Critical bubbles and fluctuations at the electroweak phase transition
Kripfganz, J; Schmidt, M G
1995-01-01
We discuss the critical bubbles of the electroweak phase transition using an effective high-temperature 3-dimensional action for the Higgs field \\varphi. The separate integration of gauge and Goldstone boson degrees of freedom is conveniently described in the 't Hooft-Feynman covariant background gauge. The effective dimensionless gauge coupling g_3(T)^2 in the broken phase is well behaved throughout the phase transition. However, the behavior of the one-loop Z(\\varphi) factors of the Higgs and gauge kinetic terms signalizes the breakdown of the derivative expansion and of the perturbative expansion for a range of small \\varphi values increasing with the Higgs mass m_H. Taking a functional S_z[\\varphi] with constant Z(\\varphi)=z instead of the full non-local effective action in some neighborhood of the saddlepoint we are calculating the critical bubbles for several temperatures. The fluctuation determinant is calculated to high accuracy using a variant of the heat kernel method. It gives a strong suppression ...
Critical scattering by bubbles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiedler-Ferrari, N.; Nussenzveig, H.M.
1986-11-01
We apply the complex angular momentum theory to the problem of the critical scattering of light by spherical cavities in the high frequency limit (permittivity greater than the external media) (e.g, air bubble in water) (M.W.O.) [pt
Bifurcation scenarios for bubbling transition.
Zimin, Aleksey V; Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward
2003-01-01
Dynamical systems with chaos on an invariant submanifold can exhibit a type of behavior called bubbling, whereby a small random or fixed perturbation to the system induces intermittent bursting. The bifurcation to bubbling occurs when a periodic orbit embedded in the chaotic attractor in the invariant manifold becomes unstable to perturbations transverse to the invariant manifold. Generically the periodic orbit can become transversely unstable through a pitchfork, transcritical, period-doubling, or Hopf bifurcation. In this paper a unified treatment of the four types of bubbling bifurcation is presented. Conditions are obtained determining whether the transition to bubbling is soft or hard; that is, whether the maximum burst amplitude varies continuously or discontinuously with variation of the parameter through its critical value. For soft bubbling transitions, the scaling of the maximum burst amplitude with the parameter is derived. For both hard and soft transitions the scaling of the average interburst time with the bifurcation parameter is deduced. Both random (noise) and fixed (mismatch) perturbations are considered. Results of numerical experiments testing our theoretical predictions are presented.
Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radonjić Ognjen
2007-01-01
Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.
The skyrmion-bubble transition in a ferromagnetic thin film
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne Bernand-Mantel, Lorenzo Camosi, Alexis Wartelle, Nicolas Rougemaille, Michaël Darques, Laurent Ranno
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Magnetic skyrmions and bubbles, observed in ferromagnetic thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, are topological solitons which differ by their characteristic size and the balance in the energies at the origin of their stabilisation. However, these two spin textures have the same topology and a continuous transformation between them is allowed. In the present work, we derive an analytical model to explore the skyrmion-bubble transition. We evidence a region in the parameter space where both topological soliton solutions coexist and close to which transformations between skyrmion and bubbles are observed as a function of the magnetic field. Above a critical point, at which the energy barrier separating both solutions vanishes, only one topological soliton solution remains, which size can be continuously tuned from micrometer to nanometer with applied magnetic field.
New mechanism for bubble nucleation: Classical transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T. Jr; Hui Lam; Lim, Eugene A.
2009-01-01
Given a scalar field with metastable minima, bubbles nucleate quantum mechanically. When bubbles collide, energy stored in the bubble walls is converted into kinetic energy of the field. This kinetic energy can facilitate the classical nucleation of new bubbles in minima that lie below those of the 'parent' bubbles. This process is efficient and classical, and changes the dynamics and statistics of bubble formation in models with multiple vacua, relative to that derived from quantum tunneling.
Electron microscopy observations of helium bubble-void transition effects in nimonic PE16 alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazey, D.J.; Nelson, R.S.
1980-01-01
High-nickel alloys based on the Nimonic PE16 composition have been injected at temperatures of 525 0 C and 625 0 C with 1000 ppm helium to produce a high gas-bubble concentration and subsequently irradiated with 36 MeV nickel ions. Extensive heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles is observed on faulted interstitial loops and dislocations. Evidence is found in standard PE16 alloy for bimodal bubble plus void distributions which persist during nickel-ion irradiation to 30 and 60 dpa at 625 0 C and result in a low void volume swelling of approximately 1%. The observations can be correlated with the critical bubble/void transition radius which is calculated from theory to be approximately 4.4 nm. Pre-injection of helium into a 'matrix' PE16 (low Si, Ti and Al) alloy produced an initial bubble population whose average size was above the calculated transition radius such that all bubbles eventually grew as voids during subsequent nickel-ion irradiation up to 60 dpa at 625 0 C where the void volume swelling reached approximately 12%. The observations are discussed briefly and related to theoretical predictions of the bubble/void transition radius. (author)
Wainwright, Carroll L.
2012-09-01
I present a numerical package (CosmoTransitions) for analyzing finite-temperature cosmological phase transitions driven by single or multiple scalar fields. The package analyzes the different vacua of a theory to determine their critical temperatures (where the vacuum energy levels are degenerate), their supercooling temperatures, and the bubble wall profiles which separate the phases and describe their tunneling dynamics. I introduce a new method of path deformation to find the profiles of both thin- and thick-walled bubbles. CosmoTransitions is freely available for public use.Program summaryProgram Title: CosmoTransitionsCatalogue identifier: AEML_v1_0Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEML_v1_0.htmlProgram obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. IrelandLicensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.htmlNo. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8775No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 621096Distribution format: tar.gzProgramming language: Python.Computer: Developed on a 2009 MacBook Pro. No computer-specific optimization was performed.Operating system: Designed and tested on Mac OS X 10.6.8. Compatible with any OS with Python installed.RAM: Approximately 50 MB, mostly for loading plotting packages.Classification: 1.9, 11.1.External routines: SciPy, NumPy, matplotLibNature of problem: I describe a program to analyze early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. The goal is to analyze the phase structure of an input theory, determine the amount of supercooling at each phase transition, and find the bubble-wall profiles of the nucleated bubbles that drive the transitions.Solution method: To find the bubble-wall profile, the program assumes that tunneling happens along a fixed path in field space. This reduces the equations of motion to one dimension, which can then be solved using the overshoot
Statistical criterion for Bubbly-slug flow transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zigler, J; Elias, E [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1996-12-01
The investigation of flow pattern transitions is still an interesting problem in the research of multiphase Row. It has been studied theoretically, and experimental confirmation of the models has been found by many investigators. The present paper deals with a statistical approach to bubbly-slug transitions in a vertical upward two phase flow and a new transition criterion is deduced from experimental data (authors).
Phase Transition to an Opaque Plasma in a Sonoluminescing Bubble
Kappus, Brian; Khalid, Shahzad; Chakravarty, Avik; Putterman, Seth
2011-06-01
Time-resolved spectrum measurements of a sonoluminescing Xe bubble reveal a transition from transparency to an opaque Planck blackbody. As the temperature is <10000K and the density is below liquid density, the photon scattering length is 10 000 times too large to explain its opacity. We resolve this issue with a model that reduces the ionization potential. According to this model, sonoluminescence originates in a new phase of matter with high ionization. Analysis of line emission from Xe* also yields evidence of phase segregation for this first-order transition inside a bubble.
THE VISCOUS TO BRITTLE TRANSITION IN CRYSTAL- AND BUBBLE-BEARING MAGMAS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mattia ePistone
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The transition from viscous to brittle behaviour in magmas plays a decisive role in determining the style of volcanic eruptions. While this transition has been determined for one- or two-phase systems, it remains poorly constrained for natural magmas containing silicic melt, crystals, and gas bubbles. Here we present new experimental results on shear-induced fracturing of three-phase magmas obtained at high-temperature (673-1023 K and high-pressure (200 MPa conditions over a wide range of strain-rates (5·10-6 s-1 to 4·10-3 s-1. During the experiments bubbles are deformed (i.e. capillary number are in excess of 1 enough to coalesce and generate a porous network that potentially leads to outgassing. A physical relationship is proposed that quantifies the critical stress required for magmas to fail as a function of both crystal (0.24 to 0.65 and bubble volume fractions (0.09 to 0.12. The presented results demonstrate efficient outgassing for low crystal fraction ( 0.44 promote gas bubble entrapment and inhibit outgassing. The failure of bubble-free, crystal-bearing systems is enhanced by the presence of bubbles that lower the critical failure stress in a regime of efficient outgassing, while the failure stress is increased if bubbles remain trapped within the crystal framework. These contrasting behaviours have direct impact on the style of volcanic eruptions. During magma ascent, efficient outgassing reduces the potential for an explosive eruption and favours brittle behaviour, contributing to maintain low overpressures in an active volcanic system resulting in effusion or rheological flow blockage of magma at depth. Conversely, magmas with high crystallinity experience limited loss of exsolved gas, permitting the achievement of larger overpressures prior to a potential sudden transition to brittle behaviour, which could result in an explosive volcanic eruption.
Modeling on bubbly to churn flow pattern transition in narrow rectangular channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yanlin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping; Wang Junfeng
2012-01-01
A theoretical model based on some reasonable concepts was developed to predict the bubbly flow to churn flow pattern transition in vertical narrow rectangular channel under flow boiling condition. The maximum size of ideal bubble in narrow rectangular channel was calculated based on previous literature. The thermal hydraulics boundary condition of bubbly to churn flow pattern transition was exported from Helmholtz and maximum size of ideal bubble. The theoretical model was validated by existent experimental data. (authors)
Satellite formation during bubble transition through an interface between immiscible liquids
Li, Erqiang
2014-03-12
When a bubble rises to an interface between two immiscible liquids, it can pass through the interface, if this is energetically favourable, i.e. The bubble preferring the side of the interface with the lower air-liquid surface tension. Once the intermediate film between the bubble and the interface has drained sufficiently, the bubble makes contact with the interface, forming a triple-line and producing strong capillary waves which travel around the bubble and can pinch off a satellite on the opposite side, akin to the dynamics in the coalescence cascade. We identify the critical Ohnesorge numbers where such satellites are produced and characterize their sizes. The total transition time scales with the bubble size and differential surface tension, while the satellite pinch-off time scales with the capillary-inertial time of the pool liquid, which originally surrounds the bubble. We also use high-speed video imaging to study the motion of the neck of the contact. For low viscosity we show that it grows in time with a power-law exponent between 0.44 and 0.50, with a prefactor modified by the net sum of the three interfacial tensions. Increasing the viscosity of the receiving liquid drop drastically slows down the motion of the triple-line, when the Ohnesorge number exceeds ${\\\\sim }$0.08. This differs qualitatively from the coalescence of two miscible drops of different viscosities, where the lower viscosity sets the coalescence speed. We thereby propose a strong resistance from the triple-line. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.
2013-01-01
A goal of our ongoing research stream is to develop a multidisciplinary metatheory of bubbles. In this viewpoint paper we put forward a typology of bubbles by comparing four types of assets – entertainment, commodities, financial securities (stocks), and housing properties – where bubbles could...... and do form occasionally. Cutting across and comparing such varied asset types provides some rich insights into the nature of bubbles – and offers an inductive way to arrive at the typology of bubbles....
Bubble nucleation and growth in very strong cosmological phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar; Ramírez, Santiago
2017-06-15
Strongly first-order phase transitions, i.e., those with a large order parameter, are characterized by a considerable supercooling and high velocities of phase transition fronts. A very strong phase transition may have important cosmological consequences due to the departures from equilibrium caused in the plasma. In general, there is a limit to the strength, since the metastability of the old phase may prevent the transition to complete. Near this limit, the bubble nucleation rate achieves a maximum and thus departs from the widely assumed behavior in which it grows exponentially with time. We study the dynamics of this kind of phase transitions. We show that in some cases a gaussian approximation for the nucleation rate is more suitable, and in such a case we solve analytically the evolution of the phase transition. We compare the gaussian and exponential approximations with realistic cases and we determine their ranges of validity. We also discuss the implications for cosmic remnants such as gravitational waves.
Measuring the diameter of rising gas bubbles by means of the ultrasound transit time technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richter, T., E-mail: Thomas.Richter6@tu-dresden.de; Eckert, K., E-mail: Kerstin.Eckert@tu-dresden.de; Yang, X.; Odenbach, S.
2015-09-15
Highlights: • Ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) is applied to the zig-zag raise of gas bubble. • Comparison of bubble diameter and tilt, measured by UTTT, with high-speed imaging. • Uncertainty in the determination of the bubble diameter by UTTT is less than 7%. • UTTT is able to measure dynamic changes in bubble size in opaque liquids and vessels. • UTTT can be applied to liquid metal loops. - Abstract: This study presents ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) measurements of the diameter variations of single argon bubbles rising in a zig-zag trajectory in water. Simultaneous size measurements with a high-speed camera show that UTTT resolves both the apparent diameter and the tilt of the bubble axis with an accuracy of better than 7%. This qualifies UTTT for the measurement of bubble sizes in opaque liquids, such as liquid metals, or vessels.
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2001-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in
Critical Assessment of the Surface Tension determined by the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method
Benedetto, Franco Emmanuel; Zolotucho, Hector; Prado, Miguel Oscar
2015-01-01
The main factors that influence the value of surface tension of a liquid measured with the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method are critically evaluated. We present experimental results showing the effect of capillary diameter, capillary depth, bubble spheroidicity and liquid density at room temperature. We show that the decrease of bubble spheroidicity due to increase of capillary immersion depth is not sufficient to explain the deviations found in the measured surface tension values. Thus, we pro...
Mode transition in bubbly Taylor-Couette flow measured by PTV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, K; Tasaka, Y; Murai, Y; Takeda, T
2009-01-01
The drag acting to the inner cylinder in Taylor-Couette flow system can be reduced by bubble injection. In this research, relationship between drag reduction and change of vortical structure in a Taylor-Couette flow is investigated by Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). The velocity vector field in the r-z cross section and the bubble concentration in the front view (z-θ plane) are measured. This paper describes the change of vortical structures with bubbles, and the mode transition that is sensitively affected by the bubbles is discussed. The bubbles accumulate in the three parts relative to vortex position by the interaction between bubbles and vortices. The status of bubble's distribution is different depending on position. This difference affects mode transition as its trigger significantly. The presence of bubbles affects the transition from toroidal mode to spiral mode but does not induce the transition from spiral mode to toroidal mode. Further we found that Taylor vortex bifurcates and a pair of vortices coalesces when the flow switches between spiral mode and toroidal mode.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.M.
2003-01-01
To qualify CFD codes for two-phase flows, they have to be equipped with constitutive laws describing the interaction between the gaseous and the liquid phases. In the case of bubble flow this particularly concerns the forces acting on the bubbles and bubble coalescence and break-up. To obtain detailed experimental data, an electrode wire-mesh sensor was used, which enables the measurement of the phase distribution with a very high resolution in space and in time. Air-water flow at ambient conditions in a vertical pipe (51.2 mm inner diameter) is investigated to have well defined boundary conditions. Local bubble size distributions are calculated from the data. The measurements were done in different distances from the gas injection device. As a result the development of bubble size distributions as well as the development of the radial gas fraction profiles can be studied. It was found, that the bubble size distribution as well as local effects determine the transition from bubble flow to slug flow. The data are used for the development of a model, which predicts the development of the bubble size distribution and the transition from bubble flow to slug flow in case of stationary flow in a vertical pipe. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yanlin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping; Wang Junfeng
2011-01-01
A theoretical model was developed to predict the bubbly to churn flow pattern transition for vertical upward flows in narrow rectangular channel. The model was developed based on the imbalance theory of Helmholtz and some reasonable assumptions. The maximum ideal bubble in narrow rectangular channel and the thermal hydraulics boundary condition leading to bubbly flow to churn flow pattern transition was calculated. The model was validated by experimental data from previous researches. Comparison between predicted result and experimental result shows a reasonable good agreement. (author)
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2000-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m
The Critical Moment of Transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svalgaard, Lotte
2018-01-01
By providing a holding environment to acknowledge sensitivities and address emotions, leadership programs prove to be powerful spaces for increasing self- and social awareness. However, the challenge is for one to maintain the newly gained self- and social awareness after leaving the holding...... environment and entering a context characterized by activity and performance. This is a frequently debated challenge for both academics and providers of management learning. Yet, critical moments in this transition remain under-exposed and under-researched. The contribution of this article is a research study......—within the context of an international MBA program—of MBA students applying their knowledge from a Leadership Stream in an international consultancy project. This article contributes to the theory and practice of management learning by providing a lens through which subjective experience of critical moments...
Bubble nucleation in first-order inflation and other cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.; Weinberg, E.J.; Widrow, L.M.
1992-01-01
We address in some detail the kinematics of bubble nucleation and percolation in first-order cosmological phase transitions, with the primary focus on first-order inflation. We study how a first-order phase transition completes, describe measures of its progress, and compute the distribution of bubble sizes. For example, we find that the typical bubble size in a successful transition is of order 1% to 100% of the Hubble radius, and depends very weakly on the energy scale of the transition. We derive very general conditions that must be satisfied by Γ/H 4 to complete the phase transition (Γ=bubble nucleation rate per unit volume; H=expansion rate; physically, Γ/H 4 corresponds to the volume fraction of space occupied by bubbles nucleated over a Hubble time). In particular, Γ/H 4 must exceed 9/4π to successfully end inflation. To avoid the deleterious effects of bubbles nucleated early during inflation on primordial nucleosynthesis and on the isotropy and spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation, during most of inflation Γ/H 4 must be less than order 10 -4 --10 -3 . Our constraints imply that in a successful model of first-order inflation the phase transition must complete over a period of at most a few Hubble times and all but preclude individual bubbles from providing an interesting source of density perturbation. We note, though, that it is just possible for Poisson fluctuations in the number of moderately large-size bubbles to lead to interesting isocurvature perturbations, whose spectrum is not scale invariant. Finally, we analyze in detail several recently proposed models of first-order inflation
The Critical Moment of Transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svalgaard, Lotte
2018-01-01
By providing a holding environment to acknowledge sensitivities and address emotions, leadership programmes prove to be powerful spaces for increasing self- and social awareness. However, the challenge is for one to maintain the newly gained self- and social awareness after leaving the holding...... – within the context of an international MBA program – of MBA students applying their knowledge from a Leadership Stream in an International Consultancy Project. This paper contributes to the theory and practice of management learning by providing lenses to understand subjective experiences of critical...... moments of transition, developing the notion of “mindful avoidance,” and pointing out a major and neglected potential space in the design of management education....
Optical characterization of bubbly flows with a near-critical-angle scattering technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onofri, Fabrice R.A.; Krzysiek, Mariusz [IUSTI, UMR, CNRS, University of Provence, Polytech' DME, Technopole Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France); Mroczka, Janusz [CEPM, Technical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Ren, Kuan-Fang [CORIA, UMR, CNRS, University of Rouen, Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray (France); Radev, Stefan [IMECH, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bonnet, Jean-Philippe [M2P2, UMR, CNRS, University Paul Cezanne, Aix-en-Provence (France)
2009-10-15
The newly developed critical angle refractometry and sizing technique (CARS) allows simultaneous and instantaneous characterization of the local size distribution and the relative refractive index (i.e. composition) of a cloud of bubbles. The paper presents the recent improvement of this technique by comparison of different light scattering models and inversion procedures. Experimental results carried in various air/water and air/water-ethanol bubbly flows clearly demonstrate the efficiency and the potential of this technique. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caprini, Chiara; Durrer, Ruth; Servant, Geraldine
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave production from bubble collisions was calculated in the early 1990s using numerical simulations. In this paper, we present an alternative analytic estimate, relying on a different treatment of stochasticity. In our approach, we provide a model for the bubble velocity power spectrum, suitable for both detonations and deflagrations. From this, we derive the anisotropic stress and analytically solve the gravitational wave equation. We provide analytical formulas for the peak frequency and the shape of the spectrum which we compare with numerical estimates. In contrast to the previous analysis, we do not work in the envelope approximation. This paper focuses on a particular source of gravitational waves from phase transitions. In a companion article, we will add together the different sources of gravitational wave signals from phase transitions: bubble collisions, turbulence and magnetic fields and discuss the prospects for probing the electroweak phase transition at LISA
What experiments on pinned nanobubbles can tell about the critical nucleus for bubble nucleation.
Xiao, Qianxiang; Liu, Yawei; Guo, Zhenjiang; Liu, Zhiping; Frenkel, Daan; Dobnikar, Jure; Zhang, Xianren
2017-12-22
The process of homogeneous bubble nucleation is almost impossible to probe experimentally, except near the critical point or for liquids under large negative tension. Elsewhere in the phase diagram, the bubble nucleation barrier is so high as to be effectively insurmountable. Consequently, there is a severe lack of experimental studies of homogenous bubble nucleation under conditions of practical importance (e.g., cavitation). Here we use a simple geometric relation to show that we can obtain information about the homogeneous nucleation process from Molecular Dynamics studies of bubble formation in solvophobic nanopores on a solid surface. The free energy of pinned nanobubbles has two extrema as a function of volume: one state corresponds to a free-energy maximum ("the critical nucleus"), the other corresponds to a free-energy minimum (the metastable, pinned nanobubble). Provided that the surface tension does not depend on nanobubble curvature, the radius of the curvature of the metastable surface nanobubble is independent of the radius of the pore and is equal to the radius of the critical nucleus in homogenous bubble nucleation. This observation opens the way to probe the parameters that determine homogeneous bubble nucleation under experimentally accessible conditions, e.g. with AFM studies of metastable nanobubbles. Our theoretical analysis also indicates that a surface with pores of different sizes can be used to determine the curvature corrections to the surface tension. Our conclusions are not limited to bubble nucleation but suggest that a similar approach could be used to probe the structure of critical nuclei in crystal nucleation.
New insight on bubble-void transition effects in irradiated materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubinko, V.I.
1993-01-01
An account of elastic interaction between cavities and point defects is shown to result in new critical quantities for bubblevoid transition effects in irradiated cubic crystals. In contrast to previous theories, the present one gives not only critical quantities which determine the onset of bias-driven void swelling but the maximum stationary number density and the corresponding mean radius of voids as well as the duration of the bimodal regime. The void density and swelling rate are shown to be independent from the gas level. In the region of low temperatures/high dose rates, the void density appears to be independent from irradiation parameters as well. The relationships among material constants are found at which the stabilization of gas bubbles occurs via the dislocation loop punching mechanism resulting in a drastic change in the cavity behaviour under irradiation such as the saturation (or even suppression) of void swelling and void lattice formation. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data and further experimental tests are proposed. (author). 38 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs
The Elementary Bubble Project: Exploring Critical Media Literacy in a Fourth-Grade Classroom
Gainer, Jesse S.; Valdez-Gainer, Nancy; Kinard, Timothy
2009-01-01
This article addresses issues surrounding critical media literacy using popular culture texts. The authors focus on the example of their work with a fourth-grade class involved in a project to unpack the messages of popular media and advertising texts. This project, which they call the Elementary Bubble Project, was inspired by guerilla artist Ji…
Critical Transitions in Social Network Activity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuehn, Christian; Martens, Erik Andreas; Romero, Daniel M
2014-01-01
A large variety of complex systems in ecology, climate science, biomedicine and engineering have been observed to exhibit tipping points, where the dynamical state of the system abruptly changes. For example, such critical transitions may result in the sudden change of ecological environments...... a priori known events are preceded by variance and autocorrelation growth. Our findings thus clearly establish the necessary starting point to further investigate the relationship between abstract mathematical theory and various classes of critical transitions in social networks....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crivellini, Andrea; D’Alessandro, Valerio
2014-01-01
Highlights: • RANS simulation of laminar separation bubbles. • Spalart–Allamaras unexpected capability. • Straightforward implementation of our SA modifications. • Applications of a high order DG incompressible solver. - Abstract: The present paper deals with the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulation of Laminar Separation Bubble (LSB). This phenomenon is of large interest in several engineering fields, such as the study of wind turbines, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and micro-air vehicles (MAV) characterized by a low operating Reynolds number. In such contexts a laminar boundary layer separation followed by a turbulent transition and afterwards by a turbulent reattachment may appear in the flow-field. The main novelty of this work is that an almost standard Spalart–Allmaras (SA) model, without additional equations for transition modeling, was successfully employed. The result achieved is very surprising being the model not developed for this purpose, but for fully-turbulent flows or for cases with imposed transition location. This result is of large interest, since the SA model is widely used in commercial, open-source and research codes. However, our approach cannot be advocated to predict natural transition within an attached boundary layer, indeed it is only able to deal with transitions triggered by a separated flow. The reliability and accuracy of our approach are here proved computing, by means of a high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) incompressible solver, the flow-field over two airfoils at different flow regimes showing the formation of a LSB
Critical Transition in Critical Zone of Intensively Managed Landscapes
Kumar, P.
2017-12-01
Intensification of industrial agriculture has resulted in severe unintended global impacts, including degradation of arable land and eutrophication of receiving water bodies. Modern agricultural practices rely on significant direct and indirect human energy inputs, which have created imbalances between increased rates of biogeochemical processes related to production and background rates of natural processes. These imbalances have cascaded through the deep inter-dependencies between carbon, soil, water, nutrient and ecological processes, resulting in a critical transition of the Critical Zone and creating emergent dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Understanding of these novel organization and function of the Critical Zone is vital for developing sustainable agricultural practices.
Wicaksana, F; Fan, A G; Chen, V
2005-01-01
Bubbling has been used to enhance various processes. In this paper we deal with the effect of bubbling on submerged hollow fibre membranes, where bubbling is applied to prevent severe membrane fouling. Previous work with submerged hollow fibres has observed that significant fibre movement can be induced by bubbling and that there is a qualitative relationship between fibre movement and filtration performance. Therefore, the aim of the present research has been to analyse the link between bubbling, fibre movement and critical flux, identified as the flux at which the transmembrane pressure (TMP) starts to rise. Tests were performed on vertical isolated fibres with a model feed of yeast suspension. The fibres were subject to steady bubbling from below. The parameters of interest were the fibre characteristics, such as tightness, diameter and length, as well as feed concentration. The results confirmed that the critical fluxes are affected by the fibre characteristics and feed concentration. Higher critical flux values can be achieved by using loose fibres, smaller diameters and longer fibres. The enhancement is partially linked to fibre movement and this is confirmed by improved performance when fibres are subject to mechanical movement in the absence of bubbling.
Critical Transitions in Thin Layer Turbulence
Benavides, Santiago; Alexakis, Alexandros
2017-11-01
We investigate a model of thin layer turbulence that follows the evolution of the two-dimensional motions u2 D (x , y) along the horizontal directions (x , y) coupled to a single Fourier mode along the vertical direction (z) of the form uq (x , y , z) = [vx (x , y) sin (qz) ,vy (x , y) sin (qz) ,vz (x , y) cos (qz) ] , reducing thus the system to two coupled, two-dimensional equations. Its reduced dimensionality allows a thorough investigation of the transition from a forward to an inverse cascade of energy as the thickness of the layer H = π / q is varied.Starting from a thick layer and reducing its thickness it is shown that two critical heights are met (i) one for which the forward unidirectional cascade (similar to three-dimensional turbulence) transitions to a bidirectional cascade transferring energy to both small and large scales and (ii) one for which the bidirectional cascade transitions to a unidirectional inverse cascade when the layer becomes very thin (similar to two-dimensional turbulence). The two critical heights are shown to have different properties close to criticality that we are able to analyze with numerical simulations for a wide range of Reynolds numbers and aspect ratios. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of MesoPSL financed by the Region Ile de France and the project Equip@Meso (reference ANR-10-EQPX-29-01).
Istvan, Mark S.; Yarusevych, Serhiy
2018-03-01
The laminar-to-turbulent transition process in a laminar separation bubble formed over a NACA 0018 airfoil is investigated experimentally. All experiments are performed for an angle of attack of 4°, chord Reynolds numbers of 80,000 and 125,000, and free-stream turbulence intensities between 0.06 and 1.99%. The results show that increasing the level of free-stream turbulence intensity leads to a decrease in separation bubble length, attributed to a downstream shift in mean separation and an upstream shift in mean reattachment, the later ascribed to an upstream shift in mean transition. Maximum spatial amplification rates of disturbances in the separated shear layer decrease with increasing free-stream turbulence intensity, implying that the larger initial amplitudes of disturbances are solely responsible for the upstream shift in mean transition and as a result mean reattachment. At the baseline level of turbulence intensity, coherent structures forming in the aft portion of the bubble are characterized by strong spanwise coherence at formation, and undergo spanwise deformations leading to localized breakup in the vicinity of mean reattachment. As the level of free-stream turbulence intensity is increased, the spanwise coherence of the shear layer rollers is reduced, and spanwise undulations in the vortex filaments start to take place at the mean location of roll-up. At the highest level of turbulence intensity investigated, streamwise streaks originating in the boundary layer upstream of the separation bubble are observed within the bubble. These streaks signify an onset of bypass transition upstream of the separation bubble, which gives rise to a highly three-dimensional shear layer roll-up. A quantitative analysis of the associated changes in salient characteristics of the coherent structures is presented, connecting the effect of elevated free-stream turbulence intensity on the time-averaged and dynamic characteristics of the separation bubble.
Kingett, Christian; Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan
2017-11-01
The two-stage freezing process of a liquid droplet on a substrate is well known; however, how bubbles freeze has not yet been studied. We first deposited bubbles on a silicon substrate that was chilled at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, while the air was at room temperature. We observed that the freeze front moved very slowly up the bubble, and in some cases, even came to a complete halt at a critical height. This slow freezing front propagation can be explained by the low thermal conductivity of the thin soap film, and can be observed more clearly when the bubble size or the surface temperature is increased. This delayed freezing allows the frozen portion of the bubble to cool the air within the bubble while the top part is still liquid, which induces a vapor pressure mismatch that either collapses the top or causes the top to pop. In cases where the freeze front reaches the top of the bubble, a portion of the top may melt and slowly refreeze; this can happen more than just once for a single bubble. We also investigated freezing bubbles inside of a freezer where the air was held at -20 °C. In this case, the bubbles freeze quickly and the ice grows radially from nucleation sites instead of perpendicular to the surface, which provides a clear contrast with the conduction limited room temperature bubbles.
Close relationship between a dry-wet transition and a bubble rearrangement in two-dimensional foam
Furuta, Yujiro; Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei
2016-01-01
Liquid foams are classified into a dry foam and a wet foam, empirically judging from the liquid fraction or the shape of the gas bubbles. It is known that physical properties such as elasticity and diffusion are different between the dry foam and the wet foam. Nevertheless, definitions of those states have been vague and the dry-wet transition of foams has not been clarified yet. Here we show that the dry-wet transition is closely related to rearrangement of the gas bubbles, by simultaneously analysing the shape change of the bubbles and that of the entire foam in two dimensional foam. In addition, we also find a new state in quite low liquid fraction, which is named “superdry foam”. Whereas the shape change of the bubbles strongly depends on the change of the liquid fraction in the superdry foam, the shape of the bubbles does not change with changing the liquid fraction in the dry foam. Our results elucidate the relationship between the transitions and the macroscopic mechanical properties. PMID:27874060
Reduction of Gas Bubbles and Improved Critical Current Density in Bi-2212 Round Wire by Swaging
Jiang, J; Huang, Y; Hong, S; Parrell, J; Scheuerlein, C; Di Michiel, M; Ghosh, A; Trociewitz, U; Hellstrom, E; Larbalestier, D
2013-01-01
Bi-2212 round wire is made by the powder-in-tube technique. An unavoidable property of powder-in-tube conductors is that there is about 30% void space in the as-drawn wire. We have recently shown that the gas present in the as-drawn Bi-2212 wire agglomerates into large bubbles and that they are presently the most deleterious current limiting mechanism. By densifying short 2212 wires before reaction through cold isostatic pressing (CIPping), the void space was almost removed and the gas bubble density was reduced significantly, resulting in a doubled engineering critical current density (JE) of 810 A/mm2 at 5 T, 4.2 K. Here we report on densifying Bi-2212 wire by swaging, which increased JE (4.2 K, 5 T) from 486 A/mm2 for as-drawn wire to 808 A/mm2 for swaged wire. This result further confirms that enhancing the filament packing density is of great importance for making major JE improvement in this round-wire magnet conductor.
German, Sean R; Edwards, Martin A; Chen, Qianjin; Liu, Yuwen; Luo, Long; White, Henry S
2016-12-12
In this article, we address the fundamental question: "What is the critical size of a single cluster of gas molecules that grows and becomes a stable (or continuously growing) gas bubble during gas evolving reactions?" Electrochemical reactions that produce dissolved gas molecules are ubiquitous in electrochemical technologies, e.g., water electrolysis, photoelectrochemistry, chlorine production, corrosion, and often lead to the formation of gaseous bubbles. Herein, we demonstrate that electrochemical measurements of the dissolved gas concentration, at the instant prior to nucleation of an individual nanobubble of H 2 , N 2 , or O 2 at a Pt nanodisk electrode, can be analyzed using classical thermodynamic relationships (Henry's law and the Young-Laplace equation - including non-ideal corrections) to provide an estimate of the size of the gas bubble nucleus that grows into a stable bubble. We further demonstrate that this critical nucleus size is independent of the radius of the Pt nanodisk employed (gas. For example, the measured critical surface concentration of H 2 of ∼0.23 M at the instant of bubble formation corresponds to a critical H 2 nucleus that has a radius of ∼3.6 nm, an internal pressure of ∼350 atm, and contains ∼1700 H 2 molecules. The data are consistent with stochastic fluctuations in the density of dissolved gas, at or near the Pt/solution interface, controlling the rate of bubble nucleation. We discuss the growth of the nucleus as a diffusion-limited process and how that process is affected by proximity to an electrode producing ∼10 11 gas molecules per second. Our study demonstrates the advantages of studying a single-entity, i.e., an individual nanobubble, in understanding and quantifying complex physicochemical phenomena.
Satellite formation during bubble transition through an interface between immiscible liquids
Li, Erqiang; Al-Otaibi, S. A.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T
2014-01-01
the intermediate film between the bubble and the interface has drained sufficiently, the bubble makes contact with the interface, forming a triple-line and producing strong capillary waves which travel around the bubble and can pinch off a satellite on the opposite
A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon
1997-01-01
This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variation in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grossetete, C.
1992-09-01
The most important and challenging problems in two-phase bubbly flow today are related to the physical understanding and the modeling of multidimensional phenomena such as the distribution of phases in space. We present here a critical review of the available experimental and theoretical studies in gas-liquid adiabatic and non-reactive upward bubbly flows which have been carried out to define and improve the physical models needed to close the three-dimensional two-fluid model equations. It appears that: so far, the axial development of two-phase upward bubbly flows has not been handled thoroughly. Little is known about the way the pressure gradient as well as the gas-liquid mixing conditions affect the distribution of phases, the problems related to the closing of the two-fluid model equations are far from being solved. The physical models proposed seem often to be too much complex considering how little we know about the mechanisms involved, there are still very few multidimensional numerical models whose results have been compared with experimental data on bubbly flows. The boundary conditions introduced in the codes as well as the sensitivity of the results to the parameters of the codes are never precisely stated. To bridge some of those gaps, we propose to perform an experimental and numerical study of the axial development of two-phase air-water upward bubbly flows in vertical pipes
Ecosystem thresholds, tipping points, and critical transitions
Munson, Seth M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Peñuelas, Josep; McDowell, Nathan G.; Sala, Osvaldo E.
2018-01-01
Abrupt shifts in ecosystems are cause for concern and will likelyintensify under global change (Scheffer et al., 2001). The terms‘thresho lds’, ‘tipping points’, and ‘critical transitions’ have beenused interchangeably to refer to sudden changes in the integrityor state of an ecosystem caused by environmental drivers(Holling, 1973; May, 1977). Threshold-based concepts havesigniﬁc antly aided our capacity to predict the controls overecosystem structure and functioning (Schwinning et al., 2004;Peters et al., 2007) and have become a framework to guide themanagement of natural resources (Glick et al., 2010; Allen et al.,2011). However, our unders tanding of how biotic and abioticdrivers interact to regulate ecosystem responses and of ways toforecast th e impending responses remain limited. Terrestrialecosystems, in particular, are already responding to globalchange in ways that are both transformati onal and difﬁcult topredict due to strong heterogeneity across temporal and spatialscales (Pe~nuelas & Filella, 2001; McDowell et al., 2011;Munson, 2013; Reed et al., 2016). Comparing approaches formeasuring ecosystem performance in response to changingenvironme ntal conditions and for detecting stress and thresholdresponses can improve tradition al tests of resilience and provideearly warning signs of ecosystem transitions. Similarly, com-paring responses across ecosystems can offer insight into themechanisms that underlie variation in threshold responses.
Modelling and critical analysis of bubbly flows of dilute nanofluids in a vertical tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xiangdong; Yuan, Yang [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Tu, Jiyuan, E-mail: jiyuan.tu@rmit.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, PO Box 1021, Beijing 100086 (China)
2016-04-15
Highlights: • The classic two-fluid model needs improvement for nanofluid bubbly flows. • The nanoparticle self-assembly changes the interfacial behaviours of bubbles. • Key job is to reformulate the interfacial transfer terms. - Abstract: The bubbly flows of air–nanofluid and air–water in a vertical tube were numerically simulated using the two-fluid model. Comparison of the numerical results against the experimental data of Park and Chang (2011) demonstrated that the classic two-fluid model, although agreed well with the air–water data, was not applicable to the air–nanofluid bubbly flow. It was suggested that in a bubbly flow system, the existence of interfaces allows the spontaneous formation of a thin layer of nanoparticle assembly at the interfaces, which significantly changes the interfacial behaviours of the air bubbles and the roles of the interfacial forces. As the conservation equations of the classic two-fluid model are still applicable to nanofluids, the mechanisms underlying the modified interfacial behaviours need to be carefully taken into account when modelling air–nanofluid bubbly flows. Thus, one of the key tasks when modelling bubbly flows of air–nanofluid using the two-fluid model is to reformulate the interfacial transfer terms according to the interfacial behaviour modifications induced by nanoparticles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Chul Hwa
1995-02-01
An experimental and analytical work is performed to investigate the relation between the developing phenomena in bubble flow and the propagation phenomena of void waves. For this purpose, the structural developments in bubble flow and the propagation property of void waves are measured over a broad range of flow conditions including the bubble-to-slug flow regime transition (BSFRT) region. And a linear stability analysis is performed, based on the two-fluid model, to establish the analytical model on the wave propagation parameters, and the predictability of the model is validated by comparing analytical results with experimental observations. In the experimental work, an impedance void meter is developed to measure the void fraction, and a series of test are performed by varying the bubble size in order to investigate the bubble size effect on the bubble flow structures for various flow conditions. Statistical signal processing techniques are applied to void signals in order to objectively identify the changing modes of bubble flow structures and to estimate the wave propagation properties. The impedance void meter developed in this study showed very good temporal and spatial resolutions enough to identify the developing phenomena in bubble flow structures and to investigate the void wave propagations, and the void distribution effect could be minimized by electrically shielding the guard electrodes. It was also designed so that the inherent errors due to the phase shifts between channels be negligible. Various features occurred in the transitional process of bubble flow could be objectively identified by introducing some statistical parameters evaluated from void signals. Two distinct modes of structural development in bubble flow were observed in the transitional process, and they are found to be much influenced by the initial bubble size. And the mechanism to govern BSFRT could be characterized by two ways depending on the developing modes of bubble flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burgmann, S.; Dannemann, J.; Schroeder, W. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Aerodynamics, Aachen (Germany)
2008-04-15
To comprehensively understand the effects of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities on a transitional separation bubble on the suction side of an airfoil regarding as to flapping of the bubble and its impact on the airfoil performance, the temporal and spatial structure of the vortices occurring at the downstream end of the separation bubble is investigated. Since the bubble variation leads to a change of the pressure distribution, the investigation of the instantaneous velocity field is essential to understand the details of the overall airfoil performance. This vortex formation in the reattachment region on the upper surface of an SD7003 airfoil is analyzed in detail at different angles of attack. At a Reynolds number Re{sub c} < 100,000 the laminar boundary layer separates at angles of attack >4 . Due to transition processes, turbulent reattachment of the separated shear layer occurs enclosing a locally confined recirculation region. To identify the location of the separation bubble and to describe the dynamics of the reattachment, a time-resolved PIV measurement in a single light-sheet is performed. To elucidate the spatial structure of the flow patterns in the reattachment region in time and space, a stereo scanning PIV set-up is applied. The flow field is recorded in at least ten successive light-sheet planes with two high-speed cameras enclosing a viewing angle of 65 to detect all three velocity components within a light-sheet leading to a time-resolved volumetric measurement due to a high scanning speed. The measurements evidence the development of quasi-periodic vortex structures. The temporal dynamics of the vortex roll-up, initialized by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, is shown as well as the spatial development of the vortex roll-up process. Based on these measurements a model for the evolving vortex structure consisting of the formation of c-shape vortices and their transformation into screwdriver vortices is introduced. (orig.)
Simulation of Z(3) walls and string production via bubble nucleation in a quark-hadron transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Uma Shankar; Tiwari, Vivek K.; Mohapatra, Ranjita K.; Srivastava, Ajit M.
2010-01-01
We study the dynamics of confinement-deconfinement phase transition in the context of relativistic heavy-ion collisions within the framework of effective models for the Polyakov loop order parameter. We study the formation of Z(3) walls and associated strings in the initial transition from the confining (hadronic) phase to the deconfining [quark-gluon plasma (QGP)] phase via the so-called Kibble mechanism. Essential physics of the Kibble mechanism is contained in a sort of domain structure arising after any phase transition which represents random variation of the order parameter at distances beyond the typical correlation length. We implement this domain structure by using the Polyakov loop effective model with a first order phase transition and confine ourselves with temperature/time ranges so that the first order confinement-deconfinement transition proceeds via bubble nucleation, leading to a well defined domain structure. The formation of Z(3) walls and associated strings results from the coalescence of QGP bubbles expanding in the confining background. We investigate the evolution of the Z(3) wall and string network. We also calculate the energy density fluctuations associated with Z(3) wall network and strings which decay away after the temperature drops below the quark-hadron transition temperature during the expansion of QGP. We discuss evolution of these quantities with changing temperature via Bjorken's hydrodynamical model and discuss possible experimental signatures resulting from the presence of Z(3) wall network and associate strings.
Simulation of Z(3) walls and string production via bubble nucleation in a quark-hadron transition
Gupta, Uma Shankar; Mohapatra, Ranjita K.; Srivastava, Ajit M.; Tiwari, Vivek K.
2010-10-01
We study the dynamics of confinement-deconfinement phase transition in the context of relativistic heavy-ion collisions within the framework of effective models for the Polyakov loop order parameter. We study the formation of Z(3) walls and associated strings in the initial transition from the confining (hadronic) phase to the deconfining [quark-gluon plasma (QGP)] phase via the so-called Kibble mechanism. Essential physics of the Kibble mechanism is contained in a sort of domain structure arising after any phase transition which represents random variation of the order parameter at distances beyond the typical correlation length. We implement this domain structure by using the Polyakov loop effective model with a first order phase transition and confine ourselves with temperature/time ranges so that the first order confinement-deconfinement transition proceeds via bubble nucleation, leading to a well defined domain structure. The formation of Z(3) walls and associated strings results from the coalescence of QGP bubbles expanding in the confining background. We investigate the evolution of the Z(3) wall and string network. We also calculate the energy density fluctuations associated with Z(3) wall network and strings which decay away after the temperature drops below the quark-hadron transition temperature during the expansion of QGP. We discuss evolution of these quantities with changing temperature via Bjorken’s hydrodynamical model and discuss possible experimental signatures resulting from the presence of Z(3) wall network and associate strings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Denten, J.P.
1989-01-01
Inverted annular flow can be visualized as a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus. While many analytical and experimental studies of heat transfer in this regime have been performed, there is very little understanding of the basic hydrodynamics of the post-critical heat flux (CHF) flow field. However, a recent experimental study was done that was able to successfully investigate the effects of various steady-state inlet flow parameters on the post-CHF hydrodynamics of the film boiling of a single phase liquid jet. This study was carried out by means of a visual photographic analysis of an idealized single phase core inverted annular flow initial geometry (single phase liquid jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas). In order to extend this study, a subsequent flow visualization of an idealized two-phase core inverted annular flow geometry (two-phase central jet core, surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was carried out. The objective of this second experimental study was to investigate the effect of steady-state inlet, pre-CHF two-phase jet core parameters on the hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. In actual film boiling situations, two-phase flows with net positive qualities at the CHF point are encountered. Thus, the focus of the present experimental study was on the inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow fields in the post dryout film boiling region. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported. A correlation for the axial extent of the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow (the agitated regime) is developed. It is shown to depend strongly on inlet jet core parameters and jet void fraction at the dryout point
Air bubbles induce a critical continuous stress to prevent marine biofouling accumulation
Belden, Jesse; Menesses, Mark; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James
2017-11-01
Significant shear stresses are needed to remove established hard fouling organisms from a ship hull. Given that there is a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. One approach to mitigate marine biofouling is to continuously introduce a curtain of air bubbles under a submerged surface; it is believed that this aeration exploits the small stresses induced by rising bubbles to continuously prevent accumulation. Although curtains of rising bubbles have successfully prevented biofouling accumulation, it is unclear if a single stream of bubbles could maintain a clean surface. In this talk, we show that single bubble stream aeration can prevent biofouling accumulation in regions for which the average wall stress exceeds approximately 0.01 Pa. This value is arrived at by comparing observations of biofouling growth and prevention from field studies with laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. We also relate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the flow to the size and frequency of the rising bubbles, which informs the basic operating conditions required for aeration to continuously prevent biofouling accumulation.
Yarusevych, Serhiy; Kurelek, John; Kotsonis, Marios
2017-11-01
The effects of controlled acoustic excitation on the transition process in a laminar separation bubble formed on the suction side of a NACA 0018 airfoil at a chord Reynolds number of 125,000 and an angle of attack of 4 degrees are studied experimentally. The investigation is carried out using time-resolved, planar, two-component Particle Image Velocimetry. Two types of excitation are considered: (i) tonal excitation at the frequency of the most unstable disturbances in the natural flow, and (ii) broadband excitation consisting bandpass filtered to the natural unstable frequency range, modelling two common types of airfoil self-noise production. For equal energy input levels, the results show that tonal and broadband types of excitation have equivalent effects on the mean flow field. Specifically, both cause the streamwise extent and height of the bubble to decrease. However, further analysis reveals notable differences in the underlying physics. For the tonal case, the transition process is dominated by the growth of disturbances at the excitation frequency that damps the growth of all other disturbances, leading to the formation of strongly coherent vortices in the aft portion of the separation bubble. On the other hand, broadband excitation promotes more moderate growth of all disturbances within the unstable frequency band, producing less coherent shear layer structures that experience earlier breakdown. Thus, the frequency content of acoustic excitation has a strong influence on the transition process in laminar separation bubbles. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for funding this work.
Critical Line of the Deconfinement Phase Transitions
Gorenstein, Mark I.
Phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is discussed within the exactly solvable statistical model of the quark-gluon bags. The model predicts two phases of matter: the hadron gas at a low temperature T and baryonic chemical potential μ B , and the quark-gluon gas at a high T and/or μ B . The nature of the phase transition depends on a form of the bag massvolume spectrum (its pre-exponential factor), which is expected to change with the μ B /T ratio. It is therefore likely that the line of the 1 st order transition at a high μ B/T ratio is followed by the line of the 2 nd order phase transition at an intermediate μ B/T, and then by the lines of "higher order transitions" at a low μ B /T. This talk is based on a recent paper (Gorenstein, Gaździcki, and Greiner, 2005).
Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benito A. Stradi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.
A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Quantum Critical “Opalescence” around Metal-Insulator Transitions
Misawa, Takahiro; Yamaji, Youhei; Imada, Masatoshi
2006-08-01
Divergent carrier-density fluctuations equivalent to the critical opalescence of gas-liquid transition emerge around a metal-insulator critical point at a finite temperature. In contrast to the gas-liquid transitions, however, the critical temperatures can be lowered to zero, which offers a challenging quantum phase transition. We present a microscopic description of such quantum critical phenomena in two dimensions. The conventional scheme of phase transitions by Ginzburg, Landau, and Wilson is violated because of its topological nature. It offers a clear insight into the criticalities of metal-insulator transitions (MIT) associated with Mott or charge-order transitions. Fermi degeneracy involving the diverging density fluctuations generates emergent phenomena near the endpoint of the first-order MIT and must shed new light on remarkable phenomena found in correlated metals such as unconventional cuprate superconductors. It indeed accounts for the otherwise puzzling criticality of the Mott transition recently discovered in an organic conductor. We propose to accurately measure enhanced dielectric fluctuations at small wave numbers.
Fission-gas-bubble mobility in oxide fuel: a critical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tam, S.W.; Johnson, C.E.
1983-08-01
The available volatile fission product release data has confirmed the general viability of the scaling model of volatile fission product release in which the fractional release rates of the volatile fission products scale as that of the fission gas. The question of whether fission gas bubbles can move sufficiently fast to be a significant mechanism responsible for fission gas release from the fuel is considered. The mean jump distance per jump of the hopping process in gas bubble motion is analyzed. Surface roughness is also considered
Introductory note on phase transitions and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C.N.
1983-01-01
The author briefly reviews the development of classical statistical mechanics, particularly the contributions of Gibbs. The author then turns to quantum mechanical formulations of phase transitions and critical phenomena, mentioning several seminal works
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtake, H.; Koizumi, Y.; Takano, K.I.
2001-01-01
The Ex-vessel cooling of Reactor-Pressure-Vessel in Light-Water-Reactor at the severe accident have been proposed for future nuclear reactors. The estimation of Critical-Heat-Flux on a downward-facing curvilinear surface, like a hemisphere, is important to the assessment of the cooling. In this study, the CHFs on inclined surfaces were examined experimentally focusing on orientation of the heating surface. In order to discuss detailed mechanism of the CHF, the behaviors of coalesced bubbles near the heating surface were investigated through visual observations. The critical heat flux obtained in the present experiments increased with the inclined angle over the present experimental range. The dependence of the inclined angle on the critical heat flux was q CHF,R-113 [q] = f (q 0.33 ) for the present experimental results. The effect of the surface orientation on the critical heat flux was roughly explained by using the simple analytical model based on the macro-layer model and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. From visual observations for behavior of bubbles near the heating surface, whereas the coalesced bubble covered over the heating surface for the inclined angle of 0 degree, the coalesced bubble moved upward to avoid packing the bubble on the surface above 5 degree. As the inclined angle increased, the velocity of the coalesced bubble was high, the period covered the heater and the bubble length were small. The results suggested that the CHF was closely related to forming the coalesced bubble and the behavior of the bubble. (author)
Quantum phase transition and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutta, A.; Chakrabarti, B.K.
1998-01-01
We intend to describe briefly the generic features associated with the zero temperature transition in quantum mechanical systems. We elucidate the discussion of the introductory section using the very common example of Ising model in a transverse field. We discuss the method of fermionisation for one dimensional systems. The quantum-classical correspondence is discussed using Suzuki-Trotter method. We then introduce the quantum rotor model and discuss its spherical limit. We finally discuss novel features arising due to the presence of quenched randomness in the quantum Ising and rotor systems. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Sang Jun
1998-02-01
A new dry-spot model for critical heat flux (CHF) is proposed. The new concept for dry area formation based on Poisson distribution of active nucleation sites and the critical active site number is introduced. The model is based on the boiling phenomena observed in nucleate boiling such as Poisson distribution of active nucleation sites and formation of dry spots on the heating surface. It is hypothesized that when the number of bubbles surrounding one bubble exceeds a critical number, the surrounding bubbles restrict the feed of liquid to the microlayer under the bubble. Then a dry spot of vapor will form on the heated surface. As the surface temperature is raised, more and more bubbles will have a population of surrounding active sites over the critical number. Consequently, the number of the spots will increase and the size of dry areas will increase due to merger of several dry spots. If this trend continues, the number of effective sites for heat transport through the wall will diminish, and CHF and transition boiling occur. The model is applicable to pool and subcooled forced convection boiling conditions, based on the common mechanism that CHF and transition boiling are caused by the accumulation and coalescences of dry spots. It is shown that CHF and heat flux in transition boiling can be determined without any empirical parameter based on information on the boiling parameters such as active site density and bubble diameter, etc., in nucleate boiling. It is also shown that the present model well represents actual phenomena on CHF and transition boiling and explains the mechanism on how parameters such as flow modes (pool or flow) and surface wettability influence CHF and transition boiling. Validation of the present model for CHF and transition boiling is achieved without any tuning parameter always present in earlier models. It is achieved by comparing the predictions of CHF and heat flux in transition boiling using measured boiling parameters in nucleate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortiz, Ada; Hansteen, Viggo H.; Pontieu, Bart De; Carlsson, Mats; Voort, Luc Rouppe van der [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Rubio, Luis Ramón Bellot [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. 3040, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Rodríguez, Jaime de la Cruz, E-mail: ada@astro.uio.no [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2016-07-10
We study, for the first time, the ascent of granular-sized magnetic bubbles from the solar photosphere through the chromosphere into the transition region and above. Such events occurred in a flux emerging region in NOAA 11850 on 2013 September 25. During that time, the first co-observing campaign between the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spacecraft was carried out. Simultaneous observations of the chromospheric H α 656.28 nm and Ca ii 854.2 nm lines, plus the photospheric Fe i 630.25 nm line, were made with the CRISP spectropolarimeter at the Spitzer Space Telescope ( SST ) reaching a spatial resolution of 0.″14. At the same time, IRIS was performing a four-step dense raster of the emerging flux region, taking slit jaw images at 133 (C ii, transition region), 140 (Si iv, transition region), 279.6 (Mg ii k, core, upper chromosphere), and 283.2 nm (Mg ii k, wing, photosphere). Spectroscopy of several lines was performed by the IRIS spectrograph in the far- and near-ultraviolet, of which we have used the Si iv 140.3 and the Mg ii k 279.6 nm lines. Coronal images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the Solar Dynamics Observatory were used to investigate the possible coronal signatures of the flux emergence events. The photospheric and chromospheric properties of small-scale emerging magnetic bubbles have been described in detail in Ortiz et al. Here we are able to follow such structures up to the transition region. We describe the properties, including temporal delays, of the observed flux emergence in all layers. We believe this may be an important mechanism of transporting energy and magnetic flux from subsurface layers to the transition region and corona.
Boiling crisis as inhibition of bubble detachment by the vapor recoil force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolayev, V.S.; Beysens, D.; Garrabos, Y.
2004-01-01
Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. In this communication we present a physical model of the boiling crisis based on the vapor recoil effect. Our numerical simulations of the thermally controlled bubble growth at high heat fluxes show how the bubble begins to spread over the heater thus forming a germ for the vapor film. The vapor recoil force not only causes the vapor spreading, it also creates a strong adhesion to the heater that prevents the bubble departure, thus favoring the further bubble spreading. Near the liquid-gas critical point, the bubble growth is very slow and allows the kinetics of the bubble spreading to be observed. Since the surface tension is very small in this regime, only microgravity conditions can preserve a convex bubble shape. Under such conditions, we observed an increase of the apparent contact angle and spreading of the dry spot under the bubble, thus confirming our model of the boiling crisis. (authors)
Ten years of transition Stiglitz's criticism and counterarguments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Đurđević Ljiljana
2004-01-01
Full Text Available IMF supports the transition process in most ex-socialist countries through concessionary financing, recommendations for economic policy and technical assistance. Results vary across countries and have been analyzed by a number of authors. In this context, some authors have dealt with the IMF's "guilt" Stiglitz's criticism having struck the most responsive chord in public triggering violent reactions. The paper deals with the key hypotheses of this criticism as well as the main counter arguments.
Condensate-induced transitions and critical spin chains
Månsson, T.; Lahtinen, V.; Suorsa, J.; Ardonne, E.
2013-01-01
We show that condensate-induced transitions between two-dimensional topological phases provide a general framework to relate one-dimensional spin models at their critical points. We demonstrate this using two examples. First, we show that two well-known spin chains, namely, the XY chain and the
Phase transitions and critical behaviour for charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlip, S; Vaidya, S
2003-01-01
We investigate the thermodynamics of a four-dimensional charged black hole in a finite cavity in asymptotically flat and asymptotically de Sitter spaces. In each case, we find a Hawking-Page-like phase transition between a black hole and a thermal gas very much like the known transition in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. For a 'supercooled' black hole - a thermodynamically unstable black hole below the critical temperature for the Hawking-Page phase transition - the phase diagram has a line of first-order phase transitions that terminates in a second-order point. For the asymptotically flat case, we calculate the critical exponents at the second-order phase transition and find that they exactly match the known results for a charged black hole in anti-de Sitter space. We find strong evidence for similar phase transitions for the de Sitter black hole as well. Thus many of the thermodynamic features of charged anti-de Sitter black holes do not really depend on asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions; the thermodynamics of charged black holes is surprisingly universal
Model for the resistive critical current transition in composite superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warnes, W.H.
1988-01-01
Much of the research investigating technological type-II superconducting composites relies on the measurement of the resistive critical current transition. We have developed a model for the resistive transition which improves on older models by allowing for the very different nature of monofilamentary and multifilamentary composite structures. The monofilamentary model allows for axial current flow around critical current weak links in the superconducting filament. The multifilamentary model incorporates an additional radial current transfer between neighboring filaments. The development of both models is presented. It is shown that the models are useful for extracting more information from the experimental data than was formerly possible. Specific information obtainable from the experimental voltage-current characteristic includes the distribution of critical currents in the composite, the average critical current of the distribution, the range of critical currents in the composite, the field and temperature dependence of the distribution, and the fraction of the composite dissipating energy in flux flow at any current. This additional information about the distribution of critical currents may be helpful in leading toward a better understanding of flux pinning in technological superconductors. Comparison of the models with several experiments is given and shown to be in reasonable agreement. Implications of the models for the measurement of critical currents in technological composites is presented and discussed with reference to basic flux pinning studies in such composites
Crossover phenomena in the critical range near magnetic ordering transition
Köbler, U.
2018-05-01
Among the most important issues of Renormalization Group (RG) theory are crossover events and relevant (or non-relevant) interactions. These terms are unknown to atomistic theories but they will be decisive for future field theories of magnetism. In this experimental study the importance of these terms for the critical dynamics above and below magnetic ordering transition is demonstrated on account of new analyses of published data. When crossover events are overlooked and critical data are fitted by a single power function of temperature over a temperature range including a crossover event, imprecise critical exponents result. The rather unsystematic and floating critical exponents reported in literature seem largely to be due to this problem. It is shown that for appropriate data analyses critical exponents are obtained that are to a good approximation rational numbers. In fact, rational critical exponents can be expected when spin dynamics is controlled by the bosons of the continuous magnetic medium (Goldstone bosons). The bosons are essentially magnetic dipole radiation generated by the precessing spins. As a result of the here performed data analyses, critical exponents for the magnetic order parameter of β = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/6 are obtained. For the critical paramagnetic susceptibility the exponents are γ = 1 and γ = 4/3.
Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C
2011-01-01
Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...
Think Bubbles and Socrates: Teaching Critical Thinking to Millennials in Public Relations Classes
Tallent, Rebecca J.; Barnes, Justin J.
2015-01-01
Critical thinking skills are crucial in the public relations profession, but teaching these skills to the Millennial Generation is vastly different from previous generations. How can a professor get past No Child Left Behind's dependence on test review guides and "everybody wins" in getting students to think for themselves? Using the…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denten, J.G.; Ishii, M.
1988-11-01
A visual study of film boiling using still photographic and high- speed motion picture methods was carried out in order to analyze the post-CHF hydrodynamics for steady-state inlet pre-CHF two-phase flow regimes. Pre-CHF two-phase flow regimes were established by introducing Freon 113 liquid and nitrogen gas into a jet core injection nozzle. An idealized, post-CHF two-phase core initial flow geometry (cylindrical multiphase jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was established at the nozzle exit by introducing nitrogen gas into the annular gap between the jet nozzle two-phase effluent and the heated test section inlet. For the present study three basic post-CHF flow regimes have been observed: the rough wavy regime (inverted annular flow preliminary break down), the agitated regime (transition between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow), and the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. For pre-CHF bubbly flow in the jet nozzle, the post-CHF flow (beginning from jet nozzle exit/heated test section inlet) consists of the rough wavy regime, followed by the agitated and then the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. In the same way, for pre-CHF slug flow in the jet core, the post-CHF flow is comprised of the agitated regime at the nozzle exit, followed by the dispersed regime. Pre-CHF annular jet core flow results in a small, depleted post-CHF agitated flow regime at the nozzle exit, immediately followed by the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported, with particular attention given to the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow. 43 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs
Critical phase transitions during ablation of atrial fibrillation
Iravanian, Shahriar; Langberg, Jonathan J.
2017-09-01
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological agents are not very effective in the management of AF. Therefore, ablation procedures have become the mainstay of AF management. The irregular and seemingly chaotic atrial activity in AF is caused by one or more meandering spiral waves. Previously, we have shown the presence of sudden rhythm organization during ablation of persistent AF. We hypothesize that the observed transitions from a disorganized to an organized rhythm is a critical phase transition. Here, we explore this hypothesis by simulating ablation in an anatomically-correct 3D AF model. In 722 out of 2160 simulated ablation, at least one sudden transition from AF to an organized rhythm (flutter) was noted (33%). They were marked by a sudden decrease in the cycle length entropy and increase in the mean cycle length. At the same time, the number of reentrant wavelets decreased from 2.99 ± 0.06 in AF to 1.76 ± 0.05 during flutter, and the correlation length scale increased from 13.3 ± 1.0 mm to 196.5 ± 86.6 mm (both P < 0.0001). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that transitions from AF to an anatomical flutter behave as phase transitions in complex non-equilibrium dynamical systems with flutter acting as an absorbing state. Clinically, the facilitation of phase transition should be considered a novel mechanism of ablation and may help to design effective ablation strategies.
Patil, D.J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2005-01-01
Correct prediction of spontaneous bubble formation in freely bubbling gas¿solid fluidized beds using Eulerian models, strongly depends on the description of the internal momentum transfer in the particulate phase. In this part, the comparison of the simple classical model, describing the solid phase
Critical phenomena and polymer coil-to-globule transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, B.; Xu Renliang; Wang Zhulun; Zuo Ju
1988-01-01
Small-angle scattering techniques including laser light scattering (LLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) have been useful tools to measure the static and dynamic properties (in terms of critical fluctuations) of fluids, fluid mixtures, polymer and micellar solutions, polymer blends and metallic alloys. A brief review is given of recent results in critical-phenomena experiments using small-angle scattering techniques. Topics of current interest are pointed out, and a guide to the vast literature on critical opalescence is provided. Coil-to-globule transition in polymer solutions has been a classic experimental challenge over the past decade. In order to succeed in reaching the collapsed regime, it becomes important to realize that single coil contraction of a linear polymer molecule in solution takes place in the neighborhood of phase separations. By using the recent development of a small-angle light-scattering spectrometer and by taking advantage of a successful polymer fractionation experiment, the transition behavior of linear polystyrene in cyclohexane from the Θ state to the collapsed regime can be characterized based on both the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius. (orig.)
Bubble-induced skin-friction drag reduction and the abrupt transition to air-layer drag reduction
Elbing, Brian R.; Winkel, Eric S.; Lay, Keary A.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc
To investigate the phenomena of skin-friction drag reduction in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at large scales and high Reynolds numbers, a set of experiments has been conducted at the US Navy's William B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel (LCC). Drag reduction was achieved by injecting gas (air) from a line source through the wall of a nearly zero-pressure-gradient TBL that formed on a flat-plate test model that was either hydraulically smooth or fully rough. Two distinct drag-reduction phenomena were investigated; bubble drag reduction (BDR) and air-layer drag reduction (ALDR).The streamwise distribution of skin-friction drag reduction was monitored with six skin-friction balances at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at test speeds to 20.0msinitial zone1. These results indicated that there are three distinct regions associated with drag reduction with air injection: Region I, BDR; Region II, transition between BDR and ALDR; and Region III, ALDR. In addition, once ALDR was established: friction drag reduction in excess of 80% was observed over the entire smooth model for speeds to 15.3ms1 with the surface fully roughened (though approximately 50% greater volumetric air flux was required); and ALDR was sensitive to the inflow conditions. The sensitivity to the inflow conditions can be mitigated by employing a small faired step (10mm height in the experiment) that helps to create a fixed separation line.
Transit of micro-bubbles through the pulmonary circulation of Thoroughbred horses during exercise.
La Gerche, A; Daffy, J R; Mooney, D J; Forbes, G; Davie, A J
2013-10-01
It has been observed that microbubbles may pass through the pulmonary circulation of dogs and humans during exercise. In humans, this phenomenon has been associated with lower pulmonary artery pressures, enhanced right ventricular function and greater exercise capacity. In the exercising Thoroughbred horse, extraordinarily high cardiac outputs exert significant pulmonary vascular stresses. The aim of this study was to determine, using contrast echocardiography, whether Thoroughbred horses performing strenuous exercise developed pulmonary transit of agitated contrast microbubbles (PTAC). At rest, agitated contrast was observed in the right ventricle, but not in the left ventricle. However, post-exercise microbubbles were observed in the left ventricle, confirming the occurrence of PTAC with exercise but not at rest. Further investigation is warranted to investigate whether this phenomenon may be associated with superior physiology and performance measures as has been implicated in other species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Supply and demand drive a critical transition to dysfunctional fisheries.
Fryxell, John M; Hilborn, Ray; Bieg, Carling; Turgeon, Katrine; Caskenette, Amanda; McCann, Kevin S
2017-11-14
There is growing awareness of the need for fishery management policies that are robust to changing environmental, social, and economic pressures. Here we use conventional bioeconomic theory to demonstrate that inherent biological constraints combined with nonlinear supply-demand relationships can generate threshold effects due to harvesting. As a result, increases in overall demand due to human population growth or improvement in real income would be expected to induce critical transitions from high-yield/low-price fisheries to low-yield/high-price fisheries, generating severe strains on social and economic systems as well as compromising resource conservation goals. As a proof of concept, we show that key predictions of the critical transition hypothesis are borne out in oceanic fisheries (cod and pollock) that have experienced substantial increase in fishing pressure over the past 60 y. A hump-shaped relationship between price and historical harvest returns, well demonstrated in these empirical examples, is particularly diagnostic of fishery degradation. Fortunately, the same heuristic can also be used to identify reliable targets for fishery restoration yielding optimal bioeconomic returns while safely conserving resource abundance. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Transition to turbulence for flows without linear criticality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, Masato
2010-01-01
It is well known that plane Couette flow (PCF) and pipe flow (PF) are linearly stable against arbitrary three-dimensional perturbations at any finite Reynolds number, so that transitions from the basic laminar states, if they exist, must be abrupt. Due to this lack of linear criticality, weakly nonlinear analysis does not work in general and numerical approaches must be resorted to. It is only recently that non-trivial nonlinear states for these flows have been discovered numerically at finite Reynolds number as solutions bifurcating from infinity. The onset of turbulence in a subcritical transition is believed to be related to the appearance of steady/travelling wave states caused by disturbances of finite amplitude that take the flows out of the basin of attraction of the laminar state in phase space. In this paper, we introduce other flows that, in a similar way to PCF and PF, exhibit no linear critical point for the laminar states, namely flow in a square duct and sliding Couette flow in an annulus with a certain range of gap ratio. We shall show our recent numerical investigations on these flows where nonlinear travelling wave states are found for the first time by a homotopy approach. We believe that these states constitute the skeleton around which a time-dependent trajectory in the phase space is organized and help in understanding non-equilibrium turbulent processes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz
2013-01-01
Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Denten, J.P.
1988-01-01
Inverted annular flow can be visualized as a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus. While many analytical and experimental studies of heat transfer in this regime have been performed, there is very little understanding of the basic hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. However, a recent experimental study was done that was able to successfully investigate the effects of various steady-state inlet flow parameters on the post-CHF hydrodynamics of the film boiling of a single phase liquid jet. This study was carried out by means of a visual photographic analysis of an idealized single phase core inverted annular flow initial geometry (single phase liquid jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas). In order to extend this study, a subsequent flow visualization of an idealized two-phase core inverted annular flow geometry (two-phase central jet core, surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was carried out. The objective of this second experimental study was to investigate the effect of steady-state inlet, pre-CHF two-phase jet core parameters on the hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. In actual film boiling situations, two-phase flows with net positive qualities at the CHF point are encountered. Thus, the focus of the present experimental study was on the inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow fields in the post dryout film boiling region. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported. A correlation for the axial extent of the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow (the agitated regime) is developed. It is shown to depend strongly on inlet jet core parameters and jet void fraction at the dryout point. 45 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs
Interfacial Bubble Deformations
Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert
Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.
Bubbling in unbounded coflowing liquids.
Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Herrada, Miguel A; Garstecki, Piotr
2006-03-31
An investigation of the stability of low density and viscosity fluid jets and spouts in unbounded coflowing liquids is presented. A full parametrical analysis from low to high Weber and Reynolds numbers shows that the presence of any fluid of finite density and viscosity inside the hollow jet elicits a transition from an absolute to a convective instability at a finite value of the Weber number, for any value of the Reynolds number. Below that critical value of the Weber number, the absolute character of the instability leads to local breakup, and consequently to local bubbling. Experimental data support our model.
Olmsted, Peter D.; Goldbart, Paul M.
1992-10-01
Macroscopic fluid motion can have dramatic consequences near the isotropic-nematic transition in fluids of nematogens. We explore some of these consequences using both deterministic and stochastic descriptions involving coupled hydrodynamic equations of motion for the nematic order parameter and fluid velocity fields. By analyzing the deterministic equations of motion we identify the locally stable states of homogeneous nematic order and strain rate, thus determining the homogeneous nonequilibrium steady states which the fluid may adopt. By examining inhomogeneous steady states we construct the analog of a first-order phase boundary, i.e., a line in the nonequilibrium phase diagram spanned by temperature and applied stress, at which nonequilibrium states may coexist, and which terminates in a nonequilibrium analog of a critical point. From an analysis of the nematic order-parameter discontinuity across the coexistence line, along with properties of the interface between homogeneous states, we extract the analog of classical equilibrium critical behavior near the nonequilibrium critical point. We develop a theory of fluctuations about biaxial nonequilibrium steady states by augmenting the deterministic description with noise terms, to simulate the effect of thermal fluctuations. We use this description to discuss the scattering of polarized light by order-parameter fluctuations near the nonequilibrium critical point and also in weak shear flow near the equilibrium phase transition. We find that fluids of nematogens near an appropriate temperature and strain rate exhibit the analog of critical opalescence, the intensity of which is sensitive to the polarizations of the incident and scattered light, and to the precise form of the critical mode.
Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition.
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar
We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rinoie, K [National Aerospace Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Sato, J [The Univ. of Tokyo., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1990-07-05
Experiments have been done to investigate the transition process of the laminar separation bubble on airfoils. Measurements of the power spectrum density distribution of the streamwise velocity fluctuation was made. Three airfoils which have different steplike pressure distributions were used for measurements. A discrete spectrum and its sub and higher harmonics were observed. The frequeny of the discrete spectrum was in good agreement with that predicted by the linear stability theory of the separated free shear layer. From results, it is concluded that the velocity disturbance observed initially in the amnner separation bubble for the three airfoils shows similar characteristic to that in the separeted free shear layer. For the airfoil whose design pressure recovery is minimum among three airfoils, however, another kind of the discrete spectrum was also observed. This is interpreted to be caused by the interference with the external cyclic disturbance. 11 refs., 11 figs.
The use of spatio-temporal correlation to forecast critical transitions
Karssenberg, D.J.; Bierkens, M.F.P.
2011-01-01
Complex dynamical systems may have critical thresholds at which the system shifts abruptly from one state to another. Such critical transitions have been observed in systems ranging from the human body system to financial markets and the Earth system. Forecasting the timing of critical transitions
Antoniuk, O.; Bos, van der A.; Driessen, T.W.; Es, van B.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Michler, D.; Reinten, H.; Schenker, M.; Snoeijer, J.H.; Srivastava, S.; Toschi, F.; Wijshoff, H.M.A.
2011-01-01
We discuss the physical forces that are required to remove an air bubble immersed in a liquid from a corner. This is relevant for inkjet printing technology, as the presence of air bubbles in the channels of a printhead perturbs the jetting of droplets. A simple strategy to remove the bubble is to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mejlikhov, E.Z.; Farzetdinova, R.M.
1997-01-01
Critical current of inhomogeneous intergranular Josephson transition is calculated in the assumption concerning superconductivity suppression by local strains of boundary dislocations with random distribution
Critical transition in tissue homeostasis accompanies murine lung senescence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carla L Calvi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory dysfunction is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in aged populations. The susceptibility to pulmonary insults is attributed to "low pulmonary reserve", ostensibly reflecting a combination of age-related musculoskeletal, immunologic and intrinsic pulmonary dysfunction. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a murine model of the aging lung, senescent DBA/2 mice, we correlated a longitudinal survey of airspace size and injury measures with a transcriptome from the aging lung at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months of age. Morphometric analysis demonstrated a nonlinear pattern of airspace caliber enlargement with a critical transition occurring between 8 and 12 months of age marked by an initial increase in oxidative stress, cell death and elastase activation which is soon followed by inflammatory cell infiltration, immune complex deposition and the onset of airspace enlargement. The temporally correlative transcriptome showed exuberant induction of immunoglobulin genes coincident with airspace enlargement. Immunohistochemistry, ELISA analysis and flow cytometry demonstrated increased immunoglobulin deposition in the lung associated with a contemporaneous increase in activated B-cells expressing high levels of TLR4 (toll receptor 4 and CD86 and macrophages during midlife. These midlife changes culminate in progressive airspace enlargement during late life stages. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings establish that a tissue-specific aging program is evident during a presenescent interval which involves early oxidative stress, cell death and elastase activation, followed by B lymphocyte and macrophage expansion/activation. This sequence heralds the progression to overt airspace enlargement in the aged lung. These signature events, during middle age, indicate that early stages of the aging immune system may have important correlates in the maintenance of tissue morphology. We further show that time-course analyses of aging
Avdeev, Alexander A
2016-01-01
This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...
Third-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical point
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Ma
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical-vapor transport (PVT system. A dynamical model, consistent with the van der Waals equation near the Andrews critical point, is derived. With this model, we deduce two physical parameters, which interact exactly at the Andrews critical point, and which dictate the dynamic transition behavior near the Andrews critical point. In particular, it is shown that 1 the gas-liquid co-existence curve can be extended beyond the Andrews critical point, and 2 the transition is first order before the critical point, second-order at the critical point, and third order beyond the Andrews critical point. This clearly explains why it is hard to observe the gas-liquid phase transition beyond the Andrews critical point. Furthermore, the analysis leads naturally the introduction of a general asymmetry principle of fluctuations and the preferred transition mechanism for a thermodynamic system. The theoretical results derived in this article are in agreement with the experimental results obtained in (K. Nishikawa and T. Morita, Fluid behavior at supercritical states studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, Journal of Supercritical Fluid, 13 (1998, pp. 143-148. Also, the derived second-order transition at the critical point is consistent with the result obtained in (M. Fisher, Specific heat of a gas near the critical point, Physical Review, 136:6A (1964, pp. A1599-A1604.
Flickering gives early warning signals of a critical transition to a eutrophic lake state : Letter
Wang, R.; Dearing, J.; Langdon, P.G.; Zhang, E.; Yang, X.; Dakos, V.; Scheffer, M.
2012-01-01
There is a recognized need to anticipate tipping points, or critical transitions, in social–ecological systems1, 2. Studies of mathematical3, 4, 5 and experimental6, 7, 8, 9 systems have shown that systems may ‘wobble’ before a critical transition. Such early warning signals10 may be due to the
Dakos, Vasilis; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Brock, William A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Guttal, Vishwesha; Ives, Anthony R.; Kéfi, Sonia; Livina, Valerie; Seekell, David A.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten
2012-01-01
Many dynamical systems, including lakes, organisms, ocean circulation patterns, or financial markets, are now thought to have tipping points where critical transitions to a contrasting state can happen. Because critical transitions can occur unexpectedly and are difficult to manage, there is a need for methods that can be used to identify when a critical transition is approaching. Recent theory shows that we can identify the proximity of a system to a critical transition using a variety of so-called ‘early warning signals’, and successful empirical examples suggest a potential for practical applicability. However, while the range of proposed methods for predicting critical transitions is rapidly expanding, opinions on their practical use differ widely, and there is no comparative study that tests the limitations of the different methods to identify approaching critical transitions using time-series data. Here, we summarize a range of currently available early warning methods and apply them to two simulated time series that are typical of systems undergoing a critical transition. In addition to a methodological guide, our work offers a practical toolbox that may be used in a wide range of fields to help detect early warning signals of critical transitions in time series data. PMID:22815897
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Endo, T. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Arai, D.; Uematsu, M. (Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)
1993-02-25
Related to the natural gas transport by pipeline, etc., the critical point, dew point and bubble point of natural gas were presumed by calculation through equation of state for determining the exact thermophysical values. The natural gas is multi-component mixed fluid which is represented by methane as a representative component. It considerably differs in composition by its place of origin. Because the conventional method was complicated in process for thermodynamically determining the most stable composition of phases, algorithm of phasic equilibrium was applied by the equation of state which used the discrimination method by Nitta, et al. for the therodynamic stability of phases. The method by Michelsen was applied to the flash calculation, and figuration of both dew point and bubble point curves, while that by Heidemann, et al. was done to the critical point calculation. Peng-Robinson's was applied to an equation of state. To start the calculation, the constant of seven two-component systems the main component of which was methane was determined as a function of temperature based on the actually measured gas/liquid equilibrium value. Then, possibility of calculatively presuming the thermophysical values was shown through comparison of the actually measured values with those obtained by applying the present method to the above systems. Finally, the presumption was made for the natural gas which differed in place of origin. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.
Critical Phenomena of the Disorder Driven Localization-Delocalization Transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marc Ruehlaender
2001-01-01
Metal-to-insulator transitions are generally linked to two phenomena: electron-electron correlations and disorder. Although real systems are usually responding to a mixture of both, they can be classified as undergoing a Mott-transition, if the former process dominates, or an Anderson-transition, if the latter dominates. High-T c superconductors, e.g., are a candidate for the first class. Materials in which disorder drives the metal-to-insulator transition include doped semiconductors and amorphous materials. After briefly reviewing the previous research on transport in disordered materials and the disorder-induced metal-to-insulator transition, a summary of the model and the methods used in subsequent chapters is given
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Højbjerre Larsen, Signe
, a new concept called ‘Bubbles & Squat’, where fitness training is combined with Champagne and a live DJ. One of the invitations for this event describes how “we spice up your friday training with live DJ and lots of refreshing bubbles, to make sure that you are ready for the weekend (...).” Before New...
An experimental study on bubble behavior in a vertical round tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishiura, Masanori; Torimoto, Kazuhiro; Okawa, Tomio; Kataoka, Isao
2002-01-01
Using filtrated and deionized tap water as a liquid phase, isolated gas bubbles rising in turbulent upflow in a vertical round tube were videotaped by two high-speed video cameras to measure their equilibrium positions in the radial direction. The measurements were conducted in normal and high temperatures and the flowrate of liquid phase was parametrically changed; the range of measured bubble sizes was 0.35-3.8 mm. The video data revealed that the bubble whose sphere-equivalent diameter is approximately smaller than 1 mm is more probably located in the center part in the tube, while the bubble approximately larger than 1.5 mm is more probably located near the wall; we call these bubbles coring and sliding bubbles, respectively. The critical bubble size for the transition from coring to sliding bubbles increased with the increase of liquid flowrate but it was not significantly affected by the water temperature. The present experimental data of the equilibrium radial bubble position in turbulent upflow would be important information to consider the local void fraction near the heated wall in flow boiling. (author)
Hoarau, Quentin
2016-01-01
Complex systems inspired analysis suggests a hypothesis that financial meltdowns are abrupt critical transitions that occur when the system reaches a tipping point. Theoretical and empirical studies on climatic and ecological dynamical systems have shown that approach to tipping points is preceded by a generic phenomenon called critical slowing down, i.e. an increasingly slow response of the system to perturbations. Therefore, it has been suggested that critical slowing down may be used as an early warning signal of imminent critical transitions. Whether financial markets exhibit critical slowing down prior to meltdowns remains unclear. Here, our analysis reveals that three major US (Dow Jones Index, S&P 500 and NASDAQ) and two European markets (DAX and FTSE) did not exhibit critical slowing down prior to major financial crashes over the last century. However, all markets showed strong trends of rising variability, quantified by time series variance and spectral function at low frequencies, prior to crashes. These results suggest that financial crashes are not critical transitions that occur in the vicinity of a tipping point. Using a simple model, we argue that financial crashes are likely to be stochastic transitions which can occur even when the system is far away from the tipping point. Specifically, we show that a gradually increasing strength of stochastic perturbations may have caused to abrupt transitions in the financial markets. Broadly, our results highlight the importance of stochastically driven abrupt transitions in real world scenarios. Our study offers rising variability as a precursor of financial meltdowns albeit with a limitation that they may signal false alarms. PMID:26761792
The Regime Shift Associated with the 2004–2008 US Housing Market Bubble
Cheong, Siew Ann
2016-01-01
The Subprime Bubble preceding the Subprime Crisis of 2008 was fueled by risky lending practices, manifesting in the form of a large abrupt increase in the proportion of subprime mortgages issued in the US. This event also coincided with critical slowing down signals associated with instability, which served as evidence of a regime shift or phase transition in the US housing market. Here, we show that the US housing market underwent a regime shift between alternate stable states consistent with the observed critical slowing down signals. We modeled this regime shift on a universal transition path and validated the model by estimating when the bubble burst. Additionally, this model reveals loose monetary policy to be a plausible cause of the phase transition, implying that the bubble might have been deflatable by a timely tightening of monetary policy. PMID:27583633
Blume, Steffen O P; Sansavini, Giovanni
2017-12-01
Complex dynamical systems face abrupt transitions into unstable and catastrophic regimes. These critical transitions are triggered by gradual modifications in stressors, which push the dynamical system towards unstable regimes. Bifurcation analysis can characterize such critical thresholds, beyond which systems become unstable. Moreover, the stochasticity of the external stressors causes small-scale fluctuations in the system response. In some systems, the decomposition of these signal fluctuations into precursor signals can reveal early warning signs prior to the critical transition. Here, we present a dynamical analysis of a power system subjected to an increasing load level and small-scale stochastic load perturbations. We show that the auto- and cross-correlations of bus voltage magnitudes increase, leading up to a Hopf bifurcation point, and further grow until the system collapses. This evidences a gradual transition into a state of "critical coupling," which is complementary to the established concept of "critical slowing down." Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the type of load perturbation and load characteristics on early warning signs and find that gradient changes in the autocorrelation provide early warning signs of the imminent critical transition under white-noise but not for auto-correlated load perturbations. Furthermore, the cross-correlation between all voltage magnitude pairs generally increases prior to and beyond the Hopf bifurcation point, indicating "critical coupling," but cannot provide early warning indications. Finally, we show that the established early warning indicators are oblivious to limit-induced bifurcations and, in the case of the power system model considered here, only react to an approaching Hopf bifurcation.
Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.
Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel
2016-01-01
The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.
Park, Jaeheung; Martinis, Carlos R.; Luehr, Hermann; Pfaff, Robert F.; Kwak, Young-Sil
2016-01-01
Transitions from depletions to enhancements of 630.0 nm nighttime airglow have been observed at Arecibo. Numerical simulations by Krall et al. (2009) predicted that they should occur only in one hemisphere, which has not yet been confirmed observationally. In this study we investigate the hemispheric conjugacy of the depletion-to-enhancement transition using multiple instruments. We focus on one event observed in the American longitude sector on 22 December 2014: 630.0 nm airglow depletions evolved into enhancements in the Northern Hemisphere while the evolution did not occur in the conjugate location in the Southern Hemisphere. Concurrent plasma density measured by low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites and 777.4 nm airglow images support that the depletions and enhancements of 630.0 nm night time airglow reflect plasma density decreases and increases (blobs), respectively. Characteristics of the airglow depletions, in the context of the LEO satellite data, further suggest that the plasma density depletion deduced from the airglow data represents equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) rather than medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances from midlatitudes. Hence, the event in this study can be interpreted as EPB-to-blob transition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1993-10-15
Bubble chambers may have almost vanished from the front line of physics research, but the vivid memory of their intricate and sometimes beautiful patterns of particle tracks lives on, and has greatly influenced the computer graphics of track reconstruction in today's big experiments. 'Seeing' an interaction makes it more understandable. Bubble chambers, with their big collaborations of physicists from many widely scattered research institutes, started another ball rolling. The groups formed are even now only surpassed in size by the big collaborations working on today's major detectors at colliding beam machines. From 14-16 July, about 130 physicists gathered at CERN to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the invention of the bubble chamber by Donald Glaser. The meeting, organized by Derek C. Colley from Birmingham, gave a comprehensive overview of bubble chamber contributions to physics, their challenging technology, and the usefulness of bubble chamber photographs in education, both for physics and the public at large. After opening remarks by CERN Director Carlo Rubbia, Donald Glaser began with a brief review of the work which led to his invention - there was much more to it than idly watching beer bubbles rise up the wall of the glass - before turning to his present line of research, biophysics, also very visually oriented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1993-01-01
Bubble chambers may have almost vanished from the front line of physics research, but the vivid memory of their intricate and sometimes beautiful patterns of particle tracks lives on, and has greatly influenced the computer graphics of track reconstruction in today's big experiments. 'Seeing' an interaction makes it more understandable. Bubble chambers, with their big collaborations of physicists from many widely scattered research institutes, started another ball rolling. The groups formed are even now only surpassed in size by the big collaborations working on today's major detectors at colliding beam machines. From 14-16 July, about 130 physicists gathered at CERN to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the invention of the bubble chamber by Donald Glaser. The meeting, organized by Derek C. Colley from Birmingham, gave a comprehensive overview of bubble chamber contributions to physics, their challenging technology, and the usefulness of bubble chamber photographs in education, both for physics and the public at large. After opening remarks by CERN Director Carlo Rubbia, Donald Glaser began with a brief review of the work which led to his invention - there was much more to it than idly watching beer bubbles rise up the wall of the glass - before turning to his present line of research, biophysics, also very visually oriented
The master degree: A critical transition in STEM doctoral education
Lange, Sheila Edwards
The need to broaden participation in the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduate and graduate programs is currently a matter of national urgency. The small number of women and underrepresented minorities (URM) earning doctoral degrees in STEM is particularly troubling given significant increases in the number of students earning master's degrees since 1990. In the decade between 1990 and 2000, the total number of master's recipients increased by 42%. During this same time period, the number of women earning master's degrees increased by 56%, African Americans increased by 132%, American Indians by 101%, Hispanics by 146%, and Asian Americans by 117% (Syverson, 2003). Growth in underrepresented group education at the master's level raises questions about the relationship between master's and doctoral education. Secondary data analysis of the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) was used to examine institutional pathways to the doctorate in STEM disciplines and transitions from master's to doctoral programs by race and gender. While the study revealed no significant gender differences in pathways, compared to White and Asian American students, URM students take significantly different pathways to the doctorate. URM students are significantly more likely to earn the bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees at three different institutions. Their path is significantly more likely to include earning a master's degree en route to the doctorate. Further, URM students are more likely to experience transition between the master's and doctoral degrees, and the transitions are not limited to those who earn master's degrees at master's-only institutions. These findings suggest that earning a master's degree is more often a stepping stone to the doctorate for URM students. Master's degree programs, therefore, have the potential to be a valuable resource for policymakers and graduate programs seeking to increase the diversity of URM students
Quantum criticality around metal-insulator transitions of strongly correlated electron systems
Misawa, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi
2007-03-01
Quantum criticality of metal-insulator transitions in correlated electron systems is shown to belong to an unconventional universality class with violation of the Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson (GLW) scheme formulated for symmetry breaking transitions. This unconventionality arises from an emergent character of the quantum critical point, which appears at the marginal point between the Ising-type symmetry breaking at nonzero temperatures and the topological transition of the Fermi surface at zero temperature. We show that Hartree-Fock approximations of an extended Hubbard model on square lattices are capable of such metal-insulator transitions with unusual criticality under a preexisting symmetry breaking. The obtained universality is consistent with the scaling theory formulated for Mott transitions and with a number of numerical results beyond the mean-field level, implying that preexisting symmetry breaking is not necessarily required for the emergence of this unconventional universality. Examinations of fluctuation effects indicate that the obtained critical exponents remain essentially exact beyond the mean-field level. It further clarifies the whole structure of singularities by a unified treatment of the bandwidth-control and filling-control transitions. Detailed analyses of the criticality, containing diverging carrier density fluctuations around the marginal quantum critical point, are presented from microscopic calculations and reveal the nature as quantum critical “opalescence.” The mechanism of emerging marginal quantum critical point is ascribed to a positive feedback and interplay between the preexisting gap formation present even in metals and kinetic energy gain (loss) of the metallic carrier. Analyses of crossovers between GLW type at nonzero temperature and topological type at zero temperature show that the critical exponents observed in (V,Cr)2O3 and κ-ET -type organic conductors provide us with evidence for the existence of the present marginal
Chen, Pei; Liu, Rui; Li, Yongjun; Chen, Luonan
2016-07-15
Identifying the critical state or pre-transition state just before the occurrence of a phase transition is a challenging task, because the state of the system may show little apparent change before this critical transition during the gradual parameter variations. Such dynamics of phase transition is generally composed of three stages, i.e. before-transition state, pre-transition state and after-transition state, which can be considered as three different Markov processes. By exploring the rich dynamical information provided by high-throughput data, we present a novel computational method, i.e. hidden Markov model (HMM) based approach, to detect the switching point of the two Markov processes from the before-transition state (a stationary Markov process) to the pre-transition state (a time-varying Markov process), thereby identifying the pre-transition state or early-warning signals of the phase transition. To validate the effectiveness, we apply this method to detect the signals of the imminent phase transitions of complex systems based on the simulated datasets, and further identify the pre-transition states as well as their critical modules for three real datasets, i.e. the acute lung injury triggered by phosgene inhalation, MCF-7 human breast cancer caused by heregulin and HCV-induced dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma. Both functional and pathway enrichment analyses validate the computational results. The source code and some supporting files are available at https://github.com/rabbitpei/HMM_based-method lnchen@sibs.ac.cn or liyj@scut.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Transitions through critical temperatures in nematic liquid crystals
Majumdar, Apala; Ockendon, John; Howell, Peter; Surovyatkina, Elena
2013-01-01
We obtain estimates for critical nematic liquid crystal (LC) temperatures under the action of a slowly varying temperature-dependent control variable. We show that biaxiality has a negligible effect within our model and that these delay estimates are well described by a purely uniaxial model. The static theory predicts two critical temperatures: the supercooling temperature below which the isotropic phase loses stability and the superheating temperature above which the ordered nematic states do not exist. In contrast to the static problem, the isotropic phase exhibits a memory effect below the supercooling temperature in the dynamic framework. This delayed loss of stability is independent of the rate of change of temperature and depends purely on the initial value of the temperature. We also show how our results can be used to improve estimates for LC material constants. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Transitions through critical temperatures in nematic liquid crystals
Majumdar, Apala
2013-08-06
We obtain estimates for critical nematic liquid crystal (LC) temperatures under the action of a slowly varying temperature-dependent control variable. We show that biaxiality has a negligible effect within our model and that these delay estimates are well described by a purely uniaxial model. The static theory predicts two critical temperatures: the supercooling temperature below which the isotropic phase loses stability and the superheating temperature above which the ordered nematic states do not exist. In contrast to the static problem, the isotropic phase exhibits a memory effect below the supercooling temperature in the dynamic framework. This delayed loss of stability is independent of the rate of change of temperature and depends purely on the initial value of the temperature. We also show how our results can be used to improve estimates for LC material constants. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Fluctuation effects on bubble growth in hot nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santiago, A.J.; Chung, K.C.
1991-01-01
The evolution of bubbles with arbitrary density in an infinite nuclear system is studied in a simplified treatment. Kinetic pressure fluctuations on the bubble surface are considered. The critical radius, evolution time and probability for bubble expansion are shown to depend significantly on the initial bubble density. (author)
Electroweak bubble wall speed limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bödeker, Dietrich [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Moore, Guy D., E-mail: bodeker@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: guymoore@ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
2017-05-01
In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can 'run away,' that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ∼ 10{sup 14}. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ∼ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.
Bubble dynamics equations in Newton fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, J
2008-01-01
For the high-speed flow of Newton fluid, bubble is produced and expanded when it moves toward the surface of fluid. Bubble dynamics is a very important research field to understand the intrinsic feature of bubble production and motion. This research formulates the bubble expansion by expansion-local rotation transformation, which can be calculated by the measured velocity field. Then, the related dynamic equations are established to describe the interaction between the fluid and the bubble. The research shows that the bubble production condition can be expressed by critical vortex value and fluid pressure; and the bubble expansion rate can be obtained by solving the non-linear dynamic equation of bubble motion. The results may help the related research as it shows a special kind of fluid motion in theoretic sense. As an application example, the nanofiber radium-voltage relation and threshold voltage-surface tension relation in electrospinning process are discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie-Xiong Mo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the phase transitions of black holes with conformal anomaly in canonical ensemble. Some interesting and novel phase transition phenomena have been discovered. It is shown that there are striking differences in both Hawking temperature and phase structure between black holes with conformal anomaly and those without it. Moreover, we probe in detail the dependence of phase transitions on the choice of parameters. The results show that black holes with conformal anomaly have much richer phase structure than those without it. There would be two, only one, or no phase transition points depending on the parameters. The corresponding parameter regions are derived both numerically and graphically. Geometrothermodynamics are built up to examine the phase structure we have discovered. It is shown that Legendre invariant thermodynamic scalar curvature diverges exactly where the specific heat diverges. Furthermore, critical behaviors are investigated by calculating the relevant critical exponents. And we prove that these critical exponents satisfy the thermodynamic scaling laws.
Critical temperature transitions in laser-mediated cartilage reshaping
Wong, Brian J.; Milner, Thomas E.; Kim, Hong H.; Telenkov, Sergey A.; Chew, Clifford; Kuo, Timothy C.; Smithies, Derek J.; Sobol, Emil N.; Nelson, J. Stuart
1998-07-01
In this study, we attempted to determine the critical temperature [Tc] at which accelerated stress relaxation occurred during laser mediated cartilage reshaping. During laser irradiation, mechanically deformed cartilage tissue undergoes a temperature dependent phase transformation which results in accelerated stress relaxation. When a critical temperature is attained, cartilage becomes malleable and may be molded into complex new shapes that harden as the tissue cools. Clinically, reshaped cartilage tissue can be used to recreate the underlying cartilaginous framework of structures such as the ear, larynx, trachea, and nose. The principal advantages of using laser radiation for the generation of thermal energy in tissue are precise control of both the space-time temperature distribution and time- dependent thermal denaturation kinetics. Optimization of the reshaping process requires identification of the temperature dependence of this phase transformation and its relationship to observed changes in cartilage optical, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties. Light scattering, infrared radiometry, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) were used to measure temperature dependent changes in the biophysical properties of cartilage tissue during fast (laser mediated) and slow (conventional calorimetric) heating. Our studies using MDSC and laser probe techniques have identified changes in cartilage thermodynamic and optical properties suggestive of a phase transformation occurring near 60 degrees Celsius.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astefanesei, Dumitru; Mann, Robert B.; Stelea, Cristian
2006-01-01
We construct new explicit solutions of general relativity from double analytic continuations of Taub-NUT spacetimes. This generalizes previous studies of 4-dimensional nutty bubbles. One 5-dimensional locally asymptotically AdS solution in particular has a special conformal boundary structure of AdS 3 x S 1 . We compute its boundary stress tensor and relate it to the properties of the dual field theory. Interestingly enough, we also find consistent 6-dimensional bubble solutions that have only one timelike direction. The existence of such spacetimes with non-trivial topology is closely related to the existence of the Taub-NUT(-AdS) solutions with more than one NUT charge. Finally, we begin an investigation of generating new solutions from Taub-NUT spacetimes and nuttier bubbles. Using the so-called Hopf duality, we provide new explicit time-dependent backgrounds in six dimensions
The Energy Transition and the Challenge of Critical Raw Materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepesant, Gilles
2018-01-01
The geopolitical analyses of energy markets are traditionally focused on fossil fuels, and less on renewable energy sources. Yet the huge development perspectives of these renewable energy sources (representing 2/3 of total net power generation capacity additions in 2016) trigger a need to take into account new challenges and vulnerabilities, related to the availability and affordability of critical raw materials, notably rare earths, which are needed to develop wind turbines, solar panels and energy storage technologies. Stakes are geopolitical, economic and environmental and are reinforced by a geography of resources and production which is concentrated within a few key countries and zones (China, Latin America, Australia, Congo mainly). The role of China in particular is at the core of the attention
Critical temperature for shape transition in hot nuclei within covariant density functional theory
Zhang, W.; Niu, Y. F.
2018-05-01
Prompted by the simple proportional relation between critical temperature for pairing transition and pairing gap at zero temperature, we investigate the relation between critical temperature for shape transition and ground-state deformation by taking even-even Cm-304286 isotopes as examples. The finite-temperature axially deformed covariant density functional theory with BCS pairing correlation is used. Since the Cm isotopes are the newly proposed nuclei with octupole correlations, we studied in detail the free energy surface, the Nilsson single-particle (s.p.) levels, and the components of s.p. levels near the Fermi level in 292Cm. Through this study, the formation of octupole equilibrium is understood by the contribution coming from the octupole driving pairs with Ω [N ,nz,ml] and Ω [N +1 ,nz±3 ,ml] for single-particle levels near the Fermi surfaces as it provides a good manifestation of the octupole correlation. Furthermore, the systematics of deformations, pairing gaps, and the specific heat as functions of temperature for even-even Cm-304286 isotopes are discussed. Similar to the relation between the critical pairing transition temperature and the pairing gap at zero temperature Tc=0.6 Δ (0 ) , a proportional relation between the critical shape transition temperature and the deformation at zero temperature Tc=6.6 β (0 ) is found for both octupole shape transition and quadrupole shape transition for the isotopes considered.
Quantum critical matter. Quantum phase transitions with multiple dynamics and Weyl superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng, Tobias
2012-01-01
In this PhD thesis, the physics of quantum critical matter and exotic quantum state close to quantum phase transitions is investigated. We will focus on three different examples that highlight some of the interesting phenomena related to quantum phase transitions. Firstly, we discuss the physics of quantum phase transitions in quantum wires as a function of an external gate voltage when new subbands are activated. We find that at these transitions, strong correlations lead to the formation of an impenetrable gas of polarons, and identify criteria for possible instabilities in the spin- and charge sectors of the model. Our analysis is based on the combination of exact resummations, renormalization group techniques and Luttinger liquid approaches. Secondly, we turn to the physics of multiple divergent time scales close to a quantum critical point. Using an appropriately generalized renormalization group approach, we identify that the presence of multiple dynamics at a quantum phase transition can lead to the emergence of new critical scaling exponents and thus to the breakdown of the usual scaling schemes. We calculate the critical behavior of various thermodynamic properties and detail how unusual physics can arise. It is hoped that these results might be helpful for the interpretation of experimental scaling puzzles close to quantum critical points. Thirdly, we turn to the physics of topological transitions, and more precisely the physics of Weyl superconductors. The latter are the superconducting variant of the topologically non-trivial Weyl semimetals, and emerge at the quantum phase transition between a topological superconductor and a normal insulator upon perturbing the transition with a time reversal symmetry breaking perturbation, such as magnetism. We characterize the topological properties of Weyl superconductors and establish a topological phase diagram for a particular realization in heterostructures. We discuss the physics of vortices in Weyl
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Hong [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liang, Qi-Feng [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Yao, Dao-Xin, E-mail: yaodaox@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Zhi, E-mail: physicswangzhi@gmail.com [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)
2017-06-28
Majorana bound states in topological Josephson junctions induce a 4π period current-phase relation. Direct detection of the 4π periodicity is complicated by the quasiparticle poisoning. We reveal that Majorana bound states are also signaled by the anomalous enhancement on the critical current of the junction. We show the landscape of the critical current for a nanowire Josephson junction under a varying Zeeman field, and reveal a sharp step feature at the topological quantum phase transition point, which comes from the anomalous enhancement of the critical current at the topological regime. In multi-band wires, the anomalous enhancement disappears for an even number of bands, where the Majorana bound states fuse into Andreev bound states. This anomalous critical current enhancement directly signals the existence of the Majorana bound states, and also provides a valid signature for the topological quantum phase transition. - Highlights: • We introduce the critical current step as a signal for the topological quantum phase transition. • We study the quantum phase transition in the topological nanowire under a rotating Zeeman field. • We show that the critical current anomaly gradually disappears for systems with more sub-bands.
Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier
2012-01-01
Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.
Single DNA denaturation and bubble dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metzler, Ralf; Ambjoernsson, Tobias; Hanke, Andreas; Fogedby, Hans C
2009-01-01
While the Watson-Crick double-strand is the thermodynamically stable state of DNA in a wide range of temperature and salt conditions, even at physiological conditions local denaturation bubbles may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By raising the ambient temperature, titration, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA occurs. Based on the Poland-Scheraga model we investigate both the equilibrium transition of DNA denaturation and the dynamics of the denaturation bubbles with respect to recent single DNA chain experiments for situations below, at, and above the denaturation transition. We also propose a new single molecule setup based on DNA constructs with two bubble zones to measure the bubble coalescence and extract the physical parameters relevant to DNA breathing. Finally we consider the interplay between denaturation bubbles and selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins.
A universal indicator of critical state transitions in noisy complex networked systems.
Liang, Junhao; Hu, Yanqing; Chen, Guanrong; Zhou, Tianshou
2017-02-23
Critical transition, a phenomenon that a system shifts suddenly from one state to another, occurs in many real-world complex networks. We propose an analytical framework for exactly predicting the critical transition in a complex networked system subjected to noise effects. Our prediction is based on the characteristic return time of a simple one-dimensional system derived from the original higher-dimensional system. This characteristic time, which can be easily calculated using network data, allows us to systematically separate the respective roles of dynamics, noise and topology of the underlying networked system. We find that the noise can either prevent or enhance critical transitions, playing a key role in compensating the network structural defect which suffers from either internal failures or environmental changes, or both. Our analysis of realistic or artificial examples reveals that the characteristic return time is an effective indicator for forecasting the sudden deterioration of complex networks.
Continuous phase transition and critical behaviors of 3D black hole with torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Meng-Sen; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Ren
2014-01-01
We study the phase transition and the critical behavior of the BTZ black hole with torsion obtained in (1 + 2)-dimensional Poincaré gauge theory. According to Ehrenfest’s classification, when the parameters in the theory are arranged properly, the BTZ black hole with torsion may possess the second-order phase transition which is also a smaller mass/larger mass black hole phase transition. Nevertheless, the critical behavior is different from the one in the van der Waals liquid/gas system. We also calculated the critical exponents of the relevant thermodynamic quantities, which are the same as the ones obtained in the Hořava-Lifshitz black hole and the Born–Infeld black hole. (paper)
Steam bubble growth in the bulk of overheated N2O4-NO chemically reacting solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemtsev, V.A.; Cherkashin, A.M.
1989-01-01
A mathematical model and numerical investigation of the vapour bubble growth that begins from the bubble critical size at the positive radius fluctuation during the initial moment in the bulk of the overheated N 2 O 4 -NO liquid solution are presented. The mathematical model has been stated under the following assumptions: the movement of a bubble wall and surrounding liquid is spherically symmetrical; thermal parameters in the bubble are distributed uniformly; the vapour phase follows the ideal gas law; heat transfer is not affected by the compressibility of liquid; if dissolution of light components is determined by Henry's law, then Hertz-Knudsen's equation determines the velocity of phase transition for a N 2 O 4 component. The mathematical model presented can be applied to another fluids, including chemically reacting ones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roelich, Katy; Dawson, David A.; Purnell, Phil; Knoeri, Christof; Revell, Ruairi; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We present a method to analyse material criticality of infrastructure transitions. • Criticality is defined as the potential for, and exposure to, supply disruption. • Our method is dynamic reducing the probability of lock-in to at-risk technologies. • We show that supply disruption potential is reducing but exposure is increasing. - Abstract: Decarbonisation of existing infrastructure systems requires a dynamic roll-out of technology at an unprecedented scale. The potential disruption in supply of critical materials could endanger such a transition to low-carbon infrastructure and, by extension, compromise energy security more broadly because low carbon technologies are reliant on these materials in a way that fossil-fuelled energy infrastructure is not. Criticality is currently defined as the combination of the potential for supply disruption and the exposure of a system of interest to that disruption. We build on this definition and develop a dynamic approach to quantifying criticality, which monitors the change in criticality during the transition towards a low-carbon infrastructure goal. This allows us to assess the relative risk of different technology pathways to reach a particular goal and reduce the probability of being ‘locked in’ to currently attractive but potentially future-critical technologies. To demonstrate, we apply our method to criticality of the proposed UK electricity system transition, with a focus on neodymium. We anticipate that the supply disruption potential of neodymium will decrease by almost 30% by 2050; however, our results show the criticality of low carbon electricity production increases ninefold over this period, as a result of increasing exposure to neodymium-reliant technologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Hongtao; Liu, Bingbing; Yan, Yuying
2017-01-01
A bubble pump is proposed to replace the traditional mechanical solution pump in lithium bromide absorption chillers, for its advantageous feature that can be driven by industrial waste heat or solar energy or other low-grade energy. In two-stage bubble pump driven lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system, flow patterns in lifting pipe have significant effects on the performance of bubble pump. In this paper, the single bubble motion and the double bubbles coalescence in vertical ascending pipe are simulated by an improved free energy model of lattice Boltzmann method, in which the two-phase liquid to gas density ratio is 2778. The details of bubbles coalescence process are studied. Density and velocity of bubbles have been obtained. The computational results show that the initial radius of each bubble has a great influence on the coalescence time. The larger the initial bubble radius, the shorter the coalescence time. The pipe diameter has a little effect on the two bubbles coalescence time while it has a significant effect on the bubble velocity. As the pipe diameter increases, the bubble velocity increases. The obtained results are helpful for studying the transition mechanisms of two-phase flow patterns and useful for improving the bubble pump performance by controlling the flow patterns in lifting pipe.
Quantum criticality and first-order transitions in the extended periodic Anderson model
Hagymási, I.; Itai, K.; Sólyom, J.
2013-03-01
We investigate the behavior of the periodic Anderson model in the presence of d-f Coulomb interaction (Udf) using mean-field theory, variational calculation, and exact diagonalization of finite chains. The variational approach based on the Gutzwiller trial wave function gives a critical value of Udf and two quantum critical points (QCPs), where the valence susceptibility diverges. We derive the critical exponent for the valence susceptibility and investigate how the position of the QCP depends on the other parameters of the Hamiltonian. For larger values of Udf, the Kondo regime is bounded by two first-order transitions. These first-order transitions merge into a triple point at a certain value of Udf. For even larger Udf valence skipping occurs. Although the other methods do not give a critical point, they support this scenario.
Phase transition with trivial quantum criticality in an anisotropic Weyl semimetal
Li, Xin; Wang, Jing-Rong; Liu, Guo-Zhu
2018-05-01
When a metal undergoes continuous quantum phase transition, the correlation length diverges at the critical point and the quantum fluctuation of order parameter behaves as a gapless bosonic mode. Generically, the coupling of this boson to fermions induces a variety of unusual quantum critical phenomena, such as non-Fermi liquid behavior and various emergent symmetries. Here, we perform a renormalization group analysis of the semimetal-superconductor quantum criticality in a three-dimensional anisotropic Weyl semimetal. Surprisingly, distinct from previously studied quantum critical systems, the anomalous dimension of anisotropic Weyl fermions flows to zero very quickly with decreasing energy, and the quasiparticle residue takes a nonzero value. These results indicate that the quantum fluctuation of superconducting order parameter is irrelevant at low energies, and a simple mean-field calculation suffices to capture the essential physics of the superconducting transition. We thus obtain a phase transition that exhibits trivial quantum criticality, which is unique comparing to other invariably nontrivial quantum critical systems. Our theoretical prediction can be experimentally verified by measuring the fermion spectral function and specific heat.
Critical exponents in the transition to chaos in one-dimensional
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We report the numerically evaluated critical exponents associated with the scaling of generalized fractal dimensions during the transition from order to chaos. The analysis is carried out in detail in the context of unimodal and bimodal maps representing typical one-dimensional discrete dynamical systems. The behavior of ...
Vet, R. de; Beijersbergen, M.D.; Jonker, I.E.; Lako, D.A.M.; Hemert, A.M. van; Herman, D.B.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.
2017-01-01
To help create an evidence base in Europe for effective interventions that improve the well-being of homeless people, we tested whether critical time intervention (CTI), a time-limited intervention developed to support vulnerable people during times of transition, is effective outside the United
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basnarkov, Lasko; Urumov, Viktor
2009-01-01
We consider an analytically solvable version of the Winfree model of synchronization of phase oscillators (proposed by Ariaratnam and Strogatz 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 4278). It is obtained that the transition from incoherence to a partial death state is characterized by third-order or higher phase transitions according to the Ehrenfest classification. The order of the transition depends on the shape of the distribution function for natural frequencies of oscillators in the vicinity of their lowest frequency. The corresponding critical exponents are found analytically and verified with numerical simulations of equations of motion. We also consider the generalized Winfree model with the interaction strength proportional to a power of the Kuramoto order parameter and find the domain where the critical exponent remains unchanged by this modification
Study of near-critical states of liquid-vapor phase transition of magnesium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emelyanov, A N; Shakhray, D V; Golyshev, A A
2015-01-01
Study of thermodynamic parameters of magnesium in the near-critical point region of the liquid-vapor phase transition and in the region of metal-nonmetal transition was carried out. Measurements of the electrical resistance of magnesium after shock compression and expansion into gas (helium) environment in the process of isobaric heating was carried out. Heating of the magnesium surface by heat transfer with hot helium was performed. The registered electrical resistance of expanded magnesium was about 10 4 -10 5 times lower than the electrical resistance of the magnesium under normal condition at the density less than the density of the critical point. Thus, metal-nonmetal transition was found in magnesium. (paper)
Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys
Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F. [and others
1998-12-31
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuichi Otsuka
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.
The use of spatio-temporal correlation to forecast critical transitions
Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc F. P.
2010-05-01
Complex dynamical systems may have critical thresholds at which the system shifts abruptly from one state to another. Such critical transitions have been observed in systems ranging from the human body system to financial markets and the Earth system. Forecasting the timing of critical transitions before they are reached is of paramount importance because critical transitions are associated with a large shift in dynamical regime of the system under consideration. However, it is hard to forecast critical transitions, because the state of the system shows relatively little change before the threshold is reached. Recently, it was shown that increased spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance can serve as alternative early warning signal for critical transitions. However, thus far these second order statistics have not been used for forecasting in a data assimilation framework. Here we show that the use of spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance in the state of the system reduces the uncertainty in the predicted timing of critical transitions compared to classical approaches that use the value of the system state only. This is shown by assimilating observed spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance into a dynamical system model using a Particle Filter. We adapt a well-studied distributed model of a logistically growing resource with a fixed grazing rate. The model describes the transition from an underexploited system with high resource biomass to overexploitation as grazing pressure crosses the critical threshold, which is a fold bifurcation. To represent limited prior information, we use a large variance in the prior probability distributions of model parameters and the system driver (grazing rate). First, we show that the rate of increase in spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance prior to reaching the critical threshold is relatively consistent across the uncertainty range of the driver and parameter values used. This indicates that an increase in
Magnetic-field control of quantum critical points of valence transition.
Watanabe, Shinji; Tsuruta, Atsushi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Flouquet, Jacques
2008-06-13
We study the mechanism of how critical end points of first-order valence transitions are controlled by a magnetic field. We show that the critical temperature is suppressed to be a quantum critical point (QCP) by a magnetic field, and unexpectedly, the QCP exhibits nonmonotonic field dependence in the ground-state phase diagram, giving rise to the emergence of metamagnetism even in the intermediate valence-crossover regime. The driving force of the field-induced QCP is clarified to be cooperative phenomena of the Zeeman and Kondo effects, which create a distinct energy scale from the Kondo temperature. This mechanism explains the peculiar magnetic response in CeIrIn(5) and the metamagnetic transition in YbXCu(4) for X=In as well as the sharp contrast between X=Ag and Cd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGinnis, W.C.; Jones, T.E.
1993-01-01
A method is described for measuring the intragranular critical current of a granular superconductive material, comprising the steps of: conducting a substantially rectangular electronic pulse through said material so as to conduct a current through said material such that when said intragranular critical current of said material is exceeded, any grains present in said material are in a superconducting state when said current is less than said intragranular critical current, said material having a critical temperature; measuring said current through said material while conducting said pulse; measuring a voltage difference across said material while conducting said pulse; and determining said intragranular critical current through said material by varying said current to discern a current level at which an electrical resistance of said material increases to that of a non-superconducting state as the grains of said material transition from said superconducting to said non-superconducting state
On the critical behavior of the inverse susceptibility of a model of structural phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisanova, E.S.; Ivanov, S.I.
2013-01-01
An exactly solvable lattice model describing structural phase transitions in an anharmonic crystal with long-range interaction is considered in the neighborhoods of the quantum and classical critical points at the corresponding upper critical dimensions. In a broader neighborhood of the critical region the inverse susceptibility of the model is exactly calculated in terms of the Lambert W-function and graphically presented as a function of the deviation from the critical point and the upper critical dimension. For quantum and classical systems with real physical dimensions (chains, thin layers and three-dimensional systems) the exact results are compared with the asymptotic ones on the basis of some numerical data for their ratio. Relative errors are also provided
Characterization of Bubble Size Distributions within a Bubble Column
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahrouz Mohagheghian
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The current study experimentally examines bubble size distribution (BSD within a bubble column and the associated characteristic length scales. Air was injected into a column of water via a single injection tube. The column diameter (63–102 mm, injection tube diameter (0.8–1.6 mm and superficial gas velocity (1.4–55 mm/s were varied. Large samples (up to 54,000 bubbles of bubble sizes measured via 2D imaging were used to produce probability density functions (PDFs. The PDFs were used to identify an alternative length scale termed the most frequent bubble size (dmf and defined as the peak in the PDF. This length scale as well as the traditional Sauter mean diameter were used to assess the sensitivity of the BSD to gas injection rate, injector tube diameter, injection tube angle and column diameter. The dmf was relatively insensitive to most variation, which indicates these bubbles are produced by the turbulent wakes. In addition, the current work examines higher order statistics (standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis and notes that there is evidence in support of using these statistics to quantify the influence of specific parameters on the flow-field as well as a potential indicator of regime transitions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nam, Keekwon; Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Sangwoong; Lee, Sung Jong
2011-01-01
We present a numerical study on an interacting monomer–dimer model with nearest neighbor repulsion on a square lattice, which possesses two symmetric absorbing states. The model is observed to exhibit two nearby continuous transitions: the Z 2 symmetry-breaking order–disorder transition and the absorbing transition with directed percolation criticality. We find that the symmetry-breaking transition shows a non-Ising critical behavior, and that the absorbing phase becomes critical, in the sense that the critical decay of the dimer density observed at the absorbing transition persists even within the absorbing phase. Our findings call for further studies on microscopic models and the corresponding continuum description belonging to the generalized voter university class. (letter)
Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in networks of stochastic spiking neurons.
Brochini, Ludmila; de Andrade Costa, Ariadne; Abadi, Miguel; Roque, Antônio C; Stolfi, Jorge; Kinouchi, Osame
2016-11-07
Phase transitions and critical behavior are crucial issues both in theoretical and experimental neuroscience. We report analytic and computational results about phase transitions and self-organized criticality (SOC) in networks with general stochastic neurons. The stochastic neuron has a firing probability given by a smooth monotonic function Φ(V) of the membrane potential V, rather than a sharp firing threshold. We find that such networks can operate in several dynamic regimes (phases) depending on the average synaptic weight and the shape of the firing function Φ. In particular, we encounter both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to absorbing states. At the continuous transition critical boundary, neuronal avalanches occur whose distributions of size and duration are given by power laws, as observed in biological neural networks. We also propose and test a new mechanism to produce SOC: the use of dynamic neuronal gains - a form of short-term plasticity probably located at the axon initial segment (AIS) - instead of depressing synapses at the dendrites (as previously studied in the literature). The new self-organization mechanism produces a slightly supercritical state, that we called SOSC, in accord to some intuitions of Alan Turing.
Search for signatures of phase transition and critical point in heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokarev, M.V.; Kechechyan, A.; Alakhverdyants, A.; Zborovsky, I.
2011-01-01
The general concepts in the critical phenomena related with the notions of 'scaling' and 'universality' are considered. Behavior of various systems near a phase transition is displayed. Search for clear signatures of the phase transition of the nuclear matter and location of the critical point in heavy ion collisions (HIC) is discussed. The experimental data on inclusive spectra measured in HIC at RHIC and SPS over a wide range of energies s NN 1/2 = 9-200 GeV are analyzed in the framework of z-scaling. A microscopic scenario of the constituent interactions is presented. Dependence of the energy loss on the momentum of the produced hadron, energy and centrality of the collision is studied. Self-similarity of the constituent interactions described in terms of momentum fractions is used to characterize the nuclear medium by 'specific heat' and colliding nuclei by fractal dimensions. Preferable kinematical regions to search for signatures of the phase transition of the nuclear matter produced in HIC are discussed. Discontinuity of the 'specific heat' is assumed to be a signature of the phase transition and the critical point
Soliton bubbles and phase transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masperi, L.
1989-01-01
It is shown that no topological classical solutions in form of bubbles of a real scalar field theory with Lagrangian of quartet and sextet self interactions in 1+1 dimensions are responsible to discontinue transitions in the quantum problem between phases with degenerated and disordered excited level. (M.C.K.)
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...
Single DNA denaturation and bubble dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Metzler, Ralf; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Hanke, Andreas
2009-01-01
While the Watson-Crick double-strand is the thermodynamically stable state of DNA in a wide range of temperature and salt conditions, even at physiological conditions local denaturation bubbles may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By raising the ambient temperature, titration......, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA occurs. Based on the Poland-Scheraga model we investigate both the equilibrium transition of DNA denaturation and the dynamics of the denaturation bubbles with respect to recent single DNA chain experiments...... for situations below, at, and above the denaturation transition. We also propose a new single molecule setup based on DNA constructs with two bubble zones to measure the bubble coalescence and extract the physical parameters relevant to DNA breathing. Finally we consider the interplay between denaturation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christensen, K.; Olami, Z.
1992-01-01
We present a two-dimensional continuous cellular automaton that is equivalent to a driven spring-block model. Both the conservation and the anisotropy in the model are controllable quantities. Above a critical level of conservation, the model exhibits self-organized criticality. The self-organization of this system and hence the critical exponents depend on the conservation and the boundary conditions. In the critical isotropic nonconservative phase, the exponents change continuously as a function of conservation. Furthermore, the exponents vary continuously when changing the boundary conditions smoothly. Consequently, there is no universality of the critical exponents. We discuss the relevance of this for earthquakes. Introducing anisotropy changes the scaling of the distribution function, but not the power-law exponent. We explore the phase diagram of this model. We find that at low conservation levels a localization transition occurs. We see two additional phase transitions. The first is seen when moving from the conservative into the nonconservative model. The second appears when passing from the anisotropic two-dimensional system to the purely one-dimensional system
Critical behavior near the Mott transition in the half-filled asymmetric Hubbard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoang, Anh-Tuan, E-mail: hatuan@iop.vast.ac.vn [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Le, Duc-Anh [Faculty of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, Xuan Thuy 136, Cau Giay, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam)
2016-03-15
We study the half-filled asymmetric Hubbard model within the two-site dynamical mean field theory. At zero temperature, explicit expressions of the critical interaction U{sub c} for the Mott transition and the local self-energy are analytically derived. Critical behavior of the quasiparticle weights and the double occupancy are obtained analytically as functions of the on-site interaction U and the hopping asymmetry r. Our results are in good agreement with the ones obtained by much more sophisticated theory.
Slowing down bubbles with sound
Poulain, Cedric; Dangla, Remie; Guinard, Marion
2009-11-01
We present experimental evidence that a bubble moving in a fluid in which a well-chosen acoustic noise is superimposed can be significantly slowed down even for moderate acoustic pressure. Through mean velocity measurements, we show that a condition for this effect to occur is for the acoustic noise spectrum to match or overlap the bubble's fundamental resonant mode. We render the bubble's oscillations and translational movements using high speed video. We show that radial oscillations (Rayleigh-Plesset type) have no effect on the mean velocity, while above a critical pressure, a parametric type instability (Faraday waves) is triggered and gives rise to nonlinear surface oscillations. We evidence that these surface waves are subharmonic and responsible for the bubble's drag increase. When the acoustic intensity is increased, Faraday modes interact and the strongly nonlinear oscillations behave randomly, leading to a random behavior of the bubble's trajectory and consequently to a higher slow down. Our observations may suggest new strategies for bubbly flow control, or two-phase microfluidic devices. It might also be applicable to other elastic objects, such as globules, cells or vesicles, for medical applications such as elasticity-based sorting.
Critical transitions in chronic disease: transferring concepts from ecology to systems medicine.
Trefois, Christophe; Antony, Paul M A; Goncalves, Jorge; Skupin, Alexander; Balling, Rudi
2015-08-01
Ecosystems and biological systems are known to be inherently complex and to exhibit nonlinear dynamics. Diseases such as microbiome dysregulation or depression can be seen as complex systems as well and were shown to exhibit patterns of nonlinearity in their response to perturbations. These nonlinearities can be revealed by a sudden shift in system states, for instance from health to disease. The identification and characterization of early warning signals which could predict upcoming critical transitions is of primordial interest as prevention of disease onset is a major aim in health care. In this review, we focus on recent evidence for critical transitions in diseases and discuss the potential of such studies for therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Quantum critical behaviour of the plateau-insulator transition in the quantum Hall regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, A de; Ponomarenko, L A; Galistu, G; Lang, D T N de; Pruisken, A M M; Zeitler, U; Maude, D
2006-01-01
High-field magnetotransport experiments provide an excellent tool to investigate the plateau-insulator phase transition in the integral quantum Hall effect. Here we review recent low-temperature high-field magnetotransport studies carried out on several InGaAs/InP heterostructures and an InGaAs/GaAs quantum well. We find that the longitudinal resistivity ρ xx near the critical filling factor ν c ∼ 0.5 follows the universal scaling law ρ xx (ν, T) ∝ exp(-Δν/(T/T 0 ) κ ), where Δν = ν-ν c . The critical exponent κ equals 0.56 ± 0.02, which indicates that the plateau-insulator transition falls in a non-Fermi liquid universality class
Estimation of critical thickness of Stranski-Krastanow transition in GeSi/Sn/Si system
Lozovoy, K. A.; Pishchagin, A. A.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.
2017-11-01
In this paper Stranski-Krastanow growth of Ge x Si1-x epitaxial layers on the Si(001) surface with pre-deposited tin layer with the thickness less than 1 ML is considered. For the calculations of critical thickness of transition from 2D to 3D growth in this paper a theoretical model based on general nucleation theory is used. This model is specified by taking into account dependencies of elastic modulus, lattices mismatch and surface energy of side facet on the composition x, as well as change in the adatoms diffusion coefficient and surface energy of the substrate in the presence of tin. As a result, dependencies of critical thickness of Stranski-Krastanow transition on compositon x and temperature are obtained. The simulated results are in a good agreement with experimentally observed results.
Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-11-15
We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.
Signals for the QCD phase transition and critical point in a Langevin dynamical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Yan, Yu-Peng
2013-01-01
The search for the critical point is one of the central issues that will be investigated in the upcoming FAIR project. For a profound theoretical understanding of the expected signals we go beyond thermodynamic studies and present a fully dynamical model for the chiral and deconfinement phase transition in heavy ion collisions. The corresponding order parameters are propagated by Langevin equations of motions on a thermal background provided by a fluid dynamically expanding plasma of quarks. By that we are able to describe nonequilibrium effects occurring during the rapid expansion of a hot fireball. For an evolution through the phase transition the formation of a supercooled phase and its subsequent decay crucially influence the trajectories in the phase diagram and lead to a significant reheating of the quark medium at highest baryon densities. Furthermore, we find inhomogeneous structures with high density domains along the first order transition line within single events.
Zhang, Chendong
2015-09-21
By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.
Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih Kang
2015-01-01
By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.
Critical behavior and phase transition of dilaton black holes with nonlinear electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dayyani, Z.; Dehghani, M.H.; Hajkhalili, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheykhi, A. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2018-02-15
In this paper, we take into account the dilaton black hole solutions of Einstein gravity in the presence of logarithmic and exponential forms of nonlinear electrodynamics. First of all, we consider the cosmological constant and nonlinear parameter as thermodynamic quantities which can vary. We obtain thermodynamic quantities of the system such as pressure, temperature and Gibbs free energy in an extended phase space. We complete the analogy of the nonlinear dilaton black holes with the Van der Waals liquid-gas system. We work in the canonical ensemble and hence we treat the charge of the black hole as an external fixed parameter. Moreover, we calculate the critical values of temperature, volume and pressure and show that they depend on the dilaton coupling constant as well as on the nonlinear parameter. We also investigate the critical exponents and find that they are universal and independent of the dilaton and nonlinear parameters, which is an expected result. Finally, we explore the phase transition of nonlinear dilaton black holes by studying the Gibbs free energy of the system. We find that in the case of T > T{sub c}, we have no phase transition. When T = T{sub c}, the system admits a second-order phase transition, while for T = T{sub f} < T{sub c} the system experiences a first-order transition. Interestingly, for T{sub f} < T < T{sub c} we observe a zeroth-order phase transition in the presence of a dilaton field. This novel zeroth-order phase transition occurs due to a finite jump in the Gibbs free energy which is generated by the dilaton-electromagnetic coupling constant, α, for a certain range of pressure. (orig.)
Nurses' role transition from the clinical ward environment to the critical care environment.
Gohery, Patricia; Meaney, Teresa
2013-12-01
To explore the experiences of nurses moving from the ward environment to the critical care environment. Critical care areas are employing nurses with no critical care experience due to staff shortage. There is a paucity of literature focusing on the experiences of nurses moving from the ward environment to the critical care environment. A Heideggerian phenomenology research approach was used in this study. In-depth semi structured interviews, supported with an interview guide, were conducted with nine critical care nurses. Data analysis was guided by Van Manen (1990) approach to phenomenological analysis. Four main themes emerged: The highs and lows, you need support, theory-practice gap, struggling with fear. The participants felt ill prepared and inexperienced to work within the stressful and technical environment of critical care due to insufficient education and support. The study findings indicated that a variety of feelings and emotions are experienced by ward nurses who move into the stressful and technical environment of critical care due to insufficient skills and knowledge. More education and support is required to improve this transition process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bubble nucleation in an explosive micro-bubble actuator
van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt
2008-01-01
Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a temperature close to the critical temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures spontaneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure
Planes, Antoni; Vives, Eduard
2017-08-01
Martensitic transitions take place intermittently as a sequence of avalanches which are accompanied by the emission of acoustic waves. The study of this acoustic emission (AE) reveals the scale-free nature of the avalanches. In a number of shape memory materials undergoing a martensitic transition it has been found that, in spite of relatively low hysteresis, the dynamics of forward and reverse transitions are different, which may explain the fact that the AE activity is different in both forward and reverse transitions. The asymmetry could be a consequence of the fact that, while nucleation is required for the transition from the parent to martensitic phase to take place, reverse transition occurs by fast shrinkage of martensitic domains. We have analysed in detail the distribution of avalanches in cooling and heating runs in Fe-Pd and Cu-Zn-Al shape-memory alloys. In the former, the martensitic transition is weakly first order while it shows a significant first order character in the latter. We have found that in Fe-Pd the distributions are power law for the forward and reverse transitions characterized by the same critical exponents. For Cu-Zn-Al the distribution of avalanches is critical in forward transitions but exponentially damped in the reverse transition. It is suggested that this different behaviour could originate from the different dynamic mechanisms in forward and reverse transitions. This paper is dedicated to our friend Ekhard Salje in the occasion of his 70th birthday.
First order electroweak phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmueller, W.; Fodor, Z.
1993-01-01
In this work, the authors have studied the phase transition in the SU(2)gauge theory at finite temperature. The authors' improved perturbative approach does not suffer from the infrared problems appearing in the ordinary loop expansion. The authors have calculated the effective potential up to cubic terms in the couplings. The higher order terms suggest that the method is reliable for Higgs masses smaller than 80 GeV. The authors have obtained a non-vanishing magnetic mass which further weakens the transitions. By use of Langer's theory of metastability, the authors have calculated the nucleation rate for critical bubbles and have discussed some cosmological consequences. For m H <80 GeV the phase transition is first order and proceeds via bubble nucleation and growth. The thin wall approximation is only marginally applicable. Since the phase transition is quite weak SM baryogenesis is unlikely. 8 refs., 5 figs
Critical behavior in reaction-diffusion systems exhibiting absorbing phase transition
Ódor, G
2003-01-01
Phase transitions of reaction-diffusion systems with site occupation restriction and with particle creation that requires n>1 parents and where explicit diffusion of single particles (A) exists are reviewed. Arguments based on mean-field approximation and simulations are given which support novel kind of non-equilibrium criticality. These are in contradiction with the implications of a suggested phenomenological, multiplicative noise Langevin equation approach and with some of recent numerical analysis. Simulation results for the one and two dimensional binary spreading 2A -> 4A, 4A -> 2A model display a new type of mean-field criticality characterized by alpha=1/3 and beta=1/2 critical exponents suggested in cond-mat/0210615.
Zhou, Ge
2012-01-01
This paper discusses the existence of a bubble in the pricing of an asset that pays positive dividends. I show that rational bubbles can exist in a growing economy. The existence of bubbles depends on the relative magnitudes of risk aversion to consumption and to wealth. Furthermore, I examine how an exogenous shock in technology might trigger bubbles.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsted, Tom
2016-01-01
While Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an “irrational bubble,” he has never publicly expressed his opinion on “rational bubbles.” On empirical grounds Fama rejects bubbles by referring to the lack of reliable evidence that price declines are predictable....... However, this argument cannot be used to rule out rational bubbles because such bubbles do not necessarily imply return predictability, and return predictability of the kind documented by Fama does not rule out rational bubbles. On data samples that include the 1990s, there is evidence of an explosive...... component in stock market valuation ratios, consistent with a rational bubble....
Duality between the Deconfined Quantum-Critical Point and the Bosonic Topological Transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Qi Qin
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Recently, significant progress has been made in (2+1-dimensional conformal field theories without supersymmetry. In particular, it was realized that different Lagrangians may be related by hidden dualities; i.e., seemingly different field theories may actually be identical in the infrared limit. Among all the proposed dualities, one has attracted particular interest in the field of strongly correlated quantum-matter systems: the one relating the easy-plane noncompact CP^{1} model (NCCP^{1} and noncompact quantum electrodynamics (QED with two flavors (N=2 of massless two-component Dirac fermions. The easy-plane NCCP^{1} model is the field theory of the putative deconfined quantum-critical point separating a planar (XY antiferromagnet and a dimerized (valence-bond solid ground state, while N=2 noncompact QED is the theory for the transition between a bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase and a trivial Mott insulator. In this work, we present strong numerical support for the proposed duality. We realize the N=2 noncompact QED at a critical point of an interacting fermion model on the bilayer honeycomb lattice and study it using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (QMC simulations. Using stochastic series expansion QMC simulations, we study a planar version of the S=1/2 J-Q spin Hamiltonian (a quantum XY model with additional multispin couplings and show that it hosts a continuous transition between the XY magnet and the valence-bond solid. The duality between the two systems, following from a mapping of their phase diagrams extending from their respective critical points, is supported by the good agreement between the critical exponents according to the proposed duality relationships. In the J-Q model, we find both continuous and first-order transitions, depending on the degree of planar anisotropy, with deconfined quantum criticality surviving only up to moderate strengths of the anisotropy. This explains previous claims of no deconfined
Merger transitions in brane-black-hole systems: Criticality, scaling, and self-similarity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri P.
2006-01-01
We propose a toy model for studying merger transitions in a curved spacetime with an arbitrary number of dimensions. This model includes a bulk N-dimensional static spherically symmetric black hole and a test D-dimensional brane (D≤N-1) interacting with the black hole. The brane is asymptotically flat and allows a O(D-1) group of symmetry. Such a brane-black-hole (BBH) system has two different phases. The first one is formed by solutions describing a brane crossing the horizon of the bulk black hole. In this case the internal induced geometry of the brane describes a D-dimensional black hole. The other phase consists of solutions for branes which do not intersect the horizon, and the induced geometry does not have a horizon. We study a critical solution at the threshold of the brane-black-hole formation, and the solutions which are close to it. In particular, we demonstrate that there exists a striking similarity of the merger transition, during which the phase of the BBH system is changed, both with the Choptuik critical collapse and with the merger transitions in the higher dimensional caged black-hole-black-string system
Bubble nucleation in an explosive micro-bubble actuator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van den Broek, D M; Elwenspoek, M
2008-01-01
Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a temperature close to the critical temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures spontaneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse. In this paper we take a closer look at the bubble nucleation. The moment of bubble nucleation was determined by both stroboscopic imaging and resistance thermometry. Two nucleation regimes could be distinguished. Several different heater designs were investigated under heat fluxes of hundreds of W mm −2 . A close correspondence between current density in the heater and point of nucleation was found. This results in design rules for effective heaters
Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos
2003-08-01
An anti-bubble is a striking kind of bubble in liquid that seemingly does not comply the buoyancy, and after few minutes it disappears suddenly inside the liquid. Different from a simple air bubble that rises directly to the liquid surface, an anti-bubble wanders around in the fluid due to its slightly lesser density than the surrounding liquid. In spite of this odd behavior, an anti-bubble can be understood as the opposite of a conventional soap bubble in air, which is a shell of liquid surrounding air, and an anti-bubble is a shell of air surrounding a drop of the liquid inside the liquid. Two-phase flow has been a subject of interest due to its relevance to process equipment for contacting gases and liquids applied in industry. A chain of bubbles rising in a liquid formed from a nozzle is a two-phase flow, and there are certain conditions in which spherical air shells, called anti-bubbles, are produced. The purpose of this work is mainly to note the existence of anti-bubbling regime as a sequel of a bubbling system. We initially have presented the experimental apparatus. After this we have described the evolution of the bubbling regimes, and emulated the effect of bubbling coalescence with simple maps. Then is shown the inverted dripping as a consequence of the bubble coalescence, and finally the conditions for anti-bubble formation.
Critical parameters of Quark-Hadron phase transition with interacting and massive quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, C.P.; Patra, B.K.
1994-06-01
Current techniques to simulate the dynamical behaviour of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) reveal that the order of the phase transition as well as the values of the critical parameters depend on the number of quark flavours as well as on the quark-masses included in the simulation. We attempt to show here the effects of the number of quark flavours and quark-masses on critical parameters by using the perturbative, finite temperature field theory to g 3 s order in the strong coupling g s . We treat the hadrons as particles with finite size and its implications on the equation of state for hadron gas are studied. We find that the critical temperature T c is lowered by 9 MeV as we move from two to three quark flavours. The nature of the phase transition always remains as first order. However, the inclusion of quark-masses in our calculation does not affect the result much. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs
Quantum critical phase and Lifshitz transition in an extended periodic Anderson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laad, M S; Koley, S; Taraphder, A
2012-01-01
We study the quantum phase transition in f-electron systems as a quantum Lifshitz transition driven by selective-Mott localization in a realistic extended Anderson lattice model. Using dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), we find that a quantum critical phase with anomalous ω/T scaling separates a heavy Landau-Fermi liquid from ordered phase(s). This non-Fermi liquid state arises from a lattice orthogonality catastrophe originating from orbital-selective Mott localization. Fermi surface reconstruction occurs via the interplay between and penetration of the Green function zeros to the poles, leading to violation of Luttinger’s theorem in the strange metal. We show how this naturally leads to scale-invariant responses in transport. Thus, our work represents a specific DMFT realization of the hidden-FL and FL* theories, and holds promise for the study of ‘strange’ metal phases in quantum matter. (fast track communication)
Critical behaviour of continuous phase transitions with infinitely many absorbing states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hua Dayin; Wang Lieyan; Chen Ting
2006-01-01
A lattice gas model is proposed for the A 2 + 2B 2 → 2B 2 A reaction system with particle diffusion. In the model, A 2 dissociates in the random dimer-filling mechanism and B 2 dissociation is in the end-on dimer-filling mechanism. A reactive window appears and the system exhibits a continuous phase transition from a reactive state to a covered state with infinitely many absorbing states. When the diffusion of particle A and AB is included, there are still infinitely many absorbing states for the continuous phase transition, but it is found that the critical behaviour changes from the directed percolation (DP) class to the pair contact process with diffusion (PCPD) class
Kozma, Robert; Freeman, Walter J
2017-01-01
Measurements of local field potentials over the cortical surface and the scalp of animals and human subjects reveal intermittent bursts of beta and gamma oscillations. During the bursts, narrow-band metastable amplitude modulation (AM) patters emerge for a fraction of a second and ultimately dissolve to the broad-band random background activity. The burst process depends on previously learnt conditioned stimuli (CS), thus different AM patterns may emerge in response to different CS. This observation leads to our cinematic theory of cognition when perception happens in discrete steps manifested in the sequence of AM patterns. Our article summarizes findings in the past decades on experimental evidence of cinematic theory of cognition and relevant mathematical models. We treat cortices as dissipative systems that self-organize themselves near a critical level of activity that is a non-equilibrium metastable state. Criticality is arguably a key aspect of brains in their rapid adaptation, reconfiguration, high storage capacity, and sensitive response to external stimuli. Self-organized criticality (SOC) became an important concept to describe neural systems. We argue that transitions from one AM pattern to the other require the concept of phase transitions, extending beyond the dynamics described by SOC. We employ random graph theory (RGT) and percolation dynamics as fundamental mathematical approaches to model fluctuations in the cortical tissue. Our results indicate that perceptions are formed through a phase transition from a disorganized (high entropy) to a well-organized (low entropy) state, which explains the swiftness of the emergence of the perceptual experience in response to learned stimuli.
A Mathematical Framework for Critical Transitions: Normal Forms, Variance and Applications
Kuehn, Christian
2013-06-01
Critical transitions occur in a wide variety of applications including mathematical biology, climate change, human physiology and economics. Therefore it is highly desirable to find early-warning signs. We show that it is possible to classify critical transitions by using bifurcation theory and normal forms in the singular limit. Based on this elementary classification, we analyze stochastic fluctuations and calculate scaling laws of the variance of stochastic sample paths near critical transitions for fast-subsystem bifurcations up to codimension two. The theory is applied to several models: the Stommel-Cessi box model for the thermohaline circulation from geoscience, an epidemic-spreading model on an adaptive network, an activator-inhibitor switch from systems biology, a predator-prey system from ecology and to the Euler buckling problem from classical mechanics. For the Stommel-Cessi model we compare different detrending techniques to calculate early-warning signs. In the epidemics model we show that link densities could be better variables for prediction than population densities. The activator-inhibitor switch demonstrates effects in three time-scale systems and points out that excitable cells and molecular units have information for subthreshold prediction. In the predator-prey model explosive population growth near a codimension-two bifurcation is investigated and we show that early-warnings from normal forms can be misleading in this context. In the biomechanical model we demonstrate that early-warning signs for buckling depend crucially on the control strategy near the instability which illustrates the effect of multiplicative noise.
Characterization of intergranular fission gas bubbles in U-Mo fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G.; Rest, J.; Shevlyakov, G. V.
2008-01-01
This report can be divided into two parts: the first part, which is composed of sections 1, 2, and 3, is devoted to report the analyses of fission gas bubbles; the second part, which is in section 4, is allocated to describe the mechanistic model development. Swelling data of irradiated U-Mo alloy typically show that the kinetics of fission gas bubbles is composed of two different rates: lower initially and higher later. The transition corresponds to a burnup of ∼0 at% U-235 (LEU) or a fission density of ∼3 x 10 21 fissions/cm 3 . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that gas bubbles appear only on the grain boundaries in the pretransition regime. At intermediate burnup where the transition begins, gas bubbles are observed to spread into the intragranular regions. At high burnup, they are uniformly distributed throughout fuel. In highly irradiated U-Mo alloy fuel large-scale gas bubbles form on some fuel particle peripheries. In some cases, these bubbles appear to be interconnected and occupy the interface region between fuel and the aluminum matrix for dispersion fuel, and fuel and cladding for monolithic fuel, respectively. This is a potential performance limit for U-Mo alloy fuel. Microscopic characterization of the evolution of fission gas bubbles is necessary to understand the underlying phenomena of the macroscopic behavior of fission gas swelling that can lead to a counter measure to potential performance limit. The microscopic characterization data, particularly in the pre-transition regime, can also be used in developing a mechanistic model that predicts fission gas bubble behavior as a function of burnup and helps identify critical physical properties for the future tests. Analyses of grain and grain boundary morphology were performed. Optical micrographs and scanning electron micrographs of irradiated fuel from RERTR-1, 2, 3 and 5 tests were used. Micrographic comparisons between as-fabricated and as-irradiated fuel revealed that the site of
Kwasniok, Frank
2013-11-01
A time series analysis method for predicting the probability density of a dynamical system is proposed. A nonstationary parametric model of the probability density is estimated from data within a maximum likelihood framework and then extrapolated to forecast the future probability density and explore the system for critical transitions or tipping points. A full systematic account of parameter uncertainty is taken. The technique is generic, independent of the underlying dynamics of the system. The method is verified on simulated data and then applied to prediction of Arctic sea-ice extent.
Champagne experiences various rhythmical bubbling regimes in a flute.
Liger-Belair, Gérard; Tufaile, Alberto; Jeandet, Philippe; Sartorelli, José-Carlos
2006-09-20
Bubble trains are seen rising gracefully from a few points on the glass wall (called nucleation sites) whenever champagne is poured into a glass. As time passes during the gas-discharging process, the careful observation of some given bubble columns reveals that the interbubble distance may change suddenly, thus revealing different rhythmical bubbling regimes. Here, it is reported that the transitions between the different bubbling regimes of some nucleation sites during gas discharging is a process which may be ruled by a strong interaction between tiny gas pockets trapped inside the nucleation site and/or also by an interaction between the tiny bubbles just blown from the nucleation site.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karkut, M.G.; Hake, R.R.
1983-01-01
Superconducting upper critical fields H/sub c/2(T), transition temperatures T/sub c/, and normal-state electrical resistivities rho/sub n/ have been measured in the amorphous transition-metal alloy series Zr/sub 1-z/Co/sub x/, Zr/sub 1-x/Ni/sub x/, (Zr/sub 1-x/Ti/sub x/)/sub 0.78/Ni/sub 0.22/, and (Zr/sub 1-x/Nb/sub x/)/sub 0.78/Ni/sub 0.22/. Structural integrity of these melt-spun alloys is indicated by x-ray, density, bend-ductility, normal-state electrical resistivity, superconducting transition width, and mixed-state flux-pinning measurements. The specimens display T/sub c/ = 2.1--3.8 K, rho/sub n/ = 159--190 μΩ cm, and Vertical Bar(dH/sub c/2/dT)cVertical Bar = 28--36 kG/K. These imply electron mean free paths lroughly-equal2--6 A, zero-temperature Ginzburg-Landau coherence distances xi/sub G/0roughly-equal50--70 A, penetration depths lambda/sub G/0roughly-equal(7--10) x 10 3 A, and extremely high dirtiness parameters xi 0 /lroughly-equal300--1300. All alloys display H/sub c/2(T) curves with negative curvature and (with two exceptions) fair agreement with the standard dirty-limit theory of Werthamer, Helfand, Hohenberg, and Maki (WHHM) for physically reasonable values of spin-orbit-coupling induced, electron-spin-flip scattering time tau/sub so/. This is in contrast to the anomalously elevated H/sub c/2(T) behavior which is nearly linear in T that is observed by some, and the unphysically low-tau/sub so/ fits to WHHM theory obtained by others, for various amorphous alloys
Simulating the phosphorus fluid-liquid phase transition up to the critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghiringhelli, Luca M; Meijer, Evert Jan
2007-01-01
We report a Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics study of the temperature dependence of the fluid-liquid phase transition in phosphorous, involving the transformation of a molecular fluid phase into a network-like phase. We employed density-functional theory (DFT) with a gradient-corrected functional (B-LYP) to describe the electronic structure and interatomic interactions and performed simulations in a constant pressure ensemble. We spanned a temperature interval ranging from 2500 to 3500 K. With increasing temperature, we found that the structural conversion from the molecular P 4 fluid into the network liquid occurs at decreasing pressures, consistent with experimental observations. At lower temperatures the transition is characterized by a sudden increase of density in the sample. The magnitude of the density change decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes at 3500 K. In the temperature range 3100-3500 K we found signals of near- and super-criticality. We identified local structural changes that serve as seeds triggering the overall structural transition
Bubble shape in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu, Hanyang; Guo, Liejin
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The bubble shapes in intermittent flows are presented experimentally. • The nose-tail inversion phenomenon appears at a low Froude number in downward pipe. • Transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the bubble tail changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study of the shape of isolated bubbles in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flows. It is found that the shapes of the nose and body of bubble depend on the Froude number defined by gas/liquid mixture velocity in a pipe, whereas the shape of the back of bubble region depends on both the Froude number and bubble length. The photographic studies show that the transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the back of the bubble changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump with the increase of the Froude number and bubble length. The effect of pipe inclination on characteristics of bubble is significant: The bubble is inversely located in a downwardly inclined pipe when the Froude number is low, and the transition from plug flow to slug flow in an upward inclined pipe is more ready to occur compared with that in a downwardly inclined pipe
Morishige, Kunimitsu
2009-06-02
To examine the mechanisms for capillary condensation and for capillary evaporation in porous glass, we measured the hysteresis critical points and desorption scanning curves of nitrogen in four kinds of porous glasses with different pore sizes (Vycor, CPG75A, CPG120A, and CPG170A). The shapes of the hysteresis loop in the adsorption isotherm of nitrogen for the Vycor and the CPG75A changed with temperature, whereas those for the CPG120A and the CPG170A remained almost unchanged with temperature. The hysteresis critical points for the Vycor and the CPG75A fell on the common line observed previously for ordered mesoporous silicas. On the other hand, the hysteresis critical points for the CPG120A and the CPG170A deviated appreciably from the common line. This strongly suggests that capillary evaporation of nitrogen in the interconnected and disordered pores of both the Vycor and the CPG75A follows a cavitation process at least in the vicinity of their hysteresis critical temperatures in the same way as that in the cagelike pores of the ordered silicas, whereas the hysteresis critical points in the CPG120A and the CPG170A have origin different from that in the cagelike pores. The desorption scanning curves for the CPG75A indicated the nonindependence of the porous domains. On the other hand, for both the CPG120A and the CPG170A, we obtained the scanning curves that are expected from the independent domain theory. All these results suggest that sample spanning transitions in capillary condensation and evaporation take place inside the interconnected pores of both the CPG120A and the CPG170A.
The constructed catchment Chicken Creek as Critical Zone Observatory under transition
Gerwin, Werner; Schaaf, Wolfgang; Elmer, Michael; Hinz, Christoph
2014-05-01
The constructed catchment Chicken Creek was established in 2005 as an experimental landscape laboratory for ecosystem research. The 6 ha area with clearly defined horizontal as well as vertical boundary conditions was left for an unrestricted primary succession. All Critical Zone elements are represented at this site, which allows the study of most processes occurring at the interface of bio-, pedo-, geo- and hydrosphere. It provides outstanding opportunities for investigating interactions and feedbacks between different evolving compartments during ecosystem development. The catchment is extensively instrumented since 2005 in order to detect transition stages of the ecosystem. Data recorded with a high spatial and temporal resolution include hydrological, geomorphological, pedological, limnological as well as biological parameters. In contrast to other Critical Zone Observatories, this site offers the unique situation of an early stage ecosystem with highly dynamic system properties. The first years of development were characterized by a fast formation of geomorphological structures due to massive erosion processes at the initially non-vegetated surface. Hydrological processes led to the establishment of a local groundwater body within 5 years. In the following years the influence of biological structures like vegetation patterns gained an increasing importance. Feedbacks between developing vegetation and e.g. hydrological features became more and more dominant. As a result, different phases of ecosystem development could be distinguished until now. This observatory offers manifold possibilities to identify and disentangle complex interactions between Critical Zone processes in situ under natural conditions. The originally low complexity of the system is growing with time facilitating the identification of influences of newly developing structures on system functions. Thus, it is possible to study effects of small-scale processes on the whole system at the
Anomalous critical behavior in the polymer collapse transition of three-dimensional lattice trails.
Bedini, Andrea; Owczarek, Aleksander L; Prellberg, Thomas
2012-07-01
Trails (bond-avoiding walks) provide an alternative lattice model of polymers to self-avoiding walks, and adding self-interaction at multiply visited sites gives a model of polymer collapse. Recently a two-dimensional model (triangular lattice) where doubly and triply visited sites are given different weights was shown to display a rich phase diagram with first- and second-order collapse separated by a multicritical point. A kinetic growth process of trails (KGTs) was conjectured to map precisely to this multicritical point. Two types of low-temperature phases, a globule phase and a maximally dense phase, were encountered. Here we investigate the collapse properties of a similar extended model of interacting lattice trails on the simple cubic lattice with separate weights for doubly and triply visited sites. Again we find first- and second-order collapse transitions dependent on the relative sizes of the doubly and triply visited energies. However, we find no evidence of a low-temperature maximally dense phase with only the globular phase in existence. Intriguingly, when the ratio of the energies is precisely that which separates the first-order from the second-order regions anomalous finite-size scaling appears. At the finite-size location of the rounded transition clear evidence exists for a first-order transition that persists in the thermodynamic limit. This location moves as the length increases, with its limit apparently at the point that maps to a KGT. However, if one fixes the temperature to sit at exactly this KGT point, then only a critical point can be deduced from the data. The resolution of this apparent contradiction lies in the breaking of crossover scaling and the difference in the shift and transition width (crossover) exponents.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christensen, J.; Damgaard, P.H.
1991-01-01
The finite-temperature deconfinement phase transition of SU(2) lattice gauge theory in (2+1) dimensions is studied by Monte Carlo methods. Comparison is made with the expected form of correlation functions on both sides of the critical point. The critical behavior is compared with expectations based on universality arguments. Attempts are made to extract unbiased values of critical exponents on several lattices sizes. The behavior of Polyakov loops in higher representations of the gauge group is studied close to the phase transition. (orig.)
Connectivity: a primer in phase transitions and critical phenomena for students of particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanley, H.E.
1983-01-01
This introduction to the phase transitions and critical phenomena focuses on the theme of connectivity, and illustrates concepts with a paradigm of connectivity, such as the percolation problem. The phenomenon of bond percolation, where a finite section of ''fence'' has both conducting and insulating links, is described. Three approaches to the study of connectivity phenomena are described: exact enumeration procedures, Monte Carlo simulation, and renormalization groups. Exact enumeration probabilities are calculated. Lattice animals are discussed. Computer simulation is described as simple: assign random numbers, then design algorithms that recognize clusters. The Monte Carlo simulations have not lead to higher accuracy in predicting critical exponents, but have given a graphic illustration of what a million-site cluster looks like. The incipient infinite cluster can also be described. In this case, the magnetic correlations of a dilute magnetic system will spread along the ''backbone bonds'' rather than by ''dangling ends.'' Renormalization group approaches are also treated. Finally, relations between connectivity and models of critical thermal phenomena such as the Ising Model, the Potts model, and polychromatic generalization of the Potts Model, are discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsted, Tom
Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an irrational bubble. However, he has never publicly expressed his opinion on rational bubbles. This is peculiar since such bubbles build naturally from the rational efficient markets paradigm that Fama strongly adheres to...
Lifetime of Bubble Rafts: Cooperativity and Avalanches
Ritacco, Hernán; Kiefer, Flavien; Langevin, Dominique
2007-06-01
We have studied the collapse of pseudo-bi-dimensional foams. These foams are made of uniformly sized soap bubbles packed in an hexagonal lattice sitting at the top of a liquid surface. The collapse process follows the sequence: (1) rupture of a first bubble, driven by thermal fluctuations and (2) a cascade of bursting bubbles. We present a simple numerical model which captures the main characteristics of the dynamics of foam collapse. We show that in a certain range of viscosities of the foaming solutions, the size distribution of the avalanches follows power laws as in self-organized criticality processes.
Helium bubble nucleation and growth in α-Fe: insights from first–principles simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, W; Zhang, X; Lu, G; Geng, W T
2014-01-01
We have carried out a first-principles study on the nucleation and early-stage growth of He bubbles in Fe. The energetics, atomic and electronic structure of He-vacancy complexes, involving both a monovacancy and a nine-vacancy cluster, are examined. Based on the energetics, we then perform thermodynamics analysis to gain deeper insights into He bubble nucleation and growth. We have determined the energy cost for the nucleation of He bubbles and found that up to eight He atoms can be trapped at a single vacancy. In order to capture more He atoms, the vacancy has to emit Frenkel pairs to release the substantial stress building on the surrounding Fe lattice. Compared to the monovacancy, the nine-vacancy cluster has a lower energy cost for He bubble nucleation and growth. He atoms at the vacancy repel the surrounding electronic charge and redistribute it on the neighboring Fe atoms. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that He chemical potential provides a driving force for He bubble nucleation and growth. There are two critical He chemical potentials that are of particular importance: one of them marks the transition from single He occupation to multiple He occupation at a monovacancy while the other sets off He-induced superabundant vacancy formation. (paper)
Bohr model description of the critical point for the first order shape phase transition
Budaca, R.; Buganu, P.; Budaca, A. I.
2018-01-01
The critical point of the shape phase transition between spherical and axially deformed nuclei is described by a collective Bohr Hamiltonian with a sextic potential having simultaneous spherical and deformed minima of the same depth. The particular choice of the potential as well as the scaled and decoupled nature of the total Hamiltonian leads to a model with a single free parameter connected to the height of the barrier which separates the two minima. The solutions are found through the diagonalization in a basis of Bessel functions. The basis is optimized for each value of the free parameter by means of a boundary deformation which assures the convergence of the solutions for a fixed basis dimension. Analyzing the spectral properties of the model, as a function of the barrier height, revealed instances with shape coexisting features which are considered for detailed numerical applications.
Bohr model description of the critical point for the first order shape phase transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Budaca
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The critical point of the shape phase transition between spherical and axially deformed nuclei is described by a collective Bohr Hamiltonian with a sextic potential having simultaneous spherical and deformed minima of the same depth. The particular choice of the potential as well as the scaled and decoupled nature of the total Hamiltonian leads to a model with a single free parameter connected to the height of the barrier which separates the two minima. The solutions are found through the diagonalization in a basis of Bessel functions. The basis is optimized for each value of the free parameter by means of a boundary deformation which assures the convergence of the solutions for a fixed basis dimension. Analyzing the spectral properties of the model, as a function of the barrier height, revealed instances with shape coexisting features which are considered for detailed numerical applications.
Precise Measurements of the Density and Critical Phenomena Near Phase Transitions in Liquid Helium
Yeh, Nai-Chang
1997-01-01
The first-year progress for the project of precise measurements of the density and critical phenomena of helium near phase transitions is summarized below: (1) completion of a cryogenic sample probe for the proposed measurements, and the rehabilitation of a designated laboratory at Caltech for this project; (2) construction and testing of a superconducting niobium cavity; (3) acquisition of one phase-locked-loop system for high-resolution frequency control and read- out; (4) setting up high-resolution thermometry (HRT) for temperature readout and control; (5) developing new approaches for calibrating the coefficient between the resonant frequency shift (delta f) and the helium density (rho), as well as for measuring the effect of gravity on T(sub lambda) to a much better precision; (6) programming of the interface control of all instruments for automatic data acquisition; and (7) improving data analyses and fitting procedures.
Effects of mixing methods on phase distribution in vertical bubble flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monji, Hideaki; Matsui, Goichi; Sugiyama, Takayuki.
1992-01-01
The mechanism of the phase distribution formation in a bubble flow is one of the most important problems in the control of two-phase flow systems. The effect of mixing methods on the phase distribution was experimentally investigated by using upward nitrogen gas-water bubble flow under the condition of fixed flow rates. The experimental results show that the diameter of the gas injection hole influences the phase distribution through the bubble size. The location of the injection hole and the direction of injection do not influence the phase distribution of fully developed bubble flow. The transitive equivalent bubble size from the coring bubble flow to the sliding bubble flow corresponds to the bubble shape transition. The analytical results show that the phase distribution may be predictable if the phase profile is judged from the bubble size. (author)
Bubbles in the self-accelerating universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izumi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takahiro; Koyama, Kazuya; Pujolas, Oriol
2007-01-01
We revisit the issue of the stability in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model by considering the nucleation of bubbles of the conventional branch within the self-accelerating branch. We construct an instanton describing this process in the thin wall approximation. On one side of the bubble wall, the bulk consists of the exterior of the brane, while on the other side it is the interior. The solution requires the presence of a 2-brane (the bubble wall) which induces the transition. However, we show that this instanton cannot be realized as the thin wall limit of any smooth solution. Once the bubble thickness is resolved, the equations of motion do not allow O(4) symmetric solutions joining the two branches. We conclude that the thin wall instanton is unphysical, and that one cannot have processes connecting the two branches, unless negative tension bubble walls are introduced. This also suggests that the self-accelerating branch does not decay into the conventional branch nucleating bubbles. We comment on other kinds of bubbles that could interpolate between the two branches
Wang, Binbin; Socolofsky, Scott A; Lai, Chris C K; Adams, E Eric; Boufadel, Michel C
2018-06-01
Subsea oil well blowouts and pipeline leaks release oil and gas to the environment through vigorous jets. Predicting the breakup of the released fluids in oil droplets and gas bubbles is critical to predict the fate of petroleum compounds in the marine water column. To predict the gas bubble size in oil well blowouts and pipeline leaks, we observed and quantified the flow behavior and breakup process of gas for a wide range of orifice diameters and flow rates. Flow behavior at the orifice transitions from pulsing flow to continuous discharge as the jet crosses the sonic point. Breakup dynamics transition from laminar to turbulent at a critical value of the Weber number. Very strong pure gas jets and most gas/liquid co-flowing jets exhibit atomization breakup. Bubble sizes in the atomization regime scale with the jet-to-plume transition length scale and follow -3/5 power-law scaling for a mixture Weber number. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edge states in the climate system: exploring global instabilities and critical transitions
Lucarini, Valerio; Bódai, Tamás
2017-07-01
Multistability is a ubiquitous feature in systems of geophysical relevance and provides key challenges for our ability to predict a system’s response to perturbations. Near critical transitions small causes can lead to large effects and—for all practical purposes—irreversible changes in the properties of the system. As is well known, the Earth climate is multistable: present astronomical and astrophysical conditions support two stable regimes, the warm climate we live in, and a snowball climate characterized by global glaciation. We first provide an overview of methods and ideas relevant for studying the climate response to forcings and focus on the properties of critical transitions in the context of both stochastic and deterministic dynamics, and assess strengths and weaknesses of simplified approaches to the problem. Following an idea developed by Eckhardt and collaborators for the investigation of multistable turbulent fluid dynamical systems, we study the global instability giving rise to the snowball/warm multistability in the climate system by identifying the climatic edge state, a saddle embedded in the boundary between the two basins of attraction of the stable climates. The edge state attracts initial conditions belonging to such a boundary and, while being defined by the deterministic dynamics, is the gate facilitating noise-induced transitions between competing attractors. We use a simplified yet Earth-like intermediate complexity climate model constructed by coupling a primitive equations model of the atmosphere with a simple diffusive ocean. We refer to the climatic edge states as Melancholia states and provide an extensive analysis of their features. We study their dynamics, their symmetry properties, and we follow a complex set of bifurcations. We find situations where the Melancholia state has chaotic dynamics. In these cases, we have that the basin boundary between the two basins of attraction is a strange geometric set with a nearly zero
STUDENTS’ CRITICAL THINKING IN WRITING A THESIS USING THE TRANSITIVITY SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emi Emilia
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Students’ Critical Thinking in Writing a Thesis Using the Transitivity System. This paper reports on a small part of the results of a study in attempting to identify students’ ability and difficulties in writing an English undergraduate thesis in a state university in Indonesia. The paper centres around the students’ ability and difficulties in writing a data presentation and discussion chapter, which are related to critical capacity looked at in this study. The paper begins with a brief introduction, which presents the background and the theories underpinning the study. This will be followed by an account of the methodology, in which it is argued that the study used a case study method, particularly text analysis and involved nine theses selected randomly and analysed based on the elements of a conventional research report and the Transitivity system of systemic functional grammar, developed by Halliday. The paper then delineates the results, showing that despite their good control in the discourse semantic level, students in general still need a lot of guidance and assistance in writing a data presentation and discussion chapter. Recommendation for further research will conclude the paper. Abstrak: Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Mahasiswa dalam Menulis Tesis. Artikel ini membahas sebagian hasil penelitian yang berupaya untuk mengidentifikasi kemampuan dan kesulitan mahasiswa dalam menulis skripsi. Pembahasan difokuskan pada kemampuan dan kesulitan mahasiswa dalam menulis bab pemaparan dan pembahasan data, yang sangat erat kaitannya dengan kemampuan berpikir kritis. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan studi kasus, khususnya analisis teks dan melibatkan 9 skrip yang dipilih secara acak. Data dianalisis berdasarkan struktur organisasi atau elemen-elemen yang seharusnya ada dalam laporan penelitian konvensional dan sistem Transitivity dari tata bahasa sistemik fungsional yang dikembangkan oleh Halliday. Hasil penelitian
Davis, Paul M.
2017-05-01
Earthquakes mainly occur in crust or mantle that is below a critical temperature for the tectonic strain-rate, \\dot{e}_t, such that stress builds up to the breaking point before it can relax due to creep. Then long-range stress correlation gives rise to power law seismicity including large events. The limiting temperature depends on pressure, which is taken into account by finding a critical homologous temperature THc = T/TM above which earthquakes are rarely observed (where T, TM are temperature and average melting temperature of constituent minerals). We find that THc for ocean plates is ∼0.55. For California earthquakes, it is also close to 0.55. The uppermost mantle layer of oceanic plates of thickness ∼50 km is composed of harzburgite and depleted peridotite from which basalt has been removed to form ocean crust. Thus it has a higher melting temperature than the peridotite of the surrounding mantle, or the lower halves of plates. Thicknesses of seismicity in deep subduction zones, determined from 2-D polynomial fits to a relocated catalogue, are ∼50 km, which suggests that the earthquake channel is confined to this layer. We construct models to find homologous temperatures in slabs, and find that seismicity thicknesses are also, on average, confined to TH ≤ 0.55 ± 0.05. The associated rheology is compared with that obtained from flexure models of ocean lithosphere. The brittle-ductile transition occurs where viscosity drops from high values in the cold cores of slabs to values of 1022-1023 Pa s, that is, where creep strain-rates become comparable to tectonic rates. The cut-off for deep earthquakes is not sharp. However they appear unlikely to occur if homologous temperature is high TH > 0.55. Exceptions to the rule are anomalously deep earthquakes such as those beneath the Iceland and the Hawaiian hotspots, and the Newport Inglewood Fault. These are smaller events with short-range stress correlation, and can be explained if strain-rates are two to
Chaotic bubbling and nonstagnant foams.
Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos; Jeandet, Philippe; Liger-Belair, Gerard
2007-06-01
We present an experimental investigation of the agglomeration of bubbles obtained from a nozzle working in different bubbling regimes. This experiment consists of a continuous production of bubbles from a nozzle at the bottom of a liquid column, and these bubbles create a two-dimensional (2D) foam (or a bubble raft) at the top of this column. The bubbles can assemble in various dynamically stable arrangement, forming different kinds of foams in a liquid mixture of water and glycerol, with the effect that the bubble formation regimes influence the foam obtained from this agglomeration of bubbles. The average number of bubbles in the foam is related to the bubble formation frequency and the bubble mean lifetime. The periodic bubbling can generate regular or irregular foam, while a chaotic bubbling only generates irregular foam.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Zongzheng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The underlying microstructure and dynamics of a dense granular material as it evolves towards the “critical state”, a limit state in which the system deforms with an essentially constant volume and stress ratio, remains widely debated in the micromechanics of granular media community. Strain localization, a common mechanism in the large strain regime, further complicates the characterization of this limit state. Here we revisit the evolution to this limit state within the framework of modern percolation theory. Attention is paid to motion transfer: in this context, percolation translates to the emergence of a large-scale connectivity in graphs that embody information on individual grain displacements. We construct each graph G(r by connecting nodes, representing the grains, within a distance r in the displacement-state-space. As r increases, we observe a percolation transition on G(r. The size of the jump discontinuity increases in the lead up to failure, indicating that the nature of percolation transition changes from continuous to explosive. We attribute this to the emergence of collective motion, which manifests in increasingly isolated communities in G(r. At the limit state, where the jump discontinuity is highest and invariant across the different unjamming cycles (drops in stress ratio, G(r encapsulates multiple kinematically distinct communities that are mediated by nodes corresponding to those grains in the shear band. This finding casts light on the dual and opposing roles of the shear band: a mechanism that creates powder keg divisions in the sample, while simultaneously acting as a mechanical link that transfers motion through such subdivisions moving in relative rigid-body motion.
Zhou, Zongzheng; Tordesillas, Antoinette
2017-06-01
The underlying microstructure and dynamics of a dense granular material as it evolves towards the "critical state", a limit state in which the system deforms with an essentially constant volume and stress ratio, remains widely debated in the micromechanics of granular media community. Strain localization, a common mechanism in the large strain regime, further complicates the characterization of this limit state. Here we revisit the evolution to this limit state within the framework of modern percolation theory. Attention is paid to motion transfer: in this context, percolation translates to the emergence of a large-scale connectivity in graphs that embody information on individual grain displacements. We construct each graph G(r) by connecting nodes, representing the grains, within a distance r in the displacement-state-space. As r increases, we observe a percolation transition on G(r). The size of the jump discontinuity increases in the lead up to failure, indicating that the nature of percolation transition changes from continuous to explosive. We attribute this to the emergence of collective motion, which manifests in increasingly isolated communities in G(r). At the limit state, where the jump discontinuity is highest and invariant across the different unjamming cycles (drops in stress ratio), G(r) encapsulates multiple kinematically distinct communities that are mediated by nodes corresponding to those grains in the shear band. This finding casts light on the dual and opposing roles of the shear band: a mechanism that creates powder keg divisions in the sample, while simultaneously acting as a mechanical link that transfers motion through such subdivisions moving in relative rigid-body motion.
Sonoluminescence and bubble fusion
Arakeri, Vijay H
2003-01-01
Sonoluminescence (SL), the phenomenon of light emission from nonlinear motion of a gas bubble, involves an extreme degree of energy focusing. The conditions within the bubble during the last stages of the nearly catastrophic implosion are thought to parallel the efforts aimed at developing inertial confinement fusion. A limited review on the topic of SL and its possible connection to bubble nuclear fusion is presented here. The emphasis is on looking for a link between the various forms o...
Bubbling in vibrated granular films.
Zamankhan, Piroz
2011-02-01
With the help of experiments, computer simulations, and a theoretical investigation, a general model is developed of the flow dynamics of dense granular media immersed in air in an intermediate regime where both collisional and frictional interactions may affect the flow behavior. The model is tested using the example of a system in which bubbles and solid structures are produced in granular films shaken vertically. Both experiments and large-scale, three-dimensional simulations of this system are performed. The experimental results are compared with the results of the simulation to verify the validity of the model. The data indicate evidence of formation of bubbles when peak acceleration relative to gravity exceeds a critical value Γ(b). The air-grain interfaces of bubblelike structures are found to exhibit fractal structure with dimension D=1.7±0.05.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Janiš, Václav; Pokorný, Vladislav
2014-01-01
Roč. 90, č. 4 (2014), "045143-1"-"045143-11" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metal-insulator transition * disordered and interacting electron systems * dynamical mean-field theory * critical behavior Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maetz, J; Butt, N M; Jex, H; Muellner, M [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik
1979-01-01
The critical scattering near the phase transition of RbCaF/sub 3/ from its cubic to the tetragonal structure at Tsub(c)=196 K is investigated. Moessbauer diffraction is applied to separate elastic and inelastic scattering intensities with energy resolution of 60 neV. The influence of domains is shown from X-ray diffraction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monthus, Cecile; Garel, Thomas
2009-01-01
For Anderson localization on the Cayley tree, we study the statistics of various observables as a function of the disorder strength W and the number N of generations. We first consider the Landauer transmission T N . In the localized phase, its logarithm follows the traveling wave form T N ≅(ln T N )-bar + ln t* where (i) the disorder-averaged value moves linearly (ln(T N ))-bar≅-N/ξ loc and the localization length diverges as ξ loc ∼(W-W c ) -ν loc with ν loc = 1 and (ii) the variable t* is a fixed random variable with a power-law tail P*(t*) ∼ 1/(t*) 1+β(W) for large t* with 0 N are governed by rare events. In the delocalized phase, the transmission T N remains a finite random variable as N → ∞, and we measure near criticality the essential singularity (ln(T ∞ ))-bar∼-|W c -W| -κ T with κ T ∼ 0.25. We then consider the statistical properties of normalized eigenstates Σ x |ψ(x)| 2 = 1, in particular the entropy S = -Σ x |ψ(x)| 2 ln |ψ(x)| 2 and the inverse participation ratios (IPR) I q = Σ x |ψ(x)| 2q . In the localized phase, the typical entropy diverges as S typ ∼( W-W c ) -ν S with ν S ∼ 1.5, whereas it grows linearly as S typ (N) ∼ N in the delocalized phase. Finally for the IPR, we explain how closely related variables propagate as traveling waves in the delocalized phase. In conclusion, both the localized phase and the delocalized phase are characterized by the traveling wave propagation of some probability distributions, and the Anderson localization/delocalization transition then corresponds to a traveling/non-traveling critical point. Moreover, our results point toward the existence of several length scales that diverge with different exponents ν at criticality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rentzsch, R.; Reich, Ch.; Ionov, A.N.; Ginodman, V.; Slimak, I.; Fozooni, P.; Lea, M.J.
1999-01-01
We present a critical review of the present status of the critical exponent puzzle of the metal-insulator transition of doped semiconductors with the emphasis on the role of meso- and macroscopy inhomogeneity caused by the disorder of acceptors and donors in the crystals. By using the isotopic and engineering and the neutron transmutation doping of germanium we found for low compensations (at K = 1.4 and 12%) that the critical exponents of the localization length and the dielectric constant are nearly ν = 1/2 and ξ = 1, which double for medium compensations (at K = 39 and 54%) to ν 1 and ξ = 2, respectively
Structure of positive streamers inside gaseous bubbles immersed in liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J
2009-01-01
Electric discharges and streamers in liquids typically proceed through vapour phase channels produced by the streamer or in gaseous bubbles. The bubbles can originate by enthalpy changes produced by the discharge or can be artificially injected into the liquid. Experiments on streamers in bubbles immersed in liquids have shown that the discharge propagates either along the surface of the bubble or through the volume of the bubble as in conventional streamer propagation in air. In this paper we report on results of a computational investigation of streamer propagation through bubbles immersed in liquids. We found that the dielectric constant of the liquid in large part determines the path the streamer takes. Streamers in bubbles immersed in a liquid with a high permittivity preferentially propagate along the surface of the bubble. Liquids with low permittivity can result in the streamer propagating along the axis of the bubble. The permittivity at which this transition occurs is a function of the applied voltage, size of the bubble and the conductivity of the liquid. (fast track communication)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)
1995-09-01
In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, L.J., E-mail: dinglinjie82@126.com; Zhong, Y.
2017-07-15
Highlights: • The quantum critical scaling is investigated by Green’s function theory. • The obtained power-law critical exponents (β, δ and α) obey the critical scaling relation α + β(1 + δ) = 2. • The scaling hypothesis equations are proposed to verify the scaling analysis. - Abstract: The quantum phase transition and thermodynamics of a periodic Anderson-like polymer chain in a magnetic field are investigated by Green’s function theory. The T-h phase diagram is explored, wherein a crossover temperature T{sup ∗} denoting the gapless phase crossover into quantum critical regimes, smoothly connects near the critical fields to the universal linear line T{sup ∗} ∼ (h − h{sub c,s}), and ends at h{sub c,s}, providing a new route to capture quantum critical point (QCP). The quantum critical scaling around QCPs is demonstrated by analyzing magnetization, specific heat and Grüneisen parameter Γ{sub h}, which provide direct access to distill the power-law critical exponents (β, δ and α) obeying the critical scaling relation α + β(1 + δ) = 2, analogous to the quantum spin system. Furthermore, scaling hypothesis equations are proposed to check the scaling analysis, for which all the data collapse onto a single curve or two independent branches for the plot against an appropriate scaling variable, indicating the self-consistency and reliability of the obtained critical exponents.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilt, R.H.
1990-01-01
The deliverability issue currently being discussed within the natural gas industry involves both near-term and long-term questions. In the near-term, over the next two or three years, it is probable that the natural gas industry will need to mobilize for much greater levels of investment than have been the experience over the past few years. In the longer-term, it is expected that new opportunities for gas will arise as the nation seeks to meet increasing energy requirements within new environmental constraints. Methane for emissions control, CNG vehicles, expanded gas-fired electricity generation, and increased efficiency of traditional energy services are just a few examples. The issues in the longer-term center on the ability of the gas industry to meet increasing supply requirements reliably and at cost-competitive prices for these markets. This paper begins by reviewing the historical situation of gas deliverability that is the capability of the gas producing and transportation portions of the industry. The delivery system's ability to handle shifts in the centers of consumption and production is discussed, with an emphasis on regional problems of gas deliverability and potential bottlenecks. On the production side, the paper reviews the capability and the required investment necessary to handle an orderly transition to a stable supply and demand balance once the elusive bubble had finally disappeared
Žunkovič, Bojan; Heyl, Markus; Knap, Michael; Silva, Alessandro
2018-03-01
We theoretically study the dynamics of a transverse-field Ising chain with power-law decaying interactions characterized by an exponent α , which can be experimentally realized in ion traps. We focus on two classes of emergent dynamical critical phenomena following a quantum quench from a ferromagnetic initial state: The first one manifests in the time-averaged order parameter, which vanishes at a critical transverse field. We argue that such a transition occurs only for long-range interactions α ≤2 . The second class corresponds to the emergence of time-periodic singularities in the return probability to the ground-state manifold which is obtained for all values of α and agrees with the order parameter transition for α ≤2 . We characterize how the two classes of nonequilibrium criticality correspond to each other and give a physical interpretation based on the symmetry of the time-evolved quantum states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Da-Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo
2014-01-01
We investigate the phenomenon of sudden transitions in geometric quantum correlation of two qubits in spin chain environments at finite temperature. It is shown that when only one qubit is coupled to the spin environment, the geometric discord exhibits a double sudden transition behavior, which is closely related to the quantum criticality of the spin chain environment. When two qubits are uniformly coupled to a common spin chain environment, the geometric discord is found to display a sudden transition behavior whereby the system transits from pure classical decoherence to pure quantum decoherence. Moreover, an interesting scaling behavior is revealed for the frozen time, and we also present a scheme to prolong the time during which the discord remains constant by applying bang–bang pulses. (paper)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 6. Soap Bubbles and Crystals. Jean E Taylor. General Article Volume 11 Issue 6 June 2006 pp 26-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/06/0026-0030. Keywords. Soap bubble ...
van der Veen, Roeland
2016-01-01
In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study
Single bubble sonoluminescence
Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef
2002-01-01
Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light
Flow visualization using bubbles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henry, J.P.
1974-01-01
Soap bubbles were used for visualizing flows. The tests effected allowed some characteristics of flows around models in blow tunnels to be precised at mean velocities V 0 5 . The velocity of a bubble is measured by chronophotography, the bulk envelope of the trajectories is also registered [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakata, Kaoru; Mashiko, Hiroyuki; Oka, Yoshiaki; An, Shigehiro; Isozaki, Tadashi.
1981-06-01
An experiment simulating the behavior of the very large steam bubbles generated at the time of an accident of core collapse was carried out with a warm water tank, and the applicability of the theory of very small bubble disappearance known at present was examined. The bubbles generated in HCDA (hypothetical core disruptive accident) are expected to be very large, containing sodium, fuel, FP gas and so on, and play important role in the mechanism of emitting radioactive substances in the safety analysis of LMFBRs. In this experiment, the degree of subcool of the warm water pool, the initial radii of steam bubbles and the blowoff pressure of steam were taken as the parameters. The radius of the steam bubbles generated in the experiment was about 6.5 cm, and the state of disappearance was different above and below the degree of unsaturation of 10 deg C. Comparing the disappearance curve obtained by the experiment with the theory of disappearance of small bubbles, the experimental values were between inertia-controlled disappearance and heat transfer-controlled disappearance, and this result was able to be explained generally with the model taking the pressure change within steam bubbles into account. The rise of bubbles was also observed. (Kako, I.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun
2015-01-01
Strain-induced deformations in graphene are predicted to give rise to large pseudomagnetic fields. We examine theoretically the case of gas-inflated bubbles to determine whether signatures of such fields are present in the local density of states. Sharp-edged bubbles are found to induce Friedel...
Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles
Goodwin, Alan
2012-01-01
Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…
Particle-bubble aggregate stability on static bubble generated by single nozzle on flotation process
Warjito, Harinaldi, Setyantono, Manus; Siregar, Sahala D.
2016-06-01
There are three sub-processes on flotation. These processes are intervening liquid film into critical thickness, rupture of liquid film forming three phase contact line, and expansion three phase contact line forming aggregate stability. Aggregate stability factor contribute to determine flotation efficiency. Aggregate stability has some important factors such as reagent and particle geometry. This research focussed on to understand effect of particle geometry to aggregate stability. Experimental setup consists of 9 x 9 x26 cm flotation column made of glass, bubble generator, particle feeding system, and high speed video camera. Bubble generator made from single nozzle with 0.3 mm diameter attached to programmable syringe pump. Particle feeding system made of pipette. Particle used in this research is taken from open pit Grasberg in Timika, Papua. Particle has sub-angular geometry and its size varies from 38 to 300 µm. Bubble-particle interaction are recorded using high speed video camera. Recordings from high speed video camera analyzed using image processing software. Experiment result shows that aggregate particle-bubble and induction time depends on particle size. Small particle (38-106 µm) has long induction time and able to rupture liquid film and also forming three phase contact line. Big particle (150-300 µm) has short induction time, so it unable to attach with bubble easily. This phenomenon is caused by apparent gravity work on particle-bubble interaction. Apparent gravity worked during particle sliding on bubble surface experience increase and reached its maximum magnitude at bubble equator. After particle passed bubble equator, apparent gravity force experience decrease. In conclusion particle size from 38-300 µm can form stable aggregate if particle attached with bubble in certain condition.
Hüfner, J.; Klevansky, S. P.; Rehberg, P.
1996-02-01
Critical phenomena associated with Mott transitions are investigated in the finite temperature SUf(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, that describes quarks u, d, s and bound mesons π, K. Critical exponents for the behavior close to the Mott temperature TM are determined for the static properties of a pion, such as mπ( T), gπqq( T), fπ( T), π, and the pion polarizabilities αC, N, as well as for the behavior of mK( T), gKqs( T) fK( T) in the strange sector. The effect of the Mott transitions on the q overlineq and ππ scattering lengths and for hadronization cross sections σ q overlineq→ππ (T) is discussed. Divergencies that occur in these quantities at TM indicate an intransparence with respect to hadronic and photonic probes, much like the phenomenon of critical opalescence. Physically, the Mott transition models the deconfinement transition expected of QCD since it corresponds to a delocalizayion of the bound states when the temperature is raised above TM.
Werner, Gerhard
2009-04-01
In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated.
Tengdin, Phoebe; You, Wenjing; Chen, Cong; Shi, Xun; Zusin, Dmitriy; Zhang, Yingchao; Gentry, Christian; Blonsky, Adam; Keller, Mark; Oppeneer, Peter M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Tao, Zhensheng; Murnane, Margaret M
2018-03-01
It has long been known that ferromagnets undergo a phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic at the Curie temperature, associated with critical phenomena such as a divergence in the heat capacity. A ferromagnet can also be transiently demagnetized by heating it with an ultrafast laser pulse. However, to date, the connection between out-of-equilibrium and equilibrium phase transitions, or how fast the out-of-equilibrium phase transitions can proceed, was not known. By combining time- and angle-resolved photoemission with time-resolved transverse magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopies, we show that the same critical behavior also governs the ultrafast magnetic phase transition in nickel. This is evidenced by several observations. First, we observe a divergence of the transient heat capacity of the electron spin system preceding material demagnetization. Second, when the electron temperature is transiently driven above the Curie temperature, we observe an extremely rapid change in the material response: The spin system absorbs sufficient energy within the first 20 fs to subsequently proceed through the phase transition, whereas demagnetization and the collapse of the exchange splitting occur on much longer, fluence-independent time scales of ~176 fs. Third, we find that the transient electron temperature alone dictates the magnetic response. Our results are important because they connect the out-of-equilibrium material behavior to the strongly coupled equilibrium behavior and uncover a new time scale in the process of ultrafast demagnetization.
The growth of oscillating bubbles in an ultrasound field
Yamauchi, Risa; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita
2017-11-01
From our recent experiments to test particle removal by underwater ultrasound, dissolved gas supersaturation is found to play an important role in physical cleaning; cavitation bubble nucleation can be triggered easily by weak ultrasound under the supersaturation and mild motion of the bubbles contributes to efficient cleaning without erosion. The state of gas bubble nuclei in water is critical to the determination of a cavitation inception threshold. Under ultrasound forcing, the size of bubble nuclei is varied by the transfer of dissolved gas (i.e., rectified diffusion); the growth rate will be promoted by the supersaturation and is thus expected to contribute to cavitation activity enhancement. In the present work, we experimentally study rectified diffusion for bubbles attached at glass surfaces in an ultrasound field. We will present the evolution of bubble nuclei sizes with varying parameters such as dissolved oxygen supersaturation, and ultrasound intensity and frequency. the Research Grant of Keio Leading-edge Laboratory of Science & Technology.
Rounding by disorder of first-order quantum phase transitions: emergence of quantum critical points.
Goswami, Pallab; Schwab, David; Chakravarty, Sudip
2008-01-11
We give a heuristic argument for disorder rounding of a first-order quantum phase transition into a continuous phase transition. From both weak and strong disorder analysis of the N-color quantum Ashkin-Teller model in one spatial dimension, we find that, for N > or =3, the first-order transition is rounded to a continuous transition and the physical picture is the same as the random transverse field Ising model for a limited parameter regime. The results are strikingly different from the corresponding classical problem in two dimensions where the fate of the renormalization group flows is a fixed point corresponding to N-decoupled pure Ising models.
Critical slowing down associated with regime shifts in the US housing market
Tan, James Peng Lung; Cheong, Siew Siew Ann
2014-02-01
Complex systems are described by a large number of variables with strong and nonlinear interactions. Such systems frequently undergo regime shifts. Combining insights from bifurcation theory in nonlinear dynamics and the theory of critical transitions in statistical physics, we know that critical slowing down and critical fluctuations occur close to such regime shifts. In this paper, we show how universal precursors expected from such critical transitions can be used to forecast regime shifts in the US housing market. In the housing permit, volume of homes sold and percentage of homes sold for gain data, we detected strong early warning signals associated with a sequence of coupled regime shifts, starting from a Subprime Mortgage Loans transition in 2003-2004 and ending with the Subprime Crisis in 2007-2008. Weaker signals of critical slowing down were also detected in the US housing market data during the 1997-1998 Asian Financial Crisis and the 2000-2001 Technology Bubble Crisis. Backed by various macroeconomic data, we propose a scenario whereby hot money flowing back into the US during the Asian Financial Crisis fueled the Technology Bubble. When the Technology Bubble collapsed in 2000-2001, the hot money then flowed into the US housing market, triggering the Subprime Mortgage Loans transition in 2003-2004 and an ensuing sequence of transitions. We showed how this sequence of couple transitions unfolded in space and in time over the whole of US.
Bubble coalescence in a Newtonian fluid
Garg, Vishrut; Basaran, Osman
2017-11-01
Bubble coalescence plays a central role in the hydrodynamics of gas-liquid systems such as bubble column reactors, spargers, and foams. Two bubbles approaching each other at velocity V coalesce when the thin film between them ruptures, which is often the rate-limiting step. Experimental studies of this system are difficult, and recent works provide conflicting results on the effect of V on coalescence times. We simulate the head-on approach of two bubbles of equal radii R in an incompressible Newtonian fluid (density ρ, viscosity μ, and surface tension σ) by solving numerically the free boundary problem comprised of the Navier Stokes and continuity equations. Simulations are made challenging by the existence of highly disparate lengthscales, i.e. film thickness and drop radii, which are resolved by using the method of elliptic mesh generation. For a given liquid, the bubbles are shown to coalesce for all velocities below a critical value. The effects of Ohnesorge number Oh = μ /√{ ρσR } on coalescence time and critical velocity are also investigated.
Theory calculation of combination of 'embryo' bubble growing-up visible bubble in bubble chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Zipiao; Sheng Xiangdong; Dai Changjiang
2004-01-01
By aid of island combination theory of 'embryo' bubble, it is resolved well the question which 'embryo' bubble grows up a visible bubble in the bubble chamber. Through theory calculation it is shown that radius of the big' embryo' bubble combinated not only relates with work matter such as surface tension coefficient, saturation vapour pressure and boiling point of liquid, but also does absorbing quantity of heat and the numbers of 'embryo' bubbles combination. It is explained reasonably that the radius of bubbles in bubble chamber is different for the same energies of neutrons and proton. The track of neutron in bubble chamber is long and thin, and the track of proton in bubble chamber is wide and short. It is also explained reasonably that the bubble radius of the incident particles with more charges which there are the same energies will be wider than that of the incident particles with less charges in the track. (author)
Abrahams, Elihu; Wölfle, Peter
2012-01-01
We use the recently developed critical quasiparticle theory to derive the scaling behavior associated with a quantum critical point in a correlated metal. This is applied to the magnetic-field induced quantum critical point observed in YbRh2Si2, for which we also derive the critical behavior of the specific heat, resistivity, thermopower, magnetization and susceptibility, the Grüneisen coefficient, and the thermal expansion coefficient. The theory accounts very well for the available experimental results. PMID:22331893
Critical properties of phase transitions in lattices of coupled logistic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcq, Philippe; Chate, Hugues; Manneville, Paul
2006-01-01
We numerically demonstrate that collective bifurcations in two-dimensional lattices of locally coupled logistic maps share most of the defining features of equilibrium second-order phase transitions. Our simulations suggest that these transitions between distinct collective dynamical regimes belong to the universality class of Miller and Huse model with synchronous update. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Miok [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jiwon; Oh, Jae-Hyuk [Hanyang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-11-15
Einstein-scalar-U(2) gauge field theory is considered in a spacetime characterized by α and z, which are the hyperscaling violation factor and the dynamical critical exponent, respectively. We consider a dual fluid system of such a gravity theory characterized by temperature T and chemical potential μ. It turns out that there is a superfluid phase transition where a vector order parameter appears which breaks SO(3) global rotation symmetry of the dual fluid system when the chemical potential becomes a certain critical value. To study this system for arbitrary z and α, we first apply Sturm-Liouville theory and estimate the upper bounds of the critical values of the chemical potential. We also employ a numerical method in the ranges of 1 ≤ z ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ α ≤ 4 to check if the Sturm-Liouville method correctly estimates the critical values of the chemical potential. It turns out that the two methods are agreed within 10 percent error ranges. Finally, we compute free energy density of the dual fluid by using its gravity dual and check if the system shows phase transition at the critical values of the chemical potential μ{sub c} for the given parameter region of α and z. Interestingly, it is observed that the anisotropic phase is more favored than the isotropic phase for relatively small values of z and α. However, for large values of z and α, the anisotropic phase is not favored. (orig.)
Bullis, Michael; Reiman, John W.
1989-01-01
Surveyed national sample of 307 professionals in relevant fields to obtain professional opinion on critical competencies necessary for deaf individuals to live and work successfully in the community. Findings identified 12 critical skills in employment and 10 critical skills in independent living. (Author/NB)
Thorpe, S. A.
1980-01-01
The physical processes which control the transfer of gases between the atmosphere and oceans or lakes are poorly understood. Clouds of micro-bubbles have been detected below the surface of Loch Ness when the wind is strong enough to cause the waves to break. The rate of transfer of gas into solution from these bubbles is estimated to be significant if repeated on a global scale. We present here further evidence that the bubbles are caused by breaking waves, and discuss the relationship between the mean frequency of wave breaking at a fixed point and the average distance between breaking waves, as might be estimated from an aerial photograph.
Rotating bubble membrane radiator
Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.
1988-12-06
A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.
Bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies
Fry, John
2014-01-01
In this paper we provide a unifying framework for a set of seemingly disparate models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies in financial markets. Markets operate by balancing intrinsic levels of risk and return. This seemingly simple observation is commonly over-looked by academics and practitioners alike. Our model shares its origins in statistical physics with others. However, under our approach, changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. This structure leads to an improved physical and econometric model. We develop models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies. The list of empirical applications is both interesting and topical and includes real-estate bubbles and the on-going Eurozone crisis. We close by comparing the results of our model with purely qualitative findings from the finance literature.
Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.
1994-09-01
The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer
Bubble Collision in Curved Spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han
2014-01-01
We study vacuum bubble collisions in curved spacetime, in which vacuum bubbles were nucleated in the initial metastable vacuum state by quantum tunneling. The bubbles materialize randomly at different times and then start to grow. It is known that the percolation by true vacuum bubbles is not possible due to the exponential expansion of the space among the bubbles. In this paper, we consider two bubbles of the same size with a preferred axis and assume that two bubbles form very near each other to collide. The two bubbles have the same field value. When the bubbles collide, the collided region oscillates back-and-forth and then the collided region eventually decays and disappears. We discuss radiation and gravitational wave resulting from the collision of two bubbles
Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai
2002-01-01
Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harigel, G.G.
1988-01-01
Various sources and mechanisms for bubble formation in superheated liquids are discussed. Bubble chambers can be filled with a great variety of liquids, such as e.g. the cryogenic liquids hydrogen, deuterium, neon, neon/hydrogen mixtures, argon, nitrogen, argon/nitrogen mixtures, or the warm liquids propane and various Freon like Freon-13B1. The superheated state is normally achieved by a rapid movement of an expansion piston or membrane, but can also be produced by standing ultrasonic waves, shock waves, or putting liquids under tension. Bubble formation can be initiated by ionizing particles, by intense (laser) light, or on rough surfaces. The creation of embryonic bubbles is not completely understood, but the macroscopic growth and condensation can be calculated, allowing to estimate the dynamic heat load [fr
Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation
1971-01-01
These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.
Critical exponents in the transition to chaos in one-dimensional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The transition from periodic to chaotic behavior in one-dimensional discrete dynamical systems .... consider the reverse sequence from µb to µ∞, a ... at which the change from one scaling region to another takes place, with the higher order. 12.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fairholme, R.J.
1978-01-01
Magnetic bubbles were first described only ten years ago when research workers were discussing orthoferrites containing μm diameter bubbles. However, problems of material fabrication limit crystals to a few mm across which severely curtailed device development. Since then materials have changed and rare-earth-iron garnet films can be grown up 3 inches in diameter with bubble diameters down to sizes below 1 μm. The first commercial products have device capacities in the range 64 000 to 100 000 bits with bubble diameters between 4 and 6 μm. Chip capacities of 1 Mbit are presently under development in the laboratory, as are new techniques to use submicrometre bubbles. The operation and fabrication of a bubble device is described using the serial loop devices currently being manufactured at Plessey as models. Chip organization is one important variable which directly affects the access time. A range of access times and capacities is available which offers a wide range of market opportunities, ranging from consumer products to fixed head disc replacements. some of the application areas are described. (author)
Bubble transport in bifurcations
Bull, Joseph; Qamar, Adnan
2017-11-01
Motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment, we examine the transport of bubbles entrained in liquid. In gas embolotherapy, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that originate from acoustic vaporization of vascular droplets. In the case of non-functionalized droplets with the objective of vessel occlusion, the bubbles are transported by flow through vessel bifurcations, where they may split prior to eventually reach vessels small enough that they become lodged. This splitting behavior affects the distribution of bubbles and the efficacy of flow occlusion and the treatment. In these studies, we investigated bubble transport in bifurcations using computational and theoretical modeling. The model reproduces the variety of experimentally observed splitting behaviors. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The initial bubble length was found to affect the splitting behavior in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yu; Pan Feng; Liu Yuxin; Luo Yanan; Draayer, J. P.
2011-01-01
An analytically solvable model, X(3/2j+1), is proposed to describe odd-A nuclei near the X(3) critical point. The model is constructed based on a collective core described by the X(3) critical point symmetry coupled to a spin-j particle. A detailed analysis of the spectral patterns for cases j=1/2 and j=3/2 is provided to illustrate dynamical features of the model. By comparing theory with experimental data and results of other models, it is found that the X(3/2j+1) model can be taken as a simple yet very effective scheme to describe those odd-A nuclei with an even-even core at the critical point of the spherical to axially deformed shape phase transition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candia, J.Julian; Albano, E.V.Ezequiel V.
2003-01-01
An exhaustive numerical investigation of the growth of magnetic films in confined (d+1)-dimensional stripped geometries (d=1,2) is carried out by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Films in contact with a thermal bath at temperature T, are grown by adding spins having two possible orientations and considering ferromagnetic (nearest-neighbor) interactions. At low temperatures, thin films of thickness L are constituted by a sequence of well-ordered domains of average length l D >>L. These domains have opposite magnetization. So, the films exhibit 'spontaneous magnetization reversal' during the growth process. Such reversal occurs within a short characteristic length l R , such that l D >>l R ∼L. Furthermore, it is found that for d=1 the system is non-critical, while a continuous order-disorder phase transition at finite temperature takes place in the d=2 case. Using standard finite-size scaling procedures, the critical temperature and some relevant critical exponents are determined. Finally, the growth of magnetic films in (2+1) dimensions with competing short-range magnetic fields acting along the confinement walls is studied. Due to the antisymmetric condition considered, an interface between domains with spins having opposite orientation develops along the growing direction. Such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition that is the precursor of a wetting transition in the thermodynamic limit. Furthermore, the growing interface also undergoes morphological transitions in the growth mode. A comparison between the well-studied equilibrium Ising model and the studied irreversible magnetic growth model is performed throughout. Although valuable analogies are encountered, it is found that the non-equilibrium nature of the latter introduces new and rich physical features of interest
Formation of Nitrogen Bubbles During Solidification of Duplex Stainless Steels
Dai, Kaiju; Wang, Bo; Xue, Fei; Liu, Shanshan; Huang, Junkai; Zhang, Jieyu
2018-04-01
The nucleation and growth of nitrogen bubbles for duplex stainless steels are of great significance for the formation mechanism of bubbles during solidification. In the current study, numerical method and theoretical analysis of formula derivation were used to study the formation of nitrogen bubbles during solidification. The critical sizes of the bubble for homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation at the solid-liquid interface during solidification were derived theoretically by the classical nucleation theory. The results show that the calculated values for the solubility of nitrogen in duplex stainless steel are in good agreement with the experimental values which are quoted by references: for example, when the temperature T = 1823 K and the nitrogen partial pressure P_{{N2 }} = 40P^{Θ} , the calculated value (0.8042 wt pct) for the solubility of Fe-12Cr alloy nitrogen in molten steel is close to the experimental value (0.780 wt pct). Moreover, the critical radii for homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation are identical during solidification. On the one hand, with the increasing temperature or the melt depth, the critical nucleation radius of bubbles at the solid-liquid interface increases, but the bubble growth rate decreases. On the other hand, with the decreasing initial content of nitrogen or the cooling rate, the critical nucleation radius of bubbles at the solid-liquid interface increases, but the bubble growth rate decreases. Furthermore, when the melt depth is greater than the critical depth, which is determined by the technological conditions, the change in the Gibbs free energy for the nucleation is not conducive enough to form new bubbles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)
2017-08-01
The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of the neutral vanadium atom, V i, have been compiled. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentage compositions for the levels are included where available, as well as wavelengths calculated from the energy levels (Ritz wavelengths). Wavelengths are reported for 3985 transitions, and 549 energy levels are determined. The observed relative intensities normalized to a common scale are provided.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...
Colliding with a crunching bubble
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freivogel, Ben; Freivogel, Ben; Horowitz, Gary T.; Shenker, Stephen
2007-03-26
In the context of eternal inflation we discuss the fate of Lambda = 0 bubbles when they collide with Lambda< 0 crunching bubbles. When the Lambda = 0 bubble is supersymmetric, it is not completely destroyed by collisions. If the domain wall separating the bubbles has higher tension than the BPS bound, it is expelled from the Lambda = 0 bubble and does not alter its long time behavior. If the domain wall saturates the BPS bound, then it stays inside the Lambda = 0 bubble and removes a finite fraction of future infinity. In this case, the crunch singularity is hidden behind the horizon of a stable hyperbolic black hole.
1. Seeding native plants is a key management practice to counter land degradation across the globe, yet the majority of seeding efforts fail, limiting the ability of this tool to accelerate ecosystem recovery. 2. Seedling recruitment requires transitions through several life stages, some of which ma...
A Critical Analysis on Primary Schools Preparedness for the Transition of Autistic Children in Kenya
Otina, Salmon O.; Thinguri, Ruth W.
2016-01-01
Autistic children, characterized by impaired social interactions, impaired communication, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviors, are also entitled to education just like the other children in the society. It is therefore important that primary schools in Kenya get prepared so that the children are able to transit to schools from their…
Ballard, Mary B.
2012-01-01
Transitioning successfully from one stage of development to the next in the family life cycle requires the accomplishment of certain developmental tasks. Couples and families who fail to accomplish these tasks often become "stuck" and unable to move forward. This impasse frequently leads to heightened stress reactions and crippled channels of…
Boiling transition phenomenon in BWR fuel assemblies effect of fuel spacer shape on critical power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Yasushi; Morooka, Shin-ichi; Mitsutake, Toru; Yokobori, Seiichi; Kimura, Jiro.
1996-01-01
A thorough understanding of the thermal-hydraulic phenomena near fuel spacer is necessary for the accurate prediction of the critical power of BWR fuel assemblies, and is thus essential for effective developments of a new BWR fuel assembly. The main purpose of this study is to develop an accurate method for predicting the effect of spacer shapes on critical power. Tests have been conducted under actual BWR operating conditions, using an annulus flow channel consisting of a heated rod and circular-tube channel, and BWR simulated 4x4 rod bundles with heater rods unheated just upsteam of spacer. The effect of spacer shapes on critical power was predicted analytically based on the droplet deposition rate estimation. The droplet deposition rate for different spacer shapes was calculated using a single-phase flow model. The prediction results were compared with the test results for the annulus flow channel using ring-type spacers. Analytical results of critical power agreed with measured critical power from point of the effects of changes in the rod-spacer clearance and the spacer thickness on critical power. (author)
Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo Leitao
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.
Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leitao, Leonardo, E-mail: lleitao@mdp.edu.ar; Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar
2016-04-15
In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.
Solitons and bubbles in models with Chern-Simons term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masperi, L.
1992-07-01
It is shown that a gauge theory for complex scalar field with up to sextic self-interactions and a Chern-Simons term in 2 + 1 dimensions has solitons which may become bubbles of the stable broken-symmetry phase in a medium of the symmetric one producing the first-order phase transition. In the non-relativistic limit scale invariance prevents the determination of an optimal bubble size. Possible extensions to 3 + 1 dimensions of bubbles of string type are indicated. (author). 8 refs
Towards the theory of the electroweak phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dine, M.; Leigh, R.G.; Huet, P.; Linde, A.; Linde, D.
1992-01-01
We investigate various problems related to the theory of the electroweak phase transition. This includes determination of the nature of the phase transition, discussion of the possible role of the higher-order radiative corrections, and the theory of the formation and evolution of bubbles of the new phase. We show, in particular, that no dangerous linear terms in the scalar field φ appear in the expression for the effective potential. We have found that, for the Higgs-boson mass smaller than the masses of W and Z bosons, the phase transition is of the first order. However, its strength is approximately 2/3 times less than what follows from the one-loop approximation. The phase transition occurs due to production and expansion of critical bubbles. Subcritical bubbles may be important only if the phase transition is very weakly first order. A general analytic expression for the probability of the bubble formation is obtained, which may be used for study of tunneling in a wide class of theories. The bubble-wall velocity depends on many factors, including the ratio of the mean free path of the particles to the thickness of the wall. Thin walls in the electroweak theory have a nonrelativistic velocity, whereas thick walls may be relativistic. A decrease of the cubic term by the factor 2/3 rules our baryogenesis in the minimal version of the electroweak theory. Even though we concentrate in this paper on the phase transition in this theory, most of our results can be applied to more general models as well, where baryogenesis is possible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kravtsov, V.E.; Mal'shukov, A.G.
1978-01-01
The influence of s-d Coulomb interaction on the superconductive critical temperature Tsub(c) of transition element compounds and their dilute alloys was investigated in the frame of Anderson model. Coulomb interaction of electrons with opposite spins on the same atom was considered in a ladder approximation valid when hybridization is sufficiently small while s-d Coulomb interaction has led to the 'parquet' summation. It is shown that s-d Coulomb interaction results in the decrease of Tsub(c) and hence the electron mechanism of superconductivity seems to be non-effective in systems under consideration. (author)
Laboratory experiments on fragmentation of highly-viscous bubbly syrup
Kurihara, H.; Kameda, M.; Ichihara, M.
2006-12-01
Fragmentation of vesicular magma by rapid decompression is a key process in explosive eruptions. To determine the fragmentation criteria, we carried out laboratory experiments on magma fragmentation using analogous materials. We used commercial syrup as an analogous material of magma, because the viscosity was widely altered by adding or subtracting water contents in the syrup. We made the bubbly syrup by adding hydrogen peroxide with manganese oxide in the syrup. The amount of hydrogen peroxide is proportional to the gas volume fraction in the syrup. We measured the rheological properties of the syrup. Zero shear viscosity η was measured by a rotating viscometer and a fiber elongation technique. Glass transition temperature was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The measured data indicated that the temperature dependence of viscosity was described well using Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. The solid content of syrup alters the viscosity as well as the glass transition temperature, though it may hardly affect the rigidity μ, which was measured by ultrasonic test in our previous work. We used a pressurized vertical tube with a large vacuum vessel to apply the rapid decompression on the material. An acrylic container, filled with the bubbly syrup, was placed in the bottom of the pressurized tube. By rupturing the diaphragms inserted between the tube and the vacuum vessel, the bubbly syrup is rapidly decompressed due to expansion of the pressurized gas in the tube. A high-speed video camera was used to obtain sequential images of the materials. Pressure transducers were mounted on the sidewall of the tube and the bottom of the container. The initial pressure was varied from 1 MPa to 5 MPa. The gas-volume fraction of the syrup under pressure was fixed as 2 % to 20%. The viscosity varied from 105 Pa·s to 108 Pa·s. We successfully observed three principal behaviors using the present analogous material; brittle fragmentation, partial fracture and
Understanding Transgender and Medically Assisted Gender Transition: Feminism as a Critical Resource.
Nelson, Jamie Lindemann
2016-11-01
Feminism has fought the trivialization of women's experiences, championed women's security, and insisted on respect for women's choices. In so doing, feminism has developed important perspectives on the complicated connections between what gender means as it plays itself in people's lives, and the inequalities of power and authority that structure much of human experience. Here, I put a few of these perspectives into contact with an issue where the interactions of gender and power are squarely in play: medicine's role in assisting gender transitioning generally and, specifically, the enduring controversy between medicine and many transgender people about the pathologization of transgender and the role of clinicians as gatekeepers to gender-transition interventions. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Critical edge parameters for H-mode transition in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groebner, R.J.; Carlstrom, T.N.
1997-11-01
Measurements in DIII-D of edge ion and electron temperatures (T i and T e ) just prior to the transition to H-mode are presented. A fitting model based on a hyperbolic tangent function is used in the analysis. The edge temperatures are observed to increase during the L-phase with the application of auxiliary heating. The temperature rise is small if the H-mode power threshold is close to the Ohmic power level in the absence of auxiliary heating and is large if the H-mode threshold is well above the Ohmic power level. The edge temperatures just prior to the transition are approximately proportional to the toroidal magnetic field Bt for the field either in the reversed or forward direction. However, for the reversed magnetic field, the temperatures are at least a factor of two higher than for the forward direction
Single-bubble dynamics in pool boiling of one-component fluids
Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng
2014-01-01
We numerically investigate the pool boiling of one-component fluids with a focus on the effects of surface wettability on the single-bubble dynamics. We employed the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], a diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor flows involving liquid-vapor transition in nonuniform temperature fields. We first perform simulations for bubbles on homogeneous surfaces. We find that an increase in either the contact angle or the surface superheating can enhance the bubble spreading over the heating surface and increase the bubble departure diameter as well and therefore facilitate the transition into film boiling. We then examine the dynamics of bubbles on patterned surfaces, which incorporate the advantages of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The central hydrophobic region increases the thermodynamic probability of bubble nucleation while the surrounding hydrophilic region hinders the continuous bubble spreading by pinning the contact line at the hydrophobic-hydrophilic intersection. This leads to a small bubble departure diameter and therefore prevents the transition from nucleate boiling into film boiling. With the bubble nucleation probability increased and the bubble departure facilitated, the efficiency of heat transfer on such patterned surfaces is highly enhanced, as observed experimentally [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 57, 733 (2013)]. In addition, the stick-slip motion of contact line on patterned surfaces is demonstrated in one-component fluids, with the effect weakened by surface superheating.
Single-bubble dynamics in pool boiling of one-component fluids
Xu, Xinpeng
2014-06-04
We numerically investigate the pool boiling of one-component fluids with a focus on the effects of surface wettability on the single-bubble dynamics. We employed the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], a diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor flows involving liquid-vapor transition in nonuniform temperature fields. We first perform simulations for bubbles on homogeneous surfaces. We find that an increase in either the contact angle or the surface superheating can enhance the bubble spreading over the heating surface and increase the bubble departure diameter as well and therefore facilitate the transition into film boiling. We then examine the dynamics of bubbles on patterned surfaces, which incorporate the advantages of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The central hydrophobic region increases the thermodynamic probability of bubble nucleation while the surrounding hydrophilic region hinders the continuous bubble spreading by pinning the contact line at the hydrophobic-hydrophilic intersection. This leads to a small bubble departure diameter and therefore prevents the transition from nucleate boiling into film boiling. With the bubble nucleation probability increased and the bubble departure facilitated, the efficiency of heat transfer on such patterned surfaces is highly enhanced, as observed experimentally [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 57, 733 (2013)]. In addition, the stick-slip motion of contact line on patterned surfaces is demonstrated in one-component fluids, with the effect weakened by surface superheating.
Wang, Ning; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Yu; Wang, Hui
2014-02-01
Active cooling with endothermic hydrocarbon fuel is proved to be one of the most promising approaches to solve the thermal problem for hypersonic aircraft such as scramjet. The flow patterns of two-phase flow inside the cooling channels have a great influence on the heat transfer characteristics. In this study, phase transition processes of RP-3 kerosene flowing inside a square quartz-glass tube were experimentally investigated. Three distinct phase transition phenomena (liquid-gas two phase flow under sub-critical pressures, critical opalescence under critical pressure, and corrugation under supercritical pressures) were identified. The conventional flow patterns of liquid-gas two phase flow, namely bubble flow, slug flow, churn flow and annular flow are observed under sub-critical pressures. Dense bubble flow and dispersed flow are recognized when pressure is increased towards the critical pressure whilst slug flow, churn flow and annular flow disappear. Under critical pressure, the opalescence phenomenon is observed. Under supercritical pressures, no conventional phase transition characteristics, such as bubbles are observed. But some kind of corrugation appears when RP-3 transfers from liquid to supercritical. The refraction index variation caused by sharp density gradient near the critical temperature is thought to be responsible for this corrugation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)
2017-08-01
The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3 d {sup 4}, 3 d {sup 3} ns ( n = 4, 5, 6), 3 d {sup 3} np , and 3 d {sup 3} nd ( n = 4, 5), 3 d {sup 3}4 f , 3 d {sup 2}4 s {sup 2}, and 3 d {sup 2}4 s 4 p . Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm{sup −1}, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm{sup −1} higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.
Cell-State Transitions Regulated by SLUG Are Critical for Tissue Regeneration and Tumor Initiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah Phillips
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Perturbations in stem cell activity and differentiation can lead to developmental defects and cancer. We use an approach involving a quantitative model of cell-state transitions in vitro to gain insights into how SLUG/SNAI2, a key developmental transcription factor, modulates mammary epithelial stem cell activity and differentiation in vivo. In the absence of SLUG, stem cells fail to transition into basal progenitor cells, while existing basal progenitor cells undergo luminal differentiation; together, these changes result in abnormal mammary architecture and defects in tissue function. Furthermore, we show that in the absence of SLUG, mammary stem cell activity necessary for tissue regeneration and cancer initiation is lost. Mechanistically, SLUG regulates differentiation and cellular plasticity by recruiting the chromatin modifier lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1 to promoters of lineage-specific genes to repress transcription. Together, these results demonstrate that SLUG plays a dual role in repressing luminal epithelial differentiation while unlocking stem cell transitions necessary for tumorigenesis.
Hamano, Katsumi; Hirotsu, Shunsuke
1980-01-01
Phenomenological equations are derived which interrelate the anomalies in various thermodynamic quantities above the transition point of a cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition caused by an instability of a triply degenerate soft mode. The anomalous part of the Gibbs free energy is assumed to be a simple sum of the three parts which represent the contributions from the three fluctuation components. A cylindrical approximation is adopted to each of the three contributions by taking into account the symmetry of the fluctuations. The theory predicts that the adiabatic elastic compliances, s11s, s12s, and also s11s-s12s should exhibit anomalies proportional to the anomaly in the specific heat at constant pressure. This is in marked contrast with the result of the generalized Pippard equations derived by Garland, and by Janovec. The new equations are successfully tested for KMnF3, CsPbCl3, and CsPbBr3. The β-γ transition of NH4Br is also discussed.
Critical linear thermal expansion in the smectic-A phase near the nematic-smectic phase transition.
Anesta, E; Iannacchione, G S; Garland, C W
2004-10-01
Recent high-resolution x-ray investigations of the smectic- A (SmA) phase near the nematic-to-SmA transition provide information about the critical behavior of the linear thermal expansion coefficient alpha// parallel to the director. Combining such data with available volume thermal expansion alpha(V) data yields the in-plane linear expansion coefficient alpha(perpendicular) . The critical behaviors of alpha// and alpha(perpendicular) are the same as those for alpha(V) and the heat capacity Cp. However, for any given liquid crystal, alpha//(crit) and alpha(perpendicular)(crit) differ in sign. Furthermore, the quantity alpha// (crit) is positive for SmAd partial bilayer smectics, while it is negative for nonpolar SmAm monomeric smectics. This feature is discussed in terms of the molecular structural aspects of these smectic phases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, C.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y., E-mail: hybai@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, B. A. [Centre for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
2016-02-07
We study serrated flow dynamics during brittle-to-ductile transition induced by tuning the sample aspect ratio in a Zr-based metallic glass. The statistical analysis reveals that the serrated flow dynamics transforms from a chaotic state characterized by Gaussian-distribution serrations corresponding to stick-slip motion of randomly generated and uncorrelated single shear band and brittle behavior, into a self-organized critical state featured by intermittent scale-free distribution of shear avalanches corresponding to a collective motion of multiple shear bands and ductile behavior. The correlation found between serrated flow dynamics and plastic deformation might shed light on the plastic deformation dynamic and mechanism in metallic glasses.
Food-web stability signals critical transitions in temperate shallow lakes
Kuiper, Jan J.; van Altena, Cassandra; de Ruiter, P.C.; Van Gerven, Luuk P.A.; Janse, Jan H.; Mooij, Wolf M.
2015-01-01
A principal aim of ecologists is to identify critical levels of environmental change beyond which ecosystems undergo radical shifts in their functioning. Both food-web theory and alternative stable states theory provide fundamental clues to mechanisms conferring stability to natural systems. Yet, it
Food-web stability signals critical transitions in temperate shallow lakes
Kuiper, J.J.; Altena, Van Cassandra; Ruiter, De P.C.; Gerven, Van L.P.A.; Janse, J.H.; Mooij, W.M.
2015-01-01
A principal aim of ecologists is to identify critical levels of environmental change beyond which ecosystems undergo radical shifts in their functioning. Both food-web theory and alternative stable states theory provide fundamental clues to mechanisms conferring stability to natural systems. Yet,
Organic superconductors with high transition temperatures and high critical magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, A.A.; Halpern, E.H.
1976-01-01
Organic compounds exhibit superconducting-like behavior, as to magnetic and electrical properties, at elevated temperatures above 21 0 K, where 21 0 K is the transition temperature of most known metallic superconducting materials. The structure of the organic materials according to this invention is a plurality of superconducting clusters, forming islands within a matrix of insulating material. The ratio of the clusters to the matrix material is a minimum at 1 : 10 4 . The organic compound comprises two distinct atomic groups termed an R group and COOM group combining as R-COOM with the COOM group clustering to form superconducting islands, within the R material matrix. 15 claims, 6 figures
Yasin, Sk. Mohammad; Srinivas, V.; Kasiviswanathan, S.; Vagadia, Megha; Nigam, A. K.
2018-04-01
In the present study magnetic and electrical transport properties of transition metal substituted Co-Ga alloys (near critical cobalt concentration) have been investigated. Analysis of temperature and field dependence of dc magnetization and ac susceptibility (ACS) data suggests an evidence of reentrant spin glass (RSG) phase in Co55.5TM3Ga41.5 (TM = Co, Cr, Fe, Cu). The magnetic transition temperatures (TC and Tf) are found to depend on the nature of TM element substitution with the exchange coupling strength Co-Fe > Co-Co > Co-Cu > Co-Cr. From magnetization dynamics precise transition temperatures for the glassy phases are estimated. It is found that characteristic relaxation times are higher than that of spin glasses with minimal spin-cluster formation. The RSG behavior has been further supported by the temperature dependence of magnetotransport studies. From the magnetic field and substitution effects it has been established that the magnetic and electrical transport properties are correlated in this system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anisimov, M.A.; Agayan, V.A.; Collings, P.J.
1998-01-01
The analogy with the liquid-gas critical point is analyzed to clarify the nature of the pretransitional behavior of physical properties in the vicinity of the Blue-Phase-III endash isotropic transition in chiral liquid crystalline systems. The analogy is unusual: temperature serves as the ordering field and entropy plays the role of the order parameter. Both mean field and parametric equations of state are formulated in terms of scaling fields. The scaling fields are linear combinations of the physical fields, which are temperature and chirality. It is shown that mixing of the physical field variables naturally leads to a strong asymmetry with respect to the transition temperature in the behavior of the physical properties that cannot be described by simple power laws. While the mean field theory gives a good description of the experimental data, the scaling theory, if one incorporates mixing of the field variables, gives even better agreement with the experimental data, placing this transition in the same universality class as the three-dimensional Ising model. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Ultrasound for critical care physicians: tiny bubbles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aslam K
2015-05-01
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. A 59 year old woman with a past medical history significant for stage IV MALT lymphoma (after chemotherapy and in remission presented from a long term care facility for respiratory distress and altered mental status. The patient was in hypercarbic respiratory failure with a severe lactic acidosis. Her blood pressure deteriorated, she was begun on vasopressors and intubated. Pertinent labs demonstrated a white blood cell count of 0.9 X106 /ml, a hemoglobin of 7.1 g/dl, and a platelet count 66 X106 /ml. The patient was started on Cefepime and Linezolid presumptively for septic shock. Ultrasounds of her thorax were performed (Videos 1 & 2. What is the best explanation for the ultrasound findings shown above?1. Large pleural effusion; 2. Pneumothorax; 3. Consolidation due to pneumonia; 4. Ruptured diaphragm; 5. Lung abscess
Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R.A.
1995-01-01
The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure much-lt external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ''sling shot'' that is ''loaded'' to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10 -5 --10 -6 are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted
CERN PhotoLab
1965-01-01
The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.
2001-01-01
Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Emma.Sanders@cern.ch Thank you
CERN PhotoLab
1972-01-01
Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.
Intermittency at critical transitions and aging dynamics at the onset of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. ... Pf. 1. Introduction. Ever since the proposition, in 1988, by Tsallis [1,2] of a ... namics associated with critical attractors in prototypical nonlinear one-dimensional maps ... Here we review briefly the specific .... power-law decay of the form τ−1/1−q with q = 1−ln 2/(ζ −1) ln α(ζ), where α(ζ) is.
Decoding critical long non-coding RNA in ovarian cancer epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
Mitra, Ramkrishna; Chen, Xi; Greenawalt, Evan J; Maulik, Ujjwal; Jiang, Wei; Zhao, Zhongming; Eischen, Christine M
2017-11-17
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) are emerging as contributors to malignancies. Little is understood about the contribution of lncRNA to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which correlates with metastasis. Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed after metastasis. Here we report an integrated analysis of >700 ovarian cancer molecular profiles, including genomic data sets, from four patient cohorts identifying lncRNA DNM3OS, MEG3, and MIAT overexpression and their reproducible gene regulation in ovarian cancer EMT. Genome-wide mapping shows 73% of MEG3-regulated EMT-linked pathway genes contain MEG3 binding sites. DNM3OS overexpression, but not MEG3 or MIAT, significantly correlates to worse overall patient survival. DNM3OS knockdown results in altered EMT-linked genes/pathways, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, and reduced cell migration and invasion. Proteotranscriptomic characterization further supports the DNM3OS and ovarian cancer EMT connection. TWIST1 overexpression and DNM3OS amplification provides an explanation for increased DNM3OS levels. Therefore, our results elucidate lncRNA that regulate EMT and demonstrate DNM3OS specifically contributes to EMT in ovarian cancer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimes, JirI; Michaelides, Angelos; Bowler, David R
2010-01-01
The performance of a variety of techniques for locating transition states on potential energy surfaces is evaluated within the density functional theory framework. Diffusion of a water molecule across NaCl(001) and HCl bond breaking on the same surface are treated as general test cases; the former is an example of a low barrier diffusion process and the latter an example of a relatively high barrier covalent bond rupture event. The methods considered include the nudged elastic band (NEB), Dewar, Healy and Stewart (DHS), dimer, constrained optimization (CO), activation-relaxation technique (ART) and one-side growing string (OGS) as well as novel combinations of the DHS with growing string (DHS + GS) and DHS plus climbing image (CI-DHS). A key conclusion to come from this study is that the NEB method is relatively fast, especially when just a single (climbing) image is used. Indeed, using more images represents an unnecessary computational burden for our set of processes. The dimer method exhibits variable performance; being poor for the water diffusion processes, which have small activation energies, but much more efficient for the HCl bond breaking process which has a higher barrier. When only a poor initial guess of the transition state geometry is available, the CI-DHS scheme is one of the most efficient techniques considered. And as a means to quickly establish an approximate minimum energy pathway the DHS + GS scheme offers some potential.
Nucleation of relativistic first-order phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csernai, L.P.; Kapusta, J.I.
1992-01-01
The authors apply the general formalism of Langer to compute the nucleation rate for systems of relativistic particles with zero or small baryon number density and which undergo first-order phase transitions. In particular, the pre-exponential factor is computed and it is proportional to the viscosity. The initial growth rate of a critical size bubble or droplet is limited by the ability of dissipative processes to transport latent heat away from the surface. 30 refs., 4 figs
Bubble dynamics and bubble-induced turbulence of a single-bubble chain
Lee, Joohyoung; Park, Hyungmin
2016-11-01
In the present study, the bubble dynamics and liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles injected from a single nozzle have been experimentally investigated. Using a high-speed two-phase particle image velociemtry, measurements on the bubbles and liquid-phase velocity field are conducted in a transparent tank filled with water, while varying the bubble release frequency from 0.1 to 35 Hz. The tested bubble size ranges between 2.0-3.2 mm, and the corresponding bubble Reynolds number is 590-1100, indicating that it belongs to the regime of path instability. As the release frequency increases, it is found that the global shape of bubble dispersion can be classified into two regimes: from asymmetric (regular) to axisymmetric (irregular). In particular, at higher frequency, the wake vortices of leading bubbles cause an irregular behaviour of the following bubble. For the liquid phase, it is found that a specific trend on the bubble-induced turbulence appears in a strong relation to the above bubble dynamics. Considering this, we try to provide a theoretical model to estimate the liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles. Supported by a Grant funded by Samsung Electronics, Korea.
Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flow in a square bubble column
Bai, Wei; Deen, Niels G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2010-01-01
The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical
Characteristics of bubble plumes, bubble-plume bubbles and waves from wind-steepened wave breaking
Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G. de
2007-01-01
Observations of breaking waves, associated bubble plumes and bubble-plume size distributions were used to explore the coupled evolution of wave-breaking, wave properties and bubble-plume characteristics. Experiments were made in a large, freshwater, wind-wave channel with mechanical wind-steepened
Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 1. Bubble plume bubbles
Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de
2006-01-01
Measurements of bubble plumes from paddle-amplified, wind stress breaking waves were made in a large wind-wave channel during the LUMINY experiment in fresh (but not clean) water. Bubble plumes exhibited considerable variability with respect to dynamics, bubble size distribution, and physical
Gauge dependence of the critical dynamics at the superconducting phase transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Dudka
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The critical dynamics of superconductors in the charged regime is reconsidered within field-theory. For the dynamics, the Ginzburg-Landau model with complex order parameter coupled to the gauge field suggested earlier [Lannert et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 097004 (2004] is used. Assuming relaxational dynamics for both quantities, the renormalization group functions within one loop approximation are recalculated for different choices of the gauge. A gauge independent result for the divergence of the melectric conductivity is obtained only at the weak scaling fixed point unstable in one loop order where the timescales of the order parameter and the gauge field are different.
On the shape of giant soap bubbles
Cohen, C.; Darbois Texier, B.; Reyssat, E.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Quere, D.; Clanet, Christophe
2017-01-01
We study the effect of gravity on giant soap bubbles and show that it becomes dominant above the critical size ℓ=a2/e0ℓ=a2/e0, where e0e0 is the mean thickness of the soap film and a=γb/ρg−√a=γb/ρg is the capillary length ( γbγb stands for vapor–liquid surface tension, and ρρ stands for the liquid
On the shape of giant soap bubbles
Cohen, C.; Texier, B.D.; Reyssat, E.; Snoeijer, J.H.; Quéré, D.; Clanet, C.
2017-01-01
We study the effect of gravity on giant soap bubbles and show that it becomes dominant above the critical size ℓ = a2 /e0, where e0 is the mean thickness of the soap film and a = √γb/ρg is the capillary length (γb stands for vapor-liquid surface tension, and ρ stands for the liquid density). We
Liu, R. M.; Zhuo, W. Z.; Chen, J.; Qin, M. H.; Zeng, M.; Lu, X. B.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, J.-M.
2017-07-01
We study the thermal phase transition of the fourfold degenerate phases (the plaquette and single-stripe states) in the two-dimensional frustrated Ising model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice using Monte Carlo simulations. The critical Ashkin-Teller-like behavior is identified both in the plaquette phase region and the single-stripe phase region. The four-state Potts critical end points differentiating the continuous transitions from the first-order ones are estimated based on finite-size-scaling analyses. Furthermore, a similar behavior of the transition to the fourfold single-stripe phase is also observed in the anisotropic triangular Ising model. Thus, this work clearly demonstrates that the transitions to the fourfold degenerate states of two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnets exhibit similar transition behavior.
Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves
2013-01-01
This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa, M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz), shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...
Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool
Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.
2017-02-01
We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KHARZEEV, D.; PISARSKI, R.D.; TYTGAT, M.H.G.
1998-01-01
We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N r a rrow ∞. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T d , is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero θ--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T d . Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the ηprime meson, and especially the η meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as η r a rrow π 0 π 0 , are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define
PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.
1998-04-16
We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.
Bubble propagation on a rail: a concept for sorting bubbles by size
Franco-Gómez, Andrés; Thompson, Alice B.; Hazel, Andrew L.; Juel, Anne
We demonstrate experimentally that the introduction of a rail, a small height constriction, within the cross-section of a rectangular channel could be used as a robust passive sorting device in two-phase fluid flows. Single air bubbles carried within silicone oil are generally transported on one side of the rail. However, for flow rates marginally larger than a critical value, a narrow band of bubble sizes can propagate (stably) over the rail, while bubbles of other sizes segregate to the side of the rail. The width of this band of bubble sizes increases with flow rate and the size of the most stable bubble can be tuned by varying the rail width. We present a complementary theoretical analysis based on a depth-averaged theory, which is in qualitative agreement with the experiments. The theoretical study reveals that the mechanism relies on a non-trivial interaction between capillary and viscous forces that is fully dynamic, rather than being a simple modification of capillary static solutions.
Review on fiber morphology obtained by bubble electrospinning and blown bubble spinning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He Ji-Huan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Here we show an intriguing phenomenon in the bubble electrospinning process that the ruptured film might be stripped upwards by an electronic force to form a very thin and long plate-like strip, which might been received in the metal receiver as discontinuous backbone-like wrinkled materials, rather than smooth nano-fibers or microspheres. The processes are called the bubble electrospinning. The electronic force can be replaced by a blowing air, and the process is called as the blown bubble spinning. We demonstrate that the size and thickness of the ruptured film are the crucial parameters that are necessary to understand the various observations including beads and nanoporous materials. We identify the conditions required for a ruptured film to form discontinuous structure, and a critical width of the ruptured film to form a cylindrical fiber, above which a long and thin plate-like strip might be obtained, and a criterion for oscillatory jet diameter, which leads to bead morphology of the obtained fibers. The space of the adjacent beads depends on the fiber size. We anticipate our assay to be a starting point for more sophisticated study of the bubble electrospinning and the blown bubble spinning and for mass-production of both nanofibers and nanoscale discontinuous materials.
The phase transition of the first order in the critical region of the gas-liquid system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I.R. Yukhnovskii
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This is a summarising investigation of the events of the phase transition of the first order that occur in the critical region below the liquid-gas critical point. The grand partition function has been completely integrated in the phase-space of the collective variables. The basic density measure is the quartic one. It has the form of the exponent function with the first, second, third and fourth degree of the collective variables. The problem has been reduced to the Ising model in an external field, the role of which is played by the generalised chemical potential μ*. The line μ*(η =0, where η is the density, is the line of the phase transition. We consider the isothermal compression of the gas till the point where the phase transition on the line μ*(η =0 is reached. When the path of the pressing reaches the line μ* =0 in the gas medium, a droplet of liquid springs up. The work for its formation is obtained, the surface-tension energy is calculated. On the line μ* =0 we have a two-phase system: the gas and the liquid (the droplet one. The equality of the gas and of the liquid chemical potentials is proved. The process of pressing is going on. But the pressure inside the system has stopped, two fixed densities have arisen: one for the gas-phase ηG=ηc(1-d/2 and the other for the liquid-phase ηL=ηc(1+d/2 (symmetrically to the rectlinear diameter, where ηc=0.13044 is the critical density. Starting from that moment the external pressure works as a latent work of pressure. Its value is obtained. As a result, the gas-phase disappears and the whole system turns into liquid. The jump of the density is equal to ηc d, where d=(D/2G1/2 ~ τν/2. D and G are coefficients of the Hamiltonian in the last cell connected with the renormalisation-group symmetry. The equation of state is written.
Food-web stability signals critical transitions in temperate shallow lakes.
Kuiper, Jan J; van Altena, Cassandra; de Ruiter, Peter C; van Gerven, Luuk P A; Janse, Jan H; Mooij, Wolf M
2015-07-15
A principal aim of ecologists is to identify critical levels of environmental change beyond which ecosystems undergo radical shifts in their functioning. Both food-web theory and alternative stable states theory provide fundamental clues to mechanisms conferring stability to natural systems. Yet, it is unclear how the concept of food-web stability is associated with the resilience of ecosystems susceptible to regime change. Here, we use a combination of food web and ecosystem modelling to show that impending catastrophic shifts in shallow lakes are preceded by a destabilizing reorganization of interaction strengths in the aquatic food web. Analysis of the intricate web of trophic interactions reveals that only few key interactions, involving zooplankton, diatoms and detritus, dictate the deterioration of food-web stability. Our study exposes a tight link between food-web dynamics and the dynamics of the whole ecosystem, implying that trophic organization may serve as an empirical indicator of ecosystem resilience.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo Castagno
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This article contends that for socialist emancipation to occur it is crucial to investigate how political cadres conceal, regulate or displace the demands of citizens and workers in the context of the calamitous effects of global capitalism. Analyzing the constitutive relationship between politics and the media is an essential component in researching those practices of state ideological production. Specifically looking into the transformation of media policy in the case of Argentina, this article problematizes the different political forms through which the state has cloaked its fundamental contradiction: alleged representation of the general interests of citizens, when explored in critical depth, reveals the state’s actual adjustment to a process of capitalist transnationalization that increases irrationality, social inequality and misery. Through this lens, the article emphasizes the value of Marxist dialectic method and theory in imagining a true democratic future.
Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems
Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang
2014-07-01
We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.
Investigation of bubble flow regimes in nucleate boiling of highly-wetting liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong, W.; Bar-Cohen, A.; Simon, T.W.
1991-01-01
This paper describes an investigation of the bubble flow regimes in nucleate boiling of FC-72, a highly-wetting liquid. Theoretically analysis of vapor bubble generation and departure from the heated surface reveals that the heat fluxes required for the merging of consecutive bubbles, for highly-wetting liquids, lie in the upper range of the nucleate boiling heat flux. A visual and photographic study of nucleate boiling from sputtered platinum surfaces has supported the theoretical results and shown that the isolated bubble behavior extends to at least 50-80% of the critical heat flux, considerably higher than observed by others with water. Lateral coalescence of adjacent bubbles has been found to be a more likely cause of the termination of the isolated bubble regime. These findings suggest that thermal transport models which are based on isolated bubble behavior may be applicable to nearly the entire range of nucleate boiling of electronic cooling fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo Wei; Lu Guangcheng; Li Zenghua; Luo Peiyan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
2005-01-01
The finite temperature Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (FTBHF) approach is extended by introducing a microscopic three-body force. Within the extended approach, the three-body force effects on the equation of state of hot nuclear matter and its temperature dependence have been investigated. The critical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition of hot nuclear matter have been calculated. It is shown that the three-body force provides a repulsive contribution to the equation of state of hot nuclear matter. The repulsive effect of the three-body force becomes more pronounced as the density and temperature increase and consequently inclusion of the three-body force contribution in the calculation reduces the predicted critical temperature from about 16 MeV to about 13 MeV. By separating the contribution originated from the 2σ-exchange process coupled to the virtual excitation of a nucleon-antinucleon pair from the full three-body force, the connection between the three-body force effect and the relativistic correction from the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock has been explored. It turns out that the contribution of the 2σ-N(N-bar) part is more repulsive than that of the full three-body force and the calculated critical temperature is about 11 MeV if only the 2σ-N(N-bar) component of the three-body force is included which is lower than the value obtained in the case of including the full three-body force and is close to the value predicted by the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach. Our result provides a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between the values of critical temperature predicted from the FTBHF approach including the three-body force and the DBHF approach. (authors)
Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment
Gokhale, Shripad; Plawsky, Joel; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Ying-Xi
2002-11-01
Microgravity experiments on the Constrained Vapor Bubble Heat Exchanger, CVB, are being developed for the International Space Station. In particular, we present results of a precursory experimental and theoretical study of the vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble in the Earth's environment. A novel non-isothermal experimental setup was designed and built to study the transport processes in an ethanol/quartz vertical CVB system. Temperature profiles were measured using an in situ PC (personal computer)-based LabView data acquisition system via thermocouples. Film thickness profiles were measured using interferometry. A theoretical model was developed to predict the curvature profile of the stable film in the evaporator. The concept of the total amount of evaporation, which can be obtained directly by integrating the experimental temperature profile, was introduced. Experimentally measured curvature profiles are in good agreement with modeling results. For microgravity conditions, an analytical expression, which reveals an inherent relation between temperature and curvature profiles, was derived.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Broučková Zuzana
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This study introduces two physical effects known from beverages: the effect of sinking bubbles and the hot chocolate sound effect. The paper presents two simple „kitchen” experiments. The first and second effects are indicated by means of a flow visualization and microphone measurement, respectively. To quantify the second (acoustic effect, sound records are analyzed using time-frequency signal processing, and the obtained power spectra and spectrograms are discussed.
Broučková, Zuzana; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Šafařík, Pavel
2014-03-01
This study introduces two physical effects known from beverages: the effect of sinking bubbles and the hot chocolate sound effect. The paper presents two simple "kitchen" experiments. The first and second effects are indicated by means of a flow visualization and microphone measurement, respectively. To quantify the second (acoustic) effect, sound records are analyzed using time-frequency signal processing, and the obtained power spectra and spectrograms are discussed.
Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V
2014-07-14
A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuev, Yuri L; Hun Wee, Sung; Christen, David K
2012-01-01
We identify a sharp crossover in the vortex pinning of a high-temperature superconductor with nanocolumnar stacks of precipitates as strong vortex pinning centers. Above a particular, temperature-dependent field B X (T) the vortex response is no longer determined by the nanocolumns, and is instead determined by point-like pinning. This crossover is evident as a change in the dependence of the critical current density on the angle between the applied magnetic field and the nanocolumns. It also leads to the field-orientation-independent power law index n of the E–J curves. Below the transition, there is a strong maximum in J C when the field is aligned parallel to the columns and n depends on field direction. Above the transition, n is independent of the field direction and there is a J C minimum for H parallel to the columns. We discuss a possible mechanism for such behavior change, as well as testing and confirming a prediction that the crossover must become very broad at high temperatures and low fields. (paper)
Laverman, J.A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2007-01-01
The macro-scale circulation patterns in the emulsion phase of a gas-solid fluidized bed in the bubbling regime have been studied with a 3D Discrete Bubble Model. It has been shown that bubble-bubble interactions strongly influence the extent of the solids circulation and the bubble size
Characterization of Bubble Size Distributions within a Bubble Column
Shahrouz Mohagheghian; Brian R. Elbing
2018-01-01
The current study experimentally examines bubble size distribution (BSD) within a bubble column and the associated characteristic length scales. Air was injected into a column of water via a single injection tube. The column diameter (63–102 mm), injection tube diameter (0.8–1.6 mm) and superficial gas velocity (1.4–55 mm/s) were varied. Large samples (up to 54,000 bubbles) of bubble sizes measured via 2D imaging were used to produce probability density functions (PDFs). The PDFs were used to...
Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited
Jan Werner
2012-01-01
Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...
Helium bubble bursting in tungsten
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.
2013-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz
Experiment on smooth, circular cylinders in cross-flow in the critical Reynolds number regime
Miau, J. J.; Tsai, H. W.; Lin, Y. J.; Tu, J. K.; Fang, C. H.; Chen, M. C.
2011-10-01
Experiments were conducted for 2D circular cylinders at Reynolds numbers in the range of 1.73 × 105-5.86 × 105. In the experiment, two circular cylinder models made of acrylic and stainless steel, respectively, were employed, which have similar dimensions but different surface roughness. Particular attention was paid to the unsteady flow behaviors inferred by the signals obtained from the pressure taps on the cylinder models and by a hot-wire probe in the near-wake region. At Reynolds numbers pertaining to the initial transition from the subcritical to the critical regimes, pronounced pressure fluctuations were measured on the surfaces of both cylinder models, which were attributed to the excursion of unsteady flow separation over a large circumferential region. At the Reynolds numbers almost reaching the one-bubble state, it was noted that the development of separation bubble might switch from one side to the other with time. Wavelet analysis of the pressure signals measured simultaneously at θ = ±90° further revealed that when no separation bubble was developed, the instantaneous vortex-shedding frequencies could be clearly resolved, about 0.2, in terms of the Strouhal number. The results of oil-film flow visualization on the stainless steel cylinder of the one-bubble and two-bubble states showed that the flow reattachment region downstream of a separation bubble appeared not uniform along the span of the model. Thus, the three dimensionality was quite evident.
Mitra, Aditi
2012-12-28
A renormalization group approach is used to show that a one-dimensional system of bosons subject to a lattice quench exhibits a finite-time dynamical phase transition where an order parameter within a light cone increases as a nonanalytic function of time after a critical time. Such a transition is also found for a simultaneous lattice and interaction quench where the effective scaling dimension of the lattice becomes time dependent, crucially affecting the time evolution of the system. Explicit results are presented for the time evolution of the boson interaction parameter and the order parameter for the dynamical transition as well as for more general quenches.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Böyükata M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Quantum phase transitions in odd-nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model with a description based on the concept of intrinsic states. We consider the case of a single j=9/2 odd-particle coupled to an even-even boson core that performs a transition from spherical to deformed prolate and to deformed gamma-unstable shapes varying a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core is discussed along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point.
Bubble Coalescence: Effect of Bubble Approach Velocity and Liquid Viscosity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Orvalho, Sandra; Růžička, Marek; Olivieri, G.; Marzocchella, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 134, SEP 29 (2015), s. 205-216 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bubble coalescence * bubble approach velocity * liquid viscosity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.750, year: 2015
Bubble Size Distribution in a Vibrating Bubble Column
Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Wilson, Trevor; Valenzuela, Bret; Hinds, Tyler; Moseni, Kevin; Elbing, Brian
2016-11-01
While vibrating bubble columns have increased the mass transfer between phases, a universal scaling law remains elusive. Attempts to predict mass transfer rates in large industrial scale applications by extrapolating laboratory scale models have failed. In a stationary bubble column, mass transfer is a function of phase interfacial area (PIA), while PIA is determined based on the bubble size distribution (BSD). On the other hand, BSD is influenced by the injection characteristics and liquid phase dynamics and properties. Vibration modifies the BSD by impacting the gas and gas-liquid dynamics. This work uses a vibrating cylindrical bubble column to investigate the effect of gas injection and vibration characteristics on the BSD. The bubble column has a 10 cm diameter and was filled with water to a depth of 90 cm above the tip of the orifice tube injector. BSD was measured using high-speed imaging to determine the projected area of individual bubbles, which the nominal bubble diameter was then calculated assuming spherical bubbles. The BSD dependence on the distance from the injector, injector design (1.6 and 0.8 mm ID), air flow rates (0.5 to 5 lit/min), and vibration conditions (stationary and vibration conditions varying amplitude and frequency) will be presented. In addition to mean data, higher order statistics will also be provided.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turcan, Romeo V.
that are identified to exist between the Internet and housing market bubbles: uncertainty and sentiments. The iteration between uncertainty and sentiments leads to the emergence of the third commonality: residue. The residue is the difference between the actors’ overall sentiment about exaggerated future prospects...... all boils down to the role pricing plays vis-à-vis the emergence of a new venture and its perceived value. Being in the midst of the global economic crisis provides us with a unique opportunity to refine the proposed model, especially by understanding its temporal and contextual boundaries....
Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles
Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin
2016-11-01
Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.
Bubble levitation and translation under single-bubble sonoluminescence conditions.
Matula, Thomas J
2003-08-01
Bubble levitation in an acoustic standing wave is re-examined for conditions relevant to single-bubble sonoluminescence. Unlike a previous examination [Matula et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 1522-1527 (1997)], the stable parameter space [Pa,R0] is accounted for in this realization. Forces such as the added mass force and drag are included, and the results are compared with a simple force balance that equates the Bjerknes force to the buoyancy force. Under normal sonoluminescence conditions, the comparison is quite favorable. A more complete accounting of the forces shows that a stably levitated bubble does undergo periodic translational motion. The asymmetries associated with translational motion are hypothesized to generate instabilities in the spherical shape of the bubble. A reduction in gravity results in reduced translational motion. It is hypothesized that such conditions may lead to increased light output from sonoluminescing bubbles.
The mechanism of heat transfer in transition boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin Pan; Hwang, J.Y.; Lin, T.L.
1989-01-01
Liquid-solid contact in transition boiling is modelled by involving transient conduction, boiling incipience, macrolayer evaporation and vapour film boiling. The prediction of liquid contact duration and time fraction agrees reasonably well with experimental data, and the model is able to predict both of the boiling curve transitions - the critical and minimum heat fluxes. The study concludes that the liquid turbulence due to buoyancy forces and bubble agitation is an important parameter for transition boiling. It is found that surface coating (oxidation or deposition) tends to improve the transition boiling heat transfer and elevate the wall superheats at both the critical heat flux and the minimum film boiling points, which agrees with the experimental observations. (author)
Blistering and bubble formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roth, J.
1976-01-01
Blister formation in metals has been observed during bombardment with inert-gas ions in the energy range between 1 and 2000 keV at doses of about 10 17 to 10 19 cm -2 . The changes in surface topography and the erosion yields were mainly studied in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Additionally the release of the implanted gas during blister formation was observed. Recently measurements on single crystals were performed determining simultaneously the implantation profile, the total amount of trapped ions, the depth distribution of the induced lattice damage and the thickness of the covers of the blisters. In several stages of the formation process of blisters the implanted layer was observed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) showing the formation of gas bubbles. Using the results of all these measurements in this review an attempt is made to develop a model of blister formation combining the effects of hydrostatic pressure in the gas bubbles and lateral stress due to volume swelling. (author)
Sonoluminescing Air Bubbles Rectify Argon
Lohse, Detlef; Brenner, Michael P.; Dupont, Todd F.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Johnston, Blaine
1997-01-01
The dynamics of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) strongly depends on the percentage of inert gas within the bubble. We propose a theory for this dependence, based on a combination of principles from sonochemistry and hydrodynamic stability. The nitrogen and oxygen dissociation and subsequent
Bubble coalescence in breathing DNA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novotný, Tomas; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Ambjörnsson, Tobias
2007-01-01
We investigate the coalescence of two DNA bubbles initially located at weak segments and separated by a more stable barrier region in a designed construct of double-stranded DNA. The characteristic time for bubble coalescence and the corresponding distribution are derived, as well as the distribu...... vicious walkers in opposite potentials....
A prediction for bubbling geometries
Okuda, Takuya
2007-01-01
We study the supersymmetric circular Wilson loops in N=4 Yang-Mills theory. Their vacuum expectation values are computed in the parameter region that admits smooth bubbling geometry duals. The results are a prediction for the supergravity action evaluated on the bubbling geometries for Wilson loops.
Preparation of bubble damage detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling
1997-01-01
Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter
The little holographic bubble chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herve, A.
1983-01-01
The lifetime study of the charmed particles has readvanced the idea to use holography for the little fast-cycle bubble chambers. A pilot experiment has been realised in 1982 with a little bubble chamber filled up with freon-115. 40000 holograms have been recorded [fr
Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks
1998-01-01
This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.
Sinking bubbles in stout beers
Lee, W. T.; Kaar, S.; O'Brien, S. B. G.
2018-04-01
A surprising phenomenon witnessed by many is the sinking bubbles seen in a settling pint of stout beer. Bubbles are less dense than the surrounding fluid so how does this happen? Previous work has shown that the explanation lies in a circulation of fluid promoted by the tilted sides of the glass. However, this work has relied heavily on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Here, we show that the phenomenon of sinking bubbles can be predicted using a simple analytic model. To make the model analytically tractable, we work in the limit of small bubbles and consider a simplified geometry. The model confirms both the existence of sinking bubbles and the previously proposed mechanism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leanne Bartley
2015-03-01
Full Text Available During the Celtic Tiger period, Ireland grows faster than the Eurozone only to later suffer the harsh impact of the recession. This coincides with increased in-group essentialism leading to prejudice against minorities (Zagefka et al. 2013. Whilst extremist politicians justify anti-immigration beliefs, racism becomes a problem in Ireland. Attacks on certain groups rise dramatically: Women, Travellers, Africans or homosexuals endure verbal and physical mistreatment. Financial crises cause social and discursive marginalisation (Gabrielatos and Baker 2008, and intolerance inevitably contributes to discriminatory views underpinning old-fashioned values. In such a context, we argue that there will be a tendency to nurse the demonisation of the Other (Said 1978, and that the ideological bent of the media sources (see Fowler 1991, Rosen 1999, Barnhurst 2005, van Dijk 2006 will have some impact on how otherness is portrayed. The latter justifies an analysis of how bias fostering exclusion is reinforced in the public domain (Wodak and Chilton 2005. Given Irish gays’ new status following the controversy around same-sex marriage, here we examine newspaper articles to observe the discourse construction of homosexuality (Collier 1995, Stychin 1995, Naidoo 1997, McGhee 2001, Baker 2005, and detect any instances of homophobia. To do so, a corpus-based critical discourse analysis is conducted with our focus on the notion of transitivity (Halliday and Matthiessen 2014 as a means to reveal people’s perspectives on the topic at hand.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayns, M.R.; Mansur, L.K.
1985-01-01
Recently, a cascade diffusion theory was developed to understand cacade-induced fluctuations in point defect flux during irradiation. Application of the theory revealed that such fluctuations give rise to a mechanism of cascade-induced creep that is predicted to be of significant magnitude. Here we extend the investigation to the formation of cavities. Specifically, we explore the possible importance of cascade-induced cavity growth excursions in triggering a transition from the gas-content-dictated stable radius to the critical radius for bias-driven growth. Two methods of analysis are employed. The first uses the variance of fluctuations to assess the average effect of fluctuations. The second is based on the fact that in a large ensemble of cavities, a small fraction will experience larger than average excursions. This prospect is assessed by estimating upper limits to the processes. For the conditions considered, it is concluded that cascade-induced fluctuations are of minor importance in triggering the onset of swelling in a population of stable gas-containing cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bdzil, J.B.; Menikoff, R.; Son, S.F.; Kapila, A.K.; Stewart, D.S.
1999-01-01
The two-phase mixture model developed by Baer and Nunziato (BN) to study the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in granular explosives is critically reviewed. The continuum-mixture theory foundation of the model is examined, with particular attention paid to the manner in which its constitutive functions are formulated. Connections between the mechanical and energetic phenomena occurring at the scales of the grains, and their manifestations on the continuum averaged scale, are explored. The nature and extent of approximations inherent in formulating the constitutive terms, and their domain of applicability, are clarified. Deficiencies and inconsistencies in the derivation are cited, and improvements suggested. It is emphasized that the entropy inequality constrains but does not uniquely determine the phase interaction terms. The resulting flexibility is exploited to suggest improved forms for the phase interactions. These improved forms better treat the energy associated with the dynamic compaction of the bed and the single-phase limits of the model. Companion papers of this study [Kapila et al., Phys. Fluids 9, 3885 (1997); Kapila et al., in preparation; Son et al., in preparation] examine simpler, reduced models, in which the fine scales of velocity and pressure disequilibrium between the phases allow the corresponding relaxation zones to be treated as discontinuities that need not be resolved in a numerical computation. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Speculation and the 2008 oil bubble: The DCOT Report analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokic, Damir
2012-01-01
This article analyzes the CFTC's Disaggregated Commitments of Traders (DCOT) Report to get more insights into the behavior of different traders during the 2008 oil bubble. The analysis shows that: (1) the Money Manager category perfectly played the oil bubble, got in early and started selling shortly before the bubble peak; (2) the Producer/Merchant/Processor/User category and the Nonreportable category were covering their short positions into the peak of the bubble; (3) the Swap/Dealer category benefited while the price of oil was rising, but incurred heavy losses as the price of oil collapsed; (4) we find no indications of speculation by any group of traders via the positive feedback trading or rational destabilization; and (5) we do, however, criticize the commercial hedgers for failing to arbitrage the soaring oil prices in 2008. - Highlights: ► We analyze the DCOT Report to study the behavior of traders during the 2008 oil bubble. ► the Money Manger category perfectly played the oil bubble. ► the Producer/Merchant/Processor/User and the Nonreportables engaged in short covering. ► the Swap/Dealer incurred heavy losses as the price of oil collapsed. ► We find no indications of speculation by any category.
Enhanced CHF with Bubble Cutter and Artificial Flow in Nuclear Plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Chan Hee; Suh, Kune Y.
2013-01-01
The main goal of this paper is to body out the notions of forced convection system for enhanced local streams and air bubbles cutting (and/or pushing, breaking) system to explain how CHF can be improved and how those bubble cutter systems are applicable to NPPs. In this paper, the bubble cutter system and an artificial flow system which can cut (and/or push and break) air bubbles is bodied out to drag bubbles. It also make the surface wet condition of heated surfaces and improve heat transfer and prevent on creation of bubbles on the heated surfaces or heat exchangers or reactor cores. Namely, concepts and application methods to increase CHF are presented for NPPs. Enhanced critical heat flux (CHF) is one of our prospective aims for nuclear power plants (NPPs). Previous work has studied the flow boiling CHF enhancement with surfactant solutions under atmospheric pressure because surfactant solutions or surface conditions have an effect on the behavior of occurrence air bubbles on a heated surface. Another possible improvement is to improve efficiency of heat transfer or to body out some types of bubble breaking (and/or pushing, breaking) systems or an artificial flow of fluid that can tear off air bubbles or push hot liquid and bubbles on a surface of heater. During this study, it will be observed that those possible structures can elicit increased CHF by means of maintenance of contact with a coolant such as water
Wrinkling in the deflation of elastic bubbles.
Aumaitre, Elodie; Knoche, Sebastian; Cicuta, Pietro; Vella, Dominic
2013-03-01
The protein hydrophobin HFBII self-assembles into very elastic films at the surface of water; these films wrinkle readily upon compression. We demonstrate and study this wrinkling instability in the context of non-planar interfaces by forming HFBII layers at the surface of bubbles whose interfaces are then compressed by deflation of the bubble. By varying the initial concentration of the hydrophobin solutions, we are able to show that buckling occurs at a critical packing fraction of protein molecules on the surface. Independent experiments show that at this packing fraction the interface has a finite positive surface tension, and not zero surface tension as is usually assumed at buckling. We attribute this non-zero wrinkling tension to the finite elasticity of these interfaces. We develop a simple geometrical model for the evolution of the wrinkle length with further deflation and show that wrinkles grow rapidly near the needle (used for deflation) towards the mid-plane of the bubble. This geometrical model yields predictions for the length of wrinkles in good agreement with experiments independently of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layer.
Wrinkling in the deflation of elastic bubbles
Aumaitre, Elodie
2013-03-01
The protein hydrophobin HFBII self-assembles into very elastic films at the surface of water; these films wrinkle readily upon compression. We demonstrate and study this wrinkling instability in the context of non-planar interfaces by forming HFBII layers at the surface of bubbles whose interfaces are then compressed by deflation of the bubble. By varying the initial concentration of the hydrophobin solutions, we are able to show that buckling occurs at a critical packing fraction of protein molecules on the surface. Independent experiments show that at this packing fraction the interface has a finite positive surface tension, and not zero surface tension as is usually assumed at buckling. We attribute this non-zero wrinkling tension to the finite elasticity of these interfaces. We develop a simple geometrical model for the evolution of the wrinkle length with further deflation and show that wrinkles grow rapidly near the needle (used for deflation) towards the mid-plane of the bubble. This geometrical model yields predictions for the length of wrinkles in good agreement with experiments independently of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layer. © 2013 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Non-Markovian effects on the dynamics of bubble growth in hot asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolomietz, V.M.; Sanzhur, A.I.; Shlomo, S.
2003-01-01
We study the conditions for the generation and the dynamical evolution of embryonic overcritical vapor bubbles in an overheated asymmetric nuclear matter. We show that the Fermi-surface distortion and memory effects significantly hinder the growth of the bubbles. Moreover, the growth of the bubble is accompanied by characteristic oscillations of its radius R. The characteristic energy E, the damping parameter Γ, and the instability growth rate parameter ζ, depend on the relaxation time τ. The characteristic oscillations disappear in the short relaxation time limit τ→0. Our approach ignores the fluctuations of the particle numbers in the bubble region and the finite diffuse layer of the bubble. The minimum size of the critical radius R * for which our approach applies is determined by the condition a/R * <<1, where a=0.5-1 fm is the temperature-dependent surface thickness of the bubble
Bubbles in Titan’s Seas: Nucleation, Growth, and RADAR Signature
Cordier, Daniel; Liger-Belair, Gérard
2018-05-01
In the polar regions of Titan, the main satellite of Saturn, hydrocarbon seas have been discovered by the Cassini–Huygens mission. RADAR observations have revealed surprising and transient bright areas over the Ligeia Mare surface. As suggested by recent research, bubbles could explain these strange features. However, the nucleation and growth of such bubbles, together with their RADAR reflectivity, have never been investigated. All of these aspects are critical to an actual observation. We have thus applied the classical nucleation theory to our context, and we developed a specific radiative transfer model that is appropriate for bubble streams in cryogenic liquids. According to our results, the sea bed appears to be the most plausible place for the generation of bubbles, leading to a signal comparable to observations. This conclusion is supported by thermodynamic arguments and by RADAR properties of a bubbly column. The latter are also valid in the case of bubble plumes, due to gas leaking from the sea floor.
Baumuratova, Tatiana; Dobre, Simona; Bastogne, Thierry; Sauter, Thomas
2013-01-01
Systems with bifurcations may experience abrupt irreversible and often unwanted shifts in their performance, called critical transitions. For many systems like climate, economy, ecosystems it is highly desirable to identify indicators serving as early warnings of such regime shifts. Several statistical measures were recently proposed as early warnings of critical transitions including increased variance, autocorrelation and skewness of experimental or model-generated data. The lack of automatized tool for model-based prediction of critical transitions led to designing DyGloSA – a MATLAB toolbox for dynamical global parameter sensitivity analysis (GPSA) of ordinary differential equations models. We suggest that the switch in dynamics of parameter sensitivities revealed by our toolbox is an early warning that a system is approaching a critical transition. We illustrate the efficiency of our toolbox by analyzing several models with bifurcations and predicting the time periods when systems can still avoid going to a critical transition by manipulating certain parameter values, which is not detectable with the existing SA techniques. DyGloSA is based on the SBToolbox2 and contains functions, which compute dynamically the global sensitivity indices of the system by applying four main GPSA methods: eFAST, Sobol's ANOVA, PRCC and WALS. It includes parallelized versions of the functions enabling significant reduction of the computational time (up to 12 times). DyGloSA is freely available as a set of MATLAB scripts at http://bio.uni.lu/systems_biology/software/dyglosa. It requires installation of MATLAB (versions R2008b or later) and the Systems Biology Toolbox2 available at www.sbtoolbox2.org. DyGloSA can be run on Windows and Linux systems, -32 and -64 bits. PMID:24367574
Baumuratova, Tatiana; Dobre, Simona; Bastogne, Thierry; Sauter, Thomas
2013-01-01
Systems with bifurcations may experience abrupt irreversible and often unwanted shifts in their performance, called critical transitions. For many systems like climate, economy, ecosystems it is highly desirable to identify indicators serving as early warnings of such regime shifts. Several statistical measures were recently proposed as early warnings of critical transitions including increased variance, autocorrelation and skewness of experimental or model-generated data. The lack of automatized tool for model-based prediction of critical transitions led to designing DyGloSA - a MATLAB toolbox for dynamical global parameter sensitivity analysis (GPSA) of ordinary differential equations models. We suggest that the switch in dynamics of parameter sensitivities revealed by our toolbox is an early warning that a system is approaching a critical transition. We illustrate the efficiency of our toolbox by analyzing several models with bifurcations and predicting the time periods when systems can still avoid going to a critical transition by manipulating certain parameter values, which is not detectable with the existing SA techniques. DyGloSA is based on the SBToolbox2 and contains functions, which compute dynamically the global sensitivity indices of the system by applying four main GPSA methods: eFAST, Sobol's ANOVA, PRCC and WALS. It includes parallelized versions of the functions enabling significant reduction of the computational time (up to 12 times). DyGloSA is freely available as a set of MATLAB scripts at http://bio.uni.lu/systems_biology/software/dyglosa. It requires installation of MATLAB (versions R2008b or later) and the Systems Biology Toolbox2 available at www.sbtoolbox2.org. DyGloSA can be run on Windows and Linux systems, -32 and -64 bits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, G.W.
1991-01-01
An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, left-angle φ right-angle T is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of left-angle φ right-angle T . In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase left-angle φ right-angle T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winter, H.
1977-01-01
The invention deals with a method to raise the transition temperature and critical magnetic field strength of superconducting, intermetallic compounds of vanadium and niobium. For example, a niobium alloy with 4 wt.% Al in melted in vacuum electric arc and formed into a sheet of about 1 mm thick. Strips of this sheet are electrically heated up to 1,900 0 C for one hour in a high-vacuum oven. The strips are then annealed in evacuated quartz ampoules for 120 hours at 800 0 C. These strips have a transition temperature of 24 K and a critical magnetic field strength of 600 kg; the critical current density was 5 x 10 4 A/cm 2 . (HPOE) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lal, Sreeyuth; Sato, Yohei; Niceno, Bojan
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We simulate convective nucleate pool boiling with a novel phase-change model. • We simulate four cases at different sub-cooling and wall superheat levels. • We investigate the flow structures around the growing bubble and analyze the accompanying physics. • We accurately simulate bubble shape elongation and enhanced wall cooling due to the sliding and slanting motions of bubbles. • Bubble cycle durations show good agreement with experimental observations. - Abstract: With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, bubble dynamics in convective nucleate boiling flows has been studied using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). A sharp-interface phase change model which was originally developed for pool boiling flows is extended to convective boiling flows. For physical scales smaller than the smallest flow scales (smaller than the grid size), a micro-scale model was used. After a grid dependency study and a parametric study for the contact angle, four cases of simulation were carried out with different wall superheat and degree of subcooling. The flow structures around the growing bubble were investigated together with the accompanying physics. The relation between the heat flux evolution and the bubble growth was studied, along with investigations of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter evolutions across the four cases. As a validation, the evolutions of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter were compared to experimental observations. The bubble departure period and the bubble shapes show good agreement between the experiment and the simulation, although the Reynolds number of the simulation cases is relatively low
A numerical study of three-dimensional bubble merger in the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, X.L.
1996-01-01
The Rayleigh endash Taylor instability arises when a heavy fluid adjacent to a light fluid is accelerated in a direction against the density gradient. Under this unstable configuration, a perturbation mode of small amplitude grows into bubbles of the light fluid and spikes of the heavy fluid. Taylor discovered the steady state motion with constant velocity for a single bubble or periodic bubbles in the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability. Read and Youngs studied the motion of a randomly perturbed fluid interface in the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability. They reported constant acceleration for the overall bubble envelope. Bubble merger is believed to cause the transition from constant velocity to constant acceleration. In this paper, we present a numerical study of this important physical phenomenon. It analyzes the physical process of bubble merger and the relationship between the horizontal bubble expansion and the vertical interface acceleration. A dynamic bubble velocity, beyond Taylor close-quote s steady state value, is observed during the merger process. It is believed that this velocity is due to the superposition of the bubble velocity with a secondary subharmonic unstable mode. The numerical results are compared with experiments. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble
Grieser, Franz; Enomoto, Naoya; Harada, Hisashi; Okitsu, Kenji; Yasui, Kyuichi
2015-01-01
Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the p
Effect of bubble interface parameters on predicted of bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Jianjun; Xie Tianzhou; Zhou Wenbin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping
2014-01-01
The predicted model on the bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel is built by analysis of forces acting on the bubble, and effects of bubble interface parameters such as the bubble inclination angle, upstream contact angle, downstream contact angle and bubble contact diameter on predicted bubble departure diameters in a narrow channel are analysed by comparing with the visual experimental data. Based on the above results, the bubble interface parameters as the input parameters used to obtain the bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel are assured, and the bubble departure diameters in a narrow channel are predicted by solving the force equation. The predicted bubble departure diameters are verified by the 58 bubble departure diameters obtained from the vertical and inclined visual experiment, and the predicted results agree with the experimental results. The different forces acting on the bubble are obtained and the effect of thermal parameters in this experiment on bubble departure diameters is analysed. (authors)
Callaghan, Bridget L; Graham, Bronwyn M; Li, Stella; Richardson, Rick
2013-01-01
While early experiences are proposed to be important for the emergence of anxiety and other mental health problems, there is little empirical research examining the impact of such experiences on the development of emotional learning. Of the research that has been performed in this area, however, a complex picture has emerged in which the maturation of emotion circuits is influenced by the early experiences of the animal. For example, under typical laboratory rearing conditions infant rats rapidly forget learned fear associations (infantile amnesia) and express a form of extinction learning which is relapse-resistant (i.e., extinction in infant rats may be due to fear erasure). In contrast, adult rats exhibit very long-lasting memories of past learned fear associations, and express a form of extinction learning that is relapse-prone (i.e., the fear returns in a number of situations). However, when rats are reared under stressful conditions then they exhibit adult-like fear retention and extinction behaviors at an earlier stage of development (i.e., good retention of learned fear and relapse-prone extinction learning). In other words, under typical rearing conditions infant rats appear to be protected from exhibiting anxiety whereas after adverse rearing fear learning appears to make those infants more vulnerable to the later development of anxiety. While the effects of different experiences on infant rats' fear retention and extinction are becoming better documented, the mechanisms which mediate the early transition seen following stress remain unclear. Here we suggest that rearing stress may lead to an early maturation of the molecular and cellular signals shown to be involved in the closure of critical period plasticity in sensory modalities (e.g., maturation of GABAergic neurons, development of perineuronal nets), and speculate that these signals could be manipulated in adulthood to reopen infant forms of emotional learning (i.e., those that favor resilience).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bridget Laura Callaghan
2013-08-01
Full Text Available While early experiences are proposed to be important for the emergence of anxiety and other mental health problems, there is little empirical research examining the impact of such experiences on the development of emotional learning. Of the research that has been performed in this area, however, a complex picture has emerged in which the maturation of emotion circuits is influenced by the early experiences of the animal. For example, under typical laboratory rearing conditions infant rats rapidly forget learned fear associations (infantile amnesia and express a form of extinction learning which is relapse-resistant (i.e., extinction in infant rats may be due to fear erasure. In contrast, adult rats exhibit very long-lasting memories of past learned fear associations, and express a form of extinction learning that is relapse-prone (i.e., the fear returns in a number of situations. However, when rats are reared under stressful conditions then they exhibit adult-like fear retention and extinction behaviours at an earlier stage of development (i.e., good retention of learned fear and relapse-prone extinction learning. In other words, under typical rearing conditions infant rats appear to be protected from exhibiting anxiety whereas after adverse rearing fear learning appears to make those infants more vulnerable to the later development of anxiety. While the effects of different experiences on infant rats’ fear retention and extinction are becoming better documented, the mechanisms which mediate the early transition seen following stress remain unclear. Here we suggest that rearing stress may lead to an early maturation of the molecular and cellular signals shown to be involved in the closure of critical period plasticity in sensory modalities (e.g., maturation of GABAergic neurons, development of perineuronal nets, and speculate that these signals could be manipulated in adulthood to re-open infant forms of emotional learning (i.e., those that
Tóbiás, Roland; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Császár, Attila G.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Kumar, Praveen; Poirier, Bill
2018-03-01
A critical evaluation and validation of the complete set of previously published experimental rotational-vibrational line positions is reported for the four stable sulphur isotopologues of the semirigid SO2 molecule - i.e., 32S16O2, 33S16O2, 34S16O2, and 36S16O2. The experimentally measured, assigned, and labeled transitions are collated from 43 sources. The 32S16O2, 33S16O2, 34S16O2, and 36S16O2 datasets contain 40,269, 15,628, 31,080, and 31 lines, respectively. Of the datasets collated, only the extremely limited 36S16O2 dataset is not subjected to a detailed analysis. As part of a detailed analysis of the experimental spectroscopic networks corresponding to the ground electronic states of the 32S16O2, 33S16O2, and 34S16O2 isotopologues, the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) procedure is used to determine the rovibrational energy levels. The rovibrational levels and their vibrational parent and asymmetric-top quantum numbers are compared to ones obtained from accurate variational nuclear-motion computations as well as to results of carefully designed effective Hamiltonian models. The rovibrational energy levels of the three isotopologues having the same labels are also compared against each other to ensure self-consistency. This careful, multifaceted analysis gives rise to 15,130, 5852, and 10,893 validated rovibrational energy levels, with a typical accuracy of a few 0.0001 cm-1 , for 32S16O2, 33S16O2, and 34S16O2, respectively. The extensive list of validated experimental lines and empirical (MARVEL) energy levels of the S16O2 isotopologues studied are deposited in the Supplementary Material of this article, as well as in the distributed information system ReSpecTh (http://respecth.hu).
New evidence on the first financial bubble
Frehen, R.G.P.; Goetzmann, W.; Rouwenhorst, K.G.
2013-01-01
The Mississippi Bubble, South Sea Bubble and the Dutch Windhandel of 1720 together represent the world's first global financial bubble. We hand-collect cross-sectional price data and investor account data from 1720 to test theories about market bubbles. Our tests suggest that innovation was a key
Ramsay, Pam; Huby, Guro; Thompson, Andrew; Walsh, Tim
2014-03-01
To explore the psychosocial needs of patients discharged from intensive care, the extent to which they are captured using existing theory on transitions in care and the potential role development of critical care outreach, follow-up and liaison services. Intensive care patients are at an increased risk of adverse events, deterioration or death following ward transfer. Nurse-led critical care outreach, follow-up or liaison services have been adopted internationally to prevent these potentially avoidable sequelae. The need to provide patients with psychosocial support during the transition to ward-based care has also been identified, but the evidence base for role development is currently limited. Twenty participants were invited to discuss their experiences of ward-based care as part of a broader study on recovery following prolonged critical illness. Psychosocial distress was a prominent feature of their accounts, prompting secondary data analysis using Meleis et al.'s mid-range theory on experiencing transitions. Participants described a sense of disconnection in relation to profound debilitation and dependency and were often distressed by a perceived lack of understanding, indifference or insensitivity among ward staff to their basic care needs. Negotiating the transition between dependence and independence was identified as a significant source of distress following ward transfer. Participants varied in the extent to which they were able to express their needs and negotiate recovery within professionally mediated boundaries. These data provide new insights into the putative origins of the psychosocial distress that patients experience following ward transfer. Meleis et al.'s work has resonance in terms of explicating intensive care patients' experiences of psychosocial distress throughout the transition to general ward-based care, such that the future role development of critical care outreach, follow-up and liaison services may be more theoretically informed
Segregating gas from melt: an experimental study of the Ostwald ripening of vapor bubbles in magmas
Lautze, Nicole C.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Grove, Timothy L.
2011-01-01
Diffusive coarsening (Ostwald ripening) of H2O and H2O-CO2 bubbles in rhyolite and basaltic andesite melts was studied with elevated temperature–pressure experiments to investigate the rates and time spans over which vapor bubbles may enlarge and attain sufficient buoyancy to segregate in magmatic systems. Bubble growth and segregation are also considered in terms of classical steady-state and transient (non-steady-state) ripening theory. Experimental results are consistent with diffusive coarsening as the dominant mechanism of bubble growth. Ripening is faster in experiments saturated with pure H2O than in those with a CO2-rich mixed vapor probably due to faster diffusion of H2O than CO2 through the melt. None of the experimental series followed the time1/3 increase in mean bubble radius and time-1 decrease in bubble number density predicted by classical steady-state ripening theory. Instead, products are interpreted as resulting from transient regime ripening. Application of transient regime theory suggests that bubbly magmas may require from days to 100 years to reach steady-state ripening conditions. Experimental results, as well as theory for steady-state ripening of bubbles that are immobile or undergoing buoyant ascent, indicate that diffusive coarsening efficiently eliminates micron-sized bubbles and would produce mm-sized bubbles in 102–104 years in crustal magma bodies. Once bubbles attain mm-sizes, their calculated ascent rates are sufficient that they could transit multiple kilometers over hundreds to thousands of years through mafic and silicic melt, respectively. These results show that diffusive coarsening can facilitate transfer of volatiles through, and from, magmatic systems by creating bubbles sufficiently large for rapid ascent.
Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng
2011-01-01
and their diameter. The variation in melting temperature has little influence on the overall bubble volume. However, the size distribution of the bubbles varies with the melting temperature. When the melt is slowly cooled, the bubble volume increases, implying decreased solubility of the gaseous species. Mass...... spectroscopy analysis of gases liberated during heating of the glass reveals that small bubbles contain predominantly CH4, CO and CO2, whereas large bubbles bear N2, SO2 and H2S. The methodology utilised in this work can, besides mapping the bubbles in a glass, be applied to shed light on the sources of bubble...
Microstreaming from Sessile Semicylindrical Bubbles
Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Guo, Lin; Wang, Cheng
2014-03-01
Powerful steady streaming flows result from the ultrasonic driving of microbubbles, in particular when these bubbles have semicylindrical cross section and are positioned in contact with a microfluidic channel wall. We have used this streaming in experiment to develop novel methods for trapping and sorting of microparticles by size, as well as for micromixing. Theoretically, we arrive at an analytical description of the streaming flow field through an asymptotic computation that, for the first time, reconciles the boundary layers around the bubble and along the substrate wall, and also takes into account the oscillation modes of the bubble. This approach gives insight into changes in the streaming pattern with bubble size and driving frequency, including a reversal of the flow direction at high frequencies with potentially useful applications. Present address: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri S &T.
Holography in small bubble chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lecoq, P.
1984-01-01
This chapter reports on an experiment to determine the total charm cross section at different incident momenta using the small, heavy liquid bubble chamber HOBC. Holography in liquid hydrogen is also tested using the holographic lexan bubble chamber HOLEBC with the aim of preparing a future holographic experiment in hydrogen. The high intensity tests show that more than 100 incident tracks per hologram do not cause a dramatic effect on the picture quality. Hydrogen is more favorable than freon as the bubble growth is much slower in hydrogen. An advantage of holography is to have the maximum resolution in the full volume of the bubble chamber, which allows a gain in sensitivity by a factor of 10 compared to classical optics as 100 tracks per hologram look reasonable. Holograms are not more difficult to analyze than classical optics high-resolution pictures. The results show that holography is a very powerful technique which can be used in very high resolution particle physics experiments
Dynamics of the central entrapped bubble during drop impact
Jian, Zhen; Channa, Murad Ali; Thoraval, Marie-Jean
2017-11-01
When a drop impacts onto a liquid surface, it entraps a thin central air disk. The air is then brought towards the axis of symmetry by surface tension. This contraction dynamics is very challenging to capture, due to the small length scales (a few micrometers thin air disk) and time scales (contracting in a few hundred microseconds). We use the open source two-phase flow codes Gerris and Basilisk to study this air entrapment phenomenon. The effects of liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension, and of the impact velocity were investigated. We focus on the morphology of the contracting air disk. The bubble is expected to contract into a single spherical bubble. However, in some cases, the air can be stretched vertically by the liquid inertia and split into two smaller bubbles. The convergence of capillary waves on the air disk towards the axis of symmetry can also make it rupture at the center, thus forming a toroidal bubble. In other cases, vorticity shedding can deform the contracting bubble, leading to more complex structures. A parameter space analysis based on the Reynolds and Weber numbers was then done to classify the different regimes and explain the transitions. Full affiliation:State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures,Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle,International Center for Applied Mechanics,School of Aerospace,Xi'an Jiaotong University.
Thorpe, S A; Stubbs, A R
1979-05-31
WHEN the wind is strong enough to produce whitecaps on Loch Ness, patchy 'clouds' of acoustic reflectors are detected well below the surface, the depth to which they penetrate increasing with wind speed (Fig. 1). No seasonal variation in the occurrence of the reflectors has been detected. A biological explanation is therefore discounted and we suggest here that they are bubbles caused by waves breaking and forming whitecaps in deep water. Similar bubble clouds may occur in other lakes and in the sea.
Bubble bursting at an interface
Kulkarni, Varun; Sajjad, Kumayl; Anand, Sushant; Fezzaa, Kamel
2017-11-01
Bubble bursting is crucial to understanding the life span of bubbles at an interface and more importantly the nature of interaction between the bulk liquid and the outside environment from the point of view of chemical and biological material transport. The dynamics of the bubble as it rises from inside the liquid bulk to its disappearance on the interface after bursting is an intriguing process, many aspects of which are still being explored. In our study, we make detailed high speed imaging measurements to examine carefully the hole initiation and growth in bursting bubbles that unearth some interesting features of the process. Previous analyses available in literature are revisited based on our novel experimental visualizations. Using a combination of experiments and theory we investigate the role of various forces during the rupturing process. This work aims to further our current knowledge of bubble dynamics at an interface with an aim of predicting better the bubble evolution from its growth to its eventual integration with the liquid bulk.
Bubble induced flow field modulation for pool boiling enhancement over a tubular surface
Raghupathi, P. A.; Joshi, I. M.; Jaikumar, A.; Emery, T. S.; Kandlikar, S. G.
2017-06-01
We demonstrate the efficacy of using a strategically placed enhancement feature to modify the trajectory of bubbles nucleating on a horizontal tubular surface to increase both the critical heat flux (CHF) and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC). The CHF on a plain tube is shown to be triggered by a local dryout at the bottom of the tube due to vapor agglomeration. To mitigate this effect and delay CHF, the nucleating bubble trajectory is modified by incorporating a bubble diverter placed axially at the bottom of the tube. The nucleating bubble at the base of the diverter experiences a tangential evaporation momentum force (EMF) which causes the bubble to grow sideways away from the tube and avoid localized bubble patches that are responsible for CHF initiation. High speed imaging confirmed the lateral displacement of the bubbles away from the diverter closely matched with the theoretical predictions using EMF and buoyancy forces. Since the EMF is stronger at higher heat fluxes, bubble displacement increases with heat flux and results in the formation of separate liquid-vapor pathways wherein the liquid enters almost unobstructed at the bottom and the vapor bubble leaves sideways. Experimental results yielded CHF and HTC enhancements of ˜60% and ˜75%, respectively, with the diverter configuration when compared to a plain tube. This work can be used for guidance in developing enhancement strategies to effectively modulate the liquid-vapor flow around the heater surface at various locations to enhance HTC and CHF.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakamura Yoshifumi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the critical end line of the finite temperature phase transition of QCD away from the SU(3-flavor symmetric point at zero chemical potential. We employ the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gauge action and non-perturbatively O(a- improved Wilson-clover fermion action. The critical end line is determined by using the intersection point of kurtosis, employing the multi-parameter, multi-ensemble reweighting method at the temporal size NT = 6 and lattice spacing as low as a ≈0.19 fm.
Measuring online social bubbles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitar Nikolov
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Social media have become a prevalent channel to access information, spread ideas, and influence opinions. However, it has been suggested that social and algorithmic filtering may cause exposure to less diverse points of view. Here we quantitatively measure this kind of social bias at the collective level by mining a massive datasets of web clicks. Our analysis shows that collectively, people access information from a significantly narrower spectrum of sources through social media and email, compared to a search baseline. The significance of this finding for individual exposure is revealed by investigating the relationship between the diversity of information sources experienced by users at both the collective and individual levels in two datasets where individual users can be analyzed—Twitter posts and search logs. There is a strong correlation between collective and individual diversity, supporting the notion that when we use social media we find ourselves inside “social bubbles.” Our results could lead to a deeper understanding of how technology biases our exposure to new information.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiri Matej
2014-10-01
or on alternating reduction and re-forming of oxidic layer on the electrode in the transition range, has been suggested. Start of bubble evolution at low alternating current density has also been observed in simple sodium-calcium-silicate glass melt. A relation between bubble release and platinum corrosion caused by reduced silicon has been suggested
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Yurtseven
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Using Landau mean field model, the spontaneous polarization and the dielectric susceptibility are analyzed as functions of temperature and pressure close to the cubic–tetragonal (ferroelectric–paraelectric transition in BaTiO3. From the analysis of the dielectric susceptibility and the spontaneous polarization, the critical exponents are deduced in the classical and quantum limits for BaTiO3. From the critical behavior of the dielectric susceptibility, the spontaneous polarization can be described for the ferroelectric–paraelectric (cubic to tetragonal transition between 4 and 8 GPa at constant temperatures of 0 to 200 K in BaTiO3 within the Landau mean field model given here.
Low temperature calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy of helium bubbles in Cu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Syskakis, E.
1985-08-01
Helium has been introduced into 100 μm thick pure Cu specimens by implantation of α-particles at T = 300 K. Post-implantation annealing of the specimens at high temperatures caused helium to precipitate into bubbles. We have measured the low-temperature heat capacity of helium confined in bubbles of average radius of less than 100 A. The size of the bubbles was obtained by transmission electron microscope investigations. We have observed that helium liquifies at low temperatures and undergoes the transition to the superfluid state in bubbles of average radius larger than 35 A. The confining geometry of bubbles is new and possesses unique features for investigations of confined helium. It provides the possibility to study properties of extremely small, spherical, completely isolated Bose ''particles'' consisting of 10 4 helium atoms each. Furthermore, as we show, it can be known with better accuracy than formerly investigated confining geometries. (orig./BHO)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hadžić Miroljub
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper offers a critical analysis of the strategic framework for long-term economic development of Serbia, of the role of strategic development in the success of the transition process, and the consequences of the lack of a development strategy. The strategy of long-term economic development of Serbia, as a programme intended to designate the economic and development policy of the state, is analyzed with the aim of finding an acceptable formulation of development strategy. The authors consider various approaches and propose a strategy for Serbia in the period of transition towards market economy. They also point out that, in the period of transition from a government-planned towards a market economy, strategy should be given greater importance than in periods that do not represent turning points, because of the greater possibility of incorrect policy making, potential conflicts of interest groups, reaching sustainable development, and maximizing prosperity. The authors take into account the advantages and disadvantages of the radical and of the gradualist approach to transition and propose formulating a development strategy that would contain combined elements of plan and market mechanisms. They believe that the process of transition lacks a clear development strategy, and that the quality of the existing development strategy of Serbia until 2010 is such that it cannot be understood as a serious approach to the transition issue. The authors stress the consequences of undergoing transition without a development strategy, that include inappropriate dynamic and sequence of reforms; a lack of coordination between development policy, macroeconomic policy, market reforms, and spatial planning policy; higher costs of transition, insufficient rate of economic growth, etc. They offer proposals for a comprehensive development framework (CDF and for strategic planning of territorial industrial development.
FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES
2002-01-01
A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas
Interactions between bubble formation and heating surface in nucleate boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luke, Andrea
2009-01-01
The heat transfer and bubble formation is investigated in pool boiling of propane. Size distributions of active nucleation sites on single horizontal copper and steel tubes with different diameter and surface finishes have been calculated from heat transfer measurements over wide ranges of heat flux and selected pressure. The model assumptions of Luke and Gorenflo for the heat transfer near growing and departing bubbles, which were applied in the calculations, have been slightly modified and the calculated results have been compared to experimental investigations by high speed video techniques. The calculated number of active sites shows a good coincidence for the tube with smaller diameter, while the results for the tube with larger diameter describe the same relative increase of the active sites. The comparison of the cumulative size distribution of the active and potential nucleation sites demonstrates the same slope of the curve and that the critical radius of a stable bubble nuclei is smaller than the average cavity size. (author)
Interactions between bubble formation and heating surface in nucleate boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luke, Andrea [Leibniz University, Hannover (Denmark). Inst. of Thermodynamics], e-mail: ift@ift.uni-hannover.de
2009-07-01
The heat transfer and bubble formation is investigated in pool boiling of propane. Size distributions of active nucleation sites on single horizontal copper and steel tubes with different diameter and surface finishes have been calculated from heat transfer measurements over wide ranges of heat flux and selected pressure. The model assumptions of Luke and Gorenflo for the heat transfer near growing and departing bubbles, which were applied in the calculations, have been slightly modified and the calculated results have been compared to experimental investigations by high speed video techniques. The calculated number of active sites shows a good coincidence for the tube with smaller diameter, while the results for the tube with larger diameter describe the same relative increase of the active sites. The comparison of the cumulative size distribution of the active and potential nucleation sites demonstrates the same slope of the curve and that the critical radius of a stable bubble nuclei is smaller than the average cavity size. (author)
Cavitation in confined water: ultra-fast bubble dynamics
Vincent, Olivier; Marmottant, Philippe
2012-02-01
In the hydraulic vessels of trees, water can be found at negative pressure. This metastable state, corresponding to mechanical tension, is achieved by evaporation through a porous medium. It can be relaxed by cavitation, i.e. the sudden nucleation of vapor bubbles. Harmful for the tree due to the subsequent emboli of sap vessels, cavitation is on the contrary used by ferns to eject spores very swiftly. We will focus here on the dynamics of the cavitation bubble, which is of primary importance to explain the previously cited natural phenomena. We use the recently developed method of artificial tress, using transparent hydrogels as the porous medium. Our experiments, on water confined in micrometric hydrogel cavities, show an extremely fast dynamics: bubbles are nucleated at the microsecond timescale. For cavities larger than 100 microns, the bubble ``rings'' with damped oscillations at MHz frequencies, whereas for smaller cavities the oscillations become overdamped. This rich dynamics can be accounted for by a model we developed, leading to a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Interestingly, this model predicts the impossibility to nucleate bubbles above a critical confinement that depends on liquid negative pressure and corresponds to approximately 100 nm for 20 MPa tensions.
Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition
Parang, M.; Chao, D.
1999-01-01
Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.
Long, Thomas B.; Looijen, Arnold; Blok, Vincent
2018-01-01
Businesses will play a key role in helping the transition towards greater sustainability. To maximise business sustainability performance, sustainability characteristics must be integrated at the business model level, creating business models for sustainability. Creating a business model for
2017-10-01
models ); • clinical interventions; • new business creation; and • other. Nothing to report. Nothing to report. Nothing to report. 17...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0376 TITLE: Acute Pancreatitis as a Model to Predict Transition of Systemic Inflammation to Organ Failgure in Trauma...COVERED 22 Sep 2016 - 21 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Acute Pancreatitis as a Model to Predict Transition of Systemic
Schmidtmayr, M.; Hughes, J. W.; Ryter, F.; Wolfrum, E.; Cao, N.; Creely, A. J.; Howard, N.; Hubbard, A. E.; Lin, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J. E.; Tolman, E. A.; Wukitch, S.; Ma, Y.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Alcator C-Mod Team
2018-05-01
This paper presents investigations on the role of the edge ion heat flux for transitions from L-mode to H-mode in Alcator C-Mod. Previous results from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak indicated that a critical value of edge ion heat flux per particle is needed for the transition. Analysis of C-Mod data confirms this result. The edge ion heat flux is indeed found to increase linearly with density at given magnetic field and plasma current. Furthermore, the Alcator C-Mod data indicate that the edge ion heat flux at the L-H transition also increases with magnetic field. Combining the data from Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade yields a general expression for the edge ion heat flux at the L-H transition. These results are discussed from the point of view of the possible physics mechanism of the L-H transition. They are also compared to the L-H power threshold scaling and an extrapolation for ITER is given.
Field-driven chiral bubble dynamics analysed by a semi-analytical approach
Vandermeulen, J.; Leliaert, J.; Dupré, L.; Van Waeyenberge, B.
2017-12-01
Nowadays, field-driven chiral bubble dynamics in the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction are a topic of thorough investigation. In this paper, a semi-analytical approach is used to derive equations of motion that express the bubble wall (BW) velocity and the change in in-plane magnetization angle as function of the micromagnetic parameters of the involved interactions, thereby taking into account the two-dimensional nature of the bubble wall. It is demonstrated that the equations of motion enable an accurate description of the expanding and shrinking convex bubble dynamics and an expression for the transition field between shrinkage and expansion is derived. In addition, these equations of motion show that the BW velocity is not only dependent on the driving force, but also on the BW curvature. The absolute BW velocity increases for both a shrinking and an expanding bubble, but for different reasons: for expanding bubbles, it is due to the increasing importance of the driving force, while for shrinking bubbles, it is due to the increasing importance of contributions related to the BW curvature. Finally, using this approach we show how the recently proposed magnetic bubblecade memory can operate in the flow regime in the presence of a tilted sinusoidal magnetic field and at greatly reduced bubble sizes compared to the original device prototype.
Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew B. Wardlaw
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.
Using trading strategies to detect phase transitions in financial markets.
Forró, Z; Woodard, R; Sornette, D
2015-04-01
We show that the log-periodic power law singularity model (LPPLS), a mathematical embodiment of positive feedbacks between agents and of their hierarchical dynamical organization, has a significant predictive power in financial markets. We find that LPPLS-based strategies significantly outperform the randomized ones and that they are robust with respect to a large selection of assets and time periods. The dynamics of prices thus markedly deviate from randomness in certain pockets of predictability that can be associated with bubble market regimes. Our hybrid approach, marrying finance with the trading strategies, and critical phenomena with LPPLS, demonstrates that targeting information related to phase transitions enables the forecast of financial bubbles and crashes punctuating the dynamics of prices.
Using trading strategies to detect phase transitions in financial markets
Forró, Z.; Woodard, R.; Sornette, D.
2015-04-01
We show that the log-periodic power law singularity model (LPPLS), a mathematical embodiment of positive feedbacks between agents and of their hierarchical dynamical organization, has a significant predictive power in financial markets. We find that LPPLS-based strategies significantly outperform the randomized ones and that they are robust with respect to a large selection of assets and time periods. The dynamics of prices thus markedly deviate from randomness in certain pockets of predictability that can be associated with bubble market regimes. Our hybrid approach, marrying finance with the trading strategies, and critical phenomena with LPPLS, demonstrates that targeting information related to phase transitions enables the forecast of financial bubbles and crashes punctuating the dynamics of prices.
Baryogenesis and Gravitational Waves from Runaway Bubble Collisions
Katz, Andrey
2016-11-07
We propose a novel mechanism for production of baryonic asymmetry in the early Universe. The mechanism takes advantage of the strong first order phase transition that produces runaway bubbles in the hidden sector that propagate almost without friction with ultra-relativistic velocities. Collisions of such bubbles can non-thermally produce heavy particles that further decay out-of-equilibrium into the SM and produce the observed baryonic asymmetry. This process can proceed at the very low temperatures, providing a new mechanism of post-sphaleron baryogenesis. In this paper we present a fully calculable model which produces the baryonic asymmetry along these lines as well as evades all the existing cosmological constraints. We emphasize that the Gravitational Waves signal from the first order phase transition is completely generic and can potentially be detected by the future eLISA interferometer. We also discuss other potential signals, which are more model dependent, and point out the unresolved theoretical q...
Aerodynamics and Percolation: Unfolding Laminar Separation Bubble on Airfoils
Traphan, Dominik; Wester, Tom T. B.; Gülker, Gerd; Peinke, Joachim; Lind, Pedro G.
2018-04-01
As a fundamental phenomenon of fluid mechanics, recent studies suggested laminar-turbulent transition belonging to the universality class of directed percolation. Here, the onset of a laminar separation bubble on an airfoil is analyzed in terms of the directed percolation model using particle image velocimetry data. Our findings indicate a clear significance of percolation models in a general flow situation beyond fundamental ones. We show that our results are robust against fluctuations of the parameter, namely, the threshold of turbulence intensity, that maps velocimetry data into binary cells (turbulent or laminar). In particular, this percolation approach enables the precise determination of the transition point of the laminar separation bubble, an important problem in aerodynamics.
Shock formation within sonoluminescence bubbles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vuong, V.Q.; Szeri, A.J.; Young, D.A.
1999-01-01
A strong case has been made by several authors that sharp, spherically symmetric shocks converging on the center of a spherical bubble driven by a strong acoustic field give rise to rapid compression and heating that produces the brief flash of light known as sonoluminescence. The formation of such shocks is considered. It is found that, although at the main collapse the bubble wall does indeed launch an inwardly-traveling compression wave, and although the subsequent reflection of the wave at the bubble center produces a very rapid temperature peak, the wave is prevented from steepening into a sharp shock by an adverse gradient in the sound speed caused by heat transfer. It is shown that the mathematical characteristics of the flow can be prevented from accumulating into a shock front by this adverse sound speed gradient. A range of results is presented for a variety of bubble ambient radii and sound field amplitudes suggested by experiments. The time scale of the peak temperature in the bubble is set by the dynamics of the compression wave: this is typically in the range 100 - 300 ps (FWHM) in concert with recent measurements of the sonoluminescence pulse width. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Semi-analytic techniques for calculating bubble wall profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akula, Sujeet; Balazs, Csaba; White, Graham A.
2016-01-01
We present semi-analytic techniques for finding bubble wall profiles during first order phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. Our method involves reducing the problem to an equation with a single field, finding an approximate analytic solution and perturbing around it. The perturbations can be written in a semi-analytic form. We assert that our technique lacks convergence problems and demonstrate the speed of convergence on an example potential. (orig.)
Growth process of helium bubbles in aluminium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiraishi, Haruki; Sakairi, Hideo; Yagi, Eiichi; Karasawa, Takashi; Hashiguti, R.R.
1975-01-01
The growth process of helium bubbles in α-particle bombarded pure aluminum during isothermal anneal ranging 200 to 645 0 C and 1 to 100 hr was observed by a transmission electron microscope and the possible growth mechanisms are discussed. The effects of helium concentration and cold work were investigated. The helium bubbles are detectable only at the anneal above 550 0 C in both annealed and cold worked samples. The cold work does not cause any extra coarsening trend of bubbles. The observed types of bubble distribution in the grain interior are divided into two categories, irrespective of helium concentration and cold work; (1) the fine and uniform bubble distribution, in which case the average size is limited to about 200 A or less in diameter even at the anneal just below the melting point, and (2) the coarsened and non-uniform bubble distribution ranging 500 to 4000 A in diameter. The intermediate size bubbles are scarcely found in any cases. In the above fine bubble distribution, the increase of helium concentration by a factor of two increases the density by the same factor of two, but does not change the mean size of bubbles. Corresponding to the above two characteristic bubble distributions, it is concluded that two different mechanisms are operative in this experiment; (1) the growth of bubbles by the Brownian motion, in which the growth rate of bubbles is decreased to almost zero by bubble faceting and this results in the bubble size constancy during the prolonged annealing, and (2) the growth of bubbles by the grain boundary sweep-out mechanism, by which the abrupt coarsening of bubbles is caused. The lack of existence of the intermediate size bubbles is explained in this way. (auth.)
Aspherical bubble dynamics and oscillation times
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Godwin, R.P.; Chapyak, E.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Noack, J.; Vogel, A. [Medizinisches Laserzentrum Luebeck (Germany)
1999-03-01
The cavitation bubbles common in laser medicine are rarely perfectly spherical and are often located near tissue boundaries, in vessels, etc., which introduce aspherical dynamics. Here, novel features of aspherical bubble dynamics are explored. Time-resolved experimental photographs and simulations of large aspect ratio (length:diameter {approximately}20) cylindrical bubble dynamics are presented. The experiments and calculations exhibit similar dynamics. A small high-pressure cylindrical bubble initially expands radially with hardly any axial motion. Then, after reaching its maximum volume, a cylindrical bubble collapses along its long axis with relatively little radial motion. The growth-collapse period of these very aspherical bubbles differs only sightly from twice the Rayleigh collapse time for a spherical bubble with an equivalent maximum volume. This fact justifies using the temporal interval between the acoustic signals emitted upon bubble creation and collapse to estimate the maximum bubble volume. As a result, hydrophone measurements can provide an estimate of the bubble energy even for aspherical bubbles. The prolongation of the oscillation period of bubbles near solid boundaries relative to that of isolated spherical bubbles is also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven P. Wrenn, Stephen M. Dicker, Eleanor F. Small, Nily R. Dan, Michał Mleczko, Georg Schmitz, Peter A. Lewin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol (PEG - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented
Bubble Dynamics in Laser Lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammadzadeh, Milad; Mercado, Julian Martinez; Ohl, Claus-Dieter
2015-01-01
Laser lithotripsy is a medical procedure for fragmentation of urinary stones with a fiber guided laser pulse of several hundred microseconds long. Using high-speed photography, we present an in-vitro study of bubble dynamics and stone motion induced by Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy. The experiments reveal that detectable stone motion starts only after the bubble collapse, which we relate with the collapse-induced liquid flow. Additionally, we model the bubble formation and dynamics using a set of 2D Rayleigh-Plesset equations with the measured laser pulse profile as an input. The aim is to reduce stone motion through modification of the temporal laser pulse profile, which affects the collapse scenario and consequently the remnant liquid motion. (paper)
Hamiltonian description of bubble dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maksimov, A. O.
2008-01-01
The dynamics of a nonspherical bubble in a liquid is described within the Hamiltonian formalism. Primary attention is focused on the introduction of the canonical variables into the computational algorithm. The expansion of the Dirichlet-Neumann operator in powers of the displacement of a bubble wall from an equilibrium position is obtained in the explicit form. The first three terms (more specifically, the second-, third-, and fourth-order terms) in the expansion of the Hamiltonian in powers of the canonical variables are determined. These terms describe the spectrum and interaction of three essentially different modes, i.e., monopole oscillations (pulsations), dipole oscillations (translational motions), and surface oscillations. The cubic nonlinearity is analyzed for the problem associated with the generation of Faraday ripples on the wall of a bubble in an acoustic field. The possibility of decay processes occurring in the course of interaction of surface oscillations for the first fifteen (experimentally observed) modes is investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thanh, Tran Dang, E-mail: thanhxraylab@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Materials Science, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huy Dan, Nguyen [Institute of Materials Science, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phan, The-Long; Yu, Seong-Cho, E-mail: scyu@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kumarakuru, Haridas; Olivier, Ezra J.; Neethling, Johannes H. [Centre for HRTEM, Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)
2014-01-14
This work presents a detailed study on the critical behavior of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) phase transition in Fe{sub 90−x}Ni{sub x}Zr{sub 10} (x = 0 and 5) alloy ribbons. Basing on field dependences of magnetization (M-H), M{sup 2} versus H/M plots prove the alloys exhibiting a second-order magnetic phase transition. To investigate the nature of the FM-PM phase transition at T{sub C} = 245 and 306 K for x = 0 and 5, respectively, we performed a critical-exponent study. The values of critical components β, γ, and δ determined by using the modified Arrott plots, Kouvel-Fisher (KF), and critical isotherm analyses agree with each other. For x = 0, the critical parameters β = 0.365 ± 0.013 and γ = 1.615 ± 0.033 are obtained by modified Arrott plots while β = 0.368 ± 0.008 and γ = 1.612 ± 0.016 are obtained by the KF method. These values are close to those expected for the 3D-Heisenberg model, revealing short-range FM interactions in Fe{sub 90}Zr{sub 10}. Meanwhile, for x = 5, the values of the critical parameters β = 0.423 ± 0.008 and γ = 1.325 ± 0.036 are obtained by modified Arrott plots, and β = 0.425 ± 0.006 and γ = 1.323 ± 0.012 are obtained by the KF method. The falling of the β value in between the values of the mean-field theory (β = 0.5) and the 3D-Heisenberg model (β = 0.365) indicates an existence of FM short-range order and magnetic inhomogeneity in Fe{sub 85}Ni{sub 5}Zr{sub 10}. With a partial replacement of Ni for Fe in Fe{sub 90−x}Ni{sub x}Zr{sub 10}, the value of the critical exponent β trends to shift towards that of the mean-field theory. Such the result proves the presence of Ni favors establishing FM long-range order. The nature of this phenomenon is carefully discussed.
Methane Bubbles Transport Particles From Contaminated Sediment to a Lake Surface
Delwiche, K.; Hemond, H.
2017-12-01
Methane bubbling from aquatic sediments has long been known to transport carbon to the atmosphere, but new evidence presented here suggests that methane bubbles also transport particulate matter to a lake surface. This transport pathway is of particular importance in lakes with contaminated sediments, as bubble transport could increase human exposure to toxic metals. The Upper Mystic Lake in Arlington, MA has a documented history of methane bubbling and sediment contamination by arsenic and other heavy metals, and we have conducted laboratory and field studies demonstrating that methane bubbles are capable of transporting sediment particles over depths as great as 15 m in Upper Mystic Lake. Methane bubble traps were used in-situ to capture particles adhered to bubble interfaces, and to relate particle mass transport to bubble flux. Laboratory studies were conducted in a custom-made 15 m tall water column to quantify the relationship between water column height and the mass of particulate transport. We then couple this particle transport data with historical estimates of ebullition from Upper Mystic Lake to quantify the significance of bubble-mediated particle transport to heavy metal cycling within the lake. Results suggest that methane bubbles can represent a significant pathway for contaminated sediment to reach surface waters even in relatively deep water bodies. Given the frequent co-occurrence of contaminated sediments and high bubble flux rates, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals, it will be critical to study the significance of this transport pathway for a range of sediment and contaminant types.
How Stressful Is "Deep Bubbling"?
Tyrmi, Jaana; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria
2017-03-01
Water resistance therapy by phonating through a tube into the water is used to treat dysphonia. Deep submersion (≥10 cm in water, "deep bubbling") is used for hypofunctional voice disorders. Using it with caution is recommended to avoid vocal overloading. This experimental study aimed to investigate how strenuous "deep bubbling" is. Fourteen subjects, half of them with voice training, repeated the syllable [pa:] in comfortable speaking pitch and loudness, loudly, and in strained voice. Thereafter, they phonated a vowel-like sound both in comfortable loudness and loudly into a glass resonance tube immersed 10 cm into the water. Oral pressure, contact quotient (CQ, calculated from electroglottographic signal), and sound pressure level were studied. The peak oral pressure P(oral) during [p] and shuttering of the outer end of the tube was measured to estimate the subglottic pressure P(sub) and the mean P(oral) during vowel portions to enable calculation of transglottic pressure P(trans). Sensations during phonation were reported with an open-ended interview. P(sub) and P(oral) were higher in "deep bubbling" and P(trans) lower than in loud syllable phonation, but the CQ did not differ significantly. Similar results were obtained for the comparison between loud "deep bubbling" and strained phonation, although P(sub) did not differ significantly. Most of the subjects reported "deep bubbling" to be stressful only for respiratory and lip muscles. No big differences were found between trained and untrained subjects. The CQ values suggest that "deep bubbling" may increase vocal fold loading. Further studies should address impact stress during water resistance exercises. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørch, Knud Aage
2015-01-01
, and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid....... The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure-time history of the water. A recent model...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boulatov, D.V.; Kazakov, V.A.
1987-01-01
We investigate the critical properties of a recently proposed exactly soluble Ising model on a planar random dynamical lattice representing a regularization of the zero-dimensional string with internal fermions. The sum over all lattices gives rise to a new quantum degree of freedom - fluctuation of the metric. The whole system of critical exponents is found: α = -1, β = 1/2, γ = 2, δ = 5, v . D = 3. To test the universality we have used the planar graphs with the coordination number equal to 4 (Φ 4 theory graphs) as well as with the equal to 3 (Φ 3 theory graphs or triangulations). The critical exponents coincide for both cases. (orig.)
Discrete bubble modeling for a micro-structured bubble column
Jain, D.; Lau, Y.M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Deen, N.G.
2013-01-01
Gas–liquid flows with solid catalyst particles are encountered in many applications in the chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical industries, etc. Most commonly, two reactor types are applied for large scale in the industry. They are slurry bubble column and trickle bed reactors. Both of these
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Császár, Attila G.; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Al Derzi, Afaf R.; Fábri, Csaba; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor
2013-01-01
This is the third of a series of articles reporting critically evaluated rotational–vibrational line positions, transition intensities, and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed labels and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. This paper presents experimental line positions, experimental-quality energy levels, and validated labels for rotational–vibrational transitions of the most abundant isotopologue of water, H 2 16 O. The latest version of the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational–Vibrational Energy Levels) line-inversion procedure is used to determine the rovibrational energy levels of the electronic ground state of H 2 16 O from experimentally measured lines, together with their self-consistent uncertainties, for the spectral region up to the first dissociation limit. The spectroscopic network of H 2 16 O containstwo components, an ortho (o) and a para (p) one. For o-H 2 16 O and p-H 2 16 O, experimentally measured, assigned, and labeled transitions were analyzed from more than 100 sources. The measured lines come from one-photon spectra recorded at room temperature in absorption, from hot samples with temperatures up to 3000 K recorded in emission, and from multiresonance excitation spectra which sample levels up to dissociation. The total number of transitions considered is 184 667 of which 182 156 are validated: 68 027 between para states and 114 129 ortho ones. These transitions give rise to 18 486 validated energy levels, of which 10 446 and 8040 belong to o-H 2 16 O and p-H 2 16 O, respectively. The energy levels, including their labeling with approximate normal-mode and rigid-rotor quantum numbers, have been checked against ones determined from accurate variational nuclear motion computations employing exact kinetic energy operators as well as against previous compilations of energy levels. The extensive list of MARVEL lines and levels obtained are deposited in the supplementary data of this paper, as well as in a
Propagation of a finite bubble in a Hele-Shaw channel of variable depth
Juel, Anne; Franco-Gomez, Andres; Thompson, Alice; Hazel, Andrew
2017-11-01
We study the propagation of finite bubbles in a Hele-Shaw channel, where a centred rail is introduced to provide a small axially-uniform depth constriction. We demonstrate experimentally that this channel geometry can be used as a passive sorting device. Single air bubbles carried within silicone oil are generally transported on one side of the rail. However, for flow rates marginally larger than a critical value, a narrow band of bubble sizes on the order of the rail width can propagate over the rail, while bubbles of other sizes segregate to the side of the rail. The width of this band of bubble sizes increases with flow rate and the size of the most stable bubble can be tuned by varying the rail width. We present a depth-averaged theory which reveals that the mechanism relies on a non-trivial interaction between capillary and viscous forces that is fully dynamic, rather than being a simple modification of capillary static solutions. In contrast, for larger bubbles and sufficiently large imposed flow rates, we find that initially centred bubbles do not converge onto a steady mode of propagation. Instead they transiently explore weakly unstable steady modes, an evolution which results in their break-up and eventual settling into a steady state of changed topology. The financial support of CONICYT and the Leverhulme Trust are gratefully acknowledged.
Investigation of hydrogen bubbles behavior in tungsten by high-flux hydrogen implantation
Zhao, Jiangtao; Meng, Xuan; Guan, Xingcai; Wang, Qiang; Fang, Kaihong; Xu, Xiaohui; Lu, Yongkai; Gao, Jun; Liu, Zhenlin; Wang, Tieshan
2018-05-01
Hydrogen isotopes retention and bubbles formation are critical issues for tungsten as plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors. In this work, the formation and growing up behavior of hydrogen bubbles in tungsten were investigated experimentally. The planar TEM samples were implanted by 6.0keV hydrogens to a fluence of 3.38 ×1018 H ṡ cm-2 at room temperature, and well-defined hydrogen bubbles were observed by TEM. It was demonstrated that hydrogen bubbles formed when exposed to a fluence of 1.5 ×1018 H ṡ cm-2 , and the hydrogen bubbles grew up with the implantation fluence. In addition, the bubbles' size appeared larger with higher beam flux until saturated at a certain flux, even though the total fluence was kept the same. Finally, in order to understand the thermal annealing effect on the bubbles behavior, hydrogen-implanted samples were annealed at 400, 600, 800, and 1000 °C for 3 h. It was obvious that hydrogen bubbles' morphology changed at temperatures higher than 800 °C.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.E. García-Ramos
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We introduce the basic concepts of catastrophe theory needed to derive analytically the phase diagram of the proton–neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2. Previous studies [1–3] were based on numerical solutions. We here explain the whole IBM-2 phase diagram including the precise order of the phase transitions in terms of the cusp catastrophe.
Formation of soap bubbles by gas jet
Zhou, M. L.; Li, M.; Chen, Z. Y.; Han, J. F.; Liu, D.
2017-01-01
Soap bubbles can be easily generated by varies methods, while their formation process is complicated and still worth study. A model about the bubble formation process was proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 077801 recently, and it was reported that the bubbles were formed when the gas blowing velocity was above one threshold. However, after repeating these experiments, we found the bubbles could be generated in two velocities ranges which corresponded to laminar and turbulent gas jet respective...
Fluid dynamics of bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziegenhein, Thomas
2016-01-01
Bubbly flows can be found in many applications in chemical, biological and power engineering. Reliable simulation tools of such flows that allow the design of new processes and optimization of existing one are therefore highly desirable. CFD-simulations applying the multi-fluid approach are very promising to provide such a design tool for complete facilities. In the multi-fluid approach, however, closure models have to be formulated to model the interaction between the continuous and dispersed phase. Due to the complex nature of bubbly flows, different phenomena have to be taken into account and for every phenomenon different closure models exist. Therefore, reliable predictions of unknown bubbly flows are not yet possible with the multi-fluid approach. A strategy to overcome this problem is to define a baseline model in which the closure models including the model constants are fixed so that the limitations of the modeling can be evaluated by validating it on different experiments. Afterwards, the shortcomings are identified so that the baseline model can be stepwise improved without losing the validity for the already validated cases. This development of a baseline model is done in the present work by validating the baseline model developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf mainly basing on experimental data for bubbly pipe flows to bubble columns, bubble plumes and air-lift reactors that are relevant in chemical and biological engineering applications. In the present work, a large variety of such setups is used for validation. The buoyancy driven bubbly flows showed thereby a transient behavior on the scale of the facility. Since such large scales are characterized by the geometry of the facility, turbulence models cannot describe them. Therefore, the transient simulation of bubbly flows with two equation models based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is investigated. In combination with the before mentioned baseline model these
Fluid dynamics of bubbly flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ziegenhein, Thomas
2016-07-08
Bubbly flows can be found in many applications in chemical, biological and power engineering. Reliable simulation tools of such flows that allow the design of new processes and optimization of existing one are therefore highly desirable. CFD-simulations applying the multi-fluid approach are very promising to provide such a design tool for complete facilities. In the multi-fluid approach, however, closure models have to be formulated to model the interaction between the continuous and dispersed phase. Due to the complex nature of bubbly flows, different phenomena have to be taken into account and for every phenomenon different closure models exist. Therefore, reliable predictions of unknown bubbly flows are not yet possible with the multi-fluid approach. A strategy to overcome this problem is to define a baseline model in which the closure models including the model constants are fixed so that the limitations of the modeling can be evaluated by validating it on different experiments. Afterwards, the shortcomings are identified so that the baseline model can be stepwise improved without losing the validity for the already validated cases. This development of a baseline model is done in the present work by validating the baseline model developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf mainly basing on experimental data for bubbly pipe flows to bubble columns, bubble plumes and air-lift reactors that are relevant in chemical and biological engineering applications. In the present work, a large variety of such setups is used for validation. The buoyancy driven bubbly flows showed thereby a transient behavior on the scale of the facility. Since such large scales are characterized by the geometry of the facility, turbulence models cannot describe them. Therefore, the transient simulation of bubbly flows with two equation models based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is investigated. In combination with the before mentioned baseline model these
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyde, Emma
2015-01-01
Introduction: Students studying for qualifications which enable them to apply for registration as health care professionals are expected to undertake a large amount of clinical placement to support their learning. The BSc Hons Diagnostic Radiography at one post-1992 UK University is no exception. It was identified in a previous study by this researcher that a relatively large number of first year student radiographers were unsure, or nervous, about some aspects of the transition to their first clinical placement. It was felt that further investigation into the student experience of the transition to the first clinical placement was warranted. Methodology: A mixed-methods survey approach was used to elicit quantitative and qualitative data from current radiography students, academic staff and clinical staff about student experience of the transition to the first clinical placement. Results: In general, most students enjoyed their first clinical placement, and the opportunity to put theory into practice. However, three key themes emerged from the data that caused students difficulty in the first clinical placement; working with clinical staff, working with very ill patients, and moving around the department each week. Key Conclusions: This study has identified that some aspects of the transition into the first clinical placement need to be improved. Recommendations have been made for curriculum development in the academic block prior to the first clinical placement, and to improve student support during clinical placement. The implementation of these recommendations is crucial to reduce the dissonance between theory and practice, and improve student experience of the transition to the first clinical placement. - Highlights: • Issues for student radiographers during their first clinical placement are identified. • Recommendations made for curriculum development to improve preparation for clinical placement. • Recommendations made to improve student support in
Mechanics of gas-vapor bubbles
Hao, Yue; Zhang, Yuhang; Prosperetti, Andrea
2017-01-01
Most bubbles contain a mixture of vapor and incondensible gases. While the limit cases of pure vapor and pure gas bubbles are well studied, much less is known about the more realistic case of a mixture. The bubble contents continuously change due to the combined effects of evaporation and
Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields
Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S
2002-01-01
A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation
Ramdin, M.; Balaji, S.P.; Vicent Luna, J.M.; Torres-Knoop, A; Chen, Q.; Dubbeldam, D.; Calero, S; de Loos, T.W.; Vlugt, T.J.H.
2016-01-01
Computing bubble-points of multicomponent mixtures using Monte Carlo simulations is a non-trivial task. A new method is used to compute gas compositions from a known temperature, bubble-point pressure, and liquid composition. Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the bubble-points of
Cutting bubbles with a single wire
Baltussen, M.W.; Segers, Q.I.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Deen, N.G.
2017-01-01
Many gas-liquid-solid contactors, such as trickle bed and bubble slurry columns, suffer from heat and mass transfer limitations. To overcome these limitations, new micro-structured bubble column reactor is proposed. In this reactor, a catalyst coated wire mesh is introduced in a bubble column to cut
Experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasquini, Maria-Elena
2015-01-01
The object of this thesis is an experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics in sub-cooled nucleate boiling. The test section is locally heated by focusing a laser beam: heat fluxes from 1 e4 to 1.5 e6 W/m 2 and water temperature between 100 and 88 C have been considered. Three boiling regimes have been observed. Under saturated conditions and with low heat fluxes a developed nucleate boiling regime has been observed. Under higher sub-cooling and still with low heat fluxes an equilibrium regime has been observed in which the liquid flowrate evaporating at the bubble base is compensated by the vapor condensing flowrate at bubble top. A third regime have been observed at high heat fluxes for all water conditions: it is characterized by the formation of a large dry spot on the heated surface that keeps the nucleation site dry after bubble detachment. The condensation phase starts after bubble detachment. Bubble equivalent radius at detachment varies between 1 and 2.5 mm. Bubble properties have been measured and non-dimensional groups have been used to characterize bubble dynamics. Capillary waves have been observed on the bubble surface thanks to high-speed images acquisition. Two main phenomena have been proposed to explain capillary waves effects on bubble condensation: increasing of the phases interface area and decreasing of vapor bubble translation velocity, because of the increased drag force on the deformed bubble. (author) [fr
Observations of a fcc helium gas-bubble superlattice in copper, nickel, and stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, P.B.; Mazey, D.J.
1980-01-01
Transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the spatial arrangement of the small gas bubbles produced in several fcc metals by 30 keV helium ion irradiation to high dose at 300 K. In what is a new result for this important class of metals it is found that the helium gas bubbles lie on a superlattice having an fcc structure with principal axes aligned with those of the metal matrix. The bubble lattice constant asub(i), is measured for a helium fluence just below the critical dose for radiation blistering of the metal surface (approximately 4 x 10 17 He/cm 2 ). Implantation rates are typically approximately 10 14 He ions cm -2 sec -1 . The values of asub(i) obtained for copper, nickel and stainless steel are (7.6 +- 0.3)nm, (6.6 +- 0.5)nm and (6.4 +- 0.5)nm respectively. Above the critical dose the bubble lattice is seen to survive in some blister caps as well as in the region between blisters. Bubble alignment is also observed in the case of hydrogen bubbles produced in copper by low energy proton irradiation to high fluence at 300 K. The presentation of this data was accompanied by a cine film illustrating the behaviour of the gas bubble lattice in copper during post-irradiation annealing in the electron microscope. A summary of the film is given in the appendix. (author)
Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions
Shpak, O.; Verweij, M.; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Escoffre, J.M.; Bouakaz, A.
2016-01-01
The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to
"Financial Bubbles" and Monetary Policy
Tikhonov, Yuriy A.; Pudovkina, Olga E.; Permjakova, Juliana V.
2016-01-01
The relevance of this research is caused by the need of strengthening a role of monetary regulators to prevent financial bubbles in the financial markets. The aim of the article is the analysis of a problem of crisis phenomena in the markets of financial assets owing to an inadequate growth of their cost, owing to subjective reasons. The leading…
Timmermans, Eddy; Blinova, Alina; Boshier, Malcolm
2013-05-01
Polarons (particles that interact with the self-consistent deformation of the host medium that contains them) self-localize when strongly coupled. Dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) doped with neutral distinguishable atoms (impurities) and armed with a Feshbach-tuned impurity-boson interaction provide a unique laboratory to study self-localized polarons. In nature, self-localized polarons come in two flavors that exhibit qualitatively different behavior: In lattice systems, the deformation is slight and the particle is accompanied by a cloud of collective excitations as in the case of the Landau-Pekar polarons of electrons in a dielectric lattice. In natural fluids and gases, the strongly coupled particle radically alters the medium, e.g. by expelling the host medium as in the case of the electron bubbles in superfluid helium. We show that BEC-impurities can self-localize in a bubble, as well as in a Landau-Pekar polaron state. The BEC-impurity system is fully characterized by only two dimensionless coupling constants. In the corresponding phase diagram the bubble and Landau-Pekar polaron limits correspond to large islands separated by a cross-over region. The same BEC-impurity species can be adiabatically Feshbach steered from the Landau-Pekar to the bubble regime. This work was funded by the Los Alamos LDRD program.
Explosive micro-bubble actuator
van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt
2007-01-01
Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and
Prediction of adiabatic bubbly flows in TRACE using the interfacial area transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talley, J.; Worosz, T.; Kim, S.; Mahaffy, J.; Bajorek, S.; Tien, K.
2011-01-01
The conventional thermal-hydraulic reactor system analysis codes utilize a two-field, two-fluid formulation to model two-phase flows. To close this model, static flow regime transition criteria and algebraic relations are utilized to estimate the interfacial area concentration (a i ). To better reflect the continuous evolution of two-phase flow, an experimental version of TRACE is being developed which implements the interfacial area transport equation (IATE) to replace the flow regime based approach. Dynamic estimation of a i is provided through the use of mechanistic models for bubble coalescence and disintegration. To account for the differences in bubble interactions and drag forces, two-group bubble transport is sought. As such, Group 1 accounts for the transport of spherical and distorted bubbles, while Group 2 accounts for the cap, slug, and churn-turbulent bubbles. Based on this categorization, a two-group IATE applicable to the range of dispersed two-phase flows has been previously developed. Recently, a one-group, one-dimensional, adiabatic IATE has been implemented into the TRACE code with mechanistic models accounting for: (1) bubble breakup due to turbulent impact of an eddy on a bubble, (2) bubble coalescence due to random collision driven by turbulent eddies, and (3) bubble coalescence due to the acceleration of a bubble in the wake region of a preceding bubble. To demonstrate the enhancement of the code's capability using the IATE, experimental data for a i , void fraction, and bubble velocity measured by a multi-sensor conductivity probe are compared to both the IATE and flow regime based predictions. In total, 50 air-water vertical co-current upward and downward bubbly flow conditions in pipes with diameters ranging from 2.54 to 20.32 cm are evaluated. It is found that TRACE, using the conventional flow regime relation, always underestimates a i . Moreover, the axial trend of the a i prediction is always quasi-linear because a i in the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolf, S.; Holmes, D.H.
1977-04-01
An experimental program was conducted to characterize critical heat flux (CHF) in a sodium-heated steam generator tube model at a proposed PLBR steam generator design pressure of 7.2 MPa. Water was circulated vertically upward in the tube and the heating sodium was flowing counter-current downward. The experimental ranges were: mass flux, 110 to 1490 kg/s.m/sup 2/ (0.08 to 1.10 10/sup 6/ lbm/h.ft/sup 2/); critical heat flux, 0.16 to 1.86 MW/m/sup 2/ (0.05 to 0.59 10/sup 6/ Btu/h.ft/sup 2/); and critical quality, 0.48 to 1.0. The CHF phenomenon for the experimental conditions is determined to be dryout as opposed to departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). The data are divided into high- and low-mass flux regions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jahnel, Benedikt; Külske, Christof; Botirov, Golibjon I.
2014-01-01
We consider a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor model on a Cayley tree of degree k ⩾ 2 with uncountable local state space [0,1] where the energy function depends on a parameter θ ∊[0, 1). We show that for 0 ⩽ θ ⩽ 5 3 k the model has a unique translation-invariant Gibbs measure. If 5 3 k < θ < 1 , there is a phase transition, in particular there are three translation-invariant Gibbs measures
Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Noel, Lance; Axsen, Jonn; Kempton, Willett
2018-01-01
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) refers to efforts to bi-directionally link the electric power system and the transportation system in ways that can improve the sustainability and security of both. A transition to V2G could enable vehicles to simultaneously improve the efficiency (and profitability) of electricity grids, reduce greenhouse gas emissions for transport, accommodate low-carbon sources of energy, and reap cost savings for owners, drivers, and other users. To understand the recent state of this field of research, here we conduct a systematic review of 197 peer-reviewed articles published on V2G from 2015 to early 2017. We find that the majority of V2G studies in that time period focus on technical aspects of V2G, notably renewable energy storage, batteries, or load balancing to minimize electricity costs, in some cases including environmental goals as constraints. A much lower proportion of studies focus on the importance of assessing environmental and climate attributes of a V2G transition, or on the role of consumer acceptance and knowledge of V2G systems. Further, there is need for exploratory work on natural resource use and externalities, discourses and narratives as well as social justice, gender, and urban resilience considerations. These research gaps need to be addressed if V2G is to achieve the societal transition its advocates seek.
Hydrodynamics in a swarm of rising bubbles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riboux, G.
2007-04-01
In many applications, bubbles are used to agitate a liquid in order to enhance mixing and transfer. This work is devoted to the study of the hydrodynamics in a stable bubble column. Experimentally, we have determined the properties of the velocity fluctuations inside and behind a homogeneous swarm of rising bubbles for different bubble sizes and gas volume fractions α: self-similarity in α 0,4 , spectrum in k -3 and integral length scale controlled by buoyancy. Numerically, we have reproduced these properties by means of large-scale simulations, the bubbles being modeled by volume-forces. This confirms that the dynamics is controlled by wake interactions. (author)
Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G.de
2006-01-01
Measurements of breaking-wave-generated bubble plumes were made in fresh (but not clean) water in a large wind-wave tunnel. To preserve diversity, a classification scheme was developed on the basis of plume dimensions and "optical density," or the plume's ability to obscure the background. Optically
Contracting bubbles in Hele-Shaw cells with a power-law fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCue, Scott W; King, John R
2011-01-01
The problem of bubble contraction in a Hele-Shaw cell is studied for the case in which the surrounding fluid is of power-law type. A small perturbation of the radially symmetric problem is first considered, focussing on the behaviour just before the bubble vanishes, it being found that for shear-thinning fluids the radially symmetric solution is stable, while for shear-thickening fluids the aspect ratio of the bubble boundary increases. The borderline (Newtonian) case considered previously is neutrally stable, the bubble boundary becoming elliptic in shape with the eccentricity of the ellipse depending on the initial data. Further light is shed on the bubble contraction problem by considering a long thin Hele-Shaw cell: for early times the leading-order behaviour is one-dimensional in this limit; however, as the bubble contracts its evolution is ultimately determined by the solution of a Wiener–Hopf problem, the transition between the long thin limit and the extinction limit in which the bubble vanishes being described by what is in effect a similarity solution of the second kind. This same solution describes the generic (slit-like) extinction behaviour for shear-thickening fluids, the interface profiles that generalize the ellipses that characterize the Newtonian case being constructed by the Wiener–Hopf calculation
An equation of motion for bubble growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lesage, F.J. [College d' Enseignement General et Professionnel de L' Outaouais, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics; Cotton, J.S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Robinson, A.J. [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
2009-07-01
A mathematical model is developed which describes asymmetric bubble growth, either during boiling or bubble injection from submerged orifices. The model is developed using the integral form of the continuity and momentum equations, resulting in a general expression for the acceleration of the bubble's centre of gravity. The proposed model highlights the need to include acceleration due to an asymmetric gain or loss of mass in order to accurately predict bubble motion. Some scenarios are posed by which the growth of bubbles, particularly idealized bubbles that remain a section of a sphere, must include the fact that bubble growth can be asymmetric. In particular, for approximately hemispherical bubble growth the sum of the forces acting on the bubble is negligible compared with the asymmetric term. Further, for bubble injection from a submerged needle this component in the equation of motion is very significant during the initial rapid growth phase as the bubble issues from the nozzle changing from a near hemisphere to truncated sphere geometry. (author)
An equation of motion for bubble growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesage, F.J.; Cotton, J.S.; Robinson, A.J.
2009-01-01
A mathematical model is developed which describes asymmetric bubble growth, either during boiling or bubble injection from submerged orifices. The model is developed using the integral form of the continuity and momentum equations, resulting in a general expression for the acceleration of the bubble's centre of gravity. The proposed model highlights the need to include acceleration due to an asymmetric gain or loss of mass in order to accurately predict bubble motion. Some scenarios are posed by which the growth of bubbles, particularly idealized bubbles that remain a section of a sphere, must include the fact that bubble growth can be asymmetric. In particular, for approximately hemispherical bubble growth the sum of the forces acting on the bubble is negligible compared with the asymmetric term. Further, for bubble injection from a submerged needle this component in the equation of motion is very significant during the initial rapid growth phase as the bubble issues from the nozzle changing from a near hemisphere to truncated sphere geometry. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Zhiying; Li, Yikai; Huang, Biao; Gao, Deming [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)
2016-06-15
We numerically investigated the rising of bubbles in a quiescent liquid layer. The numerical simulation is performed by solving the incompressible, multiphase Navier-Stokes equations via computational code in axisymmetric coordinates using a Coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) method. The numerical results show that the CLSVOF method with a novel algebraic relation between F and f for axisymmetric two-phase flows not only can predict the bubble surface accurately, but also overcome the deficiency in preserving volume conservation. The effects of the Reynolds number Re and the Bond number Bo on the bubble deformation and its motion are investigated. The results show that with the increasing of Re (10 < Re < 150), the bubble shape transfers from oblate ellipsoidal cap to toroidal when Bo = 116. With the increasing of Bo (10 < Bo < 700), the bubble shape transfers from oblate ellipsoidal to toroidal when Re = 30. Although the toroidal bubble shapes are reached in these two cases, the transition modes are different. For the case Bo = 116, the bubble front is pierced by an upward jet from the rear of the bubble. While for the case Re = 30, the rear of the bubble is pierced by a downward jet from the front part.
Bidirectional cinematography of steam-bubble growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deason, V.A.; Reynolds, L.D.
1982-01-01
Single steam bubbles were generated in superheated water in an optical cell. The growth process of the bubbles was recorded with a high-speed motion picture camera at 5000 and 10,000 frames per second. A technique was developed to simultaneously image two orthogonal views of the bubbles on each frame of film. The vertical and horizontal diameters of the bubbles were measured on a frame-by-frame basis, and the data analyzed to determine oscillatory frequencies. The analysis also attempted to determine whether the bubbles were undergoing volumetric oscillations during early growth or whether simple surface wave/rotational behavior caused the observed periodic variations in bubble dimensions. For the bubbles studied, typical oscillation frequencies for the diameters were in the range of 100 to 500 Hz
Bidirectional cinematography of steam-bubble growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deason, V.A.; Reynolds, L.D.
1982-01-01
Single steam bubbles were generated in superheated water in an optical cell. The growth process of the bubbles was recorded with a high-speed motion picture camera at 5000 and 10,000 frames per second. A technique was developed to simultaneously image two orthogonal views of the bubbles on each frame of film. The vertical and horizontal diameters of the bubbles were measured on a frame-by-frame basis, and the data analyzed to determine oscillatory frequencies. The analysis also attempted to determine whether the bubbles were undergoing volumetric oscillations during early growth or whether simple surface wave/rotational behavior caused the observed periodic variations in bubble dimensions. For the bubbles studied, typical oscillation frequencies for the diameters were in the range of 100 to 500 Hz.
Cummings, Brian M; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Yager, Phoebe H; Noviski, Natan
2017-12-01
Pediatric hospitals must consider staff, training, and direct costs required to maintain a pediatric specialized transport team, balanced with indirect potential benefits of marketing and referral volume. The effect of transitioning a unit-based transport team to an external service on the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is unknown, but information is needed as hospital systems focus on population management. We examined the impact on PICU transports after transition to an external transport vendor. Single-center retrospective review performed of PICU admissions, referrals, and transfers during baseline, post-, and maintenance period with a total of 9-year follow-up. Transfer volume was analyzed during pre-, post-, and maintenance phase with descriptive statistics and statistical process control charts from 1999 to 2012. Total PICU admissions increased with an annual growth rate of 3.7%, with mean annual 626 admissions prior to implementation to the mean of 890 admissions at the end of period, P < .001. The proportion of transport to total admissions decreased from 27% to 21%, but mean annual transports were unchanged, 175 to 183, P = .6, and mean referrals were similar, 186 to 203, P = .8. Seasonal changes in transport volume remained as a predominant source of variability. Annual transport refusals increased initially in the postimplementation phase, mean 11 versus 33, P < .03, but similar to baseline in the maintenance phase, mean 20/year, P = .07. Patient refusals were due to bed and staffing constraints, with 7% due to the lack of transport vendor availability. In a transition to a regional transport service, PICU transport volume was maintained in the long-term follow-up and total PICU admissions increased. Further research on the direct and indirect impact of transport regionalization is needed to determine the optimal cost-benefit and quality of care as health-care systems focus on population management.
Modification of shape oscillations of an attached bubble by surfactants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tihon J.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Surface-active agents (surfactants, e.g. washing agents strongly modifies properties of gas-liquid interface. We have carried out extensive experiments, in which we study effect of surfactants on the shape oscillations of a bubble, which is attached at a tip of a capillary. In the experiments, shape oscillations of a bubble are invoked by a motion of a capillary, to which the bubble is injected. Decaying oscillations are recorded and their frequency and damping are evaluated. By changing the excitation frequency, three lowest oscillation modes are studied. Experiments were repeated in aqueous solution of several surfactants (terpineol, SDS, CTAB, Triton X-100, Triton X-45 at various concentrations. Generally, these features are observed: Initially a surfactant addition leads to an increase of the oscillation frequency (though surface tension is decreasing; this effect can be attributed to the increasing interfacial elasticity. The decay time of oscillation is strongly decreasing, as a consequence of energy dissipation linked with Marangoni stresses. At a certain critical concentration, frequency decreases abruptly and the decay time passes by a minimum. With further addition of surfactant, frequency decreases, and the decay time slightly lengthens. Above critical micelle concentration, all these parameters stabilize. Interestingly, the critical concentration, at which frequency drop occurs, depends on mode order. This clearly shows that the frequency drop and minimum decay time are not a consequence of some abrupt change of interfacial properties, but are a consequence of some phenomena, which still need to be explained.
Sun, Min; Li, Zhi; Gui, Jian-Fang
2010-10-01
Spindlin (Spin) was thought as a maternal-effect factor associated with meiotic spindle. Its role for the oocyte-to-embryo transition was suggested in mouse, but its direct evidence for the function had been not obtained in other vertebrates. In this study, we used the CagSpin-specific antibody to investigate CagSpin expression pattern and distribution during oogenesis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). First, the oocyte-specific expression pattern and dynamic distribution was revealed in nucleoli, nucleoplasm, and spindle from primary oocytes to mature eggs by immunofluorescence localization. In primary oocytes and growth stage oocytes, CagSpin accumulates in nucleoli in increasing numbers along with the oocyte growth, and its disassembly occurs in vitellogenic oocytes, which implicates that CagSpin may be a major component of a large number of nucleoli in fish growth oocytes. Then, co-localization of CagSpin and β-tubulin was revealed in meiotic spindle of mature egg, indicating that CagSpin is one spindle-associated factor. Moreover, microinjection of CagSpin-specific antibody into the fertilized eggs blocked the first cleavage, and found that the CagSpin depletion resulted in spindle assembly disturbance. Thereby, our study provided the first direct evidence for the critical oocyte-to-embryo transition function of Spin in vertebrates, and confirmed that Spin is one important maternal-effect factor that participates in oocyte growth, oocyte maturation, and oocyte-to-embryo transition.
Critical role of γ-phosphate in structural transition of Na,K-ATPase upon ATP binding
Petrushanko, Irina Yu.; Mitkevich, Vladimir A.; Anashkina, Anastasia A.; Klimanova, Elizaveta A.; Dergousova, Elena A.; Lopina, Olga D.; Makarov, Alexander A.
2014-06-01
Active transport of sodium and potassium ions by Na,K-ATPase is accompanied by the enzyme conformational transition between E1 and E2 states. ATP and ADP bind to Na,K-ATPase in the E1 conformation with similar affinity but the properties of enzyme in complexes with these nucleotides are different. We have studied thermodynamics of Na,K-ATPase binding with adenine nucleotides at different temperatures using isothermal titration calorimetry. Our data indicate that β-phosphate is involved in complex formation by increasing the affinity of adenine nucleotides to Na,K-ATPase by an order of magnitude, while γ-phosphate does not affect it. ATP binding to Na,K-ATPase in contrast to ADP binding generates a structural transition in the enzyme, which is consistent with the movement of a significant portion of the surface area to a solvent-protected state. We propose that ATP binding leads to convergence of the nucleotide-binding and phosphorylation domains transferring the enzyme from the ``E1-open'' to ``E1-closed'' conformation ready for phosphorylation.
Prominence Bubble Shear Flows and the Coupled Kelvin-Helmholtz — Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Berger, Thomas; Hillier, Andrew
2017-08-01
Prominence bubbles are large arched structures that rise from below into quiescent prominences, often growing to heights on the order of 10 Mm before going unstable and generating plume upflows. While there is general agreement that emerging flux below pre-existing prominences causes the structures, there is lack of agreement on the nature of the bubbles and the cause of the instability flows. One hypothesis is that the bubbles contain coronal temperature plasma and rise into the prominence above due to both magnetic and thermal buoyancy, eventually breaking down via a magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability to release hot plasma and magnetic flux and helicity into the overlying coronal flux rope. Another posits that the bubbles are actually just “arcades” in the prominence indicating a magnetic separator line between the bipole and the prominence fields with the observed upflows and downflows caused by reconnection along the separator. We analyze Hinode/SOT, SDO/AIA, and IRIS observations of prominence bubbles, focusing on characteristics of the bubble boundary layers that may discriminate between the two hypotheses. We find speeds on the order of 10 km/s in prominence plasma downflows and lateral shear flows along the bubble boundary. Inflows to the boundary gradually increase the thickness and brightness of the layer until plasma drains from there, apparently around the dome-like bubble domain. In one case, shear flow across the bubble boundary develops Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices that we use to infer flow speeds in the low-density bubble on the order of 100 km/sec. IRIS spectra indicate that plasma flows on the bubble boundary at transition region temperatures achieve Doppler speeds on the order of 50 km/s, consistent with this inference. Combined magnetic KH-RT instability analysis leads to flux density estimates of 10 G with a field angle of 30° to the prominence, consistent with vector magnetic field measurements. In contrast, we find no evidence
Bubble entrapment through topological change
Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.
2010-05-03
When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.
Bubble entrapment through topological change
Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.
2010-01-01
When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.
Para a crítica da transição nutricional For a critic to the nutritional transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria do Socorro Quirino Escoda
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Discuto neste artigo as características da transição nutricional. Utilizo dados dos estudos nutricionais de população, conceitos e categorias analíticas. Correlaciono essas características com as especificidades do nosso processo de desenvolvimento. Questiono o sentido dessa transição que migrou: 1 De um perfil inicialmente marcado pela alta prevalência da má nutrição por déficits, nas formas graves de desnutrição energético-protéica e carências específicas. 2 Se o ponto de corte utilizado para contagem dos desnutridos graves, situados abaixo do percentil três do padrão de classificação do NCHS (National Center of Health Statistiscs, ao eleger a gravidade como hierarquização para a atenção nutricional, não mascara a prevalência do déficit de peso e de estatura da população estudada. 3 Conseqüentemente, a real extensão das formas leves, moderadas e a cronicidade da desnutrição. 4 A reprodução da iniqüidade entre os desnutridos. 5 Se essa transição traz em sua trajetória as características de otimização ou de complexificação da situação nutricional da população brasileira.I discuss in this article the characteristics of the nutritional transition. For that, I use the data of nutritional researches of the population, concepts and analytic categories. I make a correlation between these characteristics and the specificities of our development process. Then, I question: 1 The sense of this transition, which comes from a stage initially signed by high prevalence of deficits malnutrition, on gravity forms. 2 If the breakpoint used to reckon the gravity malnutrition occurrences, located under the percentile 3 of the international standard classification - of the National Center of Health Statistics (NCHS -, is not to choose gravity as hierarchy of the nutritional attention. 3 If this procedure does not mask the real extension of the moderate and light forms of malnutrition deficits. 4 If the selected
Bubble collisions in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siklos, S.T.C.; Wu, Z.C.; University of Science and Technology of China, Hofei, Anhwei)
1983-01-01
The collision of two bubbles of true vacuum in a background of false vacuum is considered in the context of General Relativity. It is found that in the thin wall approximation, the problem, can be solved exactly. The region to the future of the collision is described by the pseudo-Schwarzschild de Sitter metric. The parameters in this metric are found by solving the junction conditions at each collision. (author)
BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber
CERN PhotoLab
1974-01-01
A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.
Bubbling Controlled by Needle Movement
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vejražka, Jiří; Zedníková, Mária; Stanovský, Petr; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří
2008-01-01
Roč. 40, 7-8 (2008), s. 521-533 ISSN 0169-5983 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP101/05/P229; GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/2566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble * detechment * control Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.012, year: 2008
Informational pathologies and interest bubbles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt
2017-01-01
This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....
Yuan, Xiaoda; Carter, Brady P; Schmidt, Shelly J
2011-01-01
Similar to an increase in temperature at constant moisture content, water vapor sorption by an amorphous glassy material at constant temperature causes the material to transition into the rubbery state. However, comparatively little research has investigated the measurement of the critical relative humidity (RHc) at which the glass transition occurs at constant temperature. Thus, the central objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the glass transition temperature (Tg), determined using thermal methods, and the RHc obtained using an automatic water vapor sorption instrument. Dynamic dewpoint isotherms were obtained for amorphous polydextrose from 15 to 40 °C. RHc was determined using an optimized 2nd-derivative method; however, 2 simpler RHc determination methods were also tested as a secondary objective. No statistical difference was found between the 3 RHc methods. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Tg values were determined using polydextrose equilibrated from 11.3% to 57.6% RH. Both standard DSC and modulated DSC (MDSC) methods were employed, since some of the polydextrose thermograms exhibited a physical aging peak. Thus, a tertiary objective was to compare Tg values obtained using 3 different methods (DSC first scan, DSC rescan, and MDSC), to determine which method(s) yielded the most accurate Tg values. In general, onset and midpoint DSC first scan and MDSC Tg values were similar, whereas onset and midpoint DSC rescan values were different. State diagrams of RHc and experimental temperature and Tg and %RH were compared. These state diagrams, though obtained via very different methods, showed relatively good agreement, confirming our hypothesis that water vapor sorption isotherms can be used to directly detect the glassy to rubbery transition. Practical Application: The food polymer science (FPS) approach, pioneered by Slade and Levine, is being successfully applied in the food industry for understanding, improving, and
When Will Occur the Crude Oil Bubbles?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, Chi-Wei; Li, Zheng-Zheng; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Lobonţ, Oana-Ramona
2017-01-01
In this paper, we apply a recursive unit root test to investigate whether there exist multiple bubbles in crude oil price. The method is best suited for a practical implementation of a time series and delivers a consistent date-stamping strategy for the origination and termination of multiple bubbles. The empirical result indicates that there exist six bubbles during 1986–2016 when the oil price deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. Specifically, oil price contains the fundamentals and bubble components. The dates of the bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. The authorities should actively fight speculative bubbles or just observe their evolutions and speculation activities may decrease, which is favour of the stabilisation of the staple commodities including crude oil price. These findings have important economic and policy implications to recognise the cause of bubbles and take corresponding measures to reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price. - Highlights: • Investigate multiple bubbles in crude oil price. • Indicate six bubbles deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. • The bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. • Reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price.
Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions
Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard
2016-11-01
Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.
Correlation between Gas Bubble Formation and Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Kinetics at Nanoelectrodes.
Chen, Qianjin; Luo, Long
2018-04-17
We report the correlation between H 2 gas bubble formation potential and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity for Au and Pt nanodisk electrodes (NEs). Microkinetic models were formulated to obtain the HER kinetic information for individual Au and Pt NEs. We found that the rate-determining steps for the HER at Au and Pt NEs were the Volmer step and the Heyrovsky step, respectively. More interestingly, the standard rate constant ( k 0 ) of the rate-determining step was found to vary over 2 orders of magnitude for the same type of NEs. The observed variations indicate the HER activity heterogeneity at the nanoscale. Furthermore, we discovered a linear relationship between bubble formation potential ( E bubble ) and log( k 0 ) with a slope of 125 mV/decade for both Au and Pt NEs. As log ( k 0 ) increases, E bubble shifts linearly to more positive potentials, meaning NEs with higher HER activities form H 2 bubbles at less negative potentials. Our theoretical model suggests that such linear relationship is caused by the similar critical bubble formation condition for Au and Pt NEs with varied sizes. Our results have potential implications for using gas bubble formation to evaluate the HER activity distribution of nanoparticles in an ensemble.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Carleer, Michel R.; Csaszar, Attila G.; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Jenouvrier, Alain; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Toth, Robert A.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Daumont, Ludovic; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Gordon, Iouli E.; Mikhailenko, Semen N.
2009-01-01
This is the first part of a series of articles reporting critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions, transition intensities, pressure dependence and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed assignments and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. The present article contains energy levels and data for line positions of the singly substituted isotopologues H 2 17 O and H 2 18 O. The procedure and code MARVEL, standing for measured active rotational-vibrational energy levels, is used extensively in all stages of determining the validated levels and lines and their self-consistent uncertainties. The spectral regions covered for both isotopologues H 2 17 O and H 2 18 O are 0-17125cm -1 . The energy levels are checked against ones determined from accurate variational calculations. The number of critically evaluated and recommended levels and lines are, respectively, 2687 and 8614 for H 2 17 O, and 4839 and 29 364 for H 2 18 O. The extensive lists of MARVEL lines and levels obtained are deposited in the Supplementary Material, as well as in a distributed information system applied to water, W-DIS, where they can easily be retrieved. A distinguishing feature of the present evaluation of water spectroscopic data is the systematic use of all available experimental data and validation by first-principles theoretical calculations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minati, Ludovico, E-mail: lminati@ieee.org, E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it, E-mail: ludovico.minati@ifj.edu [Center for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento, 38123 Mattarello (Italy); Complex Systems Theory Department, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków (Poland); Candia, Antonio de [Department of Physics “E. Pancini,” University of Naples “Federico II,” Napoli (Italy); INFN Gr. Coll. Salerno, Unità di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Scarpetta, Silvia [INFN Gr. Coll. Salerno, Unità di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Department of Physics “E.R.Caianiello,” University of Salerno, Napoli (Italy)
2016-07-15
Networks of non-linear electronic oscillators have shown potential as physical models of neural dynamics. However, two properties of brain activity, namely, criticality and metastability, remain under-investigated with this approach. Here, we present a simple circuit that exhibits both phenomena. The apparatus consists of a two-dimensional square lattice of capacitively coupled glow (neon) lamps. The dynamics of lamp breakdown (flash) events are controlled by a DC voltage globally connected to all nodes via fixed resistors. Depending on this parameter, two phases having distinct event rate and degree of spatiotemporal order are observed. The transition between them is hysteretic, thus a first-order one, and it is possible to enter a metastability region, wherein, approaching a spinodal point, critical phenomena emerge. Avalanches of events occur according to power-law distributions having exponents ≈3/2 for size and ≈2 for duration, and fractal structure is evident as power-law scaling of the Fano factor. These critical exponents overlap observations in biological neural networks; hence, this circuit may have value as building block to realize corresponding physical models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamatsuki Kaori
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on synergistic interactions between internal and external signals, and yield potential of crops is a manifestation of how these complex factors interact, particularly at critical stages of development. As an initial step towards developing a systems-level understanding of the biological processes underlying the expression of overall agronomic potential in cereal crops, a high-resolution transcriptome analysis of rice was conducted throughout life cycle of rice grown under natural field conditions. Results A wide range of gene expression profiles based on 48 organs and tissues at various developmental stages identified 731 organ/tissue specific genes as well as 215 growth stage-specific expressed genes universally in leaf blade, leaf sheath, and root. Continuous transcriptome profiling of leaf from transplanting until harvesting further elucidated the growth-stage specificity of gene expression and uncovered two major drastic changes in the leaf transcriptional program. The first major change occurred before the panicle differentiation, accompanied by the expression of RFT1, a putative florigen gene in long day conditions, and the downregulation of the precursors of two microRNAs. This transcriptome change was also associated with physiological alterations including phosphate-homeostasis state as evident from the behavior of several key regulators such as miR399. The second major transcriptome change occurred just after flowering, and based on analysis of sterile mutant lines, we further revealed that the formation of strong sink, i.e., a developing grain, is not the major cause but is rather a promoter of this change. Conclusions Our study provides not only the genetic basis for functional genomics in rice but also new insight into understanding the critical physiological processes involved in flowering and seed development, that could lead to novel strategies for optimizing crop productivity.
Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?
Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin
2015-11-01
As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.
Formation of soap bubbles by gas jet
Zhou, Maolei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhiyuan; Han, Jifeng; Liu, Dong
2017-12-01
Soap bubbles can be easily generated by various methods, while their formation process is complicated and still worth studying. A model about the bubble formation process was proposed in the study by Salkin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 077801 (2016)] recently, and it was reported that the bubbles were formed when the gas blowing velocity was above one threshold. However, after a detailed study of these experiments, we found that the bubbles could be generated in two velocity ranges which corresponded to the laminar and turbulent gas jet, respectively, and the predicted threshold was only effective for turbulent gas flow. The study revealed that the bubble formation was greatly influenced by the aerodynamics of the gas jet blowing to the film, and these results will help to further understand the formation mechanism of the soap bubble as well as the interaction between the gas jet and the thin liquid film.
Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lanoy, Maxime [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin [Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Tourin, Arnaud [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)
2015-11-23
Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices.
The KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doi, Yoshikuni; Araoka, Osamu; Hayashi, Kohei; Hayashi, Yoshio; Hirabayashi, Hiromi.
1978-03-01
A medium size hydrogen bubble chamber has been constructed at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK. The bubble chamber has been designed to be operated with a maximum rate of three times per half a second in every two second repetition time of the accelerator, by utilizing a hydraulic expansion system. The bubble chamber has a one meter diameter and a visible volume of about 280 l. A three-view stereo camera system is used for taking photographic pictures of the chamber. A 2 MW bubble chamber magnet is constructed. The main part of the bubble chamber vessel is supported by the magnet yoke. The magnet gives a maximum field of 18.4 kG at the centre of the fiducial volume of the chamber. The overall system of the KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber facility is described in some detail. Some operational characteristics of the facility are also reported. (auth.)
Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lanoy, Maxime; Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin; Tourin, Arnaud
2015-01-01
Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices
Goudie, Anthony; Carle, Adam C
2011-12-01
Nearly 30 percent of young adults with special health care needs in Ohio lack health insurance, compared to 5 percent of the state's children with special health care needs. As children with such needs become too old for Medicaid or insurance through their parents' employer, they face great challenges in obtaining insurance. Lack of insurance is highly predictive of unmet needs, which in turn are predictive of costly hospital-based encounters. Young adults with special health care needs who are uninsured are more than twice as likely as their peers with insurance to forgo filling prescriptions and getting care and to have problems getting care. Even after insurance status is accounted for, young adults with special health care needs are more likely than children with such needs to not fill prescriptions because of cost and to delay or forgo needed care. This study demonstrates that continuous and adequate health insurance is vital to the continued well-being of children with special health care needs as they transition to young adulthood.
Energy Budget of Cosmological First-order Phase Transitions
Espinosa, Jose R; No, Jose M; Servant, Geraldine
2010-01-01
The study of the hydrodynamics of bubble growth in first-order phase transitions is very relevant for electroweak baryogenesis, as the baryon asymmetry depends sensitively on the bubble wall velocity, and also for predicting the size of the gravity wave signal resulting from bubble collisions, which depends on both the bubble wall velocity and the plasma fluid velocity. We perform such study in different bubble expansion regimes, namely deflagrations, detonations, hybrids (steady states) and runaway solutions (accelerating wall), without relying on a specific particle physics model. We compute the efficiency of the transfer of vacuum energy to the bubble wall and the plasma in all regimes. We clarify the condition determining the runaway regime and stress that in most models of strong first-order phase transitions this will modify expectations for the gravity wave signal. Indeed, in this case, most of the kinetic energy is concentrated in the wall and almost no turbulent fluid motions are expected since the s...
The observation of helium gas bubble lattices in copper, nickel and stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, P.B.; Mazey, D.J.
1978-10-01
Transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the spatial arrangement of the small gas bubbles produced in several fcc metals by 30 keV helium ion irradiation to high dose at 300K. In what is a new result for this important class of metals it is found that the helium gas bubbles lie on a superlattice having an fcc structure with principal axes aligned with those of the metal matrix. The bubble lattice constant, asub(l), is measured for a helium fluence just below the critical dose for radiation blistering of the metal surface. Implantation rates are typically approximately 10 14 He ions cm -2 sec -1 . The values of asub(l) obtained for copper, nickel and stainless steel are given. Above the critical dose the bubble lattice is seen to survive in some blister caps as well as in the region between blisters. Bubble alignment is also observed in the case of hydrogen bubbles produced in copper by low energy proton irradiation to high fluence at 300K. (author)
Study of stream flow effects on bubble motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sami, S.S.
1983-01-01
The formation of air bubbles at constant-pressure by submerged orifices was investigated in both quiescent and moving streams inside a vertical tube. Parameters affecting the bubble rise velocity, such as bubble generating frequency and diameter, were studied and analyzed for bubbles rising in a chain and homogeneous mixture. A special technique for measuring bubble motion parameters has been developed, tested, and employed throughout the experimental investigation. The method is based on a water-air impedance variation. Results obtained in stagnant liquid show that increasing the bubble diameter serves to increase bubble rise velocity, while an opposite trend has been observed for stream liquid where the bubble diameter increase reduces the bubble rise velocity. The increase of bubble generation frequency generally increases the bubble rise velocity. Experimental data covered with bubble radial distribution showed symmetrical profiles of bubble velocity and frequency, and the radial distribution of the velocity profiles sometimes has two maxima and one minimum depending on the liquid velocity. Finally, in stagnant liquid, a normalized correlation has been developed to predict the terminal rise velocity in terms of bubble generating frequency, bubble diameter, single bubble rise velocity, and conduit dimensions. Another correlation is presented for forced bubbly flow, where the bubble rise velocity is expressed as a function of bubble generating frequency, bubble diameter, and water superficial velocity
Localized and Delocalized Motion of Colloidal Particles on a Magnetic Bubble Lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tierno, Pietro; Fischer, Thomas M.; Johansen, Tom H.
2007-01-01
We study the motion of paramagnetic colloidal particles placed above magnetic bubble domains of a uniaxial garnet film and driven through the lattice by external magnetic field modulation. An external tunable precessing field propels the particles either in localized orbits around the bubbles or in superdiffusive or ballistic motion through the bubble array. This motion results from the interplay between the driving rotating signal, the viscous drag force and the periodic magnetic energy landscape. We explain the transition in terms of the incommensurability between the transit frequency of the particle through a unit cell and the modulation frequency. Ballistic motion dynamically breaks the symmetry of the array and the phase locked particles follow one of the six crystal directions
Local measurements in turbulent bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzanne, C.; Ellingsen, K.; Risso, F.; Roig, V.
1998-01-01
Local measurements methods in bubbly flows are discussed. Concerning liquid velocity measurement, problems linked to HFA and LDA are first analysed. Then simultaneously recorded velocity signals obtained by both anemometers are compared. New signal processing are developed for the two techniques. Bubble sizes and velocities measurements methods using intrusive double optical sensor probe are presented. Plane bubbly mixing layer has been investigated. Local measurements using the described methods are presented as examples. (author)
Bursting the bubble of melt inclusions
Lowenstern, Jacob B.
2015-01-01
Most silicate melt inclusions (MI) contain bubbles, whose significance has been alternately calculated, pondered, and ignored, but rarely if ever directly explored. Moore et al. (2015) analyze the bubbles, as well as their host glasses, and conclude that they often hold the preponderance of CO2 in the MI. Their findings entreat future researchers to account for the presence of bubbles in MI when calculating volatile budgets, saturation pressures, and eruptive flux.
On Bubble Rising in Countercurrent Flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Večeř, M.; Leštinský, P.; Wichterle, K.; Růžička, Marek
2012-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 2012 (2012), A30 ISSN 1542-6580 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0972; GA ČR GA104/07/1110 Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0069 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ellipsoidal bubble * bubble shape * bubble velocity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.790, year: 2011
Fast Initialization of Bubble-Memory Systems
Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.; Hayes, P. J.
1986-01-01
Improved scheme several orders of magnitude faster than normal initialization scheme. State-of-the-art commercial bubble-memory device used. Hardware interface designed connects controlling microprocessor to bubblememory circuitry. System software written to exercise various functions of bubble-memory system in comparison made between normal and fast techniques. Future implementations of approach utilize E2PROM (electrically-erasable programable read-only memory) to provide greater system flexibility. Fastinitialization technique applicable to all bubble-memory devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porcar, L.; Bourgault, D.; Chaud, X.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.; Tixador, P.
1998-01-01
High transport currents along the (a,b) planes and along the c-axis have been measured in pulsed current of different pseudo-frequencies. Self field losses and transport current of 8000 A (20000 A cm -2 ) have been measured in Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ bars textured by the melting zone technique. Critical currents as high as 500 A (90000 A cm -2 ) along the (a,b) planes or 3000 A (7500 A cm -2 ) along the c-axis have been measured. For both orientations, the transition from the normal state to the superconducting state has been observed. Electric field of 1000 V m -1 and study of the superconducting state recovery are reported. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, J; Gu, Q; Lörscher, C; Klemm, R A
2014-01-01
We calculate the temperature T and angular (θ, ϕ) dependencies of the upper critical induction B c2 (θ, ϕ, T) for parallel-spin superconductors with an axially symmetric p-wave pairing interaction pinned to the lattice and a dominant ellipsoidal Fermi surface (FS). For all FS anisotropies, the chiral Scharnberg–Klemm (SK) state B c2 (θ, ϕ, T) exceeds that of the chiral Anderson–Brinkman–Morel (ABM) state and exhibits a kink at θ = θ * (T, ϕ), indicative of a first-order transition from its chiral, nodal-direction behavior to its non-chiral, antinodal-direction behavior. Applicabilities to Sr 2 RuO 4 , UCoGe and the candidate topological superconductor Cu x Bi 2 Se 3 are discussed. (fast track communication)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncharov, A.F.; Struzhkin, V.V.
2003-01-01
We overview recent high-pressure studies of high-temperature superconductor MgB 2 by Raman scattering technique combined with measurements of superconducting critical temperature T c and lattice parameters up to 57 GPa. An anomalously broadened Raman band at 620 cm -1 is observed and assigned to the in-plane boron stretching E 2g mode. It exhibits a large Grueneisen parameter indicating that the vibration is highly anharmonic. The pressure dependencies of the E 2g mode and T c reveal anomalies at 15-22 GPa (isotope dependent). The anharmonic character of the E 2g phonon mode, its anomalous pressure dependence, and also that for T c are interpreted as a result of a phonon-assisted Lifshitz electronic topological transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang X
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Xingqiang Wang, Shanshi Wang, Xiaolong Li, Shigang Jin, Feng Xiong, Xin Wang Department of Neurosurgery, People’s Hospital of Rizhao, Jining Medical University, Rizhao, China Abstract: To date, β-catenin has been reported to be implicated in mediating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in a variety of human cancers, which can be triggered by EGF. However, the mechanisms underlying EGF-β-catenin pathway-induced EMT of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM have not been reported previously. In the present study, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot were applied to investigate the effect of EGF-β-catenin pathway on EMT of GBM. Here, we identified that β-catenin mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in GBM tissues and four kinds of glioblastoma cell lines, including T98G, A172, U87, and U251 cells, compared with normal brain tissue and astrocytes. In U87 cell line, inhibition of β-catenin by siRNA suppressed EGF-induced proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and the expression of EMT activators (Snail and Slug. In addition, the expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin was up-regulated and the expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and MMP9 was down-regulated. Finally, inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways inactivated the EGF-β-catenin-induced EMT. In conclusion, β-catenin-EMT pathway induced by EGF is important for GBM progression by the PI3K/Akt pathways. Inhibition of β-catenin leads to suppression of EGF pathway-induced EMT, which provides a new way to treat GBM patients. Keywords: EGF, β-catenin, EMT, GBM
Bubble nuclei in relativistic mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, A.; Aberg, S.; Patra, S.K.
2011-01-01
Bubble nuclei are characterized by a depletion of their central density, i.e. the formation of the proton or neutron void and subsequently forming proton or neutron bubble nuclei. Possibility of the formation of bubble nuclei has been explored through different nuclear models and in different mass regions. Advancements in experimental nuclear physics has led our experimental access to many new shapes and structures, which were inaccessible hitherto. In the present paper, the possibility of observing nuclear bubble in oxygen isotopes, particularly for 22 O has been studied
Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) device at the National Hospital Abuja gives immediate improvement in respiratory rate and oxygenation in neonates with respiratory distress.
Kim, J; Kwon, E-Y; Park, S; Kim, J-R; Choi, S-W; Choi, M-S; Kim, S-J
2016-02-01
It is well known that high-fat diet (HFD) can cause immune system-related pathological alterations after a significant body weight gain. The mechanisms of the delayed pathological alterations during the development of diet-induced obesity (DIO) are not fully understood. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying DIO development, we analyzed time-course microarray data obtained from a previous study. First, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at each time point by comparing the hepatic transcriptome of mice fed HFD with that of mice fed normal diet. Next, we clustered the union of DEGs and identified annotations related to each cluster. Finally, we constructed an 'integrated obesity-associated gene regulatory network (GRN) in murine liver'. We analyzed the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) transcriptome usig the same procedure. Based on time-course microarray data, we found that the genes associated with immune responses were upregulated with an oscillating expression pattern between weeks 2 and 8, relatively downregulated between weeks 12 and 16, and eventually upregulated after week 20 in the liver of the mice fed HFD. The genes associated with immune responses were also upregulated at late stage, in the eWAT of the mice fed HFD. These results suggested that a critical transition occurred in the immune system-related transcriptomes of the liver and eWAT around week 16 of the DIO development, and this may be associated with the delayed pathological alterations. The GRN analysis suggested that Maff may be a key transcription factor for the immune system-related critical transition thatoccurred at week 16. We found that transcription factors associated with immune responses were centrally located in the integrated obesity-associated GRN in the liver. In this study, systems analysis identified regulatory network modules underlying the delayed immune system-related pathological changes during the development of DIO and could suggest possible
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sisira S. Withanachchi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The management of water quality is an important part of natural resource governance. Assurance of water quality therefore requires formulation of the regulatory framework and institutional process. Water quality-related problems and their management are mainly recognized as local responsibilities in Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM. The politics of environmental policy-making should consider the political economic dynamics and socio-ecological patterns. Decentralization by providing more power to the local level and moving to a new spatial management system that is based on water basins are the two strong entreaties in the new water governance paradigm. Transitional countries facing rapid institutional adjustment, restructuring of regulations, and political-economic changes are encountering these demands internally and externally in their policy formulations. In this context, this study critically examines the case of Georgia, a transitional country. In particular, the focus is on how local governance entities can be empowered and what obstacles water quality governance encounters in Georgia. Qualitative research design is the main research method implemented in this study. The key findings from the research analysis are as follows: the existing regulations and governance system do not facilitate the active engagement of local entities in water quality governance. The application of new water polices may fail again if a top-down governance model is put in place that only creates a narrow space for local governance entities to effectively govern water quality.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tirado-Mejia, L; Prias-Barragan, J J; Gomez, J F; Ariza-Calderon, H, E-mail: litirado@uniquindio.edu.c [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio (Colombia)
2009-05-01
We present the analysis of the photoreflectance (PR) spectra line-shape of GaInAsSb films over GaSb. The studied samples were grown by liquid phase epitaxy technique. The growth parameters such as initial temperature and contact time were the same for all samples, but the precursor solution varied slightly in the As concentration. The cooling rate was different for each sample. The PR spectra were obtained at low temperature, modulated by a 632.8 nm He-Ne laser. These spectra were fitted using the third derivative lorentzian function but, for one of the samples exhibiting an additional structure around the E{sub 0} critical point oscillation, it was also necessary to use a first derivative lorentzian function, associated to an excitonic transition. This interpretation of the new PR feature was analyzed according to X-ray diffractograms. Comparing the FWHM of the main peak in the diffractograms it was found that the sample which exhibits the excitonic transition has the best crystalline quality, and was the sample with the lower cooling rate. The excitonic energy value obtained (9.7 meV) is in agreement with the value reported in the related literature.
Thermal stability of bubble domains in ferromagnetic discs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hrkac, G [University of Sheffield, Engineering Materials, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom) ; Bance, S [University of Sheffield, Engineering Materials, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom) ; Goncharov, A [University of Sheffield, Engineering Materials, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom) ; Schrefl, T [University of Sheffield, Engineering Materials, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom) ; Suess, D [Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10e, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)
2007-05-07
The transition and thermal stability of disc-shaped ferromagnetic particles at the temperature of T = 300 K with a uniaxial anisotropy along the symmetry axis from a bi-domain to a single domain state has been studied. The nudge elastic band method was used to map the energy landscape and to calculate the energy barrier between the transition states. For single FePt disc-shaped particles with perpendicular anisotropy three transition configurations have been found: single domain, stripe- and stable bubble domains at zero applied field. The single domain configuration along the positive anisotropy axis is reached by an annihilation process of the domain wall and the all-down state by a complex domain expansion process. Magnetization configurations in two interacting discs show an increase in thermal stability compared with single disc systems, which is attributed to the interacting magnetostatic energy between the two particles.
Thermal stability of bubble domains in ferromagnetic discs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hrkac, G; Bance, S; Goncharov, A; Schrefl, T; Suess, D
2007-01-01
The transition and thermal stability of disc-shaped ferromagnetic particles at the temperature of T = 300 K with a uniaxial anisotropy along the symmetry axis from a bi-domain to a single domain state has been studied. The nudge elastic band method was used to map the energy landscape and to calculate the energy barrier between the transition states. For single FePt disc-shaped particles with perpendicular anisotropy three transition configurations have been found: single domain, stripe- and stable bubble domains at zero applied field. The single domain configuration along the positive anisotropy axis is reached by an annihilation process of the domain wall and the all-down state by a complex domain expansion process. Magnetization configurations in two interacting discs show an increase in thermal stability compared with single disc systems, which is attributed to the interacting magnetostatic energy between the two particles
The Behavior of Micro Bubbles and Bubble Cluster in Ultrasound Field
Yoshizawa, Shin; Matsumoto, Yoichiro
2001-11-01
Ultrasound is widely applied in the clinical field today, such as ultrasound imaging, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and so on. It is essential to take a real understanding of the dynamics of micro bubbles and bubble cluster in these applications. Thus we numerically simulate them in ultrasound field in this paper. In the numerical simulation, we consider the thermal behavior inside the bubble and the pressure wave phenomena in the bubble cluster in detail, namely, the evaporation and condensation of liquid at the bubble wall, heat transfer through the bubble wall, diffusion of non-condensable gas inside the bubble and the compressibility of liquid. Initial cluster radius is to 0.5[mm], bubble radius is 1.7[mm], void fraction is 0.1[ambient pressure is 101.3[kPa], temperature is 293[K] and the amplitude of ultrasound is 50[kPa]. We simulate bubble cluster in ultrasound field at various frequencies and we obtain the following conclusions. 1) The maximum pressure inside bubble cluster reaches 5[MPa] and this is much higher than that of a bubble. 2) Bubble cluster behaves like a rigid body acoustically when the frequency of ultrasound is much higher than its natural frequency.
Interaction of a bubble and a bubble cluster in an ultrasonic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Cheng-Hui; Cheng Jian-Chun
2013-01-01
Using an appropriate approximation, we have formulated the interacting equation of multi-bubble motion for a system of a single bubble and a spherical bubble cluster. The behavior of the bubbles is observed in coupled and uncoupled states. The oscillation of bubbles inside the cluster is in a coupled state. The numerical simulation demonstrates that the secondary Bjerknes force can be influenced by the number density, initial radius, distance, driving frequency, and amplitude of ultrasound. However, if a bubble approaches a bubble cluster of the same initial radii, coupled oscillation would be induced and a repulsive force is evoked, which may be the reason why the bubble cluster can exist steadily. With the increment of the number density of the bubble cluster, a secondary Bjerknes force acting on the bubbles inside the cluster decreases due to the strong suppression of the coupled bubbles. It is shown that there may be an optimal number density for a bubble cluster which can generate an optimal cavitation effect in liquid for a stable driving ultrasound. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Warzinski, Robert P.; Lynn, Ronald; Haljasmaa, Igor; Leifer, Ira; Shaffer, Frank; Anderson, Brian J.; Levine, Jonathan S.
2014-10-01
Predicting the fate of subsea hydrocarbon gases escaping into seawater is complicated by potential formation of hydrate on rising bubbles that can enhance their survival in the water column, allowing gas to reach shallower depths and the atmosphere. The precise nature and influence of hydrate coatings on bubble hydrodynamics and dissolution is largely unknown. Here we present high-definition, experimental observations of complex surficial mechanisms governing methane bubble hydrate formation and dissociation during transit of a simulated oceanic water column that reveal a temporal progression of deep-sea controlling mechanisms. Synergistic feedbacks between bubble hydrodynamics, hydrate morphology, and coverage characteristics were discovered. Morphological changes on the bubble surface appear analogous to macroscale, sea ice processes, presenting new mechanistic insights. An inverse linear relationship between hydrate coverage and bubble dissolution rate is indicated. Understanding and incorporating these phenomena into bubble and bubble plume models will be necessary to accurately predict global greenhouse gas budgets for warming ocean scenarios and hydrocarbon transport from anthropogenic or natural deep-sea eruptions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.
1996-01-01
We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs
HUBBLE-BUBBLE 1. A computer program for the analysis of non-equilibrium flows of water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mather, D.J.
1978-02-01
A description is given of the computer program HUBBLE-BUBBLE I which simulates the non-equilibrium flow of water and steam in a pipe. The code is designed to examine the transient flow developing in a pipe containing hot compressed water following the rupture of a retaining diaphragm. Allowance is made for an area change in the pipe. Particular attention is paid to the non-equilibrium development of vapour bubbles and to the transition from a bubble-liquid regime to a droplet-vapour regime. The mathematical and computational model is described together with a summary of the FORTRAN subroutines and listing of data input. (UK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lal, Siddhartha
2007-09-01
Motivated by surprises in recent experimental findings, we study transport in a model of a quantum Hall edge system with a gate-voltage controlled constriction. A finite backscattered current at finite edge-bias is explained as arising from the splitting of edge current caused by the difference in the filling fractions of the bulk (ν 1 ) and constriction (ν 2 ) quantum Hall fluid regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model. The constriction region splits the incident long-wavelength chiral edge density-wave excitations among the transmitting and reflecting edge states encircling it. The competition between two interedge tunneling processes taking place inside the constriction, related by a quasiparticle-quasihole (qp-qh) symmetry, is accounted for by computing the boundary theories of the system. This competition is found to determine the strong coupling configuration of the system. A separatrix of qp-qh symmetric gapless critical states is found to lie between the relevant RG flows to a metallic and an insulating configuration of the constriction system. This constitutes an interesting generalisation of the Kane-Fisher quantum impurity model. The features of the RG phase diagram are also confirmed by computing various correlators and chiral linear conductances of the system. In this way, our results find excellent agreement with many recent puzzling experimental results for the cases of ν 1 = 1/3, 1. We also discuss and make predictions for the case of a constriction system with ν 2 = 5/2. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Van Veldhuizen Peter J
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent advances in outlining the mechanisms involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis, precise molecular pathways and cellular lineage specification remains incompletely understood. Results We show here that Cyr61/CCN1 play a critical role in pancreatic carcinogenesis through the induction of EMT and stemness. Cyr61 mRNA and protein were detected in the early precursor lesions and their expression intensified with disease progression. Cyr61/CCN1 expression was also detected in different pancreatic cancer cell lines. The aggressive cell lines, in which the expressions of mesenchymal/stem cell molecular markers are predominant; exhibit more Cyr61/CCN1 expression. Cyr61 expression is exorbitantly higher in cancer stem/tumor initiating Panc-1-side-population (SP cells. Upon Cyr61/CCN1 silencing, the aggressive behaviors are reduced by obliterating interlinking pathobiological events such as reversing the EMT, blocking the expression of stem-cell-like traits and inhibiting migration. In contrast, addition of Cyr61 protein in culture medium augments EMT and stemness features in relatively less aggressive BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells. Using a xenograft model we demonstrated that cyr61/CCN1 silencing in Panc-1-SP cells reverses the stemness features and tumor initiating potency of these cells. Moreover, our results imply a miRNA-based mechanism for the regulation of aggressive behaviors of pancreatic cancer cells by Cyr61/CCN1. Conclusions In conclusion, the discovery of the involvement of Cyr61/CCN1 in pancreatic carcinogenesis may represent an important marker for PDAC and suggests Cyr61/CCN1 can be a potential cancer therapeutic target.
Numerical investigations of single bubble oscillations generated by a dual frequency excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guédra, Matthieu; Inserra, Claude; Gilles, Bruno; Béra, Jean-Christophe
2015-01-01
The oscillations of a single bubble excited with a dual frequency acoustic field are numerically investigated. Computations are made for an air bubble in water exposed to an acoustic field with a linearly varying amplitude. The bubble response to an excitation containing two frequencies f 1 = 500 kHz and f 2 = 400 kHz at the same amplitude is compared to the monofrequency case where only f 1 is present. Time-frequency representations show a sharp transition in the bifrequency case, for which the low frequency component f 2 becomes resonant while the high frequency component f 1 is strongly attenuated. The temporal evolution of the power spectra reveals that the resonance of the low frequency component is correlated with the time varying mean radius of the bubble. It is also observed that the total power of the bubble response in the bifrequency case can reach almost twice the power obtained in the monofrequency case, which indicates a strong enhancement of the cavitating behavior of the bubble for this specific frequency combination. (paper)
Groen, J.S.
2004-01-01
In this project a detailed experimental analysis was performed of the dynamic flow field in bubbly flows, with the purpose of determining local hydrodynamics and scale effects. Measurements were done in gas-liquid systems (air-water bubble columns) and in gas-solid systems (air-sand bubbing
Dynamics of vapor bubbles in nitrogen tetroxide in conditions of pipeline seal failure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karpova, T.A.; Kolesnikov, P.M.
1988-01-01
A numerical study has been made of cavitation processe ocurring in liquid nitrogen tetroxide with an abrupt liquid pressure drop in a temperature range from 300 to 333 K. An influence of the initial process temperature and pressure drop on dynamics of vapor bubbles with regard for heat transfer processes and phase transition liquid-vapor has been investigated
Development and validation of models for bubble coalescence and breakup
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Yiaxiang
2013-10-08
A generalized model for bubble coalescence and breakup has been developed, which is based on a comprehensive survey of existing theories and models. One important feature of the model is that all important mechanisms leading to bubble coalescence and breakup in a turbulent gas-liquid flow are considered. The new model is tested extensively in a 1D Test Solver and a 3D CFD code ANSYS CFX for the case of vertical gas-liquid pipe flow under adiabatic conditions, respectively. Two kinds of extensions of the standard multi-fluid model, i.e. the discrete population model and the inhomogeneous MUSIG (multiple-size group) model, are available in the two solvers, respectively. These extensions with suitable closure models such as those for coalescence and breakup are able to predict the evolution of bubble size distribution in dispersed flows and to overcome the mono-dispersed flow limitation of the standard multi-fluid model. For the validation of the model the high quality database of the TOPFLOW L12 experiments for air-water flow in a vertical pipe was employed. A wide range of test points, which cover the bubbly flow, turbulent-churn flow as well as the transition regime, is involved in the simulations. The comparison between the simulated results such as bubble size distribution, gas velocity and volume fraction and the measured ones indicates a generally good agreement for all selected test points. As the superficial gas velocity increases, bubble size distribution evolves via coalescence dominant regimes first, then breakup-dominant regimes and finally turns into a bimodal distribution. The tendency of the evolution is well reproduced by the model. However, the tendency is almost always overestimated, i.e. too much coalescence in the coalescence dominant case while too much breakup in breakup dominant ones. The reason of this problem is discussed by studying the contribution of each coalescence and breakup mechanism at different test points. The redistribution of the
Development and validation of models for bubble coalescence and breakup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, Yiaxiang
2013-01-01
A generalized model for bubble coalescence and breakup has been developed, which is based on a comprehensive survey of existing theories and models. One important feature of the model is that all important mechanisms leading to bubble coalescence and breakup in a turbulent gas-liquid flow are considered. The new model is tested extensively in a 1D Test Solver and a 3D CFD code ANSYS CFX for the case of vertical gas-liquid pipe flow under adiabatic conditions, respectively. Two kinds of extensions of the standard multi-fluid model, i.e. the discrete population model and the inhomogeneous MUSIG (multiple-size group) model, are available in the two solvers, respectively. These extensions with suitable closure models such as those for coalescence and breakup are able to predict the evolution of bubble size distribution in dispersed flows and to overcome the mono-dispersed flow limitation of the standard multi-fluid model. For the validation of the model the high quality database of the TOPFLOW L12 experiments for air-water flow in a vertical pipe was employed. A wide range of test points, which cover the bubbly flow, turbulent-churn flow as well as the transition regime, is involved in the simulations. The comparison between the simulated results such as bubble size distribution, gas velocity and volume fraction and the measured ones indicates a generally good agreement for all selected test points. As the superficial gas velocity increases, bubble size distribution evolves via coalescence dominant regimes first, then breakup-dominant regimes and finally turns into a bimodal distribution. The tendency of the evolution is well reproduced by the model. However, the tendency is almost always overestimated, i.e. too much coalescence in the coalescence dominant case while too much breakup in breakup dominant ones. The reason of this problem is discussed by studying the contribution of each coalescence and breakup mechanism at different test points. The redistribution of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, P.B.; Mazey, D.J.
1980-01-01
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to investigate the spatial arrangement of the small gas bubbles produced at 300 K in several fcc metals including copper and in the hcp metal titanium by 30 keV helium ion irradiation, and in copper by 16 keV proton irradiation. For the fcc metals it is found that the helium gas bubbles lie on a superlattice having a fcc structure with principal axes aligned with those of the metal matrix. The bubble lattice constant, α 1 , measured for a helium fluence just below the critical dose for radiation blistering of the metal surface (approx. equal to 4 x 10 21 He + /m 2 ) is typically approx. equal to 7 nm with bubble diameters typically approx. equal to 2 nm. For titanium, similar bubble ordering is seen is samples irradiated to a level of approx. equal to 1.5 x 10 22 He + /m 2 , with bubble sizes and spacings approximately 50% greater than those for the fcc metals. Pipe-like passages formed by the interconnection of strings of helium gas bubbles are evident in all metals studied. Superlattice formation is also a freature of the hydrogen bubble structure in copper following irradiation to a level of approx. equal to 1.3 x 10 23 H + /m 2 . At an early stage of bubble development small bubbles (approx. equal to 2 nm diameter) arranged on a lattice of spacing α 1 approx. equal to 12 nm are found. The bubble structure evolves further through several well-defined stages before radiation blistering of the surface occurs. Some implications for gas release and for synergistic effects in irradiated surfaces are suggested by these results and by those obtained in other recent experiments. (orig.)
Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models.
Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg
2015-08-01
We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the Lennard-Jones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.
Bubble Swarm Rise Velocity in Fluidized Beds.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochář, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek; Šimčík, Miroslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 152, OCT 2 (2016), s. 84-94 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05534S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bubbling fluidized bed * gas-solid * bubble swarm velocity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.895, year: 2016
The use of microholography in bubble chambers
Royer, H
1981-01-01
In-line holography has been used for the first time in a bubble chamber for the account of the CERN (Geneva, CH). The holograms were recorded with the help of a single-mode pulse laser. Bubble tracks of 25 microns in diameter have been reconstructed with a resolution of 2 microns. (12 refs).
Cavitation bubble nucleation induced by shock-bubble interaction in a gelatin gel
Oguri, Ryota; Ando, Keita
2018-05-01
An optical visualization technique is developed to study cavitation bubble nucleation that results from interaction between a laser-induced shock and a preexisting gas bubble in a 10 wt. % gelatin gel; images of the nucleated cavitation bubbles are captured and the cavitation inception pressure is determined based on Euler flow simulation. A spherical gas cavity is generated by focusing an infrared laser pulse into a gas-supersaturated gel and the size of the laser-generated bubble in mechanical equilibrium is tuned via mass transfer of the dissolved gas into the bubble. A spherical shock is then generated, through rapid expansion of plasma induced by the laser focusing, in the vicinity of the gas bubble. The shock-bubble interaction is recorded by a CCD camera with flash illumination of a nanosecond green laser pulse. The observation captures cavitation inception in the gel under tension that results from acoustic impedance mismatching at the bubble interface interacting with the shock. We measure the probability of cavitation inception from a series of the repeated experiments, by varying the bubble radius and the standoff distance. The threshold pressure is defined at the cavitation inception probability equal to one half and is calculated, through comparisons to Euler flow simulation, at -24.4 MPa. This threshold value is similar to that from shock-bubble interaction experiments using water, meaning that viscoelasticity of the 10 wt. % gelatin gel has a limited impact on bubble nucleation dynamics.
Nonlinear Bubble Dynamics And The Effects On Propagation Through Near-Surface Bubble Layers
Leighton, Timothy G.
2004-11-01
Nonlinear bubble dynamics are often viewed as the unfortunate consequence of having to use high acoustic pressure amplitudes when the void fraction in the near-surface oceanic bubble layer is great enough to cause severe attenuation (e.g. >50 dB/m). This is seen as unfortunate since existing models for acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids are based on linear bubble dynamics. However, the development of nonlinear models does more than just allow quantification of the errors associated with the use of linear models. It also offers the possibility of propagation modeling and acoustic inversions which appropriately incorporate the bubble nonlinearity. Furthermore, it allows exploration and quantification of possible nonlinear effects which may be exploited. As a result, high acoustic pressure amplitudes may be desirable even in low void fractions, because they offer opportunities to gain information about the bubble cloud from the nonlinearities, and options to exploit the nonlinearities to enhance communication and sonar in bubbly waters. This paper presents a method for calculating the nonlinear acoustic cross-sections, scatter, attenuations and sound speeds from bubble clouds which may be inhomogeneous. The method allows prediction of the time dependency of these quantities, both because the cloud may vary and because the incident acoustic pulse may have finite and arbitrary time history. The method can be readily adapted for bubbles in other environments (e.g. clouds of interacting bubbles, sediments, structures, in vivo, reverberant conditions etc.). The possible exploitation of bubble acoustics by marine mammals, and for sonar enhancement, is explored.
Galactic Teamwork Makes Distant Bubbles
Kohler, Susanna
2016-03-01
During the period of reionization that followed the dark ages of our universe, hydrogen was transformed from a neutral state, which is opaque to radiation, to an ionized one, which is transparent to radiation. But what generated the initial ionizing radiation? The recent discovery of multiple distant galaxies offers evidence for how this process occurred.Two Distant GalaxiesWe believe reionization occurred somewhere between a redshift of z = 6 and 7, because Ly-emitting galaxies drop out at roughly this redshift. Beyond this distance, were generally unable to see the light from these galaxies, because the universe is no longer transparent to their emission. This is not always the case, however: if a bubble of ionized gas exists around a distant galaxy, the radiation can escape, allowing us to see the galaxy.This is true of two recently-discovered Ly-emitting galaxies, confirmed to be at a redshift of z~7 and located near one another in a region known as the Bremer Deep Field. The fact that were able to see the radiation from these galaxies means that they are in an ionized HII region presumably one of the earlier regions to have become reionized in the universe.But on their own, neither of these galaxies is capable of generating an ionized bubble large enough for their light to escape. So what ionized the region around them, and what does this mean for our understanding of how reionization occurred in the universe?A Little Help From FriendsLocation in different filters of the objects in the Hubble Bremer Deep Field catalog. The z~7 selection region is outlined by the grey box. BDF-521 and BDF-3299 were the two originally discovered galaxies; the remaining red markers indicate the additional six galaxies discovered in the same region. [Castellano et al. 2016]A team of scientists led by Marco Castellano (Rome Observatory, INAF) investigated the possibility that there are other, faint galaxies near these two that have helped to ionize the region. Performing a survey
Impact of bubble wakes on a developing bubble flow in a vertical pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomiyama, A.; Makino, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Tamai, H.; Serizawa, A.; Zun, I.
1998-01-01
Three-dimensional two-way bubble tracking simulation of single large air bubbles rising through a stagnant water filled in a vertical pipe was conducted to investigate the structures of bubble wakes. Spatial distributions of time-averaged liquid velocity field, turbulent intensity and Reynolds stress caused by bubble wakes were deduced from the calculated local instantaneous liquid velocities. It was confirmed that wake structures are completely different from the ones estimated by a conventional wake model. Then, we developed a simple wake model based on the predicted time-averaged wake velocity fields, and implemented it into a 3D one-way bubble tracking method to examine the impact of bubble wake structures on time-spatial evolution of a developing air-water bubble flow in a vertical pipe. As a results, we confirmed that the developed wake model can give better prediction for flow pattern evolution than a conventional wake model
Oscillation of large air bubble cloud
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bae, Y.Y.; Kim, H.Y.; Park, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2001-07-01
The behavior of a large air bubble cloud, which is generated by the air discharged from a perforated sparger, is analyzed by solving Rayleigh-Plesset equation, energy equations and energy balance equation. The equations are solved by Runge-Kutta integration and MacCormack finite difference method. Initial conditions such as driving pressure, air volume, and void fraction strongly affect the bubble pressure amplitude and oscillation frequency. The pool temperature has a strong effect on the oscillation frequency and a negligible effect on the pressure amplitude. The polytropic constant during the compression and expansion processes of individual bubbles ranges from 1.0 to 1.4, which may be attributed to the fact that small bubbles oscillated in frequencies different from their resonance. The temperature of the bubble cloud rapidly approaches the ambient temperature, as is expected from the polytropic constants being between 1.0 and 1.4. (authors)
Oscillation of large air bubble cloud
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Y.Y.; Kim, H.Y.; Park, J.K.
2001-01-01
The behavior of a large air bubble cloud, which is generated by the air discharged from a perforated sparger, is analyzed by solving Rayleigh-Plesset equation, energy equations and energy balance equation. The equations are solved by Runge-Kutta integration and MacCormack finite difference method. Initial conditions such as driving pressure, air volume, and void fraction strongly affect the bubble pressure amplitude and oscillation frequency. The pool temperature has a strong effect on the oscillation frequency and a negligible effect on the pressure amplitude. The polytropic constant during the compression and expansion processes of individual bubbles ranges from 1.0 to 1.4, which may be attributed to the fact that small bubbles oscillated in frequencies different from their resonance. The temperature of the bubble cloud rapidly approaches the ambient temperature, as is expected from the polytropic constants being between 1.0 and 1.4. (authors)
Mesoporous hollow spheres from soap bubbling.
Yu, Xianglin; Liang, Fuxin; Liu, Jiguang; Lu, Yunfeng; Yang, Zhenzhong
2012-02-01
The smaller and more stable bubbles can be generated from the large parent bubbles by rupture. In the presence of a bubble blowing agent, hollow spheres can be prepared by bubbling a silica sol. Herein, the trapped gas inside the bubble acts as a template. When the porogen, i.e., other surfactant, is introduced, a mesostructured shell forms by the co-assembly with the silica sol during sol-gel process. Morphological evolution emphasizes the prerequisite of an intermediate interior gas flow rate and high exterior gas flow rate for hollow spheres. The method is valid for many compositions from inorganic, polymer to their composites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Structure and kinematics of bubble flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lackme, C.
1967-01-01
This report deals with the components and use of resistivity probes in bubble flow. With a single probe, we have studied the longitudinal and radial structure of the flow. The very complicated evolution of the radial structure is shown by the measurement of the mean bubble flux at several points in the tube. A double probe associated with a device the principle of which is given in this report, permits the measure of the local velocity of bubbles. Unlike the mean bubble flux profile, the change in the velocity profile along the tube is not significant. We have achieved the synthesis of these two pieces of information, mean local bubble flux and local velocity, by computing the mean weighed velocity in the tube. This weighed velocity compares remarkably with the velocity computed from the volumetric gas flow rate and the mean void fraction. (author) [fr
Interaction mechanism of double bubbles in hydrodynamic cavitation
Li, Fengchao; Cai, Jun; Huai, Xiulan; Liu, Bin
2013-06-01
Bubble-bubble interaction is an important factor in cavitation bubble dynamics. In this paper, the dynamic behaviors of double cavitation bubbles driven by varying pressure field downstream of an orifice plate in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor are examined. The bubble-bubble interaction between two bubbles with different radii is considered. We have shown the different dynamic behaviors between double cavitation bubbles and a single bubble by solving two coupling nonlinear equations using the Runge-Kutta fourth order method with adaptive step size control. The simulation results indicate that, when considering the role of the neighbor smaller bubble, the oscillation of the bigger bubble gradually exhibits a lag in comparison with the single-bubble case, and the extent of the lag becomes much more obvious as time goes by. This phenomenon is more easily observed with the increase of the initial radius of the smaller bubble. In comparison with the single-bubble case, the oscillation of the bigger bubble is enhanced by the neighbor smaller bubble. Especially, the pressure pulse of the bigger bubble rises intensely when the sizes of two bubbles approach, and a series of peak values for different initial radii are acquired when the initial radius ratio of two bubbles is in the range of 0.9˜1.0. Although the increase of the center distance between two bubbles can weaken the mutual interaction, it has no significant influence on the enhancement trend. On the one hand, the interaction between two bubbles with different radii can suppress the growth of the smaller bubble; on the other hand, it also can enhance the growth of the bigger one at the same time. The significant enhancement effect due to the interaction of multi-bubbles should be paid more attention because it can be used to reinforce the cavitation intensity for various potential applications in future.
Bubble extinction in Hele-Shaw flow with surface tension and kinetic undercooling regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dallaston, Michael C; McCue, Scott W
2013-01-01
We perform an analytic and numerical study of an inviscid contracting bubble in a two-dimensional Hele-Shaw cell, where the effects of both surface tension and kinetic undercooling on the moving bubble boundary are not neglected. In contrast to expanding bubbles, in which both boundary effects regularize the ill-posedness arising from the viscous (Saffman–Taylor) instability, we show that in contracting bubbles the two boundary effects are in competition, with surface tension stabilizing the boundary, and kinetic undercooling destabilizing it. This competition leads to interesting bifurcation behaviour in the asymptotic shape of the bubble in the limit it approaches extinction. In this limit, the boundary may tend to become either circular, or approach a line or ‘slit’ of zero thickness, depending on the initial condition and the value of a nondimensional surface tension parameter. We show that over a critical range of surface tension values, both these asymptotic shapes are stable. In this regime there exists a third, unstable branch of limiting self-similar bubble shapes, with an asymptotic aspect ratio (dependent on the surface tension) between zero and one. We support our asymptotic analysis with a numerical scheme that utilizes the applicability of complex variable theory to Hele-Shaw flow. (paper)
On the One-Dimensional Modeling of Vertical Upward Bubbly Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Peña-Monferrer
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The one-dimensional two-fluid model approach has been traditionally used in thermal-hydraulics codes for the analysis of transients and accidents in water–cooled nuclear power plants. This paper investigates the performance of RELAP5/MOD3 predicting vertical upward bubbly flow at low velocity conditions. For bubbly flow and vertical pipes, this code applies the drift-velocity approach, showing important discrepancies with the experiments compared. Then, we use a classical formulation of the drag coefficient approach to evaluate the performance of both approaches. This is based on the critical Weber criteria and includes several assumptions for the calculation of the interfacial area and bubble size that are evaluated in this work. A more accurate drag coefficient approach is proposed and implemented in RELAP5/MOD3. Instead of using the Weber criteria, the bubble size distribution is directly considered. This allows the calculation of the interfacial area directly from the definition of Sauter mean diameter of a distribution. The results show that only the proposed approach was able to predict all the flow characteristics, in particular the bubble size and interfacial area concentration. Finally, the computational results are analyzed and validated with cross-section area average measurements of void fraction, dispersed phase velocity, bubble size, and interfacial area concentration.
Single-bubble boiling under Earth's and low gravity
Khusid, Boris; Elele, Ezinwa; Lei, Qian; Tang, John; Shen, Yueyang
2017-11-01
Miniaturization of electronic systems in terrestrial and space applications is challenged by a dramatic increase in the power dissipation per unit volume with the occurrence of localized hot spots where the heat flux is much higher than the average. Cooling by forced gas or liquid flow appears insufficient to remove high local heat fluxes. Boiling that involves evaporation of liquid in a hot spot and condensation of vapor in a cold region can remove a significantly larger amount of heat through the latent heat of vaporization than force-flow cooling can carry out. Traditional methods for enhancing boiling heat transfer in terrestrial and space applications focus on removal of bubbles from the heating surface. In contrast, we unexpectedly observed a new boiling regime of water under Earth's gravity and low gravity in which a bubble was pinned on a small heater up to 270°C and delivered a heat flux up to 1.2 MW/m2 that was as high as the critical heat flux in the classical boiling regime on Earth .Low gravity measurements conducted in parabolic flights in NASA Boeing 727. The heat flux in flight and Earth's experiments was found to rise linearly with increasing the heater temperature. We will discuss physical mechanisms underlying heat transfer in single-bubble boiling. The work supported by NASA Grants NNX12AM26G and NNX09AK06G.
Bubble Entropy: An Entropy Almost Free of Parameters.
Manis, George; Aktaruzzaman, Md; Sassi, Roberto
2017-11-01
Objective : A critical point in any definition of entropy is the selection of the parameters employed to obtain an estimate in practice. We propose a new definition of entropy aiming to reduce the significance of this selection. Methods: We call the new definition Bubble Entropy . Bubble Entropy is based on permutation entropy, where the vectors in the embedding space are ranked. We use the bubble sort algorithm for the ordering procedure and count instead the number of swaps performed for each vector. Doing so, we create a more coarse-grained distribution and then compute the entropy of this distribution. Results: Experimental results with both real and synthetic HRV signals showed that bubble entropy presents remarkable stability and exhibits increased descriptive and discriminating power compared to all other definitions, including the most popular ones. Conclusion: The definition proposed is almost free of parameters. The most common ones are the scale factor r and the embedding dimension m . In our definition, the scale factor is totally eliminated and the importance of m is significantly reduced. The proposed method presents increased stability and discriminating power. Significance: After the extensive use of some entropy measures in physiological signals, typical values for their parameters have been suggested, or at least, widely used. However, the parameters are still there, application and dataset dependent, influencing the computed value and affecting the descriptive power. Reducing their significance or eliminating them alleviates the problem, decoupling the method from the data and the application, and eliminating subjective factors. Objective : A critical point in any definition of entropy is the selection of the parameters employed to obtain an estimate in practice. We propose a new definition of entropy aiming to reduce the significance of this selection. Methods: We call the new definition Bubble Entropy . Bubble Entropy is based on permutation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xia; Sun, Xiaodong
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Two-group interfacial area transport equation was implemented into a three-field two-fluid model in Fluent. • Numerical model was developed for cap-bubbly flows in a narrow rectangular flow channel. • Numerical simulations were performed for cap-bubbly flows with uniform void inlets and with central peaked void inlets. • Code simulations showed a significant improve over the conventional two-fluid model. - Abstract: Knowledge of cap-bubbly flows is of great interest due to its role in understanding of the flow regime transition from bubbly to slug or churn-turbulent flows. One of the key characteristics of such flows is the existence of bubbles in different sizes and shapes associated with their distinctive dynamic natures. This important feature is, however, generally not well captured by many available two-phase flow modeling approaches. In this study, a modified two-fluid model, namely a three-field, two-fluid model, is proposed. In this model, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group-1 while cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group-2. A two-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) is implemented to describe dynamic changes of interfacial structure in each bubble group, resulting from intra- and inter-group interactions and phase changes due to evaporation and condensation. Attention is also paid to appropriate constitutive relations of the interfacial transfers due to mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium between the different fields. The proposed three-field, two-fluid model is used to predict the phase distributions of adiabatic air–water flows in a confined rectangular duct. Good agreement between the simulation results from the proposed model and relevant experimental data indicates that the proposed model is promising as an improved computational tool for two-phase cap-bubbly flow simulations in rectangular flow ducts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Jiguo; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Licheng; Li, Ya; Wang, Kaiyuan
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Deviations of signals increase first and then decrease with increase in subcooling. • Two typical waveforms are observed and correspond to bubble split-up and collapse. • Dominant frequency in low frequency region is found for all condensation regimes. • Peaks in high frequency region were only found in capillary wave regime. • Bubble collapse frequency is close to frequency of first peak in amplitude spectra. - Abstract: Sound characteristics of direct contact condensation of vapor bubbles in a subcooled pool were investigated experimentally with a hydrophone and a high-speed video camera. Three different condensation modes were observed, which were referred to as shape oscillation regime, transition regime and capillary wave regime in the paper. Time domain analysis indicated that the acoustic signals were boosted in their maximum amplitude with increase in subcooling, while their standard and average absolute deviations shifted to decrease after reaching a peak value. In addition, two different waveforms were found, possible sources of which were split-up and collapse of bubbles, respectively. From the amplitude spectra obtained by FFT, the first dominant frequency was found at frequency of 150–300 Hz for all condensation regimes, whereas some peaks in high frequency region were observed only for the capillary wave regime. The first dominant frequency was the result of the periodic variation in the vapor bubble volume, and the peaks in high frequency region were due to the high-frequency oscillation of water in pressure caused by sudden bubble collapse. The frequency of first peak was considered to be resulted from the periodic bubble collapse or split-up and thus was close to the bubble collapse frequency obtained from snapshots of bubble condensation. Moreover, according to results of short-time Fourier transform (STFT), the time intervals in which a certain process of bubble condensing occurred could be well known.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munro, Troy R.; Koeln, Justin P.; Fassmann, Andrew W.; Barnett, Robert J.; Ban, Heng
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Subcooled water boiled in microgravity on twists of thin wires. • Wire twisting creates heat transfer enhancements because of high local temperatures. • A preliminary version of a new bubble dynamics method is discussed. • A critical distance that fluid must be superheated for boiling onset is presented. - Abstract: Phase change is an effective method of transferring heat, yet its application in microgravity thermal management systems requires greater understanding of bubble behavior. To further this knowledge base, a microgravity boiling experiment was performed (floating) onboard an aircraft flying in a parabolic trajectory to study the effect of surface geometry and heat flux on phase change heat transfer in a pool of subcooled water. A special emphasis was the investigation of heat transfer enhancement caused by modifying the surface geometry through the use of a twist of three wires and a twist of four wires. A new method for bubble behavior analysis was developed to quantify bubble growth characteristics, which allows a quantitative comparison of bubble dynamics between different data sets. It was found that the surface geometry of the three-wire twist enhanced heat transfer by reducing the heat flux needed for bubble incipience and the average wire temperature in microgravity. Simulation results indicated that increased local superheating in wire crevices may be responsible for the change of bubble behavior seen as the wire geometry configuration was varied. The convective heat transfer rate, in comparison to ground experiments, was lower for microgravity at low heating rates, and higher at high heating rates. This study provides insights into the role of surface geometry on superheating behavior and presents an initial version of a new bubble behavior analysis method. Further research on these topics could lead to new designs of heater surface geometries using phase change heat transfer in microgravity applications
Process metallurgical evaluation and application of very fine bubbling technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catana, C.; Gotsis, V.S.; Dourdounis, E.; Angelopoulos, G.N.; Papamantellos, D.C. [Lab. of Metallurgy, Univ. of Patras, Rio (Greece); Mavrommatis, K. [IEHK, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)
2002-12-01
The potential of VFB (Very Fine Bubbling)-technology in steelmaking, developed for the production of super clean steels, was investigated. Recent R and D work has proven that with very fine argon bubbling through a developed Special Porous Plug (SPP) at low flow rates, the total oxygen content of low carbon steel grades can be lowered to a level of 6 ppm under industrial vacuum conditions and to a level of 10 ppm under argon protective atmosphere. The perspective of industrial application of the VFB technology to a 56-t ladle furnace of Helliniki Halyvourgia S.A., Greece, in order to improve steel cleanliness, requires additional R and D efforts. It is important to define the limits of VFB technology in respect of alloys dissolution, mixing time and homogenisation of steel and slag/metal reactions. In this work, a gas driven bubble aqueous reactor model simulating the bottom gas stirred ladle by means of gas injection through a SPP and a conventional porous plug was studied. Various operating conditions as well as different positions for the porous plug with and without a top oil layer were simulated. Tests concerning mixing time, solid-liquid mass transfer and critical gas flow rate, liquid/liquid mass transfer, using the SPP and a conventional porous plug have been performed. The evaluation of experimental results delivered important information for the design and operation of steel ladles, applying VFB-technology. Experimental results with SPP bubbles' agitated steel (1600 C) in laboratory and technical scale experiments in IF and VIF are presented and discussed. (orig.)
Legacies of the bubble chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mulvey, J.H.
1994-01-01
Legacies are what we pass on to those who follow us, the foundations on which the next advances in our science are being made; the things by which we shall be remembered, recorded in learned journals, written in the text books -food for the historians of science. This is not a summary, and it will draw no conclusions. It is a personal view which will look a little wider than the main physics results to include a mention of one or two of the technologies and methods handed on to both particle physics and other branches of sciences, a brief reference to bubble chamber pictures as aids in teaching, and a comment on the challenge now increasingly applied in the UK - and perhaps elsewhere -as a criterion for funding research: will it contribute to ''wealth creation''? (orig.)