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Sample records for transition economies evidence

  1. Government revenue-expenditure nexus: Evidence from several transitional economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konukcu-Önal Debi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficits and the debate on the sources of deficit finance have been on the agenda of public economics ever since the 1980s. However recently in the post-communist countries fiscal imbalances appear to be an important problem due to prolonged periods of growing poverty resulting from the transition process. Poverty alleviation policies considerably affect the revenue and expenditure decisions of governments, which are subject to hard budget constraints in an open transitional economy and do not have room for departing from sound fiscal policies. The public finance literature provides a vast number of studies analyzing the relationship between public revenues and expenditures. These studies are mostly characterized by efforts to reveal the attitude of the fiscal authority towards maintaining the budget balance. In this respect, budgetary dynamics in which past government revenues have predictive power on the current level of government expenditures are accepted as evidence of the so-called tax-and-spend hypothesis. On the other hand, the revenue-expenditure nexus running from expenditures to revenues is known in the literature as the spend-and-tax hypothesis. The objective of this study is to analyze empirically the relationship between government revenues and expenditures in four of the transitional economies, i.e. Belarus, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Russian Federation. The empirical findings of this study, which are based on Granger causality tests, indicate evidence supporting the tax-and-spend hypothesis in Belarus and the Russian Federation and fiscal synchronization in Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic. The empirical support for the tax-and-spend hypothesis in these economies implies that increasing government revenues may not end up with lower budget deficits due to their stimulating effect on the demand for public goods and services.

  2. Accounting Conservatism in Transitional Economies : Evidence of the influence of institutional factors in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kowalczyk (Paulina)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary Prior research shows that accounting conservatism exists in mature economies. However there is not too much research about accounting conservatism in transitional economies. This paper analyses the influence of institutional and political factors on accounting

  3. Financial liberalisation and the dynamics of firm leverage in a transitional economy: evidence from South Africa

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    Chimwemwe Chipeta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamics of corporate capital structures for listed non-financial firms in South Africa. The dynamic models of capital structure have been utilised to document several findings of empirical significance. First, transaction costs reduce dramatically in the post liberalisation regime, and the associated speed of adjustment is more pronounced, and statistically significant for the post liberalisation epoch. Second, financial liberalisation has a significant impact on the capital structure speed of adjustment. Third, the results confirm most of the theoretical predictions of capital structure theories; however, the relationship is more significant in the post liberalised regime. Finally, new evidence has been revealed on what determines the debt maturity structure of firms in a transitional economy.

  4. General Education vs. Vocational Training: Evidence from an Economy in Transition. NBER Working Paper No. 14155

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Ofer; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relative benefits of general education and vocational training in Romania, a country which experienced major technological and institutional change during its transition from Communism to a market economy. To avoid the bias caused by non-random selection, we exploit a 1973 educational reform that shifted a large proportion…

  5. The Effects of Internationalization on Innovation: Firm-Level Evidence for Transition Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.; Roelfsema, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses how various internationalization modes affect innovation in ten transition economies. Using propensity score matching to account for selection, we match firms on size, sector, and country. A key contribution is that firms are also matched based on the heterogeneity of

  6. Do business groups affect corporate cash holdings? Evidence from a transition economy

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    Weixing Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether business groups’ influence on cash holdings depends on ownership. Group affiliation can increase firms’ agency costs or benefit firms by providing an internal capital market, especially in transition economies characterized by weak investor protection and difficult external capital acquisition. A hand-collected dataset of Chinese firms reveals that group affiliation decreases cash holdings, alleviating the free-cash-flow problem of agency costs. State ownership and control of listed firms moderate this benefit, which is more pronounced when the financial market is less liquid. Group affiliation facilitates related-party transactions, increases debt capacity and decreases investment-cash-flow sensitivity and overinvestment. In transitional economies, privately controlled firms are more likely to benefit from group affiliation than state-controlled firms propped up by the government.

  7. Entrepreneurship and bribery in a transition economy : theory and firm-level evidence in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tú, Phan Anh

    2012-01-01

    Het onderzoek gaat in op de oorzaken en gevolgen van corruptie voor bedrijven en ondernemers in Vietnam. Dit land bevindt zich in de transitie van een centraal geleide economie naar een markteconomie. Corruptie kent vele vormen, maar in dit proefschrift gaat het over omkoping: de betaling van kleine

  8. How to increase R&D in transition economies? Evidence from Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domadenik, P.; Prašnikar, J.; Švejnar, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2008), s. 193-208 ISSN 1363-6669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : transition * research and development * R&D investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.635, year: 2008 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119417634/abstract

  9. Unemployment and the social safety net during transition to a market economy: evidence from Czech and Slovak Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ham, J.; Terrell, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    -, č. 118 (1998), s. 1-43 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition to a market economy * unemployment and the social safety net * Czech and Slovak Republics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp118.pdf

  10. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  11. Real Exchange Rates in Advanced Transition Economies

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    Sanja Grubacic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent evidence from Eastern Europe suggests that one of the major obstacles towards the adoption of euro may lie in the impact that the recession of 2008 exerted on the trajectory of real exchange rates in new member countries (European Commission, 2015.  This paper aims to establish and explain the relationship between the external shocks derived from the global financial crisis and recession of 2008 and equilibrium real exchange rate in advanced transition economies of Eastern Europe. The interplay between the external and internal balances is explained by developing an inter-temporal optimizing model of the real exchange rate determination in a small open economy with structural distortions. The results of our model suggest that, in the aftermath of recession, if the Eastern European economies attempt to restore and maintain the balance between the consumption, saving, and investment, the equilibrium real exchange rate will tend to reverse its trajectory from appreciation to depreciation over time in order to encourage a greater production in the future. The equilibrium real exchange rate depreciation in the future may obtain either as a result of an increase in the direct subsidies on investment or as a result of reduced subsidies on the "net-of-investment" income.  The deprecation of countries’ real exchange rate, however, may continue to act as an effective constraint against the adoption of euro.

  12. Rate-making in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Eastern European economies in transition have unique needs which may be best served by considering how other economies around the world are making the transition to market-based economies. In particular, the recent Mexican experience may provide some lessons learned. Mexico has recently established for the first time a regulatory body with the power to regulate natural gas in certain ways. This paper outlines how the Mexican experience may be an appropriate jumping-off point for Eastern European economies in transition as they develop their own regulatory structure and rate-making. The paper concludes with an update on the recent experience in the U.S. to push the development of a market economy for natural gas further than it ever has before

  13. Optimization models in a transition economy

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, Ivan V; Koshlai, Ludmilla

    2014-01-01

    This book opens new avenues in understanding mathematical models within the context of a  transition economy. The exposition lays out the methods for combining different mathematical structures and tools to effectively build the next model that will accurately reflect real world economic processes. Mathematical modeling of weather phenomena allows us to forecast certain essential weather parameters without any possibility of changing them. By contrast, modeling of transition economies gives us the freedom to not only predict changes in important indexes of all types of economies, but also to influence them more effectively in the desired direction. Simply put: any economy, including a transitional one, can be controlled. This book is useful to anyone who wants to increase profits within their business, or improve the quality of their family life and the economic area they live in. It is beneficial for undergraduate and graduate students specializing in the fields of Economic Informatics, Economic Cybernetic...

  14. Financial system development in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    This paper provides an overview of the major issues with respect to financial system development in transition economies, which were discussed at a conference in Groningen, the Netherlands, December 1997. After a brief remark on the role of financial system design during economic transition, the

  15. Problems measuring the underground economy in transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Palda, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2006), s. 707-718 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/0166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : informal economy * macro estimates of shadow economy * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2006 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0351.2006.00268.x

  16. To contract or not in the food sector of transition economies? Evidence from the dairy sector in FYROM

    OpenAIRE

    Tuna, Emelj; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Surry, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Countries still confronted with transition process express different patterns of contractual arrangements in the agricultural sector. The inefficiencies in their legal systems and problems with contracts enforcement in many instances force informal contracting arrangements instead. This paper empirically tests the transaction cost specifics determining the presence or absence of contracts to regulate transactions between the dairy farmers and their processing partners in the Former Yugoslav R...

  17. Are Polish firms risk-averting or risk-loving? : evidence on demand uncertainty and the capital-labour ratio in a transition economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Murinde, Victor; Green, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of demand uncertainty on the capital-labour ratio of non-financial firms in Poland in order to infer the firms’ risk behaviour. A generic model is used to characterise a utility maximising firm in a transition economy with demand uncertainty and imperfect

  18. Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment In Transition Economies, With Special Reference To Macedonia: Evidence From Gravity Model1

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    Dauti Bardhyl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment stocks to 5-South East European Countries and the 10-New Member States of the European Union countries by using an augmented Gravity Model, for the purpose of calculating the potential levels of FDI stock in Macedonia. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 20 core OECD countries to invest in SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors (market size and distance, institutional related factors (control of corruption, corruption perception index, regulatory quality, transition progress and WTO membership and other traditional determinants of FDI (schooling, bilateral exports appear to significantly determine inward FDI stock to the SEE region and new EU member states. The GMM estimates suggest that bilateral FDI stock is subject to persistence effects. The study additionally confirms the relatively strong gravitational character of Macedonia’s inward FDI stock.

  19. Institutional incentives in circular economy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Aglaia; Pascucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to gain insight into how requirements for transitioning to circular economy creates new organizational forms in inter-firm collaborations, and ultimately how they stimulate the emergence of new institutions enhancing sustainability. Two strands of literature, one on

  20. Transnational corruption and innovation in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habiyaremye, A.; Raymond, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how transnational corruption affects host country firms’ innovation behaviour and performance in transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia. Using firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey, we show that the

  1. On educational attainment in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duczynski, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2001), s. 163-173 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition economies * educational attainment Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  2. Monetary Policy Rules in Some Transition Economies

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    Mohamed El-Hodiri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the question of whither monetary rules or ad hoc monetary policies were followed during the early stages of transition and in response to the global financial crisis. We study Eastern European countries and thee CIS countries. We find that during the early of transition, both developed economies and economies in transition used the monetary base, as well as the interest rate, as the main tools for monetary policy. However, in response to the global crises, priority was given to the main objective such as containing inflation and supporting economic growth. Monetary authorities had the additional possible choice of alternative objectives, such as stabilization of nominal exchange rate and real effective exchange rate, or increase in reserves. It was found that countries mostly retained priorities of monetary policy and some of them gave a greater importance to the alternative objectives.

  3. Theory of Microcrediting in Transitional Economies

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    Nikola Kadoić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1970s, Bangladeshi banker and economist Dr. Muhammad Yunus designed microcrediting – a socially sensitive and rightful system of fighting poverty and high unemployment rates. His Grameen Bank for the poorest of the poor in Bangladesh has so far lifted more than 3.2 million of individuals and their families out of poverty. After initial successes at home, microcredit was put into service for reducing unemployment and alleviating poverty in numerous countries throughout the world. This paper explores specific problems that a typical transitional country (like Croatia, is likely to face, with unemployment – the source of a vast number of related problems in a transitional society – as the focal point. The authors have attempted to incorporate particularities of a transitional economy into the original microcrediting principles. As a solution to problems afflicting the domestic economy, the authors define a global microcrediting system framework on the macroeconomic level, assuming at the same time that microcrediting of socially vulnerable groups can resolve many problems of modern transitional societies. Arising from the authors' primary intention – to consider in depth the functionality of microcrediting in general transition conditions – a transitional microcrediting system has been defined in general terms, and a corresponding financial and mathematical model developed.

  4. Is Transition in the Russian Economy Complete?

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    Viktor Mikhailovich Kul’kov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A quarter of a century passed since the beginning of market transformation (transition in Russia; nevertheless, there are serious doubts about whether the transition is complete. The effective transition to a new type of economy should ideally be a period of transformation, modernization and the formation of a national economic model. Only in this case can it be qualified as full, adequate, and constructive. Such combination has not taken place in Russia; it seems as if the market transformations were taking place independently, and this is the root of Russia’s many contemporary problems. The current crisis in the Russian economy primarily reflects the pendency of these tasks that were necessary to be solved from the very beginning of transformation. This crisis is first of all a focused expression and continuation of the transformation and reproduction crises in the national economy, the crisis of the current defective economic models and the then pursued economic policy. External factors only facilitated the exacerbation of Russia’s internal problems. In order to respond effectively to such a large-scale crisis it is necessary to consider all its aspects and underlying causes originating in the challenges of the transition period. Only the implementation of economic modernization and the formation of an effective national economic model is able to bring the Russian economy to a new level of development and thus to bring the transformation, which is lagging behind due to historical reasons, in line with these processes. In this case there will be good reason to conclude that the final border of the transition period is overcome. A new model of Russia’s economy must be adequate to the entire set of national-specific factors and strategic and vital development goals that Russia has. The core of modernization must be new industrialization, which is characterized by the transition to automation, computerization, greening of industrial

  5. Grey economy, crisis and transition in Serbia

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    Novaković Nada G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author uses a sociological approach to the study of the gray economy in a society in transition, i.e. the Serbian society. A special emphasis is placed on the socio-economic development from 2007 to 2012. This is the time just before the onset of the global economic crisis, and its deepening and expansion. In Serbia, the privatization and transition of society had just terminated. The main thesis of this paper is that the main factors of the emergence and spread of the shadow economy are primarily of domestic origin. The world crisis gave them just a special stamp. The most important factors of gray economy are systemic in nature. These are the following: the inherent nature of the state transition, the selected and implemented concept of privatization and, finally, the character of Serbian political and economic elites. They form the core of the new capitalist class in Serbia, which is dependent on the international centers of financial, political and military power. The concept of the underground, gray economy refers to the following: unauthorized activities outside the law and norms of business, avoidance of tax and other obligations, bribery and corruption. The author emphasized the multidimensionality of the gray economy and attempted to interdisciplinary approach its study. Therefore, he used a large array of data: economic, demographic and historical. Special attention was paid to the results of sociological research on the structure of society, inequality, unemployment and poverty of citizens. The first part lists the most important systemic factors of growth of gray economy in Serbia. They are numerous, but the article focuses on the following: 1. the neo-liberal model of social transition; 2. the model of 'shock' privatization of the social assets; 3. the collapse of the welfare state and the dwindling of acquired economic and social rights; 4. the influence of the 'international community'; 5. the low activity and

  6. Marketing planning and performance: The case of transitional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Temjanovski, Riste; Ristevska - Jovanovska, Snezana

    2014-01-01

    This paper is inspired by the distorted marketing practices of companies that operate in a transitional economy, specifically Republic of Macedonia. This analysis has two main objectives: 1. identification of weaknesses in the marketing planning process, 2. providing an evidence of the connection of continuous formal marketing planning with business performance, i.e. profitability and market orientation. The data was obtained both from primary and secondary research. Secondary research was ba...

  7. Resources, Agriculture, and Economic Growth in Economies in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Thorvaldur Gylfason

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews some reasons why natural resource abundance and extensive agriculture appear to impede economic growth around the world. The paper presents empirical, cross-sectional evidence of various aspects of this relationship in the transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia since 1990. The essence of the argument is that heavy dependence on natural resources and agriculture may result in rent seeking (e.g., corruption) and policy failures (e.g., inflation) a...

  8. The Political Economy of Clean Energy Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -scale and locally relevant policy experimentation. The chapters focus on the political economy of clean energy transition with an emphasis on specific issues encountered in both developed and developing countries. Lead authors contribute a broad diversity of experience drawn from all major regions of the world......The 21st Conference of the Parties (CoP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) shifted the nature of the political economy challenge associated with achieving a global emissions trajectory that is consistent with a climate. The shifts generated by CoP21 place...... country decision-making and country policies at centre stage. Under moderately optimistic assumptions concerning the vigour with which CoP21 objectives are pursued, nearly every country in the world will set about to design and implement the most promising and locally relevant policies for achieving...

  9. Determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in transition economies1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; de Haan, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the microeconomic determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in 11 transition economies over the period 1992-2006. We find that foreign banks target relatively large and efficient banks when they enter transition economies with weak institutions. This evidence provides support for the

  10. Transition(s) towards an ecologic economy. The prospective program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, Antoine; Hervieu, Halvard; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Cecutti-Etahiri, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    This publication aims at presenting works performed between 2010 and 2014 within the frame of the prospective program 'Transition(s) towards an ecologic economy' of the prospective mission of the CGDD (Commissariat General au Developpement Durable, the French General Committee for Sustainable Development). It also presents lessons which can be learned. The first part examines what could be the shape of an ecologic economy. For this purpose, scenarios have been developed which allow the role which various actors (citizen, territories, State) can play, and the possible evolutions of the present social-economic system to be explored. The second part addresses more specific issues in order to highlight some levers of action for a successful transition. These issues can be transverse (for example, the role of ITs in ecologic economy, or the human factor in terms of challenge of social change and employment) as well as sector-based (focus on transports and on ecologic mobility in the perspective of automotive industries and enterprises, and of public policies)

  11. Investing in gas industry in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, J.

    1996-01-01

    Financing of energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe is meant for markets in transition which induces the financing concepts of the projects and preconditions international funding. The basic conditions to be fulfilled in transition from command economy to market economy are liberalisation and privatisation of energy markets. Preconditions include: prices and tariff at market; regulatory environment supporting independent projects and local capital markets

  12. Trade policy and quality leadership in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga-González, José Luis; Viaene, Jean Marie

    Trade policy and quality leadership in transition economies are analyzed in a duopoly model of trade and vertical product differentiation. We first show that the incidence of trade liberalization is sensitive to whether firms in transition economies are producers of low or high quality. Second, we

  13. Recent trends in gas pricing in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolplhe, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with end-user gas price movements in economies in transition since 1990 and with present problems associated with rising of gas prices levels. The first part stresses the major discrepancies existing between countries in transition with regard to their economic situation and their gas market. Historical gas price movements are shown in the second part, which analyzes the main trends observed in economies in transition and problems encountered when raising the gas prices

  14. Impact Assessment of Citizen Fairs in the Process of Transition from the Popular Economy to a Solidarity Economy

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    Ángel Enrique Zapata-Barros

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The law of popular and solidarity economy in Ecuador was created to promote the transition of organizational forms of popular solidarity economy towards forms of organization. This law made possible the development of projects aimed at strengthening solidarity economic practices. One of these projects are the citizens fairs, promoted since 2008 by the state (government ministry. The fairs are an associative marketing strategy is an alternative to price speculation and a viable path to the organization of popular venture. Effective evidence that the fairs do not contribute to the transition offered popular economic forms towards forms of organization solidarity.

  15. Impact of inflation on the macroeconomic indicators in transition economies

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    Ranković Marko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with treats of inflation in times of world financial turmoil. It examines how inflation is impacting macroeconomic factors. Is there relationship and how strong it is between inflation and economic growth, unemployment rate and other selected economic indicators? Motivated by these questions, this paper examines the relationship between inflation and selected macroeconomic indicators: real GDP annual growth rate, privatization revenues, as part of the GDP, level of investments, unemployment rate and share of assets of foreign banks in domestic bank system by using data for 13 transition economies over the period 1993-2008. The evidence strongly supports the view that the relationship between inflation and selected macroeconomic indicators is significantly and strongly negative, observed for the region. However, for small number countries in transition there is no direct significant relationship between inflation, but indirect relationship has been showed.

  16. The Challenge of the GATS for Transition Economies Seeking to Join the WTO

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    J. Anthony VanDuzer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Transition economies seeking to join the World Trade Organization (WTO face a variety of distinctive challenges relating to their prospective obligations under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS. Transition economies are characterized by changing market and industry structures on the one hand, and ongoing reforms to their regulatory structures on the other. Both make it extremely difficult for transition economies to develop a position on what WTO services commitments they should undertake in their national schedules of specific commitments. Accession negotiations are further complicated by the evolving nature of GATS rules themselves and the tough negotiating stance taken by existing Members. Based on evidence from recent accessions, the effective minimum requirements relating to services for transition economies seeking to join the WTO are increasing

  17. The curse of natural resources in the transition economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberg, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The curse of natural resources is a well-documented phenomenon in developing countries: Economies that are richly endowed with natural resources tend to grow slowly. Among the transition economies of the former “Eastern Bloc”, a similar pattern can be observed. In the first years of transition, output fell in all the former communist countries, but the Central European countries, which are rather poorly endowed with natural resources, recovered quickly and have enjoyed rather strong economic ...

  18. Social Capital, Economic Growth and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    -trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....

  19. Hidden Challenges to Education Systems in Transition Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This book, published by the World Bank, sounds the alarm for education in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). It describes how the transition from communism to free-market economies has left many countries' educational systems in disarray. At the start of transition, ECA education systems had solved problems that plagued other regions of the world,…

  20. The transition from industrial (traditional to new (information economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 20th century a new economy and a new information society emerged, as a result of achieving the third and the transition to the fourth scientific and technological revolution. The basis of this new economy lies in the transition from the industrial production to the production based on information and technology. The new economy contributes to changing the character of the factors of production, the structure of the value produced the motives of production, the workers’ position (robots replacing slaves etc. Besides labor, capital, land and entrepreneurship, information appears to be the fifth and the most important factor of production. The Internet is becoming the foundation of the new economy and contributes to changing the way people learn and do research, as well as to reducing the burden of administration, changing the way of competition, reducing operating costs crossing national borders and leading to the process of globalization of the world economy into an integral entity. Some basic characteristics of this new economy are the following: the information basis of production, rapid changes of products, flexible production systems, network organization of production, integration, services backed by products, skills and knowledge generalization, education, knowledge and talent becoming the most important factor of the socio-economic growth and development, etc. The new economy leads to a number of advantages when compared to the traditional one. However, it also has a number of negative consequences: pollution indebtedness of underdeveloped countries, widening the gap between the development level of regions, countries and individuals, growing inflation unemployment etc. But the new economy is objectively conditioned and the task of each national economy is to determine the most favorable way of its incorporation into this new economy (globalization.

  1. The role of transit in the economy of Latvia

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    Gžibovska Nataļja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transit is an important issue in the history of world economy, including the economy of Latvia. Transit makes a significant contribution to the budget of many transit countries, one of which is the Republic of Latvia. These countries do not have significant natural resources and prefer to focus on logistics and infrastructure in order to facilitate the transit process. This article focuses on the role of transit in the economy of Latvia, whose unique geographical position makes the country an effective transport corridor (bridge in both the west-east and north-south directions. The article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted at Latvian transit enterprises regarding their future development and offers an overview of the main seaports and the Rīga international airport. The author examines the issue of Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and its impact on the Latvian transit, the prolongation of EU sanctions against Belarus, and the use of Latvian transport infrastructure for handling the non-military cargo traffic to/from Afghanistan. In conclusion, a forecast of possible transit development in Latvia is provided.

  2. Data watch: research data from transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filer, Randall K.; Hanousek, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2002), s. 225-240 ISSN 0895-3309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition * research data Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.058, year: 2002 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2696584

  3. The Political Economy of International Transitional Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasten, Maj Lervad; Tzouvala, Ntina

    2018-01-01

    This article reconstructs how democratic participation and interference can be fended off by the construction of an international authoritarian political architecture and a strongly legalised and specific form of market economy. We do this by interrogating International Territorial Administration...... (ITA) regulations established to administer post-conflict Kosovo and post-invasion Iraq. In following the regulations and executive decrees of a largely unaccountable international policy-making bureaucracy in reforming the agricultural sector, the article demonstrates how and with what impact...... corporations. Even though the two administrations focused on different aspects of land and agriculture regulation, we argue that significant commonalities exist between their political preferences and interests. Our work draws on the tradition of critical legal studies in International Law (IL) and we posit...

  4. Short-term economic indicators. Transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This quarterly publication complements the OECD Main Economic Indicators. It presents a wide range of monthly, quarterly, and annual economic indicators covering such topics as industrial production, business surveys, construction, employment, earnings, prices, domestic and foreign finance, interest rates and domestic and foreign trade for the following 21 transition countries: Bulgaria, Poland, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Czech Republic, Republic of Slovenia, Belarus, Estonia, Romania, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Latvia, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, Lithuania, Armenia, Uzbekistan. (author)

  5. CULTURAL POLICY IN TRANSITIONAL ECONOMIES: NEW CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana V. SHCHURKO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the new conditions of countries’ development in the post-crisis period. Challenges to the cultural and socio-economic policy during last decade were analyzed. Religious factors are offered to be considered as important mechanisms of solving transition period problems, and at the same time as the causes of many conflicts in the world. It was offered to include those factors as inevitable elements into modern policy making process.

  6. Banking Crises in Transition Economies : Fiscal Costs and Related Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Helena; Zoli, Edda; Klytchnikova, Irina

    2000-01-01

    The authors look at strategies for dealing with banking crises in 12 transition economies -- five from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, and Poland; the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania; and four countries from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Ukraine. Three types...

  7. Banking in transition economies : does foreign ownership enhance profitability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Naaborg, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between foreign ownership and bank performance. A cross-section of 216 banks in transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia is used. In the analyses a continuous foreign ownership variable is applied. The results are checked by using a

  8. Banking in Transition Economies: Does Foreign Ownership Enhance Profitability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Naaborg, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between foreign ownership and bank performance. A cross-section of 216 banks in transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia is used. In the analyses a continuous foreign ownership variable is applied. The results are checked by using a

  9. Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 77 (2007), s. 1-34 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : unemployment * human capital * regional labor markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ipc.umich.edu/ working papers/ipc-77-jurajda,terrell,regional-unemployment-human- capital -transition-economies.pdf

  10. Potential of forestry biomass for energy in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apalovic, R.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid increase in the world's population, the gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels and serious ecological problems are making developed countries more attentive to the utilization of renewable energy sources, mainly biomass, which should form part of the global energy mix during the twenty-first century. The economies in transition have been experiencing a transformation of their political, economic and social systems and a modernization of their industry, including the energy industry. Energy supply in the transition economies is based on coal, oil, gas and nuclear power. Of the renewable sources, only hydroelectric power is utilized to any significant extent. The forest biomass resources of these economies are quantified in this paper. The economies in transition have a big potential for biomass from forestry and timber industry wastes and agricultural wastes that are not being utilized and could become a source of energy. So far, biomass is used as a source of energy in only small amounts in the wood and pulp industries and as fuelwood in forestry. The governments of some countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia) have energy plans through the year 2010 that aim to develop renewable energy sources. Economic, institutional, technical and other barriers to the development of renewable sources and their utilization are analysed in this paper and some remedies are proposed. In cooperation with countries such as Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the United States of America and others, which have achieved remarkable results in the utilization of biomass for energy, it would be possible for the transition economies to quickly develop the technological know-how needed to satisfy the demand for energy of approximately 350 million inhabitants. (author)

  11. Energy Efficiency and Urban Renewal in the Economies in Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Paper notes the importance of energy consumption in agglomerations (65-70% in the economies in transition) and of related emissions. It assesses the technical and cost-effective potential for a 40% and more decrease in urban energy intensities and SO 2 /NO x emissions by 2020, resulting from a systematic approach to urban as well as energy planning. Compared to approaches worldwide, urban energy renewal in the economies in transition appears, as its beginning, characterized by a traditional focus on existing technological supply sub-systems such as district heating and co-generation. The obstacles to a more systematic approach, including demand side management, are slow progress in urban and energy reforms and a lack of acquaintance with modern planning tools. International cooperation is incommensurate with the long-term challenge of s ustainable urban development . (author)

  12. Marketing planning: state of the art in a transitional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Temjanovski, Riste; Fotov, Risto

    2014-01-01

    This paper is provoked by the distorted marketing practices of companies that operate in a transitional economy, specifically Republic of Macedonia. The analysis has two main purposes: 1. to identify the weaknesses in the marketing planning process, 2. to prove the connection of continuous formal marketing planning with business performance, i.e. profitability and market share. Data was obtained from primary and secondary research. Primary research was conducted in the food, i.e. confectioner...

  13. Formal marketing planning and performance - the case of transitional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Temjanovski, Riste; Ristevska - Jovanovska, Snezana

    2016-01-01

    This paper was inspired from the necessity to identify the weaknesses in the marketing planning process in companies in a transitional economy and it analyses the connection between continuous formal marketing planning and business performance (profitability and market orientation). The data was obtained with primary and secondary research executed in the companies from the food, i.e. confectionery industry (38% of the registered companies). The research was based on the techniques of sur...

  14. Testing Environmental Kuznets Curve in the Selected Transition Economies with Panel Smooth Transition Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Zortuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC introduces an inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental pollution and economic development. The inverted U-shaped curve is seen as complete pattern for developed economies. However, our study tests the EKC for developing transition economies of European Union, therefore, our results could make a significant contribution to the literature. In this paper, the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions, gross domestic product (GDP, energy use and urban population is investigated in the Transition Economies (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Environmental Kuznets Curve is tested by panel smooth transition regression for these economies for 1993 – 2010 periods. As a result of study, the null hypothesis of linearity was rejected and no-remaining nonlinearity test showed that there is a smooth transition exists between two regimes (below $5176 GDP per capita is first one and above $5176 GDP per capita is second one in the related period for these economies.

  15. Planning the transition to a hydrogen economy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brey, J.J.; Castro, A. [Hynergreen Technologies, S.A., Av. de la Buhaira 2, 41018 Seville (Spain); Brey, R.; Carazo, A.F.; Contreras, I.; Hernandez-Diaz, A.G. [Department of Economics, Pablo de Olavide University, Ctra. de Utrera, km 1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The transition to a hydrogen economy requires appropriate regional planning to take advantage of the each region potential. This paper deals with a first phase of this process, which consists of satisfying around 10% of the energy demand for transport in Spain by 2010 through renewable energy sources. Planning has been carried out via a multiobjective optimization model. The obtained results allow the determination, for each region, of hydrogen production and consumption, the renewable energy sources used for obtaining this hydrogen, and transport requirements between regions. (author)

  16. European Transition into a Socio-ecological Market Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Hoedl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has introduced the Europe 2020 Strategy and Horizon 2020, which contain several elements for a transition into a Socio-ecological Market Economy. But their implementations are mainly hampered by the unduly large financial sector and the political striving for high economic growth. A turn into low growth equilibrium needs a reduction of total capital inputs, which are composed of financial, man-made and natural capital. Whereas the reduction of financial capital needs a strong, but actually lacking political will, the reduction of man-made and natural capital depends on a real capital saving innovation system, which should partly be financed by a transfer of financial capital to the real productive sector. Beyond a strong reduction of financial capital and depending on existing ecological, social and economic problems, the innovation system should save man-made and natural capital accordingly. In all cases these innovations need higher qualification by means of a human-centered educational system. Higher educational investments, i.e. augmented “human capital,” are decisive for a transition into a Socio-ecological Market Economy for two reasons: First, higher qualification will augment the wage-profit relation and second, capital saving innovations will reduce productive capital inputs without reducing the profit rate on the reduced real capital stock. Increasing “human capital” intensity will accelerate the transition into low growth equilibrium with a higher consumption-investment relation, which creates more domestic final demand and needs lower export surpluses. Starting from existing high productive and financial capital intensity, during the transition saving surpluses in Europe will decline only step by step; they should not be allocated in financial markets, but for a considerably more human-centered education and real investments in Europe and the Third World.

  17. Market structure and competition in the healthcare industry : Results from a transition economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lábaj, Martin; Silanič, Peter; Weiss, Christoph; Yontcheva, Biliana

    2018-02-14

    The present paper provides first empirical evidence on the relationship between market size and the number of firms in the healthcare industry for a transition economy. We estimate market-size thresholds required to support different numbers of suppliers (firms) for three occupations in the healthcare industry in a large number of distinct geographic markets in Slovakia, taking into account the spatial interaction between local markets. The empirical analysis is carried out for three time periods (1995, 2001 and 2010) which characterise different stages of the transition process. Our results suggest that the relationship between market size and the number of firms differs both across industries and across periods. In particular, we find that pharmacies, as the only completely liberalised market in our dataset, experience the largest change in competitive behaviour during the transition process. Furthermore, we find evidence for correlation in entry decisions across administrative borders, suggesting that future market analysis should aim to capture these regional effects.

  18. Institutional paradoxes of vat under developing economy of transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy G. Bachurin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the characteristics of the destructive impact of VAT taxation on the socioeconomic situation of the Russian Federation. Methods the research is based on the complex economic and legal methodology including the institutional approach with the account of the national socioeconomic and legal realities determining the conditions of functioning of branches and particular enterprises in the Russian economy. Results the conditions and characteristics of the introduction of VAT in the Russian Federation are viewed the reasons are revealed for the formation and development of the problemcausing VAT in the domestic tax system the socioeconomic implications of VAT are analyzed the viability of replacing VAT for a turnover tax is demonstrated. Scientific novelty for the first time the conceptual position is articulated that under the realities of the reformed Russian economy the normativelegal outline of the VAT complements the accumulated destructive potential blocking the way to the industrial growth in the national economy enhances the asymmetry of conditions of different forms of ownership while the actual conditions of the transition period in Russia do not correspond to the main idea and purpose of VAT as an institution aimed at the efficient relocation of a significant part of the newly created value added to the social sectors and at the modernizing effect on the productive forces for technological improvement in industry. Practical significance the provisions and conclusions of the article can be used when discussing issues on the need for the VAT reform in the Russian Federation including switching to the turnover tax. nbsp

  19. China in the transition to a low-carbon economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongxiang

    2010-01-01

    China, from its own perspective cannot afford to and, from an international perspective, is not allowed to continue on the conventional path of encouraging economic growth at the expense of the environment. Instead, China needs to transform its economy to effectively address concern about a range of environmental problems from burning fossil fuels and steeply rising oil import and international pressure on it to exhibit greater ambition in fighting global climate change. This paper first discusses China's own efforts towards energy saving and pollutants cutting, the widespread use of renewable energy and participation in clean development mechanism, and puts carbon reductions of China's unilateral actions into perspective. Given that that transition to a low carbon economy cannot take place overnight, the paper then discusses China's policies on promoting the use of clean coal technologies and nuclear power. Based on these discussions, the paper provides some recommendations on issues related to energy conservation and pollution control, wind power, nuclear power and clean coal technologies and articulates a roadmap for China regarding its climate commitments to 2050.

  20. Challenges and opportunities for transition to knowledge-based economy in Arab Gulf countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD (1996) definition of knowledge-based economy, the World Bank Knowledge Index and Knowledge Economy Index and other indicators to examine progress and challenges in transition to knowledge-based economies in Arab Gulf

  1. Impact Assessment of Citizen Fairs in the Process of Transition from the Popular Economy to a Solidarity Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Enrique Zapata-Barros; Mikel Ugando-Peñate

    2017-01-01

    The law of popular and solidarity economy in Ecuador was created to promote the transition of organizational forms of popular solidarity economy towards forms of organization. This law made possible the development of projects aimed at strengthening solidarity economic practices. One of these projects are the citizens fairs, promoted since 2008 by the state (government ministry). The fairs are an associative marketing strategy is an alternative to price speculation and a viable path to the or...

  2. Transition to a green economy – a challenge and a solution for the world economy in multiple crisis context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Mihaela BABONEA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "Green Economy" is heavily debated recently because it is considered to be essential for the future global economy. This concept aims to find practical solutions that can be applied in international affairs regarding the environment development as a result of the massive problems caused by multiple crises that are no longer solvable. However, the international community is looking for long-term alternatives to improve the quality of life and eliminate poverty population as much as possible.To make sustainable economic development requires a transition with multiple implications for both the government and the private sector. In other words, you need a joint effort between public and private, in order to separate economic growth from excessive use of resources; the main objective should be considered the quality of life along with reducing the environmental and social deficit.The transition to a "Green Economy" means practicing a certain type of economy based on policies and investment that should be able to create a connection between economic development, biodiversity, ecosystem, climate change, health and welfare on the medium and long term. These premises must be connected together to achieve sustainable development – which is considered the resumption of economic growth at global scale.Switching to "Green Economy" implies a proper concern based on adequate knowledge, research and innovation in order to create a framework for promoting sustainable development on long term. This study aims to generate an overview on the concept of "Green Economy", considered by some experts as the main solution to the problems that countries of the world are facing nowadays. It is well known that the economic system is situated in a collapse and requires a rethinking from all points of view. A solution to adapt the economy and its development to these new global challenges can be the transition to "Green Economy", especially by integrating the

  3. Restructuring and regulating district heating and cogeneration in transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In summer 2004, the World Energy Council published a Study on 'Regulating district heating and cogeneration in central and eastern Europe'2, prepared by representatives from eleven economies in transition and two Nordic countries. The Task Force analysed twelve regulatory issues, country-by-country, on all internationally comparable basis. Regulatory progress on the road to more efficient, profitable, competitive and service-oriented heat supplies was described. Common concerns were identified: the need for independence of the regulator from policy and industry, improved coordination between central and local regulators and between environmental and energy authorities, access to grids, and a 'fair' sharing of CHP benefits among heat and electricity generation. Looking forward, the Task Force advocated a continued dialogue between decision makers, regulators, regulated industries and customers on: 1)the internalisation of DH/CHP benefits; 2)the future reduction of the density of regulation; 3) Joint implementation; 4)the compensation for public service obligations; 5)the elimination of old debt and stranded investments; 6) DH/CHP taxation; 7)privatisation; 8)the integration of DH/CHP in urban planning. A concluding WEC workshop in Moscow in March 2004 addressed recommendations to policy makers('Moscow Statement'). (Author)

  4. Green growth: Policies for transition towards low carbon economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Thorvald

    2012-11-01

    For the next fifty years and beyond, the world faces twin challenges: -Enhancing economic opportunities and living standards for a growing global population; -Addressing the environmental threats that, if left largely unaddressed, could undermine our abilities for longer term economic growth and development and the ability to reduce poverty. For twenty years the world community has attempted to face up to these challenges, notably global warming by a 'top down' international negotiation process under the auspices of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The paper discusses why this process has failed so far. To get out of this impasse, a 'bottom up' policy framework for green growth based on national preferences, possibilities and policies should be considered and is discussed in some detail. However, while green growth may enhance the transition towards low-carbon economies in the short and medium term, it is argued that a 'Global Green Deal' with regional and global rules of the game is needed to reduce the risk for unsustainable development in the longer term.(auth)

  5. Deregulation - precondition for distributed energy in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper holds that deregulation, i.e. restructuring, competition and privatisation, is the main precondition for a more pronounced development of distributed power (DP) in the economies in transition in central and eastern Europe. This, then, raises the question how far the electricity, gas, steam and heat generating industries have presently moved on their way towards more market-oriented frameworks, competition and private ownership. A good benchmark for measuring progress is the existence (or lack thereof), and nature, of regulatory regimes enabling fair competition among large centralised and small decentralised power, and between wholesale generators and distributors on the one hand and customers or ''autoproducers'' or power merchants on the other. The paper describes the regulatory models applied or contemplated in the winter 2000/2001 in the various countries of central and eastern Europe and identifies fifteen general issues that require attention and solution. With regard to DP, it concludes that a major upswing is unlikely to occur before 2005-2008. While technological options abound, the institutional frameworks for customer-owned competitive DP systems are only being contemplated at present and only rarely put in place.(author)

  6. INSTITUTIONS IN TRANSITION: IS THE EU INTEGRATION PROCESS RELEVANT FOR INWARD FDI IN TRANSITION EUROPEAN ECONOMIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Delevic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research challenges the contemporary view of economic policy makers in transition European economies that the EU integration process will lead to a greater inflow of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI, thereby increasing living standards. With the Brexit referendum, the integration of the EU has been threatened by a distressing existential question: is EU membership valuable for transition countries if even developed countries (like the UK vote to leave or decided not to align like Switzerland and Norway in the past? Our analysis considers the success of several countries in Eastern Europe in attracting and benefiting from FDI on their way to EU membership. Analyzing a 13-year panel data of 16 transition countries, we found no statistically significant positive association between FDI inflow and EU accession. We argue, that it is also important to consider the welfare for domestic economies that can emerge from those investments. We illustrate this through the case study of a successful combination of institutional development and local content policies implementation accompanied by sufficient FDI inflows in a non-EU country - Kazakhstan.

  7. ORIGINS OF FORMATION OF SOCIAL INNOVATION IN TRANSITION ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Bilskaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work is determination of the essence, source base and mechanism of formation of “social innovation” under the conditions of the transitional economy with a market mechanism for ensuring activity in the territory of countries, engaged in the development of a social state. Methodology. To solve this problem, a number of scientific methods was used, such as analysis and synthesis during the critical evaluation of approaches of domestic and foreign authors regarding the nature of “novation”, “developments” and “innovation”, system and structural in the design of the mechanism of cyclic renewal of the institutional content of the regulation system of social development, summarizing in justifying the conceptual terminological apparatus of social innovation, and in particular gradual clarification of the social innovation formulas, abstract and logic when making theoretical generalizations and forming conclusions. Results of the study lead to the need of introducing the term “social” in the scientific and practical use, as normalized inequality in the society to the limits that define the motivational aspects of work, and “innovation” as changes that are generated within the social and economic system. Social innovations were proposed to be interpreted as solutions that can change directly or indirectly selectively fixed institutions in different sectors of the national economy of the country at the appropriate stage of the socialization transformations with compulsory positivization of the social status of subjects of social and economic processes through constructs of mitigation of the revenue and income inequality. It has been proved that the source base of the social innovation is social traditions, which by virtue of multi-purpose certainty are associated with metamorphic feature and stochasticity of a set of proposals of social innovations and their destructive constructs. Practical implications

  8. Analysis of Tax Revenues to the State Budget of Economies in Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia V. Koval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article, using statistical data, analyzes tax revenues to the state budget of the economies in transition countries, namely Russia, Georgia, Ukraine and the Czech Republic. Such analysis is necessary to identify the main ways to pump up the budget and, using comparative analysis, to draw conclusions about the methods, applied by economies in transition countries to come out of the crisis and restore the economy. The main reasons of tax revenues increase or decrease as the main source of pumping up the state budget are examined. Methods of taxation policy, the countries used for the economy restoration are described.

  9. Malaysia Transitions toward a Knowledge-Based Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Ramlee; Abdullah, Abu

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of a knowledge-based economy (k-economy) has spawned a "new" notion of workplace literacy, changing the relationship between employers and employees. The traditional covenant where employees expect a stable or lifelong employment will no longer apply. The retention of employees will most probably be based on their skills…

  10. MEASURING THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF TRANSITION ECONOMIES : SOME LESSONS FROM CHINESE EXPERIENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddison, Angus

    This article quantifies the comparative performance of China in several dimensions. Firstly, it shows that China's move from a command to a market economy was less abrupt and more successful than that of 29 other economies making a similar transition. Secondly, while official estimates show annual

  11. The Impact of Personal Relationships on Bribery Incidence in Transition Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gjalt; Phan Anh Tu, [No Value; van Ees, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Prior work on corruption has largely overlooked personal relationships as an essential determinant of bribery incidence in transition economies. In these countries, relationships with public officials are instrumental in enabling transactions and lowering transaction costs, due to incoherent and

  12. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS – AN ESSENTIAL FACTOR FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this analysis is to analyse the connection between foreign direct investments and economic growth in transition economies during a period of increased integration of financial systems in the global financial system. The research focuses on the relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth during 1970-2013, by means of methods such as the graphic, the regression and the correlation ones. The research findings show that there is a direct and strong connection between the inward financial flows of foreign direct investments and the GDP during the period under analysis in transition economies. In transition economies, a high inward flow of foreign direct investments leads to an increase of the Gross Domestic Product per capita, while a positive development of the standard of living will attract new inward FDI flows, since transition economies are seen as attractive recipients/hosts for foreign direct investments.

  13. Contrasting ERP absorption between transition and developed economies from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernroider, Edward W.N.; Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates Enterprise Resource Planning absorption in transition and developed economies in Central and Eastern Europe. Using absorptive capacity theory and data envelopment analysis, we view organizational transformation in Enterprise Resource Planning absorption as an economic...

  14. Informal payments for health care in transition economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Tim

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that unofficial payments are deeply embedded in the markets for health care in transition countries. Numerous surveys indicate that these payments provide a significant but possibly distorting contribution to health care financing. Unofficial payments can be characterised into three groups: cost contributions, including supplies and salaries, misuse of market position and payments for additional services. There is evidence from across the region on the presence of payment in each category although it is often difficult to distinguish between payment types. Regulatory policy must address a number of issues. Imposing penalties may help to reduce some payments but if the system is simply unable to provide services, such sanctions will drive workers into the private sector. There appears to be some support for formalising payments in order to reduce unofficial charges although the impact must be monitored and the danger is that formal fees add to the burden of payment. Regulation might also attempt to increase the amount of competition, provide information on good performing facilities and develop the legal basis of patient rights. Ultimately, unless governments address the endemic nature of payments across all sectors, policy interventions are unlikely to be fully effective.

  15. THE ROLE OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES: CONTRIBUTION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVERA GJORGIEVA-TRAJKOVSKA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With more evident process of globalization of the world market, the concept of corporate governance gains importance. The global economic crisis highlighted the problems of corporate governance both in developed countries and developing economies. Analyzing the effects of the global economic crisis, including striking collapse of many companies, the huge increase in unemployment and the increased number of people living on the poverty line and below, it can be concluded that some of these problems are result of various weaknesses and failures of corporate governance. Even though the introduction of a number of rules, codes and practices of corporate governance have been made, the global economic crisis has shown that more effective application of the standards of corporate governance is necessary. Corporate governance issues are especially important in transition economies, since these countries do not have the long-established financial institution infrastructure to deal with corporate governance issues. Before 1989 there was no need to discuss corporate governance issues, because all enterprises were owned by the state and there were no shareholders. All that has changed. This paper discusses the importance of corporate governance, with special reference to transition economies. Directors, owners and corporate managers have started to realize that there are benefits that can accrue from having a good corporate governance structure. Good corporate governance helps to increase share price and makes it easier to obtain capital. International investors are hesitant to lend money or buy shares in a corporation that does not subscribe to good corporate governance principles. Transparency, independent directors and a separate audit committee are especially important.

  16. Inflation Targeting, Between Rhetoric and Reality. The Case of Transition Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian Lungu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the inflation targeting regime in the context of transition economies. Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of central banks in these countries moving towards the implementation of inflation targeting regimes. However, the success of such a regime depends largely on the degree to which certain general requirements are met. As experience in a number of transition economies has shown so far, targeting inflation is not an easy task. The ongoing restructuring process in these economies makes the inflation forecasting process more difficult and introduces an additional source of uncertainty in the system. By unequivocally choosing inflation as a nominal anchor the central banks could face potential dilemmas if, for example, exchange rate appreciated too much under the pressure of massive capital inflows. The paper presents the broad framework in which inflation targeting could operate efficiently and attempts to assess the extent to which such a regime, when applied to transition economies, could fit into this framework

  17. The Like economy: the social web in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlitz, C.; Helmond, A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg claimed that the social will be the future organizing principle of economies. This paper will examine how platforms increasingly connect economic value and the social by focusing on the role of social buttons. Drawing on digital methods, we explore the

  18. The evolution of competition in banking in a transition economy: an application of the Panzar-Rosse model to Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armenuhi Mkrtchyan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the banking industry typically undergoes fundamental changes during the transition to a market economy. This research employs the method suggested by Panzar and Rosse (1987 to evaluate the empirical evidence on the evolution of competitive structure in the Armenian banking industry during its recent transition and on the possible forces—market power or efficiency/contestability—that underlie that evolution. The results point to monopolistic competition.The reduction of bank numbers and the simultaneous increase in concentration is accompanied by a decline in competition intensity, which supports the market-power hypothesis

  19. The role of product designers in the transition towards the circular economy : A reality check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, D.X.; Bakker, C.A.; Balkenende, A.R.; Bakker, C.; Mugge, R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of product designers in the transition towards the circular economy. Both scientific and grey literature show remarkable optimism when it comes to role strategic and coordinating role designers could play in this transition process. However, there has been little

  20. Developing and Using Green Skills for the Transition to a Low Carbon Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mike

    2015-01-01

    One of the strategies being advocated in response to climate change is the need to transition to a low carbon economy. Current projections show that within this transition, new jobs will be created, some eliminated and most others subjected to change. This article reports findings from interviews with a selection of twenty participants who are…

  1. Transitions in Theory and Practice: Managing Metals in the Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Jackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transitioning from current resource management practice dominated by linear economic models of consumption and production, to circular models of resource use, will require insights into the stages and processes associated with socio-technical transitions. This paper is concerned with transitions in practice. It explores two frameworks within the transitions literature—the multi-level perspective and transition management theory—for practical guidance to inform a deliberate transition in practice. The critical futures literature is proposed as a source of tools and methods to be used in conjunction with the transition frameworks to influence and enable transitions in practice. This enhanced practical guidance for initiating action is applied to a specific context—transitioning the Australian metals sector towards a circular economy model. This particular transition case study is relevant because the vision of a circular economy model of resource management is gaining traction internationally, Australia is significant globally as a supplier of finite mineral resources and it will also be used in a collaborative research project on Wealth from Waste to investigate possibilities for the circular economy and metals recycling.

  2. Private sector participation in power sector in transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purica, I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems related to the private participation in the infrastructure projects developed mainly in the transient economies. The comparatively larger risk volatility of this economies is counterbalanced by the expected high return rates of these projects. In these circumstances the paper presents the possibility to use the World Bank Group support for enhancing the private sector investments. After a description of the type of support able to be given, some examples are presented related to an energy project in Pakistan and to two others in China. There is also given a synthesis concerning the potential places in Romania were such projects may be achievable. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 2 refs

  3. THE ROLE OF SPORT AND ECONOMY IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Kastratović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sport and economy, as science and practice are connected and interdependant in whole hzman history. Mentioned interdependancy in contemporary age is confirmed with new contents and funkctional lines. First of all, economic principles are important in all aspects and content of social life, including sport. In same time, sport activities on all levels are faced with economic limitations. Key force in sport activities is competition of human capacities and knowledge. But, in same time, competition is key force of developement of contemporary societies, besed on market economy. There are two most important aspects of sport as economic activities – sport as direct economic activity, and sport as initiator of lot of other economic activities.

  4. THE ROLE OF SPORT AND ECONOMY IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Kastratović; Vladimir Marinković

    2008-01-01

    Sport and economy, as science and practice are connected and interdependant in whole hzman history. Mentioned interdependancy in contemporary age is confirmed with new contents and funkctional lines. First of all, economic principles are important in all aspects and content of social life, including sport. In same time, sport activities on all levels are faced with economic limitations. Key force in sport activities is competition of human capacities and knowledge. But, in same time, competit...

  5. The political economy of energy use and pollution: the environmental effects of East-European transition to market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttun, A.; Chander, I. [Norwegian School of Management, Sandvicka (Norway)

    1998-11-01

    The transition of Eastern Europe to Western-type liberal capitalism has been interpreted as an important step towards a more ecologically sustainable Europe. The main argument has been that the energy efficiency of the West-European economy will be imported to Eastern Europe and lead to lower energy consumption and lower pollution. This line of argumentation seems sound as far as the industrial sector is concerned. However, it does not take into consideration the energy and pollution bill of the lavish lifestyle of modern consumer-oriented societies. A shift away from the moderate private consumption of East-European Communism, towards the Western consumerist lifestyle may diminish or even abolish the positive ecological effects of the East-European transition to a competitive market economy. The article explores energy consumption and pollution patterns of Eastern and Western Europe both as far as industrial and domestic end-user consumption is concerned. The article argues that these patterns are related to basic characteristics of the communist and capitalist systems and that pollution and energy use are fundamentally conditioned by the overall political economy. 18 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab., 1 app.

  6. Geographies of energy transition: Space, place and the low-carbon economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Gavin; Bouzarovski, Stefan; Bradshaw, Michael; Eyre, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes a case for examining energy transition as a geographical process, involving the reconfiguration of current patterns and scales of economic and social activity. The paper draws on a seminar series on the ‘Geographies of Energy Transition: security, climate, governance' hosted by the authors between 2009 and 2011, which initiated a dialogue between energy studies and the discipline of human geography. Focussing on the UK Government's policy for a low carbon transition, the paper provides a conceptual language with which to describe and assess the geographical implications of a transition towards low carbon energy. Six concepts are introduced and explained: location, landscape, territoriality, spatial differentiation, scaling, and spatial embeddedness. Examples illustrate how the geographies of a future low-carbon economy are not yet determined and that a range of divergent – and contending – potential geographical futures are in play. More attention to the spaces and places that transition to a low-carbon economy will produce can help better understand what living in a low-carbon economy will be like. It also provides a way to help evaluate the choices and pathways available. - Highlights: ► Examines transition as a geographical process, reconfiguring patterns and scales of activity. ► Provides concepts for assessing geographical implications of transition to a low-carbon economy. ► Outlines location, landscape, territoriality, uneven development, scaling, and embeddedness.

  7. How to Stabilize the Cereals Market in a Transition Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel, Iuliana

    2005-01-01

    The Romanian cereals market is in a state of transition, because the grain marketing system is characterized by high risk for market participants. The current situation of grain market is used to estimate the necessity solutions to stabilize the market.

  8. Systems Analysis of Social Security in a Transition Economy: The Ukrainian Case.

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Dobronogov

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with a case study on the social security system in a transition economy in Ukraine. The severe socioeconomic crisis in Ukraine, including a huge decline of production, hyperinflation, and the informalization of the economy, caused both a substantial reduction of social security contributions and an increase in the number of people who need assistance. The creation of a new sustainable economic system in the country requires the development of a new model of social security su...

  9. THE IMPACT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL CHARACTERISTICS ON BRIBERY INCIDENCE IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Anh Tu

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurs in Asian economies face many difficulties in starting up and running their businesses. Relationships with government officials help to, e.g., mobilise resources and cope with the constraints imposed by bureaucratic structures. In this context, bribery can be regarded as an investment that entrepreneurs need to make in order to operate successfully in an institutionally weak transition economy. However, not all entrepreneurs pay a bribe. In this paper the relationship between dem...

  10. The Episodes of Currency Crises in the European Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Dabrowski; Rafal Antczak; Malgorzata Markiewicz; Artur Radziwill; Marcin Sasin

    2001-01-01

    The series of currency crises which hit several developing countries in the 1990s did not leave the emerging market economies of Central and Eastern Europe unscathed. However, contrary to the experience of Mexico in 1995 and South East Asia in 1997-1998, the roots of the crises in our region were usually less sophisticated and easier to identify. Most crisis episodes in the former communist countries fit nicely with the ”first generation” canonical model elaborated in 1979 by Paul Krugman and...

  11. When does fdi have positive spillovers? Evidence from 17 emerging market economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, D.

    -, č. 58 (2007), s. 1-53 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * spillovers * transition economies * efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/57179

  12. Teaching Marketing in a Transition Economy: Some Personal Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Brent

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the challenges faced when delivering a marketing course to international students in general, the challenges are compounded when the students have little interest in the subject and the students are located in a country in transition. This study examines the experiences of the author in teaching marketing theory to first-year…

  13. The effects of privatization and ownership in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Estrin, S.; Hanousek, J.; Kočenda, Evžen; Švejnar, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2009), s. 699-728 ISSN 0022-0515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542; GA ČR GA402/09/1595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : privatization * transition * postcommunist countries * Europe * China Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 6.919, year: 2009

  14. The effects of privatization and ownership in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Estrin, S.; Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, E.; Švejnar, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2009), s. 699-728 ISSN 0022-0515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : privatization * transition * postcommunist countries * Europe * China Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 6.919, year: 2009

  15. Motives for Barter in Developing, Transition, and Developed Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    Barter is often perceived as something that preceded money and is no longer relevant. But bartering still occurs, even among large enterprises in developed countries, which commonly exchange goods and services such as advertising and travel. This paper offers a review of posited motives for inter......Barter is often perceived as something that preceded money and is no longer relevant. But bartering still occurs, even among large enterprises in developed countries, which commonly exchange goods and services such as advertising and travel. This paper offers a review of posited motives...... of inflation, or disguise dumping, in both developing and developed economies. Better reasons would include cash retention, a decreased need for bank loans, creation of goodwill, access to new markets, reductions of excess inventory, or increased production....

  16. How energy technology innovation affects transition of coal resource-based economy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Pibin; Wang, Ting; Li, Dan; Zhou, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to investigate factors and mechanisms that may facilitate the transition from coal resource-based economy to sustainability. Based on the energy technology innovation theory, factors that may influence the transition of coal resource-based economy were categorized into four types, including: innovation policy, innovation input, innovation ability, and innovation organization. Hypotheses were proposed regarding the mechanisms of these factors. Data were collected from surveys administered to 314 Chinese energy firms, and a structural equation model (SEM) was employed to test the hypotheses. Ten of fifteen hypotheses were retained based on the reliability tests, validity tests, and SEM. The results show that the four proposed factors are crucial in transforming the coal resource-based economy, and the effects become statistically significant through three intermediate variables, namely, transition of energy consumption structure, correction of resource wealth investment, and improvement of transition environment. - Highlights: •Approximately, 66% of energy relies on coal in China. •Serious environment problems have occurred in many coal-based regions. •Energy technology innovation can promote the transition of coal-based economy. •China should accelerate the development of clean energy.

  17. The impact of the global crisis on transition economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuti Mario D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All forecasts for transition countries - the 29 EBRD countries of operation - since mid-2008 have been repeatedly downgraded. The latest forecasts (May 2009 envisage an average income decline of 5 per cent in 2009 and only a small recovery of 1.4 per cent in 2010; performance is very diverse. In general, transition countries faced two shocks: a sudden stop and reversal of capital inflows, and an exports collapse due to the global slump. More specific factors include: 1 Home made sub-primes (domestic loans to households, enterprises and governments originally denominated in foreign currency; 2 External imbalances; 3 Worsening terms of trade for primary products exporters; 4 Fall or reversal of FDI and portfolio investment inflows; 5 Funds withdrawal by foreign banks; 6 External demand reduction; 7 Differences in initial positions and policy response. Earlier membership of the Euro by the new member states through a relaxation of Maastricht rules might have been beneficial, but the current crisis is no time for changing or bending rules. By comparison with the transition recession of the 1990s, the current recession is much smaller and shorter, it benefits from more generous assistance from the international community, and from the more enlightened fiscal and monetary policies now uncharacteristically recommended by International Financial Organizations.

  18. Corruption, shadow economy and income inequality: evidence from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Saibal; Saha, Shrabani

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent studies for Latin America show that as the size of the informal economy grows, corruption is less harmful to inequality. We investigate if this relationship is equally compelling for developing countries in Asia where corruption, inequality and shadow economies are considerably large. We use Panel Least Square and Fixed Effects Models for Asia to find that both 'Corruption Perception Index' and 'ICRG' index are sensitive to a number of important macroeconomic variables. We ...

  19. Determinants of commercial banks’ performance: Evidence from emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of banks’ performance in emerging economies. Sustainable growth of emerging economies depends on the financial performance of their banks’. The determinants of banks’ performance are, therefore, analyzed through panel econometric techniques over the crisis period of 2008-2014 using data of the top 50 banks from the 10 sampled emerging economies. Both banks’ specific and macroeconomic variables are considered in the analysis. Results reveal that macroeconomic variables like GDP and inflation are significant forces behind high Return on Assets (ROA in emerging economies banks’, however, both negatively influenced the Net Interest Margins (NIM. Among the banks’ specific variables high profitability and NIM are related to high operating costs. This shows that expenses are managed properly in these economies. Further, leverage has a positive impact on both (ROA and (NIM.While reserve requirement has negatively and significantly influence both profitability and net interest margins, which indicates the prominence of central bank’s monetary policy by considering the importance of liquidity for emerging economies commercial banks in economic recovery phase.

  20. A Meta-Model of Inter-Organisational Cooperation for the Transition to a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ruggieri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a circular economy bodes well for a future of environmentally sustainable growth and economic development. The implications and advantages of a shift to a circular economy have been extensively demonstrated by the literature on the subject. What has not been sufficiently investigated is how this paradigm can be enabled through the inter-organisational cooperation among different business enterprises. In order to illustrate this point, in this paper we aim to contribute to the circular economy debate by describing and discussing such a meta-model of inter-organisational cooperation. The present study is therefore based on the analysis of three cases from an equal number of industries, from which we identified factors of potential impact for the stimulation of cooperation in a circular economy perspective. Last, but not least, we discuss the relations between the case studies and try to formulate all possible implications for both managers and research.

  1. Iceland as a demonstrator for a transition to low carbon economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsson, Einar Jon; Stefansson, Hlynur; Finger, David Christian

    2017-04-01

    The energy supply in Iceland is quite unique, about 85% of the total primary energy is coming from renewable resources. Nevertheless, the ecological footprint of an average Icelander is with 6.5 worlds, one of the highest worldwide and the energy consumption per capita is about 7 times higher than the European average. Recent developments have shown that there is a great potential to reduce the footprint and develop towards low carbon economy. With its small population, well educated and governed society and clear system boundaries to the outside world, Iceland is a good research laboratory and an ideal demonstrator for a transition towards a low carbon economy. This presentation will outline how several innovative research projects at Reykjavik University could lead Iceland towards a sustainable and low carbon economy. The presentations will conclude with a visionary outlook how Iceland can become a demonstration nation towards a prosperous, low carbon and sustainable economy, helping stabilize global warming at an acceptable level.

  2. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in Transition Economies: Case of Commonwealth of Independent Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobir Shukurov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been voluminous research on the determinants of FDI for developed and developing countries, little has been done on this issue for transition economies, especially, for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS countries. the present paper examines the determinants of inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI flows in the CIS during 1995–2010. the results of empirical analysis using panel data models, conducted with the purpose of identifying the factors that determine the motivation and decision of multinational companies (MNC to invest in CIS economies, show that regardless of the presence of high investment risk in transition economies, the choice of FDI location always depends on a preliminary analysis of countries’ advantages (FDI stock, market size, abundance in natural resources and disadvantages at macro level (fiscal imbalance and inflation. These pre‑existing conditions can always roughly predict the type of FDI (resource-seeking, market‑seeking, efficiency-seeking.

  3. Factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies: the case of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čábelková, Inna; Abrhám, Josef; Strielkowski, Wadim

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies on the example of the Czech Republic. Our research shows that women reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to men. Education proved to be statistically significant in one of three indicators of job satisfaction. Personal income and workplace relationships proved to be positively and significantly related to all the three indicators of job satisfaction. Most of the occupational dummies were significantly related to two out of three indicators of job satisfaction. In addition, we found that Czech entrepreneurs enjoy and value their job, which indicates strong self-selection for doing business in post-transition economies. However, human capital expressed by the level of education was significant factor for job satisfaction, meaning that well-educated people might not be satisfied with their jobs or feel that their education and experience are wasted in the market economy.

  4. Transition management and the sustainable nutrients economy in the Netherlands: positioning paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Arentsen, Maarten J.; Mikkila, M.; Linnanen, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this positioning paper transition management (TM) and the sustainable nutrient economy are addressed. We discuss TM from its scholarly origins in the 1990’s to its implementation as a comprehensive sector-wide policy program on sustainability in The Netherlands during the first decade of the

  5. The evasional Kuznets curve: a possible shadow economy dynamics during the transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Palda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-17 ISSN 1880-5647 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15927S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : underground economy * tax evasion * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS BY COUNTRIES WITH ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with experience of application of international financial reporting standards in different countries with economies in transition. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of international financial reporting standards for financial reporting for Ukrainian companies are based on this experience.

  7. The modest environmental relief resulting from the transition to a service economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sofia Teives; Kander, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    A service transition is supposed to lead to the decline of energy intensity (energy/GDP). We argue that this interpretation is overly optimistic because the shift to a service economy is somewhat of an illusion in terms of real production. Several recent studies of structural effects on energy intensity have made the error of using sector shares in current prices, combined with GDP in constant prices, which is inconsistent and ignores the different behaviour of prices across sectors. We use the more correct method of sector shares in constant prices, and make an attempt to single out the effect from the real service transition by using two complementary methods: shift share analyses in current and constant prices, and Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) for 10 developed and 3 emerging economies. A service transition is rather modest in real terms. The major driver of the decline in energy intensity rests within the manufacturing sector. Meanwhile, the transition to a service sector had a small downward impact on energy intensity in 7 of the developed countries (and no impact in the others). For emerging economies like Brazil, Mexico and India, it is the residential sector that drives energy intensity down because of the declining share of this sector as the formal economy grows, and as a consequence of switching to more efficient fuels. (author)

  8. The impact of transition on situation in Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia wants to become a member of the European union. To become a full member of the Union, Serbia must significantly improve the poor state of its economy. The paper deals with some flaw that were made in Serbia in the last decade, and that seriously slowing its ability for essential integration into the Union. The analysis is focused on four issues. First, analysis indicates that the Law on Privatization is poorly structured and even poorer implemented. The result is that the privatization process is not yet finished, and in the meantime, more than a third of privatization was canceled. In the second part is concentrated on to the bad consequences of the implementation of the Law on Privatization when it comes to the ownership of land. The wrong privatization in Serbia created respective individual possessions with 15-20000 of acres. This is completely contrary to the situation in the European Union with the domination of developed cooperative movement and family farms. The third part of the paper points out the problem of illicit capital outflow from Serbia. In relation to the national income, unfortunately, Serbia is in these field one of the leaders. Therefore are necessary emergency measures to prevent illicit outflow. When it comes to legislative activity it is noted that is more important the quality than the number of enacted laws. Future legislative activity should take into account the specificities of Serbia. Also, in order to achieve better economic results advantage should be given to the development policy, which is oriented toward the needs of Serbia.

  9. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  10. Financing energy investments in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, C.

    1997-01-01

    This report is the part concerning Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) of the World Energy Council (WEC) Programme - a global study of the financing requirements of future energy developments. The investment needs are determined to reach the standards of developed energy market economies in terms of quality of service, efficiency, profitability, environmental protection and safety. Considering the macro-economic and general energy development scenarios done by IIASA and WEC the cumulative investment requirements 1990-2020 would be to range from $281bill. to $509 bill. in CEE; annual investment requirements would amount to $15-28 bill. depending on the scenarios; specific investment requirements per ton energy would range from 77 (ecologically driven scenario) to $101 (high growth, coal based scenario). In 1994 international finance for CEE/CIS energy sector was only $5 bill. (or 5% of the needs) due to the small size of the projects, low energy prices and the lack of incentives. CEE/CIS countries have not done enough to attract foreign loans. Western energy corporations acquired shares of Russian oil and gas companies. Reasons for the slow start include currency risk, legal uncertainty, uncertain demand prospects, low electricity tariffs, required rate of returns - above 18% in CEE, 25% in CIS, compared to 10% in US and UK. About 9% of total world foreign direct investments have been entered in energy sector. Multilateral organizations have invested yearly average $0.8-1 bill. grants and credits in CEE/CIS energy activities. From 1991 to 1995 135 mill. ECU have been spent for supporting national energy sector in CEE countries under PHARE activities. Difficulties are due to the lack of developed capital markets in these countries. In the future CEE capital markets could support a substantial proportion of the national investment requirements. By 2020 capital requirements for energy supply investments would be 3.4-4.7% of

  11. Transition towards a hydrogen economy: infrastructures and technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    The double constraint of climate change and increasing scarcity of oil requires that we consider alternative energies for the medium term. This thesis focuses on the development of a hydrogen economy, which is conditional on the existence of an infrastructure for the distribution of the new fuel and the readiness of fuel cells. The main idea is that the state can play a central role in both infrastructure implementation and preparation of fuel cells technology. The thesis begins with a techno-economic analysis of the hydrogen-energy chain, which highlights the difficulty of setting up the infrastructure. The study of the development of electricity and gas networks in the past provides the empirical basis supporting the hypothesis that government can play an important role to consolidate the diffusion of socio-technical networks. In addition, private projects of stations may be justified by early-move benefits, although their financial viability depends on the demand for hydrogen which is in turn dependent on the performance of the fuel cell vehicle. The introduction of radical innovations, such as fuel cell, has been made more difficult by the domination of conventional technologies. This assertion is particularly true in the transport sector which was progressively locked into fossil fuels by a process of technological and institutional co-evolution driven by increasing returns of scale. Hence, fuel cells may primarily diffuse through the accumulation of niches where the innovation is closer to commercialization. These niches may be located in portable applications segment. Investments in research and demonstration are still necessary in order to reduce costs and increase performances of fuel cells. Using a simple model of multi-technological diffusion, we analyze the competition between the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle and the plug-in hybrid car for the automotive market. We show that an early entry of the latter may block the arrival of hydrogen in the market

  12. Improving Evidence on Private Giving in Emerging Economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Findings to improve private giving This three-year project will: -develop a critical mass of data on philanthropic and other private flows to developing countries from ... enabling environment for philanthropy exists; -promote research uptake and outreach by research teams in emerging economies and by the Centre for Global ...

  13. Improving Evidence on Private Giving in Emerging Economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite growing philanthropy in emerging economies, there are significant data gaps on amounts and sources. There is also a lack of research on regulations and policies that support or discourage private giving. This research project will explore philanthropic cooperation in emerging and developing country contexts by ...

  14. Scale Economies in Public Education: Evidence from School Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Tyler J.; Bosworth, Ryan

    2002-01-01

    Begins with a discussion of cost and efficiency in education. Presents an empirical model to estimate school-level economies of scale. Applies model to expenditure data set by school from 17 Wyoming school districts. Finds that it costs more per student in a small school than in large schools to achieve similar educational outcomes, thus…

  15. Motivations for enterprise system adoption in transition economies: insights from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Piotr; Weistroffer, Heinz Roland

    2016-06-01

    Enterprise system (ES) adoption can bring many benefits, but may also put tremendous strain on an organisation or business, sometimes with disastrous outcomes. The specific motivations and expectations that lead to ES adoption may impact the success or failure of these endeavours, and understanding these motivations may be useful in predicting the success of ES projects. Most of the published research on ES adoption motivation has been in the context of highly developed countries. The social, cultural, economic and political conditions in developing, emerging and transition economies make for a different business environment, and insights obtained from developed countries may not always transfer to these settings. This study seeks to identify and help understand the motivations for ES adoption specifically in transition economies, as these economies play a significant role in the global market, but have not been receiving adequate research attention. Drawing on the experience of 129 ES adopters in Poland, a transition economy, this study categorises motivations into coherent groups of issues and evaluates the influence of discovered motivations on ES adoption success. Further, motivations revealed by this study are compared with motivations reported by prior research conducted in developed countries.

  16. Farmers’ export market participation decisions in transition economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobojonov, Ihtiyor; Teuber, Ramona; Hasanov, Shavkat

    2016-01-01

    to participate in export markets in Armenia and Uzbekistan. Discussions are based on the analysis of surveys of 400 farmers from each country conducted in the spring of 2015. The results show that farmers already participating in local markets have a higher motivation to engage in the production of exportable...... commodities when a sudden export opportunity emerges. Beyond this general finding, the relative importance of farm and infrastructure characteristics were identified under different commercialization levels. Although both types of factors have been identified as important determinants in the existing...... literature, our analysis provides further evidence. We demonstrate that variables related to farm characteristics play a rather crucial role in more subsistence-oriented small-scale farming systems as found in the case of Armenia. In contrast, infrastructure may become more important than farm endowments...

  17. Some Diversification Factors of Old Industrial Regions' Economy and Transition to the Innovative Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnikova, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the grounds for the necessity to diversify the mono-economy of old industrial regions and its transition to the innovative development based on the interaction of small and large businesses with the support of municipal, regional and governmental authorities. The examples of the world practice in state regulation of depressed territories of old industrial type and the participation of multinational corporations in their modernization are given. The role of business groups in the diversification of the Kemerovo region economy is described, as well as the importance of supporting this process by the governmental authorities.

  18. Equity Block Transfers in Transition Economies : Evidence from Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojanowski, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper investigates valuation effects of share block transfers and employs agency theory to explain the determinants of block premia. A sample of transactions from Poland is used to measure benefits and costs of ownership concentration. Block premia are found to be substantially lower than in

  19. Consumer ethnocentrism in transitional economies: Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kragulj Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores consumer ethnocentrism of young people among student population in the Republic of Serbia. The aim of the research is to examine whether there has been a growth in the level of consumer ethnocentrism among young people in Serbia given the increasingly adverse demographic and economic situation as well exceptional political turbulences in the country. The research was conducted by surveying students at the University of Belgrade by applying the CETSCALE and factor analysis techniques. The obtained values of the CETSCALE indicate that consumer ethnocentrism is within the limits of moderate, but it shows a slight increasing trend compared to the previous research. Three sets of factors are recognized: ethical ethnocentrism, economic patriotism and radical consumer ethnocentrism. The factors indicate that different intertwined motives influence young people's choice to buy local products. Preferences of young Serbian towards buying local products are the result of socio-economic environment, as well as a current political climate in Serbia.

  20. Dollarization in transition economies: new evidence from Georgia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aslanidi, Olga

    -, č. 366 (2008), s. 1-31 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : dollarization * Georgia * money-in-utility-function Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp366.pdf

  1. Problems Encountered during the Transition to Market Economy in Azerbaijan and Solution Attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elchin SULEYMANOV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After re-gaining its independence on 18 October 1991, the Republic of Azerbaijan started the transformation to the market-based economy and the integration into the world economy. The country’s oil and natural gas reserves have been considered the main source for financing a range of government programs for reforms. On the one hand, these reserves had to be used effectively; on the other hand, there was a huge demand for foreign investment for extraction. To this end, Azerbaijan has signed “Contract of the Century” in 1994. Although Azerbaijan has wide oil and natural gas reserves, it has faced a number of difficulties in its transition path. This study analyzes these problems and reforms for solving them. One of the types of the problems related to the economic structure of the former Soviet Union: disruption of the economic ties between the republics resulted in a decline of production, high levels of unemployment and prices and consequently led to an economic recession in all of the republics. Another set of problems related to the lack of sufficient institutional bases to transform to the market economy. Moreover, internal conflicts between the political parties and groups for having authority as well as political chaos in the republic can be considered other serious problems during the transition period. Furthermore, Karabakh war and occupation of 20 percent of the Azerbaijani territory by the Armenian military forces had made the situation extremely complicated. Despite all of these extremes, Azerbaijan transformed to the market-based economy decidedly and even became one of the fast growing countries of the world. Even in 2013, with the GDP growth rate of 5.6 percent, Azerbaijan was a leader among growing economies. In parallel with this significant economic development, there is still a need for some socio-economic and institutional reforms in order to get a well-functioning market-based economy in Azerbaijan.

  2. Evidence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnyepi, Maria S; Gwisai, Namo; Lekgoa, Malebogo; Seru, Tumelo

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition is characterised by shift to highly refined diets high in fat, salt and caloric sweeteners and low in fibre in rapidly growing economies. Dietary shifts occur almost concurrently with demographic and epidemiologic shifts, urbanisation and industrialisation and together contribute to increased prevalence of nutrition related (NR)-non-communicable disease (NCR). The emergence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa countries (SAC) was examined using anthropometric, NCD prevalence, and food consumption data. The findings reveal growing prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) across SAC, with national prevalence estimated between 30 and 60 % in all but two SAC. Overweight prevalence in excess of 60 % has been reported in some sub-population groups. Hypertension prevalence of at least 30 % has also been reported. Further, the prevalence of OWOB and hypertension in many SAC exceeds that of HIV and is often at par with stunting in children. NCD are equally serious public health problems as stunting and HIV. Collectively, NR-NCD explain 20-31 % of mortality for Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia. At least 72 % of adults in SAC have fewer servings of fruit and vegetable servings daily than recommended. Additionally, adults in SAC do poorly in physical activity; 31-75 % do not exercise regularly. Not surprisingly, 15-40 % of adults in SAC have at least three risk factors of CVD. SAC are grappling with NR-NCD which threaten to surpass infectious diseases burden. SAC are at various levels in interventions for moving their populations to stage 5, but there is room for much improvement.

  3. MODELLING INFLATION UNCERTAINTY IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES:THE CASE OF RUSSIA AND THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Erkam; Tarkan Cavusoglu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between inflation and inflation-uncertainty in seven transitional economies ( Armenia , Azerbaijan , Georgia , Kazakhstan , the Kyrgyz Republic , the Russian Federation and the Ukraine ) which experienced hyper-inflation until the mid-1990s. This linkage is investigated in the ARCH modelling framework by using both conventional Granger non-causality testing and the Holmes-Hutton approach, which has significant small- and large-sample power advantages over t...

  4. Modeling inflation uncertainty in transition economies: The case of Russia and the former Soviet Republics

    OpenAIRE

    Erkam Serkan; Cavusoglu Tarkan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between inflation and inflation uncertainty in seven transitional economies (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine) which experienced hyper-inflation until the mid-1990s. This linkage is investigated in the ARCH modeling framework by using both conventional Granger noncausality testing and the Holmes-Hutton approach, which has significant small- and large-sample power advantages over the former...

  5. A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE TRANSITION FROM A RESOURCE BASED TO A KNOWLEDGE-ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GIOACASI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and the emergence of new technologies have changed the optics on the factors that are generating added value. The transition from a resource-dependent economy to one focused on tangible non-financial factors has progressed in a gradual manner and took place under the influence of globalization and of the internet boom. The aim of this article is to provide a theoretical approach to this phenomenon from the perspective of the temporal evolution of enterprise resources.

  6. Managing family businesses in the tourism and hospitality industry: the transitional economy of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Dallas Brozik; Alina Zapalska

    2007-01-01

    This study’s objective is to examine the nature of tourism and hospitality family businesses that operate in the transitional Polish economy and to analyze the environment for development and growth of these entrepreneurial firms in the reformingeconomy. In order to evaluate and compare firms’ development relative to selected external environmental factors affecting entrepreneurial operations, on-site surveys and personal interviews were conducted with Polish entrepreneurs who own and operate...

  7. Accounting for inequality in transition economies: an empirical assessment of globalisation, institutional reforms, and regionalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Grimalda, Gianluca; Meschi, Elena

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the causes and mechanisms of inequality in transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States after the break-up of the Soviet Union. First, we show that both economic globalisation – namely, imports, exports, and foreign direct investment – and institutional factors – namely, privatisation reforms, labour market liberalisation, and product market liberalisation – are strongly associated with within-country rises in inequality. However, so...

  8. News Shocks in Open Economies: Evidence from Giant Oil Discoveries

    OpenAIRE

    Rabah Arezki; Valerie A. Ramey; Liugang Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of news shocks on the current account and other macroeconomic variables using worldwide giant oil discoveries as a directly observable measure of news shocks about future output - the delay between a discovery and production is on average 4 to 6 years. We first present a two-sector small open economy model in order to predict the responses of macroeconomic aggregates to news of an oil discovery. We then estimate the effects of giant oil discoveries on a large pa...

  9. Transitional Forces in a Resource Based Economy: Phases of Economic and Institutional Development in Hawaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Roumasset, James

    2014-01-01

    that funds management and governance through a non-productive elite class. We use both archeological and historical evidence from natural resource use during the settlement and modernization of the Hawaiian economy. Hawaii’s resources are first controlled by hierarchy, which intensifies over time...... as the balance between sustenance and other resource uses shifts....

  10. Multimarket contact and performance: Evidence from emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Domínguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The organizational structure of multinational enterprises (MNEs is mainly made up of subsidiaries located in emerging and advanced countries. Consequently, they usually compete against the same rivals simultaneously in both emerging and advanced contexts. Multimarket contact (MMC theory analyzes the competitive dynamics that arise in these situations. However, researchers have paid more attention to the consequences of multimarket contact in developed countries than to its effect in emerging countries. To explore the impact of the macroenvironment on the relationship between MMC and performance, we examine how coinciding with multimarket rivals in emerging economies alters the effect of MMC on firm performance. Our research, which is developed with a sample from the mobile telecommunications industry, shows that the presence of MNEs in emerging countries hinders the development of mutual forbearance practices and, therefore, reduces the positive effect of MMC on firm performance.

  11. Effects of a transition to a hydrogen economy on employment in the United States Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-01

    DOE's Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress estimates the employment effects of a transformation of the U.S. economy to the use of hydrogen in the 2020 to 2050 timeframe. This report fulfills requirements of section 1820 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  12. Municipal Consolidation, Cost Reduction, and Economies of Scale : Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Takeshi; 宮崎, 毅

    2013-01-01

    According to the literature, one of the advantages of local government consolidation is the delivery of efficient and effective public services through economies of scale. However, empirical works provide mixed evidence on whether consolidation leads to cost reduction. This study explores the cost-reduction effects of local government consolidation using Japanese municipality data. Specifically, it considers a number of consolidation cases and distinguishes between the effects of economies of...

  13. Potential and Barriers to Adoption of B2B E-Commerce in SMEs in Transition Economies: Case of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimha Rao Vajjhala; Salu George Thandekkattu

    2017-01-01

    Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) can benefit significantly from investments in e-commerce and e-business. However, the adoption of e-commerce has been quite slow and limited among SMEs, especially in transition economies. Interviews were conducted with senior managers from 30 medium-sized enterprises in a transition economy – Albania, three from each of the ten key sectors, namely, information and communication technology (ICT), tourism, banking, financial servi...

  14. [Ecological misunderstanding, integrative approach, and potential industries in circular economy transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rusong

    2005-12-01

    Based on the Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem theory, this paper questioned 8 kinds of misunderstandings in current planning, incubation, development, and management of circular economy, which had led to either ultra-right or ultra-left actions in ecological and economic development. Rather than concentrated only on the 3-r micro-principles of "reduce-reuse-recycle", thise paper suggested 3-R macro-principles of "Rethinking-Reform-Refunction" for circular economy development. Nine kinds of eco-integrative strategies in industrial transition were put forward, i.e., food web-based horizontal/parallel coupling, life cycle-oriented vertical/serial coupling, functional service rather than products-oriented production, flexible and adaptive structure, ecosystem-based regional coupling, social integrity, comprehensive capacity building, employment enhancement, and respecting human dignity. Ten promising potential eco-industries in China's near-future circular economy development were proposed, such as the transition of traditional chemical fertilizer and pesticide industry to a new kind of industrial complex for agro-ecosystem management.

  15. Family Businesses Transitioning to a Circular Economy Model: The Case of “Mercadona”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Núñez-Cacho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability addresses environmental and social issues affecting this and future generations. When family businesses perceive that the community is disrupted, recognize an environmental problem and respond by implementing new environmental policies or regulations, the family business’s socio-emotional values press to transition to a more sustainable production system, such as the ‘Circular Economy.’ Drawing on the Dubin (1978 methodology—a paradigm for building models through deduction—we design a sustainable model, which shows family businesses’ responses to changes in the environment. It explains the reasons why family firms transition to the Circular Economy, based on the theory of Socio-Emotional Wealth (SEW. We check the model through the case study of the food retail leader in the Spanish market—Mercadona—which applies policies about energy, resources and waste to become a Circular Economy business model. Because of the strong family character of Mercadona, this case can be useful for the decision-making of other family businesses.

  16. THE IMPACT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL CHARACTERISTICS ON BRIBERY INCIDENCE IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Anh Tu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs in Asian economies face many difficulties in starting up and running their businesses. Relationships with government officials help to, e.g., mobilise resources and cope with the constraints imposed by bureaucratic structures. In this context, bribery can be regarded as an investment that entrepreneurs need to make in order to operate successfully in an institutionally weak transition economy. However, not all entrepreneurs pay a bribe. In this paper the relationship between demographic characteristic and bribery incidence has been investigated. This relationship was estimated using unique data derived from a survey of 606 Vietnamese entrepreneurs. The author controlled for various organisational and industrial characteristics. The exploratory results show that in particular well-educated entrepreneurs are more inclined to bribe than others.

  17. Modeling inflation uncertainty in transition economies: The case of Russia and the former Soviet Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkam Serkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the linkage between inflation and inflation uncertainty in seven transitional economies (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine which experienced hyper-inflation until the mid-1990s. This linkage is investigated in the ARCH modeling framework by using both conventional Granger noncausality testing and the Holmes-Hutton approach, which has significant small- and large-sample power advantages over the former. The results support the Friedman- Ball hypothesis in Azerbaijan, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Cukierman-Meltzer hypothesis is favored in the Kyrgyz Republic and in the Russian Federation using a different model. In Azerbaijan, greater inflation uncertainty preceded lower rates of inflation, indicative of the strong monetary stabilization policies pursued in this economy.

  18. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  19. Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolley, George S.; Jones, Donald W. Mintz, Marianne M.; Smith, Barton A.; Carlson, Eric; Unnasch, Stefan; Lawrence, Michael; Chmelynski, Harry

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy report, Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress, estimates the effects on employment of a U.S. economy transformation to hydrogen between 2020 and 2050. The report includes study results on employment impacts from hydrogen market expansion in the transportation, stationary, and portable power sectors and highlights possible skill and education needs. This study is in response to Section 1820 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) (EPACT). Section 1820, “Overall Employment in a Hydrogen Economy,” requires the Secretary of Energy to carry out a study of the effects of a transition to a hydrogen economy on several employment [types] in the United States. As required by Section 1820, the present report considers: • Replacement effects of new goods and services • International competition • Workforce training requirements • Multiple possible fuel cycles, including usage of raw materials • Rates of market penetration of technologies • Regional variations based on geography • Specific recommendations of the study Both the Administration’s National Energy Policy and the Department’s Strategic Plan call for reducing U.S. reliance on imported oil and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The National Energy Policy also acknowledges the need to increase energy supplies and use more energy-efficient technologies and practices. President Bush proposed in his January 2003 State of the Union Address to advance research on hydrogen so that it has the potential to play a major role in America’s future energy system. Consistent with these aims, EPACT 2005 authorizes a research, development, and demonstration program for hydrogen and fuel cell technology. Projected results for the national employment impacts, projections of the job creation and job replacement underlying the total employment changes, training implications, regional employment impacts and the

  20. Impacts on the biophysical economy and environment of a transition to 100% renewable electricity in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Graham M.; Elliston, Ben; Diesendorf, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impacts on the biophysical economy, employment and environment of a transition scenario to an energy-efficient, 100% renewable electricity (RE) system by 2060, based on wind, solar and biomass technologies, and an introduction of electric vehicles. We employ a CSIRO process-based model of the physical activity of Australia’s economy and environmental resources, the Australian Stocks and Flows Framework. The RE systems are assumed to be manufactured in Australia to identify possible employment benefits. In comparison with the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, on a national scale, the RE scenario has much lower economy-wide net emissions, remaining below contemporary levels and becoming zero in the electricity sector by 2060. Compared with BAU, the RE scenario also has significantly lower industrial water use, somewhat higher materials use, slightly lower unemployment, lower net foreign debt (relative to a GDP proxy) and, resulting from the growth in electric vehicles, reduced oil imports. The GDP per capita growth, based on the physical stocks of capital and labour, is virtually the same in both scenarios. Hence, from the viewpoint of the biophysical economy, there are no major barriers to implementing policies to facilitate the transition to a 100% renewable electricity system for Australia. - Highlights: ► Simulation of a 100% renewable electricity (RE) system in a process-based model. ► The RE scenario achieves zero GHG emissions in the electricity sector by 2060. ► Consumption of secondary materials is higher and more variable in the RE scenario. ► The RE scenario has lower water use, unemployment, foreign debt and oil imports

  1. Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolley, George S.; Jones, Donald W.; Mintz, Marianne M.; Smith, Barton A.; Carlson, Eric; Unnasch, Stefan; Lawrence, Michael; Chmelynski, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy report, Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress, estimates the effects on employment of a U.S. economy transformation to hydrogen between 2020 and 2050. The report includes study results on employment impacts from hydrogen market expansion in the transportation, stationary, and portable power sectors and highlights possible skill and education needs. This study is in response to Section 1820 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) (EPACT). Section 1820, 'Overall Employment in a Hydrogen Economy', requires the Secretary of Energy to carry out a study of the effects of a transition to a hydrogen economy on several employment (types) in the United States. As required by Section 1820, the present report considers: (1) Replacement effects of new goods and services; (2) International competition; (3) Workforce training requirements; (4) Multiple possible fuel cycles, including usage of raw materials; (5) Rates of market penetration of technologies; (6) Regional variations based on geography; and (7) Specific recommendations of the study Both the Administration's National Energy Policy and the Department's Strategic Plan call for reducing U.S. reliance on imported oil and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The National Energy Policy also acknowledges the need to increase energy supplies and use more energy-efficient technologies and practices. President Bush proposed in his January 2003 State of the Union Address to advance research on hydrogen so that it has the potential to play a major role in America's future energy system. Consistent with these aims, EPACT 2005 authorizes a research, development, and demonstration program for hydrogen and fuel cell technology. Projected results for the national employment impacts, projections of the job creation and job replacement underlying the total employment changes, training implications, regional employment impacts and the

  2. MONETARY TRANSMISSION CHANNELS IN FLEXIBLE MONETARY AND EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES: THE CASE OF SELECTED TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosta JOSIFIDIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores selected monetary transmission channels in the case of transition economies. Namely, an exchange rate channel, an interest rate channel, direct and indirect influence to an exchange rate, are focused. Specific (former transition economies are differentiated according the combination of implemented monetary and exchange rate regimes: exchange rate as a nominal anchor and rigid exchange rate regimes, exchange rate as a nominal anchor and intermediate exchange rate regimes, and implicit/explicit inflation targeting monetary regime and floating (managed/free exchange rate regime. The monetary transmission is tracked during different phases in a transition process towards the EU and compared between different nominal anchors and exchange rate regimes. In order to track the influence of a monetary policy instruments (impulses to different goals of a monetary policy (responses during the period from 6-24 months, we use VAR and VEC models. Monthly frequency of following time series are used in the models: nominal exchange rates, consumer price indexes, foreign exchange reserves, and reference interest rates. The aim of the paper is to point to the distinction between de jure and de facto exchange rate regimes, and to the adequacy of used combination of monetary and exchange rate regimes having in mind revealed features of investigated monetary transmission channels.

  3. The Transition and Integration of the Albanian Economy in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontiev Çuçi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The transition and integration of the Albanian economy in the EU constitutes a special valuable experience that would be relevant for the present and future development processes of economic market in general. Albania's experience in this regard carries two salient features in the path of Euro-Atlantic integration. First of all, the transition and economic integration in the EU began from scratch without inheriting any element or experience of the market economy and democratic culture; secondly, it began as a radical process conceived as “shock therapy”, which excludes a graduated process; thirdly, it started out as a political process driven by upward and will continue as such until its completion. The created elements of market economy and democratic culture are going on in parallel with the process of EU integration But the lack of democratic culture has created more conflictual than consensual phenomenon that hinders and delays the time of wider economic integration. Not surprisingly, Albania as the most fanatical and dictatorial communist country in the past is the worst in the performance of the integration process. Despite the time and the problems we have “skipped” many stages of historical development of a democratic Western society and with optimism, we are having more and more realistic difficulties and efforts still need to be done to reach the standards of civilized Europe. Throughout this period precisely to achieve these standards we consider as a transition, which will end as an economic process but also as a socio-cultural one, when we become a member with full rights in the EU.

  4. Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

    2014-07-01

    Foragers in transitioning economies are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes as they undergo changes in subsistence patterns and diet. Here, we provide anthropometric data and examine the nutrition and health of adult BaAka foragers in relationship to declining wildlife and economic change in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic. From June to August 2012, we collected biological data and dietary recall surveys from individuals in Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE) villages using standard anthropometric techniques and a single capillary blood finger prick. In our analysis, we identified variation in anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels by village (MS = 66, YDBE = 75) and gender (64 men, 77 women). Immigration, increased gun hunting and wildlife trades have reduced forager reliance on forest resources. These changes are evidenced in the marginal health of contemporary BaAka foragers of APDS. Although anthropometric measures of nutritional status do not significantly differ between communities, hemoglobin data highlight inequities in access to forest products between villages with different proximity to community hunting zones. Further, poor dietary diversity and low frequency of purchased foods in the diet indicate that the transition to a market economy has not been fully realized and diets are impoverished. Economic changes appear to have had the most impact at MS village, where forest use is most restricted and consumption of meat and forest products was reduced. This work highlights the nutritional and health needs of foragers in rapidly transitioning economies; especially those impacted by conservation management and zoning policies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Climate change and sustainable energy: actions and transition to a lower carbon economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will address climate change and transition to a lower carbon economy in general and the importance of sustainable energy in such initiatives. The talk has two main parts. In the first part, the presenter discuss why non-fossil fuel energy options, which are diverse and range from renewables through to nuclear energy, are needed to help humanity combat climate change and transition to a lower carbon economy. Such energy options reduce or eliminate emissions of greenhouse gases and thus often form the basis of sustainable energy solutions. Nonetheless, carbon dioxide capture and sequestration may allow fossil fuels to be less carbon emitting. Sustainable energy options are not sufficient for avoiding climate change, in that they are not necessarily readily utilizable in their natural forms. Hydrogen energy systems are needed to facilitate the use of non-fossil fuels by allowing them to be converted to two main classes of energy carriers: hydrogen and select hydrogen-derived fuels and electricity. As hydrogen is not an energy resource, but rather is an energy carrier that must be produced, it complements non-fossil energy sources, which often need to be converted into more convenient forms. In addition, high efficiency is needed to allow the greatest benefits to be attained from all energy options, including non-fossil fuel ones, in terms of climate change and other factors. Efficiency improvements efforts have many dimensions, including energy conservation, improved energy management, fuel substitution, better matching of energy carriers and energy demands, and more efficiency utilization of both energy quantity and quality. The latter two concepts are best considered via the use of exergy analysis, an advanced thermodynamic tool. In the second part of the presentation, actions to address climate change more generally and to help society transition to a lower carbon economy are described. The role of sustainable energy in this

  6. Performance Metrics in Supply Chain Management. Evidence from Romanian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Constăngioară

    2013-01-01

    The proposed empirical research uses a national sample of 19 Romanian companies from various industries to estimate de utilities for financial and non-financial performance measures used in Romanian supply chains. Empirical findings show that national supply chain measurement systems are balanced, using both financial and non-financial performance measures. The high estimated utility corresponding to indicators measuring logistic costs provides evidence that inter-functional and inter-organiz...

  7. Performance Metrics in Supply Chain Management. Evidence from Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Constăngioară

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed empirical research uses a national sample of 19 Romanian companies from various industries to estimate de utilities for financial and non-financial performance measures used in Romanian supply chains. Empirical findings show that national supply chain measurement systems are balanced, using both financial and non-financial performance measures. The high estimated utility corresponding to indicators measuring logistic costs provides evidence that inter-functional and inter-organization integration in supply chains at national level are realized through operational excellence. Achieving the full potential of supply chain integration requires that management fosters both integration of operations and integration of customers.

  8. Will small energy consumers be faster in transition? Evidence from the early shift from coal to oil in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, M.d.Mar; Folchi, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This paper provide evidence of the early transition from coal to oil for 20 Latin American countries over the first half of the 20th century, which does not fit the transition experiences of large energy consumers. These small energy consumers had earlier and faster transitions than leading nations. We also provide evidence for alternative sequences (inverse, revertible) in the transition from coal to oil. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ‘leapfrogging’ allowed a set of follower economies to reach the next rung of the energy ladder (oil domination) 30 years in advance of the most developed economies. We examine these follower economies, where transition took place earlier and faster than the cases historically known, in order to understand variation within the energy transitions and to expand the array of feasible pathways of future energy transitions. We find that being a small energy consumer makes a difference for the way the energy transition takes place; but also path dependence (including trade and technological partnerships), domestic energy endowment (which dictates relative prices) and policy decisions seem to be the variables that shaped past energy transitions. - Highlights: ► We provide evidence of the early transition from coal to oil for 20 Latin American. ► We find that being a small energy consumer makes a difference for the way the energy transition takes place. ► Followers had earlier and faster transitions than leading nations. ► ‘Leapfrogging’ allowed extremely fast energy transitions. ► Alternative forms (revertible, inverse) of energy transition also exist.

  9. Potential and Barriers to Adoption of B2B E-Commerce in SMEs in Transition Economies: Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Rao Vajjhala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs can benefit significantly from investments in e-commerce and e-business. However, the adoption of e-commerce has been quite slow and limited among SMEs, especially in transition economies. Interviews were conducted with senior managers from 30 medium-sized enterprises in a transition economy – Albania, three from each of the ten key sectors, namely, information and communication technology (ICT, tourism, banking, financial services, agriculture, healthcare, logistics, manufacturing, construction, and retailing. The qualitative data coded from the in-depth interviews was analysed using NVIVO® for identifying key themes. Four key themes were identified along with ten subthemes. This study identified the four key themes that can guide the organizational leadership of medium-sized enterprises in transition economies in strategically leveraging e-commerce technology. The four key themes identified in this study include resource constraints, external environmental factors, organizational issues, and resistance to acceptance of new technology. The identification of the key barrier factors will help the organizational leadership in transition economies, such as Albania devise strategies to promote adoption of e-commerce in the SMEs. The findings of this study will help the organizational leadership of SMEs in transition economies identify measures to address and resolve the barriers to adoption of e-commerce. This study also adds value to the limited literature on barriers to e-commerce adoption in the context of SMEs in transition economies. The study offers insights on e-commerce adoption by SMEs, which can be applied to other transition and emerging economies attempting to understand the barriers that might hinder the adoption of e-commerce by the SMEs.

  10. Agricultural technologies and carbon emissions: evidence from Jordanian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Mohanad; Srouji, Fathi; Boutabba, Mohamed Amine

    2018-04-01

    Theoretically, agriculture can be the victim and the cause of climate change. Using annual data for the period of 1970-2014, this study examines the interaction between agriculture technology factors and the environment in terms of carbon emissions in Jordan. The results provide evidence for unidirectional causality running from machinery, subsidies, and other transfers, rural access to an improved water source and fertilizers to carbon emissions. The results also reveal the existence of bidirectional causality between the real income and carbon emissions. The variance error decompositions highlight the importance of subsidies and machinery in explaining carbon emissions. They also show that fertilizers, the crop and livestock production, the land under cereal production, the water access, the agricultural value added, and the real income have an increasing effect on carbon emissions over the forecast period. These results are important so that policy-makers can build up strategies and take in considerations the indicators in order to reduce carbon emissions in Jordan.

  11. How Can Economies in Transition Pursue Emissions Trading or Joint Implementation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missfeldt, F.; Villavicenco, A.

    2002-07-01

    Under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, economies in transition are eligible for both emissions trading (Article 17) and joint implementation (Article 6). Guiding rules for implementing these mechanisms were decided through the Marrakech Accords in November 2001. These countries may benefit substantially from those mechanisms if they are implemented appropriately. However, with the departure of the USA from the Kyoto Protocol, the likely revenues from international emissions trading for the economies in transition are likely to be limited at least during the first commitment period. A key criterion on whether countries should undertake emissions trading is the comparison of projections of emissions until 2012 with the target under the Kyoto Protocol. For joint implementation, the investment climate and the emission reductions potential of a specific project are more important. Countries that are bound by the Kyoto Protocol need to implement a clear institutional structure, which includes a JI office or a position solely in charge of JI. Even if a country decides not to engage in JI, such an office could help guide possible foreign investors

  12. Emissions trading in transition economies: the link between international and domestic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.

    2003-01-01

    International emissions trading has the potential to significantly lower carbon mitigation costs and to promote environmentally friendly investment in transition economies. The design of domestic systems to complement international emissions trading will likely play a major role in emissions trading's effectiveness. This paper examines the benefits and challenges of proposed domestic systems and the related flows of emissions trading revenue in seller nations. The overwhelming majority of emissions available for sale will come from transition economies, which is why this article considers these countries as a group. Governments in countries such as Russia and Poland are interested in the potentially significant revenue they would reap from emissions trading, and some in those governments feel the money would best be used as general revenue for the government. Others argue that emissions trading should involve the private sector and other emitters in order to provide maximum incentives to reduce emissions and generate additional emissions trading revenue (the rules for international emissions trading explicitly allow this). Still others feel that special carbon mitigation funds would allow the government to maintain control yet stimulate additional emission reductions. Each policy contains its own set of challenges: stimulating further emission reductions, credibly monitoring emissions and emission reductions, or applying adequate fiscal accounting to the money flows

  13. Managing family businesses in the tourism and hospitality industry: the transitional economy of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallas Brozik

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective is to examine the nature of tourism and hospitality family businesses that operate in the transitional Polish economy and to analyze the environment for development and growth of these entrepreneurial firms in the reformingeconomy. In order to evaluate and compare firms’ development relative to selected external environmental factors affecting entrepreneurial operations, on-site surveys and personal interviews were conducted with Polish entrepreneurs who own and operate family businesses within tourism and hospitality industry. Theenvironmental conditions are grouped into four external nvironmental factors: political and legal environment, financial environment, non-financial environment, and socio-economic environment, and analyzed based on Kazanjian’s (1988 and Gnyawali and Fogel’s models (1994. The paper also analyzes the competencies ofthe owners of the entrepreneurial firms that are important for the firm’s success throughout the firm’s life cycle. Based on this study results, policy implications are made for assisting the tourism and hospitality firms’ growth and development in transitional economy

  14. Physical growth in a transitional economy: the aftermath of South African apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Noël

    2003-01-01

    The economic transition in developing countries is not always the result of the change from a centrally-planned to a free-market economy, but may be found within an already existing free-market economy as a result of profound political change, as in South Africa. The release of Nelson Mandela in February 1990 heralded an end both to the political system of apartheid and to the concomitant social, political, and economic disenfranchisement of 30 million non-White people in South Africa. The first freely elected non-White government came to power in 1994 and initiated a number of social and economic reforms aimed at alleviating the worst consequences of apartheid. This paper examines the effect of post-apartheid economic and social transition on the growth and development of urban children. Over 4000 children born in Soweto and Johannesburg were enrolled in the Birth to Ten (BTT) birth-cohort study in 1990. Whilst these children were born with lower birth weights than in developed countries, they did grow strongly in infancy, particularly in weight, to reflect normal reference values for body mass index (BMI) by 1 year of age. While post-apartheid social and economic changes were expected to take some time to affect child growth and development, the rate of change has been slower than expected. Data from the BTT study demonstrate that the growth of White children continues to be superior to that of their non-White peers and differences that existed at birth and during infancy have not diminished during childhood and early adolescence. Whatever factors are changed at the national or community levels during economic (and social) transition in South Africa appear not yet to have resulted in improved child physical growth.

  15. The Conceptual Foundations of Ukraine’s Transition to the Knowledge Economy in the Context of Changes in the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Maxym V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with development of foundations and suggestions as to the Ukraine’s transition to the knowledge economy in the context of changes in the world economy. These changes will affect the production forces, forms of economic organization, institutions, and socio-economic relations. With this in mind, a new modernization project of the 21st century for Ukraine has been proposed. Attention is drawn to the need to «restart» the domestic economy, build a new model of growth based on new technological base, reproductive cycles, and patterns of production. The article emphasizes the essential role of information and communication technologies, the importance of interaction between science and business, as well as activation of entrepreneurship. The spatial, social, and political aspects of transition to the knowledge-based economy have been allocated. Recommendations for deepening the partnership between the State and business in the sphere of knowledge have been formulated. Suggestions for improving geo-economic strategy, development of international cooperation in the sphere of knowledge and innovation, as well as improving the integration strategy of Ukraine, have been provided.

  16. A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe's transition to a One Planet Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Alessandro; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, Ertug

    2013-09-01

    Currently, the European economy is using nearly three times the ecological assets that are locally available. This situation cannot be sustained indefinitely. Tools are needed that can help reverse the unsustainable trend. In 2010, an EC funded One Planet Economy Network: Europe (OPEN:EU) project was launched to develop the evidence and innovative practical tools that will allow policy-makers and civil society to identify policy interventions to transform Europe into a One Planet Economy, by 2050. Building on the premise that no indicator alone is able to comprehensively monitor (progress towards) sustainability, the project has drawn on the Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprints to define a Footprint Family suite of indicators, to track human pressure on the planet. An environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model has then been developed to group the Footprint Family under a common framework and combine the indicators in the family with national economic accounts and trade statistics. Although unable to monitor the full spectrum of human pressures, once grouped within the MRIO model, the Footprint Family is able to assess the appropriation of ecological assets, GHG emissions as well as freshwater consumption and pollution associated with consumption of specific products and services within a specified country. Using MRIO models within the context of Footprint analyses also enables the Footprint Family to take into account full production chains with technologies specific to country of origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT USING THE MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH – CASE OF BALKAN’S TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Obradović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of their own financial resources, attracting the foreign direct investment (FDI isthe main prerequisite for transitional economies in order to increase production and employment, sothat they can ensure the long term sustainable economic growth. In addition, the foreign directinvestment is an important instrument for the economy restructuring, based on market principles.However, achieving this goal is not simple at all. In order to attract foreign investors, it is necessaryto create a favorable business environment in transition countries, which requires a number ofeconomic, institutional, political and other reforms. The aim of this paper is to point out the mainfactors attracting foreign direct investment and, by using the multi-criteria approach, to rank theBalkan’s transition economies depending on the preferences of investors taking into account certaincomponents of the business environment.

  18. Waste to energy opportunities and challenges for developing and transition economies

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste management is currently a major issue worldwide with numerous areas reaching critical levels. Many developing countries and countries in transition still miss basic waste management  infrastructure and awareness. It is here that many of the solid waste management problems and challenges are currently being faced. As such, waste-to-energy (WTE) consists of a proven and continuously developing spectrum and range of technologies in a number of (mostly) developed countries. However, it’s integration in developing countries and systems in transition is often faced with scepticism and a complex set of barriers which are quite unique and differ greatly from those where WTE has been validated and applied over the years. Waste-to-Energy: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing and Transition Economies will address this issue both theoretically and using concrete examples, including: ·         contributions from numerous scholars and practitioners in the field, ·         useful less...

  19. UNO contribution to attract energy investments in transition economy countries in cooperation with international organizations, banks, and the business community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, L.

    1996-01-01

    Limited financial resources hamper the ability of transition economy countries to take advantage of recent technological progress in energy production, distribution, and consumption. Increased cooperation within and outside the UN system imposed new approaches and action programs to identify financing channels in view of implementing the economic development projects. Since the CNE'94 round table discussions on the role of the UN Economic Commission for Europe in energy cooperation for sustainable development and assistance for transition economy countries, new actions initiated by UN are supported by international organizations, banks, and the business community. The paper is based on recent UN documents, data, and information after six years of reforms. (author). 14 refs

  20. Emission reductions in transition economies: A result of output contraction or more stringent environmental policy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zugravu, N.; Millock, K. [University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne (France); Duchene, G. [University Paris 12, Creteil (France)

    2007-07-01

    Countries in Central and Eastern Europe significantly reduced their CO{sub 2} emissions between 1996 and 2001. Was this emission reduction just the fortuitous result of the major economic transformation undergone by those countries in the transition away from a centralized plan economy? Or is the emission reduction rather a result of more stringent environmental policy? The objective of the article is to answer this question through a model of the relation between environmental quality and enforcement, on the one hand, and environmental quality and economic growth, on the other hand. The authors develop structural equations for the demand (emissions) and supply (environmental stringency) of pollution. The supply equation takes into account the institutional quality of the country (control of corruption and political stability) as well as consumer preferences for environmental quality, as proxied by per capita revenue and unemployment. The system is estimated by three stage least squares on a sample of three groups of countries for comparative analysis: Central and Eastern European countries, Western European countries, and emerging economies. The results indicate that, all else equal, the scale effect on its own would have increased industrial CO{sub 2} emissions in the Central and Eastern European countries in the sample by 44.6% between 1996 and 2001. The composition effect accounted for a corresponding reduction in emissions by 16%. The technique effect had the largest marginal impact, corresponding to a 37.4% reduction in emissions.

  1. Public Governance and Economic Growth in the Transitional Economies of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz BAYAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to new growth theories, public governance is an important determinant for sustained economic growth. This study examines the impact of six public governance indicators, including voice and accountability, political stability and the absence of violence/terrorism, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law and control of corruption, on the economic growth in the transitional economies of the European Union during the 2002-2013 period. The results show that all governance indicators except regulatory quality had a statistically significant positive impact on economic growth. Our findings also indicate that control of corruption and rule of law had the largest impact on economic growth, while political stability had the lowest impact.

  2. Energy pricing policy in economies in transition (EIT) - economic and social impact case of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczynski, F.

    1996-01-01

    The economic and social impact of the energy policy and pricing in countries with economies in transition is shown on the Polish example. Detailed changes in industrial production, growth of investments in Poland are shown for the period 1990-1996 with annual inflation rate unemployment data. This is followed by expected growth of investments and inflation for the period 1993-2000. In the framework of primary energy consumption structure in 1994 and prospect for 2000 two possible scenarios of gas consumption by households, industry and for power generation, are presented up to 2010. Gas prices for the mentioned consumers in Poland are compared to those in Western Europe and environmental impacts are mentioned as well

  3. CAUSES AND NATURE OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTRADICTIONS OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN TRANSITIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Shulga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Today the state of the agricultural sector in most economies in transition is disappointing and caused by unresolved social and economic contradictions in its development, which in the transformations only worsened. Therefore, to develop effective agricultural policies to address the existing contradictions in the agricultural sector, it is needed to find their nature and causes and development. This is what will resolve current contradictions and predict the natural course of development of agrarian relations in the future. The subject of the investigation – nature and causes of economic and social contradictions of the agrarian sector in transitional economies. To clarify these issues there were used methods such as dialectic, systemic and structural, analysis and synthesis, unity logical and historical approaches, induction and deduction, etc. The aim is to find out the nature of economic and social contradictions of the agricultural sector, their causes and development in transitional economies. Based on these methods, it is found that a contradiction is an internal source of development, and causes of changes and development of the contradictions are inherent within it. That means that the contradiction is a process that is changing, evolving itself, as its domestic activity and through interaction with the struggle of opposites. Accordingly, the economic and social contradictions in the development of the agricultural sector are of objective nature. Mistakes in the actions of agrarian relations do not generate new conflicts, but only reinforce the negative side of contradictions inhibiting its solution. This is due to the fact that every contradiction has its objective course of development and natural solutions through new quality reproduction with the peculiar contradictions of development. The subjective factor can only help or hinder solving contradictions, lead to a partial solution of contradictions. Errors are mostly subjective

  4. Workers’ participation in a former labour-managed economy: The case of Serbian transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerović Božidar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that Serbia - along with the other Southeast European successor states of former Yugoslavia - emerged from a country recognized for its specific labour-managed institutional arrangement. The paper recalls the main premises of the literature on the labour-managed firm and the theoretical contributions on participatory forms of management that seem most relevant to a transition economy like Serbia’s. It proceeds to analyze the main changes that occurred in Serbia during transition to a market economy, illustrating some of its specific features and how privatization led to the conversion of workers self-management into property rights. In order to analyze the role of employees in decisionmaking, and more generally their current position in privatized and newly established private firms, a survey was undertaken in 2013 based on a questionnaire for managers in 69 Serbian firms. The survey suggests that internal relations in enterprises are relatively undeveloped, particularly regarding the distribution of responsibilities in decision making at various organisational levels, hampering the efficient fulfilment of firms’ objectives. It appears that decision-making processes are usually designed in such a way as to give an excessive role to the owner as the exclusive decision-maker. The position of workers seems to be particularly poor regarding their rights to be informed, to make proposals, and/or to participate in decision-making in general. Moreover, even traditional workers’ rights are neglected (unionization, collective bargaining etc.. The survey also suggests that in those firms with a more active role of workers, there is a higher degree of workers’ satisfaction and loyalty to the firm.

  5. What Causes Inflation in a Post Communist Economy? Evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dejene Mamo Bekana

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of inflation for a post communist economy, in the long run as well as in the short run, using time series evidence from Ethiopia and applying the Johnson co integration and Error Correction Mechanisms. A vivid observation of the results shows that the short run determinants of inflation are broad money supply, growth of domestic gross product, real interest rate, budget deficit, Exchange rate, inflation expectation and world price movements. The result of ...

  6. POWER-SHIFTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY. TRANSITION TOWARDS A MULTIPOLAR WORLD ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IGNAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the new realities and trends related to the new polarity of the global economy, and thus the reconfiguration of global power centers, a process characterized by two simultaneous trends: the rise of new powers and the relative decline of traditional powers. At the beginning of 21st century, global power is suffering two major changes: on the one hand it manifests a transition from West to East, from Atlantic to the Asia-Pacific, and on the other hand, a diffusion from state to non-state actors. Current global economic power has a multipolar distribution, shared between the United States, European Union, Japan and BRICs, with no balance of power between these poles, opposed by the strong ambition of rising countries, China especially, China that rivals the traditional powers represented by the developed countries. The evolution of the main macroeconomic indicators given by the most important global organizations, shows a gradual transition towards a multipolar world. Therefore, the United States is and will remain for a long period of time the global economic leader. However, as China, India and Brazil are growing rapidly, and Russia is looking for lost status, the world is becoming multipolar.

  7. Economies of scale and scope in publicly funded biomedical and health research: evidence from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Villafuerte, Karla; Sussex, Jon; Robin, Enora; Guthrie, Sue; Wooding, Steve

    2017-02-02

    Publicly funded biomedical and health research is expected to achieve the best return possible for taxpayers and for society generally. It is therefore important to know whether such research is more productive if concentrated into a small number of 'research groups' or dispersed across many. We undertook a systematic rapid evidence assessment focused on the research question: do economies of scale and scope exist in biomedical and health research? In other words, is that research more productive per unit of cost if more of it, or a wider variety of it, is done in one location? We reviewed English language literature without date restriction to the end of 2014. To help us to classify and understand that literature, we first undertook a review of econometric literature discussing models for analysing economies of scale and/or scope in research generally (not limited to biomedical and health research). We found a large and disparate literature. We reviewed 60 empirical studies of (dis-)economies of scale and/or scope in biomedical and health research, or in categories of research including or overlapping with biomedical and health research. This literature is varied in methods and findings. At the level of universities or research institutes, studies more often point to positive economies of scale than to diseconomies of scale or constant returns to scale in biomedical and health research. However, all three findings exist in the literature, along with inverse U-shaped relationships. At the level of individual research units, laboratories or projects, the numbers of studies are smaller and evidence is mixed. Concerning economies of scope, the literature more often suggests positive economies of scope than diseconomies, but the picture is again mixed. The effect of varying the scope of activities by a research group was less often reported than the effect of scale and the results were more mixed. The absence of predominant findings for or against the existence of

  8. Transition economy and happiness - the Czech Republic compared with the Netherlands in the 1990-2004 period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ophem, van J.A.C.; Kohout, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the subject Transition economy and happiness - a case study of the Czech Republic in a comparison with The Netherlands in the 1990-2004 period. The paper addresses the following two questions: 1. How has the level of happiness changed since 199 0 in the Czech Republic and in The

  9. Privatization and economic liberalization: The role of the entrepreneur as a catalyst for economic development in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibrell, Clay; Englis-Danskin, Paula; Kedia, Ben L.; Lakatos, Gergo M.

    2008-01-01

    Many nations with transition economies are attempting to develop their national competitiveness through such processes as privatisation of state owned enterprises (SOEs) and/or the use of economic liberalisation (e.g. lessening of tariffs, industry regulations, etc.) to spur economic growth and

  10. The role of coal consumption in the economic growth of the Polish economy in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgul, Henryk; Lach, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is an analysis of the causal links between quarterly coal consumption in the Polish economy and GDP. For the sake of accurate computation an additional variable - employment - was also taken into account. Computations conducted for the period Q1 2000 to Q4 2009 by means of recent causality techniques confirmed the neutrality of hard coal usage with respect to economic growth. On the other hand, calculations for the pairs lignite-GDP and total coal consumption-GDP showed the existence of a significant nonlinear causality from coal usage to economic growth. This is clear evidence for claiming that lignite plays an important role in the economic growth of the Polish economy. Furthermore, each coal-related variable was found to have a nonlinear causal impact on employment. Because of the relatively short length of available time series we additionally applied bootstrap critical values. The empirical results computed by both methods did not exhibit significant differences. These results have important policy implications. In general, our findings support the hypothesis that closing hard coal mines in Poland should have no significant repercussions on economic growth. However, this does not seem to be true for lignite mines. - Research highlights: → The reduction of hard coal consumption should not hamper economic growth in Poland. → Lignite consumption is an important factor determining economic growth in Poland. → The usage of lignite and hard coal has a causal impact on employment in Poland.

  11. Essays on Commodity Prices and Macroeconomic Performance of Developing and Resources Rich Economies: Evidence from Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ferhat I.

    My dissertation consists of three essays in empirical macroeconomics. The objective of this research is to use rigorous time-series econometric analysis to investigate the impact of commodity prices on macroeconomic performance of a small, developing and resource-rich country, which is in the process of transition from a purely command and control economy to a market oriented one. Essay 1 studies the relationship between Kazakhstan's GDP, total government expenditure, real effective exchange rate and the world oil price. Specifically, I use the cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR) and error correction modeling (ECM) approach to identify the long and short-run relations that may exist among these macroeconomic variables. I found a long-run relationship for Kazakhstan's GDP, which depends on government spending and the oil price positively, and on the real effective exchange rate negatively. In the short run, the growth rate of GDP depends on the growth rates of the oil price, investment and the magnitude of the deviation from the long-run equilibrium. Essay 2 studies the inflation process in Kazakhstan based on the analysis of price formation in the following sectors: monetary, external, labor and goods and services. The modeling is conducted from two different perspectives: the first is the monetary model of inflation framework and the second is the mark-up modeling framework. Encompassing test results show that the mark-up model performs better than the monetary model in explaining inflation in Kazakhstan. According to the mark-up inflation model, in the long run, the price level is positively related to unit labor costs, import prices and government administered prices as well the world oil prices. In the short run, the inflation is positively influenced by the previous quarter's inflation, the contemporaneous changes in the government administered prices, oil prices and by the changes of contemporaneous and lagged unit labor costs, and negatively affected

  12. Economies in transition: an assessment of trends relevant to management of the Tongass National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart D. Allen; Julie. Schaefers

    1998-01-01

    This assessment focuses on the regional and community economies of southeast Alaska. A mixed economy composed of subsistence harvest and cash income characterizes the economies of most of the region’s rural communities. Although the share of natural resource-based sectors relative to total employment has remained fairly consistent over the past 10 years, the mix of...

  13. Co-Producing a Vision and Approach for the Transition towards a Circular Economy: Perspectives from Government Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne P. M. Velenturf

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom’s (UK economy is overly reliant on unsustainable production and consumption practices that deplete finite resources at rates that will increase production costs, business risk, and economic instability; it also produces emissions and waste that cause climate change and environmental degradation, impacting on well-being in the UK and beyond. The Resource Recovery from Waste programme (RRfW promotes a transition towards waste and resource management in a circular economy that restores the environment, creates societal benefits, and promotes clean growth by engaging relevant actors in academia, government, and industry to co-produce a shared vision and approach that will realise such a transition. Sharing the RRfW’s government engagement results, this article presents a positive outlook for changing the UK economy and society through waste and resource management practices that maximise the values of materials by circulating them in the economy for as long as possible. Key themes, regulatory instruments, a stable policy framework, and an approach for effective academic–government collaboration are proposed. Comparing the results to government plans in four UK nations shows great differences in progress towards realising a circular economy. The article concludes with recommendations to capitalise on opportunities for growth, innovation, and resilient infrastructure whilst contributing to quality jobs and welfare throughout the UK.

  14. Financing energy investments world-wide and in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1998-01-01

    The necessity of mobilizing the finance under given circumstances is pointed out. The energy sector investments needs correspond to only 3-4% of world GDP or 6-7% of world capital formation. In most developing countries mobilizing financing is a issue, where the risk/return ratio of a given energy investment project does not compare favourably with competing projects and if their handicap is not compensating for by public financing or government guarantees. Compared to the other regions, the energy systems of the economies in transition absorb a high proportion of domestic capital. This is due to past and continuing supply-oriented energy policies and inefficiencies and the export orientation of the energy-rich countries, and to limited domestic capital markets. As a result only a estimated 9-13% of long-term investment 'needs' is presently financed. The root of the problem is slow progress in the reform of energy and capital markets at a time government withdraw from financing and guaranteeing energy investments. Recommendations include transition to sustainable energy strategies ; the liberalization of energy prices and tariffs; the phasing out of subsides and cross-subsides; the stabilization of tax and depreciation regimes; neutrality with regard of the various forms of ownership; reliable law enforcement; non-discrimination of foreign investors, shareholders, competitors; the ratification of the Energy Charter Treaty; and generally, institutional and regulatory frameworks that address market imperfections. Regarding domestic capital markets the goal is to increase traded volume, reduce volatility, and avoid discrimination and favour international integration

  15. Perceived role of marketing activities in the context of transitional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigitas Urbonavičius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of various marketing activities within a company is a function of numerous internal and external factors, including those that are typical of transitional economies. These factors are integrated and shaped by managerial perceptions about their overall importance and suitability at a specific moment. Authors analyze opinions among managers of Lithuanian companies about the overall importance of the marketing function in their companies as well as about the importance of specific marketing activities. Special attention is paid to the specifics of managerial per ceptions and opinions during the period of economic uncertainty and recession. The research is based on a survey of 346 managers of primarily manufacturing and trading companies operating in Lithuania. The analysis showed a number of differences in the evaluation of the importance of marketing activities based on the characteristics of companies and their core strategic idea. The research revealed that the importance of pricing and communication activities is growing during a period of economic recession. It also confirmed the existence of a positive relationship between managerial evaluations of the importance of marketing activities and the growth of sales.

  16. Democratic transitions, health institutions, and financial protection in the emerging economies: insights from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, several emerging economies have introduced national health insurance programs ensuring access to health care while offering financial protection from out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenses. Nevertheless, in several nations these expenses continue to increase. While recent research has emphasized the lack of funding, poor policy design and corruption as the main culprits, little is known about the politics of establishing federal regulatory agencies ensuring that state governments adhere to national insurance reimbursement and coverage procedures. This article fills in this lacuna by providing an alternative perspective, one that accounts for differences between nations in the creation of regulatory institutions, with an emphasis instead on governing elite strategies to campaign on access to health care during transitions to democracy, civil societal mobilization, constitutional constraints and the national electoral incentives to overcome ineffective decentralization processes. The cases of Indonesia and China are introduced as examples of how and why their differences in this political process accounted for Indonesia's success and China's failure to ensure financial protection.

  17. Panel discussion: Building Canadian companies and capabilities in the transition to the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, N.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Moderated by Nick Beck from Natural Resources Canada, this panel discussion will be prefaced by a keynote address by Dr. Arthur Carty, Canada's National Science Advisor and former President of the National Research Council of Canada, who will discuss technology commercialization in Canada and how the Government of Canada and industry collaborate to achieve their respective priorities. This session will illustrate innovative government and industry partnerships from early research and development to project demonstration, and adoption into the market-place. Panelists from across the Canadian hydrogen and fuel cell innovation spectrum will provide an overview of their respective company's partnerships with the Government of Canada and speak to how these alliances have helped their company to pioneer new technology, move technology from the lab to the marketplace, and/or become more competitive. Opportunities and challenges that companies have faced in their partnerships with government will be shared with the audience. The Panel Members are: Mr. Stephen Kukucha, Mr. Chris Reid, Mr. Robb Thompson, Mr. Pierre Rivard, Mr. John Shen, Mr. R. Randall MacEwen, Mr. Jonathan Wilkinson. Companies will also be showcasing their contribution in advancing Canada's and the world's transition to the hydrogen economy. (author)

  18. CNE'96: National Energy Conference 'Improving Energy Efficiency in a Transition Economy'. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, M.; Balan, Gh.; Zlatanovici, D.

    1996-01-01

    Every two years a national conference on energy is held in Romania under the auspices of Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL). The CNC'96 Conference entitled 'Improving Energy Efficiency in a Transition Economy' has taken place in the Black Sea resort Neptun-Olimp, on September 1-5, 1996. The conference was divided in 8 sections covering the subjects: 1) Energy policies and strategies - Financing of refurbishment and development; 2) Clean and efficient technologies of the fossil fuels - Renewable energy sources; 3) Rehabilitation - Retrofitting of power facilities; 4) Nuclear Power; 5) Predictive and preventive maintenance technologies; 6) Management and process information systems; 7) Environment conservation and mitigating measures; and 8) Energy end-use. An opening talk was given by V.Romert, the Director General of RENEL, and keynote addresses were presented by I.Lindsay, WEC Secretary General (Energy in an era of change and the WEC within it), by J.E.Gray, Vice Chairman of the Atlantic Council of the United States (Global Energy Outlook), and by F.Meslier, Director of the EDF East Energy Unit, Ile de France and Chairman of the 37 Study Committee of CIGRE (Quelques evolutions recentes de la CIGRE et de son Comite 37). (M.C.)

  19. Testing Relevance of Twin Deficit for a Transition Economy Like Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid HASSAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between trade defi cit and fi scal defi cit has remained an important topic in the last decades. The literature reveals many attempts to investigate the relationship between the two defi cits, while terminologies like Keynesian Proposition, Ricardian Equivalence, and Targeting Current Account Defi cit are used for the relationship between the two defi cits. The literature also highlights the possibility of unidirectional or bidirectional causality between these defi cits for different countries and different time spans. These four possibilities have inspired us to investigate these possibilities in the light of many control variables like unemployment, urbanization, money supply, foreign direct investment, and economic development in the case of Pakistan. The fi ndings of the study reveal that fi scal defi cit signifi cantly accelerates trade defi cit into both long term and short term; hence, it supports the Keynesian Proposition in Pakistan, while a bidirectional causality between fi scal defi cit and trade defi cit into both long term and short term was also observed. Moreover, the mean and variance of error term were also found to be structurally stable which confi rms the absence of structural break for the selected period in Pakistan. In the end, based on these fi ndings, this study has concluded that two possibilities prevail out of four on the relationship between fi scal and trade defi cits. The twin defi cit is relevant and it does prevail in a transition economy like Pakistan.

  20. Do (successful stock exchanges support or hinder institutions in transition economies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Hartwell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A stock exchange and the presence of functioning equity markets are part and parcel of an advanced market-based financial system. Previous research has also established that equity markets function more efficiently in the presence of supporting institutions such as property rights and rule of law. But how do these two aspects of the institutional environment interact? That is, does the performance of a stock exchange support the development of property rights, or can it actually hinder it? Examining monthly data for 21 transition economies over a shifting monthly window from 1989 to 2012, and using a fixed-effects specification with Driscoll–Kraay standard errors, I find support for the existence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between property rights and stock market performance. While a well-functioning stock market may help reinforce property rights through demonstration effects, a stock market that has become “too successful” may entrench interests and lead to property rights-eroding policies.

  1. The failure of introducing market institution in a rent sector into an economy in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D

    2003-07-01

    Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)

  2. China’s Transition to the Innovation- Driven Economy: Stepping Stones and Road- Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARMIZA PENCEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides its past outstanding accomplishments in terms of extensive development, China has also accumulated multiple distortions and structural imbalances and has reached a crossroads, where a major qualitative switch is a must. Its outdated export-oriented economic model has covered both the factor-driven and investment-driven stages of development and now China needs to more firmly advance towards the stage of innovation-led growth, transiting from cheaply processing and assembling foreign-designed goods, using foreign-designed technologies and supplying foreign markets, to producing high quality, services-and-knowledge-intensive products, using locally-devised technologies and meeting, primarily, its own domestic demand. This paper looks at the progress attained in recent years in the Chinese research, development and innovation system, sketching its landscape in terms of structure, endowment and goals, inputs and output improvement, significant shifts and trends paving the way to an innovation-driven economy, as well as to potential road-blocks on the way.

  3. The failure of introducing market institution in a rent sector into an economy in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D.

    2003-07-01

    Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)

  4. Private Equity Capital in a Less Developed Economy: Evidence, Issues and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melusi Mpofu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the structure of the private equity industry and issues that impact on its development and growth in Zimbabwe. Studies conducted internationally have unequivocally demonstrated the importance of private equity investments in assisting firms at start/growth phase and decline phase. However there is a dearth of literature on how these financial intermediaries assist in unlocking firm value from an emerging markets perspective. The study uses the document analysis and an exploratory research paradigms to achieve the stated objectives. The study finds that the venture capital industry in Zimbabwe mimics similar industries in other countries except that it is constrained by market liquidity. Lack of regulation and viable business sectors coupled with excessive risks in the political economy narrows the scope of private equity operations. Several issues impacting on the development of the private equity industry are identified and evaluated. The study has policy implications for the development of regulatory framework to bolster the growth of the private equity industry in emerging market economies. This study provides new evidence and policy suggestions on the operations of the private equity industry in a liquidity constrained and less developed economy.

  5. How Can Multifunctional Agriculture Support a Transition to a Green Economy in Africa? Lessons from the COMACO Model in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orleans Mfune

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link between the green economy and multifunctional agriculture. In particular, the paper uses the case of the Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO initiative, an agro-based enterprise promoting a multifunctional agriculture model in Eastern Zambia, to examine how the potential of smallholder farmers can be harnessed to support a transition towards the green economy. The empirical data on which the paper is based were collected through questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews conducted with farmers and other actors in the agricultural sector. The results of the study show that a number of elements underpinning the COMACO model including sustainable land management practices, conservation outreach, community markets, value addition, and conservation dividends have great potential to deliver benefits related to the green economy. However, to truly foster a transition towards a green economy, a number of constraints need to be overcome. These include lack of a supportive policy and institutional framework, technological backwardness, and lack of consumer awareness of environmental information instruments such as eco-labelling.

  6. Financing the Transition to a Green Economy - An empirical investigation of how Norwegian firms can achieve business models for sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Synne Mari; Slette, Sunniva Bratt

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this Master s thesis is to explore the interaction between the state of the current financial system and sustainable value creation of companies. This is done by examining how the financial community and business actors can address tensions that currently provide barriers for sustainability investments. The thesis is structured as an exploratory case study within the context of Norwegian industry development in the transition to a green economy. More specifically, the study i...

  7. Research document no. 19. The transposition conditions of the market institutions in transition economies (Russia). The energy case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2000-07-01

    The majority of the institutions of the market economy exist today in Russia but they do not take on with the russian economic framework. One assists in fact with particular appropriation modes of these institutions, defining behaviors directed by logics of survival. To analyze the situation, the author presents the standard approaches of the economic transition in the case of the energy in russia and the institutional and organization models failure. (A.L.B.)

  8. Transforming Education for a Transition into Human-centered Economy and Post-normal Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Çepni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solutions to the major problems of our time require a radical shift in our perceptions, thinking and values. Post-normal times (characterized by complexity, chaos and contradictions, post-normal science (characterized by uncertainties, systems view of thinking, alternative perspectives, unknown unknowns, values and human-centered economy are conceptions that we need to take into consideration to define a new role for science. Managing the transition from the knowledge economy (mainly dominated by the use of analytical skills to human-centered economy (mainly dominated by the use of creativity, character, passion requires visionary leadership and a wide range of partnerships, and developing new and more comprehensive, flexible, innovative models of learning. Education today should prepare current generations for the continuously changing world of the future. The critique on modern education ranges across the political spectrum (from ‘the Right’ to ‘the Left’; across countries (both ‘western’ and ‘non-western’; across genders (within men’s, queer and feminist movements; and across worldviews (e.g. post-modernism, critical theory, neo-Marxism, critical traditionalism. These critiques all imply that ‘modern’ education has now become ‘outdated’ (Milojevic, 2005. Technology and globalization are significantly transforming work. However, education and training systems, having remained mostly static and under-invested in for decades, are largely inadequate to meet the needs of the new labour markets. How the disconnect between education systems and labour markets can be eliminated is a much disputed topic and it may require a paradigm shift in current thinking. Citizens and consumers today are experiencing a growing sense of alienation, loss of values and flexibility (Zajda, 2009. There is no form of education which would meet different needs worldwide. Education is a basic human right and it cannot be purely demand

  9. The political economy of a public health case management program's transition into medical homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Cilenti, Dorothy; Issel, L Michele

    2015-11-01

    Throughout the United States, public health leaders are experimenting with how best to integrate services for individuals with complex needs. To that end, North Carolina implemented a policy incorporating both local public health departments and other providers into medical homes for low income pregnant women and young children at risk of developmental delays. To understand how this transition occurred within local communities, a pre-post comparative case study was conducted. A total of 42 people in four local health departments across the state were interviewed immediately before the 2011 policy change and six months later: 32 professionals (24 twice) and 10 pregnant women receiving case management at the time of the policy implementation. We used constant comparative analysis of interview and supplemental data to identify three key consequences of the policy implementation. One, having medical homes increased the centrality of other providers relative to local health departments. Two, a shift from focusing on personal relationships toward medical efficiency diverged in some respects from both case managers' and mothers' goals. Three, health department staff re-interpreted state policies to fit their public health values. Using a political economy perspective, these changes are interpreted as reflecting shifts in public health's broader ideological environment. To a large extent, the state successfully induced more connection between health department-based case managers and external providers. However, limited provider engagement may constrain the implementation of the envisioned medical homes. The increased focus on medical risk may also undermine health departments' role in supporting health over time by attenuating staff relationships with mothers. This study helps clarify how state public health policy innovations unfold at local levels, and why front line practice may in some respects diverge from policy intent. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Financial risk and the transition to a low-carbon economy. Towards a carbon stress testing framework - Working Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenet, Hugues; Thomae, Jakob; Janci, Didier; Dupre, Stan; Hubert, Romain; Robins, Nick; Cruickshank, Peter

    2015-07-01

    On July 27 at Moody's in New York, 2 deg. Investing Initiative launched the report 'Financial risk and the transition to a low-carbon economy' in partnership with UNEP Inquiry and I4CE. The report reviews the main approaches to assessing carbon risk along the investment chain and discusses barriers to its integration in decision making. The report identifies two categories of climate-related financial risks to financial institutions: risks arising from physical climate change and 'carbon risk' which arise from the transition to a low-carbon economy following one of the possible decarbonization pathways. The authors show that to date, risk factors resulting from climate change and the transition to a low-carbon economy are generally not taken into consideration by mainstream risk assessment and management frameworks; there are multiple reasons for this. The report reviews a number of 'climate and carbon stress test' initiatives that suggest the materiality of these risks along the investment chain. The materiality of these risks for financial institutions and the financial system remains unclear. Financial regulators and policy makers, notably in France, the United Kingdom, and at the G20 level have nevertheless started responding to the issue

  11. A footprint family extended MRIO model to support Europe's transition to a One Planet Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, A.; Weinzettel, J.; Cranston, G.; Ercin, Ertug

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the European economy is using nearly three times the ecological assets that are locally available. This situation cannot be sustained indefinitely. Tools are needed that can help reverse the unsustainable trend. In 2010, an EC funded One Planet Economy Network: Europe (OPEN:EU) project

  12. MULTIVARIATE AND MULTICRITERIAL FOREIGN DEBT ANALYSIS OF THE SELECTED TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a constant evidence of the growth of the foreign indebtedness in all the countries in transition, both EU member states and (preaccession countries. Status and trends of external debt are important indicators of potential macroeconomic problems, which determines that the management of foreign debt should be a task for all governments. Thus, methodology and measurement of foreign indebtedness is crucial for these countries. The aim of the paper is to classify, using multivariate cluster analysis, ten chosen countries in transition (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Latvia, Macedonia, Poland, Slovenia according to the key indicators of the state and trends of foreign indebtedness. In addition, ranking of those countries will be done in relation to the indebtedness indicators by the multicriteria analysis method. Comparative analysis of the results will be done. The advantage of these approaches is reflected in the fact that the analysis, classification and ranking can be done for all countries, based on all indicators of external indebtedness at the same time.

  13. Examining the measurement and dimensionality of the construct of consumer awareness in a developing and transition economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Makanyeza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Literature suggests that major political and socio-economic transformations may influence the measurement and dimensionality of consumer awareness. Research purpose: The study examined the measurement and dimensionality of the construct of consumer awareness after transformation in the political and socio-economic environments in Zimbabwe. Motivation for the study: There is a dearth of research to validate whether or not the measurement and dimensionality of the construct of consumer awareness changes as the environment changes. Research design, approach and method: Data were collected from a cross-section of 305 consumers using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Consumers were intercepted at shopping malls. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse data. Main findings: The study confirmed that consumer awareness comprises five dimensions, namely product knowledge, bargain hunting, general consumer knowledge, price consciousness and information search. However, the study found that only 16 items, instead of the proposed 25, were relevant in measuring consumer awareness. Product knowledge, bargain hunting and information search were each measured by four items, whilst general consumer knowledge and price consciousness were each measured by two items. The other nine items were shown to be of no value. Practical/managerial implications: The study recommends that marketers and policymakers in developing and transition economies, such as Zimbabwe, consider these five dimensions when conducting consumer awareness research or when planning consumer awareness programmes. Contribution/value-add: The study provided evidence that the dimensionality of the construct of consumer awareness does not change as the socio-economic and political environments change. However, items used to measure the dimensions need to be updated from time to time.

  14. Examining the measurement and dimensionality of the construct of consumer awareness in a developing and transition economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Makanyeza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Literature suggests that major political and socio-economic transformations may influence the measurement and dimensionality of consumer awareness. Research purpose: The study examined the measurement and dimensionality of the construct of consumer awareness after transformation in the political and socio-economic environments in Zimbabwe. Motivation for the study: There is a dearth of research to validate whether or not the measurement and dimensionality of the construct of consumer awareness changes as the environment changes. Research design, approach and method: Data were collected from a cross-section of 305 consumers using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Consumers were intercepted at shopping malls. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse data. Main findings: The study confirmed that consumer awareness comprises five dimensions, namely product knowledge, bargain hunting, general consumer knowledge, price consciousness and information search. However, the study found that only 16 items, instead of the proposed 25, were relevant in measuring consumer awareness. Product knowledge, bargain hunting and information search were each measured by four items, whilst general consumer knowledge and price consciousness were each measured by two items. The other nine items were shown to be of no value. Practical/managerial implications: The study recommends that marketers and policymakers in developing and transition economies, such as Zimbabwe, consider these five dimensions when conducting consumer awareness research or when planning consumer awareness programmes. Contribution/value-add: The study provided evidence that the dimensionality of the construct of consumer awareness does not change as the socio-economic and political environments change. However, items used to measure the dimensions need to be updated from time to time.

  15. Water resource infrastructure implications of a green economy transition in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pienaar, Aliza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Province government in South Africa has established the transition to a green economy as a high priority. The sustainable use of water resources has been identified as a critical necessity for such a green economy transition. The research summarised in this paper conceptualised the factors that relate to water resources, and that influence the transition to a green economy in the Western Cape Province. Subsequently, a system dynamics model was developed to evaluate the impact of key strategic interventions of the green economy transition. The results from the model show that the Province could possibly experience extreme water shortages in the near future if a business-as-usual scenario continues. However, with sufficient investment and effective management, the water demand of the Province can be met.

  16. The dynamics of industrial organisation in economies in transition: the example of the Russian gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    1999-10-01

    The question of the emergence of a new organisational model based on the firm is at the heart of the reform in the Russian energy sector, as it is at the heart of the structural changes that the planned economic systems are undergoing. The reform has given rise to one main observation: the firm, as currently defined in Western economic writings, does not exist because of the essentially non-monetary nature of the planned economic systems. Eight years after the creation of Gazprom, however, one can be asked questions about the organisational model that has actually emerged. It is evident that the reform in ownership rights that was its initial objective has not created a private enterprise, even though the reform arose in a modification of ownership rights. Gazprom, given the essentially non-monetary economic relations amongst which it finds itself, remains in essence an organisation that is not subject to a ''hard budget constraint''. Instead of the private enterprise, we have an original and stable type of organisational model that has still to be fully defined. This specific ''vertical integration'' model is the model that allows the distinctive characteristics of the Russian economic environment to be managed best, whether they be non monetization of exchange and the salaried contract inherited from the planned economy. Some aspects of which have been retained in the post-communist transformation. In the case in point, this model shows that the firm is an organisation but also much an institution, a place where various interests and conflicts are managed. (A.L.B.)

  17. The dynamics of industrial organisation in economies in transition: the example of the Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1999-10-01

    The question of the emergence of a new organisational model based on the firm is at the heart of the reform in the Russian energy sector, as it is at the heart of the structural changes that the planned economic systems are undergoing. The reform has given rise to one main observation: the firm, as currently defined in Western economic writings, does not exist because of the essentially non-monetary nature of the planned economic systems. Eight years after the creation of Gazprom, however, one can be asked questions about the organisational model that has actually emerged. It is evident that the reform in ownership rights that was its initial objective has not created a private enterprise, even though the reform arose in a modification of ownership rights. Gazprom, given the essentially non-monetary economic relations amongst which it finds itself, remains in essence an organisation that is not subject to a ''hard budget constraint''. Instead of the private enterprise, we have an original and stable type of organisational model that has still to be fully defined. This specific ''vertical integration'' model is the model that allows the distinctive characteristics of the Russian economic environment to be managed best, whether they be non monetization of exchange and the salaried contract inherited from the planned economy. Some aspects of which have been retained in the post-communist transformation. In the case in point, this model shows that the firm is an organisation but also much an institution, a place where various interests and conflicts are managed. (A.L.B.)

  18. City Green Economy Evaluation: Empirical Evidence from 15 Sub-Provincial Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Shi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available City green economy plays an important role in the development of low-carbon economy and the achievement of sustainable development of economy, society and ecological environment. From the perspective of economy, society, environment and resources, the evaluation of the green economy in urban areas tends to offer us a new insight into the green economy of cities. This paper is about the creation of a novel urban green economy evaluation model and its application. First of all, we established a city green economy evaluation index system based on R cluster analysis and coefficient of variation. Secondly, based on the nonlinear weighted utilizing entropy weight method, a city green economy evaluation model is established based on inferior constraints. Thirdly, by comparing the differences between evaluation rankings under inferior constraints and non-inferior constraints, the advantageous factors and the disadvantageous ones in urban green economy development are obtained. The proposed model has been verified with the data on 15 sub-provincial cities in China. Empirical analysis results show that: (1 The proposed approach can accurately find out the advantageous and disadvantageous factors for each sub-provincial city; (2 In the evaluation of green economy development, the order of importance of the three criterion layers is X1 Economy development > X2 Social livelihood of the people > X3 Resources and environment; (3 Local governments should implement differential, reasonable policies in order to improve their green economy development. Moreover, our research is not only significant for developing green economy in China’s sub-provincial cities, but also serves as a reference for the development of green economy in other cities in the world.

  19. “Green Ocean Treasure Hunting” Guided by Policy Support in a Transitional Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Ge

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For countries in the process of economic transition, improvement of industrialization is no longer the sole goal of their economic development. While upgrading the level of industrial development, these countries also gradually attach importance to resource utilization efficiency and environmental protection, which is why green entrepreneurship has become increasingly popular in recent years. With the intensification of policy guidance, a new “sea area” named green entrepreneurship ushers in more and more “treasure hunters” exploring “the treasure” therein. Based on this, this paper constructs the model of “Green Ocean Treasure Hunting” for green entrepreneurial enterprises to analyze the role played by their government’s relevant policies and puts forward the research proposition of this article based on the relevant literature. On this basis, this paper chooses and analyzes a medium-sized, high-tech enterprise in China which follows a certain typical green entrepreneurial process as evidence of the propositions we have put forward.

  20. Analysis of the development and prediction of the rate of unemployment in selected countries with market and transitive economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Maca

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the presentation of findings achieved in the study of the dynamics and trends of the rate of unemployment in selected countries with market and transitive economy in the reference period 1995–2001. In addition to the description of developmental trends of analysed time series by means of trend functions of linear, quadratic, exponential, logarithmic, power and inverse types their informative ability was verified as a starting base for the realization of point prediction of investigated events for 2005. With given 95% probability, minimum and maximum values are determined of the evaluated macroeconomic indicator for a defined time horizon.

  1. Credit Risk Determinants in the Vulnerable Economies of Europe: Evidence from the Spanish Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila-Gourgoura, E.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of non-performing loans in the Spanish banking system over the period 1997Q4–2015Q3. This timeframe includes not only the booming period for the Spanish economy but also an extended post-crises interval which is missing from other studies for Spain. Design/methodology/approach: Using quarterly data from the Central Bank of Spain and from the European Central Bank, the paper employs the ARDL approach to cointegration to identify the existence of a long or short-run relationship between NPLs and a set of macroeconomic, bank-related and country-specific indicators. Findings: Findings from the ARDL model indicate that macroeconomic, bank-specific variables and interest rates are important determinants of non-performing loans in the Spanish banking system. Specifically, the real GDP, the Spanish long-term government bond yield, the return on equity, the total credit granted by the Spanish banks and their capital to assets ratio, explain credit risk in Spain both in the short and the long run. Research limitations/implications: Data on the bank-specific variables are for the whole banking industry, and not for individual banks. If such data were available, a comparison of the credit risk determinants between small/ big banks, private/public or domestic/foreign could be possibly made. Originality/value: These findings provide useful evidence to bank managers and policymakers in dealing with loans' defaults in Spain and in undertaking crucial reforms to stabilize the economy.

  2. Insurance as an adaptation strategy for extreme weather events indeveloping countries and economies in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2004-06-30

    The insurance industry can play a material role indecreasing the vulnerability of developing countries and economies intransition to weather-related natural disasters while simultaneouslysupporting both its own market-based objectives and the objectives ofsustainable development. Although insurance is not a "silver bullet" forthe problems posed by natural disasters in emerging markets,public-private partnerships can enhance insurance's ability to spread therisks and manage the costs of weather-related disasters as well as toincrease the pool of people who have access to coverage. (For simplicityin this report, the phrase "emerging markets" is intended to encompassdeveloping countries and economies in transition.) Promising strategiesfor emerging markets involve establishing innovative products and systemsfor delivering insurance and using technologies and practices that bothreduce vulnerability to disaster-related insurance losses and supportsustainable development (including reducing greenhouse gas emissions).These strategies can enhance sustainable development efforts and increasethe insurability of risks, making insurance markets in emerging marketsmore viable. Emerging markets are especially vulnerable to extremeweather events, which impede development by causing physical damage,compromising human and ecosystem health, diverting scarce resources todisaster relief and recovery, and deterring future investment andinsurance availability by amplifying the risks faced by foreigninterests. An average of 300 million people are affected or killed eachyear by weather-related disasters in emerging markets. Characteristics ofemerging markets contributing to their particular vulnerability incontrast to developed nations include: greater frequency of poverty;weaker lifelines (transportation, communication, utilities, emergencyresponse, and hospitals); poorer quality of construction and absence ofor deficiencies in building codes and other regulations; and

  3. A comparative history of commercial transition in three West African slave trading economies, 1630 to 1860

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalrymple-Smith, Angus

    2017-01-01

    The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a

  4. Substances of very high concern and the transition to a circular economy : An initial inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar PNH; Janssen N; de Poorter LRM; Bodar CWM; VSP; MSP

    2017-01-01

    Reuse and recycling of products are key elements in a circular economy. This exploratory RIVM study shows that a great number of waste streams may contain various substances of very high concern (ZZS), which may hamper safe recycling options in the Netherlands. RIVM recommends an adequate risk

  5. A comparative history of commercial transition in three West African slave trading economies, 1630 to 1860

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalrymple-Smith, Angus

    2017-01-01

    The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were

  6. Investing in Youth: Tunisia. "Strengthening the Employability of Youth during the Transition to a Green Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  7. Evaluation of in-use fuel economy and on-board emissions for hybrid and regular CyRide transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the in-use fuel economy and emission differences between hybrid-electric and : conventional transit buses for the Ames, Iowa transit authority, CyRide. These CyRide buses were deployed in the fall of : 20...

  8. Transition to market economy promotes individualistic values: Analysing changes in frequencies of Russian words from 1980 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovsky, Boris B; Solovyev, Valery D; Bochkarev, Vladimir V; Ishkineeva, Farida F

    2017-01-11

    Google Books Ngram was used to assess changes in frequency of usage in words corresponding to collectivistic and individualistic values in Russia during the time of economic changes. It was found that in many domains transition to market economy was associated with a rise in the use of words corresponding to individualistic values and a decrease in the use of words associated with collectivistic values. In several cases, words corresponding to collectivistic terms were used more often than words corresponding to individualistic values. The results suggest that economic changes lead to a change in values structure, but that individualistic and collectivistic values can co-exist because of the transitional sate of the Russian society. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. The effects of global shocks on small commodity-exporting economies: New evidence from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Charnavoki, Valery; Dolado, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structural dynamic factor model of a small commodity-exporting economy using Canada as a representative case study. Combining large panel data sets of the global and Canadian economies, we first identify those demand and supply shocks that explain most of the volatility in real commodity prices. Next we quantify their dynamic effects on a wide variety of variables for this economy. We are able to reproduce all the main stylized facts documented in the literature about bu...

  10. Challenges of Tagging Goods in Supply Chains and a Cloud Perspective with Focus on Some Transitional Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Bauk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers some of the barriers in implementing the RFID (radio frequency identification technology for identifying, locating, tracking and tracing goods in supply chains, along with a model for adopting cloud services that can mitigate these obstacles in the transitional environment. The analysis is based on the assessments of the implementation impediments, given by the experts in the field of logistics: university professors, assistants and entrepreneurs from three Western Balkan countries (Montenegro, Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since the professionals’ assessments are influenced by their experiences from the transitional economies, which are faced with limited abilities to invest in expensive business information systems, the main hypothesis is that moving the logistics into the cloud may resolve or at least alleviate the considered problems. On the basis of the available secondary literature resources on pros and cons of RFID implementation into supply chains, and the statistical analysis of the consciously completed questionnaires in the survey, the model for adopting cloud services for providing RFID-enabled goods and related activities in the considered economies is proposed at a logical level. The paper also gives some directions for further research work in this domain.

  11. Mapping the Typology of Transition Systems in a Liberal Market Economy: The Case of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christine Helen; Wheelahan, Leesa; Moodie, Gavin; Beaulieu, Jacqueline; Taylor-Cline, Jean-Claude

    2018-01-01

    This research explores links between tertiary education institutions and between tertiary education and the labour market as determinants of provincial and national transition patterns in Canada. The study consists of a provincial analysis that maps the typology of transition systems across Canada's devolved federated tertiary education structure.…

  12. Towards a green urban economy? Unravelling urban sustainability transitions from a regime perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.; Meerow, S.

    2012-01-01

    The current debate about sustainability transitions has embraced the multi-level perspective as a useful methodological tool for assessing the dynamics that are at play between landscape, regime and niche. As a consequence, the thinking about socio-technical transitions has gradually shifted in

  13. Climate change policy and the transition to a low-carbon economy

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Energy is of fundamental importance for modern industrialised economies. Access to affordable energy is vital for the services we enjoy – from keeping warm to cooking our food, the ability to travel to providing entertainment. In recent years, policy concerns about the availability, security and affordability of energy have once again risen up the agenda. Energy prices have risen dramatically, and the UK has returned to the club of net energy importers after twenty years in which production e...

  14. The Japanese Financial Sector's Transition from High Growth to the 'Lost Decades': A Market Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wataru Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at Japan's experience in transforming its financial system. While the country is considered a model of successful Asian economic development, it has encountered many difficulties as introducing market economy. During the 1960s and 1970s, Japan experienced high economic growth, contributed by its regulated financial sector. Cooperation among the government, banks and corporations created a strong system, in which main banks played an important role. They supported companies an...

  15. Six-week transition to minimalist shoes improves running economy and time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated if gradually introducing runners to minimalist shoes during training improved running economy and time-trial performance compared to training in conventional shoes. Changes in stride rate, stride length, footfall pattern and ankle plantar-flexor strength were also investigated. Randomised parallel intervention trial. 61 trained runners gradually increased the amount of running performed in either minimalist (n=31) or conventional (n=30) shoes during a six-week standardised training program. 5-km time-trial performance, running economy, ankle plantar-flexor strength, footfall pattern, stride rate and length were assessed in the allocated shoes at baseline and after training. Footfall pattern was determined from the time differential between rearfoot and forefoot (TD R-F ) pressure sensors. The minimalist shoe group improved time-trial performance (effect size (ES): 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.48; p=0.046) and running economy (ES 0.48; 95%CI: 0.22, 0.74; pshoe group. There were no minimalist shoe training effects on ankle plantar-flexor concentric (ES: 0.11; 95%CI: -0.18, 0.41; p=0.45), isometric (ES: 0.23; 95%CI: -0.17, 0.64; p=0.25), or eccentric strength (ES: 0.24; 95%CI: -0.17, 0.65; p=0.24). Minimalist shoes caused large reductions in TD R-F (ES: 1.03; 95%CI: 0.65, 1.40; pshoes had no effect on stride rate (ES: 0.04; 95%CI: -0.08, 0.16; p=0.53) or length (ES: 0.06; 95%CI: -0.06, 0.18; p=0.35). Gradually introducing minimalist shoes over a six-week training block is an effective method for improving running economy and performance in trained runners. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Youth Unemployment, Labor Market Transitions, and Scarring : Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2001-04

    OpenAIRE

    Tiongson, Erwin R.; Fares, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Relatively little is known about youth unemployment and its lasting consequences in transition economies, despite the difficult labor market adjustment experienced by these countries over the past decade. The authors examine early unemployment spells and their longer-term effects among the youth in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), where the labor market transition is made more difficult by th...

  17. Transforming Industry Landscapein Response to the Transition of the Economy – The Case of the Russian Bakery Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Smirnova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous emerging markets have undergone or are still undergoing substantial transition processes. The aim of this paper is to provide, on the example of the Russian bakery industry, a deeper understanding of and a longitudinal perspective on how the transition process and institutional changes in the economy are reflected in the evolution of an industry. The changes at the industry level have been driven not only by the economic transition, but also by strategic choices of market players. These choices are linked to the intensity and nature of the intra-industry rivalry and finding a new balance of cooperation and competition in the industry. The study aims to contribute to the literature by providing a rich contextual understanding of the industry evolution over the transition period. We apply classic industry analysis to investigating the key driving forces of competition. On the other hand, we focus on the manner in which industry players select a governance mechanism, replacing the previous centrally planned system. The findings of the study demonstrate persistent heterogeneity within the selected industry, resulting in substantial differences in the nature and the process of industry evolution.

  18. What Causes Inflation in a Post Communist Economy? Evidence from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Mamo Bekana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of inflation for a post communist economy, in the long run as well as in the short run, using time series evidence from Ethiopia and applying the Johnson co integration and Error Correction Mechanisms. A vivid observation of the results shows that the short run determinants of inflation are broad money supply, growth of domestic gross product, real interest rate, budget deficit, Exchange rate, inflation expectation and world price movements. The result of the long run model after co integration is proved using the residual based ducky fuller test and the Johnson co integration tests revealed that broad money supply, government budget deficit, exchange rate and inflation expectation are found to be the major determinants of inflation. The result shows that domestic gross product growth rate has no effect on inflation. To curb inflation, therefore, policy makers need to implement prudential fiscal and monetary policy tools. Inflation expectations need to be tackled by way of transparent and well informed government policies to change consumer perception. Concerning this, it is important to consider targeting monetary and fiscal policy variables and appropriately implanting the set targets.

  19. Theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Rivera, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Waste is a cost of doing business. This cost can be considered in terms of the potential adverse health and environmental impacts, or the waste management costs associated with avoiding, minimizing, and controlling those impacts. There is an anticipated increase in the cost of waste management as a result of the increasing requirements for regulatory compliance. To meet the total waste management capacity needs of the organization and the compliance requirements, low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste management will need demonstrated technologies strategically managed as a technology portfolio. The role of the decision maker is to select the optimum mix of technologies and facilities to provide the waste management capacity needed for the next twenty years. The waste management system resulting from this mix includes multiple small-scale fixed facilities, large-scale centralized facilities, and waste management subcontracts. This study was conducted to examine the theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems as as exploratory research on the economic considerations in the process of technology selection and implementation. 25 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Resource Complementarity and IT Economies of Scale : Mechanisms and Empirical Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, Ulco; Berghout, Egon; Tan, Chee; Dedene, Guido; Eekeren van, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Although IT has become increasingly commoditized, its cost-effective application remains cumbersome. In this study, we explore economies of scale for IT infrastructure and application services. An in-depth appreciation of economies of scale is imperative for an adequate understanding of the impact

  1. Multinational companies from transition economies and their outward foreign direct investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-12-01

    Econometric testing shows that push factors are major determinants of OFDI. The results demonstrate that OFDI is determined by the home country's level of economic development, the size of its home market, and its rate of growth as well as technological variables: OFDI decreases with an increase in the number of scientists in the home economy and with an increase in the share of high-tech products in overall exports, exhibiting a negative technological gap. A lagged relationship between OFDI and previous inward FDI suggests that Mathews’ linkage-leverage-learning theory is relevant in the case of PTEs.

  2. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (preforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing deforestation and enhancing forest growth.

  3. Financial integration and financial development in transition economies: What happens during financial crises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Masten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the role of financial development and financial integration in the growth dynamics of transition countries. We focus on the role of financial integration in determining the impact of financial development on growth, distinguishing “normal times” from periods of financial crises. In addition to confirming the significant positive effect on growth exerted by financial development and financial integration, our estimates show that a higher degree of financial openness tends to reduce the contractionary effect of financial crises, by cushioning the effect on the domestic supply of credit. Consequently, the high reliance on international capital flows by transition countries does not necessarily increase their financial fragility. This implies that financial protectionism is a self-defeating policy, at least for transition countries.

  4. Tourism and the Sharing Economy. An Evidence from Airbnb Usage in Italy and Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Cesarani, Maurizio; Nechita, Florin

    2017-01-01

    Tourism in the era of the sharing economy adopts a model based on a global concept with a local practice. The traditional tourism offer is based on the attractiveness of a destination, expressed by a system of characteristics of the destination itself and a range of services related to accommodation, transport and food. The tourism model of sharing economy, instead, is based on the development of shared services that stimulate the flows of tourists. Traditional destinations are then alongside...

  5. Financing the low-carbon transition in a fragile world economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    An unfavorable economic situation will hinder the launching of the 'low-carbon transition' in compliance with an increase of approximately 2 deg. C - the official goal set by the international community for global warming. Reversing the perspective, this transition is seen, herein, as the grounds for a 'sustainable' growth based on a monetary policy that ties the emission of liquidities to investments in low-carbon facilities. 'Climate remediation [sic] assets' with a social value set by an agreement in the framework of the Convention on the Climate are discussed

  6. The Role of Innovation in Fostering Competitiveness and Economic Growth: Evidence from Developing Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Lejla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the essential features determining the role of innovation in developing economies by examining the structure of innovation measures. The economic growth and competitiveness of developing economies are powerfully connected to its innovation status. The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of innovation in driving economic growth per capita and competitiveness in selected developing economies. In order to determine the interconnection among the variables of innovation, competitiveness, and growth, assorted methodological measurement instruments have been applied. The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The results suggest the importance of specific innovation dimensions for prospective economic growth in developing economies. The identical measures responsible for fragile innovation are associated to the low composite measures of innovation accomplishment. This demonstrates the enormous disparity concentrated in every innovation aspect over time, specifically in innovation output and enterprise performances between the developing economies and the EU-28 average measures. The research results indicate the usage of appropriate economic instruments in diminishing the problems that developing economies are currently dealing with.

  7. Evidence of Incipient Forest Transition in Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990–2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000–2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing

  8. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Abel Vaca

    Full Text Available Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC. This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001 overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through

  9. The effect of female labour force in economic growth and sustainability in transition economies - case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: female labour force participation in transition countries, female employment in economic sectors and their main barriers, and the contributions of female labour force in economic growth. In methodology, the secondary data are used, and they are calculated through STATA program. The main analysis include: descriptive statistic, regression analysis and correlation matrix. Based on empirical results, the regression analysis has found that economic growth and government effectiveness has a negative impact on female labour force. Financial market development, enterprises reforms, and innovation have a positive impact on female labour force in SEE (South Eastern European countries. In T-statistic analysis all independent variables have shown a negative significance (T <2 on female labour force. In correlation, economic growth and financial development market have negative correlation on female labour force, but other variables have shown positive correlation. SEE countries should develop the female labour force in their economies, so their role may be crucial toward different economic problems and challenges in the modern economy.

  10. The effect of education and economic growth in the labour market in transition economies - Case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated through STATA program. The main analyses include: descriptive statistic, multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. The results of regression analysis and correlation matrix have shown that education has negative impact and negative correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation. But, economic growth has shown positive impact and positive correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation and all variables that are including in T-statistical analysis have shown non - significance on labour market.

  11. The convergence dynamics of a transition economy: the case of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brůha, J.; Podpiera, Jiří; Polák, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2010), s. 116-124 ISSN 0264-9993 Grant - others:Česká národní banka(CZ) E4/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : economic transition * country modeling * convergence Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.601, year: 2010

  12. The Role of Economics in the Management Curriculum: An Analysis for the Transition Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Denton

    2002-01-01

    Using the MBA curriculum as its focus, discusses both the rationale for including economics in the program for various curricular models and the particular relevance of the subject to management students in the transition environment of Central and Eastern European countries. (EV)

  13. The Hydrogen Economy Making the Transition to the Third Industrial Revolution and a New Energy Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremy Rifkin

    2006-01-01

    Jeremy Rifkin is the author of the international best seller, The Hydrogen Economy, which has been translated into fourteen languages. It is the most widely read book in the world on the future of renewable energy and the hydrogen economy. In his presentation on 'The Hydrogen Economy', Mr. Rifkin takes us on an eye-opening journey into the next great commercial era in history. He envisions the dawn of a new economy powered by hydrogen that will fundamentally change the nature of our market, political and social institutions, just as coal and steam power did at the beginning of the industrial age. Rifkin observes that we are fast approaching a critical watershed for the fossil-fuel era, with potentially dire consequences for industrial civilization. Experts had been saying that we had another forty or so years of cheap available crude oil left. Now, however, some of the world's leading petroleum geologists are suggesting that global oil production could peak and begin a steep decline much sooner, as early as the second decade of the 21. century. Non-OPEC oil producing countries are already nearing their peak production, leaving most of the remaining reserves in the politically unstable Middle East. Increasing tensions between Islam and the West are likely to further threaten our access to affordable oil. In desperation, the U.S. and other nations could turn to dirtier fossil-fuels, coal, tar sand, and heavy oil, which will only worsen global warming and imperil the earth's already beleaguered ecosystems. Looming oil shortages make industrial life vulnerable to massive disruptions and possibly even collapse. While the fossil-fuel era is entering its sunset century, a new energy regime is being born that has the potential to remake civilization along radical new lines, according to Rifkin. Hydrogen is the most basic and ubiquitous element in the universe. It is the stuff of the stars and of our sun and, when properly harnessed, it is the 'forever fuel'. It never runs

  14. The Hydrogen Economy Making the Transition to the Third Industrial Revolution and a New Energy Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Rifkin

    2006-07-01

    Jeremy Rifkin is the author of the international best seller, The Hydrogen Economy, which has been translated into fourteen languages. It is the most widely read book in the world on the future of renewable energy and the hydrogen economy. In his presentation on 'The Hydrogen Economy', Mr. Rifkin takes us on an eye-opening journey into the next great commercial era in history. He envisions the dawn of a new economy powered by hydrogen that will fundamentally change the nature of our market, political and social institutions, just as coal and steam power did at the beginning of the industrial age. Rifkin observes that we are fast approaching a critical watershed for the fossil-fuel era, with potentially dire consequences for industrial civilization. Experts had been saying that we had another forty or so years of cheap available crude oil left. Now, however, some of the world's leading petroleum geologists are suggesting that global oil production could peak and begin a steep decline much sooner, as early as the second decade of the 21. century. Non-OPEC oil producing countries are already nearing their peak production, leaving most of the remaining reserves in the politically unstable Middle East. Increasing tensions between Islam and the West are likely to further threaten our access to affordable oil. In desperation, the U.S. and other nations could turn to dirtier fossil-fuels, coal, tar sand, and heavy oil, which will only worsen global warming and imperil the earth's already beleaguered ecosystems. Looming oil shortages make industrial life vulnerable to massive disruptions and possibly even collapse. While the fossil-fuel era is entering its sunset century, a new energy regime is being born that has the potential to remake civilization along radical new lines, according to Rifkin. Hydrogen is the most basic and ubiquitous element in the universe. It is the stuff of the stars and of our sun and, when properly harnessed, it is the &apos

  15. Reforms and Economic Growth in Transition Economies: Complementarity, Sequencing and Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Staehr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effects of sequencing and reform speed on output performance in transition countries. These largely unsettled issues are addressed using principal component techniques to construct reform clusters and by explicit tests of speed effects. The results indicate that broad-based reforms are good for output growth, but so is a policy of liberalisation and small-scale privatisation without structural reforms. Conversely, large-scale privatisation without adjoining reforms, market opening without supporting reforms and bank liberalisation without enterprise restructuring affect growth negatively. Swift reform policies allow transition countries to benefit from higher growth for longer time. The speed of reforms appears otherwise to have little effect on growth in the short and medium term.

  16. Poverty and Inequality in Eastern Europe and the CIS Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaly Simai

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the causes and consequences of inequality and poverty in the countries east of the new frontiers of the European Union, mainly with the CIS countries. Poverty and inequalities in the former socialist countries were partly mitigated by the social policies of the state. The transition processes, however, have resulted in new distributions of income and wealth. The new structural sources of poverty and inequalities have often been more extreme. Some CIS countries have moder...

  17. Transition to Market Economy in Eastern Europe: Interest groups and political institutions in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Esben Bergmann; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the causes of the incoherent reformprogram in Russia in the last decade. It argues that the slow and partial policies can be attributed to a viscous combination of lobbyism and constitutional design. Because the post-communist transitions after 1989 were non-violent "velvet r...... out comprehensive economic reforms. Free trade with the West and potential competition may put pressure on the old state monopolies. However, lobbies in the European Union may oppose free trade to maintain their monopoly....

  18. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  19. REGIONAL PERFORMANCES IN THE CONTEXT OF A TRANSITION TOWARDS THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY: STRUCTURING THE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrinel Elena COTAE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the Europe 2020 strategy, a new economic concept aiming to provide a sustainable development pathway by transforming the production cycle and optimizing the use of resources becomes more and more promising. Toiling with the current sustenance issues of the widespread linear “take-make-waste” economic model, the circular economy concept promises to generate major economic, societal and environmental changes, by enabling an integrated recirculation of resources in the value chains. This paper elaborates an approach to capture the multidimensionality of the concept by developing an adaptable assessment framework to support further empirical analysis and potential implementation actions. Defined as CMEF framework, the proposed taxonomy aligns with constructs characterising sustainability science, addressing a prospective and an operational dimension. In this regard, the integrated propositional analysis is used to enforce the duality of the model, ensuring a broad understanding of the conceptual background, while providing the decision making organisms with tools to identify the priorities and real chances of success.

  20. A phased transition to a market adjustment of the pseudo model of Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Komkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a phased reform of the economic model of Russia. In less than one century, Russia was in the extreme conditions of the model economy: the developed socialism (1917 and perfect capitalism (1991. Within each of them there was the instability of socio-economic development: economic recovery alternated recession and huge reserves of natural resources and to develop and use of land is not always effective. At each extremity of the selection was based largely on the current political aims and attitudes formed by various social groups. Russia achieved the economic situation and the prevailing socio-economic model of many subjected to fair criticism. To improve it proposes a phased approach to reform, when the main focus is on "how" to move to a new state. The approach is based on consideration of the scenario approach to the reform of the basic components of the economic model that involves the formation of a better scenario analysis and evaluation of the expert community the degree of closeness of planned versions of the model national development objectives of the country.

  1. The economy and loss given default: evidence from two UK retail lending data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Mindy Leow; Christophe Mues; Lyn Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Loss given default (LGD) models predict losses as a proportion of the outstanding loan, in the event a debtor goes into default. The literature on corporate sector LGD models suggests LGD is correlated to the economy and so changes in the economy could translate into different predictions of losses. In this work, the role of macroeconomic variables in loan-level retail LGD models is examined by testing the inclusion of macroeconomic variables in two different retail LGD models: a two-stage mo...

  2. What governs the transition to a sustainable hydrogen economy? Articulating the relationship between technologies and political institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisschemoeller, Matthijs; Bode, Ries; Kerkhof, Marleen van de

    2006-01-01

    There is a lack of integrated knowledge on the transition to a sustainable energy system. The paper focuses on the relationship between technologies and institutions in the field of hydrogen from the perspective of political theory. The paper unfolds four paradigms of governance: 'Governance by policy networking', Governance by government', 'Governance by corporate business', and 'Governance by challenge', and looks into the major line of argument in support of these paradigms and into their possible bias with respect to hydrogen options. Each of these paradigms reveals an institutional bias in that it articulates specific opportunities for collaboration and competition in order to stimulate the transition to a sustainable hydrogen economy. The paper makes the observation that there is a compelling need to reframe fashionable discourse such as the necessary shift from government to governance or from government to market. Instead, specific questions with respect to the impact of guiding policy frameworks on innovation will highlight that neither 'neutral' nor 'optimal' frameworks for policy making exist, where competing hydrogen options are at stake. The identification of paradigms of governance maybe considered a methodological device for (participator) policy analysis

  3. The characteristics of the air pollution of a transition economy city: the example of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEKSANDRA M. ZUJIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and black smoke (BS levels in the Belgrade metropolitan area, the only pollutants measured at almost all 20 monitoring stations set up in the area, were critically analysed, the most reliable ones select and the pollution characteristics were defined in these terms. Belgrade was found to have pollution typical for a city in economical transition – still high SO2 and BS levels, with seasonal variation, while moderate NO2 levels. This is discussed in terms of sources, as well as spatial and temporal distribution.

  4. Public Policies for Career Development. Case Studies And Emerging Issues For Designing Career Information And Guidance Systems In Developing And Transition Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Fretwell, David H.

    2004-01-01

    The following pages summarize the findings of seven case-studies of public policy in career guidance carried out in Chile, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Turkey. The objectives of this World Bank study were: to identify and describe the distinctive issues faced by developing and transition economies in forming effective…

  5. The political determinants of executive compensation : Evidence from an emerging economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Hao; Renneboog, Luc; Li Sun, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    In regulated economies, corporate governance mechanisms such as executive compensation are less driven by market-based forces but more subject to political influence. We study the political determinants of executive compensation for all listed Chinese firms in the context of an exogenous shock that

  6. The Economic Effect of Education in an Information Technology-Penetrating Economy: Evidence from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Wai

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the economic effect of education in terms of its impact on the earnings of workers in an information technology (IT)-diffusing economy, based on data from Hong Kong's 2006 by-census and survey on the usage and penetration of IT in industries. Education enhances the productivity of workers and increases their lifetime incomes.…

  7. Exports and Innovation in Emerging Economies : Firm-Level Evidence from South-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannoorenberghe, Gonzague

    2015-01-01

    Using a new dataset on the innovation and exports of 500 South African firms, this paper asks whether exports affect rm innovation in the context of an emerging economy. We use a range of particularly attractive features of the dataset. Firms not only report whether they innovated but describe their

  8. The level of the shadow economy, tax evasion and corruption: The empirical evidence for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmani Rufi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic theory and practice of developed countries have shown that the good functioning of market economies requires the existence of stable institutions that are effective in the application of legal rules as a precondition for the proper functioning of the economic and fiscal system.

  9. SPORT FOR ALL AND RECREATION IN THE SOCIETY TRANSITION AND MARKET ECONOMY CIRCUMSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budimir Bijelić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Society transition from one organizational system to another always results in great changes within almost all segments of functioning of a preceding ensemble. Organizational changes represent a mode of how any single organization can overcome imbalance and crisis emerged. Organizational changes are commonly caused by imbalance or more precisely disturbance of balance occurred between organizations and surroundings and even within the organization itself. Causes, substance and process of organizational changes represent the three major components to the model of organizational changes. For every single organization (incl. SPORT FOR ALL it is essential to identify its future position and specify a mode of implementing necessary changes and improvements SPORT FOR ALL organizations and recreation have to conceive and outline these changes which will, as the basis for animation and reception of the participants, have open market opportunities and cooperation in wider regional terms.

  10. The role of bonding and bridging cognitive social capital in shaping entrepreneurial intention in transition economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Vuković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is an important factor of potential growth and development that will determine the development dynamics of transition countries in the future. Starting from the theory of planned behaviour and the social cognition theory, the paper argues that bonding and bridging cognitive social capital may positively influence entrepreneurial intentions of young people in Croatia and Macedonia. The hypotheses were tested by using structural equation modelling. Our findings indicate that bridging and bonding social capital could be significant enhancers of entrepreneurial intention. The fact that those individuals who have poor bonding social capital may get their chance through bridging social capital seems as a good indicator. Bridging social capital that forms in an entrepreneurial environment can encourage young people in their self-employment efforts. Furthermore, our research implies several possible measures of enhancing the efficiency of entrepreneurial education.

  11. IMPORTANCE OF MAKING STRATEGIC DECISIONS IN COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION AND CONNECTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY GENERALLY SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN POPOVIĆ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The accession of a number of transition countries of the EU, such as the Republic of Serbia, essentially means the adoption of strategic decisions at the state level in the context of wider EU decision. The authors based their observations on the EU 2020 strategy, which is essentially defined as: smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The EU has adopted the basic principles of 2010, with the main objective to economic growth throughout the EU based on knowledge, but with respect for the principles of environmental protection, increasing employment, and increase in other basic principles of economics of the company to the state. You could say that the entire system such observations cohesion productivity growth economies of EU member states and social cohesion and socially responsible behavior. This approach was incurred because there is a need of constant adjustment economies member changes at the global level. Notwithstanding the universal adaptation of all EU member states, however, one part remained reserved for a special adjustment of each member country (it depends on the specific characteristics of each country to adapt in accordance with national goals adopted by any government of a Member State specifically for your country, through national development plans, plans of adjustment and reform plans. The consequences of the Great Depression are highly visible and in early 2016, particularly in terms of rising unemployment, rising unemployment especially of young people in all old EU member states. The responsibility for this state of affairs is not only the governments of member states, but responsibility must be sought from the representatives of big business, trade unions, associations, non-governmental organizations and all other stakeholders who have imposed in the decision-making processes, and in a crisis to minimize its impact, because it does not response. At the end of the aforementioned macro effects should be seen in the

  12. The evolution of bank credit quality in transition : theory and evidence from Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Carare, O.

    1996-01-01

    The paper develops a simple theoretical framework of financial discipline during the stabilization of a transition economy, from which it derives an empirical measure to assess whether the banking sector has started to act as a source of financial discipline, or just as a temporary buffer for

  13. Employment determination in enterprises under communism and in transition: evidence from Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basu, S.; Estrin, S.; Švejnar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2005), s. 353-369 ISSN 0019-7939 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : employment determination * transition economies * Central Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.967, year: 2005 http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi? article =1130&context=ilrreview

  14. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995-2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies.

  15. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995–2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies. PMID:27490847

  16. Integrating the dark side of competition into explanations of business failures: Evidence from a developing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Antwi-Agyei, Issek; Zhang, Hongxu

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the growing body of literature on the bright side of inter-firm relationships, limited attention has been paid to the dark side of inter-firm relationships. Using insights of serial entrepreneurs in a developing economy, we articulate the mechanisms through which adverse rumours and misinformation perpetrated by rivals' firms undermine small businesses and lead to decline and eventual collapse. We uncovered that the rumours were made more potent when combined with other factors su...

  17. Small Business Critical Success/Failure Factors In Developing Economies: Some Evidences From Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Zelealem T. Temtime; J. Pansiri

    2004-01-01

    Although the discovery of diamond has propelled Botswana from one of the poorest countries in 1966 to its current economic status as a middle-income country, the country still faces the problems of economic diversification, employment creation, income generation and distribution and poverty alleviation. Governmental and non- Governmental organizations have put many efforts on the development of small and medium Enterprises (SMEs) to diversify the economy away from mining, to create jobs, gene...

  18. Survey evidence on the willingness of U.S. consumers to pay for automotive fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Evans, David H.; Hiestand, John

    2013-01-01

    Prospect theory holds that human beings faced with a risky bet will tend to value potential losses about twice as much as potential gains. Previous research has demonstrated that prospect theory could be sufficient to explain an energy paradox in the market for automotive fuel economy. This paper analyzes data from questions added to four commercial, multi-client surveys of 1000 U.S. households each in 2004, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Households were asked about willingness to pay for future fuel savings as well as the annual fuel savings necessary to justify a given upfront payment. Payback periods inferred from household responses are generally consistent over time and across different formulations of questions. Mean calculated payback periods are about 3 years, but there is substantial dispersion among individual responses. The calculated payback periods do not appear to be correlated with the attributes of respondents. Respondents were able to quantitatively describe their uncertainty about both vehicle fuel economy and future fuel prices. Simulation of loss averse behavior based on respondents’ stated uncertainty illustrates how loss aversion could lead consumers to substantially undervalue future fuel savings relative to their expected value. - Highlights: • Payback periods were calculated from stated willingness to pay for fuel savings in 4 US surveys. • US car buyers expect payback in 3 years in order to pay more for increased fuel economy. • Respondents’ payback periods are uncorrelated with their socio-economic attributes. • Survey respondents consider fuel economy ratings and future fuel prices highly uncertain. • The survey results are consistent with the behavioral economic principle of loss aversion

  19. Why is the wage share falling in emerging economies? Industry level evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Guschanski, Alexander; Onaran, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an econometric analysis of the wage share in seven emerging economies. We focus on the effect of globalisation, captured by participation in global value chains and financial integration, indicators of bargaining power of labour and technological change on the wage share. We use input-output tables that allow us to obtain detailed measures of global value chain participation, and sectoral data to distinguish the effect on high- and low-skilled workers and within manufact...

  20. Transitioning towards a low-carbon economy in Mexico: an application of the ThreeME model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastelum Rivera, Dennis; Gutierrez Garcia, Jorge; Hernandez Amezcua, Thalia; Inclan Acevedo, Carolina; Islas Cortes, Ivan; Landa, Gissela; Reynes, Frederic; Grazi, Fabio; Bellocq, Francois-Xavier

    2015-11-01

    This document offers an empirical application of the notion of energy transition to the Mexican economy and it takes the next step of simulating medium- and long-term impacts of proposed and future energy and fiscal policy on the environment and the Mexican economy. The starting point of the analysis is the ThreeME framework, a Multi-sectoral Macroeconomic Model based on Keynesian theory. It is designed to address the dynamics of global economic activity, energy system development and carbon emissions causing climate change. The ThreeME model is well-suited for policy assessment purposes in the context of developing economies as it informs the transitional effects of policy intervention. In particular, disequilibrium can arise in the form of involuntary unemployment, the inertia of technical systems and rigidity in labor and energy markets as a result of delayed market clearing in the goods markets and slow adjustment between prices and quantities over the simulation time path. Calibrated to updated sectoral and aggregated national accounts data, a Mexican version of the ThreeME has been developed and accounts for 24 commodities - including 3 energy sources - and 32 sectors, with an explicit distinction between 11 energy sectors and 7 transport sectors. Electricity production is dis-aggregated into 9 technologies: hydro, geothermal, wind, solar, biomass, nuclear, coal-based, oil-based and gas-based. The ThreeME-Mexico model is used to gauge the economic and environmental effects of energy and fiscal policy measures in Mexico (namely the phasing-out of energy subsidies and the implementation of a carbon tax). Different policy scenarios are assessed, each reflecting a different strategy of fiscal revenue recycling. We consider fiscal policy (in the form of carbon taxation) for Mexico's energy transition and simulate how alternative government schemes for transferring tax revenues impact the Mexican economy and its carbon emissions. The level of the carbon tax is

  1. The role of confidence in the evolution of the Spanish economy: empirical evidence from an ARDL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Castellanos García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to verify the existence and to determine the nature of long-term relationships between economic agents’ confidence, measured by the Economic Sentiment Index (ESI, with some of the "fundamentals" of the Spanish economy. In particular, by modeling this type of relations, we try to determine whether confidence is a dependent (explained or independent (explanatory variable. Along with confidence, in our model we incorporate variables such as risk premium of sovereign debt, financial market volatility, unemployment, inflation, public and private debt and the net lending/net borrowing of the economy. For the purpose of obtaining some empirical evidence on the exogenous or endogenous character of the above mentioned variables an ARDL (Autoregressive-Distributed Lag model is formulated. The model is estimated with quarterly data of the Spanish economy for the period 1990-2012. Our findings suggest that: (a unemployment is the dependent variable, (b there is an inverse relationship between ESI in Spain and unemployment; and (c the Granger causality goes from confidence to unemployment.

  2. Selection Bias in Educational Transition Models: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads

    Most studies using Mare’s (1980, 1981) seminal model of educational transitions find that the effect of family background decreases across transitions. Recently, Cameron and Heckman (1998, 2001) have argued that the “waning coefficients” in the Mare model are driven by selection on unobserved...... the United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, and the Netherlands shows that when we take selection into account the effect of family background variables on educational transitions is largely constant across transitions. We also discuss several difficulties in estimating educational transition models which...

  3. How community-level social and economic developments have changed the patterns of substance use in a transition economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhao Y

    2017-07-01

    Most social changes take place at the community level before indirectly affecting individuals. Although the contextual effect is far-reaching, few studies have investigated the important questions of: how do community-level developments affect drinking and smoking, and how do they change the existing gender and income patterns of drinking and smoking, particularly in transition economies? In this study, I used a Chinese panel dataset between 1991 and 2011 to reveal the moderating effects of community developments. Through multilevel growth curve modeling that controls for age, period, and cohort effects, as well as individual- and community-level covariates, I found that community-level economic development and social development are negatively associated with drinking and smoking. Moreover, economic and social developments also moderate the important influences of income and gender: women start to drink more in communities with higher economic development; the traditionally positive association between income and smoking/drinking is also reversed, i.e. the rich start to smoke and drink less in communities with higher social development. This study concludes that the rapid changes in communal social and economic structures have created new health disparities based on the gender and socioeconomic hierarchy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. When does FDI have positive spillovers? Evidence from 17 emerging market economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, D.

    -, č. 74 (2007), s. 1-23 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * spillovers * transition * efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/61183

  5. Pollution taxes as a source of budgetary revenues in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.

    1995-01-01

    In environmental policy, as in other fields, the best is often the enemy of the good. Poland's pollution tax system, as described in this chapter is an example of this dictum. In violation of the usual tenets of public economics (Pigovian taxes, no earmarking), the country imposes a wide variety of pollution taxes (at lower than Pigovian levels) whose revenues feed various environmental funds that finance abatement, conservation projects, and the clean-up of past environmental neglect. The earmarking mechanism shields the revenues from being diverted to other 'worthy' purposes. Although the funds have not brought about an ecological miracle, the pollution tax system has become an effective mechanism for funding environmental investment and ecological recovery - despite some doubts as to the system's efficiency. The system accounts for some 1.6% of the state budget, too little to entertain the idea of making it a source of general budgetary revenue and substantially reducing the traditional distortionary taxes on labor and capital. For the time being, the case for continuing the present arrangements, although not perfect, seems self-evident. 11 refs

  6. Openness And Inflation: Evidence From The Seven Largest Latin American Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Rutilio Martinez; Vish Iyer

    2011-01-01

    The variables of Fishers Equation of Exchange were estimated as rates of growth for the economies of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. These estimations suggest that between 1995 and 2007 for Brazil, and between 1991 and 2007 for the other nations, some inflation failed to materialize. In per-year terms, the missing inflation went from a minimum of 0.9 percentage points in Colombia and Chile, to a maximum of 7.5 percentage points in Venezuela. The missing inflati...

  7. The causal dynamics between coal consumption and growth: Evidence from emerging market economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between coal consumption and economic growth for 15 emerging market economies within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1980-2006. The heterogeneous panel cointegration results indicate there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, coal consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force. While in the long-run both real gross fixed capital formation and the labor force have a significant positive impact on real GDP, coal consumption has a significant negative impact. The panel causality tests show bidirectional causality between coal consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run. (author)

  8. Institutional quality and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the Sudanese economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the extent to which conventional methods used in the majority of relevant growth studies can successfully interpret the economic performance of a highly underdeveloped African country such as Sudan. Applying an ARDL boundstesting approach to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001, we look into the short-run as well as long-run relationships between institutional and various other key economic variables and economic growth over the period 1972-2008. The empirical results obtained suggest that, for the Sudanese economy, the quality of the institutional environment is one of the most important factors in defining economic prosperity.

  9. A multicriterial analysis of national competitiveness: Evidences for a resilient economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is structured in three parts, as follows: In the first part, we summarized the different approaches of national competitiveness in the literature on the economic performance assessment, using specific indexes: Global Competitiveness Index (GCI, Ecological Performance Index (EPI, and Human Development Index (HDI, highlighting their advantages and limitations. These variables were analyzed ante-crisis and ex-crisis, assuming that the economic recession could generate some effects. Data sources are presented at the beginning of the 'Results and discussion' paragraph. Considering the diversity of the issues and the inhomogeneity of data describing those issues, GDP was used along with the four composite indicators: GCI, EPI, HDI, and Economic Resilience Index (ERI. The third part presents the main findings and their implications. Thus, a downward trend of the evolution of Romania's economic resilience index during 2008-2014 was observed. This decline appears to be due largely to the decrease in Social development sub-index and in Governance sub-index. The low level of the Romanian economy resilience is mainly explained by the low level of competitiveness and productivity of production factors. The obtained outcomes suggest that in addition to national competitiveness assessing, ERI evaluation is important because it can reveal the hidden sources of vulnerability of the economy to external shocks.

  10. From Closed to Open Innovation in Emerging Economies: Evidence from the Chemical Industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine how firms in an emerging economy perform research and development (R&D activities in regards to the concept of open innovation. Most literature on open innovation shows multinational knowledge-intensive firms with well-established R&D processes mainly in developed countries. Searching for management contributions for firms in emerging economies, we qualitatively analyzed two chemical firms in Southern Brazil that have different profiles and are representative samples of typical firms in the region. Our results show that firms did not fully exploit the potential benefits brought by open innovation, even when complete opening was not the main goal. The firms were similar concerning interactions with partners and stages where relationships occur. The generation of ideas was an open activity performed both by firms and by clients, and interactions with universities were getting stronger. On the other hand, intellectual property has not been used as means of profiting from innovation activities. Our main finding refers to the internal mediation of relationships with partners. R&D teams rarely contact external organizations directly; instead, they leave such interactions to other departments within their firms. Relationships with clients are mediated through technical and commercial departments, and interactions with suppliers are intermediated by the supply staff.

  11. Performance Effects of Stakeholder Interaction in Emerging Economies: Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bandeira-de-Mello

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Firm survival in emerging economies is often related to having access to valuable resources that are in stakeholders‟ hands. However, the literature on strategy in emerging economies provides scant information on the efficiency of acquiring stakeholder resources and its effect on firm performance. We investigated the stakeholder interaction effects on performance of domestic firms competing in an emerging market (Wright, Filatotchev, Hoskisson, & Peng, 2005 from a contractual perspective (Williamson, 1985. We argue that interacting stakeholders in a contractual set yield synergistic governance structures that allow firms more efficient access to external resources. Using a sample of 267 firms in Brazil (secondary data, we explored different patterns in stakeholder contracting with community, government, top management, and employees. A three-stage analysis process was devised: cluster analysis, general linear model estimation and verification tests. Results suggest that stakeholder interaction has a positive impact on firm performance. The conjoint effect of government and community contracts was found to yield superior firm performance as they provide a basic structure for contracting with other interacting stakeholders.

  12. Certification as viable quality assurance mechanism in transition economies: evidence, theory, and open questions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortmann, A.; Svítková, Katarína

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2007), s. 99-114 ISSN 1210-0455 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : experience goods * quality assurance * certification Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.vse.cz/pep/abstrakt.php3?IDcl=300

  13. Certification as viable quality assurance mechanism in transition economies: evidence, theory, and open questions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortmann, Andreas; Svítková, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2007), s. 99-114 ISSN 1210-0455 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : experience goods * quality assurance * certification Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.vse.cz/pep/abstrakt.php3?IDcl=300

  14. The political economy of reforms: Empirical evidence from post- communist transition in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Byung-Yeon Kim; Jukka Pirttilä

    2003-01-01

    Using a novel data set from post-communist countries in the 1990s, this paper examines linkages between political constraints, economic reforms and growth. A dynamic panel analysis suggests public support for reform is negatively associated with income inequality and unemployment. Both the ex post and ex ante political constraints of public support affect progress in economic reform, which in turn influences economic growth. The findings highlight that while economic reforms are needed to fos...

  15. Does better environmental performance affect revenues, cost, or both? Evidence from a transition economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Earnhart, D.; Lízal, Lubomír

    -, č. 856 (2007), s. 1-44 Keywords : environmental protection * pollution * financial performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www. bus .umich.edu/KresgeLibrary/Collections/Workingpapers/wdi/wp856.pdf

  16. Investment, wages and ownership during the transition to a market economy: evidence from Slovenian firms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prašnikar, J.; Švejnar, Jan

    -, č. 4144 (2003), s. 1-52 ISSN 0265-8003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : investment * ownership * restructuring and wages Subject RIV: AH - Economics www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP4144.asp

  17. Physical description of boundary-layer transition: Experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric, William S.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of understanding the origins of turbulent flow and transition to turbulent flow are the most important unsolved problems of fluid mechanics and aerodynamics. It is well known that the stability, transition, and turbulent characteristics of bounded shear layers are fundamentally different from those of free shear layers. Likewise, the stability, transition, and turbulent characteristics of open systems are fundamentally different from those of closed systems. Because of the influence of indigenous disturbances, surface geometry and roughness, sound, heat transfer, and ablation, it is not possible to develop general prediction schemes for transition location and the nature of turbulent structures in boundary-layer flows. At the present time no mathematical model exists that can predict the transition Reynolds number on a flat plate. The recent progress in this area is encouraging, in that a number of distinct transition mechanisms have been found experimentally. The theoretical work finds them to be amplitude and Reynolds-number dependent. The theory remains rather incomplete with regard to predicting transition. Amplitude and spectral characteristics of the disturbances inside the laminar viscous layer strongly influence which type of transition occurs. The major need in this area is to understand how freestream disturbances are entrained into the boundary layer, i.e., to answer the question of receptivity. We refer receptivity to the mechanism(s) that cause freestream disturbances to enter the boundary layer and create the initial amplitudes for unstable waves.

  18. ISLANDNESS AND REMOTENESS AS RESOURCES: EVIDENCE FROM THE TOURISM PERFORMANCE OF SMALL REMOTE ISLAND ECONOMIES (SRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamnaaz B. Sufrauj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small remote island economies are known to face a number of economic challenges, in particular, in their trade relations. In addition, their geographical handicap—remoteness—enhances their vulnerability. The cost of distance is well-documented in the economics literature. This paper takes an optimistic position and puts forward the strengths of islands. It investigates the impact of remoteness and islandness on tourism performance. Remote islands are found to be well-endowed in nature and scenery which plausibly play a major role in promoting tourism. The results of an empirical analysis favour the hypothesis that nature has a positive impact on tourism performance (revealed comparative advantage and tourism demand. Interestingly while being distant is detrimental to tourism performance, being both an island and remote is favourable. Tourism demand is negatively affected by being an island, a small country, or a remote country but favoured by being a small island or a remote island.

  19. OIL MARKET, NUCLEAR ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Naser

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between oil consumption, nuclear energy consumption, oil price and economic growth in four emerging economies (Russia, China, South Korea, and India over the period from 1965 to 2010. Applying a modified version of the granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto, we find that the level of world crude oil prices (WTI plays a crucial role in determining the economic growth in the investigated countries. The results suggest that there is a unidirectional causality running from real GDP to oil consumption in China and South Korea, while bidirectional relationship between oil consumption and real GDP growth appears in India. Furthermore, the results propose that while nuclear energy stimulates economic growth in both South Korea and India, the rapid increase in China economic growth requires additional usage of nuclear energy.

  20. Growth and energy nexus in Europe revisited: Evidence from a fixed effects political economy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2013-01-01

    This is an empirical study on the causal relationship between economic growth and energy for 26 European countries in a multivariate panel framework over the period 1975–2009 using a two-way fixed effects model and including greenhouse gas emissions, capital, fossil energy consumption, Herfindahl index (political competition) and number of years the government chief executive stays in office (political stability) as independent variables in the model. Empirical results confirm bidirectional causality between growth and political stability, capital and political stability, capital and fossil energy consumption. Whether political stability favors the implementation of growth or leads to corruption demands further research. - Highlights: • Economic growth and energy for 26 European countries is examined. • Two-way fixed effects model with political economy variables is employed. • Bidirectional causality is observed between growth and political stability

  1. Banking Sector Reforms and Economic Growth: Recent Evidence from a Reform-Bound Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard O Ishioro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the banking sector reforms and economic growth using time series data from 1970 to 2013 for the Nigerian economy. Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL Bounds test was applied for the specific determination of the long and short-run relationships between banking sector reforms and economic growth. The research finds that the interest rate margin is more significant than other variables in the model in explaining the banking sector reforms and economic growth. Banking sector credit to the private sector was negative and statistically insignificant in economic growth in Nigeria. This means that the size of the banking sector does not enhance economic growth. Meanwhile, inflation is negatively and statistically significant in economic growth. The duration of banking sector reforms should be defined and strictly adhered to irrespective changes in the political administration of the country.

  2. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China.

  3. IMPACT OF INFLATION ON PER CAPITA INCOME IN EMERGING ECONOMIES: EVIDENCE FROM BRICS NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Ashraf CHISTI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to analyse the impact of Inflation on per capita income of emerging economies. In order to achieve the objective of the study the researchers have taken five major emerging countries of the world which are the members of BRICS. For the purpose of analysis, the data of thirteen years has been taken from 1999 to 2011. After employing the regression model, the results confirm that independent variable (inflation does not statistically influence the dependent variable (Per Capita Income in three countries which are India, Brazil and South Africa. However, in the other two countries (China and Russia the findings affirm the independent variable (Inflation does statistically influence the dependent variable (Per Capita Income.Therefore, it can be concluded that a change in the inflation rate can not necessarily bring a change in the per capita income of a country.

  4. Towards the Theory of monetary degradation, or Post Keynesian analysis of monetary problems of the Russian transitional economy in 1991-1998

    OpenAIRE

    ROZMAINSKY I.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops Post Keynesian theory of endogenous money and applies it to analysis of changes in monetary circulation in the Russian transitional economy in 1991-1998. These changes were characterized by displacement of bank deposits by cash, barter and inter-firm arrears as special means of payment. Author treats this process as «monetary degradation» because it created additional barriers to financing investment, made for criminalization and contributed to cost-push inflation. All this...

  5. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  6. Effect of interest rate on bank deposits: Evidences from Islamic and non-Islamic economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Mushtaq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector is the backbone of any country׳s economy and bank deposits are the major tool of success for banking sector. Bank deposits are also a major part and determinant of country׳s saving. According to economic theories and practical considerations, interest rate is considered one of the major elements that can affect savings as well as bank deposits. But as we knows that in Islam interest is considered forbidden and Muslims tries to avoid interest income , So the basic purpose of this study is to know the fact that either religious factors have any effect on Muslim׳s decision while keeping their saving in banks. We used panel ARDL(Autoregressive Distributed Lag method by using 23 non-Islamic and 23 Islamic countries data from 1999 to 2014 for this study. Results showed that in Islamic countries interest rate don’t have any impact on bank deposits both in long run and short run. But in the case of non-Islamic countries interest rate have positive significant impact on bank deposits. Hence there is need of Islamic banks in countries with more Muslim population and there should be different economic policies for Islamic countries as religious factor affects decision of Muslims and interest rate doesn’t have any impact on bank׳s deposits.

  7. Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and the Environment: Time Series Evidence from G-20 Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Baek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic interrelationships between trade, income growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for G-20 economies in a framework of cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR. Johansen's maximum likelihood procedure is used to estimate the coefficients of the cointegrated VAR. The results show that trade and income growth have a favorable effect on environmental quality for the developed G-20 member countries, while they have an adverse effect on the environment for the developing member countries. We also find that energy con- sumption tends to worsen environmental quality for both the developed and developing countries. Finally, it is found that trade and income to emission and energy causality holds for the developed countries; changes in degree of trade openness and income growth lead to corresponding changes in the rates of growth in emission and energy consumption. Emission and energy to trade and income causality, on the other hand, is found to hold for the developing countries; any shocks in emission and energy consumption cause corresponding fluctuations in income growth and trade openness.

  8. Better economy in field running than on the treadmill: evidence from high-level distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mooses

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the ongoing interest in ways to improve the specificity of testing elite athletes in their natural environment, portable metabolic systems provide an opportunity to assess metabolic demand of exercise in sport-specific settings. Running economy (RE and maximal oxygen uptake ( ·VO 2 max were compared between track and treadmill (1% inclination conditions in competitive level European distance runners who were fully habituated to treadmill running (n = 13. All runners performed an exercise test on running track and on treadmill. While ·VO 2 max was similar on the track and on the treadmill (68.5 ± 5.3 vs. 71.4 ± 6.4 ml∙kg -1 ∙min -1 , p = 0.105, respectively, superior RE was found on the track compared to the treadmill (215.4 ± 12.4 vs. 236.8 ± 18.0 O2 ml∙kg -1 ∙km -1 , p < 0.001. RE on the track was strongly correlated with RE on the treadmill (r = 0.719, p = 0.006. The present findings indicate that high-level distance runners have significantly better RE but not ·VO2max on the track compared to treadmill. This difference may be due to biomechanical adjustments. As RE is strongly correlated between the two conditions, it would be reasonable to assume that interventions affecting RE on the treadmill will also affect RE on the track.

  9. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    consideration should be prognosis of all political, social, environmental and infra-structural consequences. Understanding of this necessity turned us to use the formalism of so called techno-dynamics and represent of resources needed for nuclear technology development as dynamic categories. The basic ideas of the methodology of innovative project assessment have been applied for holistic analysis of the development of the nuclear systems. This methodology has been developed for innovative proposals analysis in frame of IAEA INPRO project and it was a consensus product of the wide international expert's society discussions. All aspects of application of radioactivity in the industry and medicine had not been presented because the main ideas are quite evident but scale factor of their using has too big uncertainties. But cyclic character of organizing fuel management for the future development of nuclear technologies was added by cycles of structure materials as well. It has obtained that asymptotically the nuclear technology generates their specific compositions of structure materials. Thus wide scale using of the nuclear power will make new kind of metals that will be materials of nuclear quality. Development of new technologies and their penetration on the market will be accompanied by the several kinds of critical events. Crisis of resource's supplying is only most well known of them. But it is not both the single and not the most important. The model of corporation development made on Marshall's theory unambiguously demonstrates that transition from one technology to another can be made only in conditions of falling of the market. This result does not allow us to predict of time of the optimal transition from one technology basis onto the nets generation but it gives an indicator of readiness for changing of the mainstream. For the analysis of new innovative initiative it has been used the scale factor. Thus it shows that required installed capacity of G.N.E.P. systems will

  10. NAIRU estimates in a transitional economy with an extremely high unemployment rate: The case of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpeski Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to estimate the NAIRU for the Macedonian economy and to discuss the applicability of this indicator. The paper provides time-varying estimates for the period 1998-2012, which are obtained using the Ball and Mankiw (2002 approach, supplemented with the iterative procedure proposed by Ball (2009. The results reveal that the Macedonian NAIRU has ahumpshaped path. The estimation is based on both the LFS unemployment rate and the LFS unemployment rate corrected for employment in the grey economy. The dynamics of the estimated NAIRU stress the ability of the NAIRU to present the cyclical misbalances in a national economy.

  11. International gas union - WOC 10. Report of study group 10.2 ''gas and the transitional economies countries'' 1997-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrin, Y.

    2000-07-01

    What should and can be done in any given sector, such as energy, is conditioned by the overall economic and social situation. For most transition countries, the road to reform since 1989 has been very difficult. The economic and social costs of transition have been high. Declines in economic output and unemployment have been severe. In other words, the process of transformation has severely taxed countries economically, socially and politically. The hyper-inflation, the economic turndown and the disequilibria in state budgets that followed the collapse of the centralized planning system during the initial phases of the transition process - during the early 1990's - compelled governments to give priority to macro-stabilisation policies. Consequently, less attention, by necessity, could be given to reforming the energy sector in order to promote objectives such as energy security, economic efficiency and environmental protection. As well, progress in reforming the energy sector has lagged behind reforms in other sectors of the economy because of the very significant economic and social consequences of reforms in this sector. Energy costs represent a significant proportion of household expenditures. Therefore, governments have had to weigh the economic and social implications of reforms, such as higher energy prices, notably on households but also on certain sectors of industry. Since the beginning of the 1990's the road to reform in central and eastern Europe has been rather difficult. Nevertheless despite the many problems, there have been real, tangible achievements in moving towards a market economy as well as in the establishment of democratic institutions in most transition countries. Moreover in most of them the private sector contribution to GDP now exceeds 50%. Unfortunately the economic transition is in some respects still incomplete and aggregate output levels are still below those of 1989. For transition countries as a whole, industrial

  12. Transition and duration in disability: New evidence from administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Casasnovas, Guillem; Nicodemo, Catia

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades demographic changes (low fertility rates, increased life expectancy…) in most OECD countries, have brought profound changes in the population pyramid, with several effects in the welfare of society. One of them is the increase in the number of people with disabilities, since age is a determining factor in the emergence of this dependency. This paper studies the probability to enter and transit in and from a disability state, as well as its associated mortality, by attending to the distinction between the initial disability level and the process that leads on from it, and by addressing whether and how education, age and income affect this transition. Applying a Markov model and a survival analysis to new Spanish administrative data set (Muestra Continua de Vida Laboral (MCVL)) we estimate the probability that a person changes the state of disability and the duration of her progression in each case. We find that people with an initial state of disability have a higher propensity to change status and take less time to transit amongst different stages than those who have no disability. Men do so more frequently than women and income have negative effects on the transition. These results may help to incorporate into welfare programs some protection mechanisms for delaying transitions and target the most fragile population groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 15 signals evidence the energy transition is underway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    World leaders approved a universal climate agreement in Paris last year, drawing a line in the sand for the transformation of the world's energy system into a clean and sustainable form. Signs that a global energy transition is happening are everywhere to be seen: in the growth of renewables, the rise of city-level climate actions, the stagnation of CO 2 emissions and in companies who are committing to science based targets as the foundation of their climate actions, to name just a few. We felt it important to highlight 15 key signs or 'signals' of the energy transition, to help raise awareness that the transition to a new, sustainable, equitable, just and fair global energy system has irrevocably begun. What is needed now is to accelerate the transition and scale it up to have a chance of keeping global temperature rise to well below 2 deg. C, trying for 1.5 deg. C, as countries committed to in the Paris Agreement just eight months ago. Global meetings such as the G20 meeting taking place in China on 4-5 September; and the next UN climate talks starting in Marrakech on 7 November gives opportunity to all stakeholders to say how and what they can contribute to accelerating the transition. Ending fossil fuel subsidies, supporting the deployment of renewables and energy efficiency, increasing green finance and putting a just price on carbon are just some of the actions that can be taken right now to put pace into the transition. As 2016 heads into the record books as likely the hottest year ever recorded in history, it is a reminder that we have precious little time left to act to keep global temperatures well below 2 deg. C. We have the Paris Agreement to guide our way. Now we need to implement it. Now is the time for action

  14. Intergenerational Occupational Mobility in Rural Economy: Evidence from Nepal and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on intergenerational occupational mobility from agriculture to the nonfarm sector using survey data from Nepal and Vietnam. In the absence of credible instruments, the degree of selection on observables is used as a guide to the degree of selection on unobservables, a la Altonji et al. (2005) to address the unobserved…

  15. Measuring Corruption in Infrastructure: Evidence from Transition and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines what we can say about the extent and impact of corruption in infrastructure using existing evidence. There is evidence that most perceptions measures appear to be very weak proxies for the actual extent of corruption in the infrastructure sector, largely (but inaccurately) measuring petty rather than grand corruption. Survey evidence is more reliable, but limited as a tool for differentiating countries in terms of access to infrastructure finance or appropriate policy mode...

  16. Labor supply after transition: evidence from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena; Slačálek, J.; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2011), s. 327-347 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor supply * transition * welfare system Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1217_str_327_347_-_slacalek.pdf

  17. The capacity of producer services to generate regional growth: some evidence from a peripheral metropolitan economy

    OpenAIRE

    M Perry

    1991-01-01

    The recent rapid increase in producer service activity has been presented as an alternative source of economic growth to that created by manufacturing. Evidence from a survey of firms in Auckland, New Zealand throws doubt on the ability of producer services to generate regional growth. The dynamics of individual firms are different to the momentum of producer services as viewed through aggregate economic data. The sample of producer services firms in the Auckland region are characterised by a...

  18. Changing Workplaces in the Knowledge-Based Economy -- Evidence from Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Spitz-Oener, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    This thesis includes four essays on various aspects of how workplaces have been changing in recent decades, all being characterized by the shift towards knowledge-based activities in production and the extensive spread of information and communication technologies at the workplace. The content of Chapter 1 is twofold. It includes a descriptive analysis that establishes the stylized facts about trends in occupational skill requirements in West Germany since 1979. It then provides evidence on t...

  19. The Political Economy of International Emission Trading Scheme Choice: Empirical Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows emissions trading. It does however not specify how this is to take place and the discussion on the design of an emissions trading scheme is ongoing. In this paper, we give some empirical evidence on the preference of industry and environmental organizations for internati...... for international emissions trading scheme. Since they may have an influence on decision makers, their opinion is important. Our conclusion is that both industry and environmental organizations prefer credit trading, although for widely different reasons....

  20. The Transiting System GJ1214: High-Precision Defocused Transit Observations and a Search for Evidence of Transit Timing Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kennet Bomann West; Hardis, S.; Hinse, T. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We present 11 high-precision photometric transit observations of the transiting super-Earth planet GJ1214b. Combining these data with observations from other authors, we investigate the ephemeris for possible signs of transit timing variations (TTVs) using a Bayesian approach. Methods......: The observations are used to determine the photometric parameters and the physical properties of the GJ1214 system. Our results are in good agreement with published values. Individual times of mid-transit are measured with uncertainties as low as 10s, allowing us to reduce the uncertainty in the orbital period...... by a factor of two. Conclusions: A Bayesian analysis reveals that it is highly improbable that the observed transit times is explained by TTV, when compared with the simpler alternative of a linear ephemeris....

  1. Further evidence of a liquid-liquid transition in interfacial water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti, J-M; Bellissent-Funel, M C; Chen, S-H; Kolesnikov, A I

    2006-01-01

    In a previous paper we combined calorimetric, diffraction and high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering data to show that after exhibiting a glass transition at 165 K, interfacial water experiences a first order liquid-liquid transition at 240 K from a low-density to a high-density liquid. Here we present further evidence of these transitions obtained by high-energy inelastic neutron scattering

  2. Hotel website performance: evidence from a transition country

    OpenAIRE

    Pranić, Ljudevit; Garbin Praničević, Daniela; Arnerić, Josip

    2014-01-01

    The Purpose – An evaluation of 197 hotel websites in Croatia was conducted to determine whether hotels in this economically lagging transition country exploit the potentials of the Internet as a marketing tool. Design/Methodology/Approach – A team of 30 trained assistants evaluated the websites using an amended modified Balanced Scorecard (mBSC) approach from the user-friendliness, site attractiveness, marketing effectiveness, and F&B informativeness perspectives. MANOVA was used to test main...

  3. Evidence-Based Interventions for Transitions in Care for Individuals Living With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Karen B; Hodgson, Nancy A

    2018-01-18

    Despite numerous, often predictable, transitions in care, little is known about the core elements of successful transitions in care specifically for persons with dementia. The paper examines available evidence-based interventions to improve the care transitions for persons with dementia and their caregivers. A state-of-the-art review was conducted for research published on interventions targeting transitions in care for persons living with dementia and their caregivers through January 2017. Our review revealed seven evidence-based interventions to postpone/prevent or reduce care transitions specific to persons living with dementia. Effective approaches appear to be those that involve the individual and caregiver in establishing goals of care, educate the individual and caregiver about likely transitions in care; provide timely communication of information about the individual, create strong inter professional teams with competencies in dementia care, and implement evidence-based models of practice. Five essential features for consistent and supported care transitions for persons with dementia and their caregivers are recommended. Findings reinforce the need for additional research and adaptation of evidence-based transitions in care interventions. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Political economy. On the endogeneity of political preferences: evidence from individual experience with democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola; Schündeln, Matthias

    2015-03-06

    Democracies depend on the support of the general population, but little is known about the determinants of this support. We investigated whether support for democracy increases with the length of time spent under the system and whether preferences are thus affected by the political system. Relying on 380,000 individual-level observations from 104 countries over the years 1994 to 2013, and exploiting individual-level variation within a country and a given year in the length of time spent under democracy, we find evidence that political preferences are endogenous. For new democracies, our findings imply that popular support needs time to develop. For example, the effect of around 8.5 more years of democratic experience corresponds to the difference in support for democracy between primary and secondary education. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-02-27

    This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low-income and middle-income countries.

  6. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Setting Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. Methods The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Results Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Conclusions Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low

  7. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  8. The health financing transition: a conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Victoria Y; Savedoff, William D

    2014-03-01

    Almost every country exhibits two important health financing trends: health spending per person rises and the share of out-of-pocket spending on health services declines. We describe these trends as a "health financing transition" to provide a conceptual framework for understanding health markets and public policy. Using data over 1995-2009 from 126 countries, we examine the various explanations for changes in health spending and its composition with regressions in levels and first differences. We estimate that the income elasticity of health spending is about 0.7, consistent with recent comparable studies. Our analysis also shows a significant trend in health spending - rising about 1 per cent annually - which is associated with a combination of changing technology and medical practices, cost pressures and institutions that finance and manage healthcare. The out-of-pocket share of total health spending is not related to income, but is influenced by a country's capacity to raise general revenues. These results support the existence of a health financing transition and characterize how public policy influences these trends. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The political economy of redistribution in the U.S. in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression - Evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) agenda setter

  10. The political economy of redistribution in the US in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression: evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an substantial upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer)

  11. The seven challenges for transitioning into a bio-based circular economy in the agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrello, Massimiliano; Lombardi, Alessia; Pascucci, Stefano; Cembalo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Closed-loop agri-food supply chains have a high potential to reduce environmental and economic costs resulting from food waste disposal. This paper illustrates an alternative to the traditional supply chain of bread based on the principles of a circular economy. Methods: Six circular

  12. Johari-Goldstein Relaxation Far Below Tg: Experimental Evidence for the Gardner Transition in Structural Glasses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirhos, K.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental evidence for the Gardner transition, theoretically predicted to arise deep in the glassy state of matter, is scarce. At this transition, the energy landscape sensed by the particles forming the glass is expected to become more complex. In the present Letter, we report the dielectric response of two typical glass formers with well-pronounced Johari-Goldstein β relaxation, following this response down to unprecedented low temperatures, far below the glass transition. As the Johari-Goldstein process is believed to arise from the local structure of the energy landscape, its investigation seems an ideal tool to seek evidence for the Gardner transition. Indeed, we find an unusual broadening of the β relaxation below about 110 K for sorbitol and 100 K for xylitol, in excess of the expected broadening arising from a distribution of energy barriers. These results are well consistent with the presence of the Gardner transition in canonical structural glass formers.

  13. Research document no. 19. The transposition conditions of the market institutions in transition economies (Russia). The energy case; Cahier de recherche no. 19. Les conditions de transposition des institutions de marche dans les economies en transition (Russie). Le cas de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    2000-07-01

    The majority of the institutions of the market economy exist today in Russia but they do not take on with the russian economic framework. One assists in fact with particular appropriation modes of these institutions, defining behaviors directed by logics of survival. To analyze the situation, the author presents the standard approaches of the economic transition in the case of the energy in russia and the institutional and organization models failure. (A.L.B.)

  14. Sustainable energy transitions in emerging economies: The formation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia 1990–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The economic development in emerging economies in Southeast Asia has significantly increased the use of fossil fuel based energy. This has severe implications for global climate change, and against this background, scholars within the sustainable transition tradition have taken an interest...... in addressing how transitions towards more sustainable development pathways in this region may be achieved. This paper contributes to the abovementioned literature by examining the conducive and limiting factors for development and proliferation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia during...... the period 1990–2011. Rising oil prices, strong pressure on the palm oil industry from environmental groups, and a persisting palm oil biomass waste disposal problem in Malaysia appear to have been conducive to niche proliferation, and on top of this national renewable energy policies and large-scale donor...

  15. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  16. Cooling Trends from Agricultural Management Practices that Conserve Soil Carbon Resources in the North American Northern Great Plains: Important First Steps in the Transition toward a BECCS Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, P. C.; Gerken, T.; Bromley, G. T.; Tang Che Ing, A.; Morgan, M.; Wood, D.; Ahmed, S.; Brad, B.; Brookshire, J.; Haggerty, J.; Jarchow, M.; McVay, K.; Miller, P.; Peyton, B.; Rashford, B.; Spangler, L.; Swanson, D.; Taylor, S.; Torrion, J.; Poulter, B.

    2016-12-01

    The transition toward the Bio-energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) economy may have unintended climate drawbacks, but also benefits. Parts of the North American northern Great Plains have experienced a remarkable 6 W m-2 decrease in summertime radiative forcing since the 1970s. Extreme temperature events now occur less frequently, maximum temperatures have decreased by some 2 °C, and precipitation has increased by 10 mm per decade in some areas. This regional trend toward a cooler and wetter summer climate has coincided with changes in agricultural management. Namely, the practice of keeping fields fallow during summer (hereafter `summerfallow') has declined from 15 Mha in the 1970s to 2 Mha at the present in the Canadian Prairie Provinces, and from 16 Mha to 6 Mha in the US, with the largest declines in the Northern Plains. In addition to potential climate impacts, replacing summerfallow with no-till cropping systems results in lesser soil carbon losses - or even gains - and usually confers economic benefits. In other words, replacing summerfallow with no-till cropping may have resulted in a `win-win-win' scenario for climate, soil carbon, and farm-scale economics. The interaction between carbon, climate, and the economy in this region - and the precise domain that has experienced cooling - are still unknown, which limits our ability to forecast the dynamics of the coupled human-climate system during the transition toward a BECCS economy. Here, we use eddy covariance measurements to demonstrate that summerfallow results in carbon losses during the growing season of the same magnitude (ca. 100 g C m-2 per growing season) as carbon uptake by dryland crops. We use surface-atmosphere energy flux measurements to model atmospheric boundary layer and lifted condensation level heights to demonstrate that observed regional changes in near-surface humidity (of up to 7%) are necessary to simulate observed increases in convective precipitation. We analyze climate

  17. Processed foods and the nutrition transition: evidence from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P; Friel, S

    2014-07-01

    This paper elucidates the role of processed foods and beverages in the 'nutrition transition' underway in Asia. Processed foods tend to be high in nutrients associated with obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: refined sugar, salt, saturated and trans-fats. This paper identifies the most significant 'product vectors' for these nutrients and describes changes in their consumption in a selection of Asian countries. Sugar, salt and fat consumption from processed foods has plateaued in high-income countries, but has rapidly increased in the lower-middle and upper-middle-income countries. Relative to sugar and salt, fat consumption in the upper-middle- and lower-middle-income countries is converging most rapidly with that of high-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks, baked goods, and oils and fats are the most significant vectors for sugar, salt and fat respectively. At the regional level there appears to be convergence in consumption patterns of processed foods, but country-level divergences including high levels of consumption of oils and fats in Malaysia, and soft drinks in the Philippines and Thailand. This analysis suggests that more action is needed by policy-makers to prevent or mitigate processed food consumption. Comprehensive policy and regulatory approaches are most likely to be effective in achieving these goals. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 World Obesity.

  18. The Seven Challenges for Transitioning into a Bio-based Circular Economy in the Agri-food Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrello, Massimiliano; Lombardi, Alessia; Pascucci, Stefano; Cembalo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop agri-food supply chains have a high potential to reduce environmental and economic costs resulting from food waste disposal. This paper illustrates an alternative to the traditional supply chain of bread based on the principles of a circular economy. Six circular interactions among seven actors (grain farmers, bread producers, retailers, compostable packaging manufacturers, insect breeders, livestock farmers, consumers) of the circular filière are created in order to achieve the goal of "zero waste". In the model, two radical technological innovations are considered: insects used as animal feed and polylactic acid compostable packaging. The main challenges for the implementation of the new supply chain are identified. Finally, some recent patents related to bread sustainable production, investigated in the current paper, are considered. Recommendations are given to academics and practitioners interested in the bio-based circular economy model approach for transforming agri-food supply chains.

  19. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: What Do Trade Figures Tell Us? The Case of Poland and the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Mortensen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish and Czech economies has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products, these countries export to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of these c......This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish and Czech economies has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products, these countries export to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports...... of these countries may therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly...

  20. The Influence of Legitimacy on a Proactive Green Orientation and Green Performance: A Study Based on Transitional Economy Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With environmental pollution, climate change and resource scarcity being serious global issues, green entrepreneurship is increasingly seen as an approach to simultaneously address economic performance, environmental impact and social responsibility. As green entrepreneurship needs to consider both venture performance and social responsibility, it will be subject to legitimacy constraints at the system level. Whether these legitimacy constraints are favorable to green enterprise is not yet clear from current research. Especially for transition economies, the problem of whether proactive green enterprises facing legitimacy constraints under institutional uncertainty can achieve green performance requires further study. Thus, a theoretical model to determine the relationship between green proactiveness orientation (GPO, green performance, legitimacy, and transitional economics was proposed. Based on the data from 235 new Chinese green firms, the empirical results suggest that green startups launch with a green proactiveness orientation, which enables them to acquire a green performance advantage over their competitors. Improvements in green performance is also shown to be driven by the pressure from institutional legitimacy. Better green performance can be easily achieved if green startups have a higher level of legitimacy. However, against the background of transitional economies, the increase in institutional uncertainty will damage the promotion of political legitimacy and make the enterprises that are subject to political legitimacy constraints lose their green performance. Currently, political legitimacy is no longer an impetus. However, the increase in institutional uncertainty will strengthen the promotion of commercial legitimacy and cause green-oriented startups to pursue more commercial interests. Thus, to a certain extent, it will lead to market uncertainty. The conclusion of this study not only provides guidance for startups in

  1. SOME QUESTIONS OF INSTITUTIONAL CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURAL POLICY IN THE TRANSITIONAL ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhobov A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines patterns of structural change in the transformation to ensure the sustainability of economic growth as the base address socio-economic problems in the national economy. Author, classified and disclosed the concept of structural policies outlined in the article. And theoretically analyzed the problem of macroeconomic policies and institutional reforms in the current stage of market reforms in the Republic of Tajikistan. The main factors to reform laws and achieve economic independence of the state, through the creation of a favorable investment climate.

  2. Evidence-based thresholds for the volume-value relationship in shoulder arthroplasty: outcomes and economies of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Navarro, Sergio M; Haeberle, Heather S; Ricchetti, Eric T; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2017-08-01

    Whereas several studies suggest that high-volume surgeons and hospitals deliver superior patient outcomes with greater cost efficiency, no evidence-based thresholds separating high-volume surgeons and hospitals from those that are low or medium volume exist in shoulder arthroplasty. The objective of this study was to establish meaningful thresholds that take outcomes and cost into consideration for surgeons and hospitals performing shoulder arthroplasty. Using 9546 patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty for osteoarthritis from an administrative database, we created and applied 4 models using stratum-specific likelihood ratio (SSLR) analysis of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. We generated 4 sets of thresholds predictive of adverse outcomes, namely, increased length of stay (LOS) and increased cost for both surgeon and hospital volume. SSLR analysis of the 4 ROC curves by surgeon volume produced 3 volume categories. LOS and cost by annual shoulder arthroplasty surgeon volume produced the same strata: 0-4 (low), 5-14 (medium), and 15 or more (high). LOS and cost by annual shoulder arthroplasty hospital volume produced the same strata: 0-3 (low), 4-14 (medium), and 15 or more (high). LOS and cost decreased significantly (P economies of scale in shoulder arthroplasty by demonstrating a direct relationship between volume and value through SSLR analysis of ROC curves for risk-based volume stratification using meaningful volume definitions for low-, medium-, and high-volume surgeons and hospitals. The described volume-value relationship offers patients, surgeons, hospitals, and other stakeholders meaningful thresholds for the optimal delivery of shoulder arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PROGRAM GOALS MANAGEMENT OF THE ENTITIES: OPPORTUNITIES AND PROSPECTS OF ADAPTATION TO CONDITIONS OF THE TRANSITIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii A. Vernikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic. The relevance of this study is due to the fact that the current strategic goal of Economic Development is to create conditions that will ensure high and stable economic growth of the country and its socio-economic systems. One of the most effective tools for achieving the above goal should be the process of implementation-oriented management in the social and economic systems of the national economy, as they are a key factor in increasing the competitive advantages such as cost reduction, quality improvement, development of new markets, improve the country's image. This article discusses the features of the application program and target planning to company management, is an example of implementing and using techniques "Lean Production" in one of the domestic enterprises using program-target method.The purpose / objectives. The purpose of this article is to justify the strategic priorities of sustainable economic growth and social and economic systems of the national economy.Methodology. Methodological basis of this article are the comparative and economic-statistical methods of analysis.The Results. As part of the presentation of the article the author has been found that in the current climate of uncertainty and risk for Russian business to the fore issues that previously were not so relevant: how to be built business processes; which represent the optimal organizational structure; how to create a functioning system of quality management; what must be done to reduce the unit costs of production without compromising the quality of the products; how to motivate employees to achieve their goals. All of the above it is the projection of the same problem the effective development and implementation of the planned development strategy based on Management by Objectives.Conclusions / significance. Management of enterprises in the real sector of the economy in modern conditions should be based on synergies methodological principles

  4. Report of working committee 10 ''gas and developing / transitional economy countries''; Rapport du comite de travail 10 ''pays gaziers en voie de developpement et en transition economique''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hached, A.

    2000-07-01

    This report deals with the works undertaken by working committee 10 during the 1997 - 2000 Triennium. The objective set by the IGU consisted in studying the generic thema in gas markets development for the less developed countries, in the developing countries with intermediate revenue as well as in the transitional economy countries. The first study group devoted his works to the problematic analysis of natural gas in the less developed countries, those where the GNP per capita is very low and the internal markets of which are little or non dynamic. This analysis has been developed in a certain number of countries rather representative of their respective region: Angola, Cameroon and Cote d'Ivoire for sub-Saharian Africa, Bangladesh and Vietnam for Asia. The second study group analysed the changes in transitional economy countries (Baltic, countries in Central Europe and Ukraine) and their different consequences on gas industry. These countries apply gas industry reforms which are not implemented at the same rate more especially as they belong to a huge and very contrasted geographic region. The third study group devoted his works to the analysis of intensified conditions in the use of natural gas in the developing countries with intermediate revenue. He also examined the feasibility of an economic development in gas distribution networks in large cities. Two important issues focused his attention: financing and technology transfer. (author)

  5. Traditional ecological knowledge trends in the transition to a market economy: empirical study in the Doñana natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Mingorría, Sara; Reyes-García, Victoria; Calvet, Laura; Montes, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Researchers and conservation managers largely agree on the relevance of traditional ecological knowledge for natural resource management in indigenous communities, but its prevalence and role as societies modernize are contested. We analyzed the transmission of traditional knowledge among rural local people in communities linked to protected areas in Doñana, southwestern Spain. We studied changes in knowledge related to local practices in agriculture and livestock farming among 198 informants from three generations that cover the period in which the area transited from an economy strongly dependent on local ecosystem services to a market economy with intensified production systems. Our results suggest an abrupt loss of traditional agricultural knowledge related to rapid transformations and intensification of agricultural systems, but maintenance of knowledge of traditional livestock farming, an activity allowed in the protected areas that maintains strong links with local cultural identity. Our results demonstrate the potential of protected areas in protecting remaining bodies of traditional ecological knowledge in developed country settings. Nevertheless, we note that strict protection in cultural-landscape-dominated areas can disrupt transmission of traditional knowledge if local resource users and related practices are excluded from ecosystem management.

  6. Que faire? A Bioeconomy and Solar Energy Institute at Italy's Research Council in the Context of the Global Transition to the Solar Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Mario; Meneguzzo, Francesco

    2017-11-02

    Driven by insight for which new research and education requires new institutional organisation, and drawing on two decades of research and educational efforts, we devise the profile and activities of a new bioeconomy and solar energy institute at Italy's Research Council. We further articulate the institute's activities suggesting avenues on how to deploy sound and giving more useful research, education and policy advice in these crucial fields for making tomorrow's common development sustainable. The outcomes of the study are of general interest, because the transition to a solar economy is of intrinsic global nature and the challenges involved are similar in many countries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Impact of regulated price adjustments on price variability in a very low inflation transition economy: Case of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghassi Mkrtchyan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of monetary policy and administrative price adjustments on price variability in a low inflation economy characterized by relatively frequent administrative price adjustments. Fluctuations of market determined prices, prices of agricultural goods in particular, are linked to poor synchronization between administrative price changes and monetary policy. If monetary policy does not account for expected changes in administrative prices, demand for free goods shifts, causing fluctuation of prices for agricultural goods, because the supply of these goods is highly inelastic in Armenia. The findings contribute to a better understanding of agricultural price variability during 1998-2002. The impact of macroeconomic policy and structural adjustments on income distribution and rural poverty incidence are also examined. This research has immediate policy implications, since Armenia will continue to undergo major upward price adjustments of regulated prices, which may have a negative impact on income distribution unless aggregate demand management is changed.

  8. New Class Divisions in the New Market Economies: Evidence from the Careers of Young Adults in Post-Soviet Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ken; Pollock, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from the biographies of samples totaling 1,215 young adults in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, who all reached age 16 between 1986 and 1992, and whose subsequent life histories coincided with their countries' transitions from communism. The evidence is used to examine whether new classes are being created in the new…

  9. Definite evidence of the Landau-Zener transition in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von; Voit, H.

    1986-05-01

    It is shown that the Landau-Zener transition mechanism due to the formation of molecular orbitals of the active neutron exists in the inelastic scattering 13 C( 12 C, 12 C) 13 C* (3.086 MeV, 1/2 + ). The evidence stems from characteristic changes of the angular distributions observed as function of the incident energy. (author)

  10. Examining Developmental Transitions in Civic Engagement across Adolescence: Evidence from a National U.S. Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Rote, Wendy M.; Benavides, Celina M.; Victorino, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Describing how much and what type(s) of change are evident in civic engagement across adolescence is a fundamental starting point for advancing developmental theory in the civic domain. Using five annual waves of data from a large national U.S. sample spanning 8th-12th grades, our study describes civic engagement typologies and transitions in and…

  11. Isotopic evidence for residential mobility of farming communities during the transition to agriculture in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Samantha; Evans, Jane; Montgomery, Janet; Scarre, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Development of agriculture is often assumed to be accompanied by a decline in residential mobility, and sedentism is frequently proposed to provide the basis for economic intensification, population growth and increasing social complexity. In Britain, however, the nature of the agricultural transition (ca 4000 BC) and its effect on residence patterns has been intensely debated. Some authors attribute the transition to the arrival of populations who practised a system of sedentary intensive mixed farming similar to that of the very earliest agricultural regimes in central Europe, ca 5500 BC, with cultivation of crops in fixed plots and livestock keeping close to permanently occupied farmsteads. Others argue that local hunter-gatherers within Britain adopted selected elements of a farming economy and retained a mobile way of life. We use strontium and oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel from an Early Neolithic burial population in Gloucestershire, England, to evaluate the residence patterns of early farmers. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that early farming communities in Britain were residentially mobile and were not fully sedentary. Results highlight the diverse nature of settlement strategies associated with early farming in Europe and are of wider significance to understanding the effect of the transition to agriculture on residence patterns.

  12. The search for co-integration between money, prices and income: Low frequency evidence from the Turkish economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatçioğlu Cem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to test the empirical validity of the QTM relationship for the Turkish economy. Using some contemporaneous time series estimation techniques, our estimation results reveal that stationarity characteristics of the velocities of currency in circulation and the broad money aggregate in the economy cannot be rejected through a quantity theoretical co-integrating long-term variable space. We find that there exists an about one-to-one proportionality between money and prices and money and real income, and that exogeneity of money cannot be rejected for the currency in circulation in the economy. But, the exception here comes from the broad monetary aggregate used in the QTM equation such that money seems to be endogenous as for the long-term variable space.

  13. Evidence for Abnormal H α Variability During Near-transit Observations of HD 189733 b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, P. Wilson; Redfield, Seth [Wesleyan University Astronomy Department, Van Vleck Observatory, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Jensen, Adam G., E-mail: pcauley@wesleyan.edu [University of Nebraska-Kearney Department of Physics and Astronomy, 24011 11th Avenue, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Changes in levels of stellar activity can mimic absorption signatures in transmission spectra from circumplanetary material. Thus, it is critical to understand the frequency and magnitude of these changes in order to attribute any particular signal to the circumplanetary environment. We present short-cadence, high-resolution out-of-transit H α spectra for the hot Jupiter host HD 189733 in order to establish the frequency and magnitude of intrinsic stellar variations in the H α line core. We find that changes in the line core strength similar to those observed immediately pre- and post-transit in two independent data sets are uncommon. This suggests that the observed near-transit signatures are either due to absorption of circumplanetary material or they occur preferentially in time, very near planetary transits. In either case, the evidence for abnormal H α variability is strengthened, though the short-cadence out-of-transit data do not argue for circumplanetary absorption versus stellar activity caused by a star–planet interaction. Further out-of-transit monitoring at higher signal-to-noise would be useful to more strictly constrain the frequency of the near-transit changes in the H α line core.

  14. A castle built on sand: the effects of mass privatization on stock market creation in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fungáčová, Zuzana; Hanousek, Jan

    -, 14/2006 (2006), s. 1-27. ISBN 952-462-836-8. ISSN 1456-4564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : mass privatization * stock market s * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.bof.fi/NR/rdonlyres/27CA8D56-6B3B-470C-B3AE-633673DDE1D8/0/dp1406.pdf

  15. Energy indicators series: analyzing the energy-related evidence of economic transition in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paga, Enrique; Birol, Fatih

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused upon the Asian Pacific countries as constituting an economic 'miracle' over the last two decades. Economic growth in the Pacific Rim has been higher than in any other area of the world. The rapid industrialization process and its impact on the economies of these countries, at both macro and micro levels, are discussed widely in the economic literature. Of particular interest are the fundamental structural changes these countries have experienced in their transition to industrialized economies. This instalment of the annual 'Energy indicators' series concentrates on Pacific Rim countries, namely Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Similar to other experiences, rapid economic growth in these countries has been accompanied by 'spectacular' growth in demand for energy. Therefore, this year's paper not only underlines certain trends in these six energy markets but also attempts to test the phenomenon 'threshold country', i.e., shifting from the developing to the industrialized world by using common indicators and methodologies. The analysis starts with a comparison of energy intensities. Section 2 provides an overview of the socio-economic and energy indicators of the Pacific Rim countries. Section 3 introduces a standard econometric model on the most dynamic consuming sector, namely transport. Section 4 presents the projections of consumption in this sector and discusses policy issues. Some concluding remarks in Section 6 complete the paper. (author)

  16. Product and labor market imperfections and scale economies: Micro-evidence on France, Japan and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Kiyota, K.; Mairesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    Allowing for three labor market settings, this paper relies on an extension of Hall's econometric framework for simultaneously estimating price-cost mark-ups and scale economies. Using an unbalanced panel of 17,653 firms over the period 1986-2001 in France, 8,725 firms over the period 1994-2006 in

  17. Exports, government size and economic growth (Evidence from Iran as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, I investigate the short run and long run effects of government size and exports on the economic growth of Iran as a developing oil export based economy for the period of 1974 to 2008. For this purpose I use the bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction

  18. The significance of renewable energy use for economic output and environmental protection: evidence from the Next 11 developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy; Sinha, Avik; Dogan, Eyup

    2017-05-01

    Increasing economic activities in developing economies raise demand for energy mainly sourced from conventional sources. The consumption of more conventional energy will have a significant negative impact on the environment. Therefore, attention of policy makers has recently shifted towards the promotion of renewable energy generation and uses across economic activities to ensure low carbon economy. Given the recent scenario, in this paper, we aim to examine the role of renewable energy consumption on the economic output and CO 2 emissions of the next fastest developing economies of the world. The study employs several robust panel econometric models by using annual data from 1990 to 2012. Empirical findings confirm the significant long-run association among the variables. Similarly, results show that renewable energy consumption positively contributes to economic output and has an adverse effect on CO 2 emissions. Given our findings, we suggest policy makers of those economies to initiate further effective policies to promote more renewable energy generation and uses across economic activities to ensure sustainable economic development.

  19. Determinants and role of foreing direct investment in transition economies:with special look in FYR of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Merale Fetahu-Vehapi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide clear insight about the determinants and role of FDI in transition country with particular reference in FYR of Macedonia. We are using a panel dataset for twenty seven - 27 transition countries over the period 1997 to 2009. Applying static and dynamic modeling, econometrics findings have driven as to dynamic models. Inthe same empirical investigations following variables have been tested: GDP of the host and source country, unit labour cost, trade inflation, legal environment, distance, dummy variables capturing the language, common border and colonizing effect. Empirical result confirms expectation of the chosen variables as well as the positive feedback effect of past FDI onto current FDI. While the negative and significant coefficient of distance indicates that FDI is determined by gravity factors, the positive relationship between FDI stock and unit labour cost is explained through the effect of the service sector on wages. In addition, countries having higher trading shares attract more FDI. Low inflation rate as well as efficient legal system should be taken as a good sign for attracting more FDI flows since it has a positive impact on foreign investors. Dummy for English language, which indicates countries where English language is official or widely spoken in that country, have less language difficulties and more FDI flows with FYR of Macedonia. At the same time, income level of the host country is found to be important determinant for foreign investors. Moreover, FDI role in FYR of Macedonia has been found as crucial in many aspects of country’s economic development and sustainability. Apart from accelerated growth, technical innovation and enterprise restructuring, FDI in this transition country gave considerable contribution to the financial potential improvement.

  20. National trajectories of carbon emissions: analysis of proposals to foster the transition to low-carbon economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinzig, A.P.; Kammen, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we develop a framework for analyzing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions trajectories from the energy and industrial sectors of the world's nations under various policy options. A robust conclusion of our analysis is that early action by both developed and developing nations will be required to hold atmospheric CO 2 at or below doubled pre-industrial levels and incentives for renewed investments in energy-sector technologies are a required component of early action. We therefore develop and examine an international emissions regime that: (a) in the short-term 'jump starts' the political and project-implementation process by providing incentives to exploit profitable or low-cost carbon reduction opportunities; (b) in the near- and medium-term addresses the inequities resulting from historic imbalances in greenhouse-gas emissions while promoting efficient pathways for carbon reduction; and (c) in the long-term recognizes the equal rights of individuals to exploit the services of the atmosphere and pursue a reasonable standard of living in a low-carbon economy. We present and analyze a proposal to promote near-term activity in carbon reduction and energy innovation through a revitalized program of international joint implementation (JI) projects for carbon emissions reduction or carbon sequestration projects. Under our proposal, JI partner nations both receive full credit for carbon reductions that can be 'banked' and applied at a later date toward national emissions quotas in the climate convention. A finite program lifetime provides further impetus counting' of credits results in only modest additional cumulative carbon emissions relative to a similar scenario without cooperative partnerships. This 'JI banking' plan promotes critically needed scientific and institutional experience and innovation, initiates cost-effective carbon reductions, and provides vital national flexibility in meeting eventual targets. (author)

  1. Does the national innovation system spur economic growth in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa economies? Evidence from panel data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brima Sesay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The question as to whether the national innovation system (NIS plays a significant positive role in influencing economic growth has been intensely debated by academics as well as policy analysts. The main controversy, however, is the fact that the ongoing empirical evidences on the relationship between innovation and economic growth are still mixed. The aim of this paper is to provide further evidence on the relationship between the NIS and economic growth using consistent and reliable data from a sample of emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa [BRICS]. The research has a BRICS focus and constructs NIS using historical panel data set for the main variables, that is, university enrolment rate for science and engineering students, government research and development expenditure, high-tech export and the enclosure of control variables covering the period 2000Q1–2013Q4. The study employed a dynamic panel estimation technique with a view of evaluating the relative impact of the NIS on economic growth in BRICS. The results revealed that the NIS as a whole has a positive effect on economic growth in BRICS economies. An important policy implication emerging from this study is that extra efforts are needed by emerging economies to promote the development of a NIS so as to explore the potential growth-inducing effects of a well-functioning NIS. Consequently, findings from this study have offered some persuading indicators for BRICS economies to explore the development of a NIS as a potential opportunity to speed up their economic growth.

  2. The impact of international trade on environmental quality in transition countries: evidence from time series data during 1991-2013.

    OpenAIRE

    Halicioglu, Ferda; Ketenci, Natalya

    2015-01-01

    This research presents first empirical time series evidence of the impact of international trade on environmental quality in the case of transition countries. The linkages between international trade and environmental quality are well established both theoretically and empirically in the literature. However, the empirical evidence relating to transition countries is non-existent as far as this study is concerned. Thus, our research aims at filling this gap. To this extent, fifteen transition ...

  3. Digital discrimination in the sharing economy: what’s mine is not yours : evidence from an online experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Klemsdal, Sigrid; Sundt, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Although the issue of racial discrimination has been studied extensively throughout the past decades, its appearance in the disruptive digital market called the sharing economy is a rather unexplored field of research. To address this issue, we study how consumer outcomes in an Airbnbsetting are influenced by a host’s Arab (out-group) ethnicity compared to a Norwegian (in-group) ethnicity, and the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions involved. Further, we examine the e...

  4. Gasoline prices, gasoline consumption, and new-vehicle fuel economy: Evidence for a large sample of countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Paul J.; Nishitateno, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    Countries differ considerably in terms of the price drivers pay for gasoline. This paper uses data for 132 countries for the period 1995–2008 to investigate the implications of these differences for the consumption of gasoline for road transport. To address the potential for simultaneity bias, we use both a country's oil reserves and the international crude oil price as instruments for a country's average gasoline pump price. We obtain estimates of the long-run price elasticity of gasoline demand of between − 0.2 and − 0.5. Using newly available data for a sub-sample of 43 countries, we also find that higher gasoline prices induce consumers to substitute to vehicles that are more fuel-efficient, with an estimated elasticity of + 0.2. Despite the small size of our elasticity estimates, there is considerable scope for low-price countries to achieve gasoline savings and vehicle fuel economy improvements via reducing gasoline subsidies and/or increasing gasoline taxes. - Highlights: ► We estimate the determinants of gasoline demand and new-vehicle fuel economy. ► Estimates are for a large sample of countries for the period 1995–2008. ► We instrument for gasoline prices using oil reserves and the world crude oil price. ► Gasoline demand and fuel economy are inelastic with respect to the gasoline price. ► Large energy efficiency gains are possible via higher gasoline prices

  5. Does energy-price regulation benefit China's economy and environment? Evidence from energy-price distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Keyi; Su, Bin; Zhou, Dequn; Wu, Junmin

    2017-01-01

    China's energy prices have long been regulated due to the critical role energy plays in economic growth and social development, which leads to energy-price distortion to some extent. To figure out whether energy-price regulations will benefit China's economy (measured by GDP growth) and environment (measured by carbon emissions), we conducted an in-depth simulation using path analysis, where five energy products (natural gas, gasoline, fuel oil, steam coal, and coking coal) are selected and three measurements (absolute, relative, and moving) of energy-price distortions are calculated. The results indicate that, with a series of energy pricing policies, the price distortion for a single type of energy has gradually transformed, while the energy pricing system in China is not fully market-oriented yet. Furthermore, China's economy benefits from relative and moving distortions, while the absolute distortions of energy prices have negative impacts on economic growth. Finally, with regard to the environment, carbon emissions call for fewer distortions. - Highlights: • Price distortion for a single type of energy has gradually transformed. • Energy pricing system in China is not yet fully market-oriented. • China's economy benefits from relative and moving distortions. • Absolute distortions of energy prices have negative effects on economic growth. • Carbon emissions call for less pricing distortions.

  6. The heterogeneous effects of urbanization and income inequality on CO2 emissions in BRICS economies: evidence from panel quantile regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huiming; Xia, Hang; Guo, Yawei; Peng, Cheng

    2018-04-12

    This paper empirically examines the effects of urbanization and income inequality on CO 2 emissions in the BRICS economies (i.e., Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) during the periods 1994-2013. The method we used is the panel quantile regression, which takes into account the unobserved individual heterogeneity and distributional heterogeneity. Our empirical results indicate that urbanization has a significant and negative impact on carbon emissions, except in the 80 th , 90 th , and 95 th quantiles. We also quantitatively investigate the direct and indirect effect of urbanization on carbon emissions, and the results show that we may underestimate urbanization's effect on carbon emissions if we ignore its indirect effect. In addition, in middle- and high-emission countries, income inequality has a significant and positive impact on carbon emissions. The results of our study indicate that in the BRICS economies, there is an inverted U-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) between the GDP per capita and carbon emissions. The conclusions of this study have important policy implications for policymakers. Policymakers should try to narrow the income gap between the rich and the poor to improve environmental quality; the BRICS economies can speed up urbanization to reduce carbon emissions, but they must improve energy efficiency and use clean energy to the greatest extent in the process.

  7. GREEN ECONOMY AND CLIMATE CHANGE PREVENTION CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea CONSTANTINESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While experts in economics place transition to green economy on two directions - reducing ecological footprint and increasing human welfare - climate change specialists warn that effects of global warming will have a much greater impact in the future. It is natural to join scientific contributions in these two areas because both perspectives recognize the ravages made by industrialization, which triggered a serie of abrupt climate changes. For example, the average temperature in Europe has increased about 1oC. Based on these evidences, this article will show the usefulness of introducing a concept of full cycle to prevent climate change in the new paradigm that seeks to solve problems related to the fundamentals of sustainable development through transition to green economy. Using this method, this approach intends to be a new theoretical contribution which can act as support to efficiency of new clean technologies.

  8. Proceedings of the Eighth Forum: Croatian Energy Day Energy markets and energy efficiency in transition economy countries'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Energy efficiency is the sum total of various influential factors resulting from the technical, technological, economic, financial, legislative and organisational conditions that exist in each of the transition countries. It is not possible to achieve an efficient usage of energy as in the Western European countries unless the total efficiency of managing all other resources equals the same level. Therefore, in the preceding period only the most successful companies managed to take considerable steps as regards the enhancement of energy efficiency, i.e. companies present at the European market and equalling the criteria of the their competitors. The problem of energy efficiency can be explained with the help pf a number of factors influencing decision making of a company's management or a citizen. Those factors create a framework of events, i.w. an appropriate or an inappropriate atmosphere for the implementation of the measures to increase energy efficiency. Attitudes for and against certain activities develop in an atmosphere according to which individuals have to make decisions. Non-economic prices, non-existence of tariff systems or systems with socially influenced prices or tariffs, have a demotivating effect on all the activities in the field of energy efficiency. The existing legislation of the transition countries often enough neglects the problem of energy management, relating to either building planning and construction, or network systems, renewable sources or consumption standards at the market. The financial situation is also an important element when dealing with energy efficiency projects; high interest rates and major problems with the insurance of necessary financial funds impede their realisation. The support of expert and consulting institutions is a precondition for a successful choice of measures, and the educational system should take over its extremely important role at each of the education levels. Energy efficiency programmes cannot be

  9. Evidence for plasma phase transition in high pressure hydrogen from ab-initio simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, M; Pierleoni, C; Schwegler, E; Ceperley, D

    2010-02-08

    We have performed a detailed study of molecular dissociation in liquid hydrogen using both Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with Density Functional Theory and Coupled Electron-Ion Monte Carlo simulations. We observe a range of densities where (dP/d{rho}){sub T} = 0 that coincides with sharp discontinuities in the electronic conductivity, which is clear evidence of the plasma phase transition for temperatures 600K {le} T {le} 1500K. Both levels of theory exhibit the transition, although Quantum Monte Carlo predicts higher transition pressures. Based on the temperature dependence of the discontinuity in the electronic conductivity, we estimate the critical point of the transition at temperatures slightly below 2000 K. We examine the influence of proton zero point motion by using Path Integral Molecular Dynamics with Density Functional Theory; the main effect is to shift the transition to lower pressures. Furthermore, we calculate the melting curve of molecular hydrogen up to pressures of 200 GPa, finding a reentrant melting line in good agreement with previous calculations. The melting line crosses the metalization line at 700 K and 220 GPa using density functional energetics and at 550 K and 290 GPa using Quantum Monte Carlo energetics.

  10. BaAka women's health and subsistence practices in transitional conservation economies: Variation with age, household size, and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost Robinson, Carolyn A; Remis, Melissa J

    2016-07-01

    Using ethnographic interviews and biological measures, this article investigates changing health and nutrition of a hunter-gatherer population transitioning from a forest-based subsistence system to a horticultural and market-driven lifestyle. This study represents biological and dietary recall data for adult female foragers (18+; n = 60) across two villages, Mossapoula (MS) and Yandoumbé (YDBE), in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas (APDS), Central African Republic (CAR). Standard anthropometric measurements (height, weight, skinfolds) and hemoglobin values were collected to assess short-term nutritional status. BMI was similar across all three age classes in YDBE, but differed amongst women of MS (ANOVA; F = 6.34, df = 30, P = 0.005).Values were lowest among the older women in older age class 3 who also had the greatest number of dependents. Overall SS values were significantly negatively correlated with the number of biological children (r = -0.33, P = 0.01) in both villages. Here, we identify older BaAka women, caring for their own children and grandchildren, as particularly vulnerable to economic changes and food insecurity. We found older women, especially those in a community with greater restrictions on access to forest resources to have more dependents, reduced market integration, and low BMI relative to younger women in the population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:453-460, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  12. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... of Airbnb’s early legal issues Daniel Guttentag 8.Free walking tour enterprises in Europe: An evolutionary economic approach Maria del Pilar Leal and L. Xavier Medina, 9.Cultural capitalism: Manipulation and control in Airbnb’s intersection with tourism Michael O' Reganand Jaeyeon Choe 10.Sharing the new...

  13. Lags from Money to Inflation in a Monetary Integrated Economy: Evidence from the Extreme Case of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the time-lenght of money growth's long and short run effect in affecting the rate of inflation in the context of an economy of extreme monetary integration. Money growth is measured as the rate of growth of Puerto Rico's consumer price index. By analyzing the case of Puerto Rico, we find that a dynamic expansion of money is reflected on prices immediately, but the unitary effect occurs approximately within ten quarters. In addition, the results show that local inflation is significantly influenced by its own past history and monetary policy, with the second having the greater effect.

  14. Sustainable energy transitions in emerging economies: The formation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia 1990–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The economic development in emerging economies in Southeast Asia has significantly increased the use of fossil fuel based energy. This has severe implications for global climate change, and against this background, scholars within the sustainable transition tradition have taken an interest in addressing how transitions towards more sustainable development pathways in this region may be achieved. This paper contributes to the abovementioned literature by examining the conducive and limiting factors for development and proliferation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia during the period 1990–2011. Rising oil prices, strong pressure on the palm oil industry from environmental groups, and a persisting palm oil biomass waste disposal problem in Malaysia appear to have been conducive to niche proliferation, and on top of this national renewable energy policies and large-scale donor programmes have specifically supported the utilisation of palm oil biomass waste for energy. However, in spite of this, the niche development process has only made slow progress. The paper identifies reluctant implementation of energy policy, rise in biomass resource prices, limited network formation and negative results at the niche level, as the main factors hindering niche development. - Highlights: • We examine crucial factors for developing a biomass-to-energy niche in Malaysia. • In spite of interventions for policy support the niche has only made slow progress. • Oil prices, NGO pressure, waste problems and policy support were the enabling factors. • First, reluctant implementation of energy policy was hindering niche development. • Later, low performance level of implemented plants was hindering niche development

  15. Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979-2009) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Yin, Zhane; Zhong, Haidong; Xu, Shiyuan; Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jianping

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use/cover changes and urban expansion in Shanghai metropolitan area, China, during the transitional economy period (1979-2009) using multi-temporal satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS). A maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm was employed to extract information from four landsat images, with the post-classification change detection technique and GIS-based spatial analysis methods used to detect land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes. The overall Kappa indices of land use/cover change maps ranged from 0.79 to 0.89. Results indicated that urbanization has accelerated at an unprecedented scale and rate during the study period, leading to a considerable reduction in the area of farmland and green land. Findings further revealed that water bodies and bare land increased, obviously due to large-scale coastal development after 2000. The direction of urban expansion was along a north-south axis from 1979 to 2000, but after 2000 this growth changed to spread from both the existing urban area and along transport routes in all directions. Urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes in Shanghai have largely been driven by policy reform, population growth, and economic development. Rapid urban expansion through clearing of vegetation has led to a wide range of eco-environmental degradation.

  16. Fueling the Green Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  17. Analysing the long-run relationship among oil market, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: An evidence from emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    The primary objectives of this paper is to scrutinize the long-run relationship and the causal linkage between oil consumption, nuclear energy consumption, oil prices and economic growth. For this purpose, Johansen cointegration technique is applied using time series data for four emerging economies: Russia, China, South Korea and India, over the period from 1965 to 2010. Johansen cointegration results indicate that there is a long-run relationship between the proposed variables in each country. Exclusion tests show that both energy sources enter the cointegration space significantly (except for Russia), which suggests that energy has a long-run impact on economic growth. Results of the causal linkage between the variables point that energy consumption (i.e., oil or nuclear) has either a predictive power for economic growth, or a feedback impact between with real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth in all countries. Hence, energy conservation policies might harmful negative consequences on the growth of economic for this group of countries. - Highlights: • There is a long-run relationship among oil market, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth. • Countries are energy dependent in stimulating economic growth. • There is feedback impact between oil consumption and economic growth in three out of four countries. • An increase in oil prices has drawbacks on emerging economies growth

  18. Estratégia em negócios internacionais: evidência em uma trading company que atua entre economias emergentes International business strategy: evidence from a trading company that operates in emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Marini Thomé

    2013-04-01

    economias emergentes foi identificado como a capacidade da firma em gerenciar as interfaces entre os recursos e capacidades da firma, as demandas de competitividade industrial e as condições e transições institucionais. Esta capacidade possibilitou à firma estudada se sobressair à dificuldade e a explorar oportunidades de negócios em diferentes partes do globo.This case study revisits the questions raised by Peng (2004; 2003 with respect to what drives firm strategy and the determinants of success or failure in international business. Specifically, the study investigates what drives the strategy of a trading company and determines its success in international business. The theoretical framework focuses on trading companies and the triangular relationships between these companies, their clients and their suppliers and on three approaches or bases of strategy in international business, those of industrial competitiveness, firm resources and capabilities, and institutional contexts and transitions. The study, descriptive and qualitative in nature, collected data by means of in-depth interviews, document analysis and non-participant observation during the period from July, 2010 to January, 2011. The firm selected for study is a trading company conducting a large percentage of its total transactions between emerging economies. Results demonstrate that there is no single driver of this trading company strategy. Rather, there was evidence of the use of a variety of strategies, driven at times by the demands of industrial competitiveness, at times by firm resources and capabilities, and at times by institutional conditions. Each driver corresponded to a specific moment in the trajectory of the trading company studied. In addition, there was no evidence neither of a linear chronological order for these drivers, nor of driver obsolescence. On the contrary, the evidence of the study suggests that drivers are cumulative and cyclical, requiring review and even re-thinking when

  19. SECURITY RISKS, MYTHS IN A TRANSITIONING SUB-NATIONAL REGIONAL ECONOMY (CROSS RIVER STATE AND IMAGINATIVE GEOGRAPHIES OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. UKWAYI

    2015-03-01

    their unscathed security credentials/records, we argue for their subtraction from such “brown books”. Realisation of the latter requires vigorous campaigns that the “international community might be unwilling to undertake. However, we point towards sub-national regional tourism events that effectively re-map the evidences of security in the Cross River State.

  20. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  1. The effect of corporate environmental performance on financial outcomes – profits, revenues and costs: evidence from the Czech transition economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Earnhart, D.; Lízal, Lubomír

    -, č. 10-15 (2010), s. 1-43. ISBN 978-87-7873-297-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : environmental protection * pollution * financial performance * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www3.druid.dk/wp/20100015.pdf

  2. Patient and provider perspectives on quality and health system effectiveness in a transition economy: evidence from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, J; Peabody, J W; DeMaria, L M; Alvarado, C S; Menon, R

    2014-08-01

    Facing a severe population health crisis due to noncommunicable diseases, Ukraine and other former Soviet republics and Eastern European countries have a pressing need for more effective health systems. Policies to enhance health system effectiveness should consider the perspectives of different stakeholder groups, including providers as well as patients. In addition, policies that directly target the quality of clinical care should be based on objective performance measures. In 2009 and 2010 we conducted a coordinated series of household and facility-level surveys to capture the perspectives of Ukrainian household members, outpatient clinic patients, and physicians regarding the country's health system overall, as well as the quality, access, and affordability of health care. We objectively measured the quality of care for heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using CPV(®) vignettes. There was broad agreement among household respondents (79%) and physicians (95%) that Ukraine's health system should be reformed. CPV(®) results indicate that the quality of care for common noncommunicable diseases is poor in all regions of the country and in hospitals as well as polyclinics. However, perspectives about the quality of care differ, with household respondents seeing quality as a serious concern, clinic patients having more positive perceptions, and physicians not viewing quality as a reform priority. All stakeholder groups viewed affordability as a problem. These findings have several implications for policies to enhance health system effectiveness. The shared desire for health system reform among all stakeholder groups provides a basis for action in Ukraine. Improving quality, strengthening primary care, and enhancing affordability should be major goals of new health policies. Policies to improve quality directly, such as pay-for-performance, would be mutually reinforcing with purchasing reforms such as transparent payment mechanisms. Such policies would align the incentives of physicians with the desires of the population they serve. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Do good institutions enhance the effect of technological spillovers on productivity? Comparative evidence from developed and transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krammer, Sorin M. S.

    This paper argues that institutional quality has both direct and indirect (moderating) effects on productivity of countries. These hypotheses are tested using a battery of institutional proxies (governance, economic freedom, intellectual property rights and ease of doing business) and two channels

  4. Accumulating Evidence on the Benefits and Costs of Supported and Transitional Employment for Persons with Severe Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, John H., Jr.; Conley, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Benefits and costs of supported and transitional employment services are compared with those of adult day care and traditional sheltered workshops (including work activity centers) for the severely disabled. Evidence indicates that all forms of employment (supported, transitional, and sheltered) are more productive and less costly than adult day…

  5. The Trade-off between Fertility and Education: Evidence from before the Demographic Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Sascha; Cinnirella, Francesco; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    The trade-off between child quantity and quality is a crucial ingredient of unified growth models that explain the transition from Malthusian stagnation to modern growth. We present first evidence that such a trade-off indeed existed already in the nineteenth century, exploiting a unique census-based...... dataset of 334 Prussian counties in 1849. Furthermore, we find that causation between fertility and education runs both ways, based on separate instrumental-variable models that instrument fertility by sex ratios and education by landownership inequality and distance to Wittenberg. Education in 1849 also...

  6. The American Economy in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    the same? Freeman 3 0:673-6, November 1980. Bacon, Kenneth H. Battle of the budget. Wall Street Journal 197:1+, 16 January 1981. _ President’s...course: Reagan’s budget aims for economic growth despite deep deficits. Wall Street Journal 199:1+, 8 February 1982. and Robert W. Merry. New round...turning to 󈨗 budget, Reagan resumes hunt for programs to slash. Wall Street Journal 198: 1+, 4 December 1981. Benenson, Robert. Reagonomics on trial

  7. Fertility and the environment in a natural resource dependent economy: Evidence from Petén, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines potential relations between factors related to fertility and the access to and use of natural resources in Petén, Guatemala. The Petén forms the heart of the Selva Maya, the largest lowland humid forest in Mesoamerica. The rapid in-migration of subsistence maize farmers has converted much of the Petén´s forests to agricultural fields. Population dynamics have been transformed in that virtually all farm families have arrived since the 1970s and that total fertility rates exceed the national rural mean. Continued migration, exceptionally high fertility, a youthful population, and a large consumer to producer ratio are hypothesized to be related to the dramatic land cover dynamics shaping the landscape of the Petén. An emerging body of literature suggests that environmental factors can affect fertility decision-making and behaviors, especially in natural resource dependent economies like that of the Petén. This paper examines these relationships using data from the 1998/99 Demographic Health Survey in Guatemala. Data on natural resource access and utilization were collected as part of an environment module, in addition to demographic and health information. This dataset, the first ever environmental module of the Demographic Health Survey, provides a unique opportunity to examine possible relationships between fertility and the environment in a tropical agricultural frontier.

  8. The impact of CO2 emissions on economic growth: evidence from selected higher CO2 emissions economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Bin Abdullah, Hussin; Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze the impact of environmental degradation proxied by CO2 emissions per capita along with some other explanatory variables namely energy use, trade, and human capital on economic growth in selected higher CO2 emissions economies namely China, the USA, India, and Japan. For empirical analysis, annual data over the period spanning between 1971 and 2013 are used. After using relevant and suitable tests for checking data properties, the panel fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) method is employed as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The panel group FMOLS results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non cointegration, demonstrating that all variables play an important role in affecting the economic growth role across countries. Where two regressors namely CO2 emissions and energy use show significantly negative impacts on economic growth, for trade and human capital, they tend to show the significantly positive impact on economic growth. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the panel estimate suggests that CO2 emissions have a significant positive relationship with economic growth for China, Japan, and the USA, while it is found significantly negative in case of India. The empirical findings of the study suggest that appropriate and prudent policies are required in order to control pollution emerging from areas other than liquefied fuel consumption. The ultimate impact of shrinking pollution will help in supporting sustainable economic growth and maturation as well as largely improve society welfare.

  9. Spatial transition analysis: Spatially explicit and evidence-based targets for sustainable energy transition at the local and regional scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudes, Dirk; Oudes, Dirk; Stremke, Sven; Stremke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Climate change, depletion of fossil fuels, and economic concerns are among the main drivers of sustainable energy transition. Over the past decade, several regions with low population density have successfully transited towards renewable energy (for example Siena, Italy). In the Netherlands and

  10. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  11. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  12. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  13. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  14. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  15. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  16. Gender differences in predictors of self-rated health in Armenia: a population-based study of an economy in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirchyan, Anahit; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Thompson, Michael E

    2012-11-14

    Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the strongest predictors of fair/poor self-rated health for both genders

  17. Gender differences in predictors of self-rated health in Armenia: a population-based study of an economy in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirchyan Anahit

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Methods Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Results Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. Conclusions The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the

  18. The Maternal-to-Zygotic Transition in Flowering Plants: Evidence, Mechanisms, and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroux, Célia; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) defines a developmental phase during which the embryo progressively emancipates itself from a developmental control relying largely on maternal information. The MZT is a functional readout of two processes: the clearance of maternally derived information and the de novo expression of the inherited, parental alleles enabled by zygotic genome activation (ZGA). In plants, for many years the debate about whether the MZT exists at all focused on the ZGA alone. However, several recent studies provide evidence for a progressive alleviation of the maternal control over embryogenesis that is correlated with a gradual ZGA, a process that is itself maternally controlled. Yet, several examples of zygotic genes that are expressed and/or functionally required early in embryogenesis demonstrate a certain flexibility in the dynamics and kinetics of the MZT among plant species and also intraspecific hybrids. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fixed-term Contracts, Transitions and Wage Growth: Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio CAPARRÓS RUIZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Employment instability is considered one of the main problems ofthe Spanish labour market. Thus, the proportion of temporary workers in Spainis around 30 per cent that is the highest rate of the European Union countries.The persistence of this situation could increase the risk of labour marketsegmentation. This paper presents new evidence of the factors affectingworkers' transition from temporary work to permanent one and analyseswhether this transition has a positive effect on wage growth. The formerobjective is obtained by estimating discrete choice models and the latter byestimating a wage growth equation correcting for selectivity bias through thetwo-step method developed by Trost and Lee (1984. The data are obtainedfrom the second and third waves of the Spanish Household Panel Survey (INE1996 conducted over the period 1995–1996. The main results are, on the onehand, that personal and job characteristics have a significant influence on theprobability of becoming a permanent worker and, on the other hand, that thistransition has an important positive effect on wage growth.

  20. Evidence for a High Altitude Haze on an L/T Transition Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Melania; Murphy, Caitlin; Radigan, Jacqueline; Doyle, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    We present overlapping Spitzer and HST (Wide Field Camera 3) observations of a variable T2 brown dwarf with an unremarkable near-infrared spectrum, yet unusual variability properties. The brown dwarf exhibits a flat variability spectrum from 1.1-1.7 microns, with an amplitude of ~5%, with no evidence of muted variations in the water absorption feature as seen for other L/T transition brown dwarfs. The absence of a water absorption feature suggests that a patchy, high-altitude haze, rather than a deeper cloud feature, may responsible. The amplitude of the overlapping 3.6 micron Spitzer variations is ~2.5%, and provides a lever-arm for constraining the particle size distribution of the haze. Using a Mie-Scattering model we determined that a lognormal distribution of sub-micron size grains can approximately reproduce the observed variations from 1.1-3.6 microns, without substantially impacting the overall NIR spectrum of our target. Our results suggest that there may be more than one type of cloud morphology that can contribute to variability at the L/T transition.

  1. Evidence and future scenarios of a low-carbon energy transition in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barido, Diego Ponce de Leon; Johnston, Josiah; Moncada, Maria V.; Callaway, Duncan; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-10-01

    The global carbon emissions budget over the next decades depends critically on the choices made by fast-growing emerging economies. Few studies exist, however, that develop country-specific energy system integration insights that can inform emerging economies in this decision-making process. High spatial- and temporal-resolution power system planning is central to evaluating decarbonization scenarios, but obtaining the required data and models can be cost prohibitive, especially for researchers in low, lower-middle income economies. Here, we use Nicaragua as a case study to highlight the importance of high-resolution open access data and modeling platforms to evaluate fuel-switching strategies and their resulting cost of power under realistic technology, policy, and cost scenarios (2014-2030). Our results suggest that Nicaragua could cost-effectively achieve a low-carbon grid (≥80%, based on non-large hydro renewable energy generation) by 2030 while also pursuing multiple development objectives. Regional cooperation (balancing) enables the highest wind and solar generation (18% and 3% by 2030, respectively), at the least cost (US127 MWh-1). Potentially risky resources (geothermal and hydropower) raise system costs but do not significantly hinder decarbonization. Oil price sensitivity scenarios suggest renewable energy to be a more cost-effective long-term investment than fuel oil, even under the assumption of prevailing cheap oil prices. Nicaragua’s options illustrate the opportunities and challenges of power system decarbonization for emerging economies, and the key role that open access data and modeling platforms can play in helping develop low-carbon transition pathways.

  2. Evidence-Based Thresholds for the Volume-Value Relationship in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Outcomes and Economies of Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sergio M; Ramkumar, Prem N; Egger, Anthony C; Goodwin, Ryan C

    Increased surgeon and hospital volume has been associated with improved patient outcomes and cost effectiveness for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, no evidence-based thresholds that clarify the volume at which these strata occur exist. The objective of this study was to establish statistically meaningful thresholds that define high-volume surgeons and hospitals performing spinal fusion for AIS from those that are low volume with respect to length of stay (LOS) and cost. Using 3,224 patients undergoing spinal fusion for AIS from an administrative database, we created and applied four models using stratum-specific likelihood ratio (SSLR) analysis of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. We generated four sets of thresholds predictive of adverse outcomes, namely, increased cost and LOS, for both surgeon and hospital volume. For both LOS and cost, surgeon volume produced the same strata with low volume identified as 0-5 annual surgeries and high as greater than 5. LOS and cost decreased significantly (p < .05) between volume strata. For hospital volume in terms of LOS, low volume was identified as 0-10 annual surgeries and high as greater than 10; in terms of cost, low volume was identified as 0-15 annual surgeries and high as greater than 15. LOS decreased significantly (p < .05) and cost was $1,500 less but not statistically significant between volume strata for hospital volume. Our study of risk-based volume stratification established a direct volume-value relationship for surgeons and hospitals performing fusion for AIS. A meaningful threshold for low- and high-volume surgeons was established at 5 annual surgeries, but no consensus or clinically meaningful conclusion was reached for hospitals, although the threshold approached 10-15 annual surgeries. This analysis should aid patients, surgeons, and administration reach value-based decisions in the optimal delivery of pediatric spinal fusion for AIS. Copyright © 2017 Scoliosis Research

  3. Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Constantiou, Ioanna; Thoma, Antonela

    De spite the hype the notion of the sharing economy is surrounded by, our understanding of sharing is surprisingly undertheorized. In this paper, we make a first step towards rem edying this state of affairs by analy sing sharing as a s ocial practice. Based on a multi ple - case study, we analys...

  4. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  5. Green Skills for Green Economy: Case of the Environmental Education Role in Kazakhstan's Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlimbetova, Gaini; Zhylbaev, Zhanbol; Syrymbetova, Lyailya; ?liyeva, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    The research on situation with developing "green skills" in conditions of transition to "green economy" is analysed in this article. Kazakhstan like many other states has been going through transition to "green economy" since 2013. Economic reforms have made an impact on the system of environmental education. The…

  6. FDI from Emerging Economies in EU27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn

    This paper scrutinizes FDI from a wide range of emerging economies (including newly industrializing Asian countries, Latin American countries and East European transition economies) that adopted different growth models in the past. The overarching research question of this paper is to which...... the integration of firms from different emerging economies via FDI into the global economy is linked to technological upgrading. We assume that technology seeking in advanced economies should be reflected in the relevance of particular location factors such as knowledge spillover. We analyses a large firm level...

  7. First Clear-Cut Experimental Evidence of a Glass Transition in a Polymer with Intrinsic Microporosity: PIM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huajie; Chua, Yeong Zen; Yang, Bin; Schick, Christoph; Harrison, Wayne J; Budd, Peter M; Böhning, Martin; Schönhals, Andreas

    2018-04-19

    Polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) represent a novel, innovative class of materials with great potential in various applications from high-performance gas-separation membranes to electronic devices. Here, for the first time, for PIM-1, as the archetypal PIM, fast scanning calorimetry provides definitive evidence of a glass transition ( T g = 715 K, heating rate 3 × 10 4 K/s) by decoupling the time scales responsible for glass transition and decomposition. Because the rigid molecular structure of PIM-1 prevents any conformational changes, small-scale bend and flex fluctuations must be considered the origin of its glass transition. This result has strong implications for the fundamental understanding of the glass transition and for the physical aging of PIMs and other complex polymers, both topical problems of materials science.

  8. Geçiş Ekonomileri ve Yeni Kurumsal İktisat’ın Yeniden Yükselişi = Transition Economies and the Re-Emergence of the New Institutional Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra GÜLER

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transition from the socialist system that is based on central planning to the capitalist system that is based on free market involves, above all, a great and complex institutional transformation. The fact that academic studies examining economies that underwent such a transformation have ignored “institutions” especially at the beginning of this process is a result of a shortcoming in the dominant neoclassical paradigm. This shortcoming is tried to be eliminated through The New Institutional Economics (NIE approach attempted to eliminate this shortcomings, which started to rise again after the mid-90s and included institutions as the main variable of its analys’s .The aim of this study is to demonstrate that the transition process, which is structurally complex, has gained a much more consistent and satisfying approach with NIE, which is of an interdisciplinary character.

  9. Essential evidence for guiding health system priorities and policies: anticipating epidemiological transition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byass, Peter; de Savigny, Don; Lopez, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    Despite indications that infection-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa may be decreasing and the burden of non-communicable diseases increasing, the overwhelming reality is that health information systems across most of sub-Saharan Africa remain too weak to track epidemiological transition in a meaningful and effective way. We propose a minimum dataset as the basis of a functional health information system in countries where health information is lacking. This would involve continuous monitoring of cause-specific mortality through routine civil registration, regular documentation of exposure to leading risk factors, and monitoring effective coverage of key preventive and curative interventions in the health sector. Consideration must be given as to how these minimum data requirements can be effectively integrated within national health information systems, what methods and tools are needed, and ensuring that ethical and political issues are addressed. A more strategic approach to health information systems in sub-Saharan African countries, along these lines, is essential if epidemiological changes are to be tracked effectively for the benefit of local health planners and policy makers. African countries have a unique opportunity to capitalize on modern information and communications technology in order to achieve this. Methodological standards need to be established and political momentum fostered so that the African continent's health status can be reliably tracked. This will greatly strengthen the evidence base for health policies and facilitate the effective delivery of services.

  10. Essential evidence for guiding health system priorities and policies: anticipating epidemiological transition in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Byass

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite indications that infection-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa may be decreasing and the burden of non-communicable diseases increasing, the overwhelming reality is that health information systems across most of sub-Saharan Africa remain too weak to track epidemiological transition in a meaningful and effective way. Proposals: We propose a minimum dataset as the basis of a functional health information system in countries where health information is lacking. This would involve continuous monitoring of cause-specific mortality through routine civil registration, regular documentation of exposure to leading risk factors, and monitoring effective coverage of key preventive and curative interventions in the health sector. Consideration must be given as to how these minimum data requirements can be effectively integrated within national health information systems, what methods and tools are needed, and ensuring that ethical and political issues are addressed. A more strategic approach to health information systems in sub-Saharan African countries, along these lines, is essential if epidemiological changes are to be tracked effectively for the benefit of local health planners and policy makers. Conclusion: African countries have a unique opportunity to capitalize on modern information and communications technology in order to achieve this. Methodological standards need to be established and political momentum fostered so that the African continent's health status can be reliably tracked. This will greatly strengthen the evidence base for health policies and facilitate the effective delivery of services.

  11. Observational Evidence of Magnetic Reconnection for Brightenings and Transition Region Arcades in IRIS Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Hui; Feng, Li [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Schmieder, Brigitte; Pariat, Etienne [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, F-92195, Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Zhu, Xiaoshuai [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Grubecka, Michalina, E-mail: nj.lihui@pmo.ac.cn [Astronomical Institute, University of Wrocław, Kopernika 11, 51-622, Wrocław (Poland)

    2017-02-10

    By using a new method of forced-field extrapolation, we study the emerging flux region AR11850 observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Solar Dynamical Observatory . Our results suggest that the bright points (BPs) in this emerging region exhibit responses in lines formed from the upper photosphere to the transition region, which have relatively similar morphologies. They have an oscillation of several minutes according to the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data at 1600 and 1700 Å. The ratio between the BP intensities measured in 1600 and 1700 Å filtergrams reveals that these BPs are heated differently. Our analysis of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager vector magnetic field and the corresponding topology in AR11850 indicates that the BPs are located at the polarity inversion line and most of them are related to magnetic reconnection or cancelation. The heating of the BPs might be different due to different magnetic topology. We find that the heating due to the magnetic cancelation would be stronger than the case of bald patch reconnection. The plasma density rather than the magnetic field strength could play a dominant role in this process. Based on physical conditions in the lower atmosphere, our forced-field extrapolation shows consistent results between the bright arcades visible in slit-jaw image 1400 Å and the extrapolated field lines that pass through the bald patches. It provides reliable observational evidence for testing the mechanism of magnetic reconnection for the BPs and arcades in the emerging flux region, as proposed in simulation studies.

  12. Education and transition to work: evidence from Vietnam, Cambodia and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang

    2018-07-01

    Against the background of education expansion and economic transformations, little is known about how education shapes the transition to work in developing countries. Drawing on the cases of Vietnam, Cambodia and Nepal, this study examines the association between education and the timing and quality of transition to work. In Vietnam and Cambodia, school enrolment delays the transition to first paid employment, but upon leaving school, higher education attainment is associated with faster rate of transition. The education gradient is even stronger in probabilities and rates of transition to first stable, long-term employment. In Nepal, school enrolment does not preclude transition to paid employment, and the relation between education attainment and transition to work varies significantly by gender.

  13. Exploring the connections between green economy and informal economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Smit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of an inclusive green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication requires an approach that engages with the informal economy. However, the informal economy is generally ignored or undervalued in discussions on the green economy. This paper set out to bolster this argument by identifying the ways in which the green economy and the informal economy may be connected by establishing the extent to which policies and plans relating to green economy connect with the informal economy, and recognising several informal green activities. The barriers and opportunities for connecting the two spheres were also explored as well as possible ways in which such activities may be supported at different levels of organisation. In the case of South Africa, many informal green activities that contribute to sustainable livelihoods are recognised. However, issues pertaining to procedure, process and participation hinder the transition to a truly inclusive green economy.

  14. The energy-economic situation in the Republic of Moldova and the energy policy characteristics during the transition period to market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vern, G.; Medvev, L.; Lumer, I.; Reabuhina, L.

    1994-01-01

    A significant characteristics of the present situation of the Moldavian economy is the social impact of cyclic and structural economic crises. The energy crisis is an important concern for social-political background of the Republic and it requires updating the elements of the permanent capital implied in electrothermal power production. Comparative calculations were done for electrothermal demands and the results illustrate the dynamics of the energy intensity for the power output. Several suggestions are advanced to settle the energy-economical problems

  15. Che Challenges of Real and Subjective Poverty and the Growth of Inequality in the Economies of South Eastern Europe in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Bićanić, Ivo; Franičević, Vojmir

    2005-01-01

    From the beginning it was clear that during the transformation, all aspects of economic inequality were likely to be exacerbated and that poverty was likely to emerge. This paper discusses the size and consequences of transformation-generated changes in economic inequality and poverty, both “real” and “subjective”, for future economic growth and the legitimacy of continued transformation in the Mediterranean economies in transformation (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and M...

  16. Evidence-based practice profiles of physiotherapists transitioning into the workforce: a study of two cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEvoy Maureen P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training in the five steps of evidence-based practice (EBP has been recommended for inclusion in entry-level health professional training. The effectiveness of EBP education has been explored predominantly in the medical and nursing professions and more commonly in post-graduate than entry-level students. Few studies have investigated longitudinal changes in EBP attitudes and behaviours. This study aimed to assess the changes in EBP knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in entry-level physiotherapy students transitioning into the workforce. Methods A prospective, observational, longitudinal design was used, with two cohorts. From 2008, 29 participants were tested in their final year in a physiotherapy program, and after the first and second workforce years. From 2009, 76 participants were tested in their final entry-level and first workforce years. Participants completed an Evidence-Based Practice Profile questionnaire (EBP2, which includes self-report EBP domains [Relevance, Terminology (knowledge of EBP concepts, Confidence, Practice (EBP implementation, Sympathy (disposition towards EBP]. Mixed model analysis with sequential Bonferroni adjustment was used to analyse the matched data. Effect sizes (ES (95% CI were calculated for all changes. Results Effect sizes of the changes in EBP domains were small (ES range 0.02 to 0.42. While most changes were not significant there was a consistent pattern of decline in scores for Relevance in the first workforce year (ES -0.42 to -0.29 followed by an improvement in the second year (ES +0.27. Scores in Terminology improved (ES +0.19 to +0.26 in each of the first two workforce years, while Practice scores declined (ES -0.23 to -0.19 in the first year and improved minimally in the second year (ES +0.04. Confidence scores improved during the second workforce year (ES +0.27. Scores for Sympathy showed little change. Conclusions During the first two years in the workforce, there was a

  17. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATION MEASUREMENTS OF WASP-12b AND QATAR-1b: NO EVIDENCE OF ADDITIONAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Karen A.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Kielkopf, John F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  18. Evidence-Based Thresholds for the Volume and Length of Stay Relationship in Total Hip Arthroplasty: Outcomes and Economies of Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Navarro, Sergio M; Frankel, William C; Haeberle, Heather S; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2018-02-05

    Several studies have indicated that high-volume surgeons and hospitals deliver higher value care. However, no evidence-based volume thresholds currently exist in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The primary objective of this study was to establish meaningful thresholds taking patient outcomes into consideration for surgeons and hospitals performing THA. A secondary objective was to examine the market share of THAs for each surgeon and hospital strata. Using 136,501 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty, we used stratum-specific likelihood ratio (SSLR) analysis of a receiver-operating characteristic curve to generate volume thresholds predictive of increased length of stay (LOS) for surgeons and hospitals. Additionally, we examined the relative proportion of annual THA cases performed by each surgeon and hospital strata established. SSLR analysis of LOS by annual surgeon THA volume produced 3 strata: 0-69 (low), 70-121 (medium), and 121 or more (high). Analysis by annual hospital THA volume produced strata at: 0-120 (low), 121-357 (medium), and 358 or more (high). LOS decreased significantly (P economies of scale in THA by demonstrating a direct relationship between volume and value for THA through risk-based volume stratification of surgeons and hospitals using SSLR analysis of receiver-operating characteristic curves to identify low-, medium-, and high-volume surgeons and hospitals. While the majority of primary THAs are performed at high-volume centers, low-volume surgeons are performing the majority of these cases, which may offer room for improvement in delivering value-based care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Placental economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2016-01-01

    Thinking with the vital materiality of placentas as it is evinced in a placental stem cell research lab in Korea, this article explores the relations and practices of care that are essential to the circulation of biological matters as infrastructure of tissue economies. I attend to the flows...... and sustained through the relations and practices of care that animate the placenta in different forms. On the basis of an ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Korea, this article focuses on two different forms of care (lab workers’ care of cells, and pregnant women’s care of fetuses) that enable the (re...

  20. CORRUPTION IN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupka B. Petrevska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethics in the social life of the people there since ancient times. Not so long ago, jobs were assembled so that, after the deal, people shake hands. Such a ritual was enough to formalize the act of entering into a business deal. Over time, he grew up living standards, it appears that the mistrust between the people grew, the business is not the same as before, and corruption is all over. Countries in transition, going through a period when food is fixed in a sensitive stage and when corruption is playing a very important role in the progress of the economy of a country.

  1. Engaging Families to Support Students' Transition to High School: Evidence from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Epstein, Joyce L.; Sheldon, Steven B.; Fonseca, Ean

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study addresses the challenge of declining family engagement at the critical transition to high school. We use data from a survey of schools to examine whether and how middle grades and high schools engage families when their students transition to high school. Findings indicate that there is a significant negative relationship…

  2. Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk among Young People: Evidence from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…

  3. The Circular Economy and the Leading European Retailers: A Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the circular economy is gaining momentum in political and business thinking about the transition to a more sustainable future. EuroCommerce and the European Retail Round Table, for example, have argued that leading retailers are keen to play a leading role in shaping the circular economy within Europe. This exploratory research note outlines the characteristic features of the concept of the circular economy, provides some illustrations of how Europe’s leading retailers are publicly addressing circular economy approaches and offers some general reflections on the application of the concept within the retail sector of the economy. The findings reveal that almost 50% of the leading European retailers signalled a commitment to the circular economy and to the principles underpinning it and a number of them looked to evidence their commitment within their retail operations. That said the authors suggest that If Europe’s leading retailers’ public commitments to a more circular economy are to become a reality then they will not only need to effect a radical change in their current business models and that this will need to be accompanied by radical changes in consumers consumption behaviour. More contentiously, there must be concerns that the leading European retailers might effectively capture the concept of the circular economy to justify continuing economic growth.

  4. The political economy of transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    This article gives an analysis of the political economy of transformation which stresses the major achievements of some countries, the fact that the transformation is not yet over, the existence of both winners and losers, and the limitations of transition orthodoxy. Attention is paid to the

  5. Che Challenges of Real and Subjective Poverty and the Growth of Inequality in the Economies of South Eastern Europe in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Bićanić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning it was clear that during the transformation, all aspects of economic inequality were likely to be exacerbated and that poverty was likely to emerge. This paper discusses the size and consequences of transformation-generated changes in economic inequality and poverty, both “real” and “subjective”, for future economic growth and the legitimacy of continued transformation in the Mediterranean economies in transformation (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro and Slovenia, which have been expanded to include Romania and Bulgaria. This area is referred to as the “region”.

  6. Uluslararası Mali Krizler, IMF Politikaları, Az Gelişmiş Ülkeler, Türkiye ve Dönüşüm Ekonomileri = International Financial Crises, IMF-Crise Policies, Developing Countries, Turkey and the Transition Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil SEYİDOĞLU

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the early 1990's the world economy has entered a period characterized by financial globalization, a process expected to produce effects to speed up the rate of development in the newly industrializing countries. However financial crises started to occur very frequently in the emerging economies which apparently show that they are closely related to the ongoing financial liberalization process. In this paper, recent financial crises and the policies of the IMF are examined by giving special emphasis to the experience of Turkey to draw conclusions for the emerging markets and the transition economies.

  7. The Heterogeneity of Job Creation and Destruction in Transition and Non-transition Developing Countries: The Effects of Firm Size, Age and Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggai Kennedy Ochieng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how firm age, size and ownership are related with job creation and destruction, and how these patterns differ across transition and non-transition economies. The analysis finds that age is inversely related with gross job creation and net job creation in the two samples. This finding is consistent with the theory of the learning effect. The relationship between age and job destruction is indifferent in non-transition economies. On the contrary, old firms in transition economies destroy more jobs than young ones. The paper further establishes an inverse relationship between size and gross job creation in the two groups. However, there is divergence between the two samples; small firms in non-transition economies also exhibit a higher gross job destruction rate. Consequently large firms have a higher net job creation rate. In transition economies, small and large firms exhibit similar rates of job destruction. But small firms retain a higher net job creation rate. A more intriguing finding is that state owned firms do not underperform domestic private ones. This means these countries may be using soft budget constraint which allows state owned firms to overstaff. Finally, crowding out of SMEs by foreign owned firms is not evident in transition economies.

  8. Steering innovations towards a green economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, N.; Hansjürgens, B.; Kuikman, P.; Otter, N.; Antikainen, R.; Leskinen, P.; Pitkänen, K.; Saikku, L.; Loiseau, E.; Thomsen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyse institutional conditions facilitating the transition towards a green economy by encouraging investment in the enhancement of natural capital and social equity, focussing especially on government interventions. Presenting a conceptual institutional model how innovation

  9. Processes that Drove the Transition from Chemistry to Biology: Concepts and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Two properties are particularly germane to the transition from chemistry to biology. One is the emergence of complex molecules (polymers) capable of performing non-trivial functions, such as catalysis, energy transduction or transport across cell walls. The other is the ability of several functions to work in concert to provide reproductive advantage to systems hosting these functions. Biological systems exhibit these properties at remarkable levels of efficiency and accuracy in a way that appears effortless. However, dissection of these properties reveals great complexities that are involved. This opens a question: how a simple, ancestral system could have acquired the required properties? Other questions follow. What are the chances that a functional polymer emerges at random? What is the minimum structural complexity of a polymer to carry out a function at a reasonable level of efficiency? Can we identify concrete, protobiologically plausible mechanisms that yield advantageous coupling between different functions? These and similar questions are at the core of the main topic of this session: how soulless chemistry became life? Clearly, we do not have complete answers to any of these questions. However, in recent years a number of new and sometimes unexpected clues have been brought to light. Of particular interest are proteins because they are the main functional polymers in contemporary cells. The emergence of protein functions is a puzzle. It is widely accepted that a well ]defined, compact structure (fold) is a prerequisite for function. It is equally widely accepted that compact folds are rare among random amino acid polymers. Then, how did protein functionality start? According to one hypothesis well folded were preceded by their poorly folded, yet still functional ancestors. Only recently, however, experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis has been presented. In particular, a small enzyme capable of ligating two RNA fragments with the rate of 106

  10. Family size, adolescents' schooling and the Demographic Transition: Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Marteleto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to address whether and how the changing family sizes of cohorts of adolescents born pre- and post-demographic transition are associated with increasing schooling of Brazilian adolescents. Decomposition analyses of nationally representative data demonstrate that, although a higher proportion of post-demographic transition cohorts live in smaller families, they also suffer a larger disadvantage from being in larger families than pre-demographic transition cohorts. Additional case studies and comparative works are needed to disentangle the mechanisms behind the dynamic association between sibship size and adolescents' educational attainment found in Brazil.

  11. Evidence for a dynamic East Antarctic ice sheet during the mid-Miocene climate transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Elizabeth L.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Williams, Trevor; Hemming, Sidney R.; Cook, Carys P.; Passchier, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The East Antarctic ice sheet underwent a major expansion during the Mid-Miocene Climate Transition, around 14 Ma, lowering sea level by ∼60 m. However, direct or indirect evidence of where changes in the ice sheet occurred is limited. Here we present new insights on timing and locations of ice sheet change from two drill sites offshore East Antarctica. IODP Site U1356, Wilkes Land, and ODP Site 1165, Prydz Bay are located adjacent to two major ice drainage areas, the Wilkes Subglacial Basin and the Lambert Graben. Ice-rafted detritus (IRD), including dropstones, was deposited in concentrations far exceeding those known in the rest of the Miocene succession at both sites between 14.1 and 13.8 Ma, indicating that large amounts of IRD-bearing icebergs were calved from independent drainage basins during this relatively short interval. At Site U1356, the IRD was delivered in distinct pulses, suggesting that the overall ice advance was punctuated by short periods of ice retreat in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. Provenance analysis of the mid-Miocene IRD and fine-grained sediments provides additional insights on the movement of the ice margin and subglacial geology. At Site U1356, the dominant 40Ar/39Ar thermochronological age of the ice-rafted hornblende grains is 1400-1550 Ma, differing from the majority of recent IRD in the area, from which we infer an inland source area of this thermochronological age extending along the eastern part of the Adélie Craton, which forms the western side of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. Neodymium isotopic compositions from the terrigenous fine fraction at Site U1356 imply that the ice margin periodically expanded from high ground well into the Wilkes Subglacial Basin during periods of MMCT ice growth. At Site 1165, MMCT pebble-sized IRD are sourced from both the local Lambert Graben and the distant Aurora Subglacial Basin drainage area. Together, the occurrence and provenance of the IRD and glacially-eroded sediment at these two marine

  12. Transition Process and Performance in IT Outsourcing: Evidence from a Field Study and Laboratory Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Tiwari (Vinay)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, complementing the strategic and economic studies on interorganizational relationships and IT outsourcing, we focus on the operational execution challenges inherent in these relationships by examining the transition stage, which starts immediately after contract

  13. Evidence from n=2 fine structure transitions for the production of fast excited state positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, R.; Niebling, K.D.; Schwarz, R.; Werth, G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine structure transitions in the first excited state of positronium (Ps) have been measured using 'Backscatter Ps' production on a Mo surface by observation of a change in the emitted Lyman-α intensity under resonant microwave irradiation. Production, fine structure transitions and Lyman-α decay of the Ps atoms took place inside a waveguide designed to transmit the microwave frequencies of 8.6, 13.0 and 18.5 GHz for the transitions from the 2 3 S 1 state to the 2 3 P J , J=2, 1, 0, states, respectively. In the presence of a magnetic field, all transitions observed show a shift to higher frequencies, compared with earlier calculations and measurements in zero magnetic field. The deviations exceed the expected Zeeman shift significantly but may be explained by assuming a motional Stark effect for Ps with kinetic energies of several eV. (author)

  14. Relationship between the electric power supplier and customer during Romania's transition from an over-centralized to a market economy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conecini, I.; Lung, I.

    1996-01-01

    A series of undertakings of RENEL is introduced which aim to improve the mutual relations between supplier and customer and to settle these relations on a partnership basis incurring responsibilities for both parties. Among these undertakings, one aims to improve the metering and billing system, with subsequent effects upon both electric power customer and supplier. The new relations, settled on a contract basis and made proper to the market economy make it necessary to control the electric power quality as well as the quality of the whole supply service to every customer. Within the electric power supply department, a privileged activity is the improvement of the systems for meter reading, billing and financial receipts. The document describes also the results obtained by RENEL following a market study. (author)

  15. Evidence of departure from transition-state statistical model in different mass regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Ray, A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Mullick, K.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Banerjee, S.R.; Basu, D.N.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2000-01-01

    The emission of complex fragments from compound nucleus can be understood very well using transition-state method calculations, that have shown that for a large number of excitation functions of compound nuclei near A = 100, the reduced decay rates after the removal of phase space dependence are identical for all fragments, thus implying statistical emission. One can consider two scenarios for departure from statistical transition-state model. An experiment was performed to look for orbiting effect in 16 O+ 93 Nb reaction

  16. Evidence for a Cosmological Phase Transition on the TeVScale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindesay, James V.; Noyes, H.Pierre; /SLAC

    2005-08-23

    Examining the reverse evolution of the universe from the present, long before reaching Planck density dynamics one expects major modifications from the de-coherent thermal equations of state, suggesting a prior phase that has macroscopic coherence properties. The assumption that the phase transition occurs during the radiation dominated epoch, and that zero-point motions drive the fluctuations associated with this transition, specifies a class of cosmological models in which the cosmic microwave background fluctuation amplitude at last scattering is approximately 10{sup -5}. Quantum measurability constraints (e.g. uncertainly relations) define cosmological scales whose expansion rates can be at most luminal.

  17. Evidence of quantum phase transition in real-space vacuum entanglement of higher derivative scalar quantum field theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Santhosh; Shankaranarayanan, S

    2017-11-17

    In a bipartite set-up, the vacuum state of a free Bosonic scalar field is entangled in real space and satisfies the area-law- entanglement entropy scales linearly with area of the boundary between the two partitions. In this work, we show that the area law is violated in two spatial dimensional model Hamiltonian having dynamical critical exponent z = 3. The model physically corresponds to next-to-next-to-next nearest neighbour coupling terms on a lattice. The result reported here is the first of its kind of violation of area law in Bosonic systems in higher dimensions and signals the evidence of a quantum phase transition. We provide evidence for quantum phase transition both numerically and analytically using quantum Information tools like entanglement spectra, quantum fidelity, and gap in the energy spectra. We identify the cause for this transition due to the accumulation of large number of angular zero modes around the critical point which catalyses the change in the ground state wave function due to the next-to-next-to-next nearest neighbor coupling. Lastly, using Hubbard-Stratanovich transformation, we show that the effective Bosonic Hamiltonian can be obtained from an interacting fermionic theory and provide possible implications for condensed matter systems.

  18. Coping across the Transition to Adolescence: Evidence of Interindividual Consistency and Mean-Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Sulik, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine various forms of coping across the transition to adolescence, with a focus on interindividual (correlational) consistency of coping and mean-level changes in coping. Adolescents' emotional coping, problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, avoidance, and support seeking in response to everyday…

  19. Outcome Evidence for Structured Pediatric to Adult Health Care Transition Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Phabinly; McManus, Margaret; Rogers, Katherine; White, Patience

    2017-09-01

    To identify statistically significant positive outcomes in pediatric-to-adult transition studies using the triple aim framework of population health, consumer experience, and utilization and costs of care. Studies published between January 1995 and April 2016 were identified using the CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Included studies evaluated pre-evaluation and postevaluation data, intervention and comparison groups, and randomized clinic trials. The methodological strength of each study was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Out of a total of 3844 articles, 43 met our inclusion criteria. Statistically significant positive outcomes were found in 28 studies, most often related to population health (20 studies), followed by consumer experience (8 studies), and service utilization (9 studies). Among studies with moderate to strong quality assessment ratings, the most common positive outcomes were adherence to care and utilization of ambulatory care in adult settings. Structured transition interventions often resulted in positive outcomes. Future evaluations should consider aligning with professional transition guidance; incorporating detailed intervention descriptions about transition planning, transfer, and integration into adult care; and measuring the triple aims of population health, experience, and costs of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  1. Survey-based estimates of biases in consumer price indices during transition: evidence from Romania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filer, Randall K.; Hanousek, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2002), s. 476-487 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : price * inflation * transition * Romania Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2002 http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcec.2002.1784

  2. Evidence for a new class of many-electron Auger transitions in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.; Wehlitz, R.; Becker, U.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of the joint decay of two holes and one excited electron is discussed as one way many-electron Auger transitions can take place. It is shown that existing experimental decay spectra of resonantly excited states in krypton and xenon exhibit weak lines which may be associated with this new type of Auger process. (Author)

  3. Intra-urban human mobility and activity transition: evidence from social media check-in data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lun; Zhi, Ye; Sui, Zhengwei; Liu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Most existing human mobility literature focuses on exterior characteristics of movements but neglects activities, the driving force that underlies human movements. In this research, we combine activity-based analysis with a movement-based approach to model the intra-urban human mobility observed from about 15 million check-in records during a yearlong period in Shanghai, China. The proposed model is activity-based and includes two parts: the transition of travel demands during a specific time period and the movement between locations. For the first part, we find the transition probability between activities varies over time, and then we construct a temporal transition probability matrix to represent the transition probability of travel demands during a time interval. For the second part, we suggest that the travel demands can be divided into two classes, locationally mandatory activity (LMA) and locationally stochastic activity (LSA), according to whether the demand is associated with fixed location or not. By judging the combination of predecessor activity type and successor activity type we determine three trip patterns, each associated with a different decay parameter. To validate the model, we adopt the mechanism of an agent-based model and compare the simulated results with the observed pattern from the displacement distance distribution, the spatio-temporal distribution of activities, and the temporal distribution of travel demand transitions. The results show that the simulated patterns fit the observed data well, indicating that these findings open new directions for combining activity-based analysis with a movement-based approach using social media check-in data.

  4. Intra-urban human mobility and activity transition: evidence from social media check-in data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Wu

    Full Text Available Most existing human mobility literature focuses on exterior characteristics of movements but neglects activities, the driving force that underlies human movements. In this research, we combine activity-based analysis with a movement-based approach to model the intra-urban human mobility observed from about 15 million check-in records during a yearlong period in Shanghai, China. The proposed model is activity-based and includes two parts: the transition of travel demands during a specific time period and the movement between locations. For the first part, we find the transition probability between activities varies over time, and then we construct a temporal transition probability matrix to represent the transition probability of travel demands during a time interval. For the second part, we suggest that the travel demands can be divided into two classes, locationally mandatory activity (LMA and locationally stochastic activity (LSA, according to whether the demand is associated with fixed location or not. By judging the combination of predecessor activity type and successor activity type we determine three trip patterns, each associated with a different decay parameter. To validate the model, we adopt the mechanism of an agent-based model and compare the simulated results with the observed pattern from the displacement distance distribution, the spatio-temporal distribution of activities, and the temporal distribution of travel demand transitions. The results show that the simulated patterns fit the observed data well, indicating that these findings open new directions for combining activity-based analysis with a movement-based approach using social media check-in data.

  5. Experimental evidence of structural transition at the crystal-amorphous interphase boundary between Al and Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.Q.; He, L.L.; Zhao, S.J.; Ye, H.Q.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations on the structure of the interphase boundary between crystalline Al and amorphous Al 2 O 3 coating reveal that an interfacial melting transition of Al occurs at 833 K, which is distinctly lower than the bulk melting point of Al. The crystalline lattice planes of Al near the interface bend or small segments of crystalline Al deviated from the matrix Al grains are formed. Stand-off dislocations formed at the interphase boundary are also observed. The amorphous Al 2 O 3 coating plays an important role in retaining the evidence for structural transition at high temperature to room temperature, which makes it possible to make experimental observations. (author)

  6. Antimatter Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  7. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W.; Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  8. Radioisotope evidence of varying transit of solid food in gastrectomized patients with and without dumping syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, F.; Boccaletto, F.; Magalini, M.; Chiara, G.; Tommaseo, T.; Dapporto, L.

    1988-01-01

    Of 29 Billroth II gastrojejunostomy patients studied by scintigraphy, 11 were dumpers and 18 were non-dumpers; of 20 controls, 11 were patients with different gastric complaints and 9 volunteers with no history of gastrointestinal pathology. The tracer used was human albumin microspheres labelled with 99m Tc, mixed thoroughly with a fresh scrambled egg, cooked as an omelet and eaten as a sandwich with white toasted bread. The transit and emptying of the radiolabelled meal in the gastric and derivative loop areas were followed with a gamma camera 90-120 min. In the dumpers half emptying times were significantly shorter than in the controls; in the non-dumpers they were even shorter. Dynamic selective analysis of the radiolabelled food transit through derivative afferent and efferent loops showed, on the other hand, different patterns for the two groups of gastroresected patients: the progression of propulsive waves was very irregular and constantly hyperperistaltic only in the dumpers. (orig.) [de

  9. Rural household income mobility in transitional China: Evidence from China Household Income Project

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sui

    2015-01-01

    Based on China Household Income Project rural data, this paper aims to study the changes of rural household income mobility in transitional China. The results show that with the economic reform and development, income mobility between 2007 and 2009 was much stronger than before. Regarding the structure of income mobility, the 'exchange mobility' is generally the major source, followed by the 'growth mobility'. The comparison with income inequality indicated that the low degree of mobility is ...

  10. Political competition, economic reform and growth : theory and evidence from transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pavletic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Which political and institutional factors trigger reforms that enable the poor to benefit from the process of economic growth? How can the incentives of policy makers be influenced in order to achieve such a dynamic? These are the questions this study seeks to address by examining the transition process in post-communist countries. The author argues that political competition within an accepted and respected institutional environment has been a driving force in shaping the direction and succe...

  11. Constitutional Property Rights Protection and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Post-Communist Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper seeks to estimate the economic growth effect of constitutional provisions for property rights protection. It does so using the unique situation in formerly communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus where all but two introduced new constitutions after the fall...... protection of property rights is not associated with economic development in the long run, but tends to impose costs during a period of institutional transition and implementation proportional to the constitutional change....

  12. Evidence for the Direct Two-Photon Transition from psi to J/psi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. B.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M. B.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A. C.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, Kun; Liu, Kai; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S. P.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ulrich, M. U.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M. W.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A. Z.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    The two-photon transition psi(3686) -> gamma gamma J/psi is studied in a sample of 1.06 x 10(8) psi(3686) decays collected by the BESIII detector. The branching fraction is measured to be (3.1 +/- 0.6(stat)(-1.0)(+0.8)(syst)) x 10(-4) using J/psi -> e(+)e(-) and J/psi -> mu(+)mu(-) decays, and its

  13. India's Proposed Universal Health Coverage Policy: Evidence for Age Structure Transition Effect and Fiscal Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Muttur Ranganathan

    2016-12-01

    India's High Level Expert Group on Universal Health Coverage in 2011 recommended a universal, public-funded and national health coverage policy. As a plausible forward-looking macroeconomic reform in the health sector, this policy proposal on universal health coverage (UHC) needs to be evaluated for age structure transition effect and fiscal sustainability to strengthen its current design and future implementation. Macroeconomic analyses of the long-term implications of age structure transition and fiscal sustainability on India's proposed UHC policy. A new measure of age-specific UHC is developed by combining the age profile of public and private health consumption expenditure by using the National Transfer Accounts methodology. Different projections of age-specific public health expenditure are calculated over the period 2005-2100 to account for the age structure transition effect. The projections include changes in: (1) levels of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows, (2) levels and shape of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows and expenditure converges to that of developed countries (or convergence scenario) based on the Lee-Carter model of forecasting mortality rates, and (3) levels of the expenditure as India moves toward a UHC policy. Fiscal sustainability under each health expenditure projection is determined by using the measures of generational imbalance and sustainability gap in the Generational Accounting methodology. Public health expenditure is marked by age specificities and the elderly population is costlier to support for their healthcare needs in the future. Given the discount and productivity growth rates, the proposed UHC is not fiscally sustainable under India's current fiscal policies except for the convergence scenario. However, if the income elasticity of public expenditure on social welfare and health expenditure is less than one, fiscal sustainability of the UHC policy is attainable in all scenarios of projected public

  14. The energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, Sophie; Vaujour, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the economy of energy applies the main economic concepts to the energy sector (nature of the good, supply, demand), proposes an overview of existing actors, and analyses challenges and tools of economic policy like network regulation, competition policy, independence and energy transition. By using recent examples, statistics and international comparisons, it gives elements to highlight issues like the relationship between shale gas exploitation and economic recovery in the USA, the choice between monopole and competition for electricity or gas supply, reaching greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector by incentives or taxes, secure energy supplies in a changing international environment, ways to supply energy to everyone at prices guaranteeing economy competitiveness, or ways to evolve towards energy systems which would be more environment- and climate-friendly. The successive chapters address fundamentals issues (nature of the good, historical and technical overview), the State intervention (definition of an energy policy, steering the energy mix, ensuring secure supply), the reorganisation of industries and the protection of consumers, the relationship between energy and climate (worrying perspectives, progressive emergence of solutions). The last chapter addresses the future challenges like innovation, and disruptive innovations (smart grids, big data, batteries, CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear waste processing and management, development of nuclear fusion), and the issue of energy poverty

  15. Network Transformations in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ever-increasing market competition, networked interactions play a special role in the economy. The network form of entrepreneurship is increasingly viewed as an effective organizational structure to create a market value embedded in innovative business solutions. The authors study the characteristics of a network as an economic category and emphasize certain similarities between Rus sian and international approaches to identifying interactions of economic systems based on the network principle. The paper focuses on the types of networks widely used in the economy. The authors analyze the transformation of business networks along two lines: from an intra- to an inter-firm network and from an inter-firm to an inter-organizational network. The possible forms of network formation are described depending on the strength of connections and the type of integration. The drivers and reasons behind process of transition from a hierarchical model of the organizational structure to a network type are identified. The authors analyze the advantages of creating inter-firm networks and discuss the features of inter-organizational networks as compares to inter-firm ones. The article summarizes the reasons for and advantages of participation in inter-rganizational networks and identifies the main barriers to the formation of inter-organizational network.

  16. Evidence for hot clumpy accretion flow in the transitional millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, T.; Dallilar, Y.; Garner, A.; Eikenberry, S.; Veledina, A.; Gandhi, P.

    2018-03-01

    We present simultaneous optical and near-infrared (IR) photometry of the millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 during its low-mass X-ray binary phase. The r΄- and Ks-band light curves show rectangular, flat-bottomed dips, similar to the X-ray mode-switching (active-passive state transitions) behaviour observed previously. The cross-correlation function (CCF) of the optical and near-IR data reveals a strong, broad negative anti-correlation at negative lags, a broad positive correlation at positive lags, with a strong, positive narrow correlation superimposed. The shape of the CCF resembles the CCF of black hole X-ray binaries but the time-scales are different. The features can be explained by reprocessing and a hot accretion flow close to the neutron star's magnetospheric radius. The optical emission is dominated by the reprocessed component, whereas the near-IR emission contains the emission from plasmoids in the hot accretion flow and a reprocessed component. The rapid active-passive state transition occurs when the hot accretion flow material is channelled onto the neutron star and is expelled from its magnetosphere. During the transition the optical reprocessing component decreases resulting in the removal of a blue spectral component. The accretion of clumpy material through the magnetic barrier of the neutron star produces the observed near-IR/optical CCF and variability. The dip at negative lags corresponds to the suppression of the near-IR synchrotron component in the hot flow, whereas the broad positive correlation at positive lags is driven by the increased synchrotron emission of the outflowing plasmoids. The narrow peak in the CCF is due to the delayed reprocessed component, enhanced by the increased X-ray emission.

  17. EVIDENCE FOR DYNAMICAL CHANGES IN A TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISK WITH MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzerolle, James; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Smith, Paul S.; Rieke, George H.; Furlan, Elise; Allen, Lori; Muench, August; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola; Megeath, S. Thomas; Sherry, William H.

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-epoch Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transitional disk LRLL 31 in the 2-3 Myr old star-forming region IC 348. Our measurements show remarkable mid-infrared variability on timescales as short as one week. The infrared continuum emission exhibits systematic wavelength-dependent changes that suggest corresponding dynamical changes in the inner disk structure and variable shadowing of outer disk material. We propose several possible sources for the structural changes, including a variable accretion rate or a stellar or planetary companion embedded in the disk. Our results indicate that variability studies in the infrared can provide important new constraints on protoplanetary disk behavior.

  18. DID THE RECENT ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT REMITTANCES?EVIDENCE FROM TRANSITION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Prochazkova Ilinitchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Remittances, funds transferred from migrants to their home country, are a veryimportant source of income for households and smallbusinesses in mosttransition countries. The paper documents the recent downturn in migrant’sremittances to selected transition countries due tothe recent global economiccrisis. The research concentrates on the Eastern Partnership countries:Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova andUkraine representingimportant sources of migrants. The paper shows howthe global economicdownturn affected remittance flows sent to the selected set of countries. Inparticular, the paper questions whether migration,thereby remittances, workas a transmission mechanism or important regional or global economic.

  19. Evidence for reentrant spin glass behavior in transition metal substituted Co-Ga alloys near critical concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Sk. Mohammad; Srinivas, V.; Kasiviswanathan, S.; Vagadia, Megha; Nigam, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    In the present study magnetic and electrical transport properties of transition metal substituted Co-Ga alloys (near critical cobalt concentration) have been investigated. Analysis of temperature and field dependence of dc magnetization and ac susceptibility (ACS) data suggests an evidence of reentrant spin glass (RSG) phase in Co55.5TM3Ga41.5 (TM = Co, Cr, Fe, Cu). The magnetic transition temperatures (TC and Tf) are found to depend on the nature of TM element substitution with the exchange coupling strength Co-Fe > Co-Co > Co-Cu > Co-Cr. From magnetization dynamics precise transition temperatures for the glassy phases are estimated. It is found that characteristic relaxation times are higher than that of spin glasses with minimal spin-cluster formation. The RSG behavior has been further supported by the temperature dependence of magnetotransport studies. From the magnetic field and substitution effects it has been established that the magnetic and electrical transport properties are correlated in this system.

  20. Seismic observation of a sharp post-garnet phase transition within the Farallon crust: Evidence for oceanic plateau subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, R.; Ritsema, J.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of North America over the past 150 million years was heavily influenced by the complex subduction history of the Farallon plate. In particular, Laramide mountain building may have been triggered by the initiation of flat slab subduction in the late Cretaceous. While it has been proposed that the cause of slab flattening is related to the subduction of an oceanic plateau[1], direct geophysical evidence of a subducted oceanic plateau is lacking. Here, using P-to-S receiver functions, we detect a sharp seismic discontinuity at 720-km depth beneath the southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico. We interpret this discontinuity as a garnet-to-bridgmanite phase transition occurring within a thickened Farallon crust. Our results are consistent with a subducted oceanic plateau (likely the conjugate half of the Hess rise) which is foundering below the base of the mantle transition zone. Additionally, we find a strong 520-km discontinuity beneath the southeastern United States which may indicate a hydrous transition zone due to the release of H2O from the Farallon slab. These results provide insight into the dynamics of flat slab subduction as well as the tectonic history of North America. [1] Livaccari, R. F., Burke, K., & Şengör, A. M. C. (1981). Was the Laramide orogeny related to subduction of an oceanic plateau? Nature, v. 289, p. 276-278, doi: 10.1038/289276a0

  1. From episodic to habitual prospective memory: ERP-evidence for a linear transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Matter, Sibylle; Baumann, Brigitta; Walter, Stefan; Koenig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Performing a prospective memory task repeatedly changes the nature of the task from episodic to habitual. The goal of the present study was to investigate the neural basis of this transition. In two experiments, we contrasted event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by correct responses to prospective memory targets in the first, more episodic part of the experiment with those of the second, more habitual part of the experiment. Specifically, we tested whether the early, middle, or late ERP-components, which are thought to reflect cue detection, retrieval of the intention, and post-retrieval processes, respectively, would be changed by routinely performing the prospective memory task. The results showed a differential ERP effect in the middle time window (450–650 ms post-stimulus). Source localization using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography analysis suggests that the transition was accompanied by an increase of activation in the posterior parietal and occipital cortex. These findings indicate that habitual prospective memory involves retrieval processes guided more strongly by parietal brain structures. In brief, the study demonstrates that episodic and habitual prospective memory tasks recruit different brain areas. PMID:25071519

  2. Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals investigates a broad variety of cases presenting clear evidence of fast successful internationalization of emerging economy multinationals originating not only from big economic players such as China, India and Russia but also from other...

  3. Economy or chrematistics: Serbian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Petar M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations are worth as much as it is worth their economies. In today's global world, people gain or lose independence primarily by how successful their economy is . Of course, freedom and independence of a people is defended in all fields, but the economic success is the key to success to all the rest. A society that is for us and the former socialist countries, termed transition, represents a return to predatory capitalism and the way in hypocritical, orchestrated democracy; it is now the world of lasting evil and bigger injustice that undermine the state and relentlessly pushing them into ,,peripheral capitalism' (Ljubisa Mitrovic. The word 'economy' is of Greek origin and translated into our language it means' skill of housekeeping (economy'. What we habitually continue to call economy in the world today and in Serbia, we can not call the skill of keeping. The term 'economy' has long been superseded, in his place is the term 'chrematistics' also a word of Greek origin that means inserted enrichment. This term in use is introduced by Aristotle. This ancient philosopher emphasized that the economy and chrematistics are antipodes and that chrematistics destructive to society. By its nature, it leads to the destruction of the economy. Practically, it can be called 'destroyers skill of keeping the economy.' Today in the world and Serbia do not have the economy, we have chrematistics (speculation on commodity markets , pyramid schemes, the development of the securities market , games on the stock market ... . Chrematistics the trick word, and that's why we can replace it with the term 'casino-economy.' A new form of monarchy, which is expressed as a new imperialism, is not based on ' cunning mind' (Hegel and the 'spirit of the law' ( Montesquieu , but the 'cunning of the economy', which is dominated by raw (Hobbes laws of the market and where the economy becomes policies. Figure of societies of Eastern Europe, where the neoliberal social

  4. The Introduction of Corporate Governance Codes in a Transitional Economy And its Impact on Compliance with Mandatory Disclosures: The Case of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Hassaan

    2016-01-01

    extends the financial reporting literature and the emerging markets disclosure literature by being the first to investigate the influence of corporate governance requirements for best practices on the levels of compliance with mandatory IFRSs disclosure requirements by companies listed on the EGX. Results provide evidence of the lack of influence of corporate governance best practices on the levels of compliance with mandatory IFRSs disclosure requirements as it is not yet part of the cultural values within the Egyptian context. These findings are consistent with the notions of the proposed theoretical foundation.

  5. Information report published in application of article 146 of the Regulation by the Commission of finances, general economy and budgetary control related to energy transition - Nr 1463

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariton, Herve

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the author first discusses the issue of a major nuclear accident. He outlines that the probability of occurrence is low but actually not null. He presents the severity ranking for a nuclear incident or accident, and evokes the probability of an accident with a severity level greater than 5. He comments the case of the Fukushima accident and its consequences (casualties and refugees, still not visible health consequences, economic consequences for the region, a slow compensation policy) and discusses the assessment made by the IRSN of such a catastrophe in France. Then, he outlines the non-sustainability of energy transition in Japan and Germany (unbalanced energy mix and unbearable burden for Japan, German objectives in terms of renewable energies and issues related to their development, consequences of shale gas development in the USA for coal sold in Germany). The next part addresses the French situation and outlines that no comprehensive strategy has been defined yet. The author states that the present energy mix has a nuclear origin in majority, criticizes the closing of the Fessenheim power station. In a last part, he suggests an increased investment in renewable energies and in a safer and more performing nuclear

  6. Investment-centred transitioning from agrarian-tourism economy to manufacturing in cross river state, south-eastern/south-south, Nigeria: A theoretical perspective and background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingwe Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embattled by ministries, departments and agencies of Nigeria’s federal government, that worked together with neighbouring (Akwa Ibom State government to remove Cross River State from the country’s oil-producing states entitled to receipt of larger statutory allocations compared to their counterparts, Cross River State Government’s policy of promoting regional development through attraction of foreign direct investment (FDI since 2009 is receiving praises. This article presents contexts, core-periphery theoretical perspectives, and comments elucidating intricacies of FDI-centred sub-national regional development strategizing in the context of phenomenal globalization of neoliberal capitalism. It is argued that the core-periphery theory’s current status promises ‘depressed’ sub-national regions the development strategies they require for transiting from backwardness to growth. This assertion derives from the theory’s encouragement of Nigeria’s ‘depressed’ sub-national regions to aspire towards applying innovative policies/instruments capable of reversing undesirable circumstances that sometimes surpass standards previously/currently attained by counterparts placed higher on the development ladder.

  7. Industrial opportunities related to energy transition. Report to Mister the Minister of Economy and Finances, Mister the Secretary of State of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Mireille; Sorro, Jean-Francois; Peries-Joly, Quentin

    2017-02-01

    This report examines opportunities created by energy transition for the French industry, and aims at identifying the most promising niches in order to help French enterprises to be competitive and thus to improve the French trade balance by five to ten years. The study focuses on three main sectors: equipment and installations of renewable energy production (ground-based and offshore grounded wind energy, floating wind energy, hydroelectric energy, solar photovoltaic, methanization), management of electric systems of any size (more particularly smart grids) and issue of energy storage in relationship with production source decentralisation, and building efficiency (energy renovation, heat pumps, active consumption steering and connected housing). A first part describes, for each of these sectors, the situation of the world market and the French situation in terms of market and actors (strengths and weaknesses), as well as objectives which could be envisaged to improve actor competitiveness. The second part discusses existing tools which could be means to reach these objectives: R and D financing tools, other financing types, sector dynamics. The third part proposes a set of measures and recommendations to develop the French offer in sustainable technologies, to ease a better demand structuring, and to steer demand towards a sustainable (and notably French) content

  8. Prospects for sustainable development of the nickel industry of Russia in conditions of transition in the world economy to the new technological mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolbov A. G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essence of new technological mode in the world economy, some features of innovative development of the mineral complex and the nickel industry, dynamics of world production and consumption of nickel have been considered. The organization and economic structure of the nickel industry in Russia has been characterized. The prospects for sustainable development of the nickel industry in conditions of the sixth technological mode have been justified. Рассмотрены сущность нового технологического уклада в мировой экономике, особенности инновационного развития минерально-сырьевого комплекса и никелевой промышленности, динамика мирового производства и потребления никеля. Дана характеристика организационно-экономической структуры никелевой промышленности России. Обоснованы перспективы устойчивого развития никелевой промышленности в условиях шестого технологического уклада

  9. A molecular phylogeny of Dorylus army ants provides evidence for multiple evolutionary transitions in foraging niche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    in the leaf-litter and some as conspicuous swarm raiders on the forest floor and in the lower vegetation (the infamous driver ants). Here we use a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Dorylus s.l. army ants and to infer the evolutionary transitions...... in foraging niche and associated morphological adaptations. RESULTS: Underground foraging is basal and gave rise to leaf-litter foraging. Leaf-litter foraging in turn gave rise to two derived conditions: true surface foraging (the driver ants) and a reversal to subterranean foraging (a clade with most......BACKGROUND: Army ants are the prime arthropod predators in tropical forests, with huge colonies and an evolutionary derived nomadic life style. Five of the six recognized subgenera of Old World Dorylus army ants forage in the soil, whereas some species of the sixth subgenus (Anomma) forage...

  10. A molecular phylogeny of Dorylus army ants provides evidence for multiple evolutionary transitions in foraging niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhelmsen Lars B

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Army ants are the prime arthropod predators in tropical forests, with huge colonies and an evolutionary derived nomadic life style. Five of the six recognized subgenera of Old World Dorylus army ants forage in the soil, whereas some species of the sixth subgenus (Anomma forage in the leaf-litter and some as conspicuous swarm raiders on the forest floor and in the lower vegetation (the infamous driver ants. Here we use a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Dorylus s.l. army ants and to infer the evolutionary transitions in foraging niche and associated morphological adaptations. Results Underground foraging is basal and gave rise to leaf-litter foraging. Leaf-litter foraging in turn gave rise to two derived conditions: true surface foraging (the driver ants and a reversal to subterranean foraging (a clade with most of the extant Dorylus s.s. species. This means that neither the subgenus Anomma nor Dorylus s.s. is monophyletic, and that one of the Dorylus s.s. lineages adopted subterranean foraging secondarily. We show that this latter group evolved a series of morphological adaptations to underground foraging that are remarkably convergent to the basal state. Conclusion The evolutionary transitions in foraging niche were more complex than previously thought, but our comparative analysis of worker morphology lends strong support to the contention that particular foraging niches have selected for very specific worker morphologies. The surprising reversal to underground foraging is therefore a striking example of convergent morphological evolution.

  11. No Conclusive Evidence for Transits of Proxima b in MOST Photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipping, David M.; Chen, Jingjing; Sandford, Emily [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Cameron, Chris [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Geology, Cape Breton University, 1250 Grand Lake Road, Sydney, NS B1P 6L2 (Canada); Hartman, Joel D.; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Penev, Kaloyan; Csubry, Zoltan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Davenport, James R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, 516 High Street, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Matthews, Jaymie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Sasselov, Dimitar [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rowe, Jason [Observatoire Astronomque du Mont Mégantic, Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal C. P. 6128, Succursale, Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Jordán, Andrés [Instituto de Astrofísica, Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Bayliss, Daniel [Observatoire Astronomique de Universite de Genéve, 51 ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Henning, Thomas; Mancini, Luigi [Max Plank Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of Proxima Centauri’s radial velocities recently led Anglada-Escudé et al. to claim the presence of a low-mass planet orbiting the Sun’s nearest star once every 11.2 days. Although the a priori probability that Proxima b transits its parent star is just 1.5%, the potential impact of such a discovery would be considerable. Independent of recent radial velocity efforts, we observed Proxima Centauri for 12.5 days in 2014 and 31 days in 2015 with the Microwave and Oscillations of Stars space telescope. We report here that we cannot make a compelling case that Proxima b transits in our precise photometric time series. Imposing an informative prior on the period and phase, we do detect a candidate signal with the expected depth. However, perturbing the phase prior across 100 evenly spaced intervals reveals one strong false positive and one weaker instance. We estimate a false-positive rate of at least a few percent and a much higher false-negative rate of 20%–40%, likely caused by the very high flare rate of Proxima Centauri. Comparing our candidate signal to HATSouth ground-based photometry reveals that the signal is somewhat, but not conclusively, disfavored (1 σ –2 σ ), leading us to argue that the signal is most likely spurious. We expect that infrared photometric follow-up could more conclusively test the existence of this candidate signal, owing to the suppression of flare activity and the impressive infrared brightness of the parent star.

  12. VAR—ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL FINANCIAL ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON PUBLIC BUDGET AND UNEMPLOYMENT: EVIDENCE FROM THE ECONOMY OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargiza Bakytovna Alymkulova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global financial crisis hit the economy of the Kyrgyz Republic by the third wave of its transmission in the early of 2009. The article examines the impact of the Global financial economic crisis on the public budget and unemployment of the Kyrgyz Republic. We analyzed the transmission of the crisis on the public budget firstly and its effect on unemployment level by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and quarterly data for 2005–2013 within the framework of IS-LM model for small open economies with floating exchange rate. There is an inverse relationship between the public budget and remittances inflow, liquidity level, volume of deposits, and exchange rate. As a result of the study, the fall in remittances inflows, liquidity level of the banking system, depreciation of the national currency lead to an increase in public revenue. Therefore, the increase in public spending during the crisis period, with the aim of unemployment reduction, may be considered as a crucial policy. The study result allows to policy-makers to exactly know what channels of transmission mechanism transfer the Global crisis on the public budget and its effect on unemployment level of the republic in order to undertake anticrisis macroeconomic policy. The final result of the study indicates that the increase of unemployment level by 1 % requires the increase of public spending by 0.63 %.

  13. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V; Müller, Daniel; Radeloff, Volker C; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ∼273 800 km 2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus–Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and

  14. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity

  15. Regional Priorities of Green Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to transforming the economy of Russian regions to a green economy, which is an essential factor for the sustainable development. This is important not only for Russia but the whole world because our country has the great natural capital and provides important environmental services that support the planet biosphere. Based on the analysis of economic, social and ecological statistical data and Human Development Index (HDI we have shown that the development of Russian Federal Districts is very unbalanced and each Russian region has its own way to new economic model. For instance, it is necessary to increase the well-being in the North Caucasus Federal District, it is important to reach higher life expectancy at birth in the Siberian and the Far Eastern Districts. It is necessary to move from the «brown» economy to a green one by using the human capital (building a knowledge economy, by applying Best Available Technologies (Techniques, by investing in efficiency of use of natural resources and by increasing energy efficiency. The transition to a green economy will help to achieve social equity and the development of human potential; it helps to move from the exploitation of non-renewable natural capital to renewable human capital. All these socio-economic measures should give decoupling effect, make risks lower, reduce the exploitation of natural capital, stop the environmental degradation and prevent the ecological crisis. Transition to the green economic model has to be accompanied by new economic development indicators, which take into account social and environmental factors.

  16. Isotopic evidence of multiple controls on atmospheric oxidants over climate transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Lei; Murray, Lee T.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Lin, Pu; Fu, Qiang; Schauer, Andrew J.; Alexander, Becky

    2017-06-01

    The abundance of tropospheric oxidants, such as ozone (O3) and hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2), determines the lifetimes of reduced trace gases such as methane and the production of particulate matter important for climate and human health. The response of tropospheric oxidants to climate change is poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in the degree to which processes that influence oxidants may change with climate and owing to a lack of palaeo-records with which to constrain levels of atmospheric oxidants during past climate transitions. At present, it is thought that temperature-dependent emissions of tropospheric O3 precursors and water vapour abundance determine the climate response of oxidants, resulting in lower tropospheric O3 in cold climates while HOx (= OH + HO2 + RO2) remains relatively buffered. Here we report observations of oxygen-17 excess of nitrate (a proxy for the relative abundance of atmospheric O3 and HOx) from a Greenland ice core over the most recent glacial-interglacial cycle and for two Dansgaard-Oeschger events. We find that tropospheric oxidants are sensitive to climate change with an increase in the O3/HOx ratio in cold climates, the opposite of current expectations. We hypothesize that the observed increase in O3/HOx in cold climates is driven by enhanced stratosphere-to-troposphere transport of O3, and that reactive halogen chemistry is also enhanced in cold climates. Reactive halogens influence the oxidative capacity of the troposphere directly as oxidants themselves and indirectly via their influence on O3 and HOx. The strength of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport is largely controlled by the Brewer-Dobson circulation, which may be enhanced in colder climates owing to a stronger meridional gradient of sea surface temperatures, with implications for the response of tropospheric oxidants and stratospheric thermal and mass balance. These two processes may represent important, yet relatively

  17. The Shadow Economy and Corruption in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Katsios

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights the interaction between the underground economy and corruption, focussing on the regional dimensions of the problem in south-eastern Europe. It discusses the theoretical approach to underground economic activities and focuses on the determinants of the Greek economy, the tax and national insurance burdens and the intensity of the relevant regulations in Greece, concluding that Greece shows profound signs of a transition country in terms of the high level of regulation lea...

  18. Public transit generates new physical activity: Evidence from individual GPS and accelerometer data before and after light rail construction in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harvey J; Tribby, Calvin P; Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R; Werner, Carol M; Wolf, Jean; Wilson, Laura; Oliveira, Marcelo G Simas

    2015-11-01

    Poor health outcomes from insufficient physical activity (PA) are a persistent public health issue. Public transit is often promoted for positive influence on PA. Although there is cross-sectional evidence that transit users have higher PA levels, this may be coincidental or shifted from activities such as recreational walking. We use a quasi-experimental design to test if light rail transit (LRT) generated new PA in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Participants (n=536) wore Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and accelerometers before (2012) and after (2013) LRT construction. We test within-person differences in individuals' PA time based on changes in transit usage pre- versus post-intervention. We map transit-related PA to detect spatial clustering of PA around the new transit stops. We analyze within-person differences in PA time based on daily transit use and estimate the effect of daily transit use on PA time controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results suggest that transit use directly generates new PA that is not shifted from other PA. This supports the public health benefits from new high quality public transit such as LRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence that pH can drive state transitions in isolated thylakoid membranes from spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Rawal, Pooja; Jajoo, Anjana; Mathur, Sonal; Mehta, Pooja; Bharti, Sudhakar

    2010-06-01

    Our observation that the F735/F685 ratio at 77 K increased when the lumenal pH decreased led us to investigate the role of pH in explaining the mechanism of state transitions in spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) thylakoid membranes. As the lumenal pH was changed from pH 7.5 to 5.5, the quantum yield of PS II decreased, while that of PS I increased. In the presence of an uncoupler, NH(4)Cl, which sequesters protons, a reversal of the effects observed at pH 5.5 were noticed. The thylakoid membranes treated with NaF at pH 5.5, when suspended in a buffer of pH 7.5, showed enhanced PS II fluorescence and a decreased PS I fluorescence, suggesting migration of LHC II back to PS II from PS I. The results presented here suggest for the first time that the lumenal pH of thylakoid membranes regulates the migration of antenna, and hence the energy distribution, between the two photosystems, i.e. a low lumenal pH (pH 5.5) favors antenna migration from PS II to PS I. At pH 7.5, the deprotonation of LHC II antenna attached to PS I leads to back migration of LHC II to PS II.

  20. Evidence of a Transition Layer between the Free Surface and the Bulk

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2018-02-21

    The free surface, a very thin layer at the interface between polymer and air, is considered the main source of the perturbations in the properties of ultrathin polymer films, i.e., nanoconfinement effects. The structural relaxation of such a layer is decoupled from the molecular dynamics of the bulk. The free surface is, in fact, able to stay liquid even below the temperature where the polymer resides in the glassy state. Importantly, this surface layer is expected to have a very sharp interface with the underlying bulk. Here, by analyzing the penetration of n-hexane into polystyrene films, we report on the existence of a transition region, not observed by previous investigations, extending for 12 nm below the free surface. The presence of such a layer permits reconciling the behavior of interfacial layers with current models and has profound implications on the performance of ultrathin membranes. We show that the expected increase in the flux of the permeating species is actually overruled by nanoconfinement.

  1. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricard, Damien; Legleye, Stéphane; Khlat, Myriam

    2017-06-07

    The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation) and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP) survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  2. Forest Transition in Madagascar’s Highlands: Initial Evidence and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. McConnell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar is renowned for the loss of the forested habitat of lemurs and other species endemic to the island. Less well known is that in the highlands, a region often described as an environmental “basket-case” of fire-degraded, eroded grasslands, woody cover has been increasing for decades. Using information derived from publically available high- and medium-resolution satellites, this study characterizes tree cover dynamics in the highlands of Madagascar over the past two decades. Our results reveal heterogeneous patterns of increased tree cover on smallholder farms and village lands, spurred by a mix of endogenous and exogenous forces. The new trees play important roles in rural livelihoods, providing renewable supplies of firewood, charcoal, timber and other products and services, as well as defensible claims to land tenure in the context of a decline in the use of hillside commons for grazing. This study documents this nascent forest transition through Land Change Science techniques, and provides a prologue to political ecological analysis by setting these changes in their social and environmental context and interrogating the costs and benefits of the shift in rural livelihood strategies.

  3. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Bricard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  4. Niche markets and evidence assessment in transition: a critical review of proposed drug reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Shannon G; Lemmens, Trudo

    2014-01-01

    In response to rising demands and treatment costs, and the need to achieve better value for money in the face of tight fiscal constraints, both the National Health Service and the public drug reimbursement system are undergoing important reforms. Concurrently, the pharmaceutical sector itself is also alleged to be experiencing significant changes, perhaps most notably, a decline of the blockbuster model of drug development and a growing focus on niche market products. As pharmaceutical development strategies evolve and the resulting drug products become more complex, regulatory and policy responses must be able to evolve along with them. We explore how in numerous jurisdictions, including the UK, proposals for 'adaptive licensing' on the regulatory side and 'performance-based risk sharing agreements' on the funding side are shifting the focus of drug regulation and reimbursement towards more incremental access to new therapies and more post-market evidence generation. However, serious questions remain about how such reforms can be successfully implemented and whether they can balance demands for earlier access to promising new therapies with the need for robust evidence on safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Towards a green economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trotter, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available a number of explicit and aligned green economic strategies, policies, and programmes; ? UNEP1 identifies, South Africa, Germany and China as having forward thinking policy showing a conscious effort to drive decoupling- with some evidence... review of unintended behavioural responses, counter incentives, and legal conflicts or obstacles in the context of a Green Economic transition, followed by appropriate reform; ? CSIR 2012 Slide 15 Enabling Funding and Investment Frameworks ? A review...

  6. Transition from Slow to Fast Slip with Temperature, Forcing Velocity and Normal Stress: Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E. K.; Brown, K. M.; Fialko, Y.

    2009-12-01

    temperatures. Our observations are consistent with the concept that thermally activated flattening and associated increases in asperity contact area dominate over any decrease in shear strength with temperature to produce a net strengthening effect. We plan to model individual asperities as Hertzian contacts to define the temperature dependent rheology that controls the evolution of frictional strength as a function of temperature, slip rate and stress. We will use a finite element Abaqus code to run our numerical simulations. We also plan to compare model predictions with data from laboratory experiments. Interestingly, we observe stick-slip behavior at temperatures as high as 500 °C in our dry tests. This may highlight the importance of water in the stick-slip/creep transition at the bottom of the seismogenic zone as well as the presence of the refractory feldspar phase. We also observe other interesting frictional phenomena, such as the growth or decay of oscillations in friction coefficient, slow slip events, and “double period” slip events. These phenomena may be due to a complex transition between stick-slip and creep frictional behavior and are in many ways similar to observations in natural slow-slip systems.

  7. Radiocarbon evidence of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Southwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jöris, Olaf

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we systematically evaluate the radiometric database underlying the Middle to Upper Palaeolithc transition in southwestern Europe.The different models which attempt to explain the demographical processes underlying this transition rely to a large degree on radiocarbon chronology. We observe that: 1 with increasing age, dates on bone samples show large offsets against those on charcoal, often underestimating these for several thousand years BP and; 2 there is no proof for a persistence of Middle Palaeolithic industries into the time of the earliest Aurignacian in SW Europe. These data contradict the “Ebro- Frontier” model that distinguishes Late Middle Palaeolithic industries in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula from early Aurignacian ones in the NE. On the contrary, our data 3 imply a model of interregional shifts of populations contracting during severe cold and arid phases and expanding under warmer, interstadial conditions, raising ideas on a regional in situ development of the SW European Aurignacian out of Latest Middle Palaeolithic industries made by Neanderthals some 40.0 kyr cal BC.

    Se presenta un estudio sistemático sobre la información radiometrica disponible para la transición Paleolítico Medio-Paleolítico Superior en el Suroeste de Europa. Los diferentes modelos para explicar el proceso demográfico que subyace en esta transición dependen en gran medida de la cronología radiocarbónica. Se observa que: 1 a mayor antiguedad las fechas sobre hueso muestran una mayor desvisación frente a las muestras sobre carbón, a menudo infravalorando estas varios miles de años BP y 2 que no hay pruebas de perduración de industrias de Paleolítico Medio durante las fases tempranas del Auriñaciense en el SW de Europa. Estos datos contradicen el modelo de “frontera del Ebro” que distingue industrias de Paleolítico Medio Tardío en el SW de la Península Ibérica de las industrias del Auriñaciense temprano

  8. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  9. Transition of Eocene whales from land to sea: evidence from bone microstructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Houssaye

    Full Text Available Cetacea are secondarily aquatic amniotes that underwent their land-to-sea transition during the Eocene. Primitive forms, called archaeocetes, include five families with distinct degrees of adaptation to an aquatic life, swimming mode and abilities that remain difficult to estimate. The lifestyle of early cetaceans is investigated by analysis of microanatomical features in postcranial elements of archaeocetes. We document the internal structure of long bones, ribs and vertebrae in fifteen specimens belonging to the three more derived archaeocete families--Remingtonocetidae, Protocetidae, and Basilosauridae--using microtomography and virtual thin-sectioning. This enables us to discuss the osseous specializations observed in these taxa and to comment on their possible swimming behavior. All these taxa display bone mass increase (BMI in their ribs, which lack an open medullary cavity, and in their femora, whereas their vertebrae are essentially spongious. Humeri and femora show opposite trends in microanatomical specialization in the progressive independence of cetaceans from a terrestrial environment. Humeri change from very compact to spongious, which is in accordance with the progressive loss of propulsive role for the forelimbs, which were used instead for steering and stabilizing. Conversely, hind-limbs in basilosaurids became strongly reduced with no involvement in locomotion but display strong osteosclerosis in the femora. Our study confirms that Remingtonocetidae and Protocetidae were almost exclusively aquatic in locomotion for the taxa sampled, which probably were shallow water suspended swimmers. Basilosaurids display osseous specializations similar to those of modern cetaceans and are considered more active open-sea swimmers. This study highlights the strong need for homologous sections in comparative microanatomical studies, and the importance of combining information from several bones of the same taxon for improved functional

  10. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  11. New developmental evidence clarifies the evolution of wrist bones in the dinosaur-bird transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João Francisco; Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Nuñez-León, Daniel; Salinas-Saavedra, Miguel; Ruiz-Flores, Macarena; Vargas, Alexander O

    2014-09-01

    From early dinosaurs with as many as nine wrist bones, modern birds evolved to develop only four ossifications. Their identity is uncertain, with different labels used in palaeontology and developmental biology. We examined embryos of several species and studied chicken embryos in detail through a new technique allowing whole-mount immunofluorescence of the embryonic cartilaginous skeleton. Beyond previous controversy, we establish that the proximal-anterior ossification develops from a composite radiale+intermedium cartilage, consistent with fusion of radiale and intermedium observed in some theropod dinosaurs. Despite previous claims that the development of the distal-anterior ossification does not support the dinosaur-bird link, we found its embryonic precursor shows two distinct regions of both collagen type II and collagen type IX expression, resembling the composite semilunate bone of bird-like dinosaurs (distal carpal 1+distal carpal 2). The distal-posterior ossification develops from a cartilage referred to as "element x," but its position corresponds to distal carpal 3. The proximal-posterior ossification is perhaps most controversial: It is labelled as the ulnare in palaeontology, but we confirm the embryonic ulnare is lost during development. Re-examination of the fossil evidence reveals the ulnare was actually absent in bird-like dinosaurs. We confirm the proximal-posterior bone is a pisiform in terms of embryonic position and its development as a sesamoid associated to a tendon. However, the pisiform is absent in bird-like dinosaurs, which are known from several articulated specimens. The combined data provide compelling evidence of a remarkable evolutionary reversal: A large, ossified pisiform re-evolved in the lineage leading to birds, after a period in which it was either absent, nonossified, or very small, consistently escaping fossil preservation. The bird wrist provides a modern example of how developmental and paleontological data illuminate

  12. New Developmental Evidence Clarifies the Evolution of Wrist Bones in the Dinosaur–Bird Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João Francisco; Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Nuñez-León, Daniel; Salinas-Saavedra, Miguel; Ruiz-Flores, Macarena; Vargas, Alexander O.

    2014-01-01

    From early dinosaurs with as many as nine wrist bones, modern birds evolved to develop only four ossifications. Their identity is uncertain, with different labels used in palaeontology and developmental biology. We examined embryos of several species and studied chicken embryos in detail through a new technique allowing whole-mount immunofluorescence of the embryonic cartilaginous skeleton. Beyond previous controversy, we establish that the proximal–anterior ossification develops from a composite radiale+intermedium cartilage, consistent with fusion of radiale and intermedium observed in some theropod dinosaurs. Despite previous claims that the development of the distal–anterior ossification does not support the dinosaur–bird link, we found its embryonic precursor shows two distinct regions of both collagen type II and collagen type IX expression, resembling the composite semilunate bone of bird-like dinosaurs (distal carpal 1+distal carpal 2). The distal–posterior ossification develops from a cartilage referred to as “element x,” but its position corresponds to distal carpal 3. The proximal–posterior ossification is perhaps most controversial: It is labelled as the ulnare in palaeontology, but we confirm the embryonic ulnare is lost during development. Re-examination of the fossil evidence reveals the ulnare was actually absent in bird-like dinosaurs. We confirm the proximal–posterior bone is a pisiform in terms of embryonic position and its development as a sesamoid associated to a tendon. However, the pisiform is absent in bird-like dinosaurs, which are known from several articulated specimens. The combined data provide compelling evidence of a remarkable evolutionary reversal: A large, ossified pisiform re-evolved in the lineage leading to birds, after a period in which it was either absent, nonossified, or very small, consistently escaping fossil preservation. The bird wrist provides a modern example of how developmental and paleontological

  13. New developmental evidence clarifies the evolution of wrist bones in the dinosaur-bird transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Francisco Botelho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available From early dinosaurs with as many as nine wrist bones, modern birds evolved to develop only four ossifications. Their identity is uncertain, with different labels used in palaeontology and developmental biology. We examined embryos of several species and studied chicken embryos in detail through a new technique allowing whole-mount immunofluorescence of the embryonic cartilaginous skeleton. Beyond previous controversy, we establish that the proximal-anterior ossification develops from a composite radiale+intermedium cartilage, consistent with fusion of radiale and intermedium observed in some theropod dinosaurs. Despite previous claims that the development of the distal-anterior ossification does not support the dinosaur-bird link, we found its embryonic precursor shows two distinct regions of both collagen type II and collagen type IX expression, resembling the composite semilunate bone of bird-like dinosaurs (distal carpal 1+distal carpal 2. The distal-posterior ossification develops from a cartilage referred to as "element x," but its position corresponds to distal carpal 3. The proximal-posterior ossification is perhaps most controversial: It is labelled as the ulnare in palaeontology, but we confirm the embryonic ulnare is lost during development. Re-examination of the fossil evidence reveals the ulnare was actually absent in bird-like dinosaurs. We confirm the proximal-posterior bone is a pisiform in terms of embryonic position and its development as a sesamoid associated to a tendon. However, the pisiform is absent in bird-like dinosaurs, which are known from several articulated specimens. The combined data provide compelling evidence of a remarkable evolutionary reversal: A large, ossified pisiform re-evolved in the lineage leading to birds, after a period in which it was either absent, nonossified, or very small, consistently escaping fossil preservation. The bird wrist provides a modern example of how developmental and paleontological

  14. Economie en totale oorlog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A.M. Klemann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available J. Meihuizen, Noodzakelijk kwaad. De bestraffing van economische collaboratie in Nederland na de Tweede WereldoorlogThe economy and full-scale warMeihuizen concludes that the interests of the reconstruction had to take precedence over those of an honourable judicial process, as a result of which cases of economic collaboration seldom reached the courts. This essay argues that Dutch firms could not avoid manufacturing goods for the occupying forces because they were often relatively small-scale in nature and organised along the lines of a family business. If this type of firm refused to fulfil a German order and its competitor was willing to accept it, then it ran the risk of being squeezed out by the competition. This is why, in the Netherlands and elsewhere, as soon as a firm made the transition from a smallscale to a medium-sized family business it was inclined to work all-out for the occupying forces. This had nothing to do with free choice, but rather the will to survive. In addition to this, non-military production, even that which was geared towards keeping the people at home alive and healthy, supported the German war effort. In an economy where all military production is systematically maximized and manufacturing geared towards producing civilian goods is pushed back to a level where it can just about survive, all manufacturing becomes economic collaboration, thereby making the notion redundant. Consequently, the question that should have resounded throughout this study ought to have been whether a legal case could have been made against economic collaboration at all or whether this was doomed to fail from the start.

  15. Reforming European universities: Scope for an evidence-based process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugelers, R.; van der Ploeg, F.; Dewatripont, M.; Thys-Clément, F.; Wilkin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Universities are key players in the successful transition to a knowledge-based economy and society. However, this crucial sector of society needs restructuring if Europe is not to lose out in the global competition in education, research and innovation. To allow a more evidence based process of

  16. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  17. Economies and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for launching the journal Economies (ISSN 2227-7099 is my concern regarding human sustainability [1,2]. There are two major categories of economic systems: capitalism, or free market economy and socialism, or planned economy. The last 30 years have witnessed great social change in China, for example, indicating that the free market economy has prevailed and now dominates around the World.

  18. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  19. New Phase Transition in the $Pr_{1-x}Ca_{x}MnO_{3}$ System Evidence for Electrical Polarization in Charge Ordered Manganites

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, A M; Amaral, V S; Correia, G; Tomioka, Y; Tokura, Y

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter a detailed study of the electric field gradient (EFG) across the Pr1-xCaxMnO3 phase diagram and its temperature dependence is given. Clearly, distinct EFG behavior for samples outside or inside the charge order (CO) region are observed. The EFG temperature dependence evidences a new phase transition occurring over the broad CO region of the phase diagram. This transition is discontinuous and occurs at temperatures between the charge ordering and the Néel temperatures. The prominent features observed in the EFG are associated with polar atomic vibrations which eventually lead to a spontaneous local electric polarization below CO transition.

  20. Diet, Society, and Economy in Late Medieval Spain: Stable Isotope Evidence From Muslims and Christians From Gandía, Valencia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michelle M; Gerrard, Christopher M; Gutiérrez, Alejandra; Millard, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the diets of neighboring Christians and Muslims in late medieval Spain (here 13th–16th centuries) through the analysis of the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in adult human and animal bone collagen. Twenty-four Christians and 20 Muslims are sampled from two adjacent and contemporaneous settlements in the township of Gandía on the Mediterranean coast, together with the remains of 24 animals. Statistical differences in both δ13C and δ15N reveal that the diets of the two faith communities differed, despite living side-by-side. These differences may relate to inequalities in their access to foodstuffs, particularly to C3/C4 grain and/or possibly terrestrial meat sources, though cultural preferences are also highlighted. Isotopic values for animals were also found to vary widely, both between and within species, and this provides a window into the local livestock economy. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:263–273, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of physical Anthropology published by Wiley Periodicals,Inc. PMID:25351146

  1. Routine transition zone biopsy during active surveillance for prostate cancer rarely provides unique evidence of disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RiChard, Jamie L; Motamedinia, Piruz; McKiernan, James M; DeCastro, G Joel; Benson, Mitchell C

    2012-12-01

    Routine sampling of the transition zone during prostate biopsy has become increasingly common. Although approximately 10% of prostate cancers originate in the transition zone, the benefit of transition zone biopsies may be limited. We evaluated the usefulness of transition zone biopsy in patients with prostate cancer enrolled in active surveillance. Patients on active surveillance followed at our institution between 1993 and 2011 were identified in the urological oncology database. All surveillance biopsies were stratified by transition and peripheral zone pathology results. The usefulness of transition zone biopsy was assessed by whether transition zone specific cancer characteristics, eg volume and grade, changed disease management recommendations. A single surgeon performed a total of 244 prostate biopsies in 92 men. Each patient underwent initial positive prostate biopsy and at least 1 active surveillance prostate biopsy. Mean age was 69 years. A mean of 2.7 biopsies were done per patient. Nine patients (10%) had positive transition zone cores on initial positive prostate biopsy, of whom 3 had transition zone unique cancers. One of these patients showed transition zone disease progression on active surveillance prostate biopsy, which led to up staging and exclusion from active surveillance. A total of 16 patients (17%) had positive transition zone cores on active surveillance prostate biopsy, of whom 13 had a negative transition zone on initial positive prostate biopsy. Transition and peripheral zone Gleason scores were identical in 9 of these patients and the transition zone score was lower in 4. Thus, transition zone pathology did not result in up staging or disease management alterations in any patient with new transition zone pathology. Up staging due to transition zone specific pathology is exceedingly rare. Transition zone biopsy in patients on active surveillance should be limited to those with transition zone involvement on initial positive prostate

  2. TRANSITION AND FOOD CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Liefert, William M.; Lohmar, Bryan; Serova, Eugenia

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines why transition from planned to market economies in the countries of the former Soviet bloc has changed their mix and volumes of food consumption. During transition, consumption of high value products, such as meat and dairy products, has plummeted, while consumption of staple foods such as bread and potatoes has remained steady, or even increased. The paper shows that in the pre-reform planned economy, planners "desired" the production and national consumption of high valu...

  3. Modeling of similar economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Kuznetsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to obtain dimensionless criteria ndash economic indices characterizing the national economy and not depending on its size. Methods mathematical modeling theory of dimensions processing statistical data. Results basing on differential equations describing the national economy with the account of economical environment resistance two dimensionless criteria are obtained which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes. With the theory of dimensions we show that the obtained indices are not accidental. We demonstrate the implementation of the obtained dimensionless criteria for the analysis of behavior of certain countriesrsquo economies. Scientific novelty the dimensionless criteria are obtained ndash economic indices which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes and to analyze the dynamic changes in the economies with time. nbsp Practical significance the obtained results can be used for dynamic and comparative analysis of different countriesrsquo economies regardless of their sizes.

  4. Theory of Microcrediting in Transitional Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Kadoić; Matija Kopić

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1970s, Bangladeshi banker and economist Dr. Muhammad Yunus designed microcrediting – a socially sensitive and rightful system of fighting poverty and high unemployment rates. His Grameen Bank for the poorest of the poor in Bangladesh has so far lifted more than 3.2 million of individuals and their families out of poverty. After initial successes at home, microcredit was put into service for reducing unemployment and alleviating poverty in numerous countries th...

  5. Transition to Market Economy in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    and small private firms were not capable of cooperating, nor were the military and the foreign trade lobbies due to internal competition and large numbers, respectively. In contrast, the energy and agrarian lobbies maintained their subsidies by cooperating and acting as allies and non-competitors. Free...... trade with the West and potential competition may mobilize popular support in favor of privatization and put pressure on the old state monopolies. However, lobbies in the European Union (EU) may oppose free trade to maintain their monopoly and to avoid competion for the Structural Funds in the EU....

  6. The political economy of transition / Gerard Roland

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roland, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    Tutvustatakse üleminekumajanduse poliitökonoomia teooriat ning analüüsitakse endiste sotsialismimaade üleminekumajandust: lisaks algsele majandussituatsioonile peab vaatlema ka poliitilisi ja sotsioloogilisi näitajaid, mis mõjutavad institutsioonide ja majanduspoliitika suuna valikut. Tabelid

  7. The Transition to an Energy Sufficient Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mbasuen, Timothy S.; Darton, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria is an energy-rich nation with a huge energy resource base. The country is the largest reserves holder and largest producer of oil and gas in the African continent. Despite this, only about 40% of its 158 million people have access to modern energy services. Around 80% of its rural population depend on traditional biomass. This paper presents an overview of ongoing research to examine energy policies in Nigeria. The aims are: 1) to identify and quantify the barriers to sustainable ener...

  8. Electricity in european economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the electricity supply industries in the European members of the former Unified Power System/interconnected Power Systems (UPS/IPS): Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine. It explores the transformation process in the electricity sector over the past five years, its relationship to other changes in the region and possible future trends. Subjects covered include structure and regulation, demand, primary fuel availability, generating capacity, financing, tariffs, interconnections and trade

  9. The effect of fossil energy and other environmental taxes on profit incentives for change in an open economy: Evidence from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Allan; Ayatakshi, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the underlying supply and demand analysis of fossil energy and other environmental taxes needs further elaboration when a country (a) introduces national fossil energy or environmental taxes and (b) is open to international trade at given world prices. We provide evidence that such conditions are plausible for many sectors in the UK. A key implication is that the short run effects of such taxes should not be felt in final good prices, since these are determined in world markets, but in terms of underlying profitability. These changes in underlying profits provide two key incentives for producers—to change to more environmentally friendly production techniques and to switch resources to production of less environmentally harmful goods. Using input—output techniques we provide evidence for the UK to show how existing fossil energy and other “green” taxes have affected underlying profitability. The evidence shows quite strong profit incentives to shift resources from a small number of energy intensive industries to others. - Highlights: • Energy taxes affect profits more than prices for sectors trading at world prices. • This study suggests that many sectors in the UK satisfy these conditions. • Our evidence suggests that few sectors are strongly affected by energy taxes. • Energy taxes have a strong effect relative to other possible environmental taxes

  10. Challenges in Building a Sustainable Biobased Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    2017-01-01

    Moving to a more sustainable economy, where renewable biomass such as crop residues and dedicated energy crops are used for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials, is one of the main challenges faced by the society nowadays. The transition from the current fossil-based to a biob......Moving to a more sustainable economy, where renewable biomass such as crop residues and dedicated energy crops are used for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials, is one of the main challenges faced by the society nowadays. The transition from the current fossil...... for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials is therefore recognized as a need by numerous industries and policy makers in countries around the world. In addition, a biobased economy has the potential to generate new jobs and even new industries, creating new opportunities for entrepreneurship...

  11. First evidence of the role of zonal flows for the L-H transition at marginal input power in the EAST tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Wang, H. Q.

    2011-01-01

    toroidally separated reciprocating probes. Just prior to the L-H transition, the Er oscillation often evolves into intermittent negative Er spikes. The low-frequency Er oscillation, as well as the Er spikes, is strongly correlated with the turbulence-driven Reynolds stress, thus providing first evidence...

  12. Essays on Political Economy and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lyubimov (Ivan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThe spillover of information from more developed economies to the less developed ones is of key importance for sustainable transition towards higher living standards in emerging societies. The amount and type of essential information which is transferred to developing world is far

  13. Evidence for Kaposi Sarcoma Originating from Mesenchymal Stem Cell through KSHV-induced Mesenchymal-to-Endothelial Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqing; Zhong, Canrong; Liu, Dawei; Yu, Wenjing; Chen, Weikang; Wang, Yan; Shi, Songtao; Yuan, Yan

    2018-01-01

    The major transmission route for Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection is the oral cavity through saliva. Kaposi sarcoma (KS) frequently occurs in the oral cavity in HIV-positive individuals and is often the first presenting sign of AIDS. However, the oral target cells for KSHV infection and the cellular origin of Kaposi sarcoma remain unknown. Here we present clinical and experimental evidences that Kaposi sarcoma spindle cells may originate from virally modified oral mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). AIDS-KS spindle cells expressed neuroectodermal stem cell marker (Nestin) and oral MSC marker CD29, suggesting an oral/craniofacial MSC lineage of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma. Furthermore, oral MSCs were highly susceptible to KSHV infection, and infection promoted multilineage differentiation and mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition (MEndT). KSHV infection of oral MSCs resulted in expression of a large number of cytokines, a characteristic of Kaposi sarcoma, and upregulation of Kaposi sarcoma signature and MEndT-associated genes. These results suggest that Kaposi sarcoma may originate from pluripotent MSC and KSHV infection transforms MSC to Kaposi sarcoma-like cells through MEndT. Significance: These findings indicate that Kaposi sarcomas, which arise frequently in AIDS patients, originate from neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells, with possible implications for improving the clnical treatment of this malignancy. Cancer Res; 78(1); 230-45. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. PRECONDITIONS AND DETERMINING CAUSES OF THE SHADOW ECONOMY IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnalii

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main processes that led to the high level of the economy shadowing. The historical aspects of the formation of the shadow economy in Ukraine are highlighted. The socio-economic aspects of the shadow economy of Ukraine causality are discussed. The theoretical contribution of foreign and domestic researchers on the preconditions of formation of the shadow economy in transition economies is studied. Theoretical perspective on the factors of the shadowing processes in the economy of Ukraine from the standpoint of modern scientific researches is analyzed. The paper also provides scientific vectors for further development of researches aimed at studying the causes and preconditions of the shadow economy.

  15. Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; de Pauw, I.C.; Bakker, C.A.; van der Grinten, B.

    The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for
    companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper

  16. Knowing is not enough: Engaging in the Knowledge Economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Web 2.0 technologies and Information Literacy. It exhorts librarians to empower themselves so that they can become active participants and not passive observers in the transition of the country to the knowledge economy. Keywords: Knowledge Economy, Knowledge Management, Library Automation, Information Literacy, ...

  17. THE KLEPTOCRACY – A CHARACTERISTIC OF ROMANIAN ECONOMY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMESCU-DUMITRESCU CORNELIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of kleptocratic management closely related to corruption. Considered a product of the transition to capitalist economy, modern kleptocratic management is the opposite of democratic management, strategic, aimed at rapid enrichment by any means. By analyzing Corruption Perception Index and Global Corruption Barometer kleptocratic management have highlighted the manifestation of the Romanian economy.

  18. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  19. Is corporate Asia ready for the green economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This report explores the concept of a ‘green economy’, and its relevance in Asia. It explores the roles that policymakers, investors, corporates and accountants need to play to facilitate the transition to a green economy. Publisher PDF

  20. Sustaining the Afghan Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    budget. Agriculture and pastoralism accounted for 60 percent of GDP in the 1970s and about 85 percent of the population depended on rural economy ...for its livelihood.1 The Soviet war devastated the rural economy and most of the population fled to Pakistan and Iran, where it depended largely on...AU/ACSC/YADAV/AY10 i AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY SUSTAINING THE AFGHAN ECONOMY By Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Wg Cdr