicians and researchers to increase the effectiveness of knowledge translation activities for studies that identify and explore health inequalities.

  1. Public health systems under attack in Canada: Evidence on public health system performance challenges arbitrary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Ak'ingabe; Perreault, Robert

    2016-10-20

    Public health is currently being weakened in several Canadian jurisdictions. Unprecedented and arbitrary cuts to the public health budget in Quebec in 2015 were a striking example of this. In order to support public health leaders and citizens in their capacity to advocate for evidence-informed public health reforms, we propose a knowledge synthesis of elements of public health systems that are significantly associated with improved performance. Research consistently and significantly associates four elements of public health systems with improved productivity: 1) increased financial resources, 2) increased staffing per capita, 3) population size between 50,000 and 500,000, and 4) specific evidence-based organizational and administrative features. Furthermore, increased financial resources and increased staffing per capita are significantly associated with improved population health outcomes. We contend that any effort at optimization of public health systems should at least be guided by these four evidence-informed factors. Canada already has existing capacity in carrying out public health systems and services research. Further advancement of our academic and professional expertise on public health systems will allow Canadian public health jurisdictions to be inspired by the best public health models and become stronger advocates for public health's resources, interventions and outcomes when they need to be celebrated or defended.

  2. Strengthening public health education in population and reproductive health through an innovative academic partnership in Africa: the Gates partners experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Gbolahan; Fatusi, Adesegun; Tsui, Amy; Enquselassie, Fikre; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer; Taulo, Frank; Quakyi, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Poor reproductive health constitutes one of the leading public health problems in the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We report here an academic partnership that commenced in 2003 between a US institution and six universities in SSA. The partnership addresses the human resources development challenge in Africa by strengthening public health education and research capacity to improve population and reproductive health (PRH) outcomes in low-resource settings. The partnership's core activities focused on increasing access to quality education, strengthening health research capacity and translating scholarship and science into policy and practices. Partnership programmes focused on the educational dimension of the human resources equation provide students with improved learning facilities and enhanced work environments and also provide faculty with opportunities for professional development and an enhanced capacity for curriculum delivery. By 2007, 48 faculty members from the six universities in SSA attended PRH courses at Johns Hopkins University, 93 PRH courses were offered across the six universities, 625 of their master's students elected PRH concentrations and 158 had graduated. With the graduation of these and future student cohorts, the universities in SSA will systematically be expanding the number of public health practitioners and strengthening programme effectiveness to resolve reproductive health needs. Some challenges facing the partnership are described in this article.

  3. Moving towards a new vision: implementation of a public health policy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Valaitis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health systems in Canada have undergone significant policy renewal over the last decade in response to threats to the public’s health, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is limited research on how public health policies have been implemented or what has influenced their implementation. This paper explores policy implementation in two exemplar public health programs -chronic disease prevention and sexually-transmitted infection prevention - in Ontario, Canada. It examines public health service providers’, managers’ and senior managements’ perspectives on the process of implementation of the Ontario Public Health Standards 2008 and factors influencing implementation. Methods Public health staff from six health units representing rural, remote, large and small urban settings were included. We conducted 21 focus groups and 18 interviews between 2010 (manager and staff focus groups and 2011 (senior management interviews involving 133 participants. Research assistants coded transcripts and researchers reviewed these; the research team discussed and resolved discrepancies. To facilitate a breadth of perspectives, several team members helped interpret the findings. An integrated knowledge translation approach was used, reflected by the inclusion of academics as well as decision-makers on the team and as co-authors. Results Front line service providers often were unaware of the new policies but managers and senior management incorporated them in operational and program planning. Some participants were involved in policy development or provided feedback prior to their launch. Implementation was influenced by many factors that aligned with Greenhalgh and colleagues’ empirically-based Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations Framework. Factors and related components that were most clearly linked to the OPHS policy implementation were: attributes of the innovation itself; adoption by individuals

  4. A Systematic Review of Instruments to Assess Organizational Readiness for Knowledge Translation in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Attieh, Randa; Ghandour, El Kebir; Légaré, France; Ouimet, Mathieu; Estabrooks, Carole A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Background The translation of research into practices has been incomplete. Organizational readiness for change (ORC) is a potential facilitator of effective knowledge translation (KT). However we know little about the best way to assess ORC. Therefore, we sought to systematically review ORC measurement instruments. Methods We searched for published studies in bibliographic databases (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, etc.) up to November 1st, 2012. We included publications that developed ORC measures and/or empirically assessed ORC using an instrument at the organizational level in the health care context. We excluded articles if they did not refer specifically to ORC, did not concern the health care domain or were limited to individual-level change readiness. We focused on identifying the psychometric properties of instruments that were developed to assess readiness in an organization prior to implementing KT interventions in health care. We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to assess the psychometric properties of identified ORC measurement instruments. Findings We found 26 eligible instruments described in 39 publications. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 18 (69%) of a total of 26 measurement instruments presented both validity and reliability criteria. The Texas Christian University –ORC (TCU-ORC) scale reported the highest instrument validity with a score of 4 out of 4. Only one instrument, namely the Modified Texas Christian University – Director version (TCU-ORC-D), reported a reliability score of 2 out of 3. No information was provided regarding the reliability and validity of five (19%) instruments. Conclusion Our findings indicate that there are few valid and reliable ORC measurement instruments that could be applied to KT in the health care sector. The TCU-ORC instrument presents the best evidence in terms of validity testing. Future studies using this instrument could

  5. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  6. Uncovering tacit knowledge: a pilot study to broaden the concept of knowledge in knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita R; Bickford, Julia J; Edwards, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen J; Meyer, Mechthild

    2011-08-18

    All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews), legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation

  7. Synthesizing evidences for policy translation: a public health discourse on rotavirus vaccine in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Samiran; Das, Aritra; Samanta, Saheli

    2014-08-11

    The debate on the relevance of rotavirus vaccine to immunization program in India, where 27 million children are born every year, rages on. We synthesized the issues raised during these debates and reviewed the current literature to identify themes that could inform public health policy decision. The paradigm we used integrated disease burden data, host and environmental factors, vaccine efficacy, immunization program issues, and economic considerations. Our synthesis reveals that substantive country specific information on disease burden and economic impact of rotavirus illness in India is constrained by lack of public discussion and qualitative studies on mothers' perceptions of the vaccine in concern. The need to improve the performance of current immunization program against six major vaccine preventable diseases (tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles) is often cited as a priority over introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Health in India being a state subject, we emphasize that the states which are in a position to reap the benefit of rotavirus vaccine, due to their good immunization program performance, should not be restrained from doing so. Meanwhile, the poorly performing states should step up their vaccination program and increase immunization coverage. Scientific, ethical and societal concerns captured through multiple sources indicate that the introduction of rotavirus vaccine would be a good investment for India. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Multi-Dimensional Impact of the Public-Private Center for Translational Molecular Medicine (CTMM) in the Netherlands: Understanding New 21(st) Century Institutional Designs to Support Innovation-in-Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge translation is at the epicenter of 21st century life sciences and integrative biology. Several innovative institutional designs have been formulated to cultivate knowledge translation. One of these organizational innovations has been the Center for Translational Molecular Medicine (CTMM), a multi-million public-private partnership in the Netherlands. The CTMM aims to accelerate molecular diagnostics and imaging technologies to forecast disease susceptibilities in healthy populations and early diagnosis and personalized treatment of patients. This research evaluated CTMM's impact on scientific, translational, clinical, and economic dimensions. A pragmatic, operationally-defined process indicators approach was used. Data were gathered from CTMM administrations, through a CTMM-wide survey (n = 167) and group interviews. We found that the CTMM focused on disease areas with high human, clinical, and economic burden to society (i.e., oncology, cardiovascular, neurologic, infection, and immunity diseases). CTMM displayed a robust scientific impact that rests 15%-80% above international reference values regarding publication volume and impact. Technology translation to the clinic was accelerated, with >50% of projects progressing from pre-clinical development to clinical testing within 5 years. Furthermore, CTMM has generated nearly 1500 Full Time Equivalent (FTE) of translational R&D capacity. Its positive impact on translational, (future) clinical, and economic aspects is recognized across all surveyed stakeholders. As organizational innovation is increasingly considered critical to forge linkages between life sciences discoveries and innovation-in-society, lessons learned from this study may inform other institutions with similar objectives such as the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States.

  9. The need for a rights-based public health approach to Australian asylum seeker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Brolan, Claire E; Lui, Chi-Wai; Whittaker, Maxine

    2016-01-01

    Public health professionals have a responsibility to protect and promote the right to health amongst populations, especially vulnerable and disenfranchised groups, such as people seeking asylum and whose health care is frequently compromised. As at 31 March 2016, there was a total of 3707 people (including 384 children) in immigration detention facilities or community detention in Australia, with 431 of them detained for more than 2 years. The Public Health Association of Australia and the Australian Medical Association assert that people seeking asylum in Australia have a right to health in the same way as Australian citizens, and they denounce detention of such people in government facilities for prolonged and indeterminate periods of time. The position of these two professional organisations is consistent with the compelling body of evidence demonstrating the negative impact detention has on health. Yet in recent years, both the Labour and Liberal parties-when at the helm of Australia's Federal Government-have implemented a suite of regressive policies toward individuals seeking asylum. This has involved enforced legal restrictions on dissenting voices of those working with these populations, including health professionals. This paper outlines Australia's contemporary offshore immigration detention policy and practices. It summarises evidence on asylum seeker health in detention centres and describes the government's practice of purposeful silencing of health professionals. The authors examine how Australia's treatment of asylum seekers violates their health rights. Based on these analyses, the authors call for concrete action to translate the overwhelming body of evidence on the deleterious impacts of immigration detention into ethical policy and pragmatic interventions. To this end, they provide four recommendations for action.

  10. Educating the future public health workforce: do schools of public health teach students about the private sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.

  11. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation: Do housing and neighborhoods affect children’s mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children’s mental health, as addressed by Flouri and colleagues [1], is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it’s a necessary shift for improving population health. PMID:25527210

  12. Why Do People Work in Public Health? Exploring Recruitment and Retention Among Public Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A; Wisniewski, Janna M; Amos, Kathleen; Bialek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The public health workforce is critical to the functioning of the public health system and protection of the population's health. Ensuring a sufficient workforce depends on effectively recruiting and retaining workers. This study examines factors influencing decisions to take and remain in jobs within public health, particularly for workers employed in governmental public health. This cross-sectional study employed a secondary data set from a 2010 national survey of US public health workers. Survey respondents were included in this study if they responded to at least 1 survey item related to recruitment and retention. A total of 10 859 survey responses fit this criterion. Data examined demographics of public health workers and factors that influenced decisions to take jobs in and remain in public health. Job security (β = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.56) and competitive benefits (β = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.70) were significantly and positively associated with governmental employees' decisions to take positions with their current employers compared with public health workers employed by other types of organizations. The same finding held with regard to retention: job security (β = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.57) and competitive benefits (β = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.24-0.83). Two personal factors, personal commitment to public service (β = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42) and wanted a job in the public health field (β = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-0.69), were significantly and positively related to governmental employees deciding to remain with their current employers. It is important to recognize the value of competitive benefits for both current and potential employees. Public health agencies should maintain these if possible and make the value of these benefits known to policy makers or other agencies setting these benefit policies. Job security associated with governmental public health jobs also appears to offer public health an advantage in recruiting and retaining employees.

  13. Public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija

    2017-10-01

    Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Tackling health literacy: adaptation of public hypertension educational materials for an Indo-Asian population in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlotte A; Mawani, Shefina; King, Kathryn M; Allu, Selina Omar; Smith, Megan; Mohan, Sailesh; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-11

    Indo-Asians in Canada are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for cultural and language specific educational materials relating to this risk. During this project we developed and field tested the acceptability of a hypertension public education pamphlet tailored to fit the needs of an at risk local Indo-Asian population, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A community health board representing Calgary's Indo-Asian communities identified the culturally specific educational needs and language preferences of the local population. An adaptation of an existing English language Canadian Public Hypertension Recommendations pamphlet was created considering the literacy and translation challenges. The adapted pamphlet was translated into four Indo-Asian languages. The adapted pamphlets were disseminated as part of the initial educational component of a community-based culturally and language-sensitive cardiovascular risk factor screening and management program. Field testing of the materials was undertaken when participants returned for program follow-up seven to 12 months later. Fifty-nine English-speaking participants evaluated and confirmed the concept validity of the English adapted version. 28 non-English speaking participants evaluated the Gujarati (N = 13) and Punjabi (N = 15) translated versions of the adapted pamphlets. All participants found the pamphlets acceptable and felt they had improved their understanding of hypertension. Involving the target community to identify health issues as well as help to create culturally, language and literacy sensitive health education materials ensures resources are highly acceptable to that community. Minor changes to the materials will be needed prior to formal testing of hypertension knowledge and health decision-making on a larger scale within this at risk community.

  15. Social media in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend

    2013-01-01

    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  16. Public lecture on health and physics at ICTR-PHE 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    “Treating cancer in the 21st century: biology, physics and genomics” by Prof. Søren M. Bentzen, University of Wisconsin, USA. 18.30 on Tuesday 28 February, 2012 Room 2, CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva), 17 rue de Varembé, Geneva The lecture will be held in English, with simultaneous translation into French.   As part of the International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE 2012), a public lecture will be held on Tuesday 28 February on new ways of treating cancer. The lecture will particularly focus on how collaboration between different scientific disciplines, such as physics and biology, is producing new technologies in fields like biomedical imaging. As a result of this and other developments, progress is being made in the study and understanding of cancer, and cure rates and quality of life in cancer survivors is being improved. The speaker is Prof. Søren M. Bentzen ...

  17. Public Health Concern on Fukushima Radiation Risks in Korea and Response Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chaewon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-Ro, Seoul 139-781 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of public perception on radiation risks by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident and aims to suggest the appropriate strategies for minimizing social anxiety and managing the risk effectively on the basis of those features. In South Korea, the nearest country to Japan, fishery sales decreased 20% in 2013 due to consumers' fears over radiation contaminated seafood products. Public health concern is also increasing. The characteristics of public perception on the risk are the key factors of social anxiety, which are 'ongoing hazard' and 'uncertainty'. They can be translated same as the concepts of 'fear' and 'unknown risk', the psychometric factors of risk perception described in Slovic (1989)'s qualitative characteristics. News on a series of hazardous situations such as radioactive water leaks or radioactive steam at Fukushima is continually reported. Noting no expectation of accident settlement in near future, media coverage which has the expression of 'the maximum permissible level of radiation' without any translation of the measured dosimetric quantity causes the public's phobic fear. Uncertainties on health risks of low dose ionizing radiation in humans are not only the causes of fear but the challenges in building trust in risk communications. Rumours appear under ambiguous and uncertain situation with a lack of information. The communications among public authorities, related institutes, experts and the public become very important since the public health concern on radiation contamination turns into attention to the system of inspection, distribution, and regulation of imported food. The public shows deep interest in the safety standard of guidelines used in regulatory policy and safety management, which leads to a desire for participation in policy making process. Situational crisis communication theory can be applied to the situation quoted and

  18. Probiotics and prebiotics: prospects for public health and nutritional recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Salminen, Seppo; Merenstein, Daniel J; Gibson, Glenn R; Petschow, Bryon W; Nieuwdorp, Max; Tancredi, Daniel J; Cifelli, Christopher J; Jacques, Paul; Pot, Bruno

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are useful interventions for improving human health through direct or indirect effects on the colonizing microbiota. However, translation of these research findings into nutritional recommendations and public health policy endorsements has not been achieved in a manner consistent with the strength of the evidence. More progress has been made with clinical recommendations. Conclusions include that beneficial cultures, including probiotics and live cultures in fermented foods, can contribute towards the health of the general population; prebiotics, in part due to their function as a special type of soluble fiber, can contribute to the health of the general population; and a number of challenges must be addressed in order to fully realize probiotic and prebiotic benefits, including the need for greater awareness of the accumulated evidence on probiotics and prebiotics among policy makers, strategies to cope with regulatory roadblocks to research, and high-quality human trials that address outstanding research questions in the field. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. French translation and cross-cultural adaptation of The Myotonic Dystrophy Health Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Cynthia; Tremblay, Marjolaine; CôTé, Isabelle; Heatwole, Chad

    2018-04-01

    Validation studies of disease-specific instruments for myotonic dystrophy type-1 (DM1) are required prior to their global use in clinical trials involving different cultures and countries. Here we translate and culturally adapt the Myotonic Dystrophy Health Index (MDHI), a disease-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure, for a French DM1 population. Using the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Task Force method for translation and adaptation of PRO questionnaires, we created a French translation of the MDHI. We subsequently tested this instrument in a cohort of French-speaking patients with DM1. The MDHI was forward and back translated and modified by consensus to create the most compatible translation. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 5 patients with DM1 to ensure the usability and understanding of the translation. The French version of the MDHI is an optimal translation of the original instrument that is acceptable to native patients and ready for clinical trial use. Muscle Nerve 57: 686-689, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Assessing the public health impact of using poison center data for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Lyons, Rebecca; Choudhary, Ekta; Wolkin, Amy; Schier, Joshua

    2017-12-13

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a database and surveillance system for US poison centers (PCs) call data. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) use NPDS to identify incidents of potential public health significance. State health departments are notified by CDC of incidents identified by NPDS to be of potential public health significance. Our objective was to describe the public health impact of CDC's notifications and the use of NPDS data for surveillance. We described how NPDS data informed three public health responses: the Deepwater Horizon incident, national exposures to laundry detergent pods, and national exposures to e-cigarettes. Additionally, we extracted survey results of state epidemiologists regarding NPDS incident notification follow-up from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 to assess current public health application of NPDS data using Epi Info 7.2 and analyzed data using SAS 9.3. We assessed whether state health departments were aware of incidents before notification, what actions were taken, and whether CDC notifications contributed to actions. NPDS data provided evidence for industry changes to improve laundry detergent pod containers safety and highlighted the need to regulate e-cigarette sale and manufacturing. NPDS data were used to improve situational awareness during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Of 59 health departments and PCs who responded to CDC notifications about anomalies (response rate = 49.2%), 27 (46%) reported no previous awareness of the incident, and 20 (34%) said that notifications contributed to public health action. Monitoring NPDS data for anomalies can identify emerging public health threats and provide evidence-based science to support public health action and policy changes.

  1. Why Has the Health-Promoting Prison Concept Failed to Translate to the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James

    2018-05-01

    Two decades since the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe published a report on health promotion in prison that stimulated further debate on the concept of the "health-promoting prison," this article discusses the extent to which the concept has translated to the United States. One predicted indicator of success for the health-promoting prison movement was the expansion of activity beyond European borders; yet 2 decades since the European model was put forward, there has been very limited activity in the United States. This "Critical Issues and Trends" article suggests reasons why this translation has failed to occur.

  2. The impact of globalization on public health: implications for the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K

    2000-09-01

    There has been substantial discussion of globalization in the scholarly and popular press yet limited attention so far among public health professionals. This is so despite the many potential impacts of globalization on public health. Defining public health broadly, as focused on the collective health of populations requiring a range of intersectoral activities, globalization can be seen to have particular relevance. Globalization, in turn, can be defined as a process that is changing the nature of human interaction across a wide range of spheres and along at least three dimensions. Understanding public health and globalization in these ways suggests the urgent need for research to better understand the linkages between the two, and effective policy responses by a range of public health institutions, including the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine. The paper is based on a review of secondary literature on globalization that led to the development of a conceptual framework for understanding potential impacts on the determinants of health and public health. The paper then discusses major areas of public health in relation to these potential impacts. It concludes with recommendations on how the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine might contribute to addressing these impacts through its various activities. Although there is growing attention to the importance of globalization to public health, there has been limited research and policy development in the United Kingdom. The UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine needs to play an active role in bringing relevant issues to the attention of policy makers, and encourage its members to take up research, teaching and policy initiatives. The potential impacts of globalization support a broader understanding and practice of public health that embraces a wide range of health determinants.

  3. The public health leadership certificate: a public health and primary care interprofessional training opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Christine C; Lake, Jeffrey L; Bradshaw, R Dana; Matson, David O

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a public health leadership certificate curriculum developed by the Commonwealth Public Health Training Center for employees in public health and medical trainees in primary care to share didactic and experiential learning. As part of the program, trainees are involved in improving the health of their communities and thus gain a blended perspective on the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in improving population health. The certificate curriculum includes eight one-credit-hour didactic courses offered through an MPH program and a two-credit-hour, community-based participatory research project conducted by teams of trainees under the mentorship of health district directors. Fiscal sustainability is achieved by sharing didactic courses with MPH degree students, thereby enabling trainees to take advantage of a reduced, continuing education tuition rate. Public health employee and primary care trainees jointly learn knowledge and skills required for community health improvement in interprofessional teams and gain an integrated perspective through opportunities to question assumptions and broaden disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the required community projects have benefited public health in Virginia.

  4. Improving interpretation of publically reported statistics on health and healthcare: the Figure Interpretation Assessment Tool (FIAT-Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Reinie G; Kringos, Dionne S; van den Berg, Michael J; Klazinga, Niek S

    2018-03-07

    Policy-makers, managers, scientists, patients and the general public are confronted daily with figures on health and healthcare through public reporting in newspapers, webpages and press releases. However, information on the key characteristics of these figures necessary for their correct interpretation is often not adequately communicated, which can lead to misinterpretation and misinformed decision-making. The objective of this research was to map the key characteristics relevant to the interpretation of figures on health and healthcare, and to develop a Figure Interpretation Assessment Tool-Health (FIAT-Health) through which figures on health and healthcare can be systematically assessed, allowing for a better interpretation of these figures. The abovementioned key characteristics of figures on health and healthcare were identified through systematic expert consultations in the Netherlands on four topic categories of figures, namely morbidity, healthcare expenditure, healthcare outcomes and lifestyle. The identified characteristics were used as a frame for the development of the FIAT-Health. Development of the tool and its content was supported and validated through regular review by a sounding board of potential users. Identified characteristics relevant for the interpretation of figures in the four categories relate to the figures' origin, credibility, expression, subject matter, population and geographical focus, time period, and underlying data collection methods. The characteristics were translated into a set of 13 dichotomous and 4-point Likert scale questions constituting the FIAT-Health, and two final assessment statements. Users of the FIAT-Health were provided with a summary overview of their answers to support a final assessment of the correctness of a figure and the appropriateness of its reporting. FIAT-Health can support policy-makers, managers, scientists, patients and the general public to systematically assess the quality of publicly reported

  5. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castillo-Salgado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  6. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  7. Advances in dental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R D

    2001-07-01

    Dental public health has been defined as 'the science and art of preventing oral diseases, promoting oral health and improving the quality of life through the organised efforts of society'. Dental practitioners most often have the oral health of individual patients as their primary focus but the aim of public health is to benefit populations. Early developments in dental public health were concerned largely with demonstrating levels of disease and with treatment services. With greater appreciation of the nature of oral health and disease, and of their determinants has come recognition of the need for wider public health action if the effects of prevention and oral health promotion are to be maximized.

  8. Health Extension and Clinical and Translational Science: An Innovative Strategy for Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur; Rhyne, Robert L; Anastasoff, Juliana; Ronquillo, Francisco; Nixon, Marnie; Mishra, Shiraz; Poola, Charlene; Page-Reeves, Janet; Nkouaga, Carolina; Cordova, Carla; Larson, Richard S

    Health Extension Regional Officers (HEROs) through the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNMHSC) help to facilitate university-community engagement throughout New Mexico. HEROs, based in communities across the state, link priority community health needs with university resources in education, service, and research. Researchers' studies are usually aligned with federal funding priorities rather than with health priorities expressed by communities. To help overcome this misalignment, the UNM Clinical and Translational Science Center (CTSC) provides partial funding for HEROs to bridge the divide between research priorities of UNMHSC and health priorities of the state's communities. A bidirectional partnership between HEROs and CTSC researchers was established, which led to: 1) increased community engaged studies through the CTSC, 2) the HERO model itself as a subject of research, 3) a HERO-driven increase in local capacity in scholarship and grant writing, and 4) development of training modules for investigators and community stakeholders on community-engaged research. As a result, 5 grants were submitted, 4 of which were funded, totaling $7,409,002.00, and 3 research articles were published. Health extension can serve as a university-funded, community-based bridge between community health needs and Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) research capacity, opening avenues for translational research. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  9. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We explored the meaning and outcomes of a 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners participating in a Community of Practice. METHOD. A one-group (N = 117) mixed-methods design using a pretest–posttest survey and qualitative analysis of written reflections was used to explore the meaning and outcomes of the building capacity process. RESULTS. Statistically significant improvements (p occupational therapy’s role in addressing children’s mental health. PMID:26565099

  10. Health needs and public health functions addressed in scientific publications in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benie-Bi, J; Cambon, L; Grimaud, O; Kivits, J; Alla, F

    2013-09-01

    To describe the reporting of public health research in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSA). A bibliometric research study of scientific public health publications in FSA, which includes 24 countries and approximately 260 million people. Two researchers analysed original articles published in 2007 in the medical or social sciences fields and indexed in Scopus. At least one co-author of articles had to be based in FSA. The analysis focused on research field, public health function (WHO classification), FSA country author's affiliation, language, journal type and global burden of disease (WHO classification). Of 1047 articles retrieved by the search, 212 were from the public health field. The number of articles per country varied from 0 to 36. Public health functions examined were health service research (24.5%), health monitoring (27.4%), prevention (15%) and legislation (0.5%). The distribution of health needs described in the articles was close to that of the WHO data for Africa for 2004: infectious and parasitic diseases (70% vs 54%), maternal and perinatal conditions (15% vs 17%), non-communicable diseases (15.6% vs 21%), and injuries (0.5% vs 8%). The areas reported in published articles from sub-Saharan Africa reflect the health needs distribution in Africa; however, the number of publications is low, particularly for prevention. In light of the current focus on evidence-based public health, this study questions whether the international scientific community adequately considers the expertise and perspectives of African researchers and professionals. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  12. Public health educational comprehensiveness: The strategic rationale in establishing networks among schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otok, Robert; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Foldspang, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The establishment and continuing development of a sufficient and competent public health workforce is fundamental for the planning, implementation, evaluation, effect and ethical validity of public health strategies and policies and, thus, for the development of the population's health and the cost-effectiveness of health and public health systems and interventions. Professional public health strategy-making demands a background of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary curriculum including mutually, dynamically coherent competences - not least, competences in sociology and other behavioural sciences and their interaction with, for example, epidemiology, biostatistics, qualitative methods and health promotion and disease prevention. The size of schools and university departments of public health varies, and smaller entities may run into problems if seeking to meet the comprehensive curriculum challenge entirely by use of in-house resources. This commentary discusses the relevance and strength of establishing comprehensive curriculum development networks between schools and university departments of public health, as one means to meet the comprehensiveness challenge. This commentary attempts to consider a two-stage strategy to develop complete curricula at the bachelor and master's as well as PhD levels.

  13. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of a...

  14. Knowledge translation to fitness trainers: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamo Kristi B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates approaches for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers. Specific questions were: Where do fitness trainers get their evidence-based information? What types of interventions are effective for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers? What are the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence-based information by fitness trainers in their practice? Methods We describe a systematic review of studies about knowledge translation interventions targeting fitness trainers. Fitness trainers were defined as individuals who provide exercise program design and supervision services to the public. Nurses, physicians, physiotherapists, school teachers, athletic trainers, and sport team strength coaches were excluded. Results Of 634 citations, two studies were eligible for inclusion: a survey of 325 registered health fitness professionals (66% response rate and a qualitative study of 10 fitness instructors. Both studies identified that fitness trainers obtain information from textbooks, networking with colleagues, scientific journals, seminars, and mass media. Fitness trainers holding higher levels of education are reported to use evidence-based information sources such as scientific journals compared to those with lower education levels, who were reported to use mass media sources. The studies identified did not evaluate interventions to translate evidence-based knowledge for fitness trainers and did not explore factors influencing uptake of evidence in their practice. Conclusion Little is known about how fitness trainers obtain and incorporate new evidence-based knowledge into their practice. Further exploration and specific research is needed to better understand how emerging health-fitness evidence can be translated to maximize its use by fitness trainers providing services to the general public.

  15. GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bertazzon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of public health simply cannot disregard the geospatial dimension of environmental resources and risks. What consistently emerges from these analyses is that current geospatial research can only scratch the surface of the complex interactions of spatial resources, risks, and public health. In today’s world, or at least in the developed world, researchers and practitioners can count on virtually endless data, on inexpensive computational power, and on seamless connectivity. In this research environment, these papers point to the need for improved analytical tools, covering concepts, representation, modeling and reliability. These works are important contributions that help us to identify what advances in geospatial analysis can better address the complex interactions of public health with our physical and cultural environment, and bridge research and practice, so that geospatial analyses can inform public health policy making. [...

  16. Translation and Psychometric Validation of Women Health Questionnaire (WHQ in Persian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Hakimi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is not a disease; however the somatic and psychological symptoms that accompany it affect the life of women. Women health questionnaire (WHQ is a self-administered questionnaire that measures the physical and mental health of women ages 40 to 65 years. The purpose of this study is to provide psychometric documentation details of the translation of WHQ into the Persian language. A total of 350 peri and postmenopausal women were recruited from urban health centers in the city of Tabriz, between March and October 2015. The validity of WHQ was assessed using construct and discriminate validity. The reliability of questionnaire was assessed by test retest reliability and measuring internal consistency. The KMO was 0.791, and the Bartlett’s test of Sphericity was significant. Principle component analysis (PCA resulted in 9 factors which explained up to 55.4% of the total variance. Cronbach's coefficient was 0.799 and the Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of the Persian translation scale was 0.712. Evaluation of the psychometric properties showed that the Persian language translation of the 36-item version of the WHQ was appropriate when applied to middle aged women

  17. Mental health in prisons: A public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A

    2009-01-01

    Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mental health issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mental health services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe illness. A whole prison approach to health and, specifically, mental health will offer the greatest likelihood that offenders will thrive, benefit from imprisonment, and lead law-abiding lives after release. Public awareness of the scale and commitment of prisons to mental health and illness, and understanding of prisons' role in society, are necessary developments that would protect and enhance public mental health, as well as creating a healthier and safer society. This article draws on recent reviews, information and statements to set out a public health agenda for mental health in prisons.

  18. Academic dental public health diplomates: their distribution and recommendations concerning the predoctoral dental public health faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, L M; Sadler, Z E; Hayes, K L; Narendran, S; Niessen, L C; Weintraub, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the representation of academically based diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) and to identify their perceptions on the training of dental public health predoctoral faculty. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered, 13-item questionnaire. The population was the 48 diplomates of the ABDPH as of March 1997 associated with academic institutions. Twenty of the 55 US dental schools had a diplomate of the ABDPH with a mean of 1.8 diplomates per school with a diplomate. An average of 4.5 full-time faculty members per school were associated with teaching dental public health. A master's degree in public health (MPH) was the most frequently suggested educational requirement for dental public health faculty. Continuing education courses were training needs perceived for dental public health faculty. The lack of time, money, and incentives, along with perceived rigidity of requirements for board certification, were reported as major barriers for faculty becoming dental public health board certified. Numerous challenges confront the development of a strong dental public health presence in US dental schools. These challenges include, among others, insufficient numbers of academic dental public health specialists and insufficient motivations to encourage promising candidates to pursue specialty status.

  19. Knowledge translation tools for parents on child health topics: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-09-29

    An emerging field of knowledge translation (KT) research has begun to focus on health consumers, particularly in child health. KT tools provide health consumers with research knowledge to inform health decision-making and may foster 'effective consumers'. Thus, the purpose of this scoping review was to describe the state of the field of previously published effectiveness research on child health-related KT tools for parents/caregivers to understand the evidence-base, identify gaps, and guide future research efforts. A health research librarian developed and implemented search strategies in 8 databases. One reviewer conducted screening using pre-determined criteria. A second reviewer verified 10% of screening decisions. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer. A descriptive analysis was conducted and included patient-important outcome classification, WIDER Recommendation checklist, and methodological quality assessment. Seven thousand nine hundred fifty two independent titles and abstracts were reviewed, 2267 full-text studies were retrieved and reviewed, and 18 articles were included in the final data set. A variety of KT tools, including single- (n = 10) and multi-component tools (n = 10), were evaluated spanning acute (n = 4), chronic (n = 5) and public/population health (n = 9) child health topics. Study designs included: cross-sectional (n = 4), before-after (n = 1), controlled before-after (n = 2), cohort (n = 1), and RCTs (n = 10). The KT tools were evaluated via single primary outcome category (n = 11) and multiple primary outcome categories (n = 7). Two studies demonstrated significant positive effects on primary outcome categories; the remaining studies demonstrated mixed effects (n = 9) and no effect (n = 3). Overall, methodological quality was poor; studies lacked a priori protocols (n = 18) and sample size calculations (n = 13). Overall, intervention reporting was also poor; KT tools lacked description of

  20. Infodemiology and infoveillance: framework for an emerging set of public health informatics methods to analyze search, communication and publication behavior on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2009-03-27

    Infodemiology can be defined as the science of distribution and determinants of information in an electronic medium, specifically the Internet, or in a population, with the ultimate aim to inform public health and public policy. Infodemiology data can be collected and analyzed in near real time. Examples for infodemiology applications include the analysis of queries from Internet search engines to predict disease outbreaks (eg. influenza), monitoring peoples' status updates on microblogs such as Twitter for syndromic surveillance, detecting and quantifying disparities in health information availability, identifying and monitoring of public health relevant publications on the Internet (eg. anti-vaccination sites, but also news articles or expert-curated outbreak reports), automated tools to measure information diffusion and knowledge translation, and tracking the effectiveness of health marketing campaigns. Moreover, analyzing how people search and navigate the Internet for health-related information, as well as how they communicate and share this information, can provide valuable insights into health-related behavior of populations. Seven years after the infodemiology concept was first introduced, this paper revisits the emerging fields of infodemiology and infoveillance and proposes an expanded framework, introducing some basic metrics such as information prevalence, concept occurrence ratios, and information incidence. The framework distinguishes supply-based applications (analyzing what is being published on the Internet, eg. on Web sites, newsgroups, blogs, microblogs and social media) from demand-based methods (search and navigation behavior), and further distinguishes passive from active infoveillance methods. Infodemiology metrics follow population health relevant events or predict them. Thus, these metrics and methods are potentially useful for public health practice and research, and should be further developed and standardized.

  1. Exploratory study of the role of knowledge brokers in translating knowledge to action following global maternal and newborn health technical meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, T C; Howell, C; Reynolds, C

    2016-11-01

    There have been increasing calls for more research on interventions to successfully translate evidence-based knowledge into improved health policy and practices. This paper reports on an exploratory study of knowledge translation interventions conducted with participants of global health meetings held in Bangladesh in 2012 and in South Africa in 2013. We measured stakeholders' uptake of evidence-based knowledge in terms of their translation of this knowledge into actions around public health policy and practice. The research sought to determine whether participants shared and used knowledge from the meetings to improve health policy and practices in their settings and the factors influencing sharing and use. An exploratory study employed quantitative and qualitative methods of online surveys and in-depth interviews to collect data from all meeting participants. All participants in the Bangladesh and South Africa meetings were invited to complete an online survey during the meetings and over the following six weeks. Of 411 participants in the 2012 Bangladesh meeting, 148 participants from 22 countries completed the survey. Eleven of these respondents (from eight countries) were interviewed. Of the 436 participants in the 2013 South Africa meeting, 126 respondents from 33 countries completed an online survey; none of these respondents were interviewed. The analysis revealed that most respondents used new knowledge to advocate for policy change (2012: 65.5%; 2013: 67.5%) or improve service quality (2012: 60.1%; 2013: 70.6%). The type of knowledge that respondents most commonly shared was clinical or scientific information (2012: 79.1%; 2013: 66.7%) and country-specific information (2012: 73.0%; 2013: 71.4%). Most 2012 respondents shared knowledge because they thought it would be useful to a co-worker or colleague (79.7%). Findings on knowledge use and sharing suggest that most respondents saw themselves as knowledge brokers or intermediaries in a position to influence

  2. The antimicrobial resistance containment and surveillance approach--a public health tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Gunnar S.; Tapsall, John W.; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Lazzari, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) is widely recognized as a global public health threat because it endangers the effectiveness of treatment of infectious diseases. In 2001 WHO issued the Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance, but it has proved difficult to translate the recommendations of the Global Strategy into effective public health actions. The purpose of the Antimicrobial Resistance Containment and Surveillance (ARCS) approach is to facilitate the formulation of public health programmes and the mobilization of human and financial resources for the containment of AMR. The ARCS approach highlights the fundamental link between rational drug use and containment of AMR. Clinical management of human and animal infections should be improved through better disease control and prevention, high quality diagnostic testing, appropriate treatment regimens and consumer health education. At the same time, systems for supplying antimicrobial drugs should include appropriate regulations, lists of essential drugs, and functional mechanisms for the approval and delivery of drugs. Containment of AMR is defined in the ARCS approach as the continuous application of this package of core interventions. Surveillance of the extent and trends of antimicrobial resistance as well as the supply, selection and use of antimicrobial drugs should be established to monitor the process and outcome of containment of AMR. The ARCS approach is represented in the ARCS diagram (Fig. 2) which provides a simplified, but comprehensive illustration of the complex problem of containment and monitoring of AMR. PMID:15654407

  3. Moving Forward in Childhood Obesity Treatment: A Call for Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P. M.; Dugdill, L.; Murphy, R.; Knowles, Z.; Cable, N. T.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious challenges of the 21st century and it is vital that evidence-based treatment approaches can be translated into practice to meet public health needs. Yet policy-makers cannot afford to wait for the results of lengthy trials before "probably efficacious" interventions are made available to the public, and…

  4. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  5. Utility and justice in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Kathryn

    2017-12-11

    Many public health practitioners and organizations view themselves as engaged in the promotion or achievement of equity. However, discussions around public health frequently assume that practitioners and policy-makers take a utilitarian approach to this work. I argue that public health is better understood as a social justice endeavor. I begin by presenting the utility view of public health and then discuss the equity view. This is a theoretical argument, which should help public health to justify interventions for communicable and non-communicable diseases equally, and which contributes to breaking down the 'old/new' public health divide. This argument captures practitioners' views of the work they are engaged in and allows for the moral and policy justification of important interventions in communicable and non-communicable diseases. Systemic interventions are necessary to remedy high rates of disease among certain groups and, generally, to improve the health of entire populations. By viewing diseases as partly the result of failures of health protective systems in society, public health may justify interventions in communicable and non-communicable diseases equally. Public health holds a duty to improve the health of the worst-off in society; by prioritizing this group, the health of the whole community may improve. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  7. Critical perspectives in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Judith; Labonte, Ronald N

    2008-01-01

    ... the contemporary roles of 'critical voices' in public health research and practice from a range of disciplines and contexts. The book covers many of the pressing concerns for public health practitioners and researchers, including: * * * * * the implications of new genetic technologies for public health; the impact of globalisation on local practice...

  8. Translation of questionnaires measuring health related quality of life is not standardized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    aimed at patients from both countries. In relation to this and similar international cooperation, the validity and reliability of translated questionnaires are central aspects. MAIN OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore which methodological measures were used in studies reporting...... reporting the methodological process when translating questionnaires on health related quality of life for different diseases. RESULTS: We retrieved 187 studies and out of theses we included 52 studies. The psychometric properties of the translated versions were validated using different tests. The focus...... was on internal validity (96%), reliability (67%) criterion validity (81%), and construct validity (62%). For internal validity Cronbach's alpha was used in 94% of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that there seems to be a consensus regarding the translation process (especially for internal validity...

  9. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  10. Public health leadership education in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Hideo; Zakariasen,Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Hideo Uno, Kenneth ZakariasenDepartment of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Public health leadership is one of the priority disciplines public health professionals need to learn well if they are to deal with demanding public health issues effectively and efficiently. This article looks at the trends in public health leadership education by reviewing the literature and using the Internet to explore the public health leadershi...

  11. Recent translations of Foucault on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Pat; Khalfa, Jean; Thomas, Philip

    2007-11-01

    The work of the French philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, often dealt with subjects either directly or indirectly related to psychiatry. In the past, his work has been largely ignored or rejected by mainstream psychiatry. In the period under review, two important English translations of Foucault's work on psychiatry have been published. Our review focuses on these books, and also looks at some of the recent secondary literature relating to Foucault and mental health. We argue that psychiatry has a lot to gain from a positive engagement with Foucault's ideas.

  12. Social Media, Health Policy, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Social media has been cited as a methodology for reducing the knowledge translation gap, creating communities of practice, and reducing traditional hierarchical divisions. Social movements have also embraced social media as a means of spreading their aims and reaching wide audiences. However, its impact on health policy is seldom considered. The author examines the complexity of clinicians' use of social media to influence policy and how policy and government groups may use social media to help their own objectives. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Orvik, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutio...

  14. Knowledge translation tools for parents on child health topics: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Lauren; Scott, Shannon D.; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Background An emerging field of knowledge translation (KT) research has begun to focus on health consumers, particularly in child health. KT tools provide health consumers with research knowledge to inform health decision-making and may foster ‘effective consumers’. Thus, the purpose of this scoping review was to describe the state of the field of previously published effectiveness research on child health-related KT tools for parents/caregivers to understand the evidence-base, identify gaps,...

  15. Translating Alcohol Research: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M; Miles, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of stream-lining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD.

  16. National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM): advancing the field of translational medicine and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallak, Jaime E C; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Quevedo, João; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2010-03-01

    Translational medicine has been described as the integrated application of innovative pharmacology tools, biomarkers, clinical methods, clinical technologies and study designs to improve the understanding of medical disorders. In medicine, translational research offers an opportunity for applying the findings obtained from basic research to every-day clinical applications. The National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is comprised of six member institutions (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade de São Paulo-Ribeirão Preto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina and a core facility that serves all centers). The objectives of the project are divided into four areas: Institutional, Research, Human Resources and Technology for the Community and Productive Sector. In this manuscript, we describe some of the approaches used to attain the main objectives of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine, which include the development of 1) animal models for bipolar disorder; 2) strategies to investigate neurobehavioral function and cognitive dysfunction associated with brain disorders; 3) experimental models of brain function and behavior, neuropsychiatric disorders, cell proliferation, and cancer; 4) Simulated Public Speaking and 5) Virtual reality simulation for inducing panic disorder and agoraphobia. The main focus of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is the development of more useful methods that allow for a better application of basic research-based knowledge to the medical field.

  17. Interdisciplinary knowledge translation: lessons learned from a mental health: fire service collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna L; Mackay, Sherri; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2010-12-01

    Collaborative approaches are being increasingly advocated for addressing a variety of health, mental health and social needs for children, youth and families. Factors important for effective knowledge translation of collaborative approaches of service delivery across disciplines, however, have not been rigorously examined. TAPP-C: The Arson Prevention Program for Children is an intervention program for child and adolescent firesetters provided collaboratively by fire service and mental health professionals. The present study examined the adopter, innovation, and dissemination characteristics associated with TAPP-C implementation, protocol adherence and extent of collaboration by 241 community-based fire service professionals from communities across Ontario. Results revealed that dissemination factors are particularly important for understanding program implementation, adherence and cross-discipline collaboration. Moreover, the findings of this study show significant benefits to both within discipline (intra-disciplinary) and across discipline (interdisciplinary) knowledge translation strategies.

  18. PPACA and public health: creating a framework to focus on prevention and wellness and improve the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majette, Gwendolyn Roberts

    2011-01-01

    PPACA epitomizes comprehensive health care reform legislation. Public health, disease prevention, and wellness were integral considerations in its development. This article reveals the author's personal experiences while working on the framework for health care reform in the United States Senate and reviews activity in the United States House of Representatives. This insider's perspective delineates PPACA's positive effect on public health by examining the infrastructure Congress designed to focus on prevention, wellness, and public health, with a particular focus on the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health Council; the National Prevention, Health Promotion, Public Health, and Integrative Health Care Strategy; and the Prevention and Public Health Fund. The Council, strategy, and fund are especially important because they reflect compliance with some of the Institute of Medicine's recommendations to improve public health in the United States, as well as international health and human rights norms that protect the right to health. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  19. One Health Perspectives on Emerging Public Health Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyun Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative. Herein, we presented the history of One Health, reviewed current public health threats, and suggested opportunities for the field of public health through better understanding of the One Health paradigm.

  20. Translation of work experience into a Diploma of Public Administration, BA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne

    The study presents an extraordinary case. Despite legal framework and institutional set-up, for VPL in higher education is well established in Denmark a candidate achieving a BA degree by VPL is not an everyday event. The case is an autodidact staff employee getting a Diploma in Public Administra......The study presents an extraordinary case. Despite legal framework and institutional set-up, for VPL in higher education is well established in Denmark a candidate achieving a BA degree by VPL is not an everyday event. The case is an autodidact staff employee getting a Diploma in Public...... Administration. It is examined how this particular case could be successful, and how the translations of work experiences into academic standards took place using an actor-network theory approach. It is based on the candidate’s written reflections, conversations with the involved professionals and the authors...

  1. Climate Change and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    It is clear that the public health community is concerned about the human health impacts of climate change, but are we inadvertently underestimating the scope of the problem and obfuscating potentially useful interventions by using a narrow intellectual frame in our discussions with policy makers? If we take a more holistic approach, we see that the public health impacts of climate change are only one subset of the enormous public health impacts of fossil fuel burning. This broader perspective can provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment that is more useful for decision making in public policy settings.

  2. Translation of interviews from a source language to a target language: examining issues in cross-cultural health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-05-01

    To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately

  3. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  5. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orvik, Arne

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing...... as the disintegration of such values. Possible implications for public health management and leadership include four different forms. The application of the conceptual model can potentially draw attention to value conflicts and help to clarify contradictory, institutional logics. It can also potentially support health...... workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutional theory. It includes five dimensions and defines organizational health in terms of how an organization...

  6. Surfing the net for public health resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C; Hemingway, A; Hartwell, H

    2011-08-01

    To identify public health open educational resources (OER) available online, map the identified OER to The Public Health Skills and Career Framework (PHSCF), and triangulate these findings with public health practitioners. Systematic online search for public health OER. An online search was undertaken using a pre-defined set of search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Public health OER were then mapped against the UK PHSCF. The findings of the search were discussed with public health specialists to determine whether or not they used these resources. A number of public health OER were identified, located on 42 websites from around the world. Mapping against the UK PHSCF demonstrated a lack of coverage in some areas of public health education. It was noted that many of the OER websites identified were not those generally used in practice, and those sites preferred by public health specialists were not identified by the online search. Public health OER are available from a number of providers, frequently universities and government organizations. However, these reflect a relatively small pool of original OER providers. Tagging of websites does not always identify their public health content. In addition, users of public health OER may not use search engines to identify resources but locate them using other means. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The State Public Health Laboratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Stanley L; Astles, J Rex; Gradus, Stephen; Malmberg, Veronica; Snippes, Paula M; Wilcke, Burton W; White, Vanessa A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development since 2000 of the State Public Health Laboratory System in the United States. These state systems collectively are related to several other recent public health laboratory (PHL) initiatives. The first is the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories, a white paper that defined the basic responsibilities of the state PHL. Another is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Laboratory System (NLS) initiative, the goal of which is to promote public-private collaboration to assure quality laboratory services and public health surveillance. To enhance the realization of the NLS, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) launched in 2004 a State Public Health Laboratory System Improvement Program. In the same year, APHL developed a Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey, a tool to measure improvement through the decade to assure that essential PHL services are provided.

  8. Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation Strategies to Promote Research Uptake in Child Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Archibald, Mandy; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Scott, Shannon D

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to assist evidence-based decision-making for healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure high quality patient care and outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on knowledge translation interventions aimed at putting explicit research evidence into child health practice. A comprehensive search of thirteen electronic databases was conducted, restricted by date (1985-2011) and language (English). Articles were included if: 1) studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), or controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies; 2) target population was child health professionals; 3) interventions implemented research in child health practice; and 4) outcomes were measured at the professional/process, patient, or economic level. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Study data were aggregated and analyzed using evidence tables. Twenty-one studies (13 RCT, 2 CCT, 6 CBA) were included. The studies employed single (n=9) and multiple interventions (n=12). The methodological quality of the included studies was largely moderate (n=8) or weak (n=11). Of the studies with moderate to strong methodological quality ratings, three demonstrated consistent, positive effect(s) on the primary outcome(s); effective knowledge translation interventions were two single, non-educational interventions and one multiple, educational intervention. This multidisciplinary systematic review in child health setting identified effective knowledge translation strategies assessed by the most rigorous research designs. Given the overall poor quality of the research literature, specific recommendations were made to improve knowledge translation efforts in child health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethics in public health: call for shared moral public health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeckelberghe, Els L M; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Public Health (PH) in Europe has become much more vocal about its moral understandings since 1992. The rising awareness that PH issues were inseparable from issues of human rights and social justice almost self-evidently directed the agenda of EUPHA and the European Public Health (EPH)-conferences. Problems of cultural and behavioural change, and environmental issues on a global scale were also added. The Section Ethics in PH invited the EPH community to join in 'arm chair thinking': coming together at conferences not only to share the 'how' and 'what' of PH research, practices and policies but also the 'why'. Time has been reserved to genuinely discuss what moral values are at stake in the work of PH and to actively develop a moral language and framework for PH Ethics. The challenge for the next decades is to find ways to involve the general public in the cultivation of a shared moral PH literacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Conventional and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, G

    2009-09-01

    This paper suggests that current models of public health are no longer sufficient as a means for understanding the health challenges of the anthropogenic age, and argues for an alternative based upon an ecological model. The roots of this perspective originated within the Victorian era, although it found only limited expression at that time. Ecological thinking in public health has only been revived relatively recently. Derived from an analysis of obesity, this paper proposes the development of an approach to ecological public health based on four dimensions of existence: the material, the physiological, the social and the cultural-cognitive. The implications for public policy are considered.

  11. Why feminism in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A

    1999-12-01

    The issues raised in this editorial and exemplified within a number of the studies reported in this issue indicate new directions for public health, directions which take feminist scholarship, both outside and within the medical framework, into account. The changing potential of feminist public health, as derived from the articles in this issue, can be summarised within the following issues: new research areas, positioning women as actors, development of theoretical frameworks, reflexive theory of science, interplay between sex and gender, gender-sensitive methods, diversities among women/men, pro-feminist research on men's health and using the results for change. Thus, feminist public health represents a shift towards the new public health, with holistic and multidisciplinary activities, based on theoretical pluralism, multiple perspectives and collective actions with the aim of improving the health of gender-subordinated groups.

  12. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.

  14. Public health emergencies in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhabani Prasad Acharya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergencies in urban India can be caused by natural or man-made disasters. Occurrence of a public health emergency adds to the already stretched health system. This paper looks into the public health emergency conditions in urban India, and our preparedness to tackle them. To address this composite threat to nation’s health and development, a concerted public health response is needed, that can ensure efficient delivery in emergency situations Public health emergency is an occurrence or eminent threat of an illness or health condition caused by bio-terrorism, epidemic or pandemic disease, or novel and highly fatal infectious agent or biological toxin, that possess a substantial risk of a significant number of human facilities or incidents or permanent or long–term disability (1. It is a condition that requires the government to declare a state of public health emergency. The declaration of a state of public health emergency permits the government to suspend state regulations,and change the functions of state agencies (2. Term “Urban” refers to perplexing variety of environments.  Health circumstances of small cities and town differ in many ways from larger cities and metros. Within cities, change in lifestyle of residents is observed. The urban system is often present with full array of health providers ranging from traditional healer, street drug seller to highly –trained surgeons (3.

  15. Influencing public health without authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present processes, products and needs of post-graduate public health education for the health programming, implementation and oversight responsibilities at field level and suggests some solutions for the institutes to adopt or adapt for improving the quality of their scholars. Large number of institutions has cropped up in India in the recent years to meet the growing demand of public health specialists/practitioners in various national health projects, international development partners, national and international NGOs. Throwing open MPH courses to multi-disciplinary graduate's is a new phenomenon in India and may be a two edged sword. On one hand it is advantageous to produce multi-faceted Public health postgraduates to meet the multi tasking required, on the other hand getting all of them to a common basic understanding, demystifying technical teaching and churning out products that are acceptable to the traditional health system. These Institutions can and must influence public health in the country through producing professionals of MPH/ MD degree with right attitude and skill-mix. Engaging learners in experimentation, experience sharing projects, stepping into health professionals' roles and similar activities lead to development of relatively clear and permanent neural traces in the brain. The MPH institutes may not have all efficient faculties, for which they should try to achieve this by inviting veterans in public health and professionals from corporate health industry for interface with students on a regular basis. The corporate and public health stalwarts have the capacities to transmit the winning skills and knowledge and also inspire them to adopt or adapt in order to achieve the desired goals.

  16. Epigenetics in the Neoliberal "Regime of Truth": A Biopolitical Perspective on Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Charles; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings in epigenetics have been attracting much attention from social scientists and bioethicists because they reveal the molecular mechanisms by which exposure to socioenvironmental factors, such as pollutants and social adversity, can influence the expression of genes throughout life. Most surprisingly, some epigenetic modifications may also be heritable via germ cells across generations. Epigenetics may be the missing molecular evidence of the importance of using preventive strategies at the policy level to reduce the incidence and prevalence of common diseases. But while this "policy translation" of epigenetics introduces new arguments in favor of public health strategies and policy-making, a more "clinical translation" of epigenetics is also emerging. It focuses on the biochemical mechanisms and epigenetic variants at the origin of disease, leading to novel biomedical means of assessing epigenetic susceptibility and reversing detrimental epigenetic variants. In this paper, we argue that the impetus to create new biomedical interventions to manipulate and reverse epigenetic variants is likely to garner more attention than effective social and public health interventions and therefore also to garner a greater share of limited public resources. This is likely to happen because of the current biopolitical context in which scientific findings are translated. This contemporary neoliberal "regime of truth," to use a term from Michel Foucault, greatly influences the ways in which knowledge is being interpreted and implemented. Building on sociologist Thomas Lemke's Foucauldian "analytics of biopolitics" and on literature from the field of science and technology studies, we present two sociological trends that may impede the policy translation of epigenetics: molecularization and biomedicalization. These trends, we argue, are likely to favor the clinical translation of epigenetics-in other words, the development of new clinical tools fostering what has been

  17. Twitter and Public Health (Part 1): How Individual Public Health Professionals Use Twitter for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mark; Stetten, Nichole E; Islam, Sabrina; Pizarro, Katherine

    2017-09-20

    The use of social networking sites is increasingly being adopted in public health, in part, because of the barriers to funding and reduced resources. Public health professionals are using social media platforms, specifically Twitter, as a way to facilitate professional development. The objective of this study was to identify public health professionals using Twitter and to analyze how they use this platform to enhance their formal and informal professional development within the context of public health. Keyword searches were conducted to identify and invite potential participants to complete a survey related to their use of Twitter for public health and professional experiences. Data regarding demographic attributes, Twitter usage, and qualitative information were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. Open-response survey questions were analyzed using the constant comparison method. "Using Twitter makes it easier to expand my networking opportunities" and "I find Twitter useful for professional development" scored highest, with a mean score of 4.57 (standard deviation [SD] 0.74) and 4.43 (SD 0.76) on a 5-point Likert scale. Analysis of the qualitative data shows the emergence of the following themes for why public health professionals mostly use Twitter: (1) geography, (2) continuing education, (3) professional gain, and (4) communication. For public health professionals in this study, Twitter is a platform best used for their networking and professional development. Furthermore, the use of Twitter allows public health professionals to overcome a series of barriers and enhances opportunities for growth. ©Mark Hart, Nichole E Stetten, Sabrina Islam, Katherine Pizarro. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 20.09.2017.

  18. Public health challenges in sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Melody J; Weinstock, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    Sunscreens are a popular choice for protection from ultraviolet radiation, and hence, important components in the public health campaign to reduce the burden of skin cancer. Public health messages in skin cancer prevention have been used effectively in educational campaigns. The benefits of sunscreen extend beyond skin cancer prevention into other aspects of health and disease prevention: sunscreen decreases the risk for sunburn during physical activity outdoors and seems not to increase the risk for osteoporosis. Public health efforts have laid a solid foundation on which to face the continuing challenge of promoting and developing effective public health campaigns and health policies that encourage sunscreen use, sun protection, and the primary prevention of skin cancer. In this article, the controversies, concerns, and challenges of sunscreen use as it relates to public health are discussed.

  19. Periodontal health and global public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing...... to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal....../oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging...

  20. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-11-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  1. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  2. Multi-dimensional knowledge translation: enabling health informatics capacity audits using patient journey models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Christina; McGregor, Carolyn; Percival, Jennifer; Curry, Joanne; James, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-dimensional approach to knowledge translation, enabling results obtained from a survey evaluating the uptake of Information Technology within Neonatal Intensive Care Units to be translated into knowledge, in the form of health informatics capacity audits. Survey data, having multiple roles, patient care scenarios, levels, and hospitals, is translated using a structured data modeling approach, into patient journey models. The data model is defined such that users can develop queries to generate patient journey models based on a pre-defined Patient Journey Model architecture (PaJMa). PaJMa models are then analyzed to build capacity audits. Capacity audits offer a sophisticated view of health informatics usage, providing not only details of what IT solutions a hospital utilizes, but also answering the questions: when, how and why, by determining when the IT solutions are integrated into the patient journey, how they support the patient information flow, and why they improve the patient journey.

  3. Primary health care and public health: foundations of universal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to advocate for more integrated and universally accessible health systems, built on a foundation of primary health care and public health. The perspective outlined identified health systems as the frame of reference, clarified terminology and examined complementary perspectives on health. It explored the prospects for universal and integrated health systems from a global perspective, the role of healthy public policy in achieving population health and the value of the social-ecological model in guiding how best to align the components of an integrated health service. The importance of an ethical private sector in partnership with the public sector is recognized. Most health systems around the world, still heavily focused on illness, are doing relatively little to optimize health and minimize illness burdens, especially for vulnerable groups. This failure to improve the underlying conditions for health is compounded by insufficient allocation of resources to address priority needs with equity (universality, accessibility and affordability). Finally, public health and primary health care are the cornerstones of sustainable health systems, and this should be reflected in the health policies and professional education systems of all nations wishing to achieve a health system that is effective, equitable, efficient and affordable. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues...... disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession...

  5. Public health medicine: the constant dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Frada

    2002-03-01

    There is a well-known quotation by the nineteenth-century sociologist Virchow (quoted in Ref. 1) that aptly captures the dilemma that has confronted public health medicine since the specialty was created as a discrete entity in 1848. Virchow said: 'Medicine is politics and social medicine is politics writ large!' What does this mean in relation to effective public health medicine practice and how is it likely to affect its future? There is increasingly limited freedom of expression within the current context of political correctness, central control and a rapidly burgeoning litigious climate. The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues and to propose a means of maintaining public health medicine integrity within a working environment where action is becoming rapidly constrained by political rigidity. An additional factor to be included in the dialogue is the current context within which public health physicians work. Because the majority of public health doctors are employed within the National Health Service (NHS), they are finding themselves being expected to take on tasks and responsibilities marginal to their essential purpose and function. For example, public health physicians spend a great deal of time involved in detailed deliberations about health service provision. Although there is a great deal of evidence to show that good quality health care provision positively affects the health of the individual, there is no evidence to show that this activity has any effect on the population's health status. The essence of public health medicine practice is the prevention of ill-health and the promotion of the health of the population and, consequently, attention needs to be focused on the root causes of disease. However, as these are outside the aegis of the NHS, public health medicine involvement in such issues as education, nutrition, housing, transport and poverty is regarded as marginal to the NHS corporate agenda.

  6. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - Identifying Policy Translation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders' views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. In the study, interviewees referred to both 'hard and soft' elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main 'hard elements' include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The 'soft' elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years, amounting to a process best conceived as germination as opposed

  7. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    "Despite children making up around a quarter of the population, the first edition of this book was the first to focus on a public health approach to the health and sickness of children and young people...

  8. Sociology, systems and (patient) safety: knowledge translations in healthcare policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2008-03-01

    In 2000 the American Institute of Medicine, adviser to the federal government on policy matters relating to the health of the public, published the report To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which was to become a call to arms for improving patient safety across the Western world. By re-conceiving healthcare as a system, it was argued that it was possible to transform the current culture of blame, which made individuals take defensive precautions against being assigned responsibility for error - notably by not reporting adverse events, into a culture of safety. The IOM report draws on several prominent social scientists in accomplishing this re-conceptualisation. But the analyses of these authors are not immediately relevant for health policy. It requires knowledge translation to make them so. This paper analyses the process of translation. The discussion is especially pertinent due to a certain looping effect between social science research and policy concerns. The case here presented is thus doubly illustrative: exemplifying first how social science is translated into health policy and secondly how the transformation required for this to function is taken as an analytical improvement that can in turn be redeployed in social research.

  9. [Survey on public health nursing education-in the comparison of nursing education courses, universities, advanced courses for public health nurse with junior nursing colleges, and public health nursing school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Kayoko; Ikeda, Nobuko; Kanagawa, Katuko; Shiomi, Sigeki; Suzuki, Akira; Hirayama, Tomoko; Furuya, Akie; Ymazaki, Kyoko; Yasumura, Seiji

    2005-08-01

    Changes in public health nursing education have been consideration. Theses changes include a dramatic increase in the number of public health nurses (PHNs) who have enrolled for nursing courses at university. This study was conducted to assess the current status and future of public health nursing education as perceived by teachers and students at three types of schools: universities offering nursing courses, advanced courses for PHNs with junior nursing colleges, and public health nursing schools. Questionnaires were distributed to teachers and students by mail. The questions that were sent to teachers asked which subjects were required to become a certified PHN, which lecture methods were employed to teach public health-particularly community health assessment methods, and what was the level of awareness of the activities of PHNs. Students were asked about their motivation to be a PHN, their understanding of public health, their views of public health activities and their images of PHNs. Responses were analyzed and differences between questionnaires from different schools were noted. These included the number of subjects and the total number of hours spent doing practical training and field experience in universities and the other types of schools, and the number of teachers. Differences also were noted among students at three types of schools about their age, methods of public health activities, knowledge about activities undertaken by PHNs, and their images of PHNs. No differences were observed among the schools with respect to the students' conceptual understanding of public health. Student age, practical training and field experience were found to contribute to their level of understanding of public health and public health nursing. It is thus necessary to consider the teaching methods employed by universities that administer nursing courses and the effectiveness of courses offered by graduate schools.

  10. Protecting Health and Saving Lives: The Part-Time/Internet-Based Master of Public Health Program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Linda; Gresh, Kathy; Vanchiswaran, Rohini; Werapitiya, Deepthi

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the part-time/Internet-based Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health was the first school of public health in the United States to offer a Master of Public Health program via the Internet. The JHSPH MPH Program…

  11. Citizen Science for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Attn: National Public Health Action Plan... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, 4770 Buford Highway NE... topic's public health importance, existing challenges, and opportunities for action to decrease the...

  13. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  14. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  15. Mind the public health leadership gap: the opportunities and challenges of engaging high-profile individuals in the public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shickle, Darren; Day, Matthew; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Public health leadership has been criticized as being ineffective. The public health profession is relatively small. Critics have argued that there is over-emphasis on technical aspects and insufficient use of the 'community as a source of public health actions'. The paper analyses the resources, motivations and skills utilized by high-profile individuals who have made contributions to the public health agenda. The phenomenon of celebrity diplomacy is critiqued. Two exemplars are discussed: Jamie Oliver and Michael Bloomberg. The risks of involving celebrities are also considered. Leaders for public health demonstrate 'a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will' to make the 'right decisions happen'. While they may have ego or self-interest, in this context, at least, they channel their ambition for the public health cause, not themselves. Leaders from outside public health may have no understanding of what public health is nor consider their work as part of a wider public health agenda. It is important to understand why they become leaders for public health. This will inform a strategy for how others may be encouraged to collaborate for public health causes. Some key points for working with high-profile leaders for public health are identified. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Public Health Responsibility Deal: brokering a deal for public health, but on whose terms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Clare; Caraher, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Coalitions of multinational food and drink businesses have pledged to reformulate their products and to market them responsibly. Largely business-led and self-regulated, the integrity of these voluntary initiatives has been questioned. The Public Health Responsibility Deal in England is an example of a voluntary initiative that is government-led. Does this approach provide evidence that with public leadership there is potential for voluntary actions to deliver meaningful results for public health? The subject of the research is the calorie reduction initiative of the Responsibility Deal. Source material was obtained primarily through a series of UK Freedom of Information requests and comprises previously unpublished Department of Health documentation relating to relevant meetings held during 2011 and 2012. The Responsibility Deal approach to calorie reduction deliberately involves the food industry in the specification of the measures it is to implement (reformulation and portion control). Finding the common ground between private and public interests has resulted in the deflection of public health objectives and the preclusion of adequate monitoring and evaluation. The Responsibility Deal approach is fundamentally flawed in its expectation that industry will take voluntary actions that prioritise public health interests above its own. Being government-led counts for little in the absence of sanctions to drive compliance. Instead the initiative affords private interests the opportunity to influence in their favour the public health policies and strategies that affect their products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Public health legal preparedness in Indian country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ralph T; Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D

    2009-04-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health-related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities.

  18. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  19. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnley, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  20. How to characterize the public health workforce based on essential public health operations? environmental public health workers in the Netherlands as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambroes, M.; van Honschooten, R.; Doosje, J.; Stronks, K.; Essink-Bot, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Public health workforce planning and policy development require adequate data on the public health workforce and the services provided. If existing data sources do not contain the necessary information, or apply to part of the workforce only, primary data collection is required. The aim of this

  1. Participatory public health systems research: value of community involvement in a study series in mental health emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Marum, Felicity; Semon, Natalie; Mosley, Adrian; Gwon, Howard; Perry, Charlene; Moore, Suzanne Straub; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    translational impact of study findings. Systems-based partnerships among academic, faith, and government entities offer an especially promising infrastructure for conducting participatory public health systems research in domestic emergency preparedness and response.

  2. Personalism for public health ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  3. Personalism for public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina; Requena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  4. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  5. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods: Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results: In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Conclusion: Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years

  6. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fusheini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650, in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the “success” of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity; and ownership and participation. Conclusion Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period

  7. Public health and the Australian Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C

    1995-06-01

    The powers vested in the Commonwealth Government by the Constitution contain the basis of much public health law in Australia. Yet this is not often recognised; public health law is generally, and historically, seen as the states' responsibility. This article surveys the broad range of constitutional powers that the Commonwealth Government can rely upon to make public health laws. It considers areas of power specified in the Constitution, such as those with respect to external affairs and corporations. Decisions of the High Court have interpreted the various heads of power very broadly and have significantly enhanced the potential of the Commonwealth to pass detailed and far-reaching public health law. To this fact must be added the taxation arrangements in Australia and, with these, the very extensive control that the Commonwealth can exercise through its monopoly of major taxation sources. Its power to make financial arrangements can tie dependent states into specific policies (including public health policies) as a condition of the grants made to them. However, these broad powers may be limited in some important respects: the High Court is increasingly identifying rights and freedoms in the Constitution that may increasingly bring both state and Commonwealth public health law under challenge. Despite this possibility, the Commonwealth may prove to be our most significant source of public health law, and public health policy makers should recognise the full potential of its power to make such laws.

  8. How do we define the policy impact of public health research? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alla, Kristel; Hall, Wayne D; Whiteford, Harvey A; Head, Brian W; Meurk, Carla S

    2017-10-02

    In order to understand and measure the policy impact of research we need a definition of research impact that is suited to the task. This article systematically reviewed both peer-reviewed and grey literature for definitions of research impact to develop a definition of research impact that can be used to investigate how public health research influences policy. Keyword searches of the electronic databases Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar were conducted between August 2015 and April 2016. Keywords included 'definition' and 'policy' and 'research impact' or 'research evidence'. The search terms 'health', public health' or 'mental health' and 'knowledge transfer' or 'research translation' were used to focus the search on relevant health discipline approaches. Studies included in the review described processes, theories or frameworks associated with public health, health services or mental health policy. We identified 108 definitions in 83 publications. The key findings were that literature on research impact is growing, but only 23% of peer-reviewed publications on the topic explicitly defined the term and that the majority (76%) of definitions were derived from research organisations and funding institutions. We identified four main types of definition, namely (1) definitions that conceptualise research impacts in terms of positive changes or effects that evidence can bring about when transferred into policies (example Research Excellence Framework definition), (2) definitions that interpret research impacts as measurable outcomes (Research Councils UK), and (3) bibliometric and (4) use-based definitions. We identified four constructs underpinning these definitions that related to concepts of contribution, change, avenues and levels of impact. The dominance of bureaucratic definitions, the tendency to discuss but not define the concept of research impact, and the

  9. The right to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Publication ethics in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Elger, Bernice S

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we describe and analyse three issues in publication ethics that are raised when conducting research in emergencies and disasters. These include reluctance to share data and samples because of concerns about publications, loss of individual authorship in high high-profile multi-entity publications, and the deaths of authors during dangerous research projects. An emergency research pledge may be useful in avoiding some of these issues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  12. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  14. What makes health public?: a critical evaluation of moral, legal, and political claims in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coggon, John

    2012-01-01

    .... Covering important works from legal, moral, and political theory, public health, public health law and ethics, and bioethics, this is a foundational text for scholars, practitioners and policy bodies interested in freedoms, rights and responsibilities relating to health"--

  15. Keats’s sonnet on Chapman’s translation of Homer: manuscript of early draft and initial publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Franklin Head

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the earliest known manuscript of Keats's sonnet to Chapman’s translation of the Iliad (1611, in comparison with the first publication of the poem by Keats (1816. A comparative reading is provided, along with related philological and literary comments.

  16. East African Journal of Public Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Journal of Public Health is a multi-disciplinary journal publishing scientific research work from a range of public health related disciplines including community medicine, epidemiology, nutrition, behavioural sciences, health promotion, health education, communicable and non-communicable disease.

  17. Gender issues in medical and public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y L

    2000-01-01

    There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century.

  18. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dausey, David J

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  19. Enhancing public health practice through a capacity-building educational programme: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Sharma, Kavya; Wild, Sarah; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-05-13

    The Post-Graduate Diploma in Public Health Management, launched by the Govt. of India under the aegis of the National Rural Health Mission in 2008, aims to enhance the managerial capabilities of public health professionals to improve the public health system. The Govt. of India invested enormous resources into this programme and requested an evaluation to understand the current processes, assess the graduates' work performance and identify areas for improvement. Quantitative telephone surveys as well as qualitative in-depth interviews were used. Graduates from the first three batches, their supervisors, peers and subordinates and faculty members were interviewed. Quantitative data were analysed using proportions, means and interpretative descriptions. Qualitative analyses involved transcription, translation, sorting, coding and filing into domains. Of the 363 graduates whose contact details were available, 138 could not be contacted. Two hundred twenty-three (223) graduates (61.43% of eligible participants) were interviewed by telephone; 52 in-depth interviews were conducted. Of the graduates who joined, 63.8% graduates were motivated to join the programme for career advancement and gaining public health knowledge. The content was theoretically good, informative and well-designed. Graduates expressed need for more practical and group work. After graduating, they reported being equipped with some new skills to implement programmes effectively. They reported that attitudes and healthcare delivery practices had improved; they had better self-esteem, increased confidence, better communication skills and implementation capacity. While they were able to apply some skills, they encountered some barriers, such as governance, placements, lack of support from the system and community, inadequate implementation authority and lack of planning by the state government. Incentives (both monetary and non-monetary) played a major role in motivating them to deliver public health

  20. The pull of public health studies

    OpenAIRE

    Braine, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Public health has burgeoned over the past 100 years, from the study of tropical diseases in the 19th century to national public health systems after World War One and, more recently, to include international public health. Education has kept up with these trends, and today there are hundreds of schools around the world, many flourishing in developing countries.

  1. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. What does social justice require for the public's health? Public health ethics and policy imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Powers, Madison

    2006-01-01

    Justice is so central to the mission of public health that it has been described as the field's core value. This account of justice stresses the fair disbursement of common advantages and the sharing of common burdens. It captures the twin moral impulses that animate public health: to advance human well-being by improving health and to do so particularly by focusing on the needs of the most disadvantaged. This Commentary explores how social justice sheds light on major ongoing controversies in the field, and it provides examples of the kinds of policies that public health agencies, guided by a robust conception of justice, would adopt.

  3. Unpacking capacity to utilize research: A tale of the Burkina Faso public health association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Nadia; Schrecker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in addressing global health is for institutions to monitor and use research in policy-making. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), civil society organizations such as health professional associations can be key contributors to effective national health systems. However, there is little empirical data on their capacity to use research. This case study was used to gain insight into the factors that affect the knowledge translation performance of health professional associations in LMICs by describing the organizational elements and processes constituting capacity to use research, and examining the potential determinants of this capacity. Case study methodology was chosen for its flexibility to capture the multiple and often tacit processes within organizational routines. The Burkina Faso Public Health Association (ABSP) was studied, using in-depth, semi-structured interviews and key documents review. Five key dimensions that affect the association's capacity to use research to influence health policy emerged: organizational motivation; catalysts; organizational capacity to acquire and organizational capacity to transform research findings; moderating organizational factors. Also examined were the dissemination strategies used by ABSP and its abilities to enhance its capacity through networking, to advocate for more relevant research and to develop its potential role as knowledge broker, as well as limitations due to scarce resources. We conclude that a better understanding of the organizational capacity to use research of health professional associations in LMICs is needed to assess, improve and reinforce such capacity. Increased knowledge translation potential may leverage research resources and promote knowledge-sharing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Malho, André; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Popa, Daniela; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-04-17

    Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009-2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N = 51 were contacted and N = 33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P = 0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with "staff" preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P leadership.

  5. National Institutes of Health Update: Translating Basic Behavioral Science into New Pediatric Obesity Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric obesity increases the risk of later-life obesity and chronic diseases. Basic research to better understand factors associated with excessive weight gain in early life and studies translating research findings into preventive and therapeutic strategies are essential to our ability to better prevent and treat childhood obesity. This overview describes several National Institutes of Health efforts designed to stimulate basic and translational research in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. These examples demonstrate the value of research in early phase translational pediatric obesity research and highlight some promising directions for this important area of research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design: A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results: Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions: The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the

  7. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  8. Putting the public (back) into public health: leadership, evidence and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, J; Connolly, A M; Stansfield, J A; Johnstone, P; Henderson, G; Fenton, K A

    2018-03-13

    There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health. The essay sets out the case for a reorientation of public health practice in order to build impactful action with communities at scale leading to a reduction in the health gap. National frameworks that support local practice are described. Four areas of challenge that could potentially drive an implementation gap are discussed: (i) achieving integration and scale, (ii) effective community mobilization, (iii) evidencing impact and (iv) achieving a shift in power. The essay concludes with a call to action for developing a contemporary public health practice that is rooted in communities and offers local leadership to strengthen local assets, increase community control and reduce health inequalities.

  9. (Re)framing school as a setting for promoting health and wellbeing: a double translation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Jourdan, Didier; Simovska, Venka

    2018-01-01

    , but entangled, processes of translation. At the national level, despite resistance by a number of actors with differing priorities, the translation resulted in the integration of selected key principles of the setting approach to health promotion in the national curriculum for health education. At the municipal......The aim of this article is to discuss the ways in which the setting approach to health promotion in schools, as part of knowledge-based international policies and guidelines, is embedded in the Danish policy landscape and enacted at the local governance level. The study draws on the sociology...... level, however, the principles seem to be ‘lost in translation’, as the treatment of schools as settings for promoting health and wellbeing remains largely subordinate to the discourses of disease prevention and individual behaviour regulation, dominated by the agenda of actors in the health sector....

  10. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  11. [Notes for understanding the problem of "public" health in the health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Cristian Fabiano; da Silva, Rosane Azevedo Neves

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical review of how the public health concept has been perceived in health practices, based on the problematic field introduced in Italian and Brazilian health reforms, in order to understand the construction of public health and the meanings that this term acquires in the health arena. The main goal is to understand how public health appears in the context of health movements in Italy and Brazil, as well as its movement of variation. In this sense, an attempt is made to identify elements that contribute to the composition of a genealogy of public health. From the investigation of public health practices, the tensions produced by this concept are analyzed, giving visibility to those practices that demonstrate the public health experience as a force in the world of health.

  12. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the microbiological origin. The impressive progress in understanding the nexus between soil and health has been achieved by experimentation with preserved soil microbial systems functioning along with the metagenomic characterization. The objective of this work is to present an overview of some recent onsets. In the food safety arena, survival of human pathogens in soils has been related to the degree of soil eutrophication and/or related structure of soil microbial communities. Soil microbial systems affect the affinity of plants to internalizing pathogenic organisms. Pharmaceutical arsenals benefit from using field soil environment for developing antibiotics. Enzyme production by soil bacteria is used as the signal source for drug activation. Sanitary functions of sols are dependent on soil microbial system workings. The healthy living can be enhanced by the human immune system training received from direct contact with soils. The hygiene hypothesis considers the microbial input due to exposure to soil as the essential ecosystem service. The invisible links between soil and public health result in large-scale consequences. Examples of concurrent degradation of soil and public health are worth scrutinizing. Public health records can provide valuable sources of 'soil-public health' interactions. It may be worthwhile to examine current assessments of soil health from the public health standpoint. Soil management can be an efficient instrument of public health control.

  13. REFLECTIONS ABOUT NURSES WORK IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alves Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This research is a part of CIPESC (Classification of Nursing Practice in Public Health project, with national coordination by ABEn (Brazilian Nursing Association witch purpose was to elaborate an inventory of activities developed by Public Health Nurses. It sough to analyze the contribution of the nurses in public health in the South Sanitary District in the city of Goiânia (GO – Brazil, and to identify the meaning of nurses work contribution at Public Health Services, by users and managers. The study was developed by a descriptive-analytical investigation in a qualitative approach. The subjects were managers and users of the Public Health System. Data was collected by individual semi-structured interview directed to the managers and controlling and the Technique of Focal Group. The results had been grouped in three categories: "Performance of the professional", "Education Perspective of Nurses Work”, and "Health-care attendance". As conclusion was found that the nurses give great contribution in the implantation and maintenance of the health politics; that it has concern with the professional formation, that many times is responsible for the incompatibility between the service and the expected potential; it is stand out performance of the nurse as health education professional in the inserted activities in the public health, being intense its contact with the community. KEY WORDS: Public Health; Nursing; Public Health Nursing.

  14. Effective knowledge management in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, Sándor; Koka, Venkata; Khasanova, Tatiana; Perakslis, Eric D

    2010-07-19

    The growing consensus that most valuable data source for biomedical discoveries is derived from human samples is clearly reflected in the growing number of translational medicine and translational sciences departments across pharma as well as academic and government supported initiatives such as Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) in the US and the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of EU with emphasis on translating research for human health. The pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnson have established translational and biomarker departments and implemented an effective knowledge management framework including building a data warehouse and the associated data mining applications. The implemented resource is built from open source systems such as i2b2 and GenePattern. The system has been deployed across multiple therapeutic areas within the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnsons and being used actively to integrate and mine internal and public data to support drug discovery and development decisions such as indication selection and trial design in a translational medicine setting. Our results show that the established system allows scientist to quickly re-validate hypotheses or generate new ones with the use of an intuitive graphical interface. The implemented resource can serve as the basis of precompetitive sharing and mining of studies involving samples from human subjects thus enhancing our understanding of human biology and pathophysiology and ultimately leading to more effective treatment of diseases which represent unmet medical needs.

  15. Effective knowledge management in translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasanova Tatiana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing consensus that most valuable data source for biomedical discoveries is derived from human samples is clearly reflected in the growing number of translational medicine and translational sciences departments across pharma as well as academic and government supported initiatives such as Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA in the US and the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 of EU with emphasis on translating research for human health. Methods The pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnson have established translational and biomarker departments and implemented an effective knowledge management framework including building a data warehouse and the associated data mining applications. The implemented resource is built from open source systems such as i2b2 and GenePattern. Results The system has been deployed across multiple therapeutic areas within the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnsons and being used actively to integrate and mine internal and public data to support drug discovery and development decisions such as indication selection and trial design in a translational medicine setting. Our results show that the established system allows scientist to quickly re-validate hypotheses or generate new ones with the use of an intuitive graphical interface. Conclusions The implemented resource can serve as the basis of precompetitive sharing and mining of studies involving samples from human subjects thus enhancing our understanding of human biology and pathophysiology and ultimately leading to more effective treatment of diseases which represent unmet medical needs.

  16. The case for transforming governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinsky, Eileen; Gursky, Elin A

    2006-01-01

    Changing threats to the public's health necessitate a profound transformation of the public health enterprise. Despite recent attention to the biodefense role of public health, policymakers have not developed a clear, realistic vision for the structure and functionality of the governmental public health system. Lack of leadership and organizational disconnects across levels of government have prevented strategic alignment of resources and undermined momentum for meaningful change. A transformed public health system is needed to address the demands of emergency preparedness and health protection. Such transformation should include focused, risk-based resource allocation; regional planning; technological upgrades; workforce restructuring; improved integration of private-sector assets; and better performance monitoring.

  17. Public Health Intelligence: Learning From the Ebola Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David Jay

    2015-01-01

    Today’s public health crises, as exemplified by the Ebola outbreak, lead to dramatic calls to action that typically include improved electronic monitoring systems to better prepare for, and respond to, similar occurrences in the future. Even a preliminary public health informatics evaluation of the current Ebola crisis exposes the need for enhanced coordination and sharing of trustworthy public health intelligence. We call for a consumer-centric model of public health intelligence and the formation of a national center to guide public health intelligence gathering and synthesis. Sharing accurate and actionable information with government agencies, health care practitioners, policymakers, and, critically, the general public, will mark a shift from doing public health surveillance on people to doing public health surveillance for people. PMID:26180978

  18. Radiological protection and public health: crossbreeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, Patrick; Pinak, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper summarizes the scope of activities, ongoing experience and current results of the Expert Group on the Public Health Perspective in Radiological Protection (EGPH) of the Committee of Radiological Protection and Public Health, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. While the prime and general task of the EGPH group is looking at how the public health and radiation protection can better take an advantage of their respective perspectives, the following four areas have been explored in detail: a) Exposure to radon; b) Justification of medical exposures; c) Public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence; and d) Management of individual differences. In most of these areas, a targeted telephone survey on public policies in selected countries was used for collecting information from stake holders (public, consumers groups, public health and radiation protection regulators, governmental bodies, medical practitioners, patients, scientific communities, NGOs, etc.). The presented paper also highlights key issues of collected information and summarises existing approaches and policies. The case study on exposure to radon collects national information on approaches to the management of domestic radon risks, focusing on the integration of radiation protection and public health aspects (quality of dwellings, overall quality of indoor air, perception of radon levels, position of radon risk in the pool of other risks). In the case of justification of medical exposures, the Group studies the applications of the justification principle in opportunistic screenings (responsibilities, management of the situation, risk assessment). The precautionary principle and its impact on policy judgement in the light of significant scientific uncertainties can have a large influence on radiological-protection decision making. The case study on public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence is exploring how these uncertainties and

  19. Shaping and authorising a public health profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czabanowska

    2015-12-01

    doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.

  20. Health for all: a fundamental goal of public health in our region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Since its foundation 30 years ago, the mission of the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health has been promoting "health for all" through public health. "Health for all" became the theme of Walter Patrick's public health career and inspired his contribution to APACPH. However, the universality of health care is now under threat, more from economists and politicians than public health workers. Health for all remains a continuing challenge for all public health workers in our region. Progress is being made toward this goal as life expectancy in the Western Pacific has increased from 64 to 78 in the past 3 decades. Prof Walter Patrick was strong public health advocate, and this review was written as a tribute to good friend and inspiring colleague who believed in, and worked for "health for all." © 2014 APJPH.

  1. Germs, genomics and global public health: How can advances in genomic sciences be integrated into public health in the developing world to deal with infectious diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, T

    2009-12-01

    Scientific and technological advances derived from the genomics revolution have a central role to play in dealing with continuing infectious disease threats in the developing world caused by emerging and re-emerging pathogens. These techniques, coupled with increasing knowledge of host-pathogen interactions, can assist in the early identification and containment of outbreaks as well as in the development of preventive vaccination and therapeutic interventions, including the urgent need for new antibiotics. However, the effective application of genomics technologies faces key barriers and challenges which occur at three stages: from the research to the products, from the products to individual patients, and, finally, from patients to entire populations. There needs to be an emphasis on research in areas of greatest need, in facilitating the translation of research into interventions and, finally, the effective delivery of such interventions to those in greatest need. Ultimate success will depend on bringing together science, society and policy to develop effective public health implementation strategies to provide health security and health equity for all peoples.

  2. Translation through argumentation in medical research and physician-citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R; McTigue, Kathleen M

    2012-06-01

    While many "benchtop-to-bedside" research pathways have been developed in "Type I" translational medicine, vehicles to facilitate "Type II" and "Type III" translation that convert scientific data into clinical and community interventions designed to improve the health of human populations remain elusive. Further, while a high percentage of physicians endorse the principle of citizen leadership, many have difficulty practicing it. This discrepancy has been attributed, in part, to lack of training and preparation for public advocacy, time limitation, and institutional resistance. As translational medicine and physician-citizenship implicate social, political, economic and cultural factors, both enterprises require "integrative" research strategies that blend insights from multiple fields of study, as well as rhetorical acumen in adapting messages to reach multiple audiences. This article considers how argumentation theory's epistemological flexibility, audience attentiveness, and heuristic qualities, combined with concepts from classical rhetoric, such as rhetorical invention, the synecdoche, and ethos, yield tools to facilitate translational medicine and enable physician-citizenship.

  3. A One Health overview, facilitating advances in comparative medicine and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Cheryl; Dmitriev, Igor; Kashentseva, Elena; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Curiel, David T; Rindt, Hans; Reinero, Carol; Henry, Carolyn J; Bergman, Philip J; Mason, Nicola J; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Engiles, Julie B; Gray, Falon; Laughlin, Danielle; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Wallecha, Anu; Huebner, Margie; Paterson, Yvonne; O'Connor, Daniel; Treml, Laura S; Stannard, James P; Cook, James L; Jacobs, Marc; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Likins, Lee; Sabbagh, Ubadah; Skaff, Andrew; Guloy, Amado S; Hays, Harlen D; LeBlanc, Amy K; Coates, Joan R; Katz, Martin L; Lyons, Leslie A; Johnson, Gayle C; Johnson, Gary S; O'Brien, Dennis P; Duan, Dongsheng; Calvet, James P; Gandolfi, Barbara; Baron, David A; Weiss, Mark L; Webster, Debra A; Karanu, Francis N; Robb, Edward J; Harman, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    A1 One health advances and successes in comparative medicine and translational researchCheryl StroudA2 Dendritic cell-targeted gorilla adenoviral vector for cancer vaccination for canine melanomaIgor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Jeffrey N. Bryan, David T. CurielA3 Viroimmunotherapy for malignant melanoma in the companion dog modelJeffrey N. Bryan, David Curiel, Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Hans Rindt, Carol Reinero, Carolyn J. HenryA4 Of mice and men (and dogs!): development of a commercially licensed xenogeneic DNA vaccine for companion animals with malignant melanomaPhilip J. BergmanA5 Successful immunotherapy with a recombinant HER2-expressing Listeria monocytogenes in dogs with spontaneous osteosarcoma paves the way for advances in pediatric osteosarcomaNicola J. Mason, Josephine S. Gnanandarajah, Julie B. Engiles, Falon Gray, Danielle Laughlin, Anita Gaurnier-Hausser, Anu Wallecha, Margie Huebner, Yvonne PatersonA6 Human clinical development of ADXS-HER2Daniel O'ConnorA7 Leveraging use of data for both human and veterinary benefitLaura S. TremlA8 Biologic replacement of the knee: innovations and early clinical resultsJames P. StannardA9 Mizzou BioJoint Center: a translational success storyJames L. CookA10 University and industry translational partnership: from the lab to commercializationMarc JacobsA11 Beyond docking: an evolutionarily guided OneHealth approach to drug discoveryGerald J. Wyckoff, Lee Likins, Ubadah Sabbagh, Andrew SkaffA12 Challenges and opportunities for data applications in animal health: from precision medicine to precision husbandryAmado S. GuloyA13 A cloud-based programmable platform for healthHarlen D. HaysA14 Comparative oncology: One Health in actionAmy K. LeBlancA15 Companion animal diseases bridge the translational gap for human neurodegenerative diseaseJoan R. Coates, Martin L. Katz, Leslie A. Lyons, Gayle C. Johnson, Gary S. Johnson, Dennis P. O'BrienA16 Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapyDongsheng DuanA17 Polycystic

  4. Systematic reviews and knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-08-01

    Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings.

  5. Promised Land No More: Dynamic Shifts in Slovene Translation Market and Translator Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike K. Pokorn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the changes of the translation market, the development of Higher Education (HE translator training and of the profession of translator in Slovenia. First, three HE translator-training programmes in Slovenia are briefly described. Second, through an analysis of the public database containing information on all business entities in Slovenia, a description of the translation market in 2014 is made and the findings are compared to those of a similar study carried out in 2007. Then two surveys of translation graduates of University of Ljubljana are presented, focusing in particular on graduate employment statistics and average earnings of junior translators. The results show that despite the fact that the Slovene translation market is thriving, this growth is not reflected in the average earnings of individual translators. Finally, in view of the fact that translation rates are constantly falling, it is argued that the role of professional associations becomes vital.

  6. Statistical methods used in the public health literature and implications for training of public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Matthew J; Powell, Amanda; Johnson, Tessa; Cadwell, Betsy L

    2017-01-01

    Statistical literacy and knowledge is needed to read and understand the public health literature. The purpose of this study was to quantify basic and advanced statistical methods used in public health research. We randomly sampled 216 published articles from seven top tier general public health journals. Studies were reviewed by two readers and a standardized data collection form completed for each article. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency distributions. Results were summarized for statistical methods used in the literature, including descriptive and inferential statistics, modeling, advanced statistical techniques, and statistical software used. Approximately 81.9% of articles reported an observational study design and 93.1% of articles were substantively focused. Descriptive statistics in table or graphical form were reported in more than 95% of the articles, and statistical inference reported in more than 76% of the studies reviewed. These results reveal the types of statistical methods currently used in the public health literature. Although this study did not obtain information on what should be taught, information on statistical methods being used is useful for curriculum development in graduate health sciences education, as well as making informed decisions about continuing education for public health professionals.

  7. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  8. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  9. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Mapping Rwanda public health research(1975-2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research on public health in Rwanda ... formed analyses on journals, most cited articles, authors, publication years, ... One of the major areas is public health. In fact, public health represented the needs ... In the advanced ... searches to get the main relevant topics.

  11. Integrating weight bias awareness and mental health promotion into obesity prevention delivery: a public health pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Gail L; Walker, Kathryn S; Beyers, Joanne; Harrison, Heather L; Simkins, Sari W; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2013-04-04

    Promoting healthy weight is a top priority in Canada. Recent federal guidelines call for sustained, multisectoral partnerships that address childhood obesity on multiple levels. Current healthy weight messaging does not fully acknowledge the influence of social determinants of health on weight. An interactive workshop was developed and implemented by a team of academic researchers and health promoters from the psychology and public health disciplines to raise awareness about 1) weight bias and its negative effect on health, 2) ways to balance healthy weight messaging to prevent the triggering of weight and shape preoccupation, and 3) the incorporation of mental health promotion into healthy weight messaging. We conducted a full-day workshop with 342 Ontario public health promoters and administered a survey at preintervention, postintervention, and follow-up. Participation in the full-day workshop led to significant decreases in antifat attitudes and the internalization of media stereotypes and to significant increases in self-efficacy to address weight bias. Participants reported that the training heightened their awareness of their own personal weight biases and the need to broaden their scope of healthy weight promotion to include mental health promotion. There was consensus that additional sessions are warranted to help translate knowledge into action. Buy-in and resource support at the organizational level was also seen as pivotal. Professional development training in the area of weight bias awareness is associated with decreases in antifat attitudes and the internalization of media stereotypes around thinness. Health promoters' healthy weight messaging was improved by learning to avoid messages that trigger weight and shape preoccupation or unhealthful eating practices among children and youth. Participants also learned ways to integrate mental health promotion and resiliency-building into daily practice.

  12. The Partnership of Public Health and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenc, Marjetka

    2016-06-01

    Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fi elds of anthropology and the most important for public health.

  13. Anthropology, brokerage, and collaboration in the development of a Tongan public psychiatry: Local lessons for global mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltorak, Mike

    2016-12-01

    The Global Mental Health (GMH) movement has raised questions of the translatability of psychiatric concepts and the challenges of community engagement. In Tonga, the local psychiatrist Dr Puloka successfully established a publicly accessible psychiatry that has improved admission rates for serious mental illnesses and addressed some of the stigma attached to diagnosis. On the basis of historical analysis and ethnographic fieldwork with healers, doctors, and patients since 1998, this article offers an ethnographic contextualization of the development and reception of Puloka's three key interventions during the 1990s: (a) collaboration with traditional healers; (b) translation of psychiatric diagnoses into local cultural concepts; and (c) encouraging freedom of movement and legal appeal to involuntary admission. Dr Puloka's use of medical anthropological and transcultural psychiatry research informed a community-engaged brokerage between the implications of psychiatric nosologies and local needs that can address some of the challenges of the Global Mental Health movement.

  14. Migration: a core public health ethics issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, V; Dawson, A

    2018-05-01

    In this article, we outline the link between migration, public health and ethics. Discussing relevant arguments about migration from the perspective of public health and public health ethics. Critical review of theories and frameworks, case-based analysis and systematic identification and discussion of challenges. Migration is a core issue of public health ethics and must take a case-based approach: seeking to identify the specific ethical dimensions and vulnerabilities in each particular context. Public health as a practice, built upon the core value of justice, requires the protection and promotion of migrants' well-being (even if this produces tension with immigration services). Ethical analysis should take all phases of migration into account: before, during and after transit. We argue that migration policies, at least as they relate to migrants' well-being, should be founded upon a shared humanity, respect for human rights and on the idea that effective public health cannot and should not be confined within the borders and to the citizens of any host country. We make the case for migration to be seen as a core issue of public health ethics. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and

  16. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  17. Evaluating community-based public health leadership training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraso, Marion; Gruebling, Kirsten; Layde, Peter; Remington, Patrick; Hill, Barbara; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ore, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the nation's increasingly complex public health challenges will require more effective multisector collaboration and stronger public health leadership. In 2005, the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership Institute launched an annual, year-long intensive "community teams" program. The goal of this program is to develop collaborative leadership and public health skills among Wisconsin-based multisectoral teams mobilizing their communities to improve public health. To measure the scope of participation and program impacts on individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge and collective achievements of teams on coalition and short-term community outcomes. End-of-year participant program evaluations and follow-up telephone interviews with participants 20 months after program completion. Community-based public health leadership training program. Sixty-eight participants in the Community Teams Program during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2007 to 2008. Professional diversity of program participants; individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge; and collective achievements of teams, including coalition and short-term community outcomes. Participants in the Community Teams Program represent a diversity of sectors, including nonprofit, governmental, academic, business, and local public health. Participation increased knowledge across all public health and leadership competency areas covered in the program. Participating teams reported outcomes, including increased engagement of community leadership, expansion of preventive services, increased media coverage, strengthened community coalitions, and increased grant funding. Evaluation of this community-based approach to public health leadership training has shown it to be a promising model for building collaborative and public health leadership skills and initiating sustained community change for health improvement.

  18. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  19. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  20. Regional Climate Change and Development of Public Health Decision Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.

    2011-12-01

    According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary

  1. Electronic health record case studies to advance environmental public health tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namulanda, Gonza; Qualters, Judith; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Roberts, Eric; Richardson, Max; Fraser, Alicia; McVeigh, Katharine H; Patterson, Scott

    2018-03-01

    Data from traditional public health surveillance systems can have some limitations, e.g., timeliness, geographic level, and amount of data accessible. Electronic health records (EHRs) could present an opportunity to supplement current sources of routinely collected surveillance data. The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) sought to explore the use of EHRs for advancing environmental public health surveillance practices. The Tracking Program funded four state/local health departments to obtain and pilot the use of EHR data to address several issues including the challenges and technical requirements for accessing EHR data, and the core data elements required to integrate EHR data within their departments' Tracking Programs. The results of these pilot projects highlighted the potential of EHR data for public health surveillance of rare diseases that may lack comprehensive registries, and surveillance of prevalent health conditions or risk factors for health outcomes at a finer geographic level. EHRs therefore, may have potential to supplement traditional sources of public health surveillance data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Hospital Adoption of Health Information Technology to Support Public Health Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel M; Diana, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Health information technology (IT) has the potential to improve the nation's public health infrastructure. In support of this belief, meaningful use incentives include criteria for hospitals to electronically report to immunization registries, as well as to public health agencies for reportable laboratory results and syndromic surveillance. Electronic reporting can facilitate faster and more appropriate public health response. However, it remains unclear the extent that hospitals have adopted IT for public health efforts. To examine hospital adoption of IT for public health and to compare hospitals capable of using and not using public health IT. Cross-sectional design with data from the 2012 American Hospital Association annual survey matched with data from the 2013 American Hospital Association Information Technology Supplement. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare hospital characteristics. Inverse probability weights were applied to adjust for selection bias because of survey nonresponse. All acute care general hospitals in the United States that matched across the surveys and had complete data available were included in the analytic sample. Three separate outcome measures were used: whether the hospital could electronically report to immunization registries, whether the hospital could send electronic laboratory results, and whether the hospital can participate in syndromic surveillance. A total of 2841 hospitals met the inclusion criteria. Weighted results show that of these hospitals, 62.7% can electronically submit to immunization registries, 56.6% can electronically report laboratory results, and 54.4% can electronically report syndromic surveillance. Adjusted and weighted results from the multivariate analyses show that small, rural hospitals and hospitals without electronic health record systems lag in the adoption of public health IT capabilities. While a majority of hospitals are using public health IT, the infrastructure still has

  3. Creating training opportunities for public health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D; Healton, C; Hamburg, M; Rosenfield, A; Cagan, E; Van Wie, W; Haviland, M L

    1999-04-01

    In response to several reports issued by the federal government and private foundations on the under-training of public health practitioners, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University (SPH) and the New York City Department of Health (NYC DOH) initiated the Public Health Scholars program (SPH-PHS) to make degree-level public health training available to NYC DOH employees. Public Health Scholars receive a 50% tuition scholarship and enroll part-time while working full-time at NYC DOH. Sixteen scholars have enrolled during the past three years. The SPH-PHS program is considered a success by both SPH and NYC DOH. This article details the history of the collaboration between the two agencies and the structure of the program and provides a critical analysis of the SPH-PHS program based on interviews with 16 scholars. It also examines the cost and benefit to other schools of public health of implementing such a program.

  4. Why has the health promoting prison concept failed to translate to the US?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, JR

    2016-01-01

    Two decades since the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe published a report on health promotion in prison that stimulated further debate on the concept of the “health-promoting prison,” this article discusses the extent to which the concept has translated to the United States. One predicted indicator of success for the health-promoting prison movement was the expansion of activity beyond European borders; yet 2 decades since the European model was put forward, there has been...

  5. Viewpoint: Re-instating a 'public health' system under universal health care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew

    2015-02-01

    I examine possibilities for strengthening essential public health functions in the context of India's drive to implement universal health care. In a country where population health outcomes are rooted in social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological conditions, it is important to have a state mediated public health system that can modify the causes of the major public health problems. This calls for strengthening the social epidemiological approach in public health by demarcating public health functions distinct from medical care. This will be a prerequisite for the growth of the public health profession in the country, because it can offer avenues for newly trained professionals within the country to work in 'core' public health.

  6. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  7. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of musi......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states......Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate...

  8. Keeping the “Public” in Schools of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation’s public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation’s largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006

  9. Hawaii's public mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVoort, Debra J

    2005-03-01

    The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.

  10. Issues in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sim, Fiona; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    ..., there is increasing understanding of the inevitable limits of individual health care and of the need to complement such services with effective public health strategies. Major improvements in people's health will come from controlling communicable diseases, eradicating environmental hazards, improving people's diets and enhancing the availability ...

  11. Public health system - current status and world experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreyeva І.А.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the review, the evolution of Public Health and global development tendencies of Public Health system have been discussed. Stages of formation of the updated concept, principles of Public Health organization and the role of various organizations have been shown in the connection with development of the global concept of "Health for All". A well-functioning public health system is primarily the result of multisectoral cooperation. The aim of modern Public Health is to provide conditions of access to appropriate and cost-effective health care for all population groups, including health promotion and disease prevention.

  12. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  13. Public Health 3.0: A Call to Action for Public Health to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Karen B; Wang, Y Claire; Harris, Andrea; Auerbach, John; Koo, Denise; O'Carroll, Patrick

    2017-09-07

    Public health is what we do together as a society to ensure the conditions in which everyone can be healthy. Although many sectors play key roles, governmental public health is an essential component. Recent stressors on public health are driving many local governments to pioneer a new Public Health 3.0 model in which leaders serve as Chief Health Strategists, partnering across multiple sectors and leveraging data and resources to address social, environmental, and economic conditions that affect health and health equity. In 2016, the US Department of Health and Human Services launched the Public Health 3.0 initiative and hosted listening sessions across the country. Local leaders and community members shared successes and provided insight on actions that would ensure a more supportive policy and resource environment to spread and scale this model. This article summarizes the key findings from those listening sessions and recommendations to achieve Public Health 3.0.

  14. Climate change and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Benny

    2015-02-17

    Climate change has been identified as a serious threat to human health, associated with the sustainability of current practices and lifestyles. Nurses should expand their health promotion role to address current and emerging threats to health from climate change and to address ecological public health. This article briefly outlines climate change and the concept of ecological public health, and discusses a 2012 review of the role of the nurse in health promotion.

  15. Authorial and Editorial Voices in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Translation Studies now recognizes that translators are not the only agents involved in translation. Authors and editors provide suggestions and instructions. Publishers have considerable power over the final text and how it is presented to the public. While it is well-known that translations...... understanding of the processes through which authors, publishers, editors, directors, and critics can affect translation. Empirical studies from historical and contemporary settings examine forms of collaboration and negotiation, or conflict, with special attention to the multiple voices in theatre translation....

  16. Bioethics in Public Health Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Peguero

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioethics study method concerns the duties and values that must be fulfilled for respect for life. The aim of this article is to provide a reflection on bioethics in public health actions. It is a review article that includes authors with different positions. Bioethics, despite its apparent individual focus, is vital to fulfil essential functions in public health, and to guarantee the right to health and respect for human dignity.

  17. Contributions of Public Health to nursing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Káren Mendes Jorge de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Method: Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Results: Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Final considerations: Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care.

  18. Mental health in schools and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.

  19. The private partners of public health: public-private alliances for public good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Sharon; Bryant, Carol; Harris, Jeff; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Lobb, Ano; Hannon, Peggy A; Cross, Jeffrey L; Gray, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    We sought to convey lessons learned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) about the value and challenges of private-sector alliances resulting in innovative health promotion strategies. Several PRCs based in a variety of workplace and community settings contributed. We conducted interviews with principal investigators, a literature review, and a review of case studies of private-sector alliances in a microbusiness model, a macrobusiness model, and as multiparty partnerships supporting public health research, implementation, and human resource services. Private-sector alliances provide many advantages, particularly access to specialized skills generally beyond the expertise of public health entities. These skills include manufacturing, distribution, marketing, business planning, and development. Alliances also allow ready access to employee populations. Public health entities can offer private-sector partners funding opportunities through special grants, data gathering and analysis skills, and enhanced project credibility and trust. Challenges to successful partnerships include time and resource availability and negotiating the cultural divide between public health and the private sector. Critical to success are knowledge of organizational culture, values, mission, currency, and methods of operation; an understanding of and ability to articulate the benefits of the alliance for each partner; and the ability and time to respond to unexpected changes and opportunities. Private-public health alliances are challenging, and developing them takes time and resources, but aspects of these alliances can capitalize on partners' strengths, counteract weaknesses, and build collaborations that produce better outcomes than otherwise possible. Private partners may be necessary for program initiation or success. CDC guidelines and support materials may help nurture these alliances.

  20. The public health system in England

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, David J; Marks, Linda; Smith, Katherine E

    2010-01-01

    .... The Public Health System in England offers a wide-ranging, provocative and accessible assessment of challenges confronting a public health system, exploring how its parameters have shifted over time...

  1. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander public health: online and integrated into core Master of Public Health subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnell Angus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Master of Public Health (MPH is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project.

  2. Global Disease Detection-Achievements in Applied Public Health Research, Capacity Building, and Public Health Diplomacy, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Carol Y; Goryoka, Grace W; Henao, Olga L; Clarke, Kevin R; Salyer, Stephanie J; Montgomery, Joel M

    2017-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established 10 Global Disease Detection (GDD) Program regional centers around the world that serve as centers of excellence for public health research on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The core activities of the GDD Program focus on applied public health research, surveillance, laboratory, public health informatics, and technical capacity building. During 2015-2016, program staff conducted 205 discrete projects on a range of topics, including acute respiratory illnesses, health systems strengthening, infectious diseases at the human-animal interface, and emerging infectious diseases. Projects incorporated multiple core activities, with technical capacity building being most prevalent. Collaborating with host countries to implement such projects promotes public health diplomacy. The GDD Program continues to work with countries to strengthen core capacities so that emerging diseases can be detected and stopped faster and closer to the source, thereby enhancing global health security.

  3. Challenges to Public Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.

  4. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  5. Digital government and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  6. A public health perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    EDITORIAL. Enabling local health departments to save more lives: A public ... promoting health through the organized efforts of society” (1) ... and synergistic with achieving the sustainable development goals because its furtherance brings a ...

  7. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  8. 38 CFR 3.753 - Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public Health Service. 3... Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.753 Public Health Service... of the Public Health Service, who was receiving disability compensation on December 31, 1956, as...

  9. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  10. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  11. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernick, M S

    1997-11-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well.

  12. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  13. Randomised controlled trials and changing public health practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cockcroft

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One reason for doing randomised controlled trials (RCTs is that experiments can be convincing. Early epidemiological experimenters, such as Jenner and the smallpox vaccine and Snow and his famous Broad Street pump handle, already knew the answer they were demonstrating; they used the experiments as knowledge translation devices to convince others. More sophisticated modern experiments include cluster randomised controlled trials (CRCTs for experiments in the public health setting. The knowledge translation value remains: RCTs and CRCTs can potentially stimulate changes of practice among stakeholders. Capitalising on the knowledge translation value of RCTs requires more than the standard reporting of trials. Those who are convinced by a trial and want to act, need to know how the trial relates to their own context, what contributed to success, and what might make it even more effective. Implementation research unpacks the back-story, examining how and why an intervention worked. The Camino Verde trial of community mobilisation for control of dengue reported a significant impact on entomological indices of the Aedes aegypti vector, and on serological dengue virus infection and self-reported dengue cases. This important study should lead to studies of similar interventions in other contexts, and ultimately to changes in dengue control practices. This supplement is the back-story of the trial, providing information to help researchers and planners to make use of the trial findings. Background articles include the full protocol, a systematic review of CRCTs of approaches for Aedes aegypti control, epidemiological and entomological findings from the baseline survey, and how baseline findings were used to set up the intervention. Secondary analyses of the entomological findings examine associations with the use of the larvicide temephos, and the impact of the intervention in different conditions of water supply and seasons. Other articles

  14. A survey tool for measuring evidence-based decision making capacity in public health agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Julie A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce. Methods Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency. Results In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization. Conclusions The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence

  15. Obesity stigma: important considerations for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2010-06-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health.

  16. Developing public health performance measures to capture the effects of transportation facilities on multiple public health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Increasingly, federal transportation and public health agencies are working together to identify : transportation investments that improve public health. Investments in transportation : infrastructure represent one method to utilize transportation to...

  17. [Ethics versus economics in public health? On the integration of economic rationality in a discourse of public health ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgang, H; Staber, J

    2009-05-01

    In the course of establishing the discourse of public health ethics in Germany, we discuss whether economic efficiency should be part of public health ethics and, if necessary, how efficiency should be conceptualized. Based on the welfare economics theory, we build a theoretical framework that demands an integration of economic rationality in public health ethics. Furthermore, we consider the possible implementation of welfare efficiency against the background of current practice in an economic evaluation of health care in Germany. The indifference of the welfare efficiency criterion with respect to distribution leads to the conclusion that efficiency must not be the only criteria of public health ethics. Therefore, an ethical approach of principles should be chosen for public health ethics. Possible conflicts between principles of such an approach are outlined.

  18. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the Federal...

  19. From bench to bedside and to health policies (and back: ethics in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The medical aim of translational research is to smooth the transition of discoveries made through basic research from the laboratory bench to their diagnostic or therapeutic applications for patients. These applications may be extended to current clinical practice and to health policies. AIM: The converse is also important: health policies should provide a point of departure when identifying research priorities. Translational research poses the same ethical problems as trials with human subjects - albeit in different ways. One of the more significant problems is the risk for participants in trials: it is thus necessary to ensure that the risks to which these subjects are exposed are not out of proportion to the expected benefits. DISCUSSION: Translational research does not require new ethical principles, but existing biomedical principles need to be adjusted to the specific context. The well-being of participants should always be the primary objective; these persons should never be considered as means for the advancement of knowledge or for the improvement of applications.

  20. Considerations for increasing the competences and capacities of the public health workforce: assessing the training needs of public health workers in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Stephen; Blakely, Craig; Quiram, Barbara; McLeroy, Kenneth

    2006-07-26

    Over the last two decades, concern has been expressed about the readiness of the public health workforce to adequately address the scientific, technological, social, political and economic challenges facing the field. A 1988 report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) served as a catalyst for the re-examination of the public health workforce. The IOM's call to increase the relevance of public health education and training prompted a renewed effort to identify competences needed by public health personnel and the organizations that employ them. A recent evaluation sought to address the role of the 10 essential public health services in job services among the Texas public health workforce. Additionally, the evaluation examined the Texas public health workforce's need for training in the 10 essential public health services. Overall, the level of perceived training needs varied dramatically by job category and health department type. When comparing aggregate training needs, public health workers with greater day-to-day contact (nurses, health educators) indicated a greater need for training than their peers who did not, such as those working in administrative positions. When prioritizing and designing future training modules regarding the 10 essential public health services, trainers should consider the effects of job function, location and contact with the public.

  1. Is globalization really good for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Ethical Issues in Public Health Practice in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Goold, Susan D.; Jacobson, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to ascertain the types of ethical challenges public health practitioners face in practice and to identify approaches used to resolve such challenges. Methods. We conducted 45 semistructured interviews with public health practitioners across a range of occupations (e.g., health officers, medical directors, sanitarians, nurses) at 13 health departments in Michigan. Results. Through qualitative analysis, we identified 5 broad categories of ethical issues common across occupations and locations: (1) determining appropriate use of public health authority, (2) making decisions related to resource allocation, (3) negotiating political interference in public health practice, (4) ensuring standards of quality of care, and (5) questioning the role or scope of public health. Participants cited a variety of values guiding their decision-making that did not coalesce around core values often associated with public health, such as social justice or utilitarianism. Public health practitioners relied on consultations with colleagues to resolve challenges, infrequently using frameworks for decision-making. Conclusions. Public health practitioners showed a nuanced understanding of ethical issues and navigated ethical challenges with minimal formal assistance. Decision-making guides that are empirically informed and tailored for practitioners might have some value. PMID:19059850

  3. Public and private health-care financing with alternate public rationing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Katherine; Hurley, Jeremiah; Mestelman, Stuart; Muller, Andrew; Nuscheler, Robert

    2012-02-01

    We develop a model to analyze parallel public and private health-care financing under two alternative public sector rationing rules: needs-based rationing and random rationing. Individuals vary in income and severity of illness. There is a limited supply of health-care resources used to treat individuals, causing some individuals to go untreated. Insurers (both public and private) must bid to obtain the necessary health-care resources to treat their beneficiaries. Given individuals' willingnesses-to-pay for private insurance are increasing in income, the introduction of private insurance diverts treatment from relatively poor to relatively rich individuals. Further, the impact of introducing parallel private insurance depends on the rationing mechanism in the public sector. We show that the private health insurance market is smaller when the public sector rations according to need than when allocation is random. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The emergence of translational epidemiology: from scientific discovery to population health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Gwinn, Marta; Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-09-01

    Recent emphasis on translational research (TR) is highlighting the role of epidemiology in translating scientific discoveries into population health impact. The authors present applications of epidemiology in TR through 4 phases designated T1-T4, illustrated by examples from human genomics. In T1, epidemiology explores the role of a basic scientific discovery (e.g., a disease risk factor or biomarker) in developing a "candidate application" for use in practice (e.g., a test used to guide interventions). In T2, epidemiology can help to evaluate the efficacy of a candidate application by using observational studies and randomized controlled trials. In T3, epidemiology can help to assess facilitators and barriers for uptake and implementation of candidate applications in practice. In T4, epidemiology can help to assess the impact of using candidate applications on population health outcomes. Epidemiology also has a leading role in knowledge synthesis, especially using quantitative methods (e.g., meta-analysis). To explore the emergence of TR in epidemiology, the authors compared articles published in selected issues of the Journal in 1999 and 2009. The proportion of articles identified as translational doubled from 16% (11/69) in 1999 to 33% (22/66) in 2009 (P = 0.02). Epidemiology is increasingly recognized as an important component of TR. By quantifying and integrating knowledge across disciplines, epidemiology provides crucial methods and tools for TR.

  5. The Delivery of Health Promotion and Environmental Health Services; Public Health or Primary Care Settings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Bjørn Jensen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The WHO Regional Office for Europe developed a set of public health functions resulting in the ten Essential Public Health Operations (EPHO. Public health or primary care settings seem to be favorable to embrace all actions included into EPHOs. The presented paper aims to guide readers on how to assign individual health promotion and environmental health services to public health or primary care settings. Survey tools were developed based on EPHO 2, 3 and 4; there were six key informant surveys out of 18 contacted completed via e-mails by informants working in Denmark on health promotion and five face-to-face interviews were conducted in Australia (Melbourne and Victoria state with experts from environmental health, public health and a physician. Based on interviews, we developed a set of indicators to support the assignment process. Population or individual focus, a system approach or one-to-one approach, dealing with hazards or dealing with effects, being proactive or reactive were identified as main element of the decision tool. Assignment of public health services to one of two settings proved to be possible in some cases, whereas in many there is no clear distinction between the two settings. National context might be the one which guides delivery of public health services.

  6. The Delivery of Health Promotion and Environmental Health Services; Public Health or Primary Care Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn Jensen, Lene; Lukic, Irena; Gulis, Gabriel

    2018-05-07

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe developed a set of public health functions resulting in the ten Essential Public Health Operations (EPHO). Public health or primary care settings seem to be favorable to embrace all actions included into EPHOs. The presented paper aims to guide readers on how to assign individual health promotion and environmental health services to public health or primary care settings. Survey tools were developed based on EPHO 2, 3 and 4; there were six key informant surveys out of 18 contacted completed via e-mails by informants working in Denmark on health promotion and five face-to-face interviews were conducted in Australia (Melbourne and Victoria state) with experts from environmental health, public health and a physician. Based on interviews, we developed a set of indicators to support the assignment process. Population or individual focus, a system approach or one-to-one approach, dealing with hazards or dealing with effects, being proactive or reactive were identified as main element of the decision tool. Assignment of public health services to one of two settings proved to be possible in some cases, whereas in many there is no clear distinction between the two settings. National context might be the one which guides delivery of public health services.

  7. Proposed Pathophysiologic Framework to Explain Some Excess Cardiovascular Death Associated with Ambient Air Particle Pollution: Insights for Public Health Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper proposes a pathophysiologic framework to explain the well-established epidemiological association between exposure to ambient air particle pollution and premature cardiovascular mortality, and offers insights into public health solutions that extend beyond regularory en...

  8. The right to health, health systems development and public health policy challenges in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azétsop, Jacquineau; Ochieng, Michael

    2015-02-15

    There is increasing consensus that the right to health can provide ethical, policy and practical groundings for health systems development. The goals of the right to health are congruent with those of health systems development, which are about strengthening health promotion organizations and actions so as to improve public health. The poor shape and performance of health systems in Chad question the extent of realization of the right to health. Due to its comprehensiveness and inclusiveness, the right to health has the potential of being an organizational and a normative backbone for public health policy and practice. It can then be understood and studied as an integral component of health systems development. This paper uses a secondary data analysis of existing documents by the Ministry of Public Health, Institut National de la Statistique, des Etudes Economiques et Démographiques (INSEED), the Ministry of Economy and Agence Française de Cooperation to analyze critically the shape and performance of health systems in Chad based on key concepts and components of the right to health contained in article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and on General Comment 14. The non-realization of the right to health, even in a consistently progressive manner, raises concerns about the political commitment of state officials to public health, about the justice of social institutions in ensuring social well-being and about individual and public values that shape decision-making processes. Social justice, democratic rule, transparency, accountability and subsidiarity are important groundings for ensuring community participation in public affairs and for monitoring the performance of public institutions. The normative ideals of health systems development are essentially democratic in nature and are rooted in human rights and in ethical principles of human dignity, equality, non-discrimination and social justice. These ideals are grounded

  9. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  10. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  11. A global public health imperative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    Actions towards closing the health equity gap: A global public health imperative. Tewabech ... global health development. With only two ... of himself and of his family; including food, clothing .... impact on health equity and in the end issued the.

  12. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  13. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  14. System impact research - increasing public health and health care system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. System Impact Research - creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population. Key messages The new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features. SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency, and equality of services. SIR creates the

  15. Considerations for increasing the competences and capacities of the public health workforce: assessing the training needs of public health workers in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiram Barbara

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, concern has been expressed about the readiness of the public health workforce to adequately address the scientific, technological, social, political and economic challenges facing the field. A 1988 report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM served as a catalyst for the re-examination of the public health workforce. The IOM's call to increase the relevance of public health education and training prompted a renewed effort to identify competences needed by public health personnel and the organizations that employ them. Methods A recent evaluation sought to address the role of the 10 essential public health services in job services among the Texas public health workforce. Additionally, the evaluation examined the Texas public health workforce's need for training in the 10 essential public health services. Results and conclusion Overall, the level of perceived training needs varied dramatically by job category and health department type. When comparing aggregate training needs, public health workers with greater day-to-day contact (nurses, health educators indicated a greater need for training than their peers who did not, such as those working in administrative positions. When prioritizing and designing future training modules regarding the 10 essential public health services, trainers should consider the effects of job function, location and contact with the public.

  16. Integration of research and practice to improve public health and healthcare delivery through a collaborative 'Health Integration Team' model - a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Sabi; Brangan, Emer; Leach, Verity; Horwood, Jeremy; Donovan, Jenny L

    2016-06-22

    Economic considerations and the requirement to ensure the quality, safety and integration of research with health and social care provision have given rise to local developments of collaborative organisational forms and strategies to span the translational gaps. One such model - the Health Integration Team (HIT) model in Bristol in the United Kingdom (UK) - brings together National Health Service (NHS) organisations, universities, local authorities, patients and the public to facilitate the systematic application of evidence to promote integration across healthcare pathways. This study aimed to (1) provide empirical evidence documenting the evolution of the model; (2) to identify the social and organisational processes and theory of change underlying healthcare knowledge and practice; and (3) elucidate the key aspects of the HIT model for future development and translation to other localities. Contemporaneous documents were analysed, using procedures associated with Framework Analysis to produce summarised data for descriptive accounts. In-depth interviews were undertaken with key informants and analysed thematically. Comparative methods were applied to further analyse the two data sets. One hundred forty documents were analysed and 10 interviews conducted with individuals in leadership positions in the universities, NHS commissioning and provider organisations involved in the design and implementation of the HIT model. Data coalesced around four overarching themes: 'Whole system' engagement, requiring the active recruitment of all those who have a stake in the area of practice being considered, and 'collaboration' to enable coproduction were identified as 'process' themes. System-level integration and innovation were identified as potential 'outcomes' with far-reaching impacts on population health and service delivery. The HIT model emerged as a particular response to the perceived need for integration of research and practice to improve public health and

  17. Tracking Master of Public Health graduates: Linking higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Master of Public Health (MPH) students come from a wide range of health professional backgrounds. Graduate programmes in public health should equip alumni with knowledge and skills to analyse and integrate health research findings, and have a practical approach to current public health issues. In South ...

  18. Globalisation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  19. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  20. Crowdsourcing applications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Daren C; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kirchner, Thomas R; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-02-01

    Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed, problem-solving, and production model that uses the collective intelligence of networked communities for specific purposes. Although its use has benefited many sectors of society, it has yet to be fully realized as a method for improving public health. This paper defines the core components of crowdsourcing and proposes a framework for understanding the potential utility of crowdsourcing in the domain of public health. Four discrete crowdsourcing approaches are described (knowledge discovery and management; distributed human intelligence tasking; broadcast search; and peer-vetted creative production types) and a number of potential applications for crowdsourcing for public health science and practice are enumerated. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  1. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  2. Machine-Learning Algorithms to Code Public Health Spending Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Eoghan S; Leider, Jonathon P; Resnick, Beth A; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Bishai, David

    Government public health expenditure data sets require time- and labor-intensive manipulation to summarize results that public health policy makers can use. Our objective was to compare the performances of machine-learning algorithms with manual classification of public health expenditures to determine if machines could provide a faster, cheaper alternative to manual classification. We used machine-learning algorithms to replicate the process of manually classifying state public health expenditures, using the standardized public health spending categories from the Foundational Public Health Services model and a large data set from the US Census Bureau. We obtained a data set of 1.9 million individual expenditure items from 2000 to 2013. We collapsed these data into 147 280 summary expenditure records, and we followed a standardized method of manually classifying each expenditure record as public health, maybe public health, or not public health. We then trained 9 machine-learning algorithms to replicate the manual process. We calculated recall, precision, and coverage rates to measure the performance of individual and ensembled algorithms. Compared with manual classification, the machine-learning random forests algorithm produced 84% recall and 91% precision. With algorithm ensembling, we achieved our target criterion of 90% recall by using a consensus ensemble of ≥6 algorithms while still retaining 93% coverage, leaving only 7% of the summary expenditure records unclassified. Machine learning can be a time- and cost-saving tool for estimating public health spending in the United States. It can be used with standardized public health spending categories based on the Foundational Public Health Services model to help parse public health expenditure information from other types of health-related spending, provide data that are more comparable across public health organizations, and evaluate the impact of evidence-based public health resource allocation.

  3. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  4. Population health intervention research training: the value of public health internships and mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Paradis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Better alignment between academia and public health practice and policies are critical to improve public health actions. Training of future researchers to address complex issues and to conduct transdisciplinary and collaborative research will help improve this alignment. In this paper, we describe the role of internship placements and mentorship for trainees' skills development in population health intervention research and the benefits of embedding research trainees within public health organizations. This qualitative descriptive study assessed the perceptions of the role and benefits of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research training among former doctoral and postdoctoral students, public health mentors, and senior public health managers who participated in the 4P Program, a research training program which bridges academic training and the public health system in Quebec, Canada. Two types of interviews were conducted: telephone semi-structured interviews by an external evaluator and face-to-face trainee "exit" interviews by the Program co-director. Semi-annual evaluation reports from each trainee were also reviewed. Qualitative data were subjected to a thematic analysis. Internships provided trainees with a working knowledge of the public health system and the context in which decisions and public health interventions are implemented. It was an opportunity for trainees to interact with knowledge-user partners and assess the gap between research and practice. Effective mentorship was key to help trainees interpret the public health reality and develop population health intervention research skills. Trainees learned to ask the "how" questions that are critical for in-depth understanding of complex interventions and the conditions under which they can be best implemented. Conditions of success of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research included the alignment of the interests between the trainee, the

  5. Public Health System Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States (2009-2015): Actionable Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Bernard, Dottie; Klein, Noah; James, Lyndon P; Guicciardi, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine released a letter report identifying 4 research priority areas for public health emergency preparedness in public health system research: (1) enhancing the usefulness of training, (2) improving timely emergency communications, (3) creating and maintaining sustainable response systems, and (4) generating effectiveness criteria and metrics. To (1) identify and characterize public health system research in public health emergency preparedness produced in the United States from 2009 to 2015, (2) synthesize research findings and assess the level of confidence in these findings, and (3) describe the evolution of knowledge production in public health emergency preparedness system research. Search Methods and Selection Criteria. We reviewed and included the titles and abstracts of 1584 articles derived from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and gray literature databases that focused on the organizational or financial aspects of public health emergency preparedness activities and were grounded on empirical studies. We included 156 articles. We appraised the quality of the studies according to the study design. We identified themes during article analysis and summarized overall findings by theme. We determined level of confidence in the findings with the GRADE-CERQual tool. Thirty-one studies provided evidence on how to enhance the usefulness of training. Results demonstrated the utility of drills and exercises to enhance decision-making capabilities and coordination across organizations, the benefit of cross-sector partnerships for successfully implementing training activities, and the value of integrating evaluation methods to support training improvement efforts. Thirty-six studies provided evidence on how to improve timely communications. Results supported the use of communication strategies that address differences in access to information, knowledge, attitudes, and practices across segments of the population as well as evidence on specific

  6. Development of public health program for type 1 diabetes in a university community: preliminary evaluation of behavioural change wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Digban, K A; Anyasodor, A E; Bwititi, P T; Richards, R S; Igumbor, E O

    2017-10-23

    Diabetes mellitus, including type 1 is a global public health problem among the young persons. While public health campaign and screening program is a potential strategy, but communication skills, knowledge and opinion of the healthcare personnel are indicated as variables that can impact patient's education, which will lead to better outcome of care. Thus, in designing or planning a program for public health, workforce development considers opinion and behavioural change wheel of prospective personnel. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate if a university academic department has the behavioural change wheel to function as workforce infrastructure for an envisioned program. Survey of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of a university community regarding diabetes type 1 was performed. The KAP were translated into behavioural change wheel comprising capacity, motivation and opportunity (CMO). There are baseline indications of the behavioural change wheel potential of the public health department to run a T1D screening program. The number of participants who knew someone with T1D was significantly higher than the subgroup with no such knowledge (pwheel or CMO to develop a workforce infrastructure for T1D screening program, the experience that comes with age of lecturers will be an important factor to enable such program to succeed.

  7. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  8. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention

  9. The Translation of Accrual Accounting and Budgeting and the Reconfiguration of Public Sector Accountants' Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Becker, Sebastian; Jagalla, Tobias; Skærbæk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Under the umbrella of New Public Management (NPM) and managerialism, the last three decades have seen a widespread transformation of public sector accounting and budgeting from a cash to an accrual basis. Much of the ensuing research, however, has focused more on technical evaluations...... of these programmes and less on informing our knowledge of the interaction between such programmes and accountants. As public sector accountants (PSAs) are central entities in such programmes, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the reconfiguration of their identities. Using the theoretical lens of Actor......-Network-Theory (ANT) and its concept of translation, this study seeks to explain how PSAs’ identities were transformed through the introduction of Accrual Output-Based Budgeting (AOBB) in two German states. Our analysis shows that the change of accounting regime was not a straightforward one, but rather involved...

  10. The emergency of concept global health: perspectives for the field of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Cavalcante Sampaio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of new terms in the academic and political debate of public health, such as ‘’global health’’, ‘’global public goods’’, ‘’global health governance’’, ‘’global public health’’, ‘’health diplomacy’’, 'international cooperation’’. In this study, we aimed to analyze the historical development of the concept of ‘global health’, as well as the prospects of this new concept in the research and public health practice. A comprehensive literature review was performed in Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus, and BVS. We also analyzed documents obtained from the websites of international health organizations. 514 publications were retrieved and 36 were selected for this study. In general, the concept of "global health" refers to health as a transnational phenomenon linked to globalization, which has as main challenge to think public health beyond international relations between countries. International health organizations are particularly important in the development of the concept of "global health" and its new application prospects in the field of public health are health diplomacy, international cooperation and global health governance.

  11. Future directions for Public Health Education reforms in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Zodpey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate ‘standard’ and ‘quality’ of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching-learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour.

  12. Workshop salutogenesis and the future of health promotion and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Bengt

    2018-02-01

    This presentation is a synthesis of a workshop on Salutogenesis and the Future of Health Promotion and Public Health at the Nordic Health Promotion Research Conference in June 2016. A brief historical review of Public Health and Health Promotion development in a Nordic perspective is included. However, the main thrust of the article is to present how the salutogenic theory and approach could strengthen society's organised efforts to prevent disease, promote health and prolong life. A critical view based on existing evidence is maintained through the presentation that arrives at the conclusion it would be worthwhile to invest in effective theory driven approaches to the development of Public Health and Health Promotion in the future.

  13. Governance of public health: Norway in a Nordic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Marit K

    2014-11-01

    The two pillars of public health are health promotion and disease prevention. Based on a notion of governance in the state -local relation as changing from hierarchical via New Public Management (NPM) to New Public Governance (NPG), the governance of public health in Norway is contrasted to governance of public health in the other Nordic states: Denmark, Finland and Sweden. The article aims to present and discuss the governance of public health as it is played out in the state-local relationship. The method is to study central state documents in the four countries, as well as articles, research reports and papers on public health. The article shows that the governance modes (hierarchy, NPM and NPG) exist in parallel, but that their mechanisms actually vary in use. Legal, economic and informational mechanisms are, to a varying degree, in use. In Finnish and Swedish public health policies, health promotion is at the forefront; while Danish and Norwegian public health policies spur the local governments to carry out interventions to prevent disease and hospital admissions. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Bioterrorism, public health, and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Colgrove, James

    2002-01-01

    The controversy over the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act has underscored the enduring tension in public health between guarding the common welfare and respecting individual liberty. The current version of the act, crafted in response to extensive public commentary, attempts to strike a balance between these values but has failed to allay the concerns of many civil libertarians and privacy advocates. Although the debates over the model act have been triggered by the threat of bioterrorism, they illustrate broader philosophical differences, with profound implications for all realms of public health policy.

  15. What are the effective ways to translate clinical leadership into health care quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Robert; Pearce, Paddy

    2016-01-01

    The presence and/or absence of effective leaders in health care can have a stark consequence on the quality and outcomes of care. The delivery of safe, quality, compassionate health care is dependent on having effective clinical leaders at the frontline. In light of the Kirkup and Francis reports, this article explores some ways of translating clinical leadership into health care quality improvement. This is achieved by exploring what is clinical leadership and why and how this is important to health care quality improvement, clinical leadership, and a duty of candor, along with the importance clinical leadership plays in the provision of quality care improvement and outcomes. Clinical leaders are not predefined roles but emerge from the complex clinical setting by gaining an acquired expertise and from how they then internalize this to develop and facilitate sound relationships within a team. Clinical leaders are effective in facilitating innovation and change through improvement. This is achieved by recognizing, influencing, and empowering individuals through effective communication in order to share and learn from and with each other in practice. The challenge for health care organizations in regard to creating organizational cultures where a duty of candor exists is not to reinvent the wheel by turning something that is simple into something complex, which can become confusing to health care workers, patients, and the public. By focusing on the clinical leader's role and responsibilities we would argue they play a crucial and pivotal role in influencing, facilitating, supporting, and monitoring that this duty of candor happens in practice. This may be possible by highlighting where and how the duty of candor can be aligned within existing clinical governance frameworks.

  16. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs.

  17. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies (electronic resource)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricci, Karen; Lurie, Nicole; Stoto, Michael A; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Dausey, David J; Meade, Barbara; Diamond, Alexis; Molander, Roger C

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  18. Engaging students in community health: a public health advocacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Nell; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    Individual risk assessment and behavior change dominate the content of high school health education instruction whereas broader social, political, and economic factors that influence health-known as upstream causes-are less commonly considered. With input from instructors and students, we developed a 10-lesson experiential Public Health Advocacy Curriculum that uses classroom-based activities to teach high school students about the upstream causes of health and engages them in community-based health advocacy. The Curriculum, most suitable for health- or advocacy-related elective classes or after-school programs, may be taught in its entirety or as single lessons integrated into existing coursework. Although students at many schools are using the Curriculum, it has been formally evaluated with 110 predominantly Latino students at one urban and one semirural public high school in Northern California (six classes). In pre-post surveys, students showed highly significant and positive changes in the nine questions that covered the three main Curriculum domains (Upstream Causes, Community Exploration, and Public Health Advocacy), p values .02 to Curriculum is being widely disseminated without charge to local, national, and international audiences, with the objective of grooming a generation of youth who are committed to the public health perspective to health.

  19. Our health and theirs: forced migration, othering, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Natalie J; Zwi, Anthony B

    2006-04-01

    This paper uses 'othering' theory to explore how forced migrants are received in developed countries and considers the implications of this for public health. It identifies a variety of mechanisms by which refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants are positioned as 'the other' and are defined and treated as separate, distant and disconnected from the host communities in receiving countries. The paper examines how this process has the potential to affect health outcomes both for individuals and communities and concludes that public health must engage with and challenge this othering discourse. It argues that public health practitioners have a critical role to play in reframing thinking about health services and health policies for forced migrants, by promoting inclusion and by helping shape a narrative which integrates and values the experiences of this population.

  20. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  1. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system...... allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...

  2. A History of Social Work in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Betty J.

    2017-01-01

    Social work is a core health profession with origins deeply connected to the development of contemporary public health in the United States. Today, many of the nation’s 600 000 social workers practice broadly in public health and in other health settings, drawing on a century of experience in combining clinical, intermediate, and population approaches for greater health impact. Yet, the historic significance of this long-standing interdisciplinary collaboration—and its current implications—remains underexplored in the present era. This article builds on primary and contemporary sources to trace the historic arc of social work in public health, providing examples of successful collaborations. The scope and practices of public health social work practice are explored, and we articulate a rationale for an expanded place for social work in the public health enterprise. PMID:29236533

  3. A History of Social Work in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Betty J; Marshall, Jamie Wyatt

    2017-12-01

    Social work is a core health profession with origins deeply connected to the development of contemporary public health in the United States. Today, many of the nation's 600 000 social workers practice broadly in public health and in other health settings, drawing on a century of experience in combining clinical, intermediate, and population approaches for greater health impact. Yet, the historic significance of this long-standing interdisciplinary collaboration-and its current implications-remains underexplored in the present era. This article builds on primary and contemporary sources to trace the historic arc of social work in public health, providing examples of successful collaborations. The scope and practices of public health social work practice are explored, and we articulate a rationale for an expanded place for social work in the public health enterprise.

  4. Identifying public health competencies relevant to family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Bart J; Moloughney, Brent W; Iglar, Karl T

    2011-10-01

    Public health situations faced by family physicians and other primary care practitioners, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and more recently H1N1, have resulted in an increased interest to identify the public health competencies relevant to family medicine. At present there is no agreed-on set of public health competencies delineating the knowledge and skills that family physicians should possess to effectively face diverse public health challenges. Using a multi-staged, iterative process that included a detailed literature review, the authors developed a set of public health competencies relevant to primary care, identifying competencies relevant across four levels, from "post-MD" to "enhanced." Feedback from family medicine and public health educator-practitioners regarding the set of proposed "essential" competencies indicated the need for a more limited, feasible set of "priority" areas to be highlighted during residency training. This focused set of public health competencies has begun to guide relevant components of the University of Toronto's Family Medicine Residency Program curriculum, including academic half-days; clinical experiences, especially identifying "teachable moments" during patient encounters; resident academic projects; and elective public health agency placements. These competencies will also be used to guide the development of a family medicine-public health primer and faculty development sessions to support family medicine faculty facilitating residents to achieve these competencies. Once more fully implemented, an evaluation will be initiated to determine the degree to which these public health competencies are being achieved by family medicine graduates, especially whether they attained the knowledge, skills, and confidence necessary to effectively face diverse public health situations-from common to emergent. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The UK Public Health Skills and Career Framework--could it help to make public health the business of every workforce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jenny; Rao, Mala; Walker, Karen

    2008-06-01

    There is growing recognition of the impact of the wider determinants of health and health inequalities, and an acknowledgement that addressing these root causes of ill health requires public health to be everyone's business and responsibility. Therefore, equipping the whole of the public health workforce and a wide range of other disciplines with the knowledge and skills to have a positive influence on health is a priority. The UK is implementing a competence-based skills framework that addresses this dual need. The aim of this paper is to describe how the UK Public Health Skills and Career Framework was developed, and to invite discussion on its potential usefulness as a tool for facilitating a shared approach to strengthening public health competence within and across countries.

  6. Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaal, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the role of the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic in radiation protection in the Slovak Republic. Public Health Authority is budgetary organization, which depends on the funding of the Ministry of Health. As the state administration authority performs execution of state regulatory activities in the field of health protection in Slovak republic and radiation protection as well. Radiation Protection Supervision is performed according to the act on public health protection. Organization scheme of radiation protection in the Slovak Republic is presented

  7. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  8. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  9. Scaring the Public: Fear Appeal Arguments in Public Health Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cummings

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of threat and fear appeal arguments has given rise to a sizeable literature. Even within a public health context, much is now known about how these arguments work to gain the public’s compliance with health recommendations. Notwithstanding this level of interest in, and examination of, these arguments, there is one aspect of these arguments that still remains unexplored. That aspect concerns the heuristic function of these arguments within our thinking about public health problems. Specifically, it is argued that threat and fear appeal arguments serve as valuable shortcuts in our reasoning, particularly when that reasoning is subject to biases that are likely to diminish the effectiveness of public health messages. To this extent, they are rationally warranted argument forms rather than fallacies, as has been their dominant characterization in logic.

  10. Public health practitioner incubation plight: following the money trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L J; McFarlane, D R

    1996-01-01

    Schools of public health have a proud history of educating personnel for leadership roles in the field of practice. Such personnel have played key roles in developing public health. Over the years, however, the missions of the schools of public health have become blurred. To a significant degree, a focus on health care has displaced public health as schools have followed the money trail. Often research takes precedence over teaching, so that, ironically, research findings are not disseminated to those who will practice public health. Educating personnel for practitioner leadership roles in environmental health and protection is inadequate. These and other trends have serious, long-term ramifications for public health practice. This article offers suggestions for improving the situation, including making use of practitioners in schools of public health, encouraging partnerships between practitioners and academics for research and funding support, developing paid student practica, developing a market for MPH graduates, and changing the accreditation requirements of the Council on Education for Public Health.

  11. Public health workforce employment in US public and private sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Virginia C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the number and distribution of 26 administrative, professional, and technical public health occupations across the array of US governmental and nongovernmental industries. This study used data from the Occupational Employment Statistics program of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. For each occupation of interest, the investigator determined the number of persons employed in 2006 in five industries and industry groups: government, nonprofit agencies, education, healthcare, and all other industries. Industry-specific employment profiles varied from one occupation to another. However, about three-fourths of all those engaged in these occupations worked in the private healthcare industry. Relatively few worked in nonprofit or educational settings, and less than 10 percent were employed in government agencies. The industry-specific distribution of public health personnel, particularly the proportion employed in the public sector, merits close monitoring. This study also highlights the need for a better understanding of the work performed by public health occupations in nongovernmental work settings. Finally, the Occupational Employment Statistics program has the potential to serve as an ongoing, national data collection system for public health workforce information. If this potential was realized, future workforce enumerations would not require primary data collection but rather could be accomplished using secondary data.

  12. Teaching seven principles for public health ethics: towards a curriculum for a short course on ethics in public health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Duncan, Peter; Sherlaw, William; Brall, Caroline; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2014-10-07

    Teaching ethics in public health programmes is not routine everywhere - at least not in most schools of public health in the European region. Yet empirical evidence shows that schools of public health are more and more interested in the integration of ethics in their curricula, since public health professionals often have to face difficult ethical decisions. The authors have developed and practiced an approach to how ethics can be taught even in crowded curricula, requiring five to eight hours of teaching and learning contact time. In this way, if programme curricula do not allow more time for ethics, students of public health can at least be sensitised to ethics and ethical argumentation. This approach - focusing on the application of seven mid-level principles to cases (non-maleficence, beneficence, health maximisation, efficiency, respect for autonomy, justice, proportionality) - is presented in this paper. Easy to use 'tools' applying ethics to public health are presented. The crowded nature of the public health curriculum, and the nature of students participating in it, required us to devise and develop a short course, and to use techniques that were likely to provide a relatively efficient introduction to the processes, content and methods involved in the field of ethics.

  13. Environment and public health; Environnement et sante publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escande, J P [Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Cicolella, A [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France); Hemon, D [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 75 - Paris (France); and others

    1999-06-01

    These fourteen presentations on the public health effects of the pollution, showed the environment and life style modifications effects on the public health but also the difficulty to evaluate the risk assessment. This analysis brings information and opinion on the environment, the public health, the scientific representation, the evaluation paradigm, the press amplification, the public health policy choices and the risks of too severe regulations. (A.L.B.)

  14. Innovative statistical methods for public health data

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together experts working in public health and multi-disciplinary areas to present recent issues in statistical methodological development and their applications. This timely book will impact model development and data analyses of public health research across a wide spectrum of analysis. Data and software used in the studies are available for the reader to replicate the models and outcomes. The fifteen chapters range in focus from techniques for dealing with missing data with Bayesian estimation, health surveillance and population definition and implications in applied latent class analysis, to multiple comparison and meta-analysis in public health data. Researchers in biomedical and public health research will find this book to be a useful reference, and it can be used in graduate level classes.

  15. The Struggle for the Soul of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2016-12-01

    Prevention has become a central focus for health care payers, providers, policy makers, and the general public. Given the centrality of prevention to public health science, practice, and law, it would seem that conditions are ripe for the public health law renaissance to expand beyond legal and scientific circles to permeate the general consciousness. Yet, public health law and policy interventions continue to face considerable political and legal opposition. The population perspective-which emphasizes the social determinants of health, collective action to create healthier communities, and communitarian rationales for prioritizing health-is as important to public health problem-solving as the prevention orientation. But it conflicts with the individualistic orientation that dominates American legal, cultural, and social discourse. This article suggests that public health law and policy debates offer important opportunities for public health advocates to reach across silos to promote the population perspective that unites the field. The article explores contrasting explanations for disease, injury, premature death, and health disparities offered by the population perspective and the individualistic orientation; political and cultural barriers that stand in the way of innovative law and policy interventions; and normative tensions between the communitarian population perspective and self-interested rationales for investment in prevention. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  16. Children's Health Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.

  17. The Mediating Effect of Social Capital on the Relationship Between Public Health Managers' Transformational Leadership and Public Health Nurses' Organizational Empowerment in Korea Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Young

    2017-12-01

    This study was to verify the effect of public health nurse's (PHN's) social capital on the relationship between public health manager's (PHM's) transformational leadership and PHN's organizational empowerment in Korea public health. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 303 PHNs from public health centers in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do cities in South Korea. Data were collected from February 29, 2016 to April 8, 2016, using structured questionnaires which included general characteristics, transformational leadership, organizational empowerment, and social capital. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlations, and structural equation model. PHM's transformational leadership has a positive effect on PHN's social capital and PHN's organizational empowerment. Social capital had a mediating effect between transformational leadership and organizational empowerment in PHNs. This study suggests that PHM's transformational leadership is a contributing factor to improve PHN's organizational empowerment, and transformational leadership can lead to improve PHN's organizational empowerment through PHN's social capital. So, an intervention program to promote organizational empowerment should include strategies to enhance PHM's transformational leadership as well as to improve PHN's social capital. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  19. The genesis of public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Fairchild, Amy L

    2004-11-01

    As bioethics emerged in the 1960s and 1970s and began to have enormous impacts on the practice of medicine and research--fuelled, by broad socio-political changes that gave rise to the struggles of women, African Americans, gay men and lesbians, and the antiauthoritarianism impulse that characterised the New Left in democratic capitalist societies--little attention was given to the question of the ethics of public health. This was all the more striking since the core values and practices of public health, often entailing the subordination of the individual for the common good, seemed opposed to the ideological impulses of bioethics. Of what relevance is autonomy-focused bioethics for public health, with its mix of justifications including those that are either implicitly or explicitly paternalistic or that seek to impose strictures on individuals and communities in the name of collective welfare? To examine the deep divide between the central commitments of bioethics and the values that animate the practice of public health, we focus on a series of controversies implicating the concepts of privacy, liberty, and paternalism. Recognising the role of moral values in decision-making was a signal contribution of bioethics in its formative period. Over the past three decades a broad array of perspectives emerged under the rubric of bioethics but individualism remains central. As we commence the process of shaping an ethics of public health, it is clear that bioethics is the wrong place to start when thinking about the balances required in defence of the public's health.

  20. Entomology in translation: interpreting French medical entomological knowledge in colonial Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Vernick, T

    2008-12-01

    This essay examines how knowledge and practices around entomology and parasitology travelled and the consequences of their mobility. In exploring three anti-malaria campaigns in French Soudan before 1960, it argues that the history of medical entomology's travels entailed multiple temporal, spatial, social translations that African medical personnel, intellectuals, healers, and farmers in French Soudan reinterpreted, appropriated, and sometimes wholly rejected. This essay also focuses on "erroneous" translations, detailing how and why middle class medical personnel and intellectuals interpreted and reformulated farmers' and healers' diagnostic categories that may or may not be malaria. Anti-mosquito and antilarval interventions, and more generally anti-malaria interventions, influenced how African colonial subjects and health workers understood certain vectors and of certain maladies. These understandings, in turn, shaped the consequences of subsequent public health measures. Histories of translated parasitological and entomological knowledge and etiologies of illness have critical implications for contemporary malaria control efforts: interventions to reduce malaria transmission through various kinds of entomological controls that require active participation of local populations cannot be effective if all participants cannot agree upon what is being controlled or prevented.

  1. What are the effective ways to translate clinical leadership into health care quality improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McSherry R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert McSherry,1 Paddy Pearce2 1School of Health and Social Care, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, 2PKP Consulting, Yarm, United Kingdom Abstract: The presence and/or absence of effective leaders in health care can have a stark consequence on the quality and outcomes of care. The delivery of safe, quality, compassionate health care is dependent on having effective clinical leaders at the frontline. In light of the Kirkup and Francis reports, this article explores some ways of translating clinical leadership into health care quality improvement. This is achieved by exploring what is clinical leadership and why and how this is important to health care quality improvement, clinical leadership, and a duty of candor, along with the importance clinical leadership plays in the provision of quality care improvement and outcomes. Clinical leaders are not predefined roles but emerge from the complex clinical setting by gaining an acquired expertise and from how they then internalize this to develop and facilitate sound relationships within a team. Clinical leaders are effective in facilitating innovation and change through improvement. This is achieved by recognizing, influencing, and empowering individuals through effective communication in order to share and learn from and with each other in practice. The challenge for health care organizations in regard to creating organizational cultures where a duty of candor exists is not to reinvent the wheel by turning something that is simple into something complex, which can become confusing to health care workers, patients, and the public. By focusing on the clinical leader's role and responsibilities we would argue they play a crucial and pivotal role in influencing, facilitating, supporting, and monitoring that this duty of candor happens in practice. This may be possible by highlighting where and how the duty of candor can be aligned within existing clinical governance frameworks. Keywords: governance

  2. Educating the Public Health Workforce: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Tao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scoping review was to identify and characterize the recent literature pertaining to the education of the public health workforce worldwide. The importance of preparing a public health workforce with sufficient capacity and appropriate capabilities has been recognized by major organizations around the world (1. Champions for public health note that a suitably educated workforce is essential to the delivery of public health services, including emergency response to biological, manmade, and natural disasters, within countries and across the globe. No single repository offers a comprehensive compilation of who is teaching public health, to whom, and for what end. Moreover, no international consensus prevails on what higher education should entail or what pedagogy is optimal for providing the necessary education. Although health agencies, public or private, might project workforce needs, the higher level of education remains the sole responsibility of higher education institutions. The long-term goal of this study is to describe approaches to the education of the public health workforce around the world by identifying the peer-reviewed literature, published primarily by academicians involved in educating those who will perform public health functions. This paper reports on the first phase of the study: identifying and categorizing papers published in peer-reviewed literature between 2000 and 2015.

  3. Sustainability of knowledge translation interventions in healthcare decision-making: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Cogo, Elise; Ashoor, Huda; Perrier, Laure; McKibbon, K Ann; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Straus, Sharon E

    2013-05-14

    Knowledge translation (KT also known as research utilisation, translational medicine and implementation science) is a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health. After the implementation of KT interventions, their impact on relevant outcomes should be monitored. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) conduct a systematic search of the literature to identify the impact on healthcare outcomes beyond 1 year, or beyond the termination of funding of the initiative of KT interventions targeting chronic disease management for end-users including patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers and policy-makers; (2) identify factors that influence sustainability of effective KT interventions; (3) identify how sustained change from KT interventions should be measured; and (4) develop a framework for assessing sustainability of KT interventions. Comprehensive searches of relevant electronic databases (eg, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), websites of funding agencies and websites of healthcare provider organisations will be conducted to identify relevant material. We will include experimental, quasi-experimental and observational studies providing information on the sustainability of KT interventions targeting chronic disease management in adults and focusing on end-users including patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers and policy-makers. Two reviewers will pilot-test the screening criteria and data abstraction form. They will then screen all citations, full articles and abstract data in duplicate independently. The results of the scoping review will be synthesised descriptively and used to develop a framework to assess the sustainability of KT interventions. Our results will help inform end-users (ie, patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers

  4. Creating a brand image for public health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kathleen A; Lyons, Roberta L; Issel, L Michele

    2011-01-01

    Public health nurses (PHNs) have declined as a proportion of both the nursing and the public health workforces in the past 2 decades. This decline comes as 30 states report public health nursing as the sector most affected in the overall public health shortage. Taken together, these data point to a need for renewed recruitment efforts. However, the current public images of nurses are primarily those of professionals employed in hospital settings. Therefore, this paper describes the development of a marketable image aimed at increasing the visibility and public awareness of PHNs and their work. Such a brand image was seen as a precursor to increasing applications for PHN positions. A multimethod qualitative sequential approach guided the branding endeavor. From the thoughts of public health nursing students, faculty, and practitioners came artists' renditions of four award-winning posters. These posters portray public health nursing-incorporating its image, location of practice, and levels of protection afforded the community. Since their initial unveiling, these posters have been distributed by request throughout the United States and Canada. The overwhelming response serves to underline the previous void of current professional images of public health nursing and the need for brand images to aid with recruitment. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Public and Private Responsibility for Mental Health: Mental Health's Fourth Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokecki, Paul R.

    Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…

  6. A multistate examination of partnership activity among local public health systems using the National Public Health Performance Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Priscilla A; Curtis, Amy B; Hall-Downey, Laura; Moonesinghe, Ramal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether partnership-related measures in the second version of the National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS) are useful in evaluating level of activity as well as identifying latent constructs that exist among local public health systems (LPHSs). In a sample of 110 LPHSs, descriptive analysis was conducted to determine frequency and percentage of 18 partnership-related NPHPS measures. Principal components factor analysis was conducted to identify unobserved characteristics that promote effective partnerships among LPHSs. Results revealed that 13 of the 18 measures were most frequently reported at the minimal-moderate level (conducted 1%-49% of the time). Coordination of personal health and social services to optimize access (74.6%) was the most frequently reported measure at minimal-moderate levels. Optimal levels (conducted >75% of the time) were reported most frequently in 2 activities: participation in emergency preparedness coalitions and local health departments ensuring service provision by working with state health departments (67% and 61% of respondents, respectively) and the least optimally reported activity was review partnership effectiveness (4% of respondents). Factor analysis revealed categories of partnership-related measures in 4 domains: resources and activities contributing to relationship building, evaluating community leadership activities, research, and state and local linkages to support public health activities. System-oriented public health assessments may have questions that serve as proxy measures to examine levels of interorganizational partnerships. Several measures from the NPHPS were useful in establishing a national baseline of minimal and optimal activity levels as well as identifying factors to enhance the delivery of the 10 essential public health services among organizations and individuals in public health systems.

  7. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNabb Scott JN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1 adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]; 2 maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3 consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers. To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners. We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it’s needed, where it’s needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities

  8. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Scott J N

    2010-12-03

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources.Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1) adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]); 2) maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3) consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers.To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners.We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it's needed, where it's needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities to the ownership and stewardship

  9. Management accounting use and financial performance in public health-care organisations: evidence from the Italian National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Anessi-Pessina, E

    2014-07-01

    Reforms of the public health-care sector have emphasised the role of management accounting (MA). However, there is little systematic evidence on its use and benefits. To fill this gap, we propose a contingency-based model which addresses three related issues, that is, whether: (i) MA use is influenced by contextual variables and MA design; (ii) top-management satisfaction with MA mediates the relationship between MA design and MA use; and (iii) financial performance is influenced by MA use. A questionnaire was mailed out to all Italian public health-care organisations. Structural equation modelling was performed to validate the research hypotheses. The response rate was 49%. Our findings suggest that: (i) cost-containment strategies encourage more sophisticated MA designs; (ii) MA use is directly and indirectly influenced by contingency, organisational, and behavioural variables; (iii) a weakly significant positive relationship exists between MA use and financial performance. These findings are relevant from the viewpoint of both top managers and policymakers. The former must make sure that MA is not only technically advanced, but also properly understood and appreciated by users. The latter need to be aware that MA may improve performance in ways and along dimensions that may not fully translate into better financial results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna Mary; Lloyd-Williams, Huw

    2013-10-24

    If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990-2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may find it useful to think in this broader

  11. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  12. Articles Published and Downloaded by Public Health Scientists: Analysis of Data From the CDC Public Health Library, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, John; Bang, Gail; Stupp, Emma; Connick, Kathy; Gomez, Onnalee; Gidudu, Jane

    2016-01-01

    To describe scientific information usage and publication patterns of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Public Health Library and Information Center patrons. Administratively collected patron usage data and aggregate data on CDC-authored publications from the CDC Library for 3 consecutive years were analyzed. The CDC Public Health Library and Information Center, which serves CDC employees nationally and internationally. Internal patrons and external users of the CDC Library. Three-year trends in full-text article publication and downloads including most common journals used for each purpose, systematic literature searches requested and completed, and subscriptions to a weekly public health current literature awareness service. From 2011 to 2013, CDC scientists published a total of 7718 articles in the peer-reviewed literature. During the same period, article downloads from the CDC Library increased 25% to more than 1.1 million, completed requests for reviews of the scientific literature increased by 34%, and electronic subscriptions to literature compilation services increased by 23%. CDC's scientific output and information use via the CDC Library are both increasing. Researchers and field staff are making greater use of literature review services and other customized information content delivery. Virtual public health library access is an increasingly important resource for the scientific practice of public health.

  13. E-mentoring in public health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louise C; Devaney, Susan W; Kelly, Glenda L; Kuehn, Alice F

    2008-09-01

    Attrition in the public health nursing work force combined with a lack of faculty to teach public health prompted development of a "long-distance" learning project. Practicing associate degree nurses enrolled in an online course in population-based practice worked with experienced public health nurse "e-mentors." Student-mentor pairs worked through course assignments, shared public health nursing experiences, and problem-solved real-time public health issues. Nursing faculty served as coordinators for student learning and mentor support. Over 3 years, 38 student-mentor pairs participated in the project. Students reported they valued the expertise and guidance of their mentors. Likewise, mentors gained confidence in their practice and abilities to mentor. Issues related to distance learning and e-mentoring centered around use of technology and adequate time to communicate with one another. E-mentoring is a viable strategy to connect nurses to a learning, sharing environment while crossing the barriers of distance, agency