Sample records for transition models applied

  1. Modeling for Transition Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, Emile J L; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.


    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  2. Transitive probabilistic CLIR models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.


    Transitive translation could be a useful technique to enlarge the number of supported language pairs for a cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) system in a cost-effective manner. The paper describes several setups for transitive translation based on probabilistic translation models. The

  3. Applied impulsive mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Stamova, Ivanka


    Using the theory of impulsive differential equations, this book focuses on mathematical models which reflect current research in biology, population dynamics, neural networks and economics. The authors provide the basic background from the fundamental theory and give a systematic exposition of recent results related to the qualitative analysis of impulsive mathematical models. Consisting of six chapters, the book presents many applicable techniques, making them available in a single source easily accessible to researchers interested in mathematical models and their applications. Serving as a valuable reference, this text is addressed to a wide audience of professionals, including mathematicians, applied researchers and practitioners.

  4. Optimization of the transition piece applying genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos Munoz, A.; Ayala-Ramirez, V.; Alfaro-Ayala, J.A.; Toledo Acosta, B.M.


    The geometric optimization of the gas turbine transition piece, applying the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Genetic Algorithms (GA), to obtain a uniform temperature and velocity distribution in the center of the outlet section, is presented. The study is carried out considering different dimensions of the transition piece which were defined by the genetic algorithm analysis. In each case, the temperature and velocity contours of the combustion gases are examined along the transition piece and outlet section, comparing the radial and circumferential velocity and temperature profiles. In this study, it is important to know the temperature and velocity profiles at the outlet of the transition piece, because they have impact on the vanes and blades of the first stage of the gas turbine. The study considers a steady state three-dimensional model, using FLUENT version 6.3.26 and a code of genetic algorithms where the geometric parameters were analyzed. To obtain the results, a structured grid about 5.1 million cells with second-order upwind scheme and coupled solver was applied. The results show the effect of the geometry of the transition piece in the velocity and temperature profiles at the outlet area, where the change of the cross sectional area influences the contours. A smooth change in the cross sectional section allows a uniform temperature and velocity distribution at the outlet section of the transition piece. The peak value of the temperature is decreased about 5.5% (11.4 K) in the radial direction whereas the velocity is decreased 3.62% (4.27 m/s). The peak value of the temperature in the circumferential direction is decreased about 3.33% (45.51 K) whereas velocity is decreased 3.63% (4.171 m/s). The new geometry of the transition piece leads to a diminution of the average turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of about 2.32% (28.29 K) and the average velocity of about 7.73% (4.217 m/s). - Highlights: → We apply two tools of analysis to optimize the

  5. Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito A. Stradi


    Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.

  6. Applied stochastic modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Byron JT; Tanner, Martin Abba; Carlin, Bradley P


    Introduction and Examples Introduction Examples of data sets Basic Model Fitting Introduction Maximum-likelihood estimation for a geometric model Maximum-likelihood for the beta-geometric model Modelling polyspermy Which model? What is a model for? Mechanistic models Function Optimisation Introduction MATLAB: graphs and finite differences Deterministic search methods Stochastic search methods Accuracy and a hybrid approach Basic Likelihood ToolsIntroduction Estimating standard errors and correlations Looking at surfaces: profile log-likelihoods Confidence regions from profiles Hypothesis testing in model selectionScore and Wald tests Classical goodness of fit Model selection biasGeneral Principles Introduction Parameterisation Parameter redundancy Boundary estimates Regression and influence The EM algorithm Alternative methods of model fitting Non-regular problemsSimulation Techniques Introduction Simulating random variables Integral estimation Verification Monte Carlo inference Estimating sampling distributi...

  7. Applied Bayesian modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Congdon, Peter


    This book provides an accessible approach to Bayesian computing and data analysis, with an emphasis on the interpretation of real data sets. Following in the tradition of the successful first edition, this book aims to make a wide range of statistical modeling applications accessible using tested code that can be readily adapted to the reader's own applications. The second edition has been thoroughly reworked and updated to take account of advances in the field. A new set of worked examples is included. The novel aspect of the first edition was the coverage of statistical modeling using WinBU

  8. Modeling Metropolitan Detroit transit. (United States)


    "The seven-county Southeast Michigan region, that encompasses the Detroit Metropolitan Area, : ranks fifth in population among top 25 regions in the nation. It also ranks among bottom five in : the transit service provided, measured in miles or hours...

  9. Thresholds models of technological transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeppini, P.; Frenken, K.; Kupers, R.


    We present a systematic review of seven threshold models of technological transitions from physics, biology, economics and sociology. The very same phenomenon of a technological transition can be explained by very different logics, ranging from economic explanations based on price, performance and

  10. Vacuum transitions in dual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnev, A.I.; Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.


    The investigation is continued of the spontaneous vacuum transition problem in the Neview-Schwartz dual model (NSDM). It is shown that vacuum transitions allow disclosing of supplementary degeneration in the resonance state spectrum. The dual amplitudes possess an internal structure corresponding to the presence of an infinite number of quarks with increasing masses and retained charges. The Adler principle holds. Analytic continuation on the constant of induced vacuum transitions makes it possible to establish the existence of spontaneous vacuum transitions in the NSDM. The consequence of this fact is the exact SU(2) symmetry of π, rho meson trajectories and the Higgs mechanism in the model. In this case the ratios of masses of particles leading trajectories are analogous to those obtained in the current algebra. It is shown that in the NSDM there arises chiral SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) x U(1) x ... symmetry resulting from spontaneous vacuum transitions

  11. Transition Models with Measurement Errors


    Magnac, Thierry; Visser, Michael


    In this paper, we estimate a transition model that allows for measurement errors in the data. The measurement errors arise because the survey design is partly retrospective, so that individuals sometimes forget or misclassify their past labor market transitions. The observed data are adjusted for errors via a measurement-error mechanism. The parameters of the distribution of the true data, and those of the measurement-error mechanism are estimated by a two-stage method. The results, based on ...

  12. Using social network analysis tools in ecology : Markov process transition models applied to the seasonal trophic network dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Luczkovich, Joseph J.; Borgatti, Stephen P.; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Luczkovich, S.P.


    Ecosystem components interact in complex ways and change over time due to a variety of both internal and external influences (climate change, season cycles, human impacts). Such processes need to be modeled dynamically using appropriate statistical methods for assessing change in network structure.

  13. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    models to the panel context. The strategy consists of model specification based on homogeneity tests, parameter estimation, and model evaluation, including tests of parameter constancy and no remaining heterogeneity. The model is applied to describing firms' investment decisions in the presence...

  14. Phase transition in tensor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delepouve, Thibault [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS UMR 8627, Université Paris Sud,91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS UMR 7644, École Polytechnique,91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Gurau, Razvan [Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS UMR 7644, École Polytechnique,91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N, N2L 2Y5, Waterloo, ON (Canada)


    Generalizing matrix models, tensor models generate dynamical triangulations in any dimension and support a 1/N expansion. Using the intermediate field representation we explicitly rewrite a quartic tensor model as a field theory for a fluctuation field around a vacuum state corresponding to the resummation of the entire leading order in 1/N (a resummation of the melonic family). We then prove that the critical regime in which the continuum limit in the sense of dynamical triangulations is reached is precisely a phase transition in the field theory sense for the fluctuation field.

  15. Modelling societal transitions with agent transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Schilperoord (Michel); J. Rotmans (Jan); N. Bergman (Noam)


    textabstractTransition models explain long-term and large-scale processes fundamentally changing the structure of a societal system. Our concern is that most transition models are too static. Although they capture a move of focus from static equilibria to transitions between dynamic equilibria, they

  16. Transition sum rules in the shell model (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Johnson, Calvin W.


    An important characterization of electromagnetic and weak transitions in atomic nuclei are sum rules. We focus on the non-energy-weighted sum rule (NEWSR), or total strength, and the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR); the ratio of the EWSR to the NEWSR is the centroid or average energy of transition strengths from an nuclear initial state to all allowed final states. These sum rules can be expressed as expectation values of operators, which in the case of the EWSR is a double commutator. While most prior applications of the double commutator have been to special cases, we derive general formulas for matrix elements of both operators in a shell model framework (occupation space), given the input matrix elements for the nuclear Hamiltonian and for the transition operator. With these new formulas, we easily evaluate centroids of transition strength functions, with no need to calculate daughter states. We apply this simple tool to a number of nuclides and demonstrate the sum rules follow smooth secular behavior as a function of initial energy, as well as compare the electric dipole (E 1 ) sum rule against the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn version. We also find surprising systematic behaviors for ground-state electric quadrupole (E 2 ) centroids in the s d shell.

  17. Model-independent Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy (United States)

    Aronson, Erik; Piskunov, Nikolai


    We propose a new data analysis method for obtaining transmission spectra of exoplanet atmospheres and brightness variation across the stellar disk from transit observations. The new method is capable of recovering exoplanet atmosphere absorption spectra and stellar specific intensities without relying on theoretical models of stars and planets. We simultaneously fit both stellar specific intensity and planetary radius directly to transit light curves. This allows stellar models to be removed from the data analysis. Furthermore, we use a data quality weighted filtering technique to achieve an optimal trade-off between spectral resolution and reconstruction fidelity homogenizing the signal-to-noise ratio across the wavelength range. Such an approach is more efficient than conventional data binning onto a low-resolution wavelength grid. We demonstrate that our analysis is capable of reproducing results achieved by using an explicit quadratic limb-darkening equation and that the filtering technique helps eliminate spurious spectral features in regions with strong telluric absorption. The method is applied to the VLT FORS2 observations of the exoplanets GJ 1214 b and WASP-49 b, and our results are in agreement with previous studies. Comparisons between obtained stellar specific intensity and numerical models indicates that the method is capable of accurately reconstructing the specific intensity. The proposed method enables more robust characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres by separating derivation of planetary transmission and stellar specific intensity spectra (that is model-independent) from chemical and physical interpretation.

  18. The transition probabilities of the reciprocity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.B.


    The reciprocity model is a continuous-time Markov chain model used for modeling longitudinal network data. A new explicit expression is derived for its transition probability matrix. This expression can be checked relatively easily. Some properties of the transition probabilities are given, as well

  19. Improved transition models for cepstral trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J


    Full Text Available is ideal for the investigation of contextual effects on cepstral trajectories. We show that modelling improvements, such as continuity constraints on parameter values and more flexible transition models, systematically improve the robustness of our...

  20. Culture in Transition: A learning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baca, Susan


    of spare capacity, desire, focus, and information. By integrating the element of culture, both in the organizational sense and that pertaining to diversity, otherwise overseen aspects of transition are brought into view, with the potential of reducing stress and increasing job satisfaction. The model...... is useful for both management and labor in regulating transition processes, thus making a contribution to industrial relations....

  1. Applied engineering fundamentals: The transition from novice to engineering manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murawski, M.N.; Tomchin, E.M.


    This paper describes the development and implementation of Applied Engineering Fundamentals, a course designed for newly graduated engineers and scientists serving as technical interns within the US Department of Energy (DOE). As specialists with varying undergraduate and graduate degrees, interns need further training to prepare them for the multidisciplinary environments they will encounter as they become engineering managers. This course is designed to build on individuals strengths in diverse engineering and scientific disciplines, provide instruction in less familiar disciplines, and develop skills in integrating multiple disciplines to solve real-world problems related to nuclear facilities. The course balances systems thinking with state-of-the-art approaches to curriculum development to provide training in technical content and to foster development of professional skills

  2. Unlocking Hospitality Managers Career Transitions through Applying Schein's Career Anchors Theory (United States)

    McGuire, David; Polla, Giovana; Heidl, Britta


    Purpose: This paper seeks to unlock the career transitions of hospitality managers through applying Schein's career anchors theory. It seeks to understand how Schein's Career Anchors help explain the career transitions of managers in the Scottish hospitality industry. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts a non-sequential multi-method…

  3. SCOPE model applied for rapeseed in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardo, Nuria; Sánchez, M. Luisa; Su, Zhongbo; Pérez, Isidro A.; García, M. Angeles


    The integrated SCOPE (Soil, Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy balance) model, coupling radiative transfer theory and biochemistry, was applied to a biodiesel crop grown in a Spanish agricultural area. Energy fluxes and CO2 exchange were simulated with this model for the period spanning

  4. Phase transition in the hadron gas model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.; Petrov, V.K.; Zinov'ev, G.M.


    A class of statistical models of hadron gas allowing an analytical solution is considered. A mechanism of a possible phase transition in such a system is found and conditions for its occurence are determined [ru

  5. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.


    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  6. Complexity and phase transitions in a holographic QCD model (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Jun


    Applying the "Complexity = Action" conjecture, we study the holographic complexity close to crossover/phase transition in a holographic QCD model proposed by Gubser et al. This model can realize three types of phase transition, crossover or first and second order, depending on the parameters of the dilaton potential. The re-scaled late-time growth rate of holographic complexity density for the three cases is calculated. Our results show that it experiences a fast drop/jump close to the critical point while approaching constants far beyond the critical temperature. Moreover, close to the critical temperature, it shows a behavior characterizing the type of the transition. These features suggest that the growth rate of the holographic complexity may be used as a good parameter to characterize the phase transition. The Lloyd's bound is always satisfied for the cases we considered but only saturated for the conformal case.

  7. Applying the WEAP Model to Water Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Li, Wei

    Water resources assessment is a tool to provide decision makers with an appropriate basis to make informed judgments regarding the objectives and targets to be addressed during the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process. The study shows how water resources assessment can be applied in SEA...... in assessing the effects on water resources using a case study on a Coal Industry Development Plan in an arid region in North Western China. In the case the WEAP model (Water Evaluation And Planning System) were used to simulate various scenarios using a diversity of technological instruments like irrigation...... efficiency, treatment and reuse of water. The WEAP model was applied to the Ordos catchment where it was used for the first time in China. The changes in water resource utilization in Ordos basin were assessed with the model. It was found that the WEAP model is a useful tool for water resource assessment...

  8. Applied probability models with optimization applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M


    Concise advanced-level introduction to stochastic processes that frequently arise in applied probability. Largely self-contained text covers Poisson process, renewal theory, Markov chains, inventory theory, Brownian motion and continuous time optimization models, much more. Problems and references at chapter ends. ""Excellent introduction."" - Journal of the American Statistical Association. Bibliography. 1970 edition.

  9. Optimization models in a transition economy

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, Ivan V; Koshlai, Ludmilla


    This book opens new avenues in understanding mathematical models within the context of a  transition economy. The exposition lays out the methods for combining different mathematical structures and tools to effectively build the next model that will accurately reflect real world economic processes. Mathematical modeling of weather phenomena allows us to forecast certain essential weather parameters without any possibility of changing them. By contrast, modeling of transition economies gives us the freedom to not only predict changes in important indexes of all types of economies, but also to influence them more effectively in the desired direction. Simply put: any economy, including a transitional one, can be controlled. This book is useful to anyone who wants to increase profits within their business, or improve the quality of their family life and the economic area they live in. It is beneficial for undergraduate and graduate students specializing in the fields of Economic Informatics, Economic Cybernetic...

  10. Modelling the energy transition in cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Felix [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Schwarze, Bjoern; Spiekermann, Klaus; Wegener, Michael [Spiekermann und Wegener Urban and Regional Research, Dortmund (Germany)


    The history of cities is a history of energy transitions. In the medieval city heating and cooking occurred with wood and peat. The growth of the industrial city in the 19th century was built on coal and electricity. The sprawling metropolis of the 20th century was made possible by oil and gas. How will the city of the 21st century look after the next energy transition from fossil to renewable energy? This paper reports on the extension of an urban land-use transport interaction model to a model of the energy transition in the Ruhr Area, a five-million agglomeration in Germany. The paper presents the planned model extensions and how they are to be integrated into the model and shows first preliminary results.

  11. Applied Integer Programming Modeling and Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Der-San; Dang, Yu


    An accessible treatment of the modeling and solution of integer programming problems, featuring modern applications and software In order to fully comprehend the algorithms associated with integer programming, it is important to understand not only how algorithms work, but also why they work. Applied Integer Programming features a unique emphasis on this point, focusing on problem modeling and solution using commercial software. Taking an application-oriented approach, this book addresses the art and science of mathematical modeling related to the mixed integer programming (MIP) framework and

  12. Interval Forecast for Smooth Transition Autoregressive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we propose a simple method for constructing interval forecast for smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) model. This interval forecast is based on bootstrapping the residual error of the estimated STAR model for each forecast horizon and computing various Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. This new ...

  13. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [], which is based......The geomagnetic field varies on a variety of time- and length scales, which are only rudimentary considered in most present field models. The part of the observed field that can not be explained by a given model, the model residuals, is often considered as an estimate of the data uncertainty (which...... on 5 years of Ørsted and CHAMP data, and includes secular variation and acceleration, as well as low-degree external (magnetospheric) and induced fields. The analysis is done in order to find the statistical behaviour of the space-time structure of the residuals, as a proxy for the data covariances...

  14. Applied research in uncertainty modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ayyub, Bilal


    Uncertainty has been a concern to engineers, managers, and scientists for many years. For a long time uncertainty has been considered synonymous with random, stochastic, statistic, or probabilistic. Since the early sixties views on uncertainty have become more heterogeneous. In the past forty years numerous tools that model uncertainty, above and beyond statistics, have been proposed by several engineers and scientists. The tool/method to model uncertainty in a specific context should really be chosen by considering the features of the phenomenon under consideration, not independent of what is known about the system and what causes uncertainty. In this fascinating overview of the field, the authors provide broad coverage of uncertainty analysis/modeling and its application. Applied Research in Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis presents the perspectives of various researchers and practitioners on uncertainty analysis and modeling outside their own fields and domain expertise. Rather than focusing explicitly on...

  15. A Model of Mental State Transition Network (United States)

    Xiang, Hua; Jiang, Peilin; Xiao, Shuang; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Emotion is one of the most essential and basic attributes of human intelligence. Current AI (Artificial Intelligence) research is concentrating on physical components of emotion, rarely is it carried out from the view of psychology directly(1). Study on the model of artificial psychology is the first step in the development of human-computer interaction. As affective computing remains unpredictable, creating a reasonable mental model becomes the primary task for building a hybrid system. A pragmatic mental model is also the fundament of some key topics such as recognition and synthesis of emotions. In this paper a Mental State Transition Network Model(2) is proposed to detect human emotions. By a series of psychological experiments, we present a new way to predict coming human's emotions depending on the various current emotional states under various stimuli. Besides, people in different genders and characters are taken into consideration in our investigation. According to the psychological experiments data derived from 200 questionnaires, a Mental State Transition Network Model for describing the transitions in distribution among the emotions and relationships between internal mental situations and external are concluded. Further more the coefficients of the mental transition network model were achieved. Comparing seven relative evaluating experiments, an average precision rate of 0.843 is achieved using a set of samples for the proposed model.

  16. Magnetic Phase Transitions of CeSb. II: Effects of Applied Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, G.; Fischer, P.; Hälg, W.


    For pt.I see ibid., vol.11, p.345 (1978). The metamagnetic phase transition and the associated phase diagram of the anomalous antiferromagnet CeSb were determined in a neutron diffraction study of the magnetic ordering of CeSb single crystals in applied magnetic fields parallel to the (001...... magnetic fields. The observed magnetic structures do not correspond to the stable configurations expected from the molecular field theory of the face-centred cubic lattice. The change from a first-order transition at the Neel temperature in zero field to second-order transition at high fields points...

  17. Applied Mathematics, Modelling and Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Kotsireas, Ilias; Makarov, Roman; Melnik, Roderick; Shodiev, Hasan


    The Applied Mathematics, Modelling, and Computational Science (AMMCS) conference aims to promote interdisciplinary research and collaboration. The contributions in this volume cover the latest research in mathematical and computational sciences, modeling, and simulation as well as their applications in natural and social sciences, engineering and technology, industry, and finance. The 2013 conference, the second in a series of AMMCS meetings, was held August 26–30 and organized in cooperation with AIMS and SIAM, with support from the Fields Institute in Toronto, and Wilfrid Laurier University. There were many young scientists at AMMCS-2013, both as presenters and as organizers. This proceedings contains refereed papers contributed by the participants of the AMMCS-2013 after the conference. This volume is suitable for researchers and graduate students, mathematicians and engineers, industrialists, and anyone who would like to delve into the interdisciplinary research of applied and computational mathematics ...

  18. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne


    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  19. Applying business management models in health care. (United States)

    Trisolini, Michael G


    Most health care management training programmes and textbooks focus on only one or two models or conceptual frameworks, but the increasing complexity of health care organizations and their environments worldwide means that a broader perspective is needed. This paper reviews five management models developed for business organizations and analyses issues related to their application in health care. Three older, more 'traditional' models are first presented. These include the functional areas model, the tasks model and the roles model. Each is shown to provide a valuable perspective, but to have limitations if used in isolation. Two newer, more 'innovative' models are next discussed. These include total quality management (TQM) and reengineering. They have shown potential for enabling dramatic improvements in quality and cost, but have also been found to be more difficult to implement. A series of 'lessons learned' are presented to illustrate key success factors for applying them in health care organizations. In sum, each of the five models is shown to provide a useful perspective for health care management. Health care managers should gain experience and training with a broader set of business management models.

  20. The Work of Cultural Transition: An Emerging Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Ryba


    Full Text Available In today’s uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes’ psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews with 15 professional and semi-professional athletes, focusing particularly on the cultural transition aspect of their transnational athletic careers. The aims of the study were to identify the developmental tasks of cultural transitions and strategies/mechanisms through which cultural transitions were enacted. Three underlying mechanisms of the transition process that assisted athletic career adaptability were social repositioning, negotiation of cultural practices, and meaning reconstruction. Based on the data analyses, a temporal model of cultural transition is proposed. The results of this research provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers’ adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing.

  1. The Work of Cultural Transition: An Emerging Model. (United States)

    Ryba, Tatiana V; Stambulova, Natalia B; Ronkainen, Noora J


    In today's uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes' psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews with 15 professional and semi-professional athletes, focusing particularly on the cultural transition aspect of their transnational athletic careers. The aims of the study were to identify the developmental tasks of cultural transitions and strategies/mechanisms through which cultural transitions were enacted. Three underlying mechanisms of the transition process that assisted athletic career adaptability were social repositioning, negotiation of cultural practices, and meaning reconstruction. Based on the data analyses, a temporal model of cultural transition is proposed. The results of this research provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers' adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing.

  2. Culture in Transition: A learning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baca, Susan


    of spare capacity, desire, focus, and information. By integrating the element of culture, both in the organizational sense and that pertaining to diversity, otherwise overseen aspects of transition are brought into view, with the potential of reducing stress and increasing job satisfaction. The model...

  3. Modeling Network Transition Constraints with Hypergraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven


    Discrete time dynamic graphs are frequently used to model multicommodity flows or activity paths through constrained resources, but simple graphs fail to capture the interaction effects of resource transitions. The resulting schedules are not operationally feasible, and return inflated objective...... values. A directed hypergraph formulation is derived to address railway network sequencing constraints, and an experimental problem sample solved to estimate the magnitude of objective inflation when interaction effects are ignored. The model is used to demonstrate the value of advance scheduling...

  4. Applied Regression Modeling A Business Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pardoe, Iain


    An applied and concise treatment of statistical regression techniques for business students and professionals who have little or no background in calculusRegression analysis is an invaluable statistical methodology in business settings and is vital to model the relationship between a response variable and one or more predictor variables, as well as the prediction of a response value given values of the predictors. In view of the inherent uncertainty of business processes, such as the volatility of consumer spending and the presence of market uncertainty, business professionals use regression a

  5. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction. (United States)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone O; Møller, Arne; Lou, Hans C


    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling Transition Towards Sustainable Transportation Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson


    two energy sectors. In order to deal with the raised issue, authors of this paper developed amethodology for calculation of the transition towards sustainable transport sector, focusing on thesolutions that are already available. Furthermore, as a part of the model, a detailed mapping ofresources......In a transition towards 100% renewable energy system, transportation sector is rarely dealt withusing the holistic approach and measuring its impact on the whole energy system. Furthermore, assolutions for power and heat sectors are clearer, it is a tendency of the researchers to focus on thelatter...... needed has been carried out for each of the alternatives. It was shown that theelectrification of the transportation sector is a crucial point in transition, while for the transportmodes that cannot be electrified, or shifted to different transportation modes, four alternatives weredefined: synthetic...

  7. Efficient Estimation of Non-Linear Dynamic Panel Data Models with Application to Smooth Transition Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørgens, Tue; Skeels, Christopher L.; Wurtz, Allan

    This paper explores estimation of a class of non-linear dynamic panel data models with additive unobserved individual-specific effects. The models are specified by moment restrictions. The class includes the panel data AR(p) model and panel smooth transition models. We derive an efficient set...... of moment restrictions for estimation and apply the results to estimation of panel smooth transition models with fixed effects, where the transition may be determined endogenously. The performance of the GMM estimator, both in terms of estimation precision and forecasting performance, is examined in a Monte...... Carlo experiment. We find that estimation of the parameters in the transition function can be problematic but that there may be significant benefits in terms of forecast performance....

  8. Commercial Consolidation Model Applied to Transport Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme de Aragão, J.J.; Santos Fontes Pereira, L. dos; Yamashita, Y.


    Since the 1990s, transport concessions, including public-private partnerships (PPPs), have been increasingly adopted by governments as an alternative for financing and operations in public investments, especially in transport infrastructure. The advantage pointed out by proponents of these models lies in merging the expertise and capital of the private sector to the public interest. Several arrangements are possible and have been employed in different cases. After the duration of the first PPP contracts in transportation, many authors have analyzed the success and failure factors of partnerships. The occurrence of failures in some stages of the process can greatly encumber the public administration, incurring losses to the fiscal responsibility of the competent bodies. This article aims to propose a new commercial consolidation model applied to transport infrastructure to ensure fiscal sustainability and overcome the weaknesses of current models. Initially, a systematic review of the literature covering studies on transport concessions between 1990 and 2015 is offered, where the different approaches between various countries are compared and the critical success factors indicated in the studies are identified. In the subsequent part of the paper, an approach for the commercial consolidation of the infrastructure concessions is presented, where the concessionary is paid following a finalistic performance model, which includes the overall fiscal balance of regional growth. Finally, the papers analyses the usefulness of the model in coping with the critical success factors explained before. (Author)

  9. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu


    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  10. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.


    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic flow is simplified and classified into three traffic states depending on the propagation of congestion. The traffic states are represented on a phase diagram with the upstream demand axis and the interaction strength axis which was defined in this research. The states diagram and the phase diagram provide a basis for the development of the dynamic flow-density relation. The first-order hydrodynamic traffic flow model was programmed according to the cell-transmission scheme extended by the modification of flow dependent sending/receiving functions, the classification of cells and the determination strategy for the flow-density relation in the cells. The unreasonable results of macroscopic traffic flow models, which may occur in the first and last cells in certain conditions are alleviated by applying buffer cells between the traffic data and the model. The sending/receiving functions of the cells are determined dynamically based on the classification of the

  11. Partial phase transition and quantum effects in helimagnetic films under an applied magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hog, Sahbi, E-mail:; Diep, H.T., E-mail:


    We study the phase transition in a helimagnetic film with Heisenberg spins under an applied magnetic field in the c direction perpendicular to the film. The helical structure is due to the antiferromagnetic interaction between next-nearest neighbors in the c direction. Helimagnetic films in zero field are known to have a strong modification of the in-plane helical angle near the film surfaces. We show that spins react to a moderate applied magnetic field by creating a particular spin configuration along the c axis. With increasing temperature (T), using Monte Carlo simulations we show that the system undergoes a phase transition triggered by the destruction of the ordering of a number of layers. This partial phase transition is shown to be intimately related to the ground-state spin structure. We show why some layers undergo a phase transition while others do not. The Green's function method for non collinear magnets is also carried out to investigate effects of quantum fluctuations. Non-uniform zero-point spin contractions and a crossover of layer magnetizations at low T are shown and discussed. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to study a helimagnetic film in a field. • Partial phase transition is found in some layers of the film. • Mechanism leading to the partial disordering is analyzed using the ground state symmetry. • Quantum fluctuations at surface are calculated using the Green's function.

  12. An Ordered Regression Model to Predict Transit Passengers’ Behavioural Intentions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oña, J. de; Oña, R. de; Eboli, L.; Forciniti, C.; Mazzulla, G.


    Passengers’ behavioural intentions after experiencing transit services can be viewed as signals that show if a customer continues to utilise a company’s service. Users’ behavioural intentions can depend on a series of aspects that are difficult to measure directly. More recently, transit passengers’ behavioural intentions have been just considered together with the concepts of service quality and customer satisfaction. Due to the characteristics of the ways for evaluating passengers’ behavioural intentions, service quality and customer satisfaction, we retain that this kind of issue could be analysed also by applying ordered regression models. This work aims to propose just an ordered probit model for analysing service quality factors that can influence passengers’ behavioural intentions towards the use of transit services. The case study is the LRT of Seville (Spain), where a survey was conducted in order to collect the opinions of the passengers about the existing transit service, and to have a measure of the aspects that can influence the intentions of the users to continue using the transit service in the future. (Author)

  13. Terahertz spectroscopy applied to food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe

    Water plays a crucial role in the quality of food. Apart from the natural water content of a food product, the state of that water is very important. Water can be found integrated into the biological material or it can be added during production of the product. Currently it is difficult to differ......Water plays a crucial role in the quality of food. Apart from the natural water content of a food product, the state of that water is very important. Water can be found integrated into the biological material or it can be added during production of the product. Currently it is difficult...... to differentiate between these types of water in subsequent quality controls. This thesis describes terahertz time-domain spectroscopy applied on aqueous food model systems, with particular focus on ethanol-water mixtures and confined water pools in inverse micelles....

  14. A Cooperation Model Applied in a Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose I. Rodriguez


    Full Text Available The need for collaboration in a global world has become a key factor for success for many organizations and individuals. However in several regions and organizations in the world, it has not happened yet. One of the settings where major obstacles occur for collaboration is in the business arena, mainly because of competitive beliefs that cooperation could hurt profitability. We have found such behavior in a wide variety of countries, in advanced and developing economies. Such cultural behaviors or traits characterized entrepreneurs by working in isolation, avoiding the possibilities of building clusters to promote regional development. The needs to improve the essential abilities that conforms cooperation are evident. It is also very difficult to change such conduct with adults. So we decided to work with children to prepare future generations to live in a cooperative world, so badly hit by greed and individualism nowadays. We have validated that working with children at an early age improves such behavior. This paper develops a model to enhance the essential abilities in order to improve cooperation. The model has been validated by applying it at a kindergarten school.

  15. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.


    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  16. Mott transitions in the periodic Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, David E; Galpin, Martin R; Mannouch, Jonathan


    The periodic Anderson model (PAM) is studied within the framework of dynamical mean-field theory, with particular emphasis on the interaction-driven Mott transition it contains, and on resultant Mott insulators of both Mott–Hubbard and charge-transfer type. The form of the PAM phase diagram is first deduced on general grounds using two exact results, over the full range of model parameters and including metallic, Mott, Kondo and band insulator phases. The effective low-energy model which describes the PAM in the vicinity of a Mott transition is then shown to be a one-band Hubbard model, with effective hoppings that are not in general solely nearest neighbour, but decay exponentially with distance. This mapping is shown to have a range of implications for the physics of the problem, from phase boundaries to single-particle dynamics; all of which are confirmed and supplemented by NRG calculations. Finally we consider the locally degenerate, non-Fermi liquid Mott insulator, to describe which requires a two-self-energy description. This is shown to yield a number of exact results for the associated local moment, charge, and interaction-renormalised levels, together with a generalisation of Luttinger’s theorem to the Mott insulator. (paper)

  17. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.


    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  18. Applying the Multi-level Perspective on Socio-technical transitions to Rentier States : The Case of Renewable Energy Transitions in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osunmuyiwa, Olufolahan; Biermann, F.H.B.; Kalfagianni, A.


    Although numerous studies have been conducted in recent years on energy transitions, they have been predominately developed and applied in industrialized countries. It is however important to examine the applicability of transition theories, as they are currently formulated, beyond OECD countries.

  19. Modelling gait transition in two-legged animals (United States)

    Pinto, Carla M. A.; Santos, Alexandra P.


    The study of locomotor patterns has been a major research goal in the last decades. Understanding how intralimb and interlimb coordination works out so well in animals' locomotion is a hard and challenging task. Many models have been proposed to model animal's rhythms. These models have also been applied to the control of rhythmic movements of adaptive legged robots, namely biped, quadruped and other designs. In this paper we study gait transition in a central pattern generator (CPG) model for bipeds, the 4-cells model. This model is proposed by Golubitsky, Stewart, Buono and Collins and is studied further by Pinto and Golubitsky. We briefly resume the work done by Pinto and Golubitsky. We compute numerically gait transition in the 4-cells CPG model for bipeds. We use Morris-Lecar equations and Wilson-Cowan equations as the internal dynamics for each cell. We also consider two types of coupling between the cells: diffusive and synaptic. We obtain secondary gaits by bifurcation of primary gaits, by varying the coupling strengths. Nevertheless, some bifurcating branches could not be obtained, emphasizing the fact that despite analytically those bifurcations exist, finding them is a hard task and requires variation of other parameters of the equations. We note that the type of coupling did not influence the results.

  20. Microscopic model of the glass transition and the glassy state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.


    A microscopic model of the glass transition and the glassy state is presented. It is exactly solvable, and offers a unified view of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium aspects of the glass transition. It also provides a statistical-mechanical justification of the irreversible thermodynamic models of the glass transition proposed earlier. (author)

  1. Spectral methods applied to Ising models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFacio, B.; Hammer, C.L.; Shrauner, J.E.


    Several applications of Ising models are reviewed. A 2-d Ising model is studied, and the problem of describing an interface boundary in a 2-d Ising model is addressed. Spectral methods are used to formulate a soluble model for the surface tension of a many-Fermion system

  2. E1 transitions in the Harari quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, S.G.


    The radiative decays psi(3.684)→γchi(sup(3)P sub(J)) and chi(sup(3)Psub(J)→chipsi(3.1) have been analyzed within the framework of the Harari quark model. The spatial matrix elements describing these L=1 to L=0 transitions have been estimated from the A 2 (1310)→ chirho(770) mode by applying U(6) symmetry at the quark level. The resulting decay widths, which compare very well with experimental data, have subsequently been used to determine the SU(3)sub(H) assignments for the chi states

  3. Modelling transitions in urban water systems. (United States)

    Rauch, W; Urich, C; Bach, P M; Rogers, B C; de Haan, F J; Brown, R R; Mair, M; McCarthy, D T; Kleidorfer, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Deletic, A


    Long term planning of urban water infrastructure requires acknowledgement that transitions in the water system are driven by changes in the urban environment, as well as societal dynamics. Inherent to the complexity of these underlying processes is that the dynamics of a system's evolution cannot be explained by linear cause-effect relationships and cannot be predicted under narrow sets of assumptions. Planning therefore needs to consider the functional behaviour and performance of integrated flexible infrastructure systems under a wide range of future conditions. This paper presents the first step towards a new generation of integrated planning tools that take such an exploratory planning approach. The spatially explicit model, denoted DAnCE4Water, integrates urban development patterns, water infrastructure changes and the dynamics of socio-institutional changes. While the individual components of the DAnCE4Water model (i.e. modules for simulation of urban development, societal dynamics and evolution/performance of water infrastructure) have been developed elsewhere, this paper presents their integration into a single model. We explain the modelling framework of DAnCE4Water, its potential utility and its software implementation. The integrated model is validated for the case study of an urban catchment located in Melbourne, Australia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Applied Creativity: The Creative Marketing Breakthrough Model (United States)

    Titus, Philip A.


    Despite the increasing importance of personal creativity in today's business environment, few conceptual creativity frameworks have been presented in the marketing education literature. The purpose of this article is to advance the integration of creativity instruction into marketing classrooms by presenting an applied creative marketing…

  5. Applying mechanistic models in bioprocess development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Bodla, Vijaya Krishna; Carlquist, Magnus


    The available knowledge on the mechanisms of a bioprocess system is central to process analytical technology. In this respect, mechanistic modeling has gained renewed attention, since a mechanistic model can provide an excellent summary of available process knowledge. Such a model therefore......, experimental data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations are used. The data are described with the well-known model of Sonnleitner and Käppeli (Biotechnol Bioeng 28:927-937, 1986) and the model is analyzed further. The methods used are generic, and can be transferred easily to other, more complex case...

  6. Modeling Transit Patterns Via Mobile App Logs. (United States)


    Transit planners need detailed information of the trips people take using public transit in : order to design more optimal routes, address new construction projects, and address the : constantly changing needs of a city and metro region. Better trans...

  7. Modelling Hegemonic Power Transition in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Brizhinev


    Full Text Available Cyberspace is the newest domain of conflict and cooperation between states. In cyberspace, as in all other domains, land, sea, air, and space, these interactions often lead to the emergence of hegemons which are characterised by their predominant influence over global world order and all other states. We examined the emergence and collapse of hegemons in a modelled cyberspace world through the notions of power transition and power diffusion. We used Repast Simphony to construct a simple agent-based model (ABM of a system of states interacting both competitively and cooperatively in this world. Our simple model parsimoniously captures the character of the real international system of states through simple parameters of wealth and power determining the outcome of attack or cooperation amongst pairwise interacting states. We found hegemons of global world order emerged in cyberspace as they do in the other traditional domains from models with these few parameters. And we found that hegemons, contrary to traditional understanding, are not exceptional states but merely occupy the tail of a continuous distribution of power and lifetimes. We also found that hegemony in the system depends on two perhaps unexpected parameters: the difficulty of acquiring power as wealth increases and the amount of cooperation between states. And as a consequence, we argue that cyberspace, as a power-diffuse domain where cooperation is easier than elsewhere, is less suited to the kind of hegemony we see in the traditional domains of state interaction.

  8. Selection Bias in Educational Transition Models: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads

    Most studies using Mare’s (1980, 1981) seminal model of educational transitions find that the effect of family background decreases across transitions. Recently, Cameron and Heckman (1998, 2001) have argued that the “waning coefficients” in the Mare model are driven by selection on unobserved...... the United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, and the Netherlands shows that when we take selection into account the effect of family background variables on educational transitions is largely constant across transitions. We also discuss several difficulties in estimating educational transition models which...

  9. A Transitive Model For Artificial Intelligence Applications (United States)

    Dwyer, John


    A wide range of mathematical techniques have been applied to artificial intelligence problems and some techniques have proved more suitable than others for certain types of problem. We formally define a mathematical model which incorporates some of these successful techniques and we discuss its intrinsic properties. Universal applicability of the model is demonstrated through specific applications to problems drawn from rule-based systems, digital hardware design and constraint satisfaction networks. We also give indications of potential applications to other artificial intelligence problems, including knowledge engineering.

  10. Models of agglomeration and glass transition

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Richard


    This book is for any physicist interested in new vistas in the domain of non-crystalline condensed matter, aperiodic and quasi-crystalline networks and especially glass physics and chemistry. Students with an elementary background in thermodynamics and statistical physics will find the book accessible. The physics of glasses is extensively covered, focusing on their thermal and mechanical properties, as well as various models leading to the formation of the glassy states of matter from overcooled liquids. The models of agglomeration and growth are also applied to describe the formation of quasicrystals, fullerenes and, in biology, to describe virus assembly pathways.

  11. 3D CFD computations of transitional flows using DES and a correlation based transition model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    The report describes the application of the correlation based transition model of of Menter et. al. [1, 2] to the cylinder drag crisis and the stalled flow over an DU-96-W-351 airfoil using the DES methodology. When predicting the flow over airfoils and rotors, the laminar-turbulent transition...... process can be important for the aerodynamic performance. Today, the most widespread approach is to use fully turbulent computations, where the transitional process is ignored and the entire boundary layer on the wings or airfoils is handled by the turbulence model. The correlation based transition model...

  12. Modelling and Applying Oss Adoption Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.; Costal, D.; Ayala, C.P.; Haaland, K.; Glott, R.


    Increasing adoption of Open Source Software (OSS) in information system engineering has led to the emergence of different OSS business strategies that affect and shape organizations’ business models. In this context, organizational modeling needs to reconcile efficiently OSS adoption strategies with

  13. Crop growth model WOFOST applied to potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de G.H.J.; Diepen, van C.A.; Reinds, G.J.


    The WOFOST model was calibrated with an experiment on yield effects of drought in potatoes, using data on weather, soil moisture and crop calendar. Then, crop growth and development were predicted for the next year, using planting date and weather data. The model is described. The adjustments in the

  14. Applying the Sport Education Model to Tennis (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri


    The physical education field abounds with theoretically sound curricular approaches such as fitness education, skill theme approach, tactical approach, and sport education. In an era that emphasizes authentic sport experiences, the Sport Education Model includes unique features that sets it apart from other curricular models and can be a valuable…

  15. Applying Olap Model On Public Finance Management


    Dorde Pavlovic; Branko Gledovic


    Budget control is derivate from one of the main functions of budget, that aims that the budget is control instrument of acquiring and pending of budget needs. OLAP model represents an instrument that finds its place in the budget planning process, executive phases of budget, accountancy, etc. There is a direct correlation between the OLAP model and public finance management process.

  16. Applied modelling and computing in social science

    CERN Document Server

    Povh, Janez


    In social science outstanding results are yielded by advanced simulation methods, based on state of the art software technologies and an appropriate combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This book presents examples of successful applications of modelling and computing in social science: business and logistic process simulation and optimization, deeper knowledge extractions from big data, better understanding and predicting of social behaviour and modelling health and environment changes.

  17. Hierarchic stochastic modelling applied to intracellular Ca(2+ signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Moenke

    Full Text Available Important biological processes like cell signalling and gene expression have noisy components and are very complex at the same time. Mathematical analysis of such systems has often been limited to the study of isolated subsystems, or approximations are used that are difficult to justify. Here we extend a recently published method (Thurley and Falcke, PNAS 2011 which is formulated in observable system configurations instead of molecular transitions. This reduces the number of system states by several orders of magnitude and avoids fitting of kinetic parameters. The method is applied to Ca(2+ signalling. Ca(2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger transmitting information by stochastic sequences of concentration spikes, which arise by coupling of subcellular Ca(2+ release events (puffs. We derive analytical expressions for a mechanistic Ca(2+ model, based on recent data from live cell imaging, and calculate Ca(2+ spike statistics in dependence on cellular parameters like stimulus strength or number of Ca(2+ channels. The new approach substantiates a generic Ca(2+ model, which is a very convenient way to simulate Ca(2+ spike sequences with correct spiking statistics.

  18. The Ising model and its applications to a phase transition of biological interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, G.G.; Stein-Barana, A.M.; Zuckermann, M.J.


    It is investigated a gel-liquid crystal phase transition employing a two-state model equivalent to the Spin 1/2 Ising Model with applied magnetic field. The model is studied from the standpoint of the cluster variational method of Kikuchi for cooperative phenomena. (M.W.O.) [pt

  19. Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations (United States)

    Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

    Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

  20. Applying Transition Action Detail Strategy on Written Text of EFL Young Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeasy Agustina Sari


    Full Text Available Mastering English, as foreign language need a lot of time since it is a continuing process. English foreign language of young learners, however, can’t be mastered by memorizing. The young learners should have strategy, which can be used as the direction of the classroom activites to help the students enhancing of language skill, specially in writting. There were the problem to be solved in this study, namely the students have difficult to construct the written text. The strategies which were used in the learning process were boring. Hence, the researcher tried to solve students’ difficulty in written text through Transition Action Detail Strategy. This study focused on two variables. The independent variable was Transition Action Detail Strategy, meanwhile dependent variable was written text. The researcher used true experimental design which consist of control group and experimental group. The subject of this research was students of young learner at the eight grade of English Course at Payakumbuh. The result revealed that Transition Action Detail Strategy was a good strategy that can influence the students’ narrative text. By using df.70, the writer not found it in the table. Because 70 was higher than 60 and smaller than 120. Then, the results from interpolation by using df.70, it could be known that the critical value of   t-table for the 5% level was 1.990, the critical value of t-table for the 1% level was 2.638. From these all the data analysis, it can be seen that t-observed (4.763 was higher than t-table (5% =1.990, 1% = 2.638. The data confirm that t-observed  is higher than t-table, therefore it can be inferred that Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected. It means that there is significant influence of applying Transition Action Detail Strategy on Wwritten Text of Young learners.   Key words: Transition Action Detail Strategy, Young Learners, English Foreign Language, English  Course.

  1. Safety models incorporating graph theory based transit indicators. (United States)

    Quintero, Liliana; Sayed, Tarek; Wahba, Mohamed M


    There is a considerable need for tools to enable the evaluation of the safety of transit networks at the planning stage. One interesting approach for the planning of public transportation systems is the study of networks. Network techniques involve the analysis of systems by viewing them as a graph composed of a set of vertices (nodes) and edges (links). Once the transport system is visualized as a graph, various network properties can be evaluated based on the relationships between the network elements. Several indicators can be calculated including connectivity, coverage, directness and complexity, among others. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between network-based transit indicators and safety. The study develops macro-level collision prediction models that explicitly incorporate transit physical and operational elements and transit network indicators as explanatory variables. Several macro-level (zonal) collision prediction models were developed using a generalized linear regression technique, assuming a negative binomial error structure. The models were grouped into four main themes: transit infrastructure, transit network topology, transit route design, and transit performance and operations. The safety models showed that collisions were significantly associated with transit network properties such as: connectivity, coverage, overlapping degree and the Local Index of Transit Availability. As well, the models showed a significant relationship between collisions and some transit physical and operational attributes such as the number of routes, frequency of routes, bus density, length of bus and 3+ priority lanes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid-liquid phase transition and glass transition in a monoatomic model system. (United States)

    Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H Eugene


    We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  3. Transitioning Back to Mainstream Education: The Flexible Integration Model (United States)

    Cumming, Therese M.; Strnadová, Iva


    The implementation of a transition model, the flexible integration model, was investigated in a school in Sydney, Australia, using an exploratory single case study design (Rowley, 2002). It is a person-centred model designed to assist students in transitioning from a special school for students with emotional and behavioural disabilities to…

  4. Is inequality harmful for the environment? An empirical analysis applied to developing and transition countries. (United States)

    Clement, Matthieu; Meunie, Andre


    The object of this article is to examine the relation between social inequalities and pollution. First of all we provide a survey demonstrating that, from a theoretical point of view, a decrease in inequality has an uncertain impact on the environment. Second, on the basis of these conceptual considerations, we propose an econometric analysis based on panel data (fixed-effects and dynamic panel data models) concerning developing and transition countries for the 1988-2003 period. We examine specifically the effect of inequality on the extent of local pollution (sulphur dioxide emissions and organic water pollution) by integrating the Gini index into the formulation of the environmental Kuznets' curve.

  5. Advances in Laminar Turbulent Transition Modelling (Les avancees dans la modelisation de la transition laminaire turbulente) (United States)


    la transition, la croissance des instabilités 3D et leurs mécanismes d’éclatement, les progrès effectués dans les méthodes Navier Stoke parabolisées...EN-AVT-151 Advances in Laminar Turbulent Transition Modelling (Les avancées dans la modélisation de la transition laminaire turbulente) Papers...

  6. Private healthcare quality: applying a SERVQUAL model. (United States)

    Butt, Mohsin Muhammad; de Run, Ernest Cyril


    This paper seeks to develop and test the SERVQUAL model scale for measuring Malaysian private health service quality. The study consists of 340 randomly selected participants visiting a private healthcare facility during a three-month data collection period. Data were analyzed using means, correlations, principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to establish the modified SERVQUAL scale's reliability, underlying dimensionality and convergent, discriminant validity. Results indicate a moderate negative quality gap for overall Malaysian private healthcare service quality. Results also indicate a moderate negative quality gap on each service quality scale dimension. However, scale development analysis yielded excellent results, which can be used in wider healthcare policy and practice. Respondents were skewed towards a younger population, causing concern that the results might not represent all Malaysian age groups. The study's major contribution is that it offers a way to assess private healthcare service quality. Second, it successfully develops a scale that can be used to measure health service quality in Malaysian contexts.

  7. Convergence of Transition Probability Matrix in CLVMarkov Models (United States)

    Permana, D.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Indratno, S. W.; Suprayogi, S.


    A transition probability matrix is an arrangement of transition probability from one states to another in a Markov chain model (MCM). One of interesting study on the MCM is its behavior for a long time in the future. The behavior is derived from one property of transition probabilty matrix for n steps. This term is called the convergence of the n-step transition matrix for n move to infinity. Mathematically, the convergence of the transition probability matrix is finding the limit of the transition matrix which is powered by n where n moves to infinity. The convergence form of the transition probability matrix is very interesting as it will bring the matrix to its stationary form. This form is useful for predicting the probability of transitions between states in the future. The method usually used to find the convergence of transition probability matrix is through the process of limiting the distribution. In this paper, the convergence of the transition probability matrix is searched using a simple concept of linear algebra that is by diagonalizing the matrix.This method has a higher level of complexity because it has to perform the process of diagonalization in its matrix. But this way has the advantage of obtaining a common form of power n of the transition probability matrix. This form is useful to see transition matrix before stationary. For example cases are taken from CLV model using MCM called Model of CLV-Markov. There are several models taken by its transition probability matrix to find its convergence form. The result is that the convergence of the matrix of transition probability through diagonalization has similarity with convergence with commonly used distribution of probability limiting method.

  8. Thermodynamic model of nonequilibrium phase transitions. (United States)

    Martyushev, L M; Konovalov, M S


    Within the scope of a thermodynamic description using the maximum entropy production principle, transitions from one nonequilibrium (kinetic) regime to another are considered. It is shown that in the case when power-law dependencies of thermodynamic flux on force are similar for two regimes, only a transition accompanied by a positive jump of thermodynamic flux is possible between them. It is found that the difference in powers of the dependencies of thermodynamic fluxes on forces results in a number of interesting nonequilibrium transitions between kinetic regimes, including the reentrant one with a negative jump of thermodynamic flux.

  9. Valence and Magnetic Transitions in YbMn2Ge2-Applied Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, M.; Link, P.; Campbell, S.J.; Goncharenko, I.


    Full text: Rare-earth intermetallic compounds containing ytterbium exhibit a wide range of interesting and unusual physical and magnetic properties. This occurs mainly as a result of their mixed valence states (II/III) or changes from one valence state to the other. We have recently determined the magnetic structures of tetragonal YbMn 2 Ge 2 (I4/mmm) by powder neutron diffraction experiments and demonstrated that YbMn 2 Ge 2 has a planar antiferromagnetic structure below T N1 ∼ 510 K with a canted antiferromagnetic structure below T N2 ∼ 185 K. As applied pressure favours changes in the valence character of intermediate valence systems and correspondingly influences the magnetic behaviour, we have investigated the effects of applied pressure on YbMn 2 Ge 2 . Analyses of our in situ neutron diffraction experiments (T=1.5-300 K; p=0-2.7 GPa), reveal a distinct change in magnetic structure and a sharp drop in the a-lattice parameter above ∼ 1.4 GPa with the changes associated with a valence transition. A full account of these effects will be discussed in relation to our current photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of YbMn 2 Ge 2 . (authors)

  10. Model for pairing phase transition in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.


    A model is developed which allows the investigation and classification of the pairing phase transition in atomic nuclei. The regions of the parameter space are discussed for which a pairing phase transition can be observed. The model parameters include number of particles, attenuation of pairing correlations with increasing seniority, single-particle level spacing, and pairing gap parameter

  11. Understanding & modeling bus transit driver availability. (United States)


    Bus transit agencies are required to hire extraboard (i.e. back-up) operators to account for unexpected absences. Incorrect sizing of extra driver workforce is problematic for a number of reasons. Overestimating the appropriate number of extraboard o...

  12. Markov-chain model of classified atomistic transition states for discrete kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. (United States)

    Numazawa, Satoshi; Smith, Roger


    Classical harmonic transition state theory is considered and applied in discrete lattice cells with hierarchical transition levels. The scheme is then used to determine transitions that can be applied in a lattice-based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) atomistic simulation model. The model results in an effective reduction of KMC simulation steps by utilizing a classification scheme of transition levels for thermally activated atomistic diffusion processes. Thermally activated atomistic movements are considered as local transition events constrained in potential energy wells over certain local time periods. These processes are represented by Markov chains of multidimensional Boolean valued functions in three-dimensional lattice space. The events inhibited by the barriers under a certain level are regarded as thermal fluctuations of the canonical ensemble and accepted freely. Consequently, the fluctuating system evolution process is implemented as a Markov chain of equivalence class objects. It is shown that the process can be characterized by the acceptance of metastable local transitions. The method is applied to a problem of Au and Ag cluster growth on a rippled surface. The simulation predicts the existence of a morphology-dependent transition time limit from a local metastable to stable state for subsequent cluster growth by accretion. Excellent agreement with observed experimental results is obtained.

  13. Applying an ecological framework to understand transition pathways to post-secondary education for youth with physical disabilities. (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Duncanson, Michelle; Niles-Campbell, Nadia; McDougall, Carolyn; Diederichs, Sara; Menna-Dack, Dolly


    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of youth with physical disabilities and clinicians who support them in their transition to post-secondary education (PSE). Most research on transition to PSE has focused on youth with intellectual disabilities while there is a lack of research on youth with physical disabilities. This study drew on 30 interviews with 20 youth with disabilities and 10 clinicians. We used Bronfrenbrenner's ecological framework to inform our analysis. Our results showed that there are several important individual skills that youth need to be successful in transitioning to PSE. Youth with disabilities experienced supports from peers and family that influence their transition to PSE. Several disability-specific issues (e.g., coping, self-care, disclosure, and accommodations) were often a barrier to transitioning to PSE. Clinicians and youth both reported that improved inter-professional collaboration and inter-agency partnerships were needed to enhance the transition experience. Societal attitudes (stigma and discrimination), policies, and the timing of transitions also influence youth's transition. Applying an ecological approach helped to provide a more holistic perspective of the PSE transitions and emphasizes the need to consider more than just preparing individuals but also where they are transitioned. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians and educators should continue to promote the development of relevant life skills (e.g., self-advocacy, disclosure, and navigating public transportation) that youth need to succeed in post-secondary education. Clinicians should continue to educate and support youth regarding the process for disclosing their condition and how to request and set up accommodations in PSE. Clinicians should connect youth with disabilities to appropriate resources that can support them and continue to help them to set career goals and develop career plans. There is a critical need for improved inter

  14. A multiple-field coupled resistive transition model for superconducting Nb3Sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang


    Full Text Available A study on the superconducting transition width as functions of the applied magnetic field and strain is performed in superconducting Nb3Sn. A quantitative, yet universal phenomenological resistivity model is proposed. The numerical simulation by the proposed model shows predicted resistive transition characteristics under variable magnetic fields and strain, which in good agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore, a temperature-modulated magnetoresistance transition behavior in filamentary Nb3Sn conductors can also be well described by the given model. The multiple-field coupled resistive transition model is helpful for making objective determinations of the high-dimensional critical surface of Nb3Sn in the multi-parameter space, offering some preliminary information about the basic vortex-pinning mechanisms, and guiding the design of the quench protection system of Nb3Sn superconducting magnets.

  15. A multiple-field coupled resistive transition model for superconducting Nb3Sn (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Ding, He; Zhang, Xin; Qiao, Li


    A study on the superconducting transition width as functions of the applied magnetic field and strain is performed in superconducting Nb3Sn. A quantitative, yet universal phenomenological resistivity model is proposed. The numerical simulation by the proposed model shows predicted resistive transition characteristics under variable magnetic fields and strain, which in good agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore, a temperature-modulated magnetoresistance transition behavior in filamentary Nb3Sn conductors can also be well described by the given model. The multiple-field coupled resistive transition model is helpful for making objective determinations of the high-dimensional critical surface of Nb3Sn in the multi-parameter space, offering some preliminary information about the basic vortex-pinning mechanisms, and guiding the design of the quench protection system of Nb3Sn superconducting magnets.

  16. Electroweak phase transition in a model with gauged lepton number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Alfredo; Jiménez, Enrique; Vaquera-Araujo, Carlos A.


    In this work we study the electroweak phase transition in a model with gauged lepton number. Here, a family of vector-like leptons is required in order to cancel the gauge anomalies. Furthermore, these leptons can play an important role in the transition process. We find that this framework is able to provide a strong transition, but only for a very limited number of cases.

  17. Characteristics of the chiral phase transition in nonlocal quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Dumm, D. Gomez; Scoccola, N.N.


    The characteristics of the chiral phase transition are analyzed within the framework of chiral quark models with nonlocal interactions in the mean-field approximation. In the chiral limit, we develop a semianalytic framework that allows us to explicitly determine the phase transition curve, the position of the critical points, some relevant critical exponents, etc. For the case of finite current quark masses, we show the behavior of various thermodynamical and chiral response functions across the phase transition

  18. Good urban transit: a conservative model (United States)


    For many years, transit advocates and city planners have argued that we need more and : better public transportation. Public transportation is not merely a service to the poor, something that enables people who have no car or do not drive to get arou...

  19. Model of transition between causes of death. (United States)

    Damiani, P; Aubenque, M


    This paper describes an attempt to estimate the probabilities of transition between various major causes of death during the period 1954-1962. The regression coefficients have been estimated from French département death rates for ten main or typical causes of death, assessed by sex for the age group 45-64 years.

  20. On the phase transition nature in compressible Ising models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, A.T.


    The phase transition phenomenon is analysed in a compressible ferromagnetic Ising model at null field, through the mean-field approximation. The model studied is d-dimensional under the magnetic point of view and one-dimensional under the elastic point of view. This is achieved keeping the compressive interactions among the ions and rejecting annealing forces completely. The exchange parameter J is linear and the elastic potential quadratic in relation to the microscopic shifts of the lattice. In the one-dimensional case, this model shows no phase transition. In the two-dimensional case, the role of the S i spin of the i-the ion is crucial: a) for spin 1/2 the transitions are of second order; b) for spin 1, desides the second order transitions there is a three-critical point and a first-order transitions line. (L.C.) [pt

  1. A two-parameter model to predict fracture in the transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAquino, C.T.; Landes, J.D.; McCabe, D.E.


    A model is proposed that uses a numerical characterization of the crack tip stress field modified by the J - Q constraint theory and a weak link assumption to predict fracture behavior in the transition for reactor vessel steels. This model predicts the toughness scatter band for a component model from a toughness scatter band measured on a test specimen geometry. The model has been applied previously to two-dimensional through cracks. Many applications to actual components structures involve three-dimensional surface flaws. These cases require a more difficult level of analysis and need additional information. In this paper, both the current model for two-dimensional cracks and an approach needed to extend the model for the prediction of transition fracture behavior in three-dimensional surface flaws are discussed. Examples are presented to show how the model can be applied and in some cases to compare with other test results. (author). 13 refs., 7 figs

  2. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Giovambattista


    Full Text Available We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  3. Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Models applied to Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan


    The linear k−ε eddy viscosity model and modified versions of two existing nonlinear eddy viscosity models are applied to single wind turbine wake simulations using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes code. Results are compared with field wake measurements. The nonlinear models give better results...

  4. Modeling dynamic beta-gamma polymorphic transition in Tin (United States)

    Chauvin, Camille; Montheillet, Frank; Petit, Jacques; CEA Gramat Collaboration; EMSE Collaboration


    Solid-solid phase transitions in metals have been studied by shock waves techniques for many decades. Recent experiments have investigated the transition during isentropic compression experiments and shock-wave compression and have highlighted the strong influence of the loading rate on the transition. Complementary data obtained with velocity and temperature measurements around the polymorphic transition beta-gamma of Tin on gas gun experiments have displayed the importance of the kinetics of the transition. But, even though this phenomenon is known, modeling the kinetic remains complex and based on empirical formulations. A multiphase EOS is available in our 1D Lagrangian code Unidim. We propose to present the influence of various kinetic laws (either empirical or involving nucleation and growth mechanisms) and their parameters (Gibbs free energy, temperature, pressure) on the transformation rate. We compare experimental and calculated velocities and temperature profiles and we underline the effects of the empirical parameters of these models.

  5. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, Nikita [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Theory Department, TRIUMF,4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  6. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, Nikita; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  7. Detecting critical state before phase transition of complex biological systems by hidden Markov model. (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Liu, Rui; Li, Yongjun; Chen, Luonan


    Identifying the critical state or pre-transition state just before the occurrence of a phase transition is a challenging task, because the state of the system may show little apparent change before this critical transition during the gradual parameter variations. Such dynamics of phase transition is generally composed of three stages, i.e. before-transition state, pre-transition state and after-transition state, which can be considered as three different Markov processes. By exploring the rich dynamical information provided by high-throughput data, we present a novel computational method, i.e. hidden Markov model (HMM) based approach, to detect the switching point of the two Markov processes from the before-transition state (a stationary Markov process) to the pre-transition state (a time-varying Markov process), thereby identifying the pre-transition state or early-warning signals of the phase transition. To validate the effectiveness, we apply this method to detect the signals of the imminent phase transitions of complex systems based on the simulated datasets, and further identify the pre-transition states as well as their critical modules for three real datasets, i.e. the acute lung injury triggered by phosgene inhalation, MCF-7 human breast cancer caused by heregulin and HCV-induced dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma. Both functional and pathway enrichment analyses validate the computational results. The source code and some supporting files are available at or Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  8. Social Cognitive Career Theory as Applied to the School-to-Work Transition (United States)

    Kelly, Mary E.


    The school-to-work (STW) transition occurs when young adults leave education and enter the full-time workforce. Most high school students in the United States will not graduate from a 4-year college and instead transition into the world of work, many filling positions in sales and service. Supporters of the STW movement advocate for educational…

  9. Phase Transition Mapping by Means of Neutron Imaging in SOFC Anode Supports During Reduction Under Applied Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, Malgorzata; Strobl, M.; Lauridsen, E. M.


    is crucial for optimization of the SOC performance. In this work the measurements with energy resolved neutron imaging of the phase transition during the NiOYSZ reduction performed at different temperatures with and without applied load, are presented. The results indicate a link between reduction rate...

  10. On the chiral phase transition in the linear sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Le Viet Hoa


    The Cornwall- Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action for composite operators at finite temperature is used to investigate the chiral phase transition within the framework of the linear sigma model as the low-energy effective model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new renormalization prescription for the CJT effective action in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation is proposed. A numerical study, which incorporates both thermal and quantum effect, shows that in this approximation the phase transition is of first order. However, taking into account the higher-loop diagrams contribution the order of phase transition is unchanged. (author)

  11. Modeling Enzymatic Transition States by Force Field Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Jensen, Frank


    The SEAM method, which models a transition structure as a minimum on the seam of two diabatic surfaces represented by force field functions, has been used to generate 20 transition structures for the decarboxylation of orotidine by the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase enzyme. The dependence...... by various electronic structure methods, where part of the enzyme is represented by a force field description and the effects of the solvent are represented by a continuum model. The relative energies vary by several hundreds of kJ/mol between the transition structures, and tests showed that a large part...

  12. Modelling systematics of ground-based transit photometry I. Implications on transit timing variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, C.; Cellone, S.; Mallonn, M.


    The transit timing variation technique (TTV) has been widely used to detect and characterize multiple planetary systems. Due to the observational biases imposed mainly by the photometric conditions and instrumentation and the high signal-to-noise required to produce primary transit observations...... the observing time at hand carrying out such follow-ups, or if the use of medium-to-low quality transit light curves, combined with current standard techniques of data analysis, could be playing a main role against exoplanetary search via TTVs. The purpose of this work is to investigate to what extent ground......-based observations treated with current modelling techniques are reliable to detect and characterize additional planets in already known planetary systems. To meet this goal, we simulated typical primary transit observations of a hot Jupiter mimicing an existing system, Qatar-1. To resemble ground-based observations...

  13. Simple solvable energy-landscape model that shows a thermodynamic phase transition and a glass transition. (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G


    When a liquid melt is cooled, a glass or phase transition can be obtained depending on the cooling rate. Yet, this behavior has not been clearly captured in energy-landscape models. Here, a model is provided in which two key ingredients are considered in the landscape, metastable states and their multiplicity. Metastable states are considered as in two level system models. However, their multiplicity and topology allows a phase transition in the thermodynamic limit for slow cooling, while a transition to the glass is obtained for fast cooling. By solving the corresponding master equation, the minimal speed of cooling required to produce the glass is obtained as a function of the distribution of metastable states.

  14. A Coupled Groundwater-Surface Water Modeling Framework for Simulating Transition Zone Processes. (United States)

    Mugunthan, Pradeep; Russell, Kevin T; Gong, Binglei; Riley, Michael J; Chin, Arthur; McDonald, Blair G; Eastcott, Linda J


    There is an identified need for fully representing groundwater-surface water transition zone (i.e., the sediment zone that connects groundwater and surface water) processes in modeling fate and transport of contaminants to assist with management of contaminated sediments. Most existing groundwater and surface water fate and transport models are not dynamically linked and do not consider transition zone processes such as bioturbation and deposition and erosion of sediments. An interface module is developed herein to holistically simulate the fate and transport by coupling two commonly used models, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and SEAWAT, to simulate surface water and groundwater hydrodynamics, while providing an enhanced representation of the processes in the transition zone. Transition zone and surface water contaminant processes were represented through an enhanced version of the EFDC model, AQFATE. AQFATE also includes SEDZLJ, a state-of-the-science surface water sediment transport model. The modeling framework was tested on a published test problem and applied to evaluate field-scale two- and three-dimensional contaminant transport. The model accurately simulated concentrations of salinity from a published test case. For the field-scale applications, the model showed excellent mass balance closure for the transition zone and provided accurate simulations of all transition zone processes represented in the modeling framework. The model predictions for the two-dimensional field case were consistent with site-specific observations of contaminant migration. This modeling framework represents advancement in the simulation of transition zone processes and can help inform risk assessment at sites where contaminant sources from upland areas have the potential to impact sediments and surface water. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Nonlinear modeling of crystal system transition of black phosphorus using continuum-DFT model (United States)

    Setoodeh, A. R.; Farahmand, H.


    In this paper, the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus crystals is investigated in tandem with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) analysis under uniaxial loadings. From the identified anisotropic behavior of black phosphorus due to its morphological anisotropy, a hyperelastic anisotropic (HA) model named continuum-DFT is established to predict the nonlinear behavior of the material. In this respect, uniaxial Cauchy stresses are employed on both the DFT-D and HA models along the zig-zag and armchair directions. Simultaneously, the transition of the crystal system is recognized at about 4.5 GPa of the applied uniaxial tensile stress along the zig-zag direction on the DFT-D simulation in the nonlinear region. In order to develop the nonlinear continuum model, unknown constants are surveyed with the optimized least square technique. In this regard, the continuum model is obtained to reproduce the Cauchy stress–stretch and density of strain–stretch results of the DFT-D simulation. Consequently, the modified HA model is introduced to characterize the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus along the zig-zag direction. More importantly, the specific transition of the crystal system is successfully predicted in the new modified continuum-DFT model. The results reveal that the multiscale continuum-DFT model is well defined to replicate the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus along the zig-zag and armchair directions.

  16. Nonlinear modeling of crystal system transition of black phosphorus using continuum-DFT model. (United States)

    Setoodeh, A R; Farahmand, H


    In this paper, the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus crystals is investigated in tandem with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) analysis under uniaxial loadings. From the identified anisotropic behavior of black phosphorus due to its morphological anisotropy, a hyperelastic anisotropic (HA) model named continuum-DFT is established to predict the nonlinear behavior of the material. In this respect, uniaxial Cauchy stresses are employed on both the DFT-D and HA models along the zig-zag and armchair directions. Simultaneously, the transition of the crystal system is recognized at about 4.5 GPa of the applied uniaxial tensile stress along the zig-zag direction on the DFT-D simulation in the nonlinear region. In order to develop the nonlinear continuum model, unknown constants are surveyed with the optimized least square technique. In this regard, the continuum model is obtained to reproduce the Cauchy stress-stretch and density of strain-stretch results of the DFT-D simulation. Consequently, the modified HA model is introduced to characterize the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus along the zig-zag direction. More importantly, the specific transition of the crystal system is successfully predicted in the new modified continuum-DFT model. The results reveal that the multiscale continuum-DFT model is well defined to replicate the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus along the zig-zag and armchair directions.

  17. Sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models. (United States)

    Zi, Z


    With the rising application of systems biology, sensitivity analysis methods have been widely applied to study the biological systems, including metabolic networks, signalling pathways and genetic circuits. Sensitivity analysis can provide valuable insights about how robust the biological responses are with respect to the changes of biological parameters and which model inputs are the key factors that affect the model outputs. In addition, sensitivity analysis is valuable for guiding experimental analysis, model reduction and parameter estimation. Local and global sensitivity analysis approaches are the two types of sensitivity analysis that are commonly applied in systems biology. Local sensitivity analysis is a classic method that studies the impact of small perturbations on the model outputs. On the other hand, global sensitivity analysis approaches have been applied to understand how the model outputs are affected by large variations of the model input parameters. In this review, the author introduces the basic concepts of sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models. Moreover, the author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different sensitivity analysis methods, how to choose a proper sensitivity analysis approach, the available sensitivity analysis tools for systems biology models and the caveats in the interpretation of sensitivity analysis results.

  18. An extended gravity model with substitution applied to international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.

    The traditional gravity model has been applied many times to international trade flows, especially in order to analyze trade creation and trade diversion. However, there are two fundamental objections to the model: it cannot describe substitutions between flows and it lacks a cogent theoretical

  19. Dealing with missing predictor values when applying clinical prediction models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.J.; Vergouwe, Y.; Donders, A.R.T.; Harrell Jr, F.E.; Chen, Q.; Grobbee, D.E.; Moons, K.G.


    BACKGROUND: Prediction models combine patient characteristics and test results to predict the presence of a disease or the occurrence of an event in the future. In the event that test results (predictor) are unavailable, a strategy is needed to help users applying a prediction model to deal with

  20. Fuzzy Control Technique Applied to Modified Mathematical Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, fuzzy control technique is applied to the modified mathematical model for malaria control presented by the authors in an earlier study. Five Mamdani fuzzy controllers are constructed to control the input (some epidemiological parameters) to the malaria model simulated by 9 fully nonlinear ordinary differential ...

  1. CFD modelling of laminar-turbulent transition for airfoils and rotors using the gamma-(Re)over-tilde (theta) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.


    When predicting the flow over airfoils and rotors, the laminar-turbulent transition process can be important for the aerodynamic performance. Today, the most widespread approach is to use fully turbulent computations, where the transitional process is ignored and the entire boundary layer...... on the wings or airfoils is handled by the turbulence model. The correlation based transition model has lately shown promising results, and the present paper describes the effort of deriving the two non-public empirical correlations of the model to make the model complete. To verify the model it is applied...... to flow over a flat plate, flow over the S809 and the NACA63-415 airfoils, flow over a prolate spheroid at zero and thirty degrees angle of attack, and finally to the NREL Phase VI wind turbine rotor for the zero yaw upwind cases from the NREL/NASA Ames wind tunnel test. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons...

  2. Allosteric transition: a comparison of two models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Niels


    Introduction Two recent models are in use for analysis of allosteric drug action at receptor sites remote from orthosteric binding sites. One is an allosteric two-state mechanical model derived in 2000 by David Hall. The other is an extended operational model developed in 2007 by Arthur Christopo...

  3. Modeling in applied sciences a kinetic theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pulvirenti, Mario


    Modeling complex biological, chemical, and physical systems, in the context of spatially heterogeneous mediums, is a challenging task for scientists and engineers using traditional methods of analysis Modeling in Applied Sciences is a comprehensive survey of modeling large systems using kinetic equations, and in particular the Boltzmann equation and its generalizations An interdisciplinary group of leading authorities carefully develop the foundations of kinetic models and discuss the connections and interactions between model theories, qualitative and computational analysis and real-world applications This book provides a thoroughly accessible and lucid overview of the different aspects, models, computations, and methodology for the kinetic-theory modeling process Topics and Features * Integrated modeling perspective utilized in all chapters * Fluid dynamics of reacting gases * Self-contained introduction to kinetic models * Becker–Doring equations * Nonlinear kinetic models with chemical reactions * Kinet...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VERSPOOR, KARIN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIN, SHOU-DE [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  5. An Equilibrium Assembly Model Applied to Murine Polyomavirus


    Keef, T.


    In Keef et al., Assembly Models for Papovaviridae based on Tiling Theory (submitted to J. Phys. Biol.), 2005 [1] we extended an equilibrium assembly model to the (pseudo–)T = 7 viral capsids in the family of Papovaviridae providing assembly pathways for the most likely or primary intermediates and computing their concentrations. Here this model is applied to Murine Polyomavirus based on the association energies provided by the VIPER web page Reddy et al.“Virus particle explorer (VIPER), a web...

  6. TPmsm: Estimation of the Transition Probabilities in 3-State Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Araújo


    Full Text Available One major goal in clinical applications of multi-state models is the estimation of transition probabilities. The usual nonparametric estimator of the transition matrix for non-homogeneous Markov processes is the Aalen-Johansen estimator (Aalen and Johansen 1978. However, two problems may arise from using this estimator: first, its standard error may be large in heavy censored scenarios; second, the estimator may be inconsistent if the process is non-Markovian. The development of the R package TPmsm has been motivated by several recent contributions that account for these estimation problems. Estimation and statistical inference for transition probabilities can be performed using TPmsm. The TPmsm package provides seven different approaches to three-state illness-death modeling. In two of these approaches the transition probabilities are estimated conditionally on current or past covariate measures. Two real data examples are included for illustration of software usage.

  7. Analytic model of Applied-B ion diode impedance behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Mendel, C.W. Jr.


    An empirical analysis of impedance data from Applied-B ion diodes used in seven inertial confinement fusion research experiments was published recently. The diodes all operated with impedance values well below the Child's-law value. The analysis uncovered an unusual unifying relationship among data from the different experiments. The analysis suggested that closure of the anode-cathode gap by electrode plasma was not a dominant factor in the experiments, but was not able to elaborate the underlying physics. Here we present a new analytic model of Applied-B ion diodes coupled to accelerators. A critical feature of the diode model is based on magnetic insulation theory. The model successfully describes impedance behavior of these diodes and supports stimulating new viewpoints of the physics of Applied-B ion diode operation

  8. A Correlation-Based Transition Model using Local Variables. Part 1; Model Formation (United States)

    Menter, F. R.; Langtry, R. B.; Likki, S. R.; Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Volker, S.


    A new correlation-based transition model has been developed, which is based strictly on local variables. As a result, the transition model is compatible with modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches, such as unstructured grids and massive parallel execution. The model is based on two transport equations, one for intermittency and one for the transition onset criteria in terms of momentum thickness Reynolds number. The proposed transport equations do not attempt to model the physics of the transition process (unlike, e.g., turbulence models) but from a framework for the implementation of correlation-based models into general-purpose CFD methods.

  9. Methods for model selection in applied science and engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Richard V., Jr.


    Mathematical models are developed and used to study the properties of complex systems and/or modify these systems to satisfy some performance requirements in just about every area of applied science and engineering. A particular reason for developing a model, e.g., performance assessment or design, is referred to as the model use. Our objective is the development of a methodology for selecting a model that is sufficiently accurate for an intended use. Information on the system being modeled is, in general, incomplete, so that there may be two or more models consistent with the available information. The collection of these models is called the class of candidate models. Methods are developed for selecting the optimal member from a class of candidate models for the system. The optimal model depends on the available information, the selected class of candidate models, and the model use. Classical methods for model selection, including the method of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, as well as a method employing a decision-theoretic approach, are formulated to select the optimal model for numerous applications. There is no requirement that the candidate models be random. Classical methods for model selection ignore model use and require data to be available. Examples are used to show that these methods can be unreliable when data is limited. The decision-theoretic approach to model selection does not have these limitations, and model use is included through an appropriate utility function. This is especially important when modeling high risk systems, where the consequences of using an inappropriate model for the system can be disastrous. The decision-theoretic method for model selection is developed and applied for a series of complex and diverse applications. These include the selection of the: (1) optimal order of the polynomial chaos approximation for non-Gaussian random variables and stationary stochastic processes, (2) optimal pressure load model to be

  10. Forecast model applied to quality control with autocorrelational data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mendonça Souza


    Full Text Available This research approaches the prediction models applied to industrial processes, in order to check the stability of the process by means of control charts, applied to residues from linear modeling. The data used for analysis refers to the moisture content, permeability and compression resistance to the green (RCV, belonging to the casting process of green sand molding in A Company, which operates in the casting and machining, for which dynamic multivariate regression model was set. As the observations were auto-correlated, it was necessary to seek a mathematical model that produces independent and identically distribuibed residues. The models found make possible to understand the variables behavior, assisting in the achievement of the forecasts and in the monitoring of the referred process. Thus, it can be stated that the moisture content is very unstable comparing to the others variables.

  11. Applying Positive Psychology to Illuminate the Needs of Adolescent Males Transitioning Out of Juvenile Detention. (United States)

    Tracey, Danielle; Hanham, José


    Reducing the recidivism of young offenders is a critical research issue, not only to enhance the future outcomes for the young person but also to reduce the future risk to the community. Navigating the immediate transition from detention back into the community is positioned as a critical milestone. This small qualitative study describes how young offenders participating in a formal mentoring program in Australia experienced the transition from detention to the community and the intrinsic drivers of their behaviour throughout this transition. Perspectives of their mentors and caseworker were also solicited. Importantly, their stories were interpreted through the lens of positive psychology and self-determination theory to discuss the relevance of one's pursuit of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Increasing our understanding of these intrinsic motivators will assist young offenders to pursue a better life away from crime and benefit both themselves and the wider community. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Analytic Scattering and Refraction Models for Exoplanet Transit Spectra (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hubbard, William B.


    Observations of exoplanet transit spectra are essential to understanding the physics and chemistry of distant worlds. The effects of opacity sources and many physical processes combine to set the shape of a transit spectrum. Two such key processes—refraction and cloud and/or haze forward-scattering—have seen substantial recent study. However, models of these processes are typically complex, which prevents their incorporation into observational analyses and standard transit spectrum tools. In this work, we develop analytic expressions that allow for the efficient parameterization of forward-scattering and refraction effects in transit spectra. We derive an effective slant optical depth that includes a correction for forward-scattered light, and present an analytic form of this correction. We validate our correction against a full-physics transit spectrum model that includes scattering, and we explore the extent to which the omission of forward-scattering effects may bias models. Also, we verify a common analytic expression for the location of a refractive boundary, which we express in terms of the maximum pressure probed in a transit spectrum. This expression is designed to be easily incorporated into existing tools, and we discuss how the detection of a refractive boundary could help indicate the background atmospheric composition by constraining the bulk refractivity of the atmosphere. Finally, we show that opacity from Rayleigh scattering and collision-induced absorption will outweigh the effects of refraction for Jupiter-like atmospheres whose equilibrium temperatures are above 400-500 K.

  13. GENESIS - The GENEric SImulation System for Modelling State Transitions. (United States)

    Gillman, Matthew S


    This software implements a discrete time Markov chain model, used to model transitions between states when the transition probabilities are known a priori . It is highly configurable; the user supplies two text files, a "state transition table" and a "config file", to the Perl script Given the content of these files, the script generates a set of C++ classes based on the State design pattern, and a main program, which can then be compiled and run. The C++ code generated is based on the specification in the text files. Both multiple branching and bi-directional transitions are allowed. The software has been used to model the natural histories of colorectal cancer in Mexico. Although written primarily to model such disease processes, it can be used in any process which depends on discrete states with known transition probabilities between those states. One suitable area may be in environmental modelling. A test suite is supplied with the distribution. Due to its high degree of configurability and flexibility, this software has good re-use potential. It is stored on the Figshare repository.

  14. Dealing with selection bias in educational transition models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier


    This paper proposes the bivariate probit selection model (BPSM) as an alternative to the traditional Mare model for analyzing educational transitions. The BPSM accounts for selection on unobserved variables by allowing for unobserved variables which affect the probability of making educational tr...

  15. A validated, transitional and translational porcine model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schachtschneider, Kyle M.; Schwind, Regina M.; Darfour-Oduro, Kwame A.; De, Arun K.; Rund, Lauretta A.; Singh, Kuldeep; Principe, Daniel R.; Guzman, Grace; Ray, Charles E.; Ozer, Howard; Gaba, Ron C.; Schook, Lawrence B.


    Difficult questions are confronting clinicians attempting to improve hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outcomes. A large animal model with genetic, anatomical, and physiological similarities to humans is required to transition from mouse models to human clinical trials to address unmet clinical

  16. Spin delocalization phase transition in a correlated electrons model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, L.


    In a simplified one-site model for correlated electrons systems we show the existence of a phase transition corresponding to spin delocalization. The system becomes a solvable model and zero-dimensional functional techniques are used. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  17. [Estimation of transition probability in diameter grade transition model of forest population]. (United States)

    Qu, Zhilin; Hu, Haiqing


    Based on the theories of statistical analysis and differential equation, two methods were given for estimating the transition probability in the diameter grade transition model of forest population. The first method was used for the estimation when two groups of observation data were given and it was no necessary to consider the environmental factors of forest stand, while the second one was used for that when the environmental factors were known and there was no need of the observation data. The results of case studies showed that both of the two methods had the characteristics of easy operation and high practicability, and the importance of theoretical guidance and practical application in forest management.

  18. Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, T Agami


    ""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and

  19. Polarimetry of transiting planets: Differences between plane-parallel and spherical host star atmosphere models (United States)

    Kostogryz, N. M.; Yakobchuk, T. M.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Milic, I.


    Context. To properly interpret photometric and polarimetric observations of exoplanetary transits, accurate calculations of center-to-limb variations of intensity and linear polarization of the host star are needed. These variations, in turn, depend on the choice of geometry of stellar atmosphere. Aims: We want to understand the dependence of the flux and the polarization curves during a transit on the choice of the applied approximation for the stellar atmosphere: spherical and plane-parallel. We examine whether simpler plane-parallel models of stellar atmospheres are good enough to interpret the flux and the polarization light curves during planetary transits, or whether more complicated spherical models should be used. Methods: Linear polarization during a transit appears because a planet eclipses a stellar disk and thus breaks left-right symmetry. We calculate the flux and the polarization variations during a transit with given center-to-limb variations of intensity and polarization. Results: We calculate the flux and the polarization variations during transit for a sample of 405 extrasolar systems. Most of them show higher transit polarization for the spherical stellar atmosphere. Our calculations reveal a group of exoplanetary systems that demonstrates lower maximum polarization during the transits with spherical model atmospheres of host stars with effective temperatures of Teff = 4400-5400 K and surface gravity of log g = 4.45-4.65 than that obtained with plane-parallel atmospheres. Moreover, we have found two trends of the transit polarization. The first trend is a decrease in the polarization calculated with spherical model atmosphere of host stars with effective temperatures Teff = 3500-5100 K, and the second shows an increase in the polarization for host stars with Teff = 5100-7000 K. These trends can be explained by the relative variation of temperature and pressure dependences in the plane-parallel and spherical model atmospheres. Conclusions: For

  20. Object Oriented Business Process Modelling in RFID Applied Computing Environments (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Chengfei; Lin, Tao

    As a tracking technology, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is now widely applied to enhance the context awareness of enterprise information systems. Such awareness provides great opportunities to facilitate business process automation and thereby improve operation efficiency and accuracy. With the aim to incorporate business logics into RFID-enabled applications, this book chapter addresses how RFID technologies impact current business process management and the characteristics of object-oriented business process modelling. This chapter first discusses the rationality and advantages of applying object-oriented process modelling in RFID applications, then addresses the requirements and guidelines for RFID data management and process modelling. Two typical solutions are introduced to further illustrate the modelling and incorporation of business logics/business processes into RFID edge systems. To demonstrate the applicability of these two approaches, a detailed case study is conducted within a distribution centre scenario.

  1. Remarks on orthotropic elastic models applied to wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Tadeu Mascia


    Full Text Available Wood is generally considered an anisotropic material. In terms of engineering elastic models, wood is usually treated as an orthotropic material. This paper presents an analysis of two principal anisotropic elastic models that are usually applied to wood. The first one, the linear orthotropic model, where the material axes L (Longitudinal, R( radial and T(tangential are coincident with the Cartesian axes (x, y, z, is more accepted as wood elastic model. The other one, the cylindrical orthotropic model is more adequate of the growth caracteristics of wood but more mathematically complex to be adopted in practical terms. Specifically due to its importance in wood elastic parameters, this paper deals with the fiber orientation influence in these models through adequate transformation of coordinates. As a final result, some examples of the linear model, which show the variation of elastic moduli, i.e., Young´s modulus and shear modulus, with fiber orientation are presented.

  2. Human driven transitions in complex model ecosystems (United States)

    Harfoot, Mike; Newbold, Tim; Tittinsor, Derek; Purves, Drew


    Human activities have been observed to be impacting ecosystems across the globe, leading to reduced ecosystem functioning, altered trophic and biomass structure and ultimately ecosystem collapse. Previous attempts to understand global human impacts on ecosystems have usually relied on statistical models, which do not explicitly model the processes underlying the functioning of ecosystems, represent only a small proportion of organisms and do not adequately capture complex non-linear and dynamic responses of ecosystems to perturbations. We use a mechanistic ecosystem model (1), which simulates the underlying processes structuring ecosystems and can thus capture complex and dynamic interactions, to investigate boundaries of complex ecosystems to human perturbation. We explore several drivers including human appropriation of net primary production and harvesting of animal biomass. We also present an analysis of the key interactions between biotic, societal and abiotic earth system components, considering why and how we might think about these couplings. References: M. B. J. Harfoot et al., Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic general ecosystem model., PLoS Biol. 12, e1001841 (2014).

  3. Quantum Phase Transition and Universal Dynamics in the Rabi Model. (United States)

    Hwang, Myung-Joong; Puebla, Ricardo; Plenio, Martin B


    We consider the Rabi Hamiltonian, which exhibits a quantum phase transition (QPT) despite consisting only of a single-mode cavity field and a two-level atom. We prove QPT by deriving an exact solution in the limit where the atomic transition frequency in the unit of the cavity frequency tends to infinity. The effect of a finite transition frequency is studied by analytically calculating finite-frequency scaling exponents as well as performing a numerically exact diagonalization. Going beyond this equilibrium QPT setting, we prove that the dynamics under slow quenches in the vicinity of the critical point is universal; that is, the dynamics is completely characterized by critical exponents. Our analysis demonstrates that the Kibble-Zurek mechanism can precisely predict the universal scaling of residual energy for a model without spatial degrees of freedom. Moreover, we find that the onset of the universal dynamics can be observed even with a finite transition frequency.

  4. Structural transition models for a class or irreversible aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.


    A progress report on two recent theoretical approaches proposed to understand the physics of irreversible fractal aggregates showing up a structural transition from a rather dense to a more multibranched growth is presented. In the first approach the transition is understood by solving the Poisson equation on a squared lattice. The second approach is based on the discretization of the Biharmonic equation. Within these models the transition appears when the growth velocity at the fractal surface presents a minimum. The effects of the surrounding medium and geometrical constraints for the seed particles are considered. By using the optical diffraction method, the structural transition is further characterized by a decrease in the fractal dimension for this peculiar class of aggregates. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs

  5. Advances in transitional flow modeling applications to helicopter rotors

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Chunhua


    This book provides a comprehensive description of numerical methods and validation processes for predicting transitional flows based on the Langtry–Menter local correlation-based transition model, integrated with both one-equation Spalart–Allmaras (S–A) and two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models. A comparative study is presented to combine the respective merits of the two coupling methods in the context of predicting the boundary-layer transition phenomenon from fundamental benchmark flows to realistic helicopter rotors. The book will of interest to industrial practitioners working in aerodynamic design and the analysis of fixed-wing or rotary wing aircraft, while also offering advanced reading material for graduate students in the research areas of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), turbulence modeling and related fields.

  6. Generalized transport model for phase transition with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chi; Ciucci, Francesco


    A general model for phenomenological transport in phase transition is derived, which extends Jäckle and Frisch model of phase transition with memory and the Cahn–Hilliard model. In addition to including interfacial energy to account for the presence of interfaces, we introduce viscosity and relaxation contributions, which result from incorporating memory effect into the driving potential. Our simulation results show that even without interfacial energy term, the viscous term can lead to transient diffuse interfaces. From the phase transition induced hysteresis, we discover different energy dissipation mechanism for the interfacial energy and the viscosity effect. In addition, by combining viscosity and interfacial energy, we find that if the former dominates, then the concentration difference across the phase boundary is reduced; conversely, if the interfacial energy is greater then this difference is enlarged.

  7. A MATLAB GUI to study Ising model phase transition (United States)

    Thornton, Curtislee; Datta, Trinanjan

    We have created a MATLAB based graphical user interface (GUI) that simulates the single spin flip Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. The GUI has the capability to study temperature and external magnetic field dependence of magnetization, susceptibility, and equilibration behavior of the nearest-neighbor square lattice Ising model. Since the Ising model is a canonical system to study phase transition, the GUI can be used both for teaching and research purposes. The presence of a Monte Carlo code in a GUI format allows easy visualization of the simulation in real time and provides an attractive way to teach the concept of thermal phase transition and critical phenomena. We will also discuss the GUI implementation to study phase transition in a classical spin ice model on the pyrochlore lattice.

  8. Applying the Flipped Classroom Model to English Language Arts Education (United States)

    Young, Carl A., Ed.; Moran, Clarice M., Ed.


    The flipped classroom method, particularly when used with digital video, has recently attracted many supporters within the education field. Now more than ever, language arts educators can benefit tremendously from incorporating flipped classroom techniques into their curriculum. "Applying the Flipped Classroom Model to English Language Arts…

  9. The limitations of applying rational decision-making models to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to show the limitations of rational decision-making models as applied to child spacing and more specifically to the use of modern methods of contraception. In the light of factors known to influence low uptake of child spacing services in other African countries, suggestions are made to explain the ...

  10. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.


    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of

  11. Knowledge Growth: Applied Models of General and Individual Knowledge Evolution (United States)

    Silkina, Galina Iu.; Bakanova, Svetlana A.


    The article considers the mathematical models of the growth and accumulation of scientific and applied knowledge since it is seen as the main potential and key competence of modern companies. The problem is examined on two levels--the growth and evolution of objective knowledge and knowledge evolution of a particular individual. Both processes are…

  12. An applied model for the evaluation of multiple physiological stressors. (United States)

    Constable, S H; Sherry, C J; Walters, T J


    In everyday life, a human is likely to be exposed to the combined effects of a number of different stressors simultaneously. Consequently, if an applied model is to ultimately provide the best 'fit' between the modeling and modeled phenomena, it must be able to accommodate the evaluation of multiple stressors. Therefore, a multidimensional, primate model is described that can fully accommodate a large number of conceivably stressful, real life scenarios that may be encountered by civilian or military workers. A number of physiological measurements were made in female rhesus monkeys in order to validate the model against previous reports. These evaluations were further expanded to include the experimental perturbation of physical work (exercise). Physiological profiles during activity were extended with the incorporation of radio telemetry. In conclusion, this model allows maximal extrapolation of the potential deleterious or ergogenic effects on systemic physiological function under conditions of realistic operational demands and environments.

  13. Molecular modeling: An open invitation for applied mathematics (United States)

    Mezey, Paul G.


    Molecular modeling methods provide a very wide range of challenges for innovative mathematical and computational techniques, where often high dimensionality, large sets of data, and complicated interrelations imply a multitude of iterative approximations. The physical and chemical basis of these methodologies involves quantum mechanics with several non-intuitive aspects, where classical interpretation and classical analogies are often misleading or outright wrong. Hence, instead of the everyday, common sense approaches which work so well in engineering, in molecular modeling one often needs to rely on rather abstract mathematical constraints and conditions, again emphasizing the high level of reliance on applied mathematics. Yet, the interdisciplinary aspects of the field of molecular modeling also generates some inertia and perhaps too conservative reliance on tried and tested methodologies, that is at least partially caused by the less than up-to-date involvement in the newest developments in applied mathematics. It is expected that as more applied mathematicians take up the challenge of employing the latest advances of their field in molecular modeling, important breakthroughs may follow. In this presentation some of the current challenges of molecular modeling are discussed.

  14. Phase transitions for Ising model with four competing interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganikhodjaev, N.N.; Rozikov, U.A.


    In this paper we consider an Ising model with four competing interactions (external field, nearest neighbor, second neighbors and triples of neighbors) on the Cayley tree of order two. We show that for some parameter values of the model there is phase transition. Our second result gives a complete description of periodic Gibbs measures for the model. We also construct uncountably many non-periodic extreme Gibbs measures. (author)

  15. Applying a realistic evaluation model to occupational safety interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller


    Background: Recent literature characterizes occupational safety interventions as complex social activities, applied in complex and dynamic social systems. Hence, the actual outcomes of an intervention will vary, depending on the intervention, the implementation process, context, personal characte......Background: Recent literature characterizes occupational safety interventions as complex social activities, applied in complex and dynamic social systems. Hence, the actual outcomes of an intervention will vary, depending on the intervention, the implementation process, context, personal...... characteristics of key actors (defined mechanisms), and the interplay between them, and can be categorized as expected or unexpected. However, little is known about ’how’ to include context and mechanisms in evaluations of intervention effectiveness. A revised realistic evaluation model has been introduced...... and qualitative methods. This revised model has, however, not been applied in a real life context. Method: The model is applied in a controlled, four-component, integrated behaviour-based and safety culture-based safety intervention study (2008-2010) in a medium-sized wood manufacturing company. The interventions...

  16. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert


    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its

  17. A general diagnostic model applied to language testing data. (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias


    Probabilistic models with one or more latent variables are designed to report on a corresponding number of skills or cognitive attributes. Multidimensional skill profiles offer additional information beyond what a single test score can provide, if the reported skills can be identified and distinguished reliably. Many recent approaches to skill profile models are limited to dichotomous data and have made use of computationally intensive estimation methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo, since standard maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques were deemed infeasible. This paper presents a general diagnostic model (GDM) that can be estimated with standard ML techniques and applies to polytomous response variables as well as to skills with two or more proficiency levels. The paper uses one member of a larger class of diagnostic models, a compensatory diagnostic model for dichotomous and partial credit data. Many well-known models, such as univariate and multivariate versions of the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic item response theory model, the generalized partial credit model, as well as a variety of skill profile models, are special cases of this GDM. In addition to an introduction to this model, the paper presents a parameter recovery study using simulated data and an application to real data from the field test for TOEFL Internet-based testing.

  18. Agrochemical fate models applied in agricultural areas from Colombia (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Yang, Jing; Andreoli, Romano; Binder, Claudia


    The misuse application of pesticides in mainly agricultural catchments can lead to severe problems for humans and environment. Especially in developing countries where there is often found overuse of agrochemicals and incipient or lack of water quality monitoring at local and regional levels, models are needed for decision making and hot spots identification. However, the complexity of the water cycle contrasts strongly with the scarce data availability, limiting the number of analysis, techniques, and models available to researchers. Therefore there is a strong need for model simplification able to appropriate model complexity and still represent the processes. We have developed a new model so-called Westpa-Pest to improve water quality management of an agricultural catchment located in the highlands of Colombia. Westpa-Pest is based on the fully distributed hydrologic model Wetspa and a fate pesticide module. We have applied a multi-criteria analysis for model selection under the conditions and data availability found in the region and compared with the new developed Westpa-Pest model. Furthermore, both models were empirically calibrated and validated. The following questions were addressed i) what are the strengths and weaknesses of the models?, ii) which are the most sensitive parameters of each model?, iii) what happens with uncertainties in soil parameters?, and iv) how sensitive are the transfer coefficients?

  19. Modification of transition's factor in the compact surface-potential-based MOSFET model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevkić Tijana


    Full Text Available The modification of an important transition's factor which enables continual behavior of the surface potential in entire useful range of MOSFET operation is presented. The various modifications have been made in order to obtain an accurate and computationally efficient compact MOSFET model. The best results have been achieved by introducing the generalized logistic function (GL in fitting of considered factor. The smoothness and speed of the transition of the surface potential from the depletion to the strong inversion region can be controlled in this way. The results of the explicit model with this GL functional form for transition's factor have been verified extensively with the numerical data. A great agreement was found for a wide range of substrate doping and oxide thickness. Moreover, the proposed approach can be also applied on the case where quantum mechanical effects play important role in inversion mode.

  20. Analytical expressions for transition edge sensor excess noise models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Daniel; Fraser, George W.


    Transition edge sensors (TESs) are high-sensitivity thermometers used in cryogenic microcalorimeters which exploit the steep gradient in resistivity with temperature during the superconducting phase transition. Practical TES devices tend to exhibit a white noise of uncertain origin, arising inside the device. We discuss two candidate models for this excess noise, phase slip shot noise (PSSN) and percolation noise. We extend the existing PSSN model to include a magnetic field dependence and derive a basic analytical model for percolation noise. We compare the predicted functional forms of the noise current vs. resistivity curves of both models with experimental data and provide a set of equations for both models to facilitate future experimental efforts to clearly identify the source of excess noise.

  1. Applying FEATHERS for Travel Demand Analysis: Model Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Bao


    Full Text Available Activity-based models of travel demand have received considerable attention in transportation planning and forecasting over the last few decades. FEATHERS (The Forecasting Evolutionary Activity-Travel of Households and their Environmental Repercussions, developed by the Transportation Research Institute of Hasselt University, Belgium, is a micro-simulation framework developed to facilitate the implementation of activity-based models for transport demand forecasting. In this paper, we focus on several model considerations when applying this framework. First, the way to apply FEATHERS on a more disaggregated geographical level is investigated, with the purpose of obtaining more detailed travel demand information. Next, to reduce the computation time when applying FEATHERS on a more detailed geographical level, an iteration approach is proposed to identify the minimum size of the study area needed. In addition, the effect of stochastic errors inherently included in the FEATHERS framework is investigated, and the concept of confidence intervals is applied to determine the minimum number of model runs needed to minimize this effect. In the application, the FEATHERS framework is used to investigate the potential impact of light rail initiatives on travel demand at a local network in Flanders, Belgium. In doing so, all the aforementioned model considerations are taken into account. The results indicate that by integrating a light rail network into the current public transport network, there would be a relatively positive impact on public transport-related trips, but a relatively negative impact on the non-motorized-mode trips in this area. However, no significant change is found for car-related trips.

  2. Applied systems ecology: models, data, and statistical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L L


    In this report, systems ecology is largely equated to mathematical or computer simulation modelling. The need for models in ecology stems from the necessity to have an integrative device for the diversity of ecological data, much of which is observational, rather than experimental, as well as from the present lack of a theoretical structure for ecology. Different objectives in applied studies require specialized methods. The best predictive devices may be regression equations, often non-linear in form, extracted from much more detailed models. A variety of statistical aspects of modelling, including sampling, are discussed. Several aspects of population dynamics and food-chain kinetics are described, and it is suggested that the two presently separated approaches should be combined into a single theoretical framework. It is concluded that future efforts in systems ecology should emphasize actual data and statistical methods, as well as modelling.

  3. Engineering models of deflagration-to-detonation transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, J.B.; Son, S.F.


    For the past two years, Los Alamos has supported research into the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in damaged energetic materials as part of the explosives safety program. This program supported both a theory/modeling group and an experimentation group. The goal of the theory/modeling group was to examine the various modeling structures (one-phase models, two-phase models, etc.) and select from these a structure suitable to model accidental initiation of detonation in damaged explosives. The experimental data on low-velocity piston supported DDT in granular explosive was to serve as a test bed to help in the selection process. Three theoretical models have been examined in the course of this study: (1) the Baer-Nunziato (BN) model, (2) the Stewart-Prasad-Asay (SPA) model and (3) the Bdzil-Kapila-Stewart model. Here we describe these models, discuss their properties, and compare their features.

  4. Stability theory and transition prediction applied to a general aviation fuselage (United States)

    Spall, R. E.; Wie, Y.-S.


    The linear stability of a fully three-dimensional boundary layer formed over a general aviation fuselage was investigated. The location of the onset of transition was estimated using the N-factor method. The results were compared with existing experimental data and indicate N-factors of approximately 8.5 on the side of the fuselage and 3.0 near the top. Considerable crossflow existed along the side of the body, which significantly affected the unstable modes present in the boundary layer. Fair agreement was found between the predicted frequency range of linear instability modes and available experimental data concerning the spectral content of the boundary layer.

  5. State-and-transition simulation models: a framework for forecasting landscape change (United States)

    Daniel, Colin; Frid, Leonardo; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Fortin, Marie-Josée


    SummaryA wide range of spatially explicit simulation models have been developed to forecast landscape dynamics, including models for projecting changes in both vegetation and land use. While these models have generally been developed as separate applications, each with a separate purpose and audience, they share many common features.We present a general framework, called a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM), which captures a number of these common features, accompanied by a software product, called ST-Sim, to build and run such models. The STSM method divides a landscape into a set of discrete spatial units and simulates the discrete state of each cell forward as a discrete-time-inhomogeneous stochastic process. The method differs from a spatially interacting Markov chain in several important ways, including the ability to add discrete counters such as age and time-since-transition as state variables, to specify one-step transition rates as either probabilities or target areas, and to represent multiple types of transitions between pairs of states.We demonstrate the STSM method using a model of land-use/land-cover (LULC) change for the state of Hawai'i, USA. Processes represented in this example include expansion/contraction of agricultural lands, urbanization, wildfire, shrub encroachment into grassland and harvest of tree plantations; the model also projects shifts in moisture zones due to climate change. Key model output includes projections of the future spatial and temporal distribution of LULC classes and moisture zones across the landscape over the next 50 years.State-and-transition simulation models can be applied to a wide range of landscapes, including questions of both land-use change and vegetation dynamics. Because the method is inherently stochastic, it is well suited for characterizing uncertainty in model projections. When combined with the ST-Sim software, STSMs offer a simple yet powerful means for developing a wide range of models of

  6. Constitutive model for a stress- and thermal-induced phase transition in a shape memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaogang; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Zhou, Bo; Leng, Jinsong


    Recently, increasing applications of shape memory polymers have pushed forward the development of appropriate constitutive models for smart materials such as the shape memory polymer. During the heating process, the phase transition, which is a continuous time-dependent process, happens in the shape memory polymer, and various individual phases will form at different configuration temperatures. In addition, these phases can generally be divided into two parts: the frozen and active phase (Liu Y et al 2006 Int. J. Plast. 22 279–313). During the heating or cooling process, the strain will be stored or released with the occurring phase transition between these two parts. Therefore, a shape memory effect emerges. In this paper, a new type of model was developed to characterize the variation of the volume fraction in a shape memory polymer during the phase transition. In addition to the temperature variation, the applied stress was also taken as a significant influence factor on the phase transition. Based on the experimental results, an exponential equation was proposed to describe the relationship between the stress and phase transition temperature. For the sake of describing the mechanical behaviors of the shape memory polymer, a three-dimensional constitutive model was established. Also, the storage strain, which was the key factor of the shape memory effect, was also discussed in detail. Similar to previous works, we first explored the effect of applied stress on storage strain. Through comparisons with the DMA and the creep experimental results, the rationality and accuracy of the new phase transition and constitutive model were finally verified. (paper)

  7. Ab initio modelling of transition metals in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, M; Mainwood, A


    Transition metals (TM) from the first transition series are commonly used as solvent catalysts in the synthesis of diamond by high pressure, high temperature processes. Ab initio calculations on these metals, in finite clusters of tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, enable us to investigate trends in their stability and properties. By carrying out systematic studies of interstitial, substitutional and semi-vacancy TM defects, we show that the electronic structure of the TMs is complicated by the presence of 'dangling bonds' when the TM disrupts the crystal lattice: interstitial defects conform to the Ludwig-Woodbury (LW) model, whilst substitutional and semi-vacancy defects move from approximating the LW model early in the transition series to approaching the vacancy model for the heavier metals. Multi-configurational self-consistent field methods allow genuine many-electron states to be modelled; for neutral interstitial, and all substitutional TMs, the crystal fields are found to exceed the exchange energies in strength. Consequently, low spin states are found for these defects. We find substitutional defects to be the most stable, but that semi-vacancy TMs are very similar in energy to the substitutional defects late in the transition series; interstitial defects are only metastable in diamond. Given appropriate charge compensators neutral and positively charged interstitial TM defects were stable, while negatively charged species appeared to be strongly disfavoured

  8. Linearity and Misspecification Tests for Vector Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teräsvirta, Timo; Yang, Yukai

    The purpose of the paper is to derive Lagrange multiplier and Lagrange multiplier type specification and misspecification tests for vector smooth transition regression models. We report results from simulation studies in which the size and power properties of the proposed asymptotic tests in small...

  9. On the logical specification of probabilistic transition models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, G


    Full Text Available We investigate the requirements for specifying the behaviors of actions in a stochastic domain. That is, we propose how to write sentences in a logical language to capture a model of probabilistic transitions due to the execution of actions of some...

  10. Long time behaviour of a singular phase transition model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Sprekels, J.


    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2006), s. 1119-1135 ISSN 1078-0947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : phase transition * nonlocal model * integrodifferential heat equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2006

  11. The electroweak phase transition in models with gauge singlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahriche, A.


    A strong first order phase transition is needed for generating the baryon asymmetry; and also to save it during the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). However this condition is not fulfilled within the Standard Model (SM), but in its extensions. It is widely believed that the existence of singlet scalars in some Standard Model extensions can easily make the EWPT strongly first order. In this work, we will examine the strength of the EWPT in the simplest extension of the SM with a real gauge singlet using the sphaleron energy at the critical temperature. We find that the phase transition is stronger by adding a singlet; and also that the criterion for a strong phase transition Ω(T c )/T c >or similar 1, where Ω = (v 2 + (x - x 0 ) 2 ) ( 1)/(2) and x(x 0 ) is the singlet vacuum expectation value in the broken (symmetric) phase, is not valid for models containing singlets, even though often used in the literature. The usual condition v c /T c >or similar 1 is more meaningful, and it is satisfied for the major part of the parameter space for physically allowed Higgs masses. Then it is convenient to study the EWPT in models with singlets that couple only to the Higgs doublets, by replacing the singlets by their vevs. (orig.)

  12. The electroweak phase transition in models with gauge singlets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahriche, A.


    A strong first order phase transition is needed for generating the baryon asymmetry; and also to save it during the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). However this condition is not fulfilled within the Standard Model (SM), but in its extensions. It is widely believed that the existence of singlet scalars in some Standard Model extensions can easily make the EWPT strongly first order. In this work, we will examine the strength of the EWPT in the simplest extension of the SM with a real gauge singlet using the sphaleron energy at the critical temperature. We find that the phase transition is stronger by adding a singlet; and also that the criterion for a strong phase transition {omega}(T{sub c})/T{sub c} >or similar 1, where {omega} = (v{sup 2} + (x - x{sub 0}){sup 2}){sup (}1)/(2) and x(x{sub 0}) is the singlet vacuum expectation value in the broken (symmetric) phase, is not valid for models containing singlets, even though often used in the literature. The usual condition v{sub c}/T{sub c} >or similar 1 is more meaningful, and it is satisfied for the major part of the parameter space for physically allowed Higgs masses. Then it is convenient to study the EWPT in models with singlets that couple only to the Higgs doublets, by replacing the singlets by their vevs. (orig.)

  13. SPOTROD: Semi-analytic model for transits of spotted stars (United States)

    Béky, Bence


    SPOTROD is a model for planetary transits of stars with an arbitrary limb darkening law and a number of homogeneous, circular spots on their surface. It facilitates analysis of anomalies due to starspot eclipses, and is a free, open source implementation written in C with a Python API.

  14. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, Jan


    Roč. 389, č. 8 (2010), s. 1708-1720 ISSN 0378-4371 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : EPC * Agent based model * Phase transition Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2010

  15. Generalized ensemble method applied to study systems with strong first order transitions (United States)

    Małolepsza, E.; Kim, J.; Keyes, T.


    At strong first-order phase transitions, the entropy versus energy or, at constant pressure, enthalpy, exhibits convex behavior, and the statistical temperature curve correspondingly exhibits an S-loop or back-bending. In the canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensembles, with temperature as the control variable, the probability density functions become bimodal with peaks localized outside of the S-loop region. Inside, states are unstable, and as a result simulation of equilibrium phase coexistence becomes impossible. To overcome this problem, a method was proposed by Kim, Keyes and Straub [1], where optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling was combined with replica exchange, and denoted generalized replica exchange method (gREM). This new technique uses parametrized effective sampling weights that lead to a unimodal energy distribution, transforming unstable states into stable ones. In the present study, the gREM, originally developed as a Monte Carlo algorithm, was implemented to work with molecular dynamics in an isobaric ensemble and coded into LAMMPS, a highly optimized open source molecular simulation package. The method is illustrated in a study of the very strong solid/liquid transition in water.

  16. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin. (United States)

    Vosika, Zoran B; Lazovic, Goran M; Misevic, Gradimir N; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B


    Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects.

  17. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran B Vosika

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1 Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2 Cole equation, and 3 Constant Phase Element (CPE. These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects.

  18. Noise-and delay-induced phase transitions of the dimer–monomer surface reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Chunhua; Wang Hua


    Highlights: ► We study the dimer–monomer surface reaction model. ► We show that noise induces first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT). ► Combination of noise and time-delayed feedback induce first- and second-order IPT. ► First- and second-order IPT is viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions. - Abstract: The effects of noise and time-delayed feedback in the dimer–monomer (DM) surface reaction model are investigated. Applying small delay approximation, we construct a stochastic delayed differential equation and its Fokker–Planck equation to describe the state evolution of the DM reaction model. We show that the noise can only induce first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT) characteristic of the DM model, however the combination of the noise and time-delayed feedback can simultaneously induce first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model. Therefore, it is shown that the well-known first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model may be viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions.

  19. Fuzzy model predictive control algorithm applied in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuheir, Ahmad


    The aim of this paper is to design a predictive controller based on a fuzzy model. The Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model with an Adaptive B-splines neuro-fuzzy implementation is used and incorporated as a predictor in a predictive controller. An optimization approach with a simplified gradient technique is used to calculate predictions of the future control actions. In this approach, adaptation of the fuzzy model using dynamic process information is carried out to build the predictive controller. The easy description of the fuzzy model and the easy computation of the gradient sector during the optimization procedure are the main advantages of the computation algorithm. The algorithm is applied to the control of a U-tube steam generation unit (UTSG) used for electricity generation. (author)

  20. The dislocation crack model, as applied to determining the crack toughness of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfuff, M.


    The representation of cracks by dislocations, which will be introduced and briefly applied to classical crack problems, reduces the calculation of the fracture toughness of plastically deformable solids to the calculation of the energy of continuous distributions of dislocations. The crack model introduced by Bilby, Cottrell and Swinden will be modified in order to take the conditions into account which are necessary to activate the dislocation sources at the crack tip. This leads to a fracture criterion which can be used to explain the high values of the fracture toughness measured for metalls and the characteristic brittle-to-ductile transition. (orig.) [de

  1. Application of transition modelling in CFD for use with turbine blades

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dunn, Dwain I


    Full Text Available achieved by the addition of the transition model (as in the boundary layer and Spalart-Allmaras with transition) compared to those without (Yang-shih k-e and Spalart-Allmaras without transition)....

  2. batman: BAsic Transit Model cAlculatioN in Python (United States)

    Kreidberg, Laura


    I introduce batman, a Python package for modeling exoplanet transit light curves. The batman package supports calculation of light curves for any radially symmetric stellar limb darkening law, using a new integration algorithm for models that cannot be quickly calculated analytically. The code uses C extension modules to speed up model calculation and is parallelized with OpenMP. For a typical light curve with 100 data points in transit, batman can calculate one million quadratic limb-darkened models in 30 seconds with a single 1.7 GHz Intel Core i5 processor. The same calculation takes seven minutes using the four-parameter nonlinear limb darkening model (computed to 1 ppm accuracy). Maximum truncation error for integrated models is an input parameter that can be set as low as 0.001 ppm, ensuring that the community is prepared for the precise transit light curves we anticipate measuring with upcoming facilities. The batman package is open source and publicly available at .

  3. Dissipative phase transition in the open quantum Rabi model (United States)

    Hwang, Myung-Joong; Rabl, Peter; Plenio, Martin B.


    We demonstrate that the open quantum Rabi model (QRM) exhibits a second-order dissipative phase transition (DPT) and propose a method to observe this transition with trapped ions. The interplay between the ultrastrong qubit-oscillator coupling and the oscillator damping brings the system into a steady state with a diverging number of excitations, in which a DPT is allowed to occur even with a finite number of system components. The universality class of the open QRM, modified from the closed QRM by a Markovian bath, is identified by finding critical exponents and scaling functions using the Keldysh functional integral approach. We propose to realize the open QRM with two trapped ions where the coherent coupling and the rate of dissipation can be individually controlled and adjusted over a wide range. Thanks to this controllability, our work opens a possibility to investigate potentially rich dynamics associated with a dissipative phase transition.

  4. Hardening transition in a one-dimensional model for ferrogels. (United States)

    Annunziata, Mario Alberto; Menzel, Andreas M; Löwen, Hartmut


    We introduce and investigate a coarse-grained model for quasi one-dimensional ferrogels. In our description the magnetic particles are represented by hard spheres with a magnetic dipole moment in their centers. Harmonic springs connecting these spheres mimic the presence of a cross-linked polymer matrix. A special emphasis is put on the coupling of the dipolar orientations to the elastic deformations of the matrix, where a memory effect of the orientations is included. Although the particles are displaced along one spatial direction only, the system already shows rich behavior: as a function of the magnetic dipole moment, we find a phase transition between "soft-elastic" states with finite interparticle separation and finite compressive elastic modulus on the one hand, and "hardened" states with touching particles and therefore diverging compressive elastic modulus on the other hand. Corresponding phase diagrams are derived neglecting thermal fluctuations of the magnetic particles. In addition, we consider a situation in which a spatially homogeneous magnetization is initially imprinted into the material. Depending on the strength of the magneto-mechanical coupling between the dipole orientations and the elastic deformations, the system then relaxes to a uniaxially ferromagnetic, an antiferromagnetic, or a spiral state of magnetization to minimize its energy. One purpose of our work is to provide a largely analytically solvable approach that can provide a benchmark to test future descriptions of higher complexity. From an applied point of view, our results could be exploited, for example, for the construction of novel damping devices of tunable shock absorbance.

  5. Numerical modeling of the deflagration-to-detonation transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, C.A.


    The effect of a confined porous bed of burning explosive in contact with a solid explosive is studied by computer simulation. The burning is modeled using a bulk burn model that is a function of the surface area and the pressure. Once pressure excursions occur from the confined burning the transition to detonation is modeled using a pressure-dependent heterogeneous explosive shock decomposition model called Forest Fire. The occurrence of detonation in the solid explosive is shown to be dependent upon the surface-to-volume ratio, the confinement of the porous bed, and the geometry of the system

  6. Absorbing phase transitions in deterministic fixed-energy sandpile models (United States)

    Park, Su-Chan


    We investigate the origin of the difference, which was noticed by Fey et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 145703 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.145703], between the steady state density of an Abelian sandpile model (ASM) and the transition point of its corresponding deterministic fixed-energy sandpile model (DFES). Being deterministic, the configuration space of a DFES can be divided into two disjoint classes such that every configuration in one class should evolve into one of absorbing states, whereas no configurations in the other class can reach an absorbing state. Since the two classes are separated in terms of toppling dynamics, the system can be made to exhibit an absorbing phase transition (APT) at various points that depend on the initial probability distribution of the configurations. Furthermore, we show that in general the transition point also depends on whether an infinite-size limit is taken before or after the infinite-time limit. To demonstrate, we numerically study the two-dimensional DFES with Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld toppling rule (BTW-FES). We confirm that there are indeed many thresholds. Nonetheless, the critical phenomena at various transition points are found to be universal. We furthermore discuss a microscopic absorbing phase transition, or a so-called spreading dynamics, of the BTW-FES, to find that the phase transition in this setting is related to the dynamical isotropic percolation process rather than self-organized criticality. In particular, we argue that choosing recurrent configurations of the corresponding ASM as an initial configuration does not allow for a nontrivial APT in the DFES.

  7. Biomechanical abdominal wall model applied to hernia repair. (United States)

    Lyons, M; Mohan, H; Winter, D C; Simms, C K


    Most surgical innovations require extensive preclinical testing before employment in the operative environment. There is currently no way to develop and test innovations for abdominal wall surgery that is cheap, repeatable and easy to use. In hernia repair, the required mesh overlap relative to defect size is not established. The aims of this study were to develop a biomechanical model of the abdominal wall based on in vivo pressure measurements, and to apply this to study mesh overlap in hernia repair. An observational study of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) levels throughout abdominal surgery was conducted to identify the peak perioperative IAP in vivo. This was then applied in the development of a surrogate abdominal wall model. An in vitro study of mesh overlap for various defect sizes was then conducted using this clinically relevant surrogate abdomen model. The mean peak perioperative IAP recorded in the clinical study was 1740 Pa, and occurred during awakening from anaesthesia. This was reproduced in the surrogate abdomen model, which was also able to replicate incisional hernia formation. Using this model, the mesh overlap necessary to prevent hernia formation up to 20 kPa was found, independent of anatomical variations, to be 2 × (defect diameter) + 25 mm. This study demonstrated that a surgically relevant surrogate abdominal wall model is a useful translational tool in the study of hernia repair. Surgical relevance This study examined the mesh overlap requirements for hernia repair, evaluated in a biomechanical model of the abdomen. Currently, mesh size is selected based on empirical evidence and may underpredict the requirement for large meshes. The study proposes a relationship between the defect size and mesh size to select the appropriate mesh size. Following further trials and investigations, this could be used in clinical practice to reduce the incidence of hernia recurrence. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Route Design Model of Feeder Bus Service for Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhu


    Full Text Available As an important part of urban public transportation systems, the feeder bus fills a service gap left by rail transit, effectively extending the range of rail transit’s service and solving the problem of short-distance travel and interchanges. By defining the potential demand of feeder bus services and considering its relationship with the traffic demands of corresponding staging areas, the distance between road and rail transit, and the repetition factor of road bus lines, this paper established a potential demand model of roads by opening feeder bus services and applying a logit model for passenger flow distribution. Based on a circular route model, a route starting and ending at urban rail transit stations was generated, and a genetic algorithm was then applied to solve it. The Wei-Fang community of Shanghai was selected as the test area. Per the model and algorithm, the feeder route length was conformed to a functional orientation of short-distance travel and the feeder service of a feeder bus; the route mostly covered where conventional bus lines were fewer, which is a finding that is in agreement with the actual situation; the feasibility of the model and algorithm was verified.

  9. Remote sensing applied to numerical modelling. [water resources pollution (United States)

    Sengupta, S.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Bland, R.


    Progress and remaining difficulties in the construction of predictive mathematical models of large bodies of water as ecosystems are reviewed. Surface temperature is at present the only variable than can be measured accurately and reliably by remote sensing techniques, but satellite infrared data are of sufficient resolution for macro-scale modeling of oceans and large lakes, and airborne radiometers are useful in meso-scale analysis (of lakes, bays, and thermal plumes). Finite-element and finite-difference techniques applied to the solution of relevant coupled time-dependent nonlinear partial differential equations are compared, and the specific problem of the Biscayne Bay and environs ecosystem is tackled in a finite-differences treatment using the rigid-lid model and a rigid-line grid system.

  10. Liquid-drop model applied to heavy ions irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cicco, Hernan; Alurralde, Martin A.; Saint-Martin, Maria L. G.; Bernaola, Omar A.


    Liquid-drop model is used, previously applied in the study of radiation damage in metals, in an energy range not covered by molecular dynamics, in order to understand experimental data of particle tracks in an organic material (Makrofol E), which cannot be accurately described by the existing theoretical methods. The nuclear and electronic energy depositions are considered for each ion considered and the evolution of the thermal explosion is evaluated. The experimental observation of particle tracks in a region previously considered as 'prohibited' are justified. Although the model used has free parameters and some discrepancies with the experimental diametrical values exist, the agreement obtained is highly superior than that of other existing models. (author)

  11. Applications of neural networks to the studies of phase transitions of two-dimensional Potts models (United States)

    Li, C.-D.; Tan, D.-R.; Jiang, F.-J.


    We study the phase transitions of two-dimensional (2D) Q-states Potts models on the square lattice, using the first principles Monte Carlo (MC) simulations as well as the techniques of neural networks (NN). We demonstrate that the ideas from NN can be adopted to study these considered phase transitions efficiently. In particular, even with a simple NN constructed in this investigation, we are able to obtain the relevant information of the nature of these phase transitions, namely whether they are first order or second order. Our results strengthen the potential applicability of machine learning in studying various states of matters. Subtlety of applying NN techniques to investigate many-body systems is briefly discussed as well.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.; Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N.; Hernández, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Muzerolle, J.


    Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

  13. A Log Logistic Survival Model Applied to Hypobaric Decompression Sickness (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny


    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a complex, multivariable problem. A mathematical description or model of the likelihood of DCS requires a large amount of quality research data, ideas on how to define a decompression dose using physical and physiological variables, and an appropriate analytical approach. It also requires a high-performance computer with specialized software. I have used published DCS data to develop my decompression doses, which are variants of equilibrium expressions for evolved gas plus other explanatory variables. My analytical approach is survival analysis, where the time of DCS occurrence is modeled. My conclusions can be applied to simple hypobaric decompressions - ascents lasting from 5 to 30 minutes - and, after minutes to hours, to denitrogenation (prebreathing). They are also applicable to long or short exposures, and can be used whether the sufferer of DCS is at rest or exercising at altitude. Ultimately I would like my models to be applied to astronauts to reduce the risk of DCS during spacewalks, as well as to future spaceflight crews on the Moon and Mars.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


  15. Inverse geothermal modelling applied to Danish sedimentary basins (United States)

    Poulsen, Søren E.; Balling, Niels; Bording, Thue S.; Mathiesen, Anders; Nielsen, Søren B.


    This paper presents a numerical procedure for predicting subsurface temperatures and heat-flow distribution in 3-D using inverse calibration methodology. The procedure is based on a modified version of the groundwater code MODFLOW by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between confined groundwater flow (Darcy's law) and heat conduction (Fourier's law). Thermal conductivity, heat production and exponential porosity-depth relations are specified separately for the individual geological units of the model domain. The steady-state temperature model includes a model-based transient correction for the long-term palaeoclimatic thermal disturbance of the subsurface temperature regime. Variable model parameters are estimated by inversion of measured borehole temperatures with uncertainties reflecting their quality. The procedure facilitates uncertainty estimation for temperature predictions. The modelling procedure is applied to Danish onshore areas containing deep sedimentary basins. A 3-D voxel-based model, with 14 lithological units from surface to 5000 m depth, was built from digital geological maps derived from combined analyses of reflection seismic lines and borehole information. Matrix thermal conductivity of model lithologies was estimated by inversion of all available deep borehole temperature data and applied together with prescribed background heat flow to derive the 3-D subsurface temperature distribution. Modelled temperatures are found to agree very well with observations. The numerical model was utilized for predicting and contouring temperatures at 2000 and 3000 m depths and for two main geothermal reservoir units, the Gassum (Lower Jurassic-Upper Triassic) and Bunter/Skagerrak (Triassic) reservoirs, both currently utilized for geothermal energy production. Temperature gradients to depths of 2000-3000 m are generally around 25-30 °C km-1, locally up to about 35 °C km-1. Large regions have geothermal reservoirs with characteristic temperatures

  16. Sabin-to-Mahoney Transition Model of Quasispecies Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Qspp is an agent-based stochastic simulation model of the Poliovirus Sabin-to-Mahoney transition. This code simulates a cell-to-cell model of Poliovirus replication. The model tracks genotypes (virus genomes) as they are replicated in cells, and as the cells burst and release particles into the medium of a culture dish. An inoculum is then taken from the pool of virions and is used to inoculate cells on a new dish. This process repeats. The Sabin genotype comprises the initial inoculum. Nucleotide positions that match the Sabin1 (vaccine strain) and Mahoney (wild type) genotypes, as well as the neurovirulent phenotype (from the literature) are enumerated as constants.

  17. Model for the resistive critical current transition in composite superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnes, W.H.


    Much of the research investigating technological type-II superconducting composites relies on the measurement of the resistive critical current transition. We have developed a model for the resistive transition which improves on older models by allowing for the very different nature of monofilamentary and multifilamentary composite structures. The monofilamentary model allows for axial current flow around critical current weak links in the superconducting filament. The multifilamentary model incorporates an additional radial current transfer between neighboring filaments. The development of both models is presented. It is shown that the models are useful for extracting more information from the experimental data than was formerly possible. Specific information obtainable from the experimental voltage-current characteristic includes the distribution of critical currents in the composite, the average critical current of the distribution, the range of critical currents in the composite, the field and temperature dependence of the distribution, and the fraction of the composite dissipating energy in flux flow at any current. This additional information about the distribution of critical currents may be helpful in leading toward a better understanding of flux pinning in technological superconductors. Comparison of the models with several experiments is given and shown to be in reasonable agreement. Implications of the models for the measurement of critical currents in technological composites is presented and discussed with reference to basic flux pinning studies in such composites

  18. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  19. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network. (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain Bin; Wu, Jianjun


    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  20. Comparison of approximations to the transition rate in the DDHMS preequilibrium model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito L.


    Full Text Available The double differential hybrid Monte Carlo simulation model (DDHMS originally used exciton model densities and transition densities with approximate angular distributions obtained using linear momentum conservation. Because the model uses only the simplest transition rates, calculations using more complex approximations to these are still viable. We compare calculations using the original approximation to one using a nonrelativistic Fermi gas transition densities with the approximate angular distributions and with exact nonrelativistic and relativistic transition transition densities.

  1. Modelling conditional correlations of asset returns: A smooth transition approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM-test is d......In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM......-test is derived to test the constancy of correlations and LM- and Wald tests to test the hypothesis of partially constant correlations. Analytical expressions for the test statistics and the required derivatives are provided to make computations feasible. An empirical example based on daily return series of ve...

  2. Phase Transitions in a Social Impact Model for Opinion Formation (United States)

    Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    A model for opinion formation in a social group, based on the Theory of Social Impact developed by Latané, is studied by means of numerical simulations. Interactions among the members of the group, as well as with a strong leader competing with the mass media, are considered. The model exhibits first-order transitions between two different states of opinion, which are supported by the leader and the mass media, respectively. The social inertia of the group becomes evident when the opinion of the leader changes periodically. In this case two dynamic states are identified: for long periods of time, the group follows the changes of the leader but, decreasing the period, the opinion of the group remains unchanged. This scenery is suitable for the ocurrence of dynamic phase transitions.

  3. A relativized quark model for radiative baryon transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warns, M.; Schroeder, H.; Pfeil, W.; Rollnik, H.


    In this paper we investigate the electromagnetic form factors of baryons and their resonances using the framework of a relativized constituent quark model. Beyond the usual single-quark transition ansatz, we incorporate relativistic corrections which are well-determined by the intrinsic strong interaction and confinement forces between the quarks. Furthermore we separate off for the compound three-quark system the relativistic center-of-mass motion by an approximately Lorentz-invariant approach. In this way for the first time recoil effects could be explicitly studied. Using the harmonic oscillator wavefunctions with the configuration mixing as derived in the Isgur-Karl model, after restoring gauge invariance our relativized interaction hamiltonian can be used to calculate the transversely and longitudinally polarized photon transition form factors of the baryons. (orig.)

  4. Phase transitions in the sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Isacker, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail:; Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S. [Department of Physics, PRIMALAB Laboratory, University of Batna, Avenue Boukhelouf M El Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria)


    A geometric analysis of the sdg interacting boson model is performed. A coherent state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ({beta}{sub 2}), axial hexadecapole ({beta}{sub 4}) and triaxial ({gamma}{sub 2}). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic sdg Hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical U(5)xU(9), the (prolate and oblate) deformed SU{sub {+-}}(3) and the {gamma}{sub 2}-soft SO(15) limits. For realistic choices of the Hamiltonian parameters the resulting phase diagram has properties close to what is obtained in the sd version of the model and, in particular, no transition towards a stable triaxial shape is found.

  5. Enhanced pid vs model predictive control applied to bldc motor (United States)

    Gaya, M. S.; Muhammad, Auwal; Aliyu Abdulkadir, Rabiu; Salim, S. N. S.; Madugu, I. S.; Tijjani, Aminu; Aminu Yusuf, Lukman; Dauda Umar, Ibrahim; Khairi, M. T. M.


    BrushLess Direct Current (BLDC) motor is a multivariable and highly complex nonlinear system. Variation of internal parameter values with environment or reference signal increases the difficulty in controlling the BLDC effectively. Advanced control strategies (like model predictive control) often have to be integrated to satisfy the control desires. Enhancing or proper tuning of a conventional algorithm results in achieving the desired performance. This paper presents a performance comparison of Enhanced PID and Model Predictive Control (MPC) applied to brushless direct current motor. The simulation results demonstrated that the PSO-PID is slightly better than the PID and MPC in tracking the trajectory of the reference signal. The proposed scheme could be useful algorithms for the system.

  6. Synthetic modelling of acoustical propagation applied to seismic oceanography experiments (United States)

    Kormann, Jean; Cobo, Pedro; Biescas, Berta; Sallarés, Valentí; Papenberg, Cord; Recuero, Manuel; Carbonell, Ramón


    Recent work shows that multichannel seismic (MCS) systems provide detailed information on the oceans' finestructure. The aim of this paper is to analyze if high order numerical algorithms are suitable to accurately model the extremely weak wavefield scattered by the oceans' finestructures. For this purpose, we generate synthetic shot records along a coincident seismic and oceanographic profile acquired across a Mediterranean salt lens in the Gulf of Cadiz. We apply a 2D finite-difference time-domain propagation model, together with second-order Complex Frequency Shifted Perfectly Matched Layers at the numerical boundaries, using as reference a realistic sound speed map with the lateral resolution of the seismic data. We show that our numerical propagator creates an acoustical image of the ocean finestructures including the salt lens that reproduces with outstanding detail the real acquired one.

  7. Methanol Oxidation on Model Elemental and Bimetallic Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Rossmeisl, J.


    Direct methanol fuel cells are a key enabling technology for clean energy conversion. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the methanol oxidation reaction on model electrodes. We discuss trends in reactivity for a set of monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces, flat...... sites on the surface and to screen for novel bimetallic surfaces of enhanced activity. We suggest platinum copper surfaces as promising anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells....

  8. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions (United States)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.


    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  9. A congested and dwell time dependent transit corridor assignment model


    Alonso Oreña, Borja; Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Ibeas Portilla, Ángel; Moura Berodia, José Luis


    This research proposes an equilibrium assignment model for congested public transport corridors in urban areas. In this model, journey times incorporate the effect of bus queuing on travel times and boarding and alighting passengers on dwell times at stops. The model also considers limited bus capacity leading to longer waiting times and more uncomfortable journeys. The proposed model is applied to an example network, and the results are compared with those obtained in a recent study. This is...

  10. A Bidirectional Coupling Procedure Applied to Multiscale Respiratory Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.


    In this study, we present a novel multiscale computational framework for efficiently linking multiple lower-dimensional models describing the distal lung mechanics to imaging-based 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the upper pulmonary airways in order to incorporate physiologically appropriate outlet boundary conditions. The framework is an extension of the Modified Newton’s Method with nonlinear Krylov accelerator developed by Carlson and Miller [1, 2, 3]. Our extensions include the retention of subspace information over multiple timesteps, and a special correction at the end of a timestep that allows for corrections to be accepted with verified low residual with as little as a single residual evaluation per timestep on average. In the case of a single residual evaluation per timestep, the method has zero additional computational cost compared to uncoupled or unidirectionally coupled simulations. We expect these enhancements to be generally applicable to other multiscale coupling applications where timestepping occurs. In addition we have developed a “pressure-drop” residual which allows for stable coupling of flows between a 3D incompressible CFD application and another (lower-dimensional) fluid system. We expect this residual to also be useful for coupling non-respiratory incompressible fluid applications, such as multiscale simulations involving blood flow. The lower-dimensional models that are considered in this study are sets of simple ordinary differential equations (ODEs) representing the compliant mechanics of symmetric human pulmonary airway trees. To validate the method, we compare the predictions of hybrid CFD-ODE models against an ODE-only model of pulmonary airflow in an idealized geometry. Subsequently, we couple multiple sets of ODEs describing the distal lung to an imaging-based human lung geometry. Boundary conditions in these models consist of atmospheric pressure at the mouth and intrapleural pressure applied to the multiple

  11. A bidirectional coupling procedure applied to multiscale respiratory modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuprat, A.P., E-mail: [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Kabilan, S., E-mail: [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Carson, J.P., E-mail: [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Corley, R.A., E-mail: [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Einstein, D.R., E-mail: [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)


    pressure applied to the multiple sets of ODEs. In both the simplified geometry and in the imaging-based geometry, the performance of the method was comparable to that of monolithic schemes, in most cases requiring only a single CFD evaluation per time step. Thus, this new accelerator allows us to begin combining pulmonary CFD models with lower-dimensional models of pulmonary mechanics with little computational overhead. Moreover, because the CFD and lower-dimensional models are totally separate, this framework affords great flexibility in terms of the type and breadth of the adopted lower-dimensional model, allowing the biomedical researcher to appropriately focus on model design. Research funded by the National Heart and Blood Institute Award 1RO1HL073598.

  12. A bidirectional coupling procedure applied to multiscale respiratory modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuprat, A.P.; Kabilan, S.; Carson, J.P.; Corley, R.A.; Einstein, D.R.


    pressure applied to the multiple sets of ODEs. In both the simplified geometry and in the imaging-based geometry, the performance of the method was comparable to that of monolithic schemes, in most cases requiring only a single CFD evaluation per time step. Thus, this new accelerator allows us to begin combining pulmonary CFD models with lower-dimensional models of pulmonary mechanics with little computational overhead. Moreover, because the CFD and lower-dimensional models are totally separate, this framework affords great flexibility in terms of the type and breadth of the adopted lower-dimensional model, allowing the biomedical researcher to appropriately focus on model design. Research funded by the National Heart and Blood Institute Award 1RO1HL073598

  13. TCSC impedance regulator applied to the second benchmark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, J.P.; Dessaint, L.A. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Champagne, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Software and IT Engineering; Pare, D. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)


    Due to the combination of electrical demand growth and the high cost of building new power transmission lines, series compensation is increasingly used in power systems all around the world. Series compensation has been proposed as a new way to transfer more power on existing lines. By adding series compensation to an existing line (a relatively small change), the power transfer can be increased significantly. One of the means used for line compensation is the addition of capacitive elements in series with the line. This paper presented a thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) model that used impedance as reference, had individual controls for each phase, included a linearization module and considered only the fundamental frequency for impedance computations, without using any filter. The model's dynamic behavior was validated by applying it to the second benchmark model for subsynchronous resonance (SSR). Simulation results from the proposed model, obtained using EMTP-RV and SimPowerSystems were demonstrated. It was concluded that SSR was mitigated by the proposed approach. 19 refs., 19 figs.

  14. Model output statistics applied to wind power prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensen, A.; Giebel, G.; Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Madsen, H.; Nielsen, H.A. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mathematical Modelling, Lyngby (Denmark)


    Being able to predict the output of a wind farm online for a day or two in advance has significant advantages for utilities, such as better possibility to schedule fossil fuelled power plants and a better position on electricity spot markets. In this paper prediction methods based on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models are considered. The spatial resolution used in NWP models implies that these predictions are not valid locally at a specific wind farm. Furthermore, due to the non-stationary nature and complexity of the processes in the atmosphere, and occasional changes of NWP models, the deviation between the predicted and the measured wind will be time dependent. If observational data is available, and if the deviation between the predictions and the observations exhibits systematic behavior, this should be corrected for; if statistical methods are used, this approaches is usually referred to as MOS (Model Output Statistics). The influence of atmospheric turbulence intensity, topography, prediction horizon length and auto-correlation of wind speed and power is considered, and to take the time-variations into account, adaptive estimation methods are applied. Three estimation techniques are considered and compared, Extended Kalman Filtering, recursive least squares and a new modified recursive least squares algorithm. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 11 refs.

  15. An applied research model for the sport sciences. (United States)

    Bishop, David


    Sport science can be thought of as a scientific process used to guide the practice of sport with the ultimate aim of improving sporting performance. However, despite this goal, the general consensus is that the translation of sport-science research to practice is poor. Furthermore, researchers have been criticised for failing to study problems relevant to practitioners and for disseminating findings that are difficult to implement within a practical setting. This paper proposes that the situation may be improved by the adoption of a model that guides the direction of research required to build our evidence base about how to improve performance. Central to the Applied Research Model for the Sport Sciences (ARMSS) described in this report is the idea that only research leading to practices that can and will be adopted can improve sporting performance. The eight stages of the proposed model are (i) defining the problem; (ii) descriptive research; (iii) predictors of performance; (iv) experimental testing of predictors; (v) determinants of key performance predictors; (vi) efficacy studies; (vii) examination of barriers to uptake; and (viii) implementation studies in a real sporting setting. It is suggested that, from the very inception, researchers need to consider how their research findings might ultimately be adapted to the intended population, in the actual sporting setting, delivered by persons with diverse training and skills, and using the available resources. It is further argued in the model that a greater understanding of the literature and more mechanistic studies are essential to inform subsequent research conducted in real sporting settings. The proposed ARMSS model therefore calls for a fundamental change in the way in which many sport scientists think about the research process. While there is no guarantee that application of this proposed research model will improve actual sports performance, anecdotal evidence suggests that sport-science research is

  16. Digital herders and phase transition in a voting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisakado, M [Standard and Poor' s, Marunouchi 1-6-5, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 100-0005 (Japan); Mori, S, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, School of Science, Kitasato University, Kitasato 1-15-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan)


    In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}. We set two types of voters-herders and independents. The voting of independent voters is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of votes. Herders always select the majority of the previous r votes, which are visible to them. We call them digital herders. We can accurately calculate the distribution of votes for special cases. When r {>=} 3, we find that a phase transition occurs at the upper limit of t, where t is the discrete time (or number of votes). As the fraction of herders increases, the model features a phase transition beyond which a state where most voters make the correct choice coexists with one where most of them are wrong. On the other hand, when r < 3, there is no phase transition. In this case, the herders' performance is the same as that of the independent voters. Finally, we recognize the behavior of human beings by conducting simple experiments.

  17. Applying Atmospheric Measurements to Constrain Parameters of Terrestrial Source Models (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Kasischke, E. S.; Allen, D. J.


    Quantitative inversions of atmospheric measurements have been widely applied to constrain atmospheric budgets of a range of trace gases. Experiments of this type have revealed persistent discrepancies between 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' estimates of source magnitudes. The most common atmospheric inversion uses the absolute magnitude as the sole parameter for each source, and returns the optimal value of that parameter. In order for atmospheric measurements to be useful for improving 'bottom-up' models of terrestrial sources, information about other properties of the sources must be extracted. As the density and quality of atmospheric trace gas measurements improve, examination of higher-order properties of trace gas sources should become possible. Our model of boreal forest fire emissions is parameterized to permit flexible examination of the key uncertainties in this source. Using output from this model together with the UM CTM, we examined the sensitivity of CO concentration measurements made by the MOPITT instrument to various uncertainties in the boreal source: geographic distribution of burned area, fire type (crown fires vs. surface fires), and fuel consumption in above-ground and ground-layer fuels. Our results indicate that carefully designed inversion experiments have the potential to help constrain not only the absolute magnitudes of terrestrial sources, but also the key uncertainties associated with 'bottom-up' estimates of those sources.

  18. Human Inferences about Sequences: A Minimal Transition Probability Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Meyniel


    Full Text Available The brain constantly infers the causes of the inputs it receives and uses these inferences to generate statistical expectations about future observations. Experimental evidence for these expectations and their violations include explicit reports, sequential effects on reaction times, and mismatch or surprise signals recorded in electrophysiology and functional MRI. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the brain acts as a near-optimal inference device that constantly attempts to infer the time-varying matrix of transition probabilities between the stimuli it receives, even when those stimuli are in fact fully unpredictable. This parsimonious Bayesian model, with a single free parameter, accounts for a broad range of findings on surprise signals, sequential effects and the perception of randomness. Notably, it explains the pervasive asymmetry between repetitions and alternations encountered in those studies. Our analysis suggests that a neural machinery for inferring transition probabilities lies at the core of human sequence knowledge.

  19. Linear model applied to the evaluation of pharmaceutical stability data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar Souza


    Full Text Available The expiry date on the packaging of a product gives the consumer the confidence that the product will retain its identity, content, quality and purity throughout the period of validity of the drug. The definition of this term in the pharmaceutical industry is based on stability data obtained during the product registration. By the above, this work aims to apply the linear regression according to the guideline ICH Q1E, 2003, to evaluate some aspects of a product undergoing in a registration phase in Brazil. With this propose, the evaluation was realized with the development center of a multinational company in Brazil, with samples of three different batches composed by two active principal ingredients in two different packages. Based on the preliminary results obtained, it was possible to observe the difference of degradation tendency of the product in two different packages and the relationship between the variables studied, added knowledge so new models of linear equations can be applied and developed for other products.

  20. Global-constrained hidden Markov model applied on wireless capsule endoscopy video segmentation (United States)

    Wan, Yiwen; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad S.; Buckles, Bill


    Accurate analysis of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) videos is vital but tedious. Automatic image analysis can expedite this task. Video segmentation of WCE into the four parts of the gastrointestinal tract is one way to assist a physician. The segmentation approach described in this paper integrates pattern recognition with statiscal analysis. Iniatially, a support vector machine is applied to classify video frames into four classes using a combination of multiple color and texture features as the feature vector. A Poisson cumulative distribution, for which the parameter depends on the length of segments, models a prior knowledge. A priori knowledge together with inter-frame difference serves as the global constraints driven by the underlying observation of each WCE video, which is fitted by Gaussian distribution to constrain the transition probability of hidden Markov model.Experimental results demonstrated effectiveness of the approach.

  1. The simulation of L-H transition in tokamak plasma using MMM95 transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intharat, P; Poolyarat, N; Chatthong, B; Onjun, T; Picha, R


    BALDUR integrative predictive modelling code together with a Multimode (MMM95) anomalous transport model is used to simulate the evolution profiles, including plasma current, temperature, density and energy in a tokamak reactor. It is found that a self - transition from low confinement mode (L-mode) to high confinement mode (H-mode) regimes can be achieved once a sufficient auxiliary heating applied to the plasma is reached. The result agrees with experimental observations from various tokamaks. A strong reduction of turbulent transport near the edge of plasma is also observed, which is related to the formation of steep radial electric field near the edge regime. From transport analysis, it appears that the resistive ballooning mode is the dominant term near the plasma edge regime, which is significantly reduced during the transition. (paper)

  2. Quantum correlated cluster mean-field theory applied to the transverse Ising model. (United States)

    Zimmer, F M; Schmidt, M; Maziero, Jonas


    Mean-field theory (MFT) is one of the main available tools for analytical calculations entailed in investigations regarding many-body systems. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in ameliorating this kind of method, mainly with the aim of incorporating geometric and correlation properties of these systems. The correlated cluster MFT (CCMFT) is an improvement that succeeded quite well in doing that for classical spin systems. Nevertheless, even the CCMFT presents some deficiencies when applied to quantum systems. In this article, we address this issue by proposing the quantum CCMFT (QCCMFT), which, in contrast to its former approach, uses general quantum states in its self-consistent mean-field equations. We apply the introduced QCCMFT to the transverse Ising model in honeycomb, square, and simple cubic lattices and obtain fairly good results both for the Curie temperature of thermal phase transition and for the critical field of quantum phase transition. Actually, our results match those obtained via exact solutions, series expansions or Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Model Atmospheres and Transit Spectra for Hot Rocky Planets (United States)

    Lupu, Roxana

    We propose to build a versatile set of self-consistent atmospheric models for hot rocky exoplanets and use them to predict their transit and eclipse spectra. Hot rocky exoplanets will form the majority of small planets in close-in orbits to be discovered by the TESS and Kepler K2 missions, and offer the best opportunity for characterization with current and future instruments. We will use fully non-grey radiative-convective atmospheric structure codes with cloud formation and vertical mixing, combined with a self-consistent treatment of gas chemistry above the magma ocean. Being in equilibrium with the surface, the vaporized rock material can be a good tracer of the bulk composition of the planet. We will derive the atmospheric structure and escape rates considering both volatile-free and volatile bearing compositions, which reflect the diversity of hot rocky planet atmospheres. Our models will inform follow- up observations with JWST and ground-based instruments, aid the interpretation of transit and eclipse spectra, and provide a better understanding of volatile loss in these atmospheres. Such results will help refine our picture of rocky planet formation and evolution. Planets in ultra-short period (USP) orbits are a special class of hot rocky exoplanets. As shown by Kepler, these planets are generally smaller than 2 Earth radii, suggesting that they are likely to be rocky and could have lost their volatiles through photo-evaporation. Being close to their host stars, these planets are ultra-hot, with estimated temperatures of 1000-3000 K. A number of USP planets have been already discovered (e.g. Kepler-78 b, CoRoT-7 b, Kepler-10 b), and this number is expected to grow by confirming additional planet candidates. The characterization of planets on ultra-short orbits is advantageous due to the larger number of observable transits, and the larger transit signal in the case of an evaporating atmosphere. Much advance has been made in understanding and characterizing

  4. Hysteretic transitions in the Kuramoto model with inertia (United States)

    Torcini, Alessandro; Olmi, Simona; Navas, Adrian; Boccaletti, Stefano


    We report finite size numerical investigations and mean field analysis of a Kuramoto model with inertia for fully coupled and diluted systems. In particular, we examine the transition from incoherence to coherence for increasingly large system size and inertia. For sufficiently large inertia the transition is hysteretic and within the hysteretic region clusters of locked oscillators of various sizes and different levels of synchronization coexist. A modification of the mean field theory developed by Tanaka, Lichtenberg, and Oishi allows to derive the synchronization curve associated to each of these clusters. We have also investigated numerically the limits of existence of the coherent and of the incoherent solutions. The minimal coupling required to observe the coherent state is largely independent of the system size and it saturates to a constant value already for moderately large inertia values. The incoherent state is observable up to a critical coupling whose value saturates for large inertia and for finite system sizes, while in the thermodinamic limit this critical value diverges proportionally to the mass. By increasing the inertia the transition becomes more complex, and the synchronization occurs via the emergence of clusters of coherently drifting oscillators. Financial support has been provided by the Italian Ministry of University and Research within the project CRISIS LAB PNR 2011-2013.

  5. Sildenafil normalizes bowel transit in preclinical models of constipation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Sharman

    Full Text Available Guanylyl cyclase-C (GC-C agonists increase cGMP levels in the intestinal epithelium to promote secretion. This process underlies the utility of exogenous GC-C agonists such as linaclotide for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C. Because GC-C agonists have limited use in pediatric patients, there is a need for alternative cGMP-elevating agents that are effective in the intestine. The present study aimed to determine whether the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil has similar effects as linaclotide on preclinical models of constipation. Oral administration of sildenafil caused increased cGMP levels in mouse intestinal epithelium demonstrating that blocking cGMP-breakdown is an alternative approach to increase cGMP in the gut. Both linaclotide and sildenafil reduced proliferation and increased differentiation in colon mucosa, indicating common target pathways. The homeostatic effects of cGMP required gut turnover since maximal effects were observed after 3 days of treatment. Neither linaclotide nor sildenafil treatment affected intestinal transit or water content of fecal pellets in healthy mice. To test the effectiveness of cGMP elevation in a functional motility disorder model, mice were treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS to induce colitis and were allowed to recover for several weeks. The recovered animals exhibited slower transit, but increased fecal water content. An acute dose of sildenafil was able to normalize transit and fecal water content in the DSS-recovery animal model, and also in loperamide-induced constipation. The higher fecal water content in the recovered animals was due to a compromised epithelial barrier, which was normalized by sildenafil treatment. Taken together our results show that sildenafil can have similar effects as linaclotide on the intestine, and may have therapeutic benefit to patients with CIC, IBS-C, and post-infectious IBS.

  6. Predictors of stage transitions in the precaution adoption process model. (United States)

    de Vet, Emely; de Nooijer, Jascha; Oenema, Anke; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes


    To explore psychosocial correlates and predictors of stage transitions in the precaution adoption process model (PAPM) for fruit intake. A cohort completed three electronic questionnaires, at baseline (time 0), 35 days later (time 1), and another 32 days later (time 2). Secured Internet Web site. A cohort of 735 adults was formed from a random sample of an existing Internet panel. The mean age was 37.5 years, 51% were women, and 90% were of Dutch origin. Most respondents (48%) had a medium level of education. Precaution adoption process model stage, risk perception, perception of own fruit intake level, attitude, pros, cons, subjective norms, social support, modeling, self-efficacy, and fruit intake (assessed using a food frequency questionnaire). Cross-sectional differences in psychosocial variables and fruit intake across PAPM stages at baseline were analyzed using analysis of variance with Tukey multiple comparisons tests. Predictors of PAPM stage transitions between time 0 and time 1 and between time 1 and time 2 were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Factors related to attitude and social influences may be important if one is to decide to act, whereas strong self-efficacy may also be required for acting on the decision to act. Although the results should be replicated in a larger and more representative sample, the PAPM seems a good framework for studying fruit intake.

  7. A dynamic phase transition model for spatial agglomeration processes. (United States)

    Weidlich, W; Haag, G


    A nonlinear model of population migration is presented in order to provide a dynamic explanation for the formation of metropolitan areas. "In Section 2 the model is introduced in terms of the rate equations for the mean values of the regional population numbers with specifically chosen individual transition rates. Section 3 gives a survey of concepts and results for the convenience of the reader not interested in the details of the mathematical derivations. Section 4 derives the stationary solutions of the rate equations, that is, the equilibria of the system. Section 5 treats the time dependent solutions of the model equations focussing on the exact analytic solutions along so-called symmetry paths. Section 6 analyzes the dynamic stability of the symmetry path solutions and decides which stationary states are unstable and which are stable equilibrium states." excerpt

  8. A model of interacting strings and the Hagedorn phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.


    In this letter we introduce a model of interacting string in which the usual ideal gas approximations are not made. The model is constructed in analogy with nucleation models, the formation of droplets in a supersaturate gas. We consider the strings to be interacting and their number not fixed. The equilibrium configuration is the one for which the time derivatives of the number of strings in the various energies vanishes. We evaluate numerically the equilibrium configurations for various values of the energy density. We find that a density of order one in planck units there is a sharp transition, from a 'gas' phase in which there are many strings, all in the massless or first few excited states, to a 'liquid' phase in which all strings have coalesced into one (or few) highly excited string. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs

  9. Introducing Modeling Transition Diagrams as a Tool to Connect Mathematical Modeling to Mathematical Thinking (United States)

    Czocher, Jennifer A.


    This study contributes a methodological tool to reconstruct the cognitive processes and mathematical activities carried out by mathematical modelers. Represented as Modeling Transition Diagrams (MTDs), individual modeling routes were constructed for four engineering undergraduate students. Findings stress the importance and limitations of using…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca Otilia


    Full Text Available The project “Practical training of economist’s students. Inter-regional partnership in the labor market between universities and the business environment” focuses on student’s transition from school to labor market. Concretely, it tries to highlight the general role of practical training – specifically the field related practical training set as a mandatory discipline in the curriculum, by identifying possibilities of interventions from supervisors. Starting with literature review regarding determinants of school to active life transition, the present contribution discusses the outline of the practical training set as a mandatory discipline in the curriculum. Within PRACTeam project the practical training itself is accompanied with a series of supplementary services (aptitude testing, counseling, career guidance, mentoring by a trained tutor, granting financial aid, awarding excellence over contests and internships. It represents an active partnership on the labor market meant to address directly students’ expectations regarding practical training, work, and entrepreneurship. At least two main benefits may be derived from the training and tutoring. First, as a dual type model of transition from school to active life, allowing students to become insiders in the labor market. Secondly, changes in supervisor’ patterns of interactions and behavior/attitudes toward work and employees may also occur, which in turn may improve the work. A pretest-posttest non-experimental design was applied for the PRACTeam evaluation. Using administered questionnaires and focus group method to students before and after they completed their practical stages we examined their attitudes and behavior towards elements of the dual model of transition. The paper concludes that a dual type model of transition from school to active life - that implies the education and practice occur simultaneously, successfully meets students’ expectancies and may be

  11. Applying Quality Function Deployment Model in Burn Unit Service Improvement. (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Ali; Hashemi, Neda; Kharazmi, Erfan; Abbasi, Mehdi


    Quality function deployment (QFD) is one of the most effective quality design tools. This study applies QFD technique to improve the quality of the burn unit services in Ghotbedin Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. First, the patients' expectations of burn unit services and their priorities were determined through Delphi method. Thereafter, burn unit service specifications were determined through Delphi method. Further, the relationships between the patients' expectations and service specifications and also the relationships between service specifications were determined through an expert group's opinion. Last, the final importance scores of service specifications were calculated through simple additive weighting method. The findings show that burn unit patients have 40 expectations in six different areas. These expectations are in 16 priority levels. Burn units also have 45 service specifications in six different areas. There are four-level relationships between the patients' expectations and service specifications and four-level relationships between service specifications. The most important burn unit service specifications have been identified in this study. The QFD model developed in the study can be a general guideline for QFD planners and executives.

  12. Applied genre analysis: a multi-perspective model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K Bhatia


    Full Text Available Genre analysis can be viewed from two different perspectives: it may be seen as a reflection of the complex realities of the world of institutionalised communication, or it may be seen as a pedagogically effective and convenient tool for the design of language teaching programmes, often situated within simulated contexts of classroom activities. This paper makes an attempt to understand and resolve the tension between these two seemingly contentious perspectives to answer the question: "Is generic description a reflection of reality, or a convenient fiction invented by applied linguists?". The paper also discusses issues related to the nature and use of linguistic description in a genre-based educational enterprise, claiming that instead of using generic descriptions as models for linguistic reproduction of conventional forms to respond to recurring social contexts, as is often the case in many communication based curriculum contexts, they can be used as analytical resource to understand and manipulate complex inter-generic and multicultural realisations of professional discourse, which will enable learners to use generic knowledge to respond to novel social contexts and also to create new forms of discourse to achieve pragmatic success as well as other powerful human agendas.

  13. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V


    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  14. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Galeta


    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  15. Systematic review: Health care transition practice service models. (United States)

    Betz, Cecily L; O'Kane, Lisa S; Nehring, Wendy M; Lobo, Marie L


    Nearly 750,000 adolescents and emerging adults with special health care needs (AEA-SHCN) enter into adulthood annually. The linkages to ensure the seamless transfer of care from pediatric to adult care and transition to adulthood for AEA-SHCN have yet to be realized. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the state of the science of health care transition (HCT) service models as described in quantitative investigations. A four-tier screening approach was used to obtain reviewed articles published from 2004 to 2013. A total of 17 articles were included in this review. Transfer of care was the most prominent intervention feature. Overall, using the Effective Public Health Practice Project criteria, the studies were rated as weak. Limitations included lack of control groups, rigorous designs and methodology, and incomplete intervention descriptions. As the findings indicate, HCT is an emerging field of practice that is largely in the exploratory stage of model development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. International Conference on Applied Mathematics, Modeling and Computational Science & Annual meeting of the Canadian Applied and Industrial Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bélair, Jacques; Kunze, Herb; Makarov, Roman; Melnik, Roderick; Spiteri, Raymond J


    Focusing on five main groups of interdisciplinary problems, this book covers a wide range of topics in mathematical modeling, computational science and applied mathematics. It presents a wealth of new results in the development of modeling theories and methods, advancing diverse areas of applications and promoting interdisciplinary interactions between mathematicians, scientists, engineers and representatives from other disciplines. The book offers a valuable source of methods, ideas, and tools developed for a variety of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, medicine, engineering, and technology. Original results are presented on both the fundamental and applied level, accompanied by an ample number of real-world problems and examples emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature and universality of mathematical modeling, and providing an excellent outline of today’s challenges. Mathematical modeling, with applied and computational methods and tools, plays a fundamental role in modern science a...

  17. Census Model Transition: Contributions to its Implementation in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Carlos A.


    Full Text Available Given the high cost and complexity of traditional censuses, some countries have started to change the census process. Following this trend, Portugal is also evaluating a new census model as an alternative to an exhaustive collection of all statistical units. The main motivations for the implementation of this census model transition in Portugal are related to the decrease in statistical burden on citizens, improvements in the frequency of outputs, and the reduction of collection costs associated with census operations. This article seeks to systematise and critically review all alternatives to the traditional census methodologies, presenting their advantages and disadvantages and the countries that use them. As a result of the comparison, we conclude that the methods that best meet these objectives are those that use administrative data, either in whole or in part. We also present and discuss the results of an inventory and evaluation of administrative registers in Portugal with the potential to produce statistical census information.

  18. Dynamics of the oil transition: Modeling capacity, depletion, and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Adam R.; Plevin, Richard J.; Farrell, Alexander E.


    The global petroleum system is undergoing a shift to substitutes for conventional petroleum (SCPs). The Regional Optimization Model for Emissions from Oil Substitutes, or ROMEO, models this oil transition and its greenhouse gas impacts. ROMEO models the global liquid fuel market in an economic optimization framework, but in contrast to other models it solves each model year sequentially, with investment and production optimized under uncertainty about future prevailing prices or resource quantities. ROMEO includes more hydrocarbon resource types than integrated assessment models of climate change. ROMEO also includes the carbon intensities and costs of production of these resources. We use ROMEO to explore the uncertainty of future costs, emissions, and total fuel production under a number of scenarios. We perform sensitivity analysis on the endowment of conventional petroleum and future carbon taxes. Results show incremental emissions from production of oil substitutes of ∼ 0-30 gigatonnes (Gt) of carbon over the next 50 years (depending on the carbon tax). Also, demand reductions due to the higher cost of SCPs could reduce or eliminate these increases. Calculated emissions are highly sensitive to the endowment of conventional oil and less sensitive to a carbon tax. (author)

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of phase transitions and lattice dynamics in an atom-phonon model for spin transition compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apetrei, Alin Marian; Enachescu, Cristian; Tanasa, Radu; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru


    We apply here the Monte Carlo Metropolis method to a known atom-phonon coupling model for 1D spin transition compounds (STC). These inorganic molecular systems can switch under thermal or optical excitation, between two states in thermodynamical competition, i.e. high spin (HS) and low spin (LS). In the model, the ST units (molecules) are linked by springs, whose elastic constants depend on the spin states of the neighboring atoms, and can only have three possible values. Several previous analytical papers considered a unique average value for the elastic constants (mean-field approximation) and obtained phase diagrams and thermal hysteresis loops. Recently, Monte Carlo simulation papers, taking into account all three values of the elastic constants, obtained thermal hysteresis loops, but no phase diagrams. Employing Monte Carlo simulation, in this work we obtain the phase diagram at T=0 K, which is fully consistent with earlier analytical work; however it is more complex. The main difference is the existence of two supplementary critical curves that mark a hysteresis zone in the phase diagram. This explains the pressure hysteresis curves at low temperature observed experimentally and predicts a 'chemical' hysteresis in STC at very low temperatures. The formation and the dynamics of the domains are also discussed.

  20. Transition in, Transition out: a sustainable model to engage first year students in learning. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Chester


    Full Text Available Peer mentoring, presented as an inclusive teaching approach, embedded in the curriculum, has been successfully implemented to support first year student learning. Developing sustainable and scalable models for large first year cohorts, however, provides a challenge. The Transition in, Transition out model is a sustainable peer mentoring model supporting the transition of both first and final year students. The model has been implemented in two Australian psychology programs, one face-to-face and one delivered online. The focus in this Practice Report will be on the outcome data for on-campus first year student at one university. Participants were 231 first year students (166 females and 65 males. Results suggest positive changes in academic performance and learning approaches as well as positive endorsement of the model.

  1. The Nordic welfare model providing energy transition? A political geography approach to the EU RES directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westholm, Erik; Beland Lindahl, Karin


    The EU Renewable Energy Strategy (RES) Directive requires that each member state obtain 20% of its energy supply from renewable sources by 2020. If fully implemented, this implies major changes in institutions, infrastructure, land use, and natural resource flows. This study applies a political geography perspective to explore the transition to renewable energy use in the heating and cooling segment of the Swedish energy system, 1980–2010. The Nordic welfare model, which developed mainly after the Second World War, required relatively uniform, standardized local and regional authorities functioning as implementation agents for national politics. Since 1980, the welfare orientation has gradually been complemented by competition politics promoting technological change, innovation, and entrepreneurship. This combination of welfare state organization and competition politics provided the dynamics necessary for energy transition, which occurred in a semi-public sphere of actors at various geographical scales. However, our analysis, suggest that this was partly an unintended policy outcome, since it was based on a welfare model with no significant energy aims. Our case study suggests that state organization plays a significant role, and that the EU RES Directive implementation will be uneven across Europe, reflecting various welfare models with different institutional pre-requisites for energy transition. - Highlights: ► We explore the energy transition in the heating/cooling sector in Sweden 1980–2000. ► The role of the state is studied from a political geography perspective. ► The changing welfare model offered the necessary institutional framework. ► Institutional arrangements stand out as central to explain the relative success. ► The use of renewables in EU member states will continue to vary significantly.

  2. Position-sensitive transition edge sensor modeling and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammock, Christina E-mail:; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Apodaca, Emmanuel; Bandler, Simon; Boyce, Kevin; Chervenak, Jay; Finkbeiner, Fred; Kelley, Richard; Lindeman, Mark; Porter, Scott; Saab, Tarek; Stahle, Caroline


    We report the latest design and experimental results for a Position-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST). The PoST is motivated by the desire to achieve a larger field-of-view without increasing the number of readout channels. A PoST consists of a one-dimensional array of X-ray absorbers connected on each end to a Transition Edge Sensor (TES). Position differentiation is achieved through a comparison of pulses between the two TESs and X-ray energy is inferred from a sum of the two signals. Optimizing such a device involves studying the available parameter space which includes device properties such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity as well as TES read-out circuitry parameters. We present results for different regimes of operation and the effects on energy resolution, throughput, and position differentiation. Results and implications from a non-linear model developed to study the saturation effects unique to PoSTs are also presented.

  3. A Correlation-Based Transition Model using Local Variables. Part 2; Test Cases and Industrial Applications (United States)

    Langtry, R. B.; Menter, F. R.; Likki, S. R.; Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Volker, S.


    A new correlation-based transition model has been developed, which is built strictly on local variables. As a result, the transition model is compatible with modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods using unstructured grids and massive parallel execution. The model is based on two transport equations, one for the intermittency and one for the transition onset criteria in terms of momentum thickness Reynolds number. The proposed transport equations do not attempt to model the physics of the transition process (unlike, e.g., turbulence models), but form a framework for the implementation of correlation-based models into general-purpose CFD methods.

  4. Elastic Model Transitions Using Quadratic Inequality Constrained Least Squares (United States)

    Orr, Jeb S.


    A technique is presented for initializing multiple discrete finite element model (FEM) mode sets for certain types of flight dynamics formulations that rely on superposition of orthogonal modes for modeling the elastic response. Such approaches are commonly used for modeling launch vehicle dynamics, and challenges arise due to the rapidly time-varying nature of the rigid-body and elastic characteristics. By way of an energy argument, a quadratic inequality constrained least squares (LSQI) algorithm is employed to e ect a smooth transition from one set of FEM eigenvectors to another with no requirement that the models be of similar dimension or that the eigenvectors be correlated in any particular way. The physically unrealistic and controversial method of eigenvector interpolation is completely avoided, and the discrete solution approximates that of the continuously varying system. The real-time computational burden is shown to be negligible due to convenient features of the solution method. Simulation results are presented, and applications to staging and other discontinuous mass changes are discussed

  5. The Lag Model Applied to High Speed Flows (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Coakley, Thomas J.; Lillard, Randolph P.


    The Lag model has shown great promise in prediction of low speed and transonic separations. The predictions of the model, along with other models (Spalart-Allmaras and Menter SST) are assessed for various high speed flowfields. In addition to skin friction and separation predictions, the prediction of heat transfer are compared among these models, and some fundamental building block flowfields, are investigated.

  6. Thermodynamically consistent mesoscopic model of the ferro/paramagnetic transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešová, Barbora; Kružík, Martin; Roubíček, Tomáš


    Roč. 64, Č. 1 (2013), s. 1-28 ISSN 0044-2275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802; GA ČR GA106/09/1573; GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA106/08/1397; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06052 Program:GA; LC Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : ferro-para-magnetism * evolution * thermodynamics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UT-L) Impact factor: 1.214, year: 2013 consistent mesoscopic model of the ferro-paramagnetic transition.pdf

  7. Band to Mott transition in the infinite dimensional Holstein model

    CERN Document Server

    Hague, J P


    down at intermediate couplings in the limit of low phonon frequency where it is supposed to be most applicable. By examining the effective hopping and renormalized phonon frequency, I suggest an intuitive explanation for the breakdown of Migdal-Eliashberg theory. For completeness, a description of the breakdown of Migdal's theorem in the limit of high phonon frequency is considered via the Lang-Firsov canonical transformation. The Holstein model can be seen as providing an interpolation scheme between Hubbard-like and Falicov-Kimball like behaviour and it may therefore help elucidate the nature of the transition between band and Mott states. I describe a number of approximations to the self-energy. By comparing these with results from the exact solution in various limits, I find that a second order iterated perturbation scheme may be capable of describing the intermediate behaviour. Application of this method reveals a strongly renormalized hybrid behaviour between band and miniature-Mott states, with unusual...

  8. Transport modeling of L/H transition in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, Y.; Fukuyama, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.I.


    In order to study the particle transport and the mechanism of the L/H transition in tokamaks, a one-dimensional transport code which describes the toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation as well as the radial electric field has been developed. The neoclassical transport, turbulent transport and ion orbit loss are included. Using a turbulent transport model based on the current diffusive high-n ballooning mode and a fixed temperature profile, the density profile in a steady state and the dependence on the edge temperature are studied. With high edge temperature, the density gradient near the edge becomes steep and a H-mode like density profile is obtained. The preliminary calculation including heat transport is also presented. 10 refs., 3 figs

  9. Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva A. I.


    Full Text Available We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott’s SU(3 basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3 basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.

  10. A unified framework for benchmark dose estimation applied to mixed models and model averaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Gerhard, Daniel; Hothorn, Ludwig A.


    This article develops a framework for benchmark dose estimation that allows intrinsically nonlinear dose-response models to be used for continuous data in much the same way as is already possible for quantal data. This means that the same dose-response model equations may be applied to both...... continuous and quantal data, facilitating benchmark dose estimation in general for a wide range of candidate models commonly used in toxicology. Moreover, the proposed framework provides a convenient means for extending benchmark dose concepts through the use of model averaging and random effects modeling...... provides slightly conservative, yet useful, estimates of benchmark dose lower limit under realistic scenarios....

  11. Model predictive control based on reduced order models applied to belt conveyor system. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xin


    In the paper, a model predictive controller based on reduced order model is proposed to control belt conveyor system, which is an electro-mechanics complex system with long visco-elastic body. Firstly, in order to design low-degree controller, the balanced truncation method is used for belt conveyor model reduction. Secondly, MPC algorithm based on reduced order model for belt conveyor system is presented. Because of the error bound between the full-order model and reduced order model, two Kalman state estimators are applied in the control scheme to achieve better system performance. Finally, the simulation experiments are shown that balanced truncation method can significantly reduce the model order with high-accuracy and model predictive control based on reduced-model performs well in controlling the belt conveyor system. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. De Gennes model of the nematic to smectic-A transition: dislocations and gauge properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, A.R.


    The de Gennes model is used to study the nematic to smectic-A (N-A) transition of liquid crystals. The analogy between the Ginzburg-Landau model for the normal metal to superconducting transition and the role of the splay elastic constant K 1 is stressed. It is found that, in contrast to what was previously thought, the de Gennes model is gauge invariant, irrespective of the value of k 1 . The model is studied in an arbitrary gauge, and it is shown that the renormalization group recursion relations in the epsilon expansion are independent of gauge. The critical exponent eta, with governs the power law decay of the smectic correlations at the critical point, is found to depend on the gauge, and, in the physical gauge, to diverge at the accessible fixed point, K 1 /sup XX.XX/ = 0. This is indicative of the nonpower law decay of the correlation function at the critical point. The author introduces an extension of the de Gennes model that describes a liquid crystal, with negative dielectric anisotropy, in an applied electric field. It is shown that there are at least two possible extensions to 4-epsilon dimensions and that they predict different critical behavior

  13. Tropical Forest Restoration within Galapagos National Park: Application of a State-transition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Wilkinson


    Full Text Available Current theory on non-equilibrium communities, thresholds of irreversibility, and ecological resilience suggests the goal of ecological restoration of degraded communities is not to achieve one target, but to reestablish the temporal and spatial diversity inherent in natural ecosystems. Few restoration models, however, address ecological and management issues across the vegetation mosaic of a landscape. Because of a lack of scientific knowledge and funds, restoration practitioners focus instead on site-specific prescriptions and reactive rather than proactive approaches to restoration; this approach often dooms restoration projects to failure. We applied a state-transition model as a decision-making tool to identify and achieve short- and long-term restoration goals for a tropical, moist, evergreen forest on the island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos. The model guided the process of identifying current and desirable forest states, as well as the natural and human disturbances and management actions that caused transitions between them. This process facilitated assessment of opportunities for ecosystem restoration, expansion of the definition of restoration success for the system, and realization that, although site- or species-specific prescriptions may be available, they cannot succeed until broader landscape restoration issues are identified and addressed. The model provides a decision-making framework to allocate resources effectively to maximize these opportunities across the landscape, and to achieve long-term restoration success. Other restoration models have been limited by lack of scientific knowledge of the system. State-transition models for restoration incorporate current knowledge and funds, are adaptive, and can provide direction for restoration research and conservation management in other degraded systems.

  14. Robust Decision-making Applied to Model Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The scientific and engineering communities are relying more and more on numerical models to simulate ever-increasingly complex phenomena. Selecting a model, from among a family of models that meets the simulation requirements, presents a challenge to modern-day analysts. To address this concern, a framework is adopted anchored in info-gap decision theory. The framework proposes to select models by examining the trade-offs between prediction accuracy and sensitivity to epistemic uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on two structural engineering applications by asking the following question: Which model, of several numerical models, approximates the behavior of a structure when parameters that define each of those models are unknown? One observation is that models that are nominally more accurate are not necessarily more robust, and their accuracy can deteriorate greatly depending upon the assumptions made. It is posited that, as reliance on numerical models increases, establishing robustness will become as important as demonstrating accuracy.

  15. Developing and applying heterogeneous phylogenetic models with XRate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Westesson

    Full Text Available Modeling sequence evolution on phylogenetic trees is a useful technique in computational biology. Especially powerful are models which take account of the heterogeneous nature of sequence evolution according to the "grammar" of the encoded gene features. However, beyond a modest level of model complexity, manual coding of models becomes prohibitively labor-intensive. We demonstrate, via a set of case studies, the new built-in model-prototyping capabilities of XRate (macros and Scheme extensions. These features allow rapid implementation of phylogenetic models which would have previously been far more labor-intensive. XRate 's new capabilities for lineage-specific models, ancestral sequence reconstruction, and improved annotation output are also discussed. XRate 's flexible model-specification capabilities and computational efficiency make it well-suited to developing and prototyping phylogenetic grammar models. XRate is available as part of the DART software package:

  16. Empirical modeling and data analysis for engineers and applied scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Scott A


    This textbook teaches advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students in Engineering and Applied Sciences to gather and analyze empirical observations (data) in order to aid in making design decisions. While science is about discovery, the primary paradigm of engineering and "applied science" is design. Scientists are in the discovery business and want, in general, to understand the natural world rather than to alter it. In contrast, engineers and applied scientists design products, processes, and solutions to problems. That said, statistics, as a discipline, is mostly oriented toward the discovery paradigm. Young engineers come out of their degree programs having taken courses such as "Statistics for Engineers and Scientists" without any clear idea as to how they can use statistical methods to help them design products or processes. Many seem to think that statistics is only useful for demonstrating that a device or process actually does what it was designed to do. Statistics courses emphasize creati...

  17. Technology Transition a Model for Infusion and Commercialization (United States)

    McMillan, Vernotto C.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has as part of its charter the mission of transferring technologies developed for the space program into the private sector for the purpose of affording back to the American people the economical and improved quality of life benefits associated with the technologies developed. In recent years considerable effort has been made to use this program for not only transitioning technologies out of the NASA Mission Directorate Programs, but also to transfer technologies into the Mission Directorate Programs and leverage the impact of government and private sector innovation. The objective of this paper is to outline an approach and the creation of a model that brings together industry, government, and commercialization strategies. When these elements are integrated, the probability of successful technology development, technology infusion into the Mission Programs, and commercialization into the private sector is increased. This model primarily addresses technology readiness levels between TRL 3 and TRL 6. This is typically a gap area known as the valley of death. This gap area is too low for commercial entities to invest heavily and not developed enough for major programs to actively pursue. This model has shown promise for increasing the probably of TRL advancement to an acceptable level for NASA programs and/or commercial entities to afford large investments toward either commercialization or infusion.

  18. How can models support a transition to sustainability: The role of simulations in sustainable resource management (United States)

    Halbe, Johannes; Reusser, Dominik E.; Holtz, Gerog; Stosius, Annette; Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Avenhaus, Wiebke


    The delineation of transition pathways towards sustainability and the implementation of associated measures are challenged by uncertainty, structural barriers, and conflicts among affected stakeholders. Experiences from other research domains suggest that the effective application of models to tackle these challenges require the explicit consideration of modeling purposes and roles. We present a classification of modeling roles for the analysis and governance of transitions. Models can support understanding of transitions processes, detect barriers and drivers of change, support the exploration of pathways towards sustainability, and help to actively engage relevant stakeholder groups. For each application area, examples are provided from the transition community and related research fields like environmental modeling and integrated assessment.

  19. Comparison of various modelling approaches applied to cholera case data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Den Bergh, F


    Full Text Available cross-wavelet technique, which is used to compute lead times for co-varying variables, and suggests transformations that enhance co-varying behaviour. Several statistical modelling techniques, including generalised linear models, ARIMA time series...

  20. Adequateness of applying the Zmijewski model on Serbian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Vladan


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the accuracy of the prediction of Zmijewski model in Serbia on the eligible sample. At the same time, the paper identifies model's strengths, weaknesses and limitations of its possible application. Bearing in mind that the economic environment in Serbia is not similar to the United States at the time the model was developed, Zmijewski model is surprisingly accurate in the case of Serbian companies. The accuracy was slightly weaker than the model results in the U.S. in its original form, but much better than the results model gave in the U.S. in the period 1988-1991, and 1992-1999. Model gave also better results in Serbia comparing those in Croatia, even in Croatia model was adjusted.

  1. Applying Meta-Analysis to Structural Equation Modeling (United States)

    Hedges, Larry V.


    Structural equation models play an important role in the social sciences. Consequently, there is an increasing use of meta-analytic methods to combine evidence from studies that estimate the parameters of structural equation models. Two approaches are used to combine evidence from structural equation models: A direct approach that combines…

  2. Applying the Job Characteristics Model to the College Education Experience (United States)

    Kass, Steven J.; Vodanovich, Stephen J.; Khosravi, Jasmine Y.


    Boredom is one of the most common complaints among university students, with studies suggesting its link to poor grades, drop out, and behavioral problems. Principles borrowed from industrial-organizational psychology may help prevent boredom and enrich the classroom experience. In the current study, we applied the core dimensions of the job…

  3. Applying Orem's self care model in empowering secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Orem's self care theory in empowering secondary school girls' knowledge and attitudes towards contraception in Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience ...

  4. Family Businesses Transitioning to a Circular Economy Model: The Case of “Mercadona”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Núñez-Cacho


    Full Text Available Sustainability addresses environmental and social issues affecting this and future generations. When family businesses perceive that the community is disrupted, recognize an environmental problem and respond by implementing new environmental policies or regulations, the family business’s socio-emotional values press to transition to a more sustainable production system, such as the ‘Circular Economy.’ Drawing on the Dubin (1978 methodology—a paradigm for building models through deduction—we design a sustainable model, which shows family businesses’ responses to changes in the environment. It explains the reasons why family firms transition to the Circular Economy, based on the theory of Socio-Emotional Wealth (SEW. We check the model through the case study of the food retail leader in the Spanish market—Mercadona—which applies policies about energy, resources and waste to become a Circular Economy business model. Because of the strong family character of Mercadona, this case can be useful for the decision-making of other family businesses.

  5. Controlling magnetism of MoS2 sheets by embedding transition-metal atoms and applying strain. (United States)

    Zhou, Yungang; Su, Qiulei; Wang, Zhiguo; Deng, Huiqiu; Zu, Xiaotao


    Prompted by recent experimental achievement of transition metal (TM) atoms substituted in MoS2 nanostructures during growth or saturating existing vacancies (Sun et al., ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 3506; Deepak et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 12549), we explored, via density functional theory, the magnetic properties of a series of 3d TM atoms substituted in a MoS2 sheet, and found that Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn substitutions can induce magnetism in the MoS2 sheet. The localizing unpaired 3d electrons of TM atoms respond to the introduction of a magnetic moment. Depending on the species of TM atoms, the substituted MoS2 sheet can be a metal, semiconductor or half-metal. Remarkably, the applied elastic strain can be used to control the strength of the spin-splitting of TM-3d orbitals, leading to an effective manipulation of the magnetism of the TM-substituted MoS2 sheet. We found that the magnetic moment of the Mn- and Fe-substituted MoS2 sheets can monotonously increase with the increase of tensile strain, while the magnetic moment of Co-, Ni-, Cu- and Zn-substituted MoS2 sheets initially increases and then decreases with the increase of tensile strain. An instructive mechanism was proposed to qualitatively explain the variation of magnetism with elastic strain. The finding of the magnetoelastic effect here is technologically important for the fabrication of strain-driven spin devices on MoS2 nanostructures, which allows us to go beyond the current scope limited to the spin devices within graphene and BN-based nanostructures.

  6. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M


    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  7. Polarimetric SAR interferometry applied to land ice: modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos; Skriver, Henning


    depths. The validity of the scattering models is examined using L-band polarimetric interferometric SAR data acquired with the EMISAR system over an ice cap located in the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. Radar reflectors were deployed on the ice surface prior to the data acquisition in order......This paper introduces a few simple scattering models intended for the application of polarimetric SAR interfer-ometry to land ice. The principal aim is to eliminate the penetration bias hampering ice sheet elevation maps generated with single-channel SAR interferometry. The polarimetric coherent...... scattering models are similar to the oriented-volume model and the random-volume-over-ground model used in vegetation studies, but the ice models are adapted to the different geometry of land ice. Also, due to compaction, land ice is not uniform; a fact that must be taken into account for large penetration...

  8. Group theoretical arguments on the Landau theory of second-order phase transitions applied to the phase transitions in some liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosciszewski, K.


    The phase transitions between liquids and several of the simplest liquid crystalline phases (nematic, cholesteric, and the simplest types of smectic A and smectic C) were studied from the point of view of the group-theoretical arguments of Landau theory. It was shown that the only possible candidates for second-order phase transitions are those between nematic and smectic A, between centrosymmetric nematic and smectic C and between centrosymmetric smectic A and smectic C. Simple types of density functions for liquid crystalline phases are proposed. (author)

  9. Modelling transition states of a small once-through boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talonpoika, T. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology


    This article presents a model for the unsteady dynamic behaviour of a once-through counter flow boiler that uses an organic working fluid. The boiler is a compact waste-heat boiler without a furnace and it has a preheater, a vaporiser and a superheater. The relative lengths of the boiler parts vary with the operating conditions since they are all parts of a single tube. The boiler model is presented using a selected example case that uses toluene as the process fluid and flue gas from natural gas combustion as the heat source. The dynamic behaviour of the boiler means transition from the steady initial state towards another steady state that corresponds to the changed process conditions. The solution method chosen is to find such a pressure of the process fluid that the mass of the process fluid in the boiler equals the mass calculated using the mass flows into and out of the boiler during a time step, using the finite difference method. A special method of fast calculation of the thermal properties is used, because most of the calculation time is spent in calculating the fluid properties. The boiler is divided into elements. The values of the thermodynamic properties and mass flows are calculated in the nodes that connect the elements. Dynamic behaviour is limited to the process fluid and tube wall, and the heat source is regarded as to be steady. The elements that connect the preheater to the vaporiser and the vaporiser to the superheater are treated in a special way that takes into account a flexible change from one part to the other. The initial state of the boiler is received from a steady process model that is not a part of the boiler model. The known boundary values that may vary during the dynamic calculation were the inlet temperature and mass flow rates of both the heat source fluid and the process fluid. The dynamic boiler model is analysed for linear and step charges of the entering fluid temperatures and flow rates. The heat source side tests show that

  10. Applied exposure modeling for residual radioactivity and release criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.


    The protection of public health and the environment from the release of materials with residual radioactivity for recycle or disposal as wastes without radioactive contents of concern presents a formidable challenge. Existing regulatory criteria are based on technical judgment concerning detectability and simple modeling. Recently, exposure modeling methodologies have been developed to provide a more consistent level of health protection. Release criteria derived from the application of exposure modeling methodologies share the same basic elements of analysis but are developed to serve a variety of purposes. Models for the support of regulations for all applications rely on conservative interpretations of generalized conditions while models developed to show compliance incorporate specific conditions not likely to be duplicated at other sites. Research models represent yet another type of modeling which strives to simulate the actual behavior of released material. In spite of these differing purposes, exposure modeling permits the application of sound and reasoned principles of radiation protection to the release of materials with residual levels of radioactivity. Examples of the similarities and differences of these models are presented and an application to the disposal of materials with residual levels of uranium contamination is discussed. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Optimisation of timetable-based, stochastic transit assignment models based on MSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Frederiksen, Rasmus Dyhr


    (CRM), such a large-scale transit assignment model was developed and estimated. The Stochastic User Equilibrium problem was solved by the Method of Successive Averages (MSA). However, the model suffered from very large calculation times. The paper focuses on how to optimise transit assignment models...

  12. Estimation and asymptotic theory for transition probabilities in markov renewal multi-state models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitoni, Cristian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304625957; Verduijn, Marion; Putter, Hein


    In this paper we discuss estimation of transition probabilities for semi-Markov multi-state models. Non-parametric and semi-parametric estimators of the transition probabilities for a large class of models (forward going models) are proposed. Large sample theory is derived using the functional delta

  13. Gender and Transition From Pediatric to Adult Health Care Among Youth With Acquired Brain Injury: Experiences in a Transition Model. (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Maxwell, Joanne; Hamdani, Yani; Bayley, Mark; Macarthur, Colin; Colantonio, Angela


    To explore gender and sex differences in experiences of transitioning to adult health care among young adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) who take part in a coordinated model of transitional care. Descriptive design using in-depth semistructured qualitative interviews. Interviews over the phone and in person. Participants (N=18) included 10 young adults with a diagnosis of ABI (4 women, 6 men; age range, 19-21y) and 9 parents (8 women, 1 man) from the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada. Not applicable. Semistructured interviews with participants. Our findings highlight several commonalities and differences relative to sex and gender among young adults with ABI who are transitioning from pediatric to adult care. Both young adult men and women experienced a similar transition process and similar organization, continuity, and availability of care. Sex differences were found in relational factors (eg, communication, family involvement, social support). Young adult men, and parents of the men, differed in their transition regarding relational factors (eg, communication, family involvement). Our findings show that young adult men and women with ABI who have taken part in a transition preparation program experience similarities in organization, continuity, and availability of care, but they experience differences in relational factors (eg, communication, family involvement). Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct modeling of regression effects for transition probabilities in the progressive illness-death model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarang, Leyla; Scheike, Thomas; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo


    In this work, we present direct regression analysis for the transition probabilities in the possibly non-Markov progressive illness–death model. The method is based on binomial regression, where the response is the indicator of the occupancy for the given state along time. Randomly weighted score...

  15. Modelling Multivariate Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity with the Double Smooth Transition Conditional Correlation GARCH Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    another variable according to which the correlations change smoothly between states of constant correlations. A Lagrange multiplier test is derived to test the constancy of correlations against the DSTCC-GARCH model, and another one to test for another transition in the STCC-GARCH framework. In addition...

  16. Surface-bounded growth modeling applied to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt; Brookstein, F. L.; Conradsen, Knut


    automatically using shape features and a new algorithm called geometry-constrained diffusion. The semilandmarks are mapped into Procrustes space. Principal component analysis extracts a one-dimensional subspace, which is used to construct a linear growth model. The worst case mean modeling error in a cross...

  17. Studying, Teaching and Applying Sustainability Visions Using Systems Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Iwaniec


    Full Text Available The objective of articulating sustainability visions through modeling is to enhance the outcomes and process of visioning in order to successfully move the system toward a desired state. Models emphasize approaches to develop visions that are viable and resilient and are crafted to adhere to sustainability principles. This approach is largely assembled from visioning processes (resulting in descriptions of desirable future states generated from stakeholder values and preferences and participatory modeling processes (resulting in systems-based representations of future states co-produced by experts and stakeholders. Vision modeling is distinct from normative scenarios and backcasting processes in that the structure and function of the future desirable state is explicitly articulated as a systems model. Crafting, representing and evaluating the future desirable state as a systems model in participatory settings is intended to support compliance with sustainability visioning quality criteria (visionary, sustainable, systemic, coherent, plausible, tangible, relevant, nuanced, motivational and shared in order to develop rigorous and operationalizable visions. We provide two empirical examples to demonstrate the incorporation of vision modeling in research practice and education settings. In both settings, vision modeling was used to develop, represent, simulate and evaluate future desirable states. This allowed participants to better identify, explore and scrutinize sustainability solutions.

  18. Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression Applied to Credit Scoring Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Melo Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Abstract This study used real data from a Brazilian financial institution on transactions involving Consumer Direct Credit (CDC, granted to clients residing in the Distrito Federal (DF, to construct credit scoring models via Logistic Regression and Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR techniques. The aims were: to verify whether the factors that influence credit risk differ according to the borrower’s geographic location; to compare the set of models estimated via GWLR with the global model estimated via Logistic Regression, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution; and to verify the viability of using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models. The metrics used to compare the models developed via the two techniques were the AICc informational criterion, the accuracy of the models, the percentage of false positives, the sum of the value of false positive debt, and the expected monetary value of portfolio default compared with the monetary value of defaults observed. The models estimated for each region in the DF were distinct in their variables and coefficients (parameters, with it being concluded that credit risk was influenced differently in each region in the study. The Logistic Regression and GWLR methodologies presented very close results, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution, and the study demonstrated viability in using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models for the target population in the study.

  19. An electricity billing model | Adetona | Journal of Applied Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linear regression analysis has been employed to develop a model for predicting accurately the electricity billing for commercial consumers in Ogun State (Nigeria) at faster rate. The electricity billing model was implement-ed, executed and tested using embedded MATLAB function blocks. The correlations between the ...

  20. Applied model for the growth of the daytime mixed layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik


    A slab model is proposed for developing the height of the mixed layer capped by stable air aloft. The model equations are closed by relating the consumption of energy (potential and kinetic) at the top of the mixed layer to the production of convective and mechanical turbulent kinetic energy with...

  1. Glass Transition Temperature- and Specific Volume- Composition Models for Tellurite Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This report provides models for predicting composition-properties for tellurite glasses, namely specific gravity and glass transition temperature. Included are the partial specific coefficients for each model, the component validity ranges, and model fit parameters.

  2. Robust model identification applied to type 1diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finan, Daniel Aaron; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    In many realistic applications, process noise is known to be neither white nor normally distributed. When identifying models in these cases, it may be more effective to minimize a different penalty function than the standard sum of squared errors (as in a least-squares identification method......). This paper investigates model identification based on two different penalty functions: the 1-norm of the prediction errors and a Huber-type penalty function. For data characteristic of some realistic applications, model identification based on these latter two penalty functions is shown to result in more...... accurate estimates of parameters than the standard least-squares solution, and more accurate model predictions for test data. The identification techniques are demonstrated on a simple toy problem as well as a physiological model of type 1 diabetes....

  3. Nonstandard Finite Difference Method Applied to a Linear Pharmacokinetics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Egbelowo


    Full Text Available We extend the nonstandard finite difference method of solution to the study of pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic models. Pharmacokinetic (PK models are commonly used to predict drug concentrations that drive controlled intravenous (I.V. transfers (or infusion and oral transfers while pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PD interaction models are used to provide predictions of drug concentrations affecting the response of these clinical drugs. We structure a nonstandard finite difference (NSFD scheme for the relevant system of equations which models this pharamcokinetic process. We compare the results obtained to standard methods. The scheme is dynamically consistent and reliable in replicating complex dynamic properties of the relevant continuous models for varying step sizes. This study provides assistance in understanding the long-term behavior of the drug in the system, and validation of the efficiency of the nonstandard finite difference scheme as the method of choice.

  4. Cost-related model for transit rates in electric power distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collstrand, F.


    The planned deregulation of the swedish electrical power market will require a new structure of the electrical energy rates. In this report different models of transit rates are studied. The report includes studies of literature and a proposal to a rate structure and is made specifically for Malmoe Energi AB. The differences between various methods of calculating the transfer cost are illustrated. Further, the build-up of the tariff structure and its base elements are discussed. The costs are divided on different categories of costumers and shows the cost for each customer. The new regulations should apply simultaneously to all networks, independent of the voltage level. The transit cost should be based on a number of basic elements: capital cost, operation and maintenance, losses, measuring and administration. Capital cost and operation and maintenance should be charged as power fees, the loss cost as an energy fee and the measuring and administration cost as a fixed fee. The customer bill should be split into two parts, one for the transit cost and one for the energy usage. 15 refs., 37 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Trailing edge noise model applied to wind turbine airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.


    The aim of this work is firstly to provide a quick introduction to the theory of noise generation that are relevant to wind turbine technology with focus on trailing edge noise. Secondly, the socalled TNO trailing edge noise model developed by Parchen [1] is described in more details. The model is tested and validated by comparing with other results from the literature. Finally, this model is used in the optimization process of two reference airfoils in order to reduce their noise signature: the RISOE-B1-18 and the S809 airfoils. (au)

  6. The Cheshire Cat principle applied to hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Wirzba, A.


    Here is argued for the Cheshire Cat point of view according to which the bag (itself) has only notational, but no physical significance. It is explained in a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model how a fermion can escape from the bag by means of an anomaly. We also suggest that suitably constructed hybrid bag models may be used to fix such parameters of effective Lagrangians that can otherwise be obtained from experiments only. This idea is illustrated in a calculation of the mass of the pseudoscalar η' meson in 1+1 dimension. Thus there is hope to find a construction principle for a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  7. Pediatric to adult transition: a quality improvement model for primary care. (United States)

    McManus, Margaret; White, Patience; Barbour, April; Downing, Billie; Hawkins, Kirsten; Quion, Nathalie; Tuchman, Lisa; Cooley, W Carl; McAllister, Jeanne W


    To examine the relationship between quality improvement activities with pediatric and adult primary care practices and improvements in transition from pediatric to adult care. This was a time-series comparative study of changes in pediatric and adult practices involving five large pediatric and adult academic health centers in the District of Columbia. Using the Health Care Transition Index (pediatric and adult versions), we examined improvements in specific indicators of transition performance, including development of an office transition policy, provider knowledge and skills related to transition, identification of transitioning youth, transition preparation of youth, transition planning, and transfer of care. Improvements took place in all six transition quality indicators in the pediatric and adult practices that participated in a 2-year learning collaborative to implement the "Six Core Elements of Health Care Transition," a quality improvement intervention modeled after the American Academy of Pediatrics/American Academy of Family Physicians/American College of Physicians Clinical Report on Transition. All sites established a practice-wide policy on transition and created an organized clinical process for tracking transition preparation. The pediatric sites conducted transition readiness assessments with 88% of eligible youth and prepared transition plans for 29% of this group. The adult sites conducted transition readiness assessments with 73% of eligible young adults and developed plans for 33%. A total of 50 were transferred in a systematic way to adult primary care practices. Quality improvement using the Six Core Elements of Health Care Transition resulted in the development of a systematic clinical transition process in pediatric and adult academic primary care practices. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Model-based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain...

  9. Applying the social relations model to self and peer evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greguras, G.J.; Robie, C.; Born, M.Ph.


    Peer evaluations of performance increasingly are being used to make organizational decisions and to provide individuals with performance related feedback. Using Kenny's social relations model (SRM), data from 14 teams of undergraduate students who completed performance ratings of themselves and

  10. Pressure Sensitive Paint Applied to Flexible Models Project (United States)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura Kathryn


    One gap in current pressure-measurement technology is a high-spatial-resolution method for accurately measuring pressures on spatially and temporally varying wind-tunnel models such as Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (IADs), parachutes, and sails. Conventional pressure taps only provide sparse measurements at discrete points and are difficult to integrate with the model structure without altering structural properties. Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) provides pressure measurements with high spatial resolution, but its use has been limited to rigid or semi-rigid models. Extending the use of PSP from rigid surfaces to flexible surfaces would allow direct, high-spatial-resolution measurements of the unsteady surface pressure distribution. Once developed, this new capability will be combined with existing stereo photogrammetry methods to simultaneously measure the shape of a dynamically deforming model in a wind tunnel. Presented here are the results and methodology for using PSP on flexible surfaces.

  11. A Model-Based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain...

  12. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin


    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  13. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nucler Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin


    The paper investigates applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  14. Applying Time Series Analysis Model to Temperature Data in Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafid Hasni


    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to find an appropriate Seasonal Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA Model for fitting the inside air temperature (Tin of a naturally ventilated greenhouse under Mediterranean conditions by considering the minimum of Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. The results of fitting were as follows: the best SARIMA Model for fitting air temperature of greenhouse is SARIMA (1,0,0 (1,0,224.

  15. Agent-Based Modelling applied to 5D model of the HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufik Laroum


    The simplest model was the 3D mathematical model. But the complexity of this phenomenon and the diversity of cells and actors which affect its evolution requires the use of new approaches such as multi-agents approach that we have applied in this paper. The results of our simulator on the 5D model are promising because they are consistent with biological knowledge’s. Therefore, the proposed approach is well appropriate to the study of population dynamics in general and could help to understand and predict the dynamics of HIV infection.

  16. Applying OGC Standards to Develop a Land Surveying Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Sofos


    Full Text Available The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC is committed to developing quality open standards for the global geospatial community, thus enhancing the interoperability of geographic information. In the domain of sensor networks, the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE initiative has been developed to define the necessary context by introducing modeling standards, like ‘Observation & Measurement’ (O&M and services to provide interaction like ‘Sensor Observation Service’ (SOS. Land surveying measurements on the other hand comprise a domain where observation information structures and services have not been aligned to the OGC observation model. In this paper, an OGC-compatible, aligned to the ‘Observation and Measurements’ standard, model for land surveying observations has been developed and discussed. Furthermore, a case study instantiates the above model, and an SOS implementation has been developed based on the 52° North SOS platform. Finally, a visualization schema is used to produce ‘Web Map Service (WMS’ observation maps. Even though there are elements that differentiate this work from classic ‘O&M’ modeling cases, the proposed model and flows are developed in order to provide the benefits of standardizing land surveying measurement data (cost reducing by reusability, higher precision level, data fusion of multiple sources, raw observation spatiotemporal repository access, development of Measurement-Based GIS (MBGIS to the geoinformation community.

  17. The Ballet Dancing Profession: A Career Transition Model (United States)

    Roncaglia, Irina


    What type of emotional transition is experienced by professional dancers who face the end of their career? What does this journey imply? This article discusses the transition experiences of two case studies out of a total sample of fourteen (N = 14) international professional ballet dancers who left their careers between the ages of 21 and 49…

  18. Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding. (United States)

    Aminoff, Elissa M; Toneva, Mariya; Shrivastava, Abhinav; Chen, Xinlei; Misra, Ishan; Gupta, Abhinav; Tarr, Michael J


    How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective-the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA), the retrosplenial complex (RSC), and the occipital place area (TOS)-have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size), rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: (1) BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; (2) behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and (3) several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: (1) models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; (2) NEIL and SUN-the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS-were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; (3) The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method-NEIL ("Never-Ending-Image-Learner"), which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes-showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network.

  19. Tools for Resilience Management: Multidisciplinary Development of State-and-Transition Models for Northwest Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Kachergis


    Full Text Available Building models is an important way of integrating knowledge. Testing and updating models of social-ecological systems can inform management decisions and, ultimately, improve resilience. We report on the outcomes of a six-year, multidisciplinary model development process in the sagebrush steppe, USA. We focused on creating state-and-transition models (STMs, conceptual models of ecosystem change that represent nonlinear dynamics and are being adopted worldwide as tools for managing ecosystems. STM development occurred in four steps with four distinct sets of models: (1 local knowledge elicitation using semistructured interviews; (2 ecological data collection using an observational study; (3 model integration using participatory workshops; and (4 model simplification upon review of the literature by a multidisciplinary team. We found that different knowledge types are ultimately complementary. Many of the benefits of the STM-building process flowed from the knowledge integration steps, including improved communication, identification of uncertainties, and production of more broadly credible STMs that can be applied in diverse situations. The STM development process also generated hypotheses about sagebrush steppe dynamics that could be tested by future adaptive management and research. We conclude that multidisciplinary development of STMs has great potential for producing credible, useful tools for managing resilience of social-ecological systems. Based on this experience, we outline a streamlined, participatory STM development process that integrates multiple types of knowledge and incorporates adaptive management.

  20. A Single, Continuously Applied Control Policy for Modeling Reaching Movements with and without Perturbation. (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Mazzoni, Pietro; Song, Sen; Qian, Ning


    It has been debated whether kinematic features, such as the number of peaks or decomposed submovements in a velocity profile, indicate the number of discrete motor impulses or result from a continuous control process. The debate is particularly relevant for tasks involving target perturbation, which can alter movement kinematics. To simulate such tasks, finite-horizon models require two preset movement durations to compute two control policies before and after the perturbation. Another model employs infinite- and finite-horizon formulations to determine, respectively, movement durations and control policies, which are updated every time step. We adopted an infinite-horizon optimal feedback control model that, unlike previous approaches, does not preset movement durations or use multiple control policies. It contains both control-dependent and independent noises in system dynamics, state-dependent and independent noises in sensory feedbacks, and different delays and noise levels for visual and proprioceptive feedbacks. We analytically derived an optimal solution that can be applied continuously to move an effector toward a target regardless of whether, when, or where the target jumps. This single policy produces different numbers of peaks and "submovements" in velocity profiles for different conditions and trials. Movements that are slower or perturbed later appear to have more submovements. The model is also consistent with the observation that subjects can perform the perturbation task even without detecting the target jump or seeing their hands during reaching. Finally, because the model incorporates Weber's law via a state representation relative to the target, it explains why initial and terminal visual feedback are, respectively, less and more effective in improving end-point accuracy. Our work suggests that the number of peaks or submovements in a velocity profile does not necessarily reflect the number of motor impulses and that the difference between

  1. GIS-Based Population Model Applied to Nevada Transportation Routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.


    Recently, a model based on geographic information system (GIS) processing of US Census Block data has made high-resolution population analysis for transportation risk analysis technically and economically feasible. Population density bordering each kilometer of a route may be tabulated with specific route sections falling into each of three categories (Rural, Suburban or Urban) identified for separate risk analysis. In addition to the improvement in resolution of Urban areas along a route, the model provides a statistically-based correction to population densities in Rural and Suburban areas where Census Block dimensions may greatly exceed the 800-meter scale of interest. A semi-automated application of the GIS model to a subset of routes in Nevada (related to the Yucca Mountain project) are presented, and the results compared to previous models including a model based on published Census and other data. These comparisons demonstrate that meaningful improvement in accuracy and specificity of transportation risk analyses is dependent on correspondingly accurate and geographically-specific population density data

  2. A rigidity transition and glassy dynamics in a model for confluent 3D tissues (United States)

    Merkel, Matthias; Manning, M. Lisa

    The origin of rigidity in disordered materials is an outstanding open problem in statistical physics. Recently, a new type of rigidity transition was discovered in a family of models for 2D biological tissues, but the mechanisms responsible for rigidity remain unclear. This is not just a statistical physics problem, but also relevant for embryonic development, cancer growth, and wound healing. To gain insight into this rigidity transition and make new predictions about biological bulk tissues, we have developed a fully 3D self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model. The model takes into account shape, elasticity, and self-propelled motion of the individual cells. We find that in the absence of self-propulsion, this model exhibits a rigidity transition that is controlled by a dimensionless model parameter describing the preferred cell shape, with an accompanying structural order parameter. In the presence of self-propulsion, the rigidity transition appears as a glass-like transition featuring caging and aging effects. Given the similarities between this transition and jamming in particulate solids, it is natural to ask if the two transitions are related. By comparing statistics of Voronoi geometries, we show the transitions are surprisingly close but demonstrably distinct. Furthermore, an index theorem used to identify topologically protected mechanical modes in jammed systems can be extended to these vertex-type models. In our model, residual stresses govern the transition and enter the index theorem in a different way compared to jammed particles, suggesting the origin of rigidity may be different between the two.

  3. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf


    In this article the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification...... of behavioural (operational) semantics. The former checks that the plant model – that is, the software components reflecting the physical components of the interlocking system – has been set up in an adequate way. The latter investigates trains moving through the network, with the objective to uncover potential...... safety violations. From a formal methods perspective, these verification objectives can be approached by theorem proving, global, or bounded model checking. This article explains the techniques for application of bounded model checking techniques, and discusses their advantages in comparison...

  4. Hidden multidimensional social structure modeling applied to biased social perception (United States)

    Maletić, Slobodan; Zhao, Yi


    Intricacies of the structure of social relations are realized by representing a collection of overlapping opinions as a simplicial complex, thus building latent multidimensional structures, through which agents are, virtually, moving as they exchange opinions. The influence of opinion space structure on the distribution of opinions is demonstrated by modeling consensus phenomena when the opinion exchange between individuals may be affected by the false consensus effect. The results indicate that in the cases with and without bias, the road toward consensus is influenced by the structure of multidimensional space of opinions, and in the biased case, complete consensus is achieved. The applications of proposed modeling framework can easily be generalized, as they transcend opinion formation modeling.

  5. A new inverse regression model applied to radiation biodosimetry (United States)

    Higueras, Manuel; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Rothkamm, Kai


    Biological dosimetry based on chromosome aberration scoring in peripheral blood lymphocytes enables timely assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by an individual. Here, new Bayesian-type count data inverse regression methods are introduced for situations where responses are Poisson or two-parameter compound Poisson distributed. Our Poisson models are calculated in a closed form, by means of Hermite and negative binomial (NB) distributions. For compound Poisson responses, complete and simplified models are provided. The simplified models are also expressible in a closed form and involve the use of compound Hermite and compound NB distributions. Three examples of applications are given that demonstrate the usefulness of these methodologies in cytogenetic radiation biodosimetry and in radiotherapy. We provide R and SAS codes which reproduce these examples. PMID:25663804

  6. Essays on employment and unemployment transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagore Garcia, Amparo


    This thesis addresses relevant questions related to labour market transitions in Spain. Using administrative records data from Spanish Social Security and applying correlated competing risks models, the impact of the current recession on unemployment and employment transitions and gender differences

  7. Structural, magnetic and superconducting phase transitions in CaFe2As2 under ambient and applied pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, P.C.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Ni, N.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A.I.; McQueeney, R.J.; Torikachvili, M.S.; Argyriou, D.N.; Luke, G.; Yu, W.


    At ambient pressure CaFe 2 As 2 has been found to undergo a first order phase transition from a high temperature, tetragonal phase to a low-temperature orthorhombic/antiferromagnetic phase upon cooling through T ∼ 170 K. With the application of pressure this phase transition is rapidly suppressed and by ∼0.35 GPa it is replaced by a first order phase transition to a low-temperature collapsed tetragonal, non-magnetic phase. Further application of pressure leads to an increase of the tetragonal to collapsed tetragonal phase transition temperature, with it crossing room temperature by ∼1.7 GPa. Given the exceptionally large and anisotropic change in unit cell dimensions associated with the collapsed tetragonal phase, the state of the pressure medium (liquid or solid) at the transition temperature has profound effects on the low-temperature state of the sample. For He-gas cells the pressure is as close to hydrostatic as possible and the transitions are sharp and the sample appears to be single phase at low temperatures. For liquid media cells at temperatures below media freezing, the CaFe 2 As 2 transforms when it is encased by a frozen media and enters into a low-temperature multi-crystallographic-phase state, leading to what appears to be a strain stabilized superconducting state at low temperatures.

  8. The democracy ochlocracy dictatorship transition in the Sznajd model and in the Ising model (United States)

    Schneider, Johannes J.; Hirtreiter, Christian


    Since its introduction in 2000, the Sznajd model has been assumed to simulate a democratic community with two parties. The main flaw in this model is that a Sznajd system freezes in the long term in a non-democratic state, which can be either a dictatorship or a stalemate configuration. Here we show that the Sznajd model has better to be considered as a transition model, transferring a democratic system already at the beginning of a simulation via an ochlocratic scenario, i.e., a regime in which several mobs rule, to a dictatorship, thus reproducing the corresponding Aristotelian theory.

  9. Applying the knowledge creation model to the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present-day society, the need to manage indigenous knowledge is widely recognised. However, there is a debate in progress on whether or not indigenous knowledge can be easily managed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of using knowledge management models like knowledge creation theory ...

  10. A comparison of various modelling approaches applied to Cholera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analyses are demonstrated on data collected from Beira, Mozambique. Dynamic regression was found to be the preferred forecasting method for this data set. Keywords:Cholera, modelling, signal processing, dynamic regression, negative binomial regression, wavelet analysis, cross-wavelet analysis. ORiON Vol.

  11. An Analytical Model for Learning: An Applied Approach. (United States)

    Kassebaum, Peter Arthur

    A mediated-learning package, geared toward non-traditional students, was developed for use in the College of Marin's cultural anthropology courses. An analytical model for learning was used in the development of the package, utilizing concepts related to learning objectives, programmed instruction, Gestalt psychology, cognitive psychology, and…

  12. Applying the social relations model to self and peer evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Greguras; C. Robie; M.Ph. Born (Marise)


    textabstractPeer evaluations of performance increasingly are being used to make organizational decisions and to provide individuals with performance related feedback. Using Kenny’s social relations model (SRM), data from 14 teams of undergraduate students who completed performance ratings of

  13. A comparison of various modelling approaches applied to Cholera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The application of a methodology that proposes the use of spectral methods to inform the development of statistical forecasting models for cholera case data is explored in this pa- per. The seasonal behaviour of the target variable (cholera cases) is analysed using singular spectrum analysis followed by spectrum ...

  14. Applying the elastic model for various nucleus-nucleus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The Elastic Model of two free parameters m,d given by Scalia has been used for wider energy regions to fit the available experimental data for potential barriers and cross sections. In order to generalize Scalia's formula in both sub- and above-barrier regions, we calculated m, d for pairs rather than those given by Scalia and compared the calculated cross sections with the experimental data. This makes a generalization of the Elastic Model in describing fusion process. On the other hand, Scalia's range of interacting systems was 24 ≤ A ≤194 where A is the compound nucleus mass number. Our extension of that model includes an example of the pairs of A larger than his final limit aiming to make it as a general formula for any type of reactants: light, intermediate or heavy systems. A significant point is the comparison of Elastic Model calculations with the well known methods studying complete fusion and compound nucleus formation, namely with the resultants of using Proximity potential with either Sharp or Smooth cut-off approximations

  15. Applying Buddhist Practices to Advocacy: The Advocacy-Serving Model (United States)

    Warren, Jane; Klepper, Konja K.; Lambert, Serena; Nunez, Johnna; Williams, Susan


    Creating and retaining empathic connections with the most disenfranchised among us can take a toll on the wellness of counselor advocates. The Advocacy-Serving Model is introduced as a creative approach to strengthening the ability of advocates to serve through enhancing awareness, focusing actions, and connecting to community. The model…

  16. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism. (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.


    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  17. Dynamics Model Applied to Pricing Options with Uncertain Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorella Fatone


    model is proposed. The data used to test the calibration problem included observations of asset prices over a finite set of (known equispaced discrete time values. Statistical tests were used to estimate the statistical significance of the two parameters of the Black-Scholes model: the volatility and the drift. The effects of these estimates on the option pricing problem were investigated. In particular, the pricing of an option with uncertain volatility in the Black-Scholes framework was revisited, and a statistical significance was associated with the price intervals determined using the Black-Scholes-Barenblatt equations. Numerical experiments involving synthetic and real data were presented. The real data considered were the daily closing values of the S&P500 index and the associated European call and put option prices in the year 2005. The method proposed here for calibrating the Black-Scholes dynamics model could be extended to other science and engineering models that may be expressed in terms of stochastic dynamical systems.

  18. Existing Soil Carbon Models Do Not Apply to Forested Wetlands (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; B. Song; M.F. Jurgensen; C. Li


    When assessing the biological,geological,and chemical cycling of nutrients and elements — or when assessing carbon dynamics with respect to global change — modeling and simulation are necessary. Although wetlands occupy a relatively small proportion of Earth’s terrestrial surface (

  19. Energy Demand Modeling Methodology of Key State Transitions of Turning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Jia


    Full Text Available Energy demand modeling of machining processes is the foundation of energy optimization. Energy demand of machining state transition is integral to the energy requirements of the machining process. However, research focus on energy modeling of state transition is scarce. To fill this gap, an energy demand modeling methodology of key state transitions of the turning process is proposed. The establishment of an energy demand model of state transition could improve the accuracy of the energy model of the machining process, which also provides an accurate model and reliable data for energy optimization of the machining process. Finally, case studies were conducted on a CK6153i CNC lathe, the results demonstrating that predictive accuracy with the proposed method is generally above 90% for the state transition cases.

  20. Random-diluted triangular plaquette model: Study of phase transitions in a kinetically constrained model (United States)

    Franz, Silvio; Gradenigo, Giacomo; Spigler, Stefano


    We study how the thermodynamic properties of the triangular plaquette model (TPM) are influenced by the addition of extra interactions. The thermodynamics of the original TPM is trivial, while its dynamics is glassy, as usual in kinetically constrained models. As soon as we generalize the model to include additional interactions, a thermodynamic phase transition appears in the system. The additional interactions we consider are either short ranged, forming a regular lattice in the plane, or long ranged of the small-world kind. In the case of long-range interactions we call the new model the random-diluted TPM. We provide arguments that the model so modified should undergo a thermodynamic phase transition, and that in the long-range case this is a glass transition of the "random first-order" kind. Finally, we give support to our conjectures studying the finite-temperature phase diagram of the random-diluted TPM in the Bethe approximation. This corresponds to the exact calculation on the random regular graph, where free energy and configurational entropy can be computed by means of the cavity equations.

  1. Transit timing observations from Kepler. V. Transit timing variation candidates in the first sixteen months from polynomial models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, E.B.; Ragozzine, D.; Holman, M.J.


    Transit timing variations provide a powerful tool for confirming and characterizing transiting planets, as well as detecting non-transiting planets. We report the results of an updated transit timing variation (TTV) analysis for 1481 planet candidates based on transit times measured during...... find that the occurrence rate of planet candidates that show TTVs is significantly increased (~68%) for planet candidates transiting stars with multiple transiting planet candidates when compared to planet candidates transiting stars with a single transiting planet candidate....

  2. Motor fuel demand analysis - applied modelling in the European union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorazewiez, S.


    Motor fuel demand in Europe amounts to almost half of petroleum products consumption and to thirty percent of total final energy consumption. This study considers, Firstly, the energy policies of different European countries and the ways in which the consumption of motor gasoline and automotive gas oil has developed. Secondly it provides an abstract of demand models in the energy sector, illustrating their specific characteristics. Then it proposes an economic model of automotive fuel consumption, showing motor gasoline and automotive gas oil separately over a period of thirty years (1960-1993) for five main countries in the European Union. Finally, forecasts of consumption of gasoline and diesel up to the year 2020 are given for different scenarios. (author)

  3. Consideration of an applied model of public health program infrastructure. (United States)

    Lavinghouze, René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia; Ottoson, Judith


    Systemic infrastructure is key to public health achievements. Individual public health program infrastructure feeds into this larger system. Although program infrastructure is rarely defined, it needs to be operationalized for effective implementation and evaluation. The Ecological Model of Infrastructure (EMI) is one approach to defining program infrastructure. The EMI consists of 5 core (Leadership, Partnerships, State Plans, Engaged Data, and Managed Resources) and 2 supporting (Strategic Understanding and Tactical Action) elements that are enveloped in a program's context. We conducted a literature search across public health programs to determine support for the EMI. Four of the core elements were consistently addressed, and the other EMI elements were intermittently addressed. The EMI provides an initial and partial model for understanding program infrastructure, but additional work is needed to identify evidence-based indicators of infrastructure elements that can be used to measure success and link infrastructure to public health outcomes, capacity, and sustainability.

  4. Applying ecological modeling to parenting for Australian refugee families. (United States)

    Grant, Julian; Guerin, Pauline B


    Children in families with parents from refugee backgrounds are often viewed as a vulnerable group with increased risks of developing physical or psychological problems. However, there is very little research regarding the strategies that parents might use to parent their children in a new country while they also manage the interrelated challenges of poverty, social isolation, maternal stress, and mental ill health that often go along with resettlement. We explore the application of ecological modeling, specifically at individual, institutional, and policy levels, within an Australian context to critique the factors that shape the development of parenting capacity within refugee families settling in a new Western country. Ecological modeling enables examination of how public policy at local state and national levels influences the individual and family directly and through the organizations that are given the task of implementing many of the policy recommendations. Recommendations for health practice and research are made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Phase Transitions and the Korteweg-De Vries Equation in the Density Difference Lattice Hydrodynamic Model of Traffic Flow (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Fang; Yuan, Zhen-Zhou; Jia, Bin; Fan, Hong-Qiang


    We investigate the phase transitions and the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in the density difference lattice hydrodynamic (DDLM) model, which shows a close connection with the gas-kinetic-based model and the microscopic car following model. The KdV equation near the neutral stability line is derived and the corresponding soliton solution describing the density waves is obtained. Numerical simulations are conducted in two aspects. On the one hand, under periodic conditions perturbations are applied to demonstrate the nonlinear analysis result. On the other hand, the open boundary condition with random fluctuations is designed to explore the empirical congested traffic patterns. The phase transitions among the free traffic (FT), widening synchronized flow pattern (WSP), moving localized cluster (MLC), oscillatory congested traffic (OCT) and homogeneous congested traffic (HCT) occur by varying the amplitude of the fluctuations. To our knowledge, it is the first research showing that the lattice hydrodynamic model could reproduce so many congested traffic patterns.

  6. Applying CIPP Model for Learning-Object Management (United States)

    Morgado, Erla M. Morales; Peñalvo, Francisco J. García; Martín, Carlos Muñoz; Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel Conde

    Although knowledge management process needs to receive some evaluation in order to determine their suitable functionality. There is not a clear definition about the stages where LOs need to be evaluated and the specific metrics to continuously promote their quality. This paper presents a proposal for LOs evaluation during their management for e-learning systems. To achieve this, we suggest specific steps for LOs design, implementation and evaluation into the four stages proposed by CIPP model (Context, Input, Process, Product).

  7. Improving Credit Scorecard Modeling Through Applying Text Analysis


    Omar Ghailan; Hoda M.O. Mokhtar; Osman Hegazy


    In the credit card scoring and loans management, the prediction of the applicant’s future behavior is an important decision support tool and a key factor in reducing the risk of Loan Default. A lot of data mining and classification approaches have been developed for the credit scoring purpose. For the best of our knowledge, building a credit scorecard by analyzing the textual data in the application form has not been explored so far. This paper proposes a comprehensive credit scorecard model ...

  8. Market Manipulation? Applying the Propaganda Model to Financial Media Reporting


    Thompson, Peter A


    Herman and Chomsky’s Propaganda Model (PM) has emphasized how the various ‘filters’ can lead to news reports misrepresenting the vested political and economic interests that underpin US foreign policy. However, there has been relatively little attention paid to the implications of the PM for media operations in another key dimension of capitalism: financial markets. Traders require timely and accurate information about changing market conditions. However, financial news announcements influenc...

  9. Simulation of Road Traffic Applying Model-Driven Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Road traffic is an important phenomenon in modern societies. The study of its different aspects in the multiple scenarios where it happens is relevant for a huge number of problems. At the same time, its scale and complexity make it hard to study. Traffic simulations can alleviate these difficulties, simplifying the scenarios to consider and controlling their variables. However, their development also presents difficulties. The main ones come from the need to integrate the way of working of researchers and developers from multiple fields. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE addresses these problems using Modelling Languages (MLs and semi-automatic transformations to organise and describe the development, from requirements to code. This paper presents a domain-specific MDE framework for simulations of road traffic. It comprises an extensible ML, support tools, and development guidelines. The ML adopts an agent-based approach, which is focused on the roles of individuals in road traffic and their decision-making. A case study shows the process to model a traffic theory with the ML, and how to specialise that specification for an existing target platform and its simulations. The results are the basis for comparison with related work.

  10. A theoretical intellectual capital model applied to cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Alfaro Navarro


    Full Text Available New Management Information Systems (MIS are necessary at local level as the main source of wealth creation. Therefore, tools and approaches that provide a full future vision of any organization should be a strategic priority for economic development. In this line, cities are “centers of knowledge and sources of growth and innovation” and integrated urban development policies are necessary. These policies support communication networks and optimize location structures as strategies that provide opportunities for social and democratic participation for the citizens. This paper proposes a theoretical model to measure and evaluate the cities intellectual capital that allows determine what we must take into account to make cities a source of wealth, prosperity, welfare and future growth. Furthermore, local intellectual capital provides a long run vision. Thus, in this paper we develop and explain how to implement a model to estimate intellectual capital in cities. In this sense, our proposal is to provide a model for measuring and managing intellectual capital using socio-economic indicators for cities. These indicators offer a long term picture supported by a comprehensive strategy for those who occupy the local space, infrastructure for implementation and management of the environment for its development.

  11. Applying a Virtual Economy Model in Mexico's Oil Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.


    The state of Mexico's oil industry, including the accomplishments of Pemex, Mexico's national oil company, was discussed, with particular reference to the progress made in the period of 1988-1994, and the outlook for innovations in the post-Salinas era. The concept of an evolutionary trend from a command economy (State as sole producer), towards market (State as regulator) or mixed economies (State as business partner) in developing countries, was introduced, placing Pemex within this evolutionary model as moving away from centralized control of oil production and distribution, while achieving international competitiveness. The concept of ''virtual market economy'' was also discussed. This model contains the legal basis of a command economy, while instituting modernization programs in order to stimulate market-economic conditions. This type of economy was considered particularly useful in this instance, sine it would allow Pemex units to operate within international performance and price benchmarks while maintaining state monopoly. Specific details of how Pemex could transform itself to a virtual market economy were outlined. It was recommended that Pemex experiment with the virtual mixed economy model; in essence, making the state a co-producer, co-transporter, and co-distributor of hydrocarbons. The effects of such a move would be to bring non-debt funding to oil and gas production, transmission, and associated industrial activities

  12. Applying fuzzy analytic network process in quality function deployment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Afsharkazemi


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an empirical study of QFD implementation when fuzzy numbers are used to handle the uncertainty associated with different components of the proposed model. We implement fuzzy analytical network to find the relative importance of various criteria and using fuzzy numbers we calculate the relative importance of these factors. The proposed model of this paper uses fuzzy matrix and house of quality to study the products development in QFD and also the second phase i.e. part deployment. In most researches, the primary objective is only on CRs to implement the quality function deployment and some other criteria such as production costs, manufacturing costs etc were disregarded. The results of using fuzzy analysis network process based on the QFD model in Daroupat packaging company to develop PVDC show that the most important indexes are being waterproof, resistant pill packages, and production cost. In addition, the PVDC coating is the most important index in terms of company experts’ point of view.

  13. Mathematical model of gas plasma applied to chronic wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P. [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, HuBei 430074 (China); Zhang, Y. T. [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of UHV Technology and Gas Discharge Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China)


    Chronic wounds are a major burden for worldwide health care systems, and patients suffer pain and discomfort from this type of wound. Recently gas plasmas have been shown to safely speed chronic wounds healing. In this paper, we develop a deterministic mathematical model formulated by eight-species reaction-diffusion equations, and use it to analyze the plasma treatment process. The model follows spatial and temporal concentration within the wound of oxygen, chemoattractants, capillary sprouts, blood vessels, fibroblasts, extracellular matrix material, nitric oxide (NO), and inflammatory cell. Two effects of plasma, increasing NO concentration and reducing bacteria load, are considered in this model. The plasma treatment decreases the complete healing time from 25 days (normal wound healing) to 17 days, and the contributions of increasing NO concentration and reducing bacteria load are about 1/4 and 3/4, respectively. Increasing plasma treatment frequency from twice to three times per day accelerates healing process. Finally, the response of chronic wounds of different etiologies to treatment with gas plasmas is analyzed.

  14. Predicting landscape vegetation dynamics using state-and-transition simulation models (United States)

    Colin J. Daniel; Leonardo. Frid


    This paper outlines how state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) can be used to project changes in vegetation over time across a landscape. STSMs are stochastic, empirical simulation models that use an adapted Markov chain approach to predict how vegetation will transition between states over time, typically in response to interactions between succession,...

  15. Exactly solvable model of phase transition between hadron and quark-gluon-matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.; Petrov, V.K.; Shelest, V.P.; Zinovjev, G.M.


    An exactly solvable model of phase transition between hadron and quark-gluon matter is proposed. The hadron phase of this model is considered as a gas of bags filled by point massless constituents. The mass and volume spectrum of the bag is found. The thermodynamical characteristics of a bag gas in the neighbourhood of a phase transition point are ascertained in analytical form

  16. Modeling external constraints: Applying expert systems to nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.E.; Behera, A.K.


    Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in nuclear plants have received much attention over the past decade. Specific applications that have been addressed include development of models and knowledge-bases, plant maintenance, operations, procedural guidance, risk assessment, and design tools. This paper examines the issue of external constraints, with a focus on the use of Al and expert systems as design tools. It also provides several suggested methods for addressing these constraints within the Al framework. These methods include a State Matrix scheme, a layered structure for the knowledge base, and application of the dynamic parameter concept

  17. Morphometric model of lymphocyte as applied to scanning flow cytometry (United States)

    Loiko, Valery A.; Ruban, Gennady I.; Gritsai, Olga A.; Gruzdev, Alexey D.; Kosmacheva, Svetlana M.; Goncharova, Natalia V.; Miskevich, Alexander A.


    The peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal individuals are investigated by methods of specialized light microscopy. Lymphocytes as a whole and T-cell subpopulation are considered. Lymphocyte structure is characterized with reference to polarizing scanning flow cytometry. The lymphocyte and lymphocyte nucleus shapes are analyzed. Linear correlation dependence between sizes of lymphocyte and its nucleus is indicated. A morphometric model of a lymphocyte is constructed using the obtained data. The findings can be used, for instance, as input parameters to solve the direct and inverse light-scattering problems of turbidimetry, nephelometry, and flow cytometry.

  18. Inverse geothermal modelling applied to Danish sedimentary basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Soren E.; Balling, Niels; Bording, Thue S.


    . The numerical model was utilized for predicting and contouring temperatures at 2000 and 3000 m depths and for two main geothermal reservoir units, the Gassum (Lower Jurassic-Upper Triassic) and Bunter/Skagerrak (Triassic) reservoirs, both currently utilized for geothermal energy production. Temperature...... gradients to depths of 2000-3000 m are generally around 25-30. degrees C km(-1), locally up to about 35. degrees C km(-1). Large regions have geothermal reservoirs with characteristic temperatures ranging from ca. 40-50. degrees C, at 1000-1500 m depth, to ca. 80-110. degrees C, at 2500-3500 m, however...

  19. Modeling taxi demand with GPS data from taxis and transit. (United States)


    Identifying factors that influence taxi demand is very important for understanding where and when people use taxis and how taxi demand relates to the availability and quality of transit service. This study used a large set of global positioning syste...

  20. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model. (United States)

    Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A; Orr, Barron J; Gimblett, Randy H; Chalfoun, Nader V; Guertin, David P; Marsh, Stuart E


    Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire ( n = 486) distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation) representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  1. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran


    Full Text Available Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486 distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  2. Applying the Health Belief Model to college students' health behavior (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo


    The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine ( to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306

  3. Mathematical Modeling Applied to Prediction of Landslides in Southern Brazil (United States)

    Silva, Lúcia; Araújo, João; Braga, Beatriz; Fernandes, Nelson


    Mass movements are natural phenomena that occur on the slopes and are important agents working in landscape development. These movements have caused serious damage to infrastructure and properties. In addition to the mass movements occurring in natural slopes, there is also a large number of accidents induced by human action in the landscape. The change of use and land cover for the introduction of agriculture is a good example that have affected the stability of slopes. Land use and/or land cover changes have direct and indirect effects on slope stability and frequently represent a major factor controlling the occurrence of man-induced mass movements. In Brazil, especially in the southern and southeastern regions, areas of original natural rain forest have been continuously replaced by agriculture during the last decades, leading to important modifications in soil mechanical properties and to major changes in hillslope hydrology. In these regions, such effects are amplified due to the steep hilly topography, intense summer rainfall events and dense urbanization. In November 2008, a major landslide event took place in a rural area with intensive agriculture in the state of Santa Catarina (Morro do Baú) where many catastrophic landslides were triggered after a long rainy period. In this area, the natural forest has been replaced by huge banana and pine plantations. The state of Santa Catarina in recent decades has been the scene of several incidents of mass movements such as this catastrophic event. In this study, based on field mapping and modeling, we characterize the role played by geomorphological and geological factors in controlling the spatial distribution of landslides in the Morro do Baú area. In order to attain such objective, a digital elevation model of the basin was generated with a 10m grid in which the topographic parameters were obtained. The spatial distribution of the scars from this major event was mapped from another image, obtained immediately

  4. Stochastic resonance induced by novel random transitions of motion of FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangjun; Xu Jianxue


    In contrast to the previous studies which have dealt with stochastic resonance induced by random transitions of system motion between two coexisting limit cycle attractors in the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron model after Hopf bifurcation and which have dealt with the phenomenon of stochastic resonance induced by external noise when the model with periodic input has only one attractor before Hopf bifurcation, in this paper we have focused our attention on stochastic resonance (SR) induced by a novel transition behavior, the transitions of motion of the model among one attractor on the left side of bifurcation point and two attractors on the right side of bifurcation point under the perturbation of noise. The results of research show: since one bifurcation of transition from one to two limit cycle attractors and the other bifurcation of transition from two to one limit cycle attractors occur in turn besides Hopf bifurcation, the novel transitions of motion of the model occur when bifurcation parameter is perturbed by weak internal noise; the bifurcation point of the model may stochastically slightly shift to the left or right when FHN neuron model is perturbed by external Gaussian distributed white noise, and then the novel transitions of system motion also occur under the perturbation of external noise; the novel transitions could induce SR alone, and when the novel transitions of motion of the model and the traditional transitions between two coexisting limit cycle attractors after bifurcation occur in the same process the SR also may occur with complicated behaviors types; the mechanism of SR induced by external noise when FHN neuron model with periodic input has only one attractor before Hopf bifurcation is related to this kind of novel transition mentioned above

  5. Virtual building environments (VBE) - Applying information modeling to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir


    A Virtual Building Environment (VBE) is a ''place'' where building industry project staffs can get help in creating Building Information Models (BIM) and in the use of virtual buildings. It consists of a group of industry software that is operated by industry experts who are also experts in the use of that software. The purpose of a VBE is to facilitate expert use of appropriate software applications in conjunction with each other to efficiently support multidisciplinary work. This paper defines BIM and virtual buildings, and describes VBE objectives, set-up and characteristics of operation. It informs about the VBE Initiative and the benefits from a couple of early VBE projects.

  6. Electrostatic Model Applied to ISS Charged Water Droplet Experiment (United States)

    Stevenson, Daan; Schaub, Hanspeter; Pettit, Donald R.


    The electrostatic force can be used to create novel relative motion between charged bodies if it can be isolated from the stronger gravitational and dissipative forces. Recently, Coulomb orbital motion was demonstrated on the International Space Station by releasing charged water droplets in the vicinity of a charged knitting needle. In this investigation, the Multi-Sphere Method, an electrostatic model developed to study active spacecraft position control by Coulomb charging, is used to simulate the complex orbital motion of the droplets. When atmospheric drag is introduced, the simulated motion closely mimics that seen in the video footage of the experiment. The electrostatic force's inverse dependency on separation distance near the center of the needle lends itself to analytic predictions of the radial motion.

  7. Applying a Hybrid MCDM Model for Six Sigma Project Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kwun Wang


    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a project-driven methodology; the projects that provide the maximum financial benefits and other impacts to the organization must be prioritized. Project selection (PS is a type of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM problem. In this study, we present a hybrid MCDM model combining the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL technique, analytic network process (ANP, and the VIKOR method to evaluate and improve Six Sigma projects for reducing performance gaps in each criterion and dimension. We consider the film printing industry of Taiwan as an empirical case. The results show that our study not only can use the best project selection, but can also be used to analyze the gaps between existing performance values and aspiration levels for improving the gaps in each dimension and criterion based on the influential network relation map.

  8. [The bioethical principlism model applied in pain management]. (United States)

    Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; Pessoa, Ana Paula da Costa; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Pereira, Lilian Varanda


    An integrative literature review was developed with the purpose to analyze the scientific production regarding the relationships between pain and the principles of bioethics (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice). Controlled descriptors were used in three international data sources (LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE), in April of 2012, totaling 14 publications categorized by pain and autonomy, pain and beneficence, pain and nonmaleficence, pain and justice. The adequate relief of pain is a human right and a moral issue directly related with the bioethical principlism standard model (beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). However, many professionals overlook the pain of their patients, ignoring their ethical role when facing suffering. It was concluded that principlism has been neglected in the care of patients in pain, showing the need for new practices to change this setting.

  9. Nonspherical Radiation Driven Wind Models Applied to Be Stars (United States)

    Arauxo, F. X.


    ABSTRACT. In this work we present a model for the structure of a radiatively driven wind in the meridional plane of a hot star. Rotation effects and simulation of viscous forces were included in the motion equations. The line radiation force is considered with the inclusion of the finite disk correction in self-consistent computations which also contain gravity darkening as well as distortion of the star by rotation. An application to a typical BlV star leads to mass-flux ratios between equator and pole of the order of 10 and mass loss rates in the range 5.l0 to Mo/yr. Our envelope models are flattened towards the equator and the wind terminal velocities in that region are rather high (1000 Km/s). However, in the region near the star the equatorial velocity field is dominated by rotation. RESUMEN. Se presenta un modelo de la estructura de un viento empujado radiativamente en el plano meridional de una estrella caliente. Se incluyeron en las ecuaciones de movimiento los efectos de rotaci6n y la simulaci6n de fuerzas viscosas. Se consider6 la fuerza de las lineas de radiaci6n incluyendo la correcci6n de disco finito en calculos autoconsistentes los cuales incluyen oscurecimiento gravitacional asi como distorsi6n de la estrella por rotaci6n. La aplicaci6n a una estrella tipica BlV lleva a cocientes de flujo de masa entre el ecuador y el polo del orden de 10 de perdida de masa en el intervalo 5.l0 a 10 Mo/ano. Nuestros modelos de envolvente estan achatados hacia el ecuador y las velocidads terminales del viento en esa regi6n son bastante altas (1000 Km/s). Sin embargo, en la regi6n cercana a la estrella el campo de velocidad ecuatorial esta dominado por la rotaci6n. Key words: STARS-BE -- STARS-WINDS

  10. Finland: a model of energy transition to be followed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorot, Pascal


    Published before the debate of the French Parliament on the law on energy transition, i.e. on a new energy model, or on the construction of a low carbon and less energy consuming society to comply with France's international commitments, this report first discusses the French situation, the evolution of its energy policy, the challenge of a search for a balance between a cheap electricity and energy independence, and the plurality of factors and objectives (economic, budgetary, environmental, industrial, societal, political and social) which are sometime contradictory. The second part presents and comments the case of Germany which seems to be a good example regarding energy policy, however it faces some difficulties and pitfalls: a quick evolution of the energy mix in favour of renewable energies, but an always higher cost supported almost only by individuals, a disturbed electricity market, an environmental impact due to the wider use of coal (less expensive than gas). The third part addresses the case of Finland which could be a more inspiring example: no decision to phase out nuclear, no decision of a quick and forced development of renewable energies, modification of the energy mix by the development of local forest resources, an electric system of good quality, a high energetic competitiveness. The report outlines the consistency of the Finnish policy: search for a balance between international commitments of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, competitive tariffs, and strengthening of energetic independence. The associated choices are discussed, and it appears that the cost-efficiency criterion is prevailing

  11. Optical Neural Network Models Applied To Logic Program Execution (United States)

    Stormon, Charles D.


    Logic programming is being used extensively by Artificial Intelligence researchers to solve problems including natural language processing and expert systems. These languages, of which Prolog is the most widely used, promise to revolutionize software engineering, but much greater performance is needed. Researchers have demonstrated the applicability of neural network models to the solution of certain NP-complete problems, but these methods are not obviously applicable to the execution of logic programs. This paper outlines the use of neural networks in four aspects of the logic program execution cycle, and discusses results of a simulation of three of these. Four neural network functional units are described, called the substitution agent, the clause filter, the structure processor, and the heuristics generator, respectively. Simulation results suggest that the system described may provide several orders of magnitude improvement in execution speed for large logic programs. However, practical implementation of the proposed architecture will require the application of optical computing techniques due to the large number of neurons required, and the need for massive, adaptive connectivity.

  12. Applying revised gap analysis model in measuring hotel service quality. (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yu-Che; Chien, Chih-Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Lu, Shu-Chiung; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dong, Weiwei


    With the number of tourists coming to Taiwan growing by 10-20 % since 2010, the number has increased due to an increasing number of foreign tourists, particularly after deregulation allowed admitting tourist groups, followed later on by foreign individual tourists, from mainland China. The purpose of this study is to propose a revised gap model to evaluate and improve service quality in Taiwanese hotel industry. Thus, service quality could be clearly measured through gap analysis, which was more effective for offering direction in developing and improving service quality. The HOLSERV instrument was used to identify and analyze service gaps from the perceptions of internal and external customers. The sample for this study included three main categories of respondents: tourists, employees, and managers. The results show that five gaps influenced tourists' evaluations of service quality. In particular, the study revealed that Gap 1 (management perceptions vs. customer expectations) and Gap 9 (service provider perceptions of management perceptions vs. service delivery) were more critical than the others in affecting perceived service quality, making service delivery the main area of improvement. This study contributes toward an evaluation of the service quality of the Taiwanese hotel industry from the perspectives of customers, service providers, and managers, which is considerably valuable for hotel managers. It was the aim of this study to explore all of these together in order to better understand the possible gaps in the hotel industry in Taiwan.

  13. Using state-and-transition modeling to account for imperfect detection in invasive species management (United States)

    Frid, Leonardo; Holcombe, Tracy; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Olsson, Aaryn D.; Brigham, Lindy; Bean, Travis M.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Bryan, Katherine


    Buffelgrass, a highly competitive and flammable African bunchgrass, is spreading rapidly across both urban and natural areas in the Sonoran Desert of southern and central Arizona. Damages include increased fire risk, losses in biodiversity, and diminished revenues and quality of life. Feasibility of sustained and successful mitigation will depend heavily on rates of spread, treatment capacity, and cost–benefit analysis. We created a decision support model for the wildland–urban interface north of Tucson, AZ, using a spatial state-and-transition simulation modeling framework, the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses. We addressed the issues of undetected invasions, identifying potentially suitable habitat and calibrating spread rates, while answering questions about how to allocate resources among inventory, treatment, and maintenance. Inputs to the model include a state-and-transition simulation model to describe the succession and control of buffelgrass, a habitat suitability model, management planning zones, spread vectors, estimated dispersal kernels for buffelgrass, and maps of current distribution. Our spatial simulations showed that without treatment, buffelgrass infestations that started with as little as 80 ha (198 ac) could grow to more than 6,000 ha by the year 2060. In contrast, applying unlimited management resources could limit 2060 infestation levels to approximately 50 ha. The application of sufficient resources toward inventory is important because undetected patches of buffelgrass will tend to grow exponentially. In our simulations, areas affected by buffelgrass may increase substantially over the next 50 yr, but a large, upfront investment in buffelgrass control could reduce the infested area and overall management costs.

  14. Bifurcation analysis and dimension reduction of a predator-prey model for the L-H transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Magnus; Brøns, Morten; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    The L-H transition denotes a shift to an improved confinement state of a toroidal plasma in a fusion reactor. A model of the L-H transition is required to simulate the time dependence of tokamak discharges that include the L-H transition. A 3-ODE predator-prey type model of the L-H transition...

  15. Transition towards Sustainable Solutions: Product, Service, Technology, and Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Nasiri


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the horse industry can be considered as an important industry in European countries and has a major role in agricultural industry throughout the world. Although today the diversity of the horse-related companies provides new markets and business opportunities, there are also some sustainable issues which needs to be addressed. Therefore, this study contributes to this research gap by reviewing the concept of sustainability and existing approaches to find sustainable solutions for companies. These sustainable approaches can be applied to products, services and technologies as well as business models, such as the product-service-system (PSS, circular economy (CE and industrial symbiosis (IS. Although there seems to be a growing understanding of sustainable approaches and their role in sustainable development, there is a lack of research at the empirical level regarding the types of sustainability approaches (i.e., technologies, services, products and business models that evolve in specific industries. The empirical data in this research have been collected from a cross-section of Finnish horse industry operators to determine how willing companies are to exploit approaches to sustainable solutions, as well as what the existing sustainable solutions are in this industry. The response rate of this study is approximately 24 percent, including 139 received valid responses among the sample of 580 operators.

  16. Photothermally modulated magnetic resonance applied to the study of the magnetic phase transition in gadolinium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffner, M.E.; Tedesco, J.C.G. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pedrochi, F. [Centro de Ciencias Sociais, Saude e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Rua Urbano Santos, s/n, Centro, 65900-000, Imperatriz, MA (Brazil); Gadioli, G.Z.; Moraes, M.A.B. de [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, A.O.; Silva, E.C. da [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Mansanares, A.M., E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    We explore the photothermally modulated magnetic resonance technique to investigate gadolinium thin films deposited on fused quartz substrate, as a function of thickness and thermal treatment, around the magnetic phase transition temperature. It has been observed that the maximum amplitude of the photothermally modulated magnetic resonance (PM-MR) signal takes place near the phase transition temperature, similarly to the magnetocaloric effect, for which Gd has been the prototype material. The reason is that both depend on the temperature derivative of the magnetization, which maximizes at the phase transition. Besides, there is a narrowing of transition with thermal treatment, confirming that thermal treatment stabilizes the film structure. For frequency scan measurements, the heat diffusion in a two-layer system was considered, and a depth profile study was carried out in order to investigate heterogeneities along the film thickness. From the PM-MR response as a function of the modulation frequency it was possible to estimate the thermal properties of the Gd film. Magnetization, X-ray and electron spin resonance measurements were used to complement the analysis and support the conclusions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TC values increase with thermal treatment and film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PM-MR signal amplitude of the main peak is maximum at temperatures close to TC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Frequency scan showed uniform film profile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gd film thermal diffusivity was found to be smaller than the bulk one.

  17. First-order superconducting transition in the inter-band model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes da Silva, M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas, Av. 7 de Setembro, 1975 - Centro, Manaus, AM 69020-120 (Brazil); Dinóla Neto, F., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padilha, I.T. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Continentino, M.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The comprehension about the theoretical features of superconductivity is an interesting and fundamental topic in condensed matter physics. Several theoretical proposals were considered to describe the new classes of superconducting compounds and alloys. In this work we propose to study a non-conventional superconducting system where the Cooper pairs are formed by fermions from different bands described via two band model with hybridization. In this inter-band scenario we find a first-order phase transition at low temperatures and we observe a tricritical point in the phase diagram. In our description, the control parameter is the hybridization that can be tuned by external pressure. This fact indicates the possibility to observe discontinuities in the SC gap amplitude through applying pressure on the system.

  18. Transition from static to kinetic friction: insights from a 2D model. (United States)

    Trømborg, J; Scheibert, J; Amundsen, D S; Thøgersen, K; Malthe-Sørenssen, A


    We describe a 2D spring-block model for the transition from static to kinetic friction at an elastic-slider-rigid-substrate interface obeying a minimalistic friction law (Amontons-Coulomb). By using realistic boundary conditions, a number of previously unexplained experimental results on precursory microslip fronts are successfully reproduced. From the analysis of the interfacial stresses, we derive a prediction for the evolution of the precursor length as a function of the applied loads, as well as an approximate relationship between microscopic and macroscopic friction coefficients. We show that the stress buildup due to both elastic loading and microslip-related relaxations depends only weakly on the underlying shear crack propagation dynamics. Conversely, crack speed depends strongly on both the instantaneous stresses and the friction coefficients, through a nontrivial scaling parameter.

  19. Enhanced Prognostic Model for Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Particle Filter State Transition Model Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhi Arachchige


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on predicting the End of Life and End of Discharge of Lithium ion batteries using a battery capacity fade model and a battery discharge model. The proposed framework will be able to estimate the Remaining Useful Life (RUL and the Remaining charge through capacity fade and discharge models. A particle filter is implemented that estimates the battery’s State of Charge (SOC and State of Life (SOL by utilizing the battery’s physical data such as voltage, temperature, and current measurements. The accuracy of the prognostic framework has been improved by enhancing the particle filter state transition model to incorporate different environmental and loading conditions without retuning the model parameters. The effect of capacity fade in the reduction of the EOD (End of Discharge time with cycling has also been included, integrating both EOL (End of Life and EOD prediction models in order to get more accuracy in the estimations.

  20. A Smooth Transition Logit Model of the Effects of Deregulation in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurn, A.S.; Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    We consider a nonlinear vector model called the logistic vector smooth transition autoregressive model. The bivariate single-transition vector smooth transition regression model of Camacho (2004) is generalised to a multivariate and multitransition one. A modelling strategy consisting of specific......We consider a nonlinear vector model called the logistic vector smooth transition autoregressive model. The bivariate single-transition vector smooth transition regression model of Camacho (2004) is generalised to a multivariate and multitransition one. A modelling strategy consisting...... of specification, including testing linearity, estimation and evaluation of these models is constructed. Nonlinear least squares estimation of the parameters of the model is discussed. Evaluation by misspecification tests is carried out using tests derived in a companion paper. The use of the modelling strategy...... is illustrated by two applications. In the first one, the dynamic relationship between the US gasoline price and consumption is studied and possible asymmetries in it considered. The second application consists of modelling two well known Icelandic riverflow series, previously considered by many hydrologists...

  1. On phase transitions of the Potts model with three competing interactions on Cayley tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Temir


    Full Text Available In the present paper we study a phase transition problem for the Potts model with three competing interactions, the nearest neighbors, the second neighbors and triples of neighbors and non-zero external field on Cayley tree of order two. We prove that for some parameter values of the model there is phase transition. We reduce the problem of describing by limiting Gibbs measures to the problem of solving a system of nonlinear functional equations. We extend the results obtained by Ganikhodjaev and Rozikov [Math. Phys. Anal. Geom., 2009, vol. 12, No. 2, 141-156] on phase transition for the Ising model to the Potts model setting.

  2. Linking rigidity transitions with enthalpic changes at the glass transition and fragility: insight from a simple oscillator model. (United States)

    Micoulaut, Matthieu


    A low temperature Monte Carlo dynamics of a Keating-like oscillator model is used to study the relationship between the nature of network glasses from the viewpoint of rigidity, the thermal reversibility during the glass transition and the strong-fragile behaviour of glass-forming liquids. The model shows that a Phillips optimal glass formation with minimal enthalpic changes is obtained under a cooling/annealing cycle when the system is optimally constrained by the harmonic interactions, i.e. when it is isostatically rigid. For these peculiar systems with a nearly reversible glass transition, the computed activation energy for relaxation time shows also a minimum, which demonstrates that isostatically rigid glasses are strong (Arrhenius-like) glass-forming liquids. Experiments on chalcogenide and oxide glass-forming liquids are discussed under this new perspective and confirm the theoretical prediction for chalcogenide network glasses whereas limitations of the approach appear for weakly interacting (non-covalent, ionic) systems.

  3. Comparison of L-H transition measurements with physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.


    Sawteeth and neutrals are found to have a significant influence on the H-mode power threshold scaling. The ion ∇B drift direction has only a small effect on the edge plasma conditions measured near the plasma midplane but a large effect on the divertor plasma. Since the power threshold changes dramatically with the direction of the ion ∇B drift, this implies that phenomena in the divertor region are critical for the L-H transition. Local conditions at the plasma edge are consistent with several theories of the L-H transition that use edge gradients in their formulation of a critical threshold parameter. However, scatter in the database is too large to distinguish between conditions that lead to an L-H transition and those that remain in L-mode. (author)

  4. Comparison of L-H transition measurements with physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; Burrell, K.H.; Carreras, B.A.


    Sawteeth and neutrals are found to have a significant influence on the H-mode power threshold scaling. The ion ∇B drift direction has only a small effect on the edge plasma conditions measured near the plasma midplane but a large effect on the divertor plasma. Since the power threshold changes dramatically with the direction of the ion ∇B drift, this implies that phenomena in the divertor region are critical for the L-H transition. Local conditions at the plasma edge are consistent with several theories of the L-H transition that use edge gradients in their formulation of a critical threshold parameter. However, scatter in the database is too large to distinguish between conditions that lead to an L-H transition and those that remain in L-mode. (author)

  5. High Pressure phase transition in some alkali halides using interatomic potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazar, H.R.


    We have predicted the phase transition pressure in some alkali halides using an interatomic potential approach based on rigid ion model.The phase transition pressures(28.69 and 2.4 GPa) obtained by us for two alkali halides (NaCl and KCl ) are in closer agreement with their corresponding experimental data(29.0 and 2.0 GPa).This potential is promising with respect to prediction of the phase transition pressure of other alkali halides as well

  6. A two-fluid model for vertical flow applied to CO2 injection wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linga, Gaute; Lund, Halvor


    to thermal stresses and subsequent loss of well integrity, and it is therefore crucial to employ models that can predict this accurately. In this work, we present a model for vertical well flow that includes both two-phase flow and heat conduction. The flow is described by a two-fluid model, where mass...... robust transition from two-phase to single-phase flow than the previous formulation. The model predicts which flow regimes are present downhole, and calculates friction and heat transfer depending on this. Moreover, the flow model is coupled with a heat conduction model for the layers that comprise......Flow of CO2 in wells is associated with substantial variations in thermophysical properties downhole, due to the coupled transient processes involved: complex flow patterns, density changes, phase transitions, and heat transfer to and from surroundings. Large temperature variations can lead...

  7. Applying horizontal diffusion on pressure surface to mesoscale models on terrain-following coordinates (United States)

    Hann-Ming Henry Juang; Ching-Teng Lee; Yongxin Zhang; Yucheng Song; Ming-Chin Wu; Yi-Leng Chen; Kevin Kodama; Shyh-Chin Chen


    The National Centers for Environmental Prediction regional spectral model and mesoscale spectral model (NCEP RSM/MSM) use a spectral computation on perturbation. The perturbation is defined as a deviation between RSM/MSM forecast value and their outer model or analysis value on model sigma-coordinate surfaces. The horizontal diffusion used in the models applies...

  8. Comparison of L-H transition measurements with physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.; Thomas, D.M.


    A technique of fitting a modified hyperbolic tangent to the edge profiles has improved the localization of plasma edge parameters. Non-dimensional edge parameters are broadly consistent with several theories of the L-H transition that use edge gradients in their formulation of a critical threshold parameter. The ion ∇B drift direction has only a small effect on the edge plasma conditions measured near the plasma midplane but a large effect on the divertor plasma. The dramatic change of power threshold with the direction of the ion ∇B drift implies that phenomena in the divertor region may be critical for the L-H transition

  9. Effects of magma and conduit conditions on transitions between effusive and explosive activity: a numerical modeling approach (United States)

    Carr, B. B.; De'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Clarke, A. B.; Voight, B.


    Transitions between effusive and explosive eruptions, common at silicic volcanoes, can occur between distinct eruptive episodes or can occur as changes between effusive and explosive phases within a single episode. The precise causes of these transitions are difficult to determine due to the multitude of mechanisms and variables that can influence fragmentation thresholds. Numerical modeling of magma ascent within a volcanic conduit allows the influence of key variables to be extensively tested. We study the effect of different variables on the mass eruption rate at the vent using a conservative, 1-D, two-phase, steady-state model that allows for lateral gas loss at shallow depths. Several fragmentation criteria are also tested. We are able to generate a number of regime diagrams for a variety of magma and conduit conditions that constrain transitions from effusive to explosive episodes. We show that a transition to explosive activity can occur without changes in the bulk chemistry, crystal volume fraction, or gas mass fraction of the magma. Eruptive style can be controlled by the pressure gradient within the conduit caused by either overpressure in the chamber or varying lava dome size at the vent. Specific results are sensitive to both magma temperature and conduit geometry. It is important that these variables are well constrained when applying this model to different volcanic systems. We apply our model to the recent activity at Merapi Volcano in Indonesia. We constrain model input and output parameters using current petrologic, seismic, and geodetic studies of the Merapi system, and vary critical parameters over reasonable ranges as documented in the literature. Our model is able to reproduce eruption rates observed during both the 2006 effusive and 2010 explosive/effusive eruptions. Our modeling suggests that a combination of chamber overpressure, increased volatile content, and decreased crystal content due to the voluminous injection of new magma into the

  10. Hierarchical Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Analysis of Transit Signal Priority Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisheng An


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of developing a model for traffic signal control with transit priority using Hierarchical Colored Petri nets (HCPN. Petri nets (PN are useful for state analysis of discrete event systems due to their powerful modeling capability and mathematical formalism. This paper focuses on their use to formalize the transit signal priority (TSP control model. In a four-phase traffic signal control model, the transit detection and two kinds of transit priority strategies are integrated to obtain the HCPN-based TSP control models. One of the advantages to use these models is the clear presentation of traffic light behaviors in terms of conditions and events that cause the detection of a priority request by a transit vehicle. Another advantage of the resulting models is that the correctness and reliability of the proposed strategies are easily analyzed. After their full reachable states are generated, the boundness, liveness, and fairness of the proposed models are verified. Experimental results show that the proposed control model provides transit vehicles with better effectiveness at intersections. This work helps advance the state of the art in the design of signal control models related to the intersection of roadways.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher


    Precise exoplanet characterization requires precise classification of exoplanet host stars. The masses of host stars are commonly estimated by comparing their spectra to those predicted by stellar evolution models. However, spectroscopically determined properties are difficult to measure accurately for stars that are substantially different from the Sun, such as M-dwarfs and evolved stars. Here, we propose a new method to dynamically measure the masses of transiting planets near mean-motion resonances and their host stars by combining observations of transit timing variations with radial velocity (RV) measurements. We derive expressions to analytically determine the mass of each member of the system and demonstrate the technique on the Kepler-18 system. We compare these analytic results to numerical simulations and find that the two are consistent. We identify eight systems for which our technique could be applied if follow-up RV measurements are collected. We conclude that this analysis would be optimal for systems discovered by next-generation missions similar to TESS or PLATO, which will target bright stars that are amenable to efficient RV follow-up.

  12. Phase Transitions in Frustrated XY Models Studied Using Hard-Spin Mean-Field Theory (United States)

    Behzadi, Azad E.; McKay, Susan R.


    The number and types of phase transitions occurring in the two- dimensional fully frustrated XY model have remained controversial in spite of over a decade of attention. In this study, we report the results of a hard-spin mean-field approach (R.R. Netz and A.N. Berker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66), 377 (1991). applied to this system. We compute the effective field on a center site or plaquette using neighboring spins of unit magnitude rather than the average magnetization, as is done in conventional mean-field theory. The directions of the neighboring spins are chosen probabilistically to yield each site magnetization self-consistently. Our calculated inverse critical temperature is 1.444, significantly improved from the conventional mean-field result of 0.707. By locating the self-consistent solutions for the site magnetizations directly, this study avoid scaling, which is complicated in this case due to the possibility of two very closely spaced transitions (P. Ollson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75), 2758 (1995).. These results are compared with simulations and the Monte Carlo implementation of hard-spin mean-field theory on this system Thesis, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, U. of Maine (1995).

  13. Empirical assessment of state-and-transition models with a long-term vegetation record from the Sonoran Desert. (United States)

    Bagchi, Sumanta; Briske, David D; Wu, X B; McClaran, Mitchel P; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T; Fernández-Giménez, Maria E


    Resilience-based frameworks, including state-and-transition models (STM), are being increasingly called upon to inform policy and guide ecosystem management, particularly in rangelands. Yet, multiple challenges impede their effective implementation: (1) paucity of empirical tests of resilience concepts, such as alternative states and thresholds, and (2) heavy reliance on expert models, which are seldom tested against empirical data. We developed an analytical protocol to identify unique plant communities and their transitions, and applied it to a long-term vegetation record from the Sonoran Desert (1953-2009). We assessed whether empirical trends were consistent with resilience concepts, and evaluated how they may inform the construction and interpretation of expert STMs. Seven statistically distinct plant communities were identified based on the cover of 22 plant species in 68 permanent transects. We recorded 253 instances of community transitions, associated with changes in species composition between successive samplings. Expectedly, transitions were more frequent among proximate communities with similar species pools than among distant communities. But unexpectedly, communities and transitions were not strongly constrained by soil type and topography. Only 18 transitions featured disproportionately large compositional turnover (species dissimilarity ranged between 0.54 and 0.68), and these were closely associated with communities that were dominated by the common shrub (burroweed, Haplopappus tenuisecta); indicating that only some, and not all, communities may be prone to large compositional change. Temporal dynamics in individual transects illustrated four general trajectories: stability, nondirectional drift, reversibility, and directional shifts that were not reversed even after 2-3 decades. The frequency of transitions and the accompanying species dissimilarity were both positively correlated with fluctuation in precipitation, indicating that climatic

  14. Description of radiative transitions in the relativistic string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdnikov, E.B.; Nanobashvili, G.G.; Pron'ko, G.P.


    The transition operator for a straight-line string in the electromagnetic field has been built. It's matrix elements between the states of arbitrary spin are calculated in lowest order of perturbation theory. The consistensy conditions for the operator of interaction arising due to quantum constraints are also discussed. 12 refs

  15. Model Proposition for the Fiscal Policies Analysis Applied in Economic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Preda


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about fiscal policy applied in economic development. Correlations between macroeconomics and fiscal indicators signify the first steep in our analysis. Next step is a new model proposal for the fiscal and budgetary choices. This model is applied on the date of the Romanian case.

  16. Transition paths of Met-enkephalin from Markov state modeling of a molecular dynamics trajectory. (United States)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Cukier, Robert I


    Conformational states and their interconversion pathways of the zwitterionic form of the pentapeptide Met-enkephalin (MetEnk) are identified. An explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) trajectory is used to construct a Markov state model (MSM) based on dihedral space clustering of the trajectory, and transition path theory (TPT) is applied to identify pathways between open and closed conformers. In the MD trajectory, only four of the eight backbone dihedrals exhibit bistable behavior. Defining a conformer as the string XXXX with X = "+" or "-" denoting, respectively, positive or negative values of a given dihedral angle and obtaining the populations of these conformers shows that only four conformers are highly populated, implying a strong correlation among these dihedrals. Clustering in dihedral space to construct the MSM finds the same four bistable dihedral angles. These state populations are very similar to those found directly from the MD trajectory. TPT is used to obtain pathways, parametrized by committor values, in dihedral state space that are followed in transitioning from closed to open states. Pathway costs are estimated by introducing a kinetics-based procedure that orders pathways from least (shortest) to greater cost paths. The least costly pathways in dihedral space are found to only involve the same XXXX set of dihedral angles, and the conformers accessed in the closed to open transition pathways are identified. For these major pathways, a correlation between reaction path progress (committors) and the end-to-end distance is identified. A dihedral space principal component analysis of the MD trajectory shows that the first three modes capture most of the overall fluctuation, and pick out the same four dihedrals having essentially all the weight in those modes. A MSM based on root-mean-square backbone clustering was also carried out, with good agreement found with dihedral clustering for the static information, but with results that differ

  17. Gaussian wave packet dynamics and the Landau-Zener model for nonadiabatic transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm


    The Landau-Zener model for transitions between two linear diabatic potentials is examined. We derive, in the weak-coupling limit, an expression for the transition probability where the classical trajectory and the constant velocity approximations are abandoned and replaced by quantum dynamics...

  18. Incorporating unreliability of transit in transport demand models: theoretical and practical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, N.; Brands, Ties; de Romph, E.; Aceves Flores, J.


    Nowadays, transport demand models do not explicitly evaluate the impacts of service reliability of transit. Service reliability of transit systems is adversely experienced by users, as it causes additional travel time and unsecure arrival times. Because of this, travelers are likely to perceive a

  19. A latent transition model of the effects of a teen dating violence prevention initiative. (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Miller, Shari; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah


    Patterns of physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration, victimization, and related behaviors were examined with data from the evaluation of the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships initiative, a dating violence primary prevention program targeting middle school students. Latent class and latent transition models were used to estimate distinct patterns of TDV and related behaviors of bullying and sexual harassment in seventh grade students at baseline and to estimate transition probabilities from one pattern of behavior to another at the 1-year follow-up. Intervention effects were estimated by conditioning transitions on exposure to Start Strong. Latent class analyses suggested four classes best captured patterns of these interrelated behaviors. Classes were characterized by elevated perpetration and victimization on most behaviors (the multiproblem class), bullying perpetration/victimization and sexual harassment victimization (the bully-harassment victimization class), bullying perpetration/victimization and psychological TDV victimization (bully-psychological victimization), and experience of bully victimization (bully victimization). Latent transition models indicated greater stability of class membership in the comparison group. Intervention students were less likely to transition to the most problematic pattern and more likely to transition to the least problem class. Although Start Strong has not been found to significantly change TDV, alternative evaluation models may find important differences. Latent transition analysis models suggest positive intervention impact, especially for the transitions at the most and the least positive end of the spectrum. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Weak first-order orientational transition in the Lebwohl-Lasher model for liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.


    The nature of the orientational phase transition in the three-dimensional Lebwohl-Lasher model of liquid crystals has been studied by computer simulation using reweighting techniques and finite-size scaling analysis. Unambiguous numerical evidence is found in favor of a weak first-order transition...

  1. Boundary-layer transition prediction using a simplified correlation-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chenchao


    Full Text Available This paper describes a simplified transition model based on the recently developed correlation-based γ-Reθt transition model. The transport equation of transition momentum thickness Reynolds number is eliminated for simplicity, and new transition length function and critical Reynolds number correlation are proposed. The new model is implemented into an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD code and validated for low and high-speed flow cases, including the zero pressure flat plate, airfoils, hypersonic flat plate and double wedge. Comparisons between the simulation results and experimental data show that the boundary-layer transition phenomena can be reasonably illustrated by the new model, which gives rise to significant improvements over the fully laminar and fully turbulent results. Moreover, the new model has comparable features of accuracy and applicability when compared with the original γ-Reθt model. In the meantime, the newly proposed model takes only one transport equation of intermittency factor and requires fewer correlations, which simplifies the original model greatly. Further studies, especially on separation-induced transition flows, are required for the improvement of the new model.

  2. Energy balance in the solar transition region. I - Hydrostatic thermal models with ambipolar diffusion (United States)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.


    The energy balance in the lower transition region is analyzed by constructing theoretical models which satisfy the energy balance constraint. The energy balance is achieved by balancing the radiative losses and the energy flowing downward from the corona. This energy flow is mainly in two forms: conductive heat flow and hydrogen ionization energy flow due to ambipolar diffusion. Hydrostatic equilibrium is assumed, and, in a first calculation, local mechanical heating and Joule heating are ignored. In a second model, some mechanical heating compatible with chromospheric energy-balance calculations is introduced. The models are computed for a partial non-LTE approach in which radiation departs strongly from LTE but particles depart from Maxwellian distributions only to first order. The results, which apply to cases where the magnetic field is either absent, or uniform and vertical, are compared with the observed Lyman lines and continuum from the average quiet sun. The approximate agreement suggests that this type of model can roughly explain the observed intensities in a physically meaningful way, assuming only a few free parameters specified as chromospheric boundary conditions.

  3. Does the interpersonal model apply across eating disorder diagnostic groups? A structural equation modeling approach. (United States)

    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Proulx, Geneviève; Bissada, Hany


    Interpersonal model has been validated with binge-eating disorder (BED), but it is not yet known if the model applies across a range of eating disorders (ED). The goal of this study was to investigate the validity of the interpersonal model in anorexia nervosa (restricting type; ANR and binge-eating/purge type; ANBP), bulimia nervosa (BN), BED, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Data from a cross-sectional sample of 1459 treatment-seeking women diagnosed with ANR, ANBP, BN, BED and EDNOS were examined for indirect effects of interpersonal problems on ED psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Findings from structural equation modeling demonstrated the mediating role of negative affect in four of the five diagnostic groups. There were significant, medium to large (.239, .558), indirect effects in the ANR, BN, BED and EDNOS groups but not in the ANBP group. The results of the first reverse model of interpersonal problems as a mediator between negative affect and ED psychopathology were nonsignificant, suggesting the specificity of these hypothesized paths. However, in the second reverse model ED psychopathology was related to interpersonal problems indirectly through negative affect. This is the first study to find support for the interpersonal model of ED in a clinical sample of women with diverse ED diagnoses, though there may be a reciprocal relationship between ED psychopathology and relationship problems through negative affect. Negative affect partially explains the relationship between interpersonal problems and ED psychopathology in women diagnosed with ANR, BN, BED and EDNOS. Interpersonal psychotherapies for ED may be addressing the underlying interpersonal-affective difficulties, thereby reducing ED psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated response and transit time distributions of watersheds by combining hydrograph separation and long-term transit time modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Roa-García


    Full Text Available We present a new modeling approach analyzing and predicting the Transit Time Distribution (TTD and the Response Time Distribution (RTD from hourly to annual time scales as two distinct hydrological processes. The model integrates Isotope Hydrograph Separation (IHS and the Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH approach as a tool to provide a more realistic description of transit and response time of water in catchments. Individual event simulations and parameterizations were combined with long-term baseflow simulation and parameterizations; this provides a comprehensive picture of the catchment response for a long time span for the hydraulic and isotopic processes. The proposed method was tested in three Andean headwater catchments to compare the effects of land use on hydrological response and solute transport. Results show that the characteristics of events and antecedent conditions have a significant influence on TTD and RTD, but in general the RTD of the grassland dominated catchment is concentrated in the shorter time spans and has a higher cumulative TTD, while the forest dominated catchment has a relatively higher response distribution and lower cumulative TTD. The catchment where wetlands concentrate shows a flashier response, but wetlands also appear to prolong transit time.

  5. Finite-size, chemical-potential and magnetic effects on the phase transition in a four-fermion interacting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, E.B.S. [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Maraba (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas-CBPF/MCTI, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Linhares, C.A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Malbouisson, A.P.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas-CBPF/MCTI, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Malbouisson, J.M.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador (Brazil); Santana, A.E. [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    We study effects coming from finite size, chemical potential and from a magnetic background on a massive version of a four-fermion interacting model. This is performed in four dimensions as an application of recent developments for dealing with field theories defined on toroidal spaces. We study effects of the magnetic field and chemical potential on the size-dependent phase structure of the model, in particular, how the applied magnetic field affects the size-dependent critical temperature. A connection with some aspects of the hadronic phase transition is established. (orig.)

  6. Current research activities: Applied and numerical mathematics, fluid mechanics, experiments in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics, and computer science (United States)


    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.

  7. Methodology for Applying Cyber Security Risk Evaluation from BN Model to PSA Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Heo, Gyun Young; Kang, Hyun Gook; Son, Han Seong


    There are several advantages to use digital equipment such as cost, convenience, and availability. It is inevitable to use the digital I and C equipment replaced analog. Nuclear facilities have already started applying the digital system to I and C system. However, the nuclear facilities also have to change I and C system even though it is difficult to use digital equipment due to high level of safety, irradiation embrittlement, and cyber security. A cyber security which is one of important concerns to use digital equipment can affect the whole integrity of nuclear facilities. For instance, cyber-attack occurred to nuclear facilities such as the SQL slammer worm, stuxnet, DUQU, and flame. The regulatory authorities have published many regulatory requirement documents such as U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 5.71, 1.152, IAEA guide NSS-17, IEEE Standard, and KINS Regulatory Guide. One of the important problem of cyber security research for nuclear facilities is difficulty to obtain the data through the penetration experiments. Therefore, we make cyber security risk evaluation model with Bayesian network (BN) for nuclear reactor protection system (RPS), which is one of the safety-critical systems to trip the reactor when the accident is happened to the facilities. BN can be used for overcoming these problems. We propose a method to apply BN cyber security model to probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model, which had been used for safety assessment of system, structure and components of facility. The proposed method will be able to provide the insight of safety as well as cyber risk to the facility

  8. Latent Transition Analysis with a Mixture Item Response Theory Measurement Model (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Cohen, Allan S.; Kim, Seock-Ho; Bottge, Brian


    A latent transition analysis (LTA) model was described with a mixture Rasch model (MRM) as the measurement model. Unlike the LTA, which was developed with a latent class measurement model, the LTA-MRM permits within-class variability on the latent variable, making it more useful for measuring treatment effects within latent classes. A simulation…

  9. Practical Findings from Applying the PSD Model for Evaluating Software Design Specifications (United States)

    Räisänen, Teppo; Lehto, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    This paper presents practical findings from applying the PSD model to evaluating the support for persuasive features in software design specifications for a mobile Internet device. On the one hand, our experiences suggest that the PSD model fits relatively well for evaluating design specifications. On the other hand, the model would benefit from more specific heuristics for evaluating each technique to avoid unnecessary subjectivity. Better distinction between the design principles in the social support category would also make the model easier to use. Practitioners who have no theoretical background can apply the PSD model to increase the persuasiveness of the systems they design. The greatest benefit of the PSD model for researchers designing new systems may be achieved when it is applied together with a sound theory, such as the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Using the ELM together with the PSD model, one may increase the chances for attitude change.

  10. Calculation model for 16N transit time in the secondary side of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Songyu; Xu Jijun; Xu Ming


    The 16 N transit time is essential to determine the leak-rate of steam generator tubes leaks with 16 N monitoring system, which is a new technique. A model was developed for calculation 16 N transit time in the secondary side of steam generators. According to the flow characters of secondary side fluid, the transit times divide into four sectors from tube sheet to the sensor on steam line. The model assumes that 16 N is moving as vapor phase in the secondary-side. So the model for vapor velocity distribution in tube bundle is presented in detail. The 16 N transit time calculation results of this model compare with these of EDF on steam generator of Qinshan NPP

  11. Nonequilibrium phase transition in a system with chaotic dynamics. The ABCDE model (United States)

    Friedrich, R.; Haken, H.


    For the ABCDE model, a low-dimensional dynamical system devised to study the generation of magnetic fields by convective fluid motions, we examine a nonequilibrium phase transition in a system with chaotic dynamics.

  12. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology (United States)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.


    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  13. 3D CFD computations of trasitional flows using DES and a correlation based transition model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Zahle, Frederik


    The present article describes the application of the correlation based transition model of Menter et al. in combination with the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) methodology to two cases with large degree of flow separation typically considered difficult to compute. Firstly, the flow is computed over....... Secondly, the flow is computed over a thick airfoil at high angle of attack, in this case the DU-96-W351 is considered. These computations show that a transition model is needed to obtain correct drag predictions at low angle of attack, and that the combination of transition and the DES method improve...

  14. Application of the algebraic RNG model for transition simulation. [renormalization group theory (United States)

    Lund, Thomas S.


    The algebraic form of the RNG model of Yakhot and Orszag (1986) is investigated as a transition model for the Reynolds averaged boundary layer equations. It is found that the cubic equation for the eddy viscosity contains both a jump discontinuity and one spurious root. A yet unpublished transformation to a quartic equation is shown to remove the numerical difficulties associated with the discontinuity, but only at the expense of merging both the physical and spurious root of the cubic. Jumps between the branches of the resulting multiple-valued solution are found to lead to oscillations in flat plate transition calculations. Aside from the oscillations, the transition behavior is qualitatively correct.

  15. Charge and transition densities of samarium isotopes in the interacting Boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinester, M.A.; Alster, J.; Dieperink, A.E.L.


    The interacting boson approximation (IBA) model has been used to interpret the ground-state charge distributions and lowest 2 + transition charge densities of the even samarium isotopes for A = 144-154. Phenomenological boson transition densities associated with the nucleons comprising the s-and d-bosons of the IBA were determined via a least squares fit analysis of charge and transition densities in the Sm isotopes. The application of these boson trasition densities to higher excited 0 + and 2 + states of Sm, and to 0 + and 2 + transitions in neighboring nuclei, such as Nd and Gd, is described. IBA predictions for the transition densities of the three lowest 2 + levels of 154 Gd are given and compared to theoretical transition densities based on Hartree-Fock calculations. The deduced quadrupole boson transition densities are in fair agreement with densities derived previously from 150 Nd data. It is also shown how certain moments of the best fit boson transition densities can simply and sucessfully describe rms radii, isomer shifts, B(E2) strengths, and transition radii for the Sm isotopes. (orig.)

  16. Workforce Transition Model for DOE-AL non-nuclear reconfiguration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.


    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by the US Department of Energy Albuquerque Field Office (DOE-AL) to develop a workforce assessment and transition planning tool to support integrated decision making at a single DOE installation. The planning tool permits coordinated, integrated workforce planning to manage growth, decline, or transition within a DOE installation. The tool enhances the links and provides commonality between strategic, programmatic, and operations planners and human resources. Successful development and subsequent complex-wide implementation of the model will also facilitate planning at the national level by enforcing a consistent format on data that are now collected by installations in corporate-specific formats that are not amenable to national-level analyses. The workforce assessment and transition planning tool consists of two components: the Workforce Transition Model and the Workforce Budget Constraint Model. The Workforce Transition Model, the preponderant of the two, assists decision makers to identify and evaluates alternatives for transitioning the current workforce to meet the skills required to support projected workforce requirements. The Workforce Budget Constraint Model helps estimate the number of personnel that will be affected given a workforce budget increase or decrease and assists in identifying how the corresponding hiring or layoffs should be distributed across the common occupational classification system (COCS) occupations. The conceptual models and the computer implementation are described.

  17. Making Faces - State-Space Models Applied to Multi-Modal Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue


    The two main focus areas of this thesis are State-Space Models and multi modal signal processing. The general State-Space Model is investigated and an addition to the class of sequential sampling methods is proposed. This new algorithm is denoted as the Parzen Particle Filter. Furthermore...... optimizer can be applied to speed up convergence. The linear version of the State-Space Model, the Kalman Filter, is applied to multi modal signal processing. It is demonstrated how a State-Space Model can be used to map from speech to lip movements. Besides the State-Space Model and the multi modal...

  18. Mechanistic modeling of transition temperature shift of Japanese RPV materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranuma, N. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Tokyo (Japan); Soneda, N.; Dohi, K.; Ishino, S. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Dohi, N. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Ohata, H. [The Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)


    A new correlation method to predict neutron irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials of Japanese nuclear power plants is developed based on the understandings of the embrittlement mechanisms. A set of rate equations is constructed to describe the microstructural changes in the RPV materials during irradiation. Formation of copper-enriched clusters (CEC) and matrix damage (MD) are considered as the two primary causes of the embrittlement. Not only the effects of chemical compositions, such as copper and nickel, and neutron fluence, but also the effects of irradiation temperature as well as neutron flux are formulated in the rate equations to describe the evolution of CEC and MD. Transition temperature shifts corresponding to the microstructural changes are calculated using the predicted number densities of the CEC and MD. Coefficients of the rate equations are optimized using the Japanese surveillance database with a specific attention to reproduce the embrittlement trend of each material of the Japanese RPVs. The standard deviation of 12.1 C of the current Japanese correlation method, JEAC 4201, is reduced down to 10.6 C in the proposed new correlation method. Possibility of adjusting the uncertainty in the initial transition temperatures is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Role of secondary instability theory and parabolized stability equations in transition modeling (United States)

    El-Hady, Nabil M.; Dinavahi, Surya P.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Zang, Thomas A.


    In modeling the laminar-turbulent transition region, the designer depends largely on benchmark data from experiments and/or direct numerical simulations that are usually extremely expensive. An understanding of the evolution of the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and quantifies in the transport equations like the dissipation and production is essential in the modeling process. The secondary instability theory and the parabolized stability equations method are used to calculate these quantities, which are then compared with corresponding quantities calculated from available direct numerical simulation data for the incompressible boundary-layer flow of laminar-turbulent transition conditions. The potential of the secondary instability theory and the parabolized stability equations approach in predicting these quantities is discussed; results indicate that inexpensive data that are useful for transition modeling in the early stages of the transition region can be provided by these tools.

  20. An Optimal Allocation Model of Public Transit Mode Proportion for the Low-Carbon Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu


    Full Text Available Public transit has been widely recognized as a potential way to develop low-carbon transportation. In this paper, an optimal allocation model of public transit mode proportion (MPMP has been built to achieve the low-carbon public transit. Optimal ratios of passenger traffic for rail, bus, and taxi are derived by running the model using typical data. With different values of traffic demand, construction cost, travel time, and accessibilities, MPMP can generate corresponding optimal ratios, benefiting decision impacts analysis and decision makers. Instead of considering public transit as a united system, it is separated into units in this paper. And Shanghai is used to test model validity and practicality.

  1. Engineering of centrifugal dust-collectors based on parallel comparing tests applying computer modelling (United States)

    Bulygin, Y. I.; Koronchik, D. A.; Abuzyarov, A. A.


    Currently researchers are giving serious consideration to studying questions, related to issues of atmosphere protection, in particular, studying of new construction of gas-cleaning SPM cyclonic devices effectivity. Engineering new devices is impossible without applying mathematical model methods, computer modeling and making physical models of studying processes due nature tests.

  2. Dynamical properties of the Penna aging model applied to the population of wolves (United States)

    Makowiec, Danuta


    The parameters of th Penna bit-string model of aging of biological systems are systematically tested to better understand the model itself as well as the results arising from applying this model to studies of the development of the stationary population of Alaska wolves.

  3. Modeling segregated in- situ combustion processes through a vertical displacement model applied to a Colombian field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Aristizabal, Jose Julian; Grosso Vargas, Jorge Luis


    Recently it has been proposed the incorporation of horizontal well technologies in thermal EOR processes like the in situ combustion process (ISC). This has taken to the conception of new recovery mechanisms named here as segregated in-situ combustion processes, which are conventional in-situ combustion process with a segregated flow component. Top/Down combustion, Combustion Override Split-production Horizontal-well and Toe-to-Heel Air Injection are three of these processes, which incorporate horizontal producers and gravity drainage phenomena. When applied to thick reservoirs a process of this nature could be reasonably modeled under concepts of conventional in-situ combustion and Crestal Gas injection, especially for heavy oils mobile at reservoir conditions. A process of this nature has been studied through an analytic model conceived for the particular conditions of the Castilla field, a homogeneous thick anticline structure containing high mobility heavy oil, which seems to be an excellent candidate for the application of these technologies

  4. Order-disorder transitions in time-discrete mean field systems with memory: a novel approach via nonlinear autoregressive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T D; Mongkolsakulvong, S


    In a previous study strongly nonlinear autoregressive (SNAR) models have been introduced as a generalization of the widely-used time-discrete autoregressive models that are known to apply both to Markov and non-Markovian systems. In contrast to conventional autoregressive models, SNAR models depend on process mean values. So far, only linear dependences have been studied. We consider the case in which process mean values can have a nonlinear impact on the processes under consideration. It is shown that such models describe Markov and non-Markovian many-body systems with mean field forces that exhibit a nonlinear impact on single subsystems. We exemplify that such nonlinear dependences can describe order-disorder phase transitions of time-discrete Markovian and non-Markovian many-body systems. The relevant order parameter equations are derived and issues of stability and stationarity are studied. (paper)

  5. Implementation of an inter-agency transition model for youth with spina bifida. (United States)

    Lindsay, S; Cruickshank, H; McPherson, A C; Maxwell, J


    To address gaps in transfer of care and transition support, a paediatric hospital and adult community health care centre partnered to implement an inter-agency transition model for youth with spina bifida. Our objective was to understand the enablers and challenges experienced in the implementation of the model. Using a descriptive, qualitative design, we conducted semi-structured interviews, in-person or over the phone, with 12 clinicians and nine key informants involved in implementing the spina bifida transition model. We recruited all 21 participants from an urban area of Ontario, Canada. Clinicians and key informants experienced several enablers and challenges in implementing the spina bifida transition model. Enablers included dedicated leadership, advocacy, funding, inter-agency partnerships, cross-appointed staff and gaps in co-ordinated care to connect youth to adult services. Challenges included gaps in the availability of adult specialty services, limited geographical catchment of adult services, limited engagement of front-line staff, gaps in communication and role clarity. Although the transition model has realized some initial successes, there are still many challenges to overcome in transferring youth with spina bifida to adult health care and transitioning to adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Multi-state Latent Factor Intensity Model for Credit Rating Transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.


    A new empirical reduced-form model for credit rating transitions is introduced. It is a parametric intensity-based duration model with multiple states and driven by exogenous covariates and latent dynamic factors. The model has a generalized semi-Markov structure designed to accommodate many of the

  7. First Order Electroweak Phase Transition from (Non)Conformal Extensions of the Standard Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Virkajärvi, Jussi


    We analyse and compare the finite-temperature electroweak phase transition properties of classically (non)conformal extensions of the Standard Model. In the classically conformal scenarios the breaking of the electroweak symmetry is generated radiatively. The models feature new scalars coupled co...... the associated models are testable at the upcoming Large Hadron Collider run two experiments....

  8. Metastable liquid-liquid transition in a molecular model of water. (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy C; Martelli, Fausto; Liu, Yang; Car, Roberto; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Debenedetti, Pablo G


    Liquid water's isothermal compressibility and isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of its thermal expansion coefficient, increase sharply on cooling below the equilibrium freezing point. Many experimental, theoretical and computational studies have sought to understand the molecular origin and implications of this anomalous behaviour. Of the different theoretical scenarios put forward, one posits the existence of a first-order phase transition that involves two forms of liquid water and terminates at a critical point located at deeply supercooled conditions. Some experimental evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but no definitive proof of a liquid-liquid transition in water has been obtained to date: rapid ice crystallization has so far prevented decisive measurements on deeply supercooled water, although this challenge has been overcome recently. Computer simulations are therefore crucial for exploring water's structure and behaviour in this regime, and have shown that some water models exhibit liquid-liquid transitions and others do not. However, recent work has argued that the liquid-liquid transition has been mistakenly interpreted, and is in fact a liquid-crystal transition in all atomistic models of water. Here we show, by studying the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water with the use of six advanced sampling methods to compute the free-energy surface, that two metastable liquid phases and a stable crystal phase exist at the same deeply supercooled thermodynamic condition, and that the transition between the two liquids satisfies the thermodynamic criteria of a first-order transition. We follow the rearrangement of water's coordination shell and topological ring structure along a thermodynamically reversible path from the low-density liquid to cubic ice. We also show that the system fluctuates freely between the two liquid phases rather than crystallizing. These findings provide unambiguous evidence for a liquid-liquid transition in

  9. Extinction phase transitions in a model of ecological and evolutionary dynamics (United States)

    Barghathi, Hatem; Tackkett, Skye; Vojta, Thomas


    We study the non-equilibrium phase transition between survival and extinction of spatially extended biological populations using an agent-based model. We especially focus on the effects of global temporal fluctuations of the environmental conditions, i.e., temporal disorder. Using large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations of up to 3 × 107 organisms and 105 generations, we find the extinction transition in time-independent environments to be in the well-known directed percolation universality class. In contrast, temporal disorder leads to a highly unusual extinction transition characterized by logarithmically slow population decay and enormous fluctuations even for large populations. The simulations provide strong evidence for this transition to be of exotic infinite-noise type, as recently predicted by a renormalization group theory. The transition is accompanied by temporal Griffiths phases featuring a power-law dependence of the life time on the population size.

  10. Applying different quality and safety models in healthcare improvement work: Boundary objects and system thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiig, Siri; Robert, Glenn; Anderson, Janet E.; Pietikainen, Elina; Reiman, Teemu; Macchi, Luigi; Aase, Karina


    A number of theoretical models can be applied to help guide quality improvement and patient safety interventions in hospitals. However there are often significant differences between such models and, therefore, their potential contribution when applied in diverse contexts. The aim of this paper is to explore how two such models have been applied by hospitals to improve quality and safety. We describe and compare the models: (1) The Organizing for Quality (OQ) model, and (2) the Design for Integrated Safety Culture (DISC) model. We analyze the theoretical foundations of the models, and show, by using a retrospective comparative case study approach from two European hospitals, how these models have been applied to improve quality and safety. The analysis shows that differences appear in the theoretical foundations, practical approaches and applications of the models. Nevertheless, the case studies indicate that the choice between the OQ and DISC models is of less importance for guiding the practice of quality and safety improvement work, as they are both systemic and share some important characteristics. The main contribution of the models lay in their role as boundary objects directing attention towards organizational and systems thinking, culture, and collaboration

  11. Improving Hydrological Models by Applying Air Mass Boundary Identification in a Precipitation Phase Determination Scheme (United States)

    Feiccabrino, James; Lundberg, Angela; Sandström, Nils


    Many hydrological models determine precipitation phase using surface weather station data. However, there are a declining number of augmented weather stations reporting manually observed precipitation phases, and a large number of automated observing systems (AOS) which do not report precipitation phase. Automated precipitation phase determination suffers from low accuracy in the precipitation phase transition zone (PPTZ), i.e. temperature range -1° C to 5° C where rain, snow and mixed precipitation is possible. Therefore, it is valuable to revisit surface based precipitation phase determination schemes (PPDS) while manual verification is still widely available. Hydrological and meteorological approaches to PPDS are vastly different. Most hydrological models apply surface meteorological data into one of two main PPDS approaches. The first is a single rain/snow threshold temperature (TRS), the second uses a formula to describe how mixed precipitation phase changes between the threshold temperatures TS (below this temperature all precipitation is considered snow) and TR (above this temperature all precipitation is considered rain). However, both approaches ignore the effect of lower tropospheric conditions on surface precipitation phase. An alternative could be to apply a meteorological approach in a hydrological model. Many meteorological approaches rely on weather balloon data to determine initial precipitation phase, and latent heat transfer for the melting or freezing of precipitation falling through the lower troposphere. These approaches can improve hydrological PPDS, but would require additional input data. Therefore, it would be beneficial to link expected lower tropospheric conditions to AOS data already used by the model. In a single air mass, rising air can be assumed to cool at a steady rate due to a decrease in atmospheric pressure. When two air masses meet, warm air is forced to ascend the more dense cold air. This causes a thin sharp warming (frontal

  12. 3-D thermal modelling applied to stress-induced anisotropy of thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pron, H.; Bissieux, C. [Universite de Reims, Unite de Thermique et Analyse Physique, EA 2061, Laboratoire de Thermophysique (URCA/UTAP/LTP), UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P 1039, 51687 cedex 2, Reims (France)


    The present work consists in the development of a three-dimensional model of heat diffusion in orthotropic media, based on numerical Fourier transforms, and taking into account the extent of the source. This model has been applied, together with a Gauss-Newton parameter estimation procedure, to identify the components of the conductivity tensor of a steel bar under uniaxial loading. Few percent variations of the conductivity components have been observed for applied stresses remaining in the elastic domain. (authors)

  13. A novel method for simultaneous and continuous determination of thermal properties during phase transition applied to Calanus finmarchicus. (United States)

    Bantle, Michael; Eikevik, Trygve Magne; Brennvall, Jon Eirik


    The thermal properties of a product are the most important parameters for practical engineering purposes and models in food science. Calanus finmarchicus is currently being examined as a marine resource for uncommon aquatic lipids and proteins. Thermal conductivity, specific heat, enthalpy and density were measured over the temperature range from -40 to +20 degrees C. The initial freezing point was determined to be -2.3 degrees C. The thermal properties were recorded continuously on 4 samples using a new method, and the results were compared with predictive models. The accuracy of the new method is demonstrated by different calibration runs. Significant differences in the thermal conductivity of the frozen material were found between the parallel-series model and the data, whereas the model of Pham and Willix (1989) or the Maxwell-Euken adaption showed better agreement. The measured data for specific heat, enthalpy, and density agreed well with the model. Practical Application: The thermal data obtained can be used directly in food engineering and technology applications, for example, in a thin layer model for freezing food for which precise thermal data for each layer are now available, enabling the more accurate prediction of freezing times and temperature profiles. Dimensionless numbers (such as the Biot number) can also be based on measured data with minor deviations compared to more general modeled thermal properties. Future activities will include the generation of a comprehensive database for different products.

  14. Finite temperature spin-dynamics and phase transitions in spin-orbital models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-C.


    We study finite temperature properties of a generic spin-orbital model relevant to transition metal compounds, having coupled quantum Heisenberg-spin and Ising-orbital degrees of freedom. The model system undergoes a phase transition, consistent with that of a 2D Ising model, to an orbitally ordered state at a temperature set by short-range magnetic order. At low temperatures the orbital degrees of freedom freeze-out and the model maps onto a quantum Heisenberg model. The onset of orbital excitations causes a rapid scrambling of the spin spectral weight away from coherent spin-waves, which leads to a sharp increase in uniform magnetic susceptibility just below the phase transition, reminiscent of the observed behavior in the Fe-pnictide materials.

  15. The Wigner solution and QCD phase transitions in a modified PNJL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhu-fang [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Shi, Chao [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Sun, Wei-min; Zong, Hong-shi [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Wang, Yong-long [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing (China); Linyi University, Department of Physics, School of Science, Linyi (China); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Theoretical Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    By employing some modification to the widely used two-flavor Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model, we discuss the Wigner solution of the quark gap equation at finite temperature and zero quark chemical potential beyond the chiral limit, and then we try to explore its influence on the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions of QCD at finite temperature and zero chemical potential. The discovery of the coexistence of the Nambu and the Wigner solutions of the quark gap equation with nonzero current quark mass at zero temperature and zero chemical potential, as well as their evolutions with temperature, is very interesting for the studies of the phase transitions of QCD. According to our results, the chiral phase transition might be of first order (while the deconfinement phase transition is still a crossover, as in the normal PNJL model), and the corresponding phase transition temperature is lower than that of the deconfinement phase transition, instead of coinciding with each other, which are not the same as the conclusions obtained from the normal PNJL model. In addition, we also discuss the sensibility of our final results on the choice of model parameters. (orig.)

  16. Evaluating transit operator efficiency: An enhanced DEA model with constrained fuzzy-AHP cones


    Xin Li; Yue Liu; Yaojun Wang; Zhigang Gao


    This study addresses efforts to comb the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to deliver a robust enhanced DEA model for transit operator efficiency assessment. The proposed model is designed to better capture inherent preferences information over input and output indicators by adding constraint cones to the conventional DEA model. A revised fuzzy-AHP model is employed to generate cones, where the proposed model features the integration of the fuzzy logic with...

  17. Estimation of Catchment Transit Time in Fuji River Basin by using an improved Tank model (United States)

    Wenchao, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Wakiyama, Y.; Wang, P.


    As an important parameter that reflects the characteristics of catchments, the catchment transit time (CTT) has been given much more widely attentions especially in recent years. The CTT is defined as the time water spends travelling through a catchment to the stream network [1], and it describes how catchments retain and release water and solutes and thus control geochemical and biogeochemical cycling and contamination persistence [2]. The objectives of the present study are to develop a new approach for estimating CTT without prior information on such TTD functions and to apply it to the Fuji River basin in the Central Japan Alps Region. In this study, an improved Tank model was used to compute mean CTT and TTD functions simultaneously. It involved water fluxes and isotope mass balance. Water storage capacity in the catchment, which strongly affects CTT, is reflected in isotope mass balance more sensitively than in water fluxes. A model calibrated with observed discharge and isotope data is used for virtual age tracer computation to estimate CTT. This model does not only consider the hydrological data and physical process of the research area but also reflects the actual TTD with considering the geological condition, land use and the other catchment-hydrological conditions. For the calibration of the model, we used river discharge record obtained by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation, and are collecting isotope data of precipitation and river waters monthly or semi-weekly. Three sub-catchments (SC1~SC3) in the Fuji River basin was selected to test the model with five layers: the surface layer, upper-soil layer, lower-soil layer, groundwater aquifer layer and bedrock layer (Layer 1- Layer 5). The evaluation of the model output was assessed using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean square error-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR), and percent bias (PBIAS). Using long time-series of discharge records for calibration, the simulated

  18. Prediction and Analysis of the Nonsteady Transition and Separation Processes on an Oscillating Wind Turbine Airfoil using the \\gamma-Re_\\theta Transition Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Taraj; Brasseur, James; Vijayakumar, Ganesh


    This study is aimed at gaining insight into the nonsteady transitional boundary layer dynamics of wind turbine blades and the predictive capabilities of URANS based transition and turbulence models for similar physics through the analysis of a controlled flow with similar nonsteady parameters.

  19. Non-robust Phase Transitions in the Generalized Clock Model on Trees (United States)

    Külske, C.; Schriever, P.


    Pemantle and Steif provided a sharp threshold for the existence of a robust phase transition (RPT) for the continuous rotator model and the Potts model in terms of the branching number and the second eigenvalue of the transfer matrix whose kernel describes the nearest neighbor interaction along the edges of the tree. Here a RPT is said to occur if an arbitrarily weak coupling with symmetry-breaking boundary conditions suffices to induce symmetry breaking in the bulk. They further showed that for the Potts model RPT occurs at a different threshold than PT (phase transition in the sense of multiple Gibbs measures), and conjectured that RPT and PT should occur at the same threshold in the continuous rotator model. We consider the class of four- and five-state rotation-invariant spin models with reflection symmetry on general trees which contains the Potts model and the clock model with scalarproduct-interaction as limiting cases. The clock model can be viewed as a particular discretization which is obtained from the classical rotator model with state space S^1. We analyze the transition between PT=RPT and PT≠ RPT, in terms of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of the model at the critical threshold value for the existence of RPT. The transition between the two regimes depends sensitively on the third largest eigenvalue.

  20. Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun Jing; Ning Bin; Li Keping


    In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station. Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track. Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered. One is the scheme of 'pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track'. The other is the scheme of 'two tracks play the same role'. We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced. Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values. This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model. (general)

  1. Advanced network planning for bus rapid transit : the "Quickway" model as a modal alternative to "Light Rail Lite" (United States)


    Transit planning in the United States has tended toward viewing BRT as an analogue to light rail transit, with similar operating patterns. This model, referred to as Light Rail Lite, is compared to international best practices, which have often...

  2. Applying the ISO 9126 Model to the Evaluation of an E-learning System in Iran


    Hossein Pedram; Davood Karimzadegan Moghaddam; Zhaleh Asheghi


    One of the models presented in e-learning quality system field is ISO 9126 model, which applied in this research to evaluate e-learning system of Amirkabir University. This model system for evaluation, the six main variables provided that each of these variables by several other indicators was measured. Thus, the model parameters as ISO 9126 and turned the questionnaire survey among samples (120 experts and students of Amirkabir University) and the distribution were completed. Based on the re...

  3. A phase transition between small- and large-field models of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzhaki, Nissan; Kovetz, Ely D


    We show that models of inflection point inflation exhibit a phase transition from a region in parameter space where they are of large-field type to a region where they are of small-field type. The phase transition is between a universal behavior, with respect to the initial condition, at the large-field region and non-universal behavior at the small-field region. The order parameter is the number of e-foldings. We find integer critical exponents at the transition between the two phases.

  4. Universality class of the depinning transition in the two-dimensional Ising model with quenched disorder (United States)

    Qin, X. P.; Zheng, B.; Zhou, N. J.


    With Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the universality class of the depinning transition in the two-dimensional Ising model with quenched random fields. Based on the short-time dynamic approach, we accurately determine the depinning transition field and both static and dynamic critical exponents. The critical exponents vary significantly with the form and strength of the random fields, but exhibit independence of the updating schemes of the Monte Carlo algorithm. From the roughness exponents ζ, ζloc and ζs, one may judge that the depinning transition of the random-field Ising model belongs to the new dynamic universality class with ζ ≠ ζloc ≠ ζs and ζloc ≠ 1. The crossover from the second-order phase transition to the first-order one is observed for the uniform distribution of the random fields, but it is not present for the Gaussian distribution.

  5. Relieving the Impact of Transit Signal Priority on Passenger Cars through a Bilevel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Wang


    Full Text Available Transit signal priority (TSP is an effective control strategy to improve transit operations on the urban network. However, the TSP may sacrifice the right-of-way of vehicles from side streets which have only few transit vehicles; therefore, how to minimize the negative impact of TSP strategy on the side streets is an important issue to be addressed. Concerning the typical mixed-traffic flow pattern and heavy transit volume in China, a bilevel model is proposed in this paper: the upper-level model focused on minimizing the vehicle delay in the nonpriority direction while ensuring acceptable delay variation in transit priority direction, and the lower-level model aimed at minimizing the average passenger delay in the entire intersection. The parameters which will affect the efficiency of the bilevel model have been analyzed based on a hypothetical intersection. Finally, a real-world intersection has been studied, and the average vehicle delay in the nonpriority direction decreased 11.28 s and 22.54 s (under different delay variation constraint compared to the models that only minimize average passenger delay, while the vehicle delay in the priority direction increased only 1.37 s and 2.87 s; the results proved the practical applicability and efficiency of the proposed bilevel model.

  6. Applying MDA to SDR for Space to Model Real-time Issues (United States)

    Blaser, Tammy M.


    NASA space communications systems have the challenge of designing SDRs with highly-constrained Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) resources. A study is being conducted to assess the effectiveness of applying the MDA Platform-Independent Model (PIM) and one or more Platform-Specific Models (PSM) specifically to address NASA space domain real-time issues. This paper will summarize our experiences with applying MDA to SDR for Space to model real-time issues. Real-time issues to be examined, measured, and analyzed are: meeting waveform timing requirements and efficiently applying Real-time Operating System (RTOS) scheduling algorithms, applying safety control measures, and SWaP verification. Real-time waveform algorithms benchmarked with the worst case environment conditions under the heaviest workload will drive the SDR for Space real-time PSM design.

  7. Analytic properties of the Ruelle ζ-function for mean field models of phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallerberg, Sarah; Just, Wolfram; Radons, Guenter


    We evaluate by analytical means the Ruelle ζ-function for a spin model with global coupling. The implications of the ferromagnetic phase transitions for the analytical properties of the ζ-function are discussed in detail. In the paramagnetic phase the ζ-function develops a single branch point. In the low-temperature regime two branch points appear which correspond to the ferromagnetic state and the metastable state. The results are typical for any Ginsburg-Landau-type phase transition

  8. Simulating the electroweak phase transition in the SU(2) Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.; Hein, J.; Jansen, K.; Jaster, A.; Montvay, I.


    Numerical simulations are performed to study the finite temperature phase transition in the SU(2) Higgs model on the lattice. In the presently investigated range of the Higgs boson mass, below 50 GeV, the phase transition turns out to be of first order and its strength is rapidly decreasing with increasing Higgs boson mass. In order to control the systematic errors, we also perform studies of scaling violations and of finite volume effects. (orig.)

  9. Recent developments in the super transition array model for spectral simulation of LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.


    Recently developed sub-picosecond pulse lasers have been used to create hot, near solid density plasmas. Since these plasmas are nearly in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), their emission spectra involve a huge number of populated configurations. A typical spectrum is a combination of many unresolved clusters of emission, each containing an immense number of overlapping, unresolvable bound-bound and bound-free transitions. Under LTE, or near LTE conditions, traditional detailed configuration or detailed term spectroscopic models are not capable of handling the vast number of transitions involved. The average atom (AA) model, on the other hand, accounts for all relevant transitions, but in an oversimplified fashion that ignores all spectral structure. The Super Transition Array (STA) model, which has been developed in recent years, combines the simplicity and comprehensiveness of the AA model with the accuracy of detailed term accounting. The resolvable structure of spectral clusters is revealed by successively increasing the number of distinct STA's, until convergence is attained. The limit of this procedure is a detailed unresolved transition array (UTA) spectrum, with a term-broadened line for each accessible configuration-to-configuration transition, weighted by the relevant Boltzman population. In practice, this UTA spectrum is actually obtained using only a few thousand to tens of thousands of STA's (as opposed, typically, to billions of UTAs). The central result of STA theory is a set of formulas for the moments (total intensity, average transition energy, variance) of an STA. In calculating the moments, detailed relativistic first order quantum transition energies and probabilities are used. The energy appearing in the Boltzman factor associated with each level in a superconfiguration is the zero order result corrected by a superconfiguration averaged first order correction. Examples and application to recent measurements are presented

  10. Transition from Model to Proof: Example of Water Treatment Plant (United States)

    Güler, Gürsel


    The aim of this study was to research the prospective mathematics teachers' ability to construct a mathematical model for a real life problem and to prove these models by generalizing them to use in similar situations. The study was conducted with 129 prospective teachers determined on a volunteering basis. The data were obtained with the help of…

  11. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger


    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  12. Glass Transition Temperature of Saccharide Aqueous Solutions Estimated with the Free Volume/Percolation Model. (United States)

    Constantin, Julian Gelman; Schneider, Matthias; Corti, Horacio R


    The glass transition temperature of trehalose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose aqueous solutions has been predicted as a function of the water content by using the free volume/percolation model (FVPM). This model only requires the molar volume of water in the liquid and supercooled regimes, the molar volumes of the hypothetical pure liquid sugars at temperatures below their pure glass transition temperatures, and the molar volumes of the mixtures at the glass transition temperature. The model is simplified by assuming that the excess thermal expansion coefficient is negligible for saccharide-water mixtures, and this ideal FVPM becomes identical to the Gordon-Taylor model. It was found that the behavior of the water molar volume in trehalose-water mixtures at low temperatures can be obtained by assuming that the FVPM holds for this mixture. The temperature dependence of the water molar volume in the supercooled region of interest seems to be compatible with the recent hypothesis on the existence of two structure of liquid water, being the high density liquid water the state of water in the sugar solutions. The idealized FVPM describes the measured glass transition temperature of sucrose, glucose, and fructose aqueous solutions, with much better accuracy than both the Gordon-Taylor model based on an empirical kGT constant dependent on the saccharide glass transition temperature and the Couchman-Karasz model using experimental heat capacity changes of the components at the glass transition temperature. Thus, FVPM seems to be an excellent tool to predict the glass transition temperature of other aqueous saccharides and polyols solutions by resorting to volumetric information easily available.

  13. Computational modelling of large deformations in layered-silicate/PET nanocomposites near the glass transition (United States)

    Figiel, Łukasz; Dunne, Fionn P. E.; Buckley, C. Paul


    Layered-silicate nanoparticles offer a cost-effective reinforcement for thermoplastics. Computational modelling has been employed to study large deformations in layered-silicate/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nanocomposites near the glass transition, as would be experienced during industrial forming processes such as thermoforming or injection stretch blow moulding. Non-linear numerical modelling was applied, to predict the macroscopic large deformation behaviour, with morphology evolution and deformation occurring at the microscopic level, using the representative volume element (RVE) approach. A physically based elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model, describing the behaviour of the PET matrix within the RVE, was numerically implemented into a finite element solver (ABAQUS) using an UMAT subroutine. The implementation was designed to be robust, for accommodating large rotations and stretches of the matrix local to, and between, the nanoparticles. The nanocomposite morphology was reconstructed at the RVE level using a Monte-Carlo-based algorithm that placed straight, high-aspect ratio particles according to the specified orientation and volume fraction, with the assumption of periodicity. Computational experiments using this methodology enabled prediction of the strain-stiffening behaviour of the nanocomposite, observed experimentally, as functions of strain, strain rate, temperature and particle volume fraction. These results revealed the probable origins of the enhanced strain stiffening observed: (a) evolution of the morphology (through particle re-orientation) and (b) early onset of stress-induced pre-crystallization (and hence lock-up of viscous flow), triggered by the presence of particles. The computational model enabled prediction of the effects of process parameters (strain rate, temperature) on evolution of the morphology, and hence on the end-use properties.

  14. Phase transition in the infinite-dimensional Z(Q)-symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akheyan, A.Z.; Ananikyan, N.S.


    The critical behaviour of the Q-component Potts model on a Bethe lattice is studied. Critical temperatures T c (1) of the II order phase transition and T c (2) , below which a spontaneous magnetization exists, are found. These temperatures coincide for the ising model Q = 2. Critical exponents β and δ, and also scaling function at T ∼ T c (1) are calculated. The obtained critical exponents confirm the mean field results for the ising model and are β = 1/2, δ = 3, respectively. Their values are independent of Q. It is shown that pure gauge models have only I order phase transitions, but introducing matter fields, interacting with gauge ones it is possible to obtain the II order transition. (author)

  15. Studies of phase transitions in the framework of interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrejevs, A.; Tambergs, J.


    Full text: The interacting boson model (IBM-1) is characterized by several groups of symmetry -U(5), SU(3), SU(3)'', O(6), corresponding in the limiting cases of this model to the definite nuclear shape (spherical, prolate and oblate axially symmetric deformed, triaxial). The precise analysis of the extended Casten triangle version of IBM-1 for the classical energy functional E(N, e ta , χ, β) has been performed according to the phase transition theory, and the conditions on model parameters for the transitions between nuclear shapes and for the coexistence between shapes has been studied

  16. Incommmensurability and Unconventional Superconductor to Insulator Transition in the Hubbard Model with Bond-Charge Interaction (United States)

    Aligia, A. A.; Anfossi, A.; Arrachea, L.; Degli Esposti Boschi, C.; Dobry, A. O.; Gazza, C.; Montorsi, A.; Ortolani, F.; Torio, M. E.


    We determine the quantum phase diagram of the one-dimensional Hubbard model with bond-charge interaction X in addition to the usual Coulomb repulsion U>0 at half-filling. For large enough Xmodel shows three phases. For large U the system is in the spin-density wave phase as in the usual Hubbard model. As U decreases, there is first a spin transition to a spontaneously dimerized bond-ordered wave phase and then a charge transition to a novel phase in which the dominant correlations at large distances correspond to an incommensurate singlet superconductor.

  17. Statistical Model and the mesonic-baryonic transition region

    CERN Document Server

    Oeschler, H.; Redlich, K.; Wheaton, S.


    The statistical model assuming chemical equilibriumand local strangeness conservation describes most of the observed features of strange particle production from SIS up to RHIC. Deviations are found as the maximum in the measured K+/pi+ ratio is much sharper than in the model calculations. At the incident energy of the maximum, the statistical model shows that freeze out changes regime from one being dominated by baryons at the lower energies toward one being dominated by mesons. It will be shown how deviations from the usual freeze-out curve influence the various particle ratios. Furthermore, other observables exhibit also changes just in this energy regime.

  18. Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data (United States)

    Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.


    Effects of parents' divorce on children's adjustment have been studied extensively. This article applies new advances in trajectory modeling to the problem of disentangling the effects of divorce on children's adjustment from related factors such as the child's age at the time of divorce and the child's gender. Latent change score models were used…

  19. How High Is the Tramping Track? Mathematising and Applying in a Calculus Model-Eliciting Activity (United States)

    Yoon, Caroline; Dreyfus, Tommy; Thomas, Michael O. J.


    Two complementary processes involved in mathematical modelling are mathematising a realistic situation and applying a mathematical technique to a given realistic situation. We present and analyse work from two undergraduate students and two secondary school teachers who engaged in both processes during a mathematical modelling task that required…

  20. Applying a Conceptual Model in Sport Sector Work- Integrated Learning Contexts (United States)

    Agnew, Deborah; Pill, Shane; Orrell, Janice


    This paper applies a conceptual model for work-integrated learning (WIL) in a multidisciplinary sports degree program. Two examples of WIL in sport will be used to illustrate how the conceptual WIL model is being operationalized. The implications for practice are that curriculum design must recognize a highly flexible approach to the nature of…

  1. A generalised chemical precipitation modelling approach in wastewater treatment applied to calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbamba, Christian Kazadi; Batstone, Damien J.; Flores Alsina, Xavier


    , the present study aims to identify a broadly applicable precipitation modelling approach. The study uses two experimental platforms applied to calcite precipitating from synthetic aqueous solutions to identify and validate the model approach. Firstly, dynamic pH titration tests are performed to define...

  2. To Be or Not to Be an Entrepreneur: Applying a Normative Model to Career Decisions (United States)

    Callanan, Gerard A.; Zimmerman, Monica


    Reflecting the need for a better and broader understanding of the factors influencing the choices to enter into or exit an entrepreneurial career, this article applies a structured, normative model of career management to the career decision-making of entrepreneurs. The application of a structured model can assist career counselors, college career…

  3. Implementing autonomous clinical nurse specialist prescriptive authority: a competency-based transition model. (United States)

    Klein, Tracy Ann


    The purpose of this study was to identify and implement a competency-based regulatory model that transitions clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) to autonomous prescriptive authority pursuant to change in state law. Prescriptive authority for CNSs may be optional or restricted under current state law. Implementation of the APRN Consensus Model includes full prescriptive authority for all advanced practice registered nurses. Clinical nurse specialists face barriers to establishing their prescribing authority when laws or practice change. Identification of transition models will assist CNSs who need to add prescriptive authority to their scope of practice. Identification and implementation of a competency-based transition model for expansion of CNS prescriptive authority. By January 1, 2012, 9 CNSs in the state exemplar have completed a practicum and been granted full prescriptive authority including scheduled drug prescribing. No complaints or board actions resulted from the transition to autonomous prescribing. Transition to prescribing may be facilitated through competency-based outcomes including practicum hours as appropriate to the individual CNS nursing specialty. Outcomes from this model can be used to develop and further validate educational and credentialing policies to reduce barriers for CNSs requiring prescriptive authority in other states.

  4. Applying a Knowledge Management Modeling Tool for Manufacturing Vision (MV) Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Luxhøj, James T.; Johansen, John


    that the CBRM is supportive to the decision-making process of applying and augmenting organizational knowledge. It provides a new angle to tackle strategic management issues within the manufacturing system of a business operation. Explores a new proposition within strategic manufacturing management by enriching...... and extending the concept of MV while trying to lead the CBR methodology into a new domain by applying it in strategic management.......This paper introduces an empirical application of an experimental model for knowledge management within an organization, namely a case-based reasoning model for manufacturing vision development (CBRM). The model integrates the development process of manufacturing vision with the methodology of case...

  5. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke


    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  6. Approaches to incorporating climate change effects in state and transition simulation models of vegetation (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; Miles A. Hemstrom; David Conklin; Gabriel I. Yospin; Bart Johnson; Dominique Bachelet; Scott Bridgham


    Understanding landscape vegetation dynamics often involves the use of scientifically-based modeling tools that are capable of testing alternative management scenarios given complex ecological, management, and social conditions. State-and-transition simulation model (STSM) frameworks and software such as PATH and VDDT are commonly used tools that simulate how landscapes...


    A model has been developed to describe the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) + plasticizer mixtures. The model is based on Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state and the Gibbs-Di Marzio criterion, which states that th...

  8. A comparative study on the flow over an airfoil using transitional turbulence models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Mou; Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid


    This work addresses the simulation of the flow over NREL S826 airfoil under a relatively low Reynolds number (Re = 1 × 105 ) using the CFD solvers OpenFoam and ANSYS Fluent. The flow is simulated using two different transition models, γ − Reθ and k − kL − ω model, and the results are examined...

  9. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems: Feeder Systems Model Functional Specification (United States)


    This document specifies the functional requirements for the AGT-SOS Feeder Systems Model (FSM), the type of hardware required, and the modeling techniques employed by the FSM. The objective of the FSM is to map the zone-to-zone transit patronage dema...

  10. Metal-insulator transition and Frohlich conductivity in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.F L; de Raedt, H.A.


    A quantum molecular dynamics technique is used to study the single-particle density of states, Drude weight, optical conductivity and flux quantization in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Our simulation data show that the SSH model has a metal-insulator transition away from half-filling. In the

  11. Estimating and Testing Continuous-Time Models in Finance: The Role of Transition Densities


    Yacine Aït-Sahalia


    This article surveys recent developments to estimate and test continuous-time models in finance using discrete observations on the underlying asset price or derivative securities' prices. Both parametric and nonparametric methods are described. All these methods share a common focus on the transition density as the central object for inference and testing of the model.

  12. State-and-transition model archetypes: a global taxonomy of rangeland change (United States)

    State and transition models (STMs) synthesize science-based and local knowledge to formally represent the dynamics of rangeland and other ecosystems. Mental models or concepts of ecosystem dynamics implicitly underlie all management decisions in rangelands and thus how people influence rangeland sus...

  13. Out of equilibrium phase transitions and a toy model for disoriented chiral condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedaque, P.F.; Das, A.


    We study the dynamics of a second order phase transition in a situation that mimics a sudden quench to a temperature below the critical temperature in a model with dynamical symmetry breaking. In particular we show that the domains of correlated values of the condensate grow as √t and that this result seems to be largely model independent. (author). 9 refs

  14. The phase transition lines in pair approximation for the basic reinfection model SIRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stollenwerk, Nico; Martins, Jose; Pinto, Alberto


    For a spatial stochastic epidemic model we investigate in the pair approximation scheme the differential equations for the moments. The basic reinfection model of susceptible-infected-recovered-reinfected or SIRI type is analysed, its phase transition lines calculated analytically in this pair approximation

  15. Accuracy study of numerical simulation of tsunami applied to the submarine landslide model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonomo, Koji; Shikata, Takemi; Murakami, Yoshikane


    This study carried out the reproductive calculation for the submarine landslide model experiment that was conducted by Hashimoto and Dan (2008), adopted to kinematic landslide model (KLS model) and Watts model which calculates Tsunami wave propagation applying initial wave profile. Moreover, KLS model was modified to focus on synchronize the amount between collapse and deposition as 'modified-KLS model' in this study, which is designed to proceed collapse and deposition virtually simultaneously. As a result, KLS model does not have the advantage of tsunami height evaluation for the submarine landslide model since it becomes the Tsunami wave height of approximately 1.5-3.0 times in comparison with the experimental result. On the other hand, modified-KLS model and Watts model mostly reproduced the spatial distribution of Tsunami wave height. (author)

  16. Applying a Knowledge Management Modeling Tool for Manufacturing Vision (MV) Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Luxhøj, James T.; Johansen, John


    This paper introduces an empirical application of an experimental model for knowledge management within an organization, namely a case-based reasoning model for manufacturing vision development (CBRM). The model integrates the development process of manufacturing vision with the methodology of ca...... and extending the concept of MV while trying to lead the CBR methodology into a new domain by applying it in strategic management....... that the CBRM is supportive to the decision-making process of applying and augmenting organizational knowledge. It provides a new angle to tackle strategic management issues within the manufacturing system of a business operation. Explores a new proposition within strategic manufacturing management by enriching......This paper introduces an empirical application of an experimental model for knowledge management within an organization, namely a case-based reasoning model for manufacturing vision development (CBRM). The model integrates the development process of manufacturing vision with the methodology of case...

  17. Specification, construction, and exact reduction of state transition system models of biochemical processes. (United States)

    Bugenhagen, Scott M; Beard, Daniel A


    Biochemical reaction systems may be viewed as discrete event processes characterized by a number of states and state transitions. These systems may be modeled as state transition systems with transitions representing individual reaction events. Since they often involve a large number of interactions, it can be difficult to construct such a model for a system, and since the resulting state-level model can involve a huge number of states, model analysis can be difficult or impossible. Here, we describe methods for the high-level specification of a system using hypergraphs, for the automated generation of a state-level model from a high-level model, and for the exact reduction of a state-level model using information from the high-level model. Exact reduction is achieved through the automated application to the high-level model of the symmetry reduction technique and reduction by decomposition by independent subsystems, allowing potentially significant reductions without the need to generate a full model. The application of the method to biochemical reaction systems is illustrated by models describing a hypothetical ion-channel at several levels of complexity. The method allows for the reduction of the otherwise intractable example models to a manageable size.

  18. Simple model for phonon dispersion of nonstoichiometric transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splettstoesser, B.


    The simple shell model for the acoustic dispersion curves of ideal and nonstoichiometric Niobium Carbide is presented. The main emphasis is put on a qualitative understanding of the rather sharp dips, observed in some of the branches, and, in particular, their extreme sensitivity to C-vacancies. For comparison the 'normal' acoustic dispersion curves of TiC - which can be described with the same model - and their weak stoichiometry dependence are investigated. For both materials the one phonon cross section of the defect crystal is calculated in various approximations. The obtained phonon shifts and broadenings are small for TiC, but large for NbC in the dip regions - in good agreement with experimental results. Both, the dip structure observed for TaC and the 'normal' acoustic dispersion curves of HfC, ZrC can be described with our model as well. (orig.) [de

  19. A Transition Towards a Data-Driven Business Model (DDBM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaki, Mohamed; Bøe-Lillegraven, Tor; Neely, Andy


    Nettavisen is a Norwegian online start-up that experienced a boost after the financial crisis of 2009. Since then, the firm has been able to increase its market share and profitability through the use of highly disruptive business models, allowing the relatively small staff to outcompete powerhouse...... legacy-publishing companies and new media players such as Facebook and Google. These disruptive business models have been successful, as Nettavisen captured a large market share in Norway early on, and was consistently one of the top-three online news sites in Norway. Capitalising on media data explosion...

  20. Applying circular economy innovation theory in business process modeling and analysis (United States)

    Popa, V.; Popa, L.


    The overall aim of this paper is to develop a new conceptual framework for business process modeling and analysis using circular economy innovative theory as a source for business knowledge management. The last part of the paper presents an author’s proposed basic structure for a new business models applying circular economy innovation theories. For people working on new innovative business models in the field of the circular economy this paper provides new ideas for clustering their concepts.

  1. Towards a fluid model for the streamer-to-leader transition in lightning channels. (United States)

    Malagón, Alejandro; Luque, Alejandro


    Electric discharges are a very common phenomenon on Earth's atmosphere. However some of their features are still poorly understood. A sufficiently long electric discharge, such as a lightning channel, propagates along two phases. The first phase is known as "streamer phase" and consists in thin filaments of ionized air that advance due to a high electric field at their tip. The dominant process of ionization is impact ionization, involving electrons and the two major components in the air mass, which are nitrogen and oxygen. In the second phase called "leader phase", the electric current of the streamers has increased the air temperature highly enough so the thermal energy of the molecules present in the air is comparable to the ionization potential of nitrogen and oxygen. The underlying mechanism whereby the streamer-to-leader transition occurs is not precisely known. High-speed observations show that in negative discharges, comprising 90% of cloud-to-ground lightning, this transition is not smooth but mediated by the formation of a "space leader", that is, an isolated hot segment within the streamer region. This space leader is connected to the main leader in a sudden jump and therefore one speaks of a "stepped leader". However, the origin of the space leader is so far unknown. Here we present recent steps in the modeling of the streamer-to-leader transition, which requires coupling fluid mechanics, electromagnetism and air plasma chemistry. We discuss our work towards a model that solves Euler's equations (3 dimensions reduced to 2 by virtue of symmetry) coupled to electron drift using high-resolution finite volume methods for hyperbolic systems [1] implemented in the software package CLAWPACK. The drift of electrons is determined by a self-consistent electric field, which we obtain by solving Poisson's equation by means of off-the-shelf solvers. Our model also includes a selection of chemical reactions that have a relevant effect on the electron density in air

  2. Effect of random field disorder on the first order transition in p-spin interaction model (United States)

    Sumedha; Singh, Sushant K.


    We study the random field p-spin model with Ising spins on a fully connected graph using the theory of large deviations in this paper. This is a good model to study the effect of quenched random field on systems which have a sharp first order transition in the pure state. For p = 2, the phase-diagram of the model, for bimodal distribution of the random field, has been well studied and is known to undergo a continuous transition for lower values of the random field (h) and a first order transition beyond a threshold, htp(≈ 0.439) . We find the phase diagram of the model, for all p ≥ 2, with bimodal random field distribution, using large deviation techniques. We also look at the fluctuations in the system by calculating the magnetic susceptibility. For p = 2, beyond the tricritical point in the regime of first order transition, we find that for htp ho = 1 / p!), the system does not show ferromagnetic order even at zero temperature. We find that the magnetic susceptibility for p ≥ 3 is discontinuous at the transition point for h

  3. Low temperature electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model with hidden scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntharan Arunasalam


    Full Text Available We discuss a cosmological phase transition within the Standard Model which incorporates spontaneously broken scale invariance as a low-energy theory. In addition to the Standard Model fields, the minimal model involves a light dilaton, which acquires a large vacuum expectation value (VEV through the mechanism of dimensional transmutation. Under the assumption of the cancellation of the vacuum energy, the dilaton develops a very small mass at 2-loop order. As a result, a flat direction is present in the classical dilaton-Higgs potential at zero temperature while the quantum potential admits two (almost degenerate local minima with unbroken and broken electroweak symmetry. We found that the cosmological electroweak phase transition in this model can only be triggered by a QCD chiral symmetry breaking phase transition at low temperatures, T≲132 MeV. Furthermore, unlike the standard case, the universe settles into the chiral symmetry breaking vacuum via a first-order phase transition which gives rise to a stochastic gravitational background with a peak frequency ∼10−8 Hz as well as triggers the production of approximately solar mass primordial black holes. The observation of these signatures of cosmological phase transitions together with the detection of a light dilaton would provide a strong hint of the fundamental role of scale invariance in particle physics.

  4. Low temperature electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model with hidden scale invariance (United States)

    Arunasalam, Suntharan; Kobakhidze, Archil; Lagger, Cyril; Liang, Shelley; Zhou, Albert


    We discuss a cosmological phase transition within the Standard Model which incorporates spontaneously broken scale invariance as a low-energy theory. In addition to the Standard Model fields, the minimal model involves a light dilaton, which acquires a large vacuum expectation value (VEV) through the mechanism of dimensional transmutation. Under the assumption of the cancellation of the vacuum energy, the dilaton develops a very small mass at 2-loop order. As a result, a flat direction is present in the classical dilaton-Higgs potential at zero temperature while the quantum potential admits two (almost) degenerate local minima with unbroken and broken electroweak symmetry. We found that the cosmological electroweak phase transition in this model can only be triggered by a QCD chiral symmetry breaking phase transition at low temperatures, T ≲ 132 MeV. Furthermore, unlike the standard case, the universe settles into the chiral symmetry breaking vacuum via a first-order phase transition which gives rise to a stochastic gravitational background with a peak frequency ∼10-8 Hz as well as triggers the production of approximately solar mass primordial black holes. The observation of these signatures of cosmological phase transitions together with the detection of a light dilaton would provide a strong hint of the fundamental role of scale invariance in particle physics.

  5. A Spalart–Allmaras local correlation–based transition model for Thermo–fuid dynamics (United States)

    D’Alessandro, V.; Garbuglia, F.; Montelpare, S.; Zoppi, A.


    The study of innovative energy systems often involves complex fluid flows problems and the Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) is one of the main tools of analysis. It is important to put in evidence that in several energy systems the flow field experiences the laminar-to-turbulent transition. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are able to predict the flow transition but they are still inapplicable to the study of real problems due to the significant computational resources requirements. Differently standard Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approaches are not always reliable since they assume a fully turbulent regime. In order to overcome this drawback in the recent years some locally formulated transition RANS models have been developed. In this work, we present a local correlation–based transition approach adding two equations that control the laminar-toturbulent transition process –γ and \\[\\overset{}{\\mathop{{{\\operatorname{Re}}θ, \\text{t}}}} \\] – to the well–known Spalart–Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. The new model was implemented within OpenFOAM code. The energy equation is also implemented in order to evaluate the model performance in thermal–fluid dynamics applications. In all the considered cases a very good agreement between numerical and experimental data was observed.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of a quasi-harmonic model for ferroelectric transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkam Tchouobiap, S E; Mashiyama, H


    Within a framework of a quasi-harmonic model for quantum particles in a local potential of the double Morse type and within the mean-field approximation for interactions between particles, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric materials. A quantum thermodynamic treatment gives analytic expressions for the internal energy, the entropy, the specific heat, and the static susceptibility. The calculated thermodynamic characteristics are studied as a function of temperature and energy barrier, where it is shown that at the proper choice of the theory parameters, particularly the energy barrier, the model system exhibits characteristic features of either second-order tricritical or first-order phase transitions. Our results indicate that the barrier energy seems to be an important criterion for the character of the structural phase transition. The influence of quantum fluctuations manifested on zero-point energy on the phase transition and thermodynamic properties is analyzed and discussed. This leads to several quantum effects, including the existence of a saturation regime at low temperatures, where the order parameter saturates giving thermodynamic saturation of the calculated thermodynamic quantities. It is found that both quantum effects and energy barrier magnitude have an important influence on the thermodynamic properties of the ferroelectric materials and on driving the phase transition at low temperatures. Also, the analytical parameters' effect on the transition temperature is discussed, which seems to give a general insight into the structural phase transition and its nature.

  7. Heavy baryon transitions in a relativistic three-quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Koerner, J.G.; Kroll, P.


    Exclusive semileptonic decays of bottom and charm baryons are considered within a relativistic three-quark model with a Gaussian shape for the baryon-three-quark vertex and standard quark propagators. We calculate the baryonic Isgur-Wise functions, decay rates, and asymmetry parameters. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Modelling the transition from simple to complex Ca oscillations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 29, 2014 ... feedback regulation of degradation and production. In our model, the apical and the basal ... transmitters or hormones, pancreatic acinar cells exhibit intracellular calcium oscillations (Tanimura 2009; ...... Putney JW, Broad LM, Braun FJ, Lievremont JP and Bird GH 2001. Mechanisms of capacitative calcium ...

  9. Modelling the transition from simple to complex Ca oscillations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 29, 2014 ... 2Department of Mathematics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. *Corresponding author (Fax, +91-755-2670562; Email, A mathematical model is proposed which systematically investigates complex calcium oscillations in pancreatic.

  10. A simple model of big-crunch/big-bang transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz [Department of Theoretical Physics, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)


    We present classical and quantum dynamics of a test particle in the compactified Milne space. Background spacetime includes one compact space dimension undergoing contraction to a point followed by expansion. Quantization consists in finding a self-adjoint representation of the algebra of particle observables. Our model offers some insight into the nature of the cosmic singularity.

  11. Transition probabilities of health states for workers in Malaysia using a Markov chain model (United States)

    Samsuddin, Shamshimah; Ismail, Noriszura


    The aim of our study is to estimate the transition probabilities of health states for workers in Malaysia who contribute to the Employment Injury Scheme under the Social Security Organization Malaysia using the Markov chain model. Our study uses four states of health (active, temporary disability, permanent disability and death) based on the data collected from the longitudinal studies of workers in Malaysia for 5 years. The transition probabilities vary by health state, age and gender. The results show that men employees are more likely to have higher transition probabilities to any health state compared to women employees. The transition probabilities can be used to predict the future health of workers in terms of a function of current age, gender and health state.

  12. Magnetic transition phase diagram of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on HOPG: Experimental and micromagnetic modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, M., E-mail: mrivera@fisica.unam.m [Imperial College London, Department of Chemistry, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Rios-Reyes, C.H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, C.P. 02200, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, C.P. 42181 (Mexico); Mendoza-Huizar, L.H. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, C.P. 42181 (Mexico)


    The magnetic transition from mono- to multidomain magnetic states of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrodes was studied experimentally using Magnetic Force Microscopy. From these images, it was found that the critical size of the magnetic transition is dominated by the height rather than the diameter of the aggregate. This experimental behavior was found to be consistent with a theoretical single-domain ferromagnetic model that states that a critical height limits the monodomain state. By analyzing the clusters magnetic states as a function of their dimensions, magnetic exchange constant and anisotropy value were obtained and used to calculate other magnetic properties such as the exchange length, magnetic wall thickness, etc. Finally, a micromagnetic simulation study correctly predicted the experimental magnetic transition phase diagram. - Research highlights: > Electrodeposition of cobalt clusters. > Mono to multidomain magnetic transition. > Magnetic phase diagram.

  13. Magnetic transition phase diagram of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on HOPG: Experimental and micromagnetic modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, M.; Rios-Reyes, C.H.; Mendoza-Huizar, L.H.


    The magnetic transition from mono- to multidomain magnetic states of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrodes was studied experimentally using Magnetic Force Microscopy. From these images, it was found that the critical size of the magnetic transition is dominated by the height rather than the diameter of the aggregate. This experimental behavior was found to be consistent with a theoretical single-domain ferromagnetic model that states that a critical height limits the monodomain state. By analyzing the clusters magnetic states as a function of their dimensions, magnetic exchange constant and anisotropy value were obtained and used to calculate other magnetic properties such as the exchange length, magnetic wall thickness, etc. Finally, a micromagnetic simulation study correctly predicted the experimental magnetic transition phase diagram. - Research highlights: → Electrodeposition of cobalt clusters. →Mono to multidomain magnetic transition. → Magnetic phase diagram.

  14. Deflagration to Detonation Transition (DDT) Simulations of HMX Powder Using the HERMES Model (United States)

    White, Bradley; Reaugh, John; Tringe, Joseph


    We performed computer simulations of DDT experiments with Class I HMX powder using the HERMES model (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) in ALE3D. Parameters for the model were fitted to the limited available mechanical property data of the low-density powder, and to the Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) test results. The DDT tests were carried out in steel-capped polycarbonate tubes. This arrangement permits direct observation of the event using both flash X-ray radiography and high speed camera imaging, and provides a stringent test of the model. We found the calculated detonation transition to be qualitatively similar to experiment. Through simulation we also explored the effects of confinement strength, the HMX particle size distribution and porosity on the computed detonation transition location. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Statistically induced topological phase transitions in a one-dimensional superlattice anyon-Hubbard model (United States)

    Zuo, Zheng-Wei; Li, Guo-Ling; Li, Liben


    We theoretically investigate topological properties of the one-dimensional superlattice anyon-Hubbard model, which can be mapped to a superlattice bose-Hubbard model with an occupation-dependent phase factor by fractional Jordan-Wigner transformation. The topological anyon-Mott insulator is identified by topological invariant and edge modes using exact diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. When only the statistical angle is varied and all other parameters are fixed, a statistically induced topological phase transition can be realized, which provides insights into the topological phase transitions. What's more, we give an explanation of the statistically induced topological phase transition. The topological anyon-Mott phases can also appear in a variety of superlattice anyon-Hubbard models.

  16. Phase transition and gravitational wave phenomenology of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio; Vaskonen, Ville [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia)


    Thermal corrections in classically conformal models typically induce a strong first-order electroweak phase transition, thereby resulting in a stochastic gravitational background that could be detectable at gravitational wave observatories. After reviewing the basics of classically conformal scenarios, in this paper we investigate the phase transition dynamics in a thermal environment and the related gravitational wave phenomenology within the framework of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model. We find that minimal extensions involving only one additional scalar field struggle to reproduce the correct phase transition dynamics once thermal corrections are accounted for. Next-to-minimal models, instead, yield the desired electroweak symmetry breaking and typically result in a very strong gravitational wave signal. (orig.)

  17. An improved k-ε model applied to a wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan


    An improved k-ε turbulence model is developed and applied to a single wind turbine wake in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer using a Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes solver. The proposed model includes a flow-dependent Cμ that is sensitive to high velocity gradients, e.g., at the edge of a wind...... turbine wake. The modified k-ε model is compared with the original k-ε eddy viscosity model, Large-Eddy Simulations and field measurements using eight test cases. The comparison shows that the velocity wake deficits, predicted by the proposed model are much closer to the ones calculated by the Large...

  18. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun


    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0–1 integer programming to describe passengers’ responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated. PMID:27935963

  19. Business model renewal and ambidexterity: Structural alteration and strategy formation process during transition to a Cloud business model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Khanagha (Saeed); H.W. Volberda (Henk); I. Oshri (Ilan)


    textabstractThis paper presents the findings of a longitudinal study of a large corporation's transition to a new business model in the face of a major transformation in the ICT industry brought about by Cloud computing. We build theory on the process of business model innovation through a

  20. Biases in simulation of the rice phenology models when applied in warmer climates (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Li, T.; Yang, X.; Simelton, E.


    The current model inter-comparison studies highlight the difference in projections between crop models when they are applied to warmer climates, but these studies do not provide results on how the accuracy of the models would change in these projections because the adequate observations under largely diverse growing season temperature (GST) are often unavailable. Here, we investigate the potential changes in the accuracy of rice phenology models when these models were applied to a significantly warmer climate. We collected phenology data from 775 trials with 19 cultivars in 5 Asian countries (China, India, Philippines, Bangladesh and Thailand). Each cultivar encompasses the phenology observations under diverse GST regimes. For a given rice cultivar in different trials, the GST difference reaches 2.2 to 8.2°C, which allows us to calibrate the models under lower GST and validate under higher GST (i.e., warmer climates). Four common phenology models representing major algorithms on simulations of rice phenology, and three model calibration experiments were conducted. The results suggest that the bilinear and beta models resulted in gradually increasing phenology bias (Figure) and double yield bias per percent increase in phenology bias, whereas the growing-degree-day (GDD) and exponential models maintained a comparatively constant bias when applied in warmer climates (Figure). Moreover, the bias of phenology estimated by the bilinear and beta models did not reduce with increase in GST when all data were used to calibrate models. These suggest that variations in phenology bias are primarily attributed to intrinsic properties of the respective phenology model rather than on the calibration dataset. Therefore we conclude that using the GDD and exponential models has more chances of predicting rice phenology correctly and thus, production under warmer climates, and result in effective agricultural strategic adaptation to and mitigation of climate change.

  1. Recent progress and modern challenges in applied mathematics, modeling and computational science

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, Roman; Belair, Jacques


    This volume is an excellent resource for professionals in various areas of applications of mathematics, modeling, and computational science. It focuses on recent progress and modern challenges in these areas. The volume provides a balance between fundamental theoretical and applied developments, emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of modern trends and detailing state-of-the-art achievements in Applied Mathematics, Modeling, and Computational Science.  The chapters have been authored by international experts in their respective fields, making this book ideal for researchers in academia, practitioners, and graduate students. It can also serve as a reference in the diverse selected areas of applied mathematics, modelling, and computational sciences, and is ideal for interdisciplinary collaborations.

  2. Matrix model of QCD: Edge localized glueballs and phase transitions (United States)

    Acharyya, Nirmalendu; Balachandran, A. P.


    In a matrix model of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, boundaries emerge in the space of Mat3(R ) and the Hamiltonian requires boundary conditions. We show the existence of edge localized glueball states that can have negative energies. These edge levels can be lifted to positive energies if the gluons acquire a London-like mass. This suggests a new phase of QCD with an incompressible bulk.

  3. Evaporation-condensation transition of the two-dimensional Potts model in the microcanonical ensemble

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, Tomoaki


    The evaporation-condensation transition of the Potts model on a square lattice is numerically investigated by the Wang-Landau sampling method. An intrinsically system-size-dependent discrete transition between supersaturation state and phase-separation state is observed in the microcanonical ensemble by changing constrained internal energy. We calculate the microcanonical temperature, as a derivative of microcanonical entropy, and condensation ratio, and perform a finite-size scaling of them to indicate the clear tendency of numerical data to converge to the infinite-size limit predicted by phenomenological theory for the isotherm lattice gas model. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  4. Entanglement and fidelity signatures of quantum phase transitions in spin liquid models


    Tribedi, Amit; Bose, Indrani


    We consider a spin ladder model which is known to have matrix product states as exact ground states with spin liquid characteristics. The model has two critical-point transitions at the parameter values u=0 and infinity. We study the variation of entanglement and fidelity measures in the ground states as a function of u and specially look for signatures of quantum phase transitions at u=0 and infinity. The two different entanglement measures used are S(i) (the single-site von Neumann entropy)...

  5. Differential Transform Method for Mathematical Modeling of Jamming Transition Problem in Traffic Congestion Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S.; Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    . In current research the authors utilized the Differential Transformation Method (DTM) for solving the nonlinear problem and compared the analytical results with those ones obtained by the 4th order Runge-Kutta Method (RK4) as a numerical method. Further illustration embedded in this paper shows the ability...... of DTM in solving nonlinear problems when a so accurate solution is required.......In this paper we aim to find an analytical solution for jamming transition in traffic flow. Generally the Jamming Transition Problem (JTP) can be modeled via Lorentz system. So, in this way, the governing differential equation achieved is modeled in the form of a nonlinear damped oscillator...

  6. Differential Transform Method for Mathematical Modeling of Jamming Transition Problem in Traffic Congestion Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    . In current research the authors utilized the Differential Transformation Method (DTM) for solving the nonlinear problem and compared the analytical results with those ones obtained by the 4th order Runge-Kutta Method (RK4) as a numerical method. Further illustration embedded in this paper shows the ability...... of DTM in solving nonlinear problems when a so accurate solution is required.......In this paper we aim to find an analytical solution for jamming transition in traffic flow. Generally the Jamming Transition Problem (JTP) can be modeled via Lorentz system. So, in this way, the governing differential equation achieved is modeled in the form of a nonlinear damped oscillator...

  7. Outcomes of newly practicing nurses who applied principles of holistic comfort theory during the transition from school to practice: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Goodwin, Miki; Candela, Lori


    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore if newly practicing nurses benefited from learning holistic comfort theory during their baccalaureate education, and to provide a conceptual framework to support the transition from school to practice. The study was conducted among graduates of an accelerated baccalaureate nursing program where holistic comfort theory was embedded as a learner-centered philosophy across the curriculum. A phenomenological process using van Manen's qualitative methodology in education involving semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis was used. The nurses recalled what holistic comfort meant to them in school, and described the lived experience of assimilating holistic comfort into their attitudes and behaviors in practice. Themes were established and a conceptual framework was developed to better understand the nurses' lived experiences. Results showed that holistic comfort was experienced as a constructive approach to transcend unavoidable difficulties during the transition from school to practice. Participants described meaningful learning and acquisition of self-strengthening behaviors using holistic comfort theory. Holistic comfort principles were credited for easing nurses into the realities of work and advocating for best patient outcomes. Patient safety and pride in patient care were incidental positive outcomes. The study offers new insights about applying holistic comfort to prepare nurses for the realities of practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Framework for Quantitative Modeling of Neural Circuits Involved in Sleep-to-Wake Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak eSorooshyari


    Full Text Available Identifying the neuronal circuits and dynamics of sleep-to-wake transition is essential to understanding brain regulation of behavioral states, including sleep-wake cycles, arousal, and hyperarousal. Recent work by different laboratories has used optogenetics to determine the role of individual neuromodulators in state transitions. The optogenetically-driven data does not yet provide a multi-dimensional schematic of the mechanisms underlying changes in vigilance states. This work presents a modeling framework to interpret, assist, and drive research on the sleep-regulatory network. We identify feedback, redundancy, and gating hierarchy as three fundamental aspects of this model. The presented model is expected to expand as additional data on the contribution of each transmitter to a vigilance state becomes available. Incorporation of conductance-based models of neuronal ensembles into this model and existing models of cortical excitability will provide more comprehensive insight into sleep dynamics as well as sleep and arousal-related disorders.

  9. Transition to synchrony in degree-frequency correlated Sakaguchi-Kuramoto model (United States)

    Kundu, Prosenjit; Khanra, Pitambar; Hens, Chittaranjan; Pal, Pinaki


    We investigate transition to synchrony in degree-frequency correlated Sakaguchi-Kuramoto (SK) model on complex networks both analytically and numerically. We analytically derive self-consistent equations for group angular velocity and order parameter for the model in the thermodynamic limit. Using the self-consistent equations we investigate transition to synchronization in SK model on uncorrelated scale-free (SF) and Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks in detail. Depending on the degree distribution exponent (γ ) of SF networks and phase-frustration parameter, the population undergoes from first-order transition [explosive synchronization (ES)] to second-order transition and vice versa. In ER networks transition is always second order irrespective of the values of the phase-lag parameter. We observe that the critical coupling strength for the onset of synchronization is decreased by phase-frustration parameter in case of SF network where as in ER network, the phase-frustration delays the onset of synchronization. Extensive numerical simulations using SF and ER networks are performed to validate the analytical results. An analytical expression of critical coupling strength for the onset of synchronization is also derived from the self-consistent equations considering the vanishing order parameter limit.

  10. Assessing Aegis Program Transition to an Open-Architecture Model (United States)


    physical architecture of the combat system in a way that ensures broad applicability of the physical plant and by mod- ernizing the in-service fleet...tatio n C h o ices o n th e Fleet 45 Figure 4.6 Aegis Fleet Composition Under the IWS and Legacy Models (FYs 2010–2060) RAND RR161-4.6 N u m b e r...hardware follows a hockey stick pattern, whereby the cost of purchas- ing the most recent technology is greatest, the cost of purchasing one- generation-old

  11. Energy transition: development of the new French model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Many times postponed, the 'programming bill for a new French energy model', commitment of the President of the Republic Francois Hollande, will finally be presented at the Parliament in September with the hope that it will be passed on next spring. Developed on two-pillar approach - energy savings and renewable energies -, this bill should allow France to reduce half of its energy consumption between 2012 and 2050 and to increase the share of renewable energy sources of 14% by 2012 to 32% by 2030 in the power mix. (O.M.)

  12. Phase Transition in a Sexual Age-Structured Model of Learning Foreign Languages (United States)

    Schwämmle, V.

    The understanding of language competition helps us to predict extinction and survival of languages spoken by minorities. A simple agent-based model of a sexual population, based on the Penna model, is built in order to find out under which circumstances one language dominates other ones. This model considers that only young people learn foreign languages. The simulations show a first order phase transition of the ratio between the number of speakers of different languages with the mutation rate as control parameter.

  13. Utilizing Gaze Behavior for Inferring Task Transitions Using Abstract Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Tello Gamarra


    Full Text Available We demonstrate an improved method for utilizing observed gaze behavior and show that it is useful in inferring hand movement intent during goal directed tasks. The task dynamics and the relationship between hand and gaze behavior are learned using an Abstract Hidden Markov Model (AHMM. We show that the predicted hand movement transitions occur consistently earlier in AHMM models with gaze than those models that do not include gaze observations.

  14. A model for website analysis and\tconception: the Website Canvas Model applied to\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Sanabre Vives


    Full Text Available This article presents the model of ideation and analysis called Website CanvasModel. It allows identifying the key aspects for a website to be successful, and shows how ithas been applied to As a result, the key factors prompting the success of thisdigital newspaper have been identified.

  15. Influence of chain topology and bond potential on the glass transition of polymer chains simulated with the bond fluctuation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:


    The bond fluctuation model with a bond potential has been applied to investigation of the glass transition of linear chains and chains with a regular disposition of small branches. Cooling and subsequent heating curves are obtained for the chain energies and also for the mean acceptance probability of a bead jump. In order to mimic different trends to vitrification, a factor B gauging the strength of the bond potential with respect to the long-range potential (i.e. the intramolecular or intermolecular potential between indirectly bonded beads) has been introduced. (A higher value of B leads to a preference for the highest bond lengths and a higher total energy, implying a greater tendency to vitrify.) Different cases have been considered for linear chains: no long-range potential, no bond potential and several choices for B. Furthermore, two distinct values of B have been considered for alternate bonds in linear chains. In the case of the branched chains, mixed models with different values of B for bonds in the main chain and in the branches have also been investigated. The possible presence of ordering or crystallization has been characterized by calculating the collective light scattering function of the different samples after annealing at a convenient temperature below the onset of the abrupt change in the curves associated with a thermodynamic transition. It is concluded that ordering is inherited more efficiently in the systems with branched chains and also for higher values of B. The branched molecules with the highest B values in the main chain bonds exhibit two distinct transitions in the heating curves, which may be associated with two glass transitions. This behavior has been detected experimentally for chains with relatively long flexible branches.

  16. Applying Research Models and Data to Space Weather Products and Services (United States)

    Viereck, R.; Onsager, T.; Pizzo, V.; Biesecker, D.


    The Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) has evaluated its customers and their requirements and identified a number of key areas where improvements in service can be achieved. A key element of these improvements is to use research models and data in the operational environment of SWPC. Currently, this process is initiated by multi-agency activities and completed at SWPC. The future holds great promise with the development of a Space Weather Prediction Testbed. In this presentation, we will identify the areas where critical advances in research are needed. This will be followed by a description of the models that will be made operational both in the near term as well as those that are further down the road. Then we will present the concept of the Space Weather Prediction Testbed and the plans for accepting models and implementing the transition process through this new Testbed.

  17. Properties of simpletic model and and his submodels when applied to light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Avancini, S. dos.


    A qualitative analysis of an S p(1,R) calculation, applied to the description of the spectroscopic properties of 12 C is presented. Based on a calculation in a deformed harmonic oscillator basis, it is shown that, the need to include highly excited basis states to describe the properties of 12 C, is due to a lack of optimization of the spherical basis. The optimized basis is given by the angular momentum projection of deformed phonon states, determined by the method of variation after projection, where the deformed phonons are associated to giant monopole and quadrupole resonances. It is also shown that, for an adequate description of the electromagnetic transitions between states belonging to different irreducible representations of S p(3,R), it is necessary to consider mixtures of representations. In a preliminary calculation, the effect of this mixture to the monopole and quadrupole transitions between the intruder state O 2 + and the states of the ground rotational band associated, respectively, to a prolate and oblate representations is discussed. (author)

  18. Comprehensive Validation of an Intermittency Transport Model for Transitional Low-Pressure Turbine Flows (United States)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.


    A transport equation for the intermittency factor is employed to predict transitional flows under the effects of pressure gradients, freestream turbulence intensities, Reynolds number variations, flow separation and reattachment. and unsteady wake-blade interactions representing diverse operating conditions encountered in low-pressure turbines. The intermittent behaviour of the transitional flows is taken into account and incorporated into computations by modifying the eddy viscosity, Mu(sub t), with the intermittency factor, gamma. Turbulent quantities are predicted by using Menter's two-equation turbulence model (SST). The onset location of transition is obtained from correlations based on boundary-layer momentum thickness, acceleration parameter, and turbulence intensity. The intermittency factor is obtained from a transport model which can produce both the experimentally observed streamwise variation of intermittency and a realistic profile in the cross stream direction. The intermittency transport model is tested and validated against several well documented low pressure turbine experiments ranging from flat plate cases to unsteady wake-blade interaction experiments. Overall, good agreement between the experimental data and computational results is obtained illustrating the predicting capabilities of the model and the current intermittency transport modelling approach for transitional flow simulations.

  19. Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. [Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics; Kozel, K. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


    The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special `laminar-kinetic-energy` equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)

  20. Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. (Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics); Kozel, K. (Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering)


    The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special 'laminar-kinetic-energy' equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)