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Sample records for transition comparative study

  1. Comparative study of the synthesis of layered transition metal molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.; Gomez-Aviles, A.; Gardner, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) prepared by the mild thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. In this study, we investigate the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs (T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates (LTMs) possessing the general formula AT 2 (OH)(MoO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O, where A=NH 4 + , Na + or K + . The phase selectivity of the reaction was studied with respect to the source of molybdate, the ratio of T to Mo and the reaction pH. LTMs were obtained on reaction of Cu-Al and Zn-Al containing MMOs with aqueous solutions of ammonium heptamolybdate. Rehydration of these oxides in the presence of sodium or potassium molybdate yielded a rehydrated LDH phase as the only crystalline product. The LTM products obtained by the rehydration of MMO precursors were compared with LTMs prepared by direct precipitation from the metal salts in order to study the influence of preparative route on their chemical and physical properties. Differences were noted in the composition, morphology and thermal properties of the resulting products. - Graphical abstract: Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) derived from layered double hydroxide precursors differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. We investigate the influence of the molybdate source, the rehydration pH and the ratio of T/Mo on the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs (T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates of general formula AT 2 (OH)(MoO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O (where A + =NH 4 + , K + or Na + ).

  2. Comparative study of the synthesis of layered transition metal molybdates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S.; Gómez-Avilés, A.; Gardner, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) prepared by the mild thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. In this study, we investigate the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs ( T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates (LTMs) possessing the general formula AT2(OH)(MoO 4) 2·H 2O, where A=NH 4+, Na + or K +. The phase selectivity of the reaction was studied with respect to the source of molybdate, the ratio of T to Mo and the reaction pH. LTMs were obtained on reaction of Cu-Al and Zn-Al containing MMOs with aqueous solutions of ammonium heptamolybdate. Rehydration of these oxides in the presence of sodium or potassium molybdate yielded a rehydrated LDH phase as the only crystalline product. The LTM products obtained by the rehydration of MMO precursors were compared with LTMs prepared by direct precipitation from the metal salts in order to study the influence of preparative route on their chemical and physical properties. Differences were noted in the composition, morphology and thermal properties of the resulting products.

  3. The influence of undergraduate education on professional practice transition: a comparative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bev; Richard, Liz; Al Sayah, Fatima

    2015-03-01

    Graduates from Problem/Context Based Learning (CBL) undergraduate nursing programs often express concern that they may not be as well prepared for transition to graduate nursing practice as their colleagues from more traditional lecture-based programs. To determine if there is a difference in how graduates from CBL and non-CBL programs describe their transition to graduate practice within the first 2 years of graduation. This was a comparative descriptive study that involved the use of a web-based survey. A convenience sample of 163 graduate nurses with 1 to 2 years of experience consented to be part of the study. They completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, which consisted of 26 items based on entry to practice competencies identified by the provincial professional nursing organization. There was no significant difference in the transition experience of graduates from CBL and traditional education programs within their first 2 years following graduation. These results confirm the findings of authors who compared transition among CBL and non-CBL graduates who had graduated anywhere from six months to several years following graduation. It is clear that CBL programs do prepare graduates to successfully transition into graduate nurse practice. Graduates from both CBL and non-CBL programs indicated a need for more formal agency sponsored orientation and transition assistance programs at the beginning of their initial employment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cluster Policy in the Light of Institutional Context—A Comparative Study of Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Lehmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The business environment in transition countries is often extraordinarily challenging for companies. The transition process these countries find themselves in leads to constant changes in the institutional environment. Hence, institutional voids prevail. These institutional voids cause competitive disadvantages for small and medium enterprises. Cluster policy can address these competitive disadvantages. As cluster policy generally aims at supporting companies’ competitive advantage by spurring innovation and productivity, it can help to bridge institutional voids. This article’s research question aims at analyzing and comparing cluster policies in the institutional context of two transition countries (Serbia and Tunisia and analyzes to what extent cluster policies in these two countries are adapted to institutional voids prevailing there. The case studies offer insights into apparent difficulties of clusters in bridging formal institutional voids, as well as, notably, into the informal void of skill mismatches in the labor market. Still, for some specific voids, clusters do at least implicitly assume a bridging role. While the cluster policies examined do not explicitly target the institutional voids identified, cluster management can—in the course of time—align its service offering more closely with these voids. Bottom-up designed cluster policies can play an especially important role in such an evolution towards bridging institutional voids.

  5. A Comparative Study of Science Achievement and Self-Concept during a Historical Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural changes were accompanied by the sovereignty transition of Hong Kong during the TIMSS data collection, which triggered migration of intellectual families between Hong Kong and other places. To enhance comparability of the urban setting, this investigation focuses on Singapore and Hong Kong for having similar Chinese majority and…

  6. Pathways into adulthood. A comparative study on family life transitions among migrant and Dutch youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, H.A.G. de

    2006-01-01

    The ethnic composition of the Dutch population has changed considerably in the past decades. Nowadays a substantial proportion of youth in the Netherlands has a migrant background. This study focuses on how these young adults make the transition to adulthood in the family domain. What preferences

  7. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  8. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions

  9. A comparative study of different methods for calculating electronic transition rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananenka, Alexei A.; Sun, Xiang; Schubert, Alexander; Dunietz, Barry D.; Geva, Eitan

    2018-03-01

    We present a comprehensive comparison of the following mixed quantum-classical methods for calculating electronic transition rates: (1) nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule, (2) mixed quantum-classical Liouville method, (3) mean-field (Ehrenfest) mixed quantum-classical method, and (4) fewest switches surface-hopping method (in diabatic and adiabatic representations). The comparison is performed on the Garg-Onuchic-Ambegaokar benchmark charge-transfer model, over a broad range of temperatures and electronic coupling strengths, with different nonequilibrium initial states, in the normal and inverted regimes. Under weak to moderate electronic coupling, the nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule rates are found to be in good agreement with the rates obtained via the mixed quantum-classical Liouville method that coincides with the fully quantum-mechanically exact results for the model system under study. Our results suggest that the nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule can serve as an inexpensive yet accurate alternative to Ehrenfest and the fewest switches surface-hopping methods.

  10. Cluster Policy in the Light of Institutional Context—A Comparative Study of Transition Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Lehmann; Maximilian Benner

    2015-01-01

    The business environment in transition countries is often extraordinarily challenging for companies. The transition process these countries find themselves in leads to constant changes in the institutional environment. Hence, institutional voids prevail. These institutional voids cause competitive disadvantages for small and medium enterprises. Cluster policy can address these competitive disadvantages. As cluster policy generally aims at supporting companies’ competitive advantage by spurrin...

  11. A comparative study on the flow over an airfoil using transitional turbulence models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Mou; Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the simulation of the flow over NREL S826 airfoil under a relatively low Reynolds number (Re = 1 × 105 ) using the CFD solvers OpenFoam and ANSYS Fluent. The flow is simulated using two different transition models, γ − Reθ and k − kL − ω model, and the results are examined...

  12. Pathways into adulthood: a comparative study on family life transitions among migrant and Dutch youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on intergenerational transmission in the parental family. Socialization has received a great deal of attention in social sciences. Initially most research and theory took modern Western society as its premise and focus. More recently, the cultural context has been included by

  13. A comparative study of the models dealing with localized and semi-localized transitions in thermally stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish; Kher, R K; Bhatt, B C; Sunta, C M

    2007-01-01

    Different models dealing with localized and semi-localized transitions, namely Chen-Halperin, Mandowski and the model based on the Braunlich-Scharmann (BS) approach are compared. It has been found that for recombination dominant situations (r > 1, the three models differ. This implies that for localized transitions under recombination dominant situations, the Chen-Halperin model is the best representative of the thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) process. It has also been found that for the TSL glow curves arising from delocalized recombination in Mandowski's semi-localized transitions model, the double peak structure of the TSL glow curve is a function of the radiation dose as well as of the heating rate. Further, the double peak structure of the TSL glow curves arising from delocalized recombination disappears at low doses as well as at higher heating rates. It has also been found that the TSL glow curves arising from delocalized recombination in the semi-localized transitions model based on the BS approach do not exhibit double peak structure as observed in the Mandowski semi-localized transitions model

  14. The glass transition in cured epoxy thermosets: A comparative molecular dynamics study in coarse-grained and atomistic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeloth, Michael; Böhm, Michael C.; Müller-Plathe, Florian [Eduard-Zintl-Institut für Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie and Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich Weiss Straße 4, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Sugii, Taisuke, E-mail: taisuke.sugii.zs@hitachi.com [Center for Technology Innovation – Mechanical Engineering, Research & Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., 832-2, Horiguchi, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0034 (Japan)

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the volumetric glass transition temperature T{sub g} in epoxy thermosets by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The epoxy thermosets consist of the resin bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and the hardener diethylenetriamine. A structure based coarse-grained (CG) force field has been derived using iterative Boltzmann inversion in order to facilitate simulations of larger length scales. We observe that T{sub g} increases clearly with the degree of cross-linking for all-atomistic (AA) and CG simulations. The transition T{sub g} in CG simulations of uncured mixtures is much lower than in AA-simulations due to the soft nature of the CG potentials, but increases all the more with the formation of rigid cross-links. Additional simulations of the CG mixtures in contact with a surface show the existence of an interphase region of about 3 nm thickness in which the network properties deviate significantly from the bulk. In accordance to experimental studies, we observe that T{sub g} is reduced in this interphase region and gradually increases to its bulk value with distance from the surface. The present study shows that the glass transition is a local phenomenon that depends on the network structure in the immediate environment.

  15. The glass transition in cured epoxy thermosets: A comparative molecular dynamics study in coarse-grained and atomistic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langeloth, Michael; Böhm, Michael C.; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Sugii, Taisuke

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the volumetric glass transition temperature T g in epoxy thermosets by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The epoxy thermosets consist of the resin bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and the hardener diethylenetriamine. A structure based coarse-grained (CG) force field has been derived using iterative Boltzmann inversion in order to facilitate simulations of larger length scales. We observe that T g increases clearly with the degree of cross-linking for all-atomistic (AA) and CG simulations. The transition T g in CG simulations of uncured mixtures is much lower than in AA-simulations due to the soft nature of the CG potentials, but increases all the more with the formation of rigid cross-links. Additional simulations of the CG mixtures in contact with a surface show the existence of an interphase region of about 3 nm thickness in which the network properties deviate significantly from the bulk. In accordance to experimental studies, we observe that T g is reduced in this interphase region and gradually increases to its bulk value with distance from the surface. The present study shows that the glass transition is a local phenomenon that depends on the network structure in the immediate environment

  16. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  17. A comparative Study of C2-Symmetric Bis(aziridine) Ligands in Some Transition Metal-Mediated Asymmetric Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Johansson, Fredrik; Harden, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    A comparative study has been made of the performance of differently substituted Ca-symmetric bis(aziridine) ligands in a variety of metal-mediated asymmetric reactions. The metals studied were osmium (dihydroxylation), palladium (allylic alkylation) and copper (cyclopropanation and aziridination...

  18. The transition from traditional banking to mobile internet finance: an organizational innovation perspective - a comparative study of Citibank and ICBC

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhuming; Li, Yushan; Wu, Yawen; Luo, Junjun

    2017-01-01

    The development of Financial Technology (FinTech) in areas such as mobile Internet, cloud computing, big data, search engines, and blockchain technology have significantly changed the financial industry. FinTech is expected to overturn the traditional banking business model, forcing banks to upgrade and transform. This study adopts a comparative case study method to contrast and analyze the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) and Citibank. It analyzes the strategies, organizations,...

  19. Nonparametric estimation of transition probabilities in the non-Markov illness-death model: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo; Meira-Machado, Luís

    2015-06-01

    Multi-state models are often used for modeling complex event history data. In these models the estimation of the transition probabilities is of particular interest, since they allow for long-term predictions of the process. These quantities have been traditionally estimated by the Aalen-Johansen estimator, which is consistent if the process is Markov. Several non-Markov estimators have been proposed in the recent literature, and their superiority with respect to the Aalen-Johansen estimator has been proved in situations in which the Markov condition is strongly violated. However, the existing estimators have the drawback of requiring that the support of the censoring distribution contains the support of the lifetime distribution, which is not often the case. In this article, we propose two new methods for estimating the transition probabilities in the progressive illness-death model. Some asymptotic results are derived. The proposed estimators are consistent regardless the Markov condition and the referred assumption about the censoring support. We explore the finite sample behavior of the estimators through simulations. The main conclusion of this piece of research is that the proposed estimators are much more efficient than the existing non-Markov estimators in most cases. An application to a clinical trial on colon cancer is included. Extensions to progressive processes beyond the three-state illness-death model are discussed. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  20. Ly α Absorption at Transits of HD 209458b: A Comparative Study of Various Mechanisms Under Different Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodachenko, M. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Arkhypov, O. V. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria); Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Berezutsky, A. G.; Miroshnichenko, I. B.; Posukh, V. G. [Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Johnstone, C. P., E-mail: maxim.khodachenko@oeaw.ac.at [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2017-10-01

    To shed more light on the nature of the observed Ly α absorption during transits of HD 209458b and to quantify the major mechanisms responsible for the production of fast hydrogen atoms (the so-called energetic neutral atoms, ENAs) around the planet, 2D hydrodynamic multifluid modeling of the expanding planetary upper atmosphere, which is driven by stellar XUV, and its interaction with the stellar wind has been performed. The model self-consistently describes the escaping planetary wind, taking into account the generation of ENAs due to particle acceleration by the radiation pressure and by the charge exchange between the stellar wind protons and planetary atoms. The calculations in a wide range of stellar wind parameters and XUV flux values showed that under typical Sun-like star conditions, the amount of generated ENAs is too small, and the observed absorption at the level of 6%–8% can be attributed only to the non-resonant natural line broadening. For lower XUV fluxes, e.g., during the activity minima, the number of planetary atoms that survive photoionization and give rise to ENAs increases, resulting in up to 10%–15% absorption at the blue wing of the Ly α line, caused by resonant thermal line broadening. A similar asymmetric absorption can be seen under the conditions realized during coronal mass ejections, when sufficiently high stellar wind pressure confines the escaping planetary material within a kind of bowshock around the planet. It was found that the radiation pressure in all considered cases has a negligible contribution to the production of ENAs and the corresponding absorption.

  1. A comparative study of the magnetization in transition metal ion doped CeO2, TiO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolov, A. T.; Apostolova, I. N.; Wesselinowa, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    Using the microscopic s-d model taking into account anharmonic spin-phonon interactions we have studied the magnetic properties of Co and Cu ion doped CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles and compared them with those of SnO2. By Co-doping there is a maximum in the magnetization M(x) curve for all nanoparticles observed in the most transition metal doped ones. The s-d interaction plays an important role by the decrease of M at higher dopant concentration. We have discussed the magnetization in dependence of different model parameters. By small Cu-ion doping there are some differences. In CeO2M decreases with the Cu-concentration, whereas in TiO2 and SnO2M increases. For higher Cu dopant concentrations M(X) decreases in TiO2 nanoparticles. We obtain room temperature ferromagnetism also in Zn doped CeO2, TiO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles, i.e. in non-transition metal ion doped ones. The different behavior of M in Co and Cu doped nanoparticles is due to a combination effect of multivalent metal ions, oxygen vacancies, different radius of cation dopants, connection between lattice and magnetism, as well as competition between the s-d and d-d ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic interactions.

  2. Economic transition and health transition: comparing China and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Rao, K; Fei, J

    1998-05-01

    Drawing on experiences from China and Russia (the world's two largest transitional economies), this paper empirically examines the impact of economic reforms on health status. While China's overall health status continued to improve after the economic reform, Russia experienced a serious deterioration in its population health. The observed differences in health performance between China and Russia can be explained by the different impacts of economic reforms on three major socioeconomic determinants of health. Depending on whether or not the reform improves physical environment (as reflected in income level and nutritional status), social environment (including social stability and security system), and health care, we would observe either a positive or a negative net effect on health. Despite remarkable differences in overall health development, China and Russia share some common problems. Mental and social health problems such as suicides and alcohol poisoning have been on the rise in both countries. These problems were much more serious in Russia, where political and social instability was more pronounced, associated with Russia's relatively radical reform process. With their economies moving toward a free market system, health sectors in China and Russia are undergoing marketization, which has had serious detrimental effect on the public health services.

  3. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  4. Transition into the workplace: comparing health graduates' and organisational perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Arlene; Costa, Beth M

    2017-02-01

    Health graduates face personal and work-related stressors during the graduate year. The extent to which employers and health graduates have a shared understanding of graduate stressors is unclear but may impact graduate support and transition into the health profession. Aim and design: The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify factors that impact health graduates' transition and integration into the workplace, comparing the perspectives of health graduates and organisational representatives. Individual and small group semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical and 26 nursing graduates and five organisational representatives from a regional health organisation in Victoria, Australia. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the data. Five main categories were identified: dealing with change, dealing with conflict, workload, taking responsibility and factors that influence performance. Similarities and differences in the perspectives of health graduates and organisational representatives were identified. These findings have implications for current graduate support programs.

  5. EFFICIENCY OF THE TRANSITIONAL PROGRAM AT KING SAUD UNIVERSITY: A Comparative Study of Educational Achievement Among Female Students of the Transitional Program and University Female Students Majoring in Kindergarten, Special Education, and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    ALJAAD, Nawal H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the efficiency of the transitional programs at the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at King Saud University. Data collection relied on the educational achievement rates of the female students enrolled in the College of Applied Studies and also the regular students at the College of Education, King Saud University, majoring in kindergarten, special education, and psychology. The study was conducted on the whole population of the fifth level...

  6. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  7. Gastrointestinal transit and reflux studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, R.L.; Kochan, J.

    1988-01-01

    Current imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography provide anatomic resolution far beyond that achievable with the current methods of scintigraphic imaging. Consequently, the strength of nuclear medicine has shifted and now lies in its ability to provide physiologic data noninvasively and simply. This ability is well illustrated by the scintigraphic techniques developed for evaluation of the alimentary tract. Studies of esophageal transit, gastroesophageal reflux, and gastric emptying are now widely available. Evaluation of small and large intestinal transit have also been investigated. These techniques are discussed in the present chapter

  8. Textbooks in transitional countries: Towards a methodology for comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Kovač

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, the paper analyses the ambiguous nature of the book as a medium: its physical production and its distribution to the end user takes place on a market basis; on the other hand, its content is predominantly consumed in a sector that was at least in the continental Europe traditionally considered as public and non-profit making. This ambiguous nature of the book and with it the impact of the market on the organization of knowledge in book format remains a dark spot in contemporary book research. On the other hand, textbooks are considered as ephemera both in contemporary education and book studies. Therefore, research on textbooks publishing models could be considered as a blind-spot of contemporary social studies. As a consequence, in the majority of European countries, textbook publishing and the organization of the textbook market are considered as self-evident. Throughout a comparative analysis of textbook publishing models in small transitional and developed countries, the paper points out that this self-evident organization of the textbook market is always culturally determined. In its final part, the paper compares different models of textbook publishing and outlines the scenarios for the development of the Slovene textbook market.

  9. VITAMIN-E, LIPID FRACTIONS, AND FATTY-ACID COMPOSITION OF COLOSTRUM, TRANSITIONAL MILK, AND MATURE MILK - AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOERSMA, ER; OFFRINGA, PJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; CHASE, WM; SIMMONS, IJ

    Triglycerides, cholesterol, fatty acid composition, and tocopherols were determined in colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk in St Lucia. With progress of lactation, triglycerides and percentage medium-chain fatty acids increased whereas tocopherols, cholesterol, and percentage longchain

  10. ECONOMY AND CULTURE IN TRANSITIONS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE SITES OF BAZARS AND HANS OF BURSA AND DHAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasleem Shakur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chawkbazar in Dhaka and Covered Bazaar in Bursa are two unique examples showing the contradiction among the traditional and the contemporary life-styles and their reflections on space uses and architecture. The first example in Dhaka is one of the prime icons of Mughal architecture in Bangladesh, whereas the second one in Bursa is the first example of the typical nucleus of traditional Ottoman city. Based on these two case studies in Dhaka (Bangladesh and Bursa (Turkey, this paper attempts to illustrate how the emerging cultures and spaces are continuously being either negotiated or contested with their adjacent historic sites (Shakur, 2005. This comparative research between two similar historical sites (Mughal and Ottoman but miles apart geographically is intended to understand the commonalities in its economic, social, cultural aspects through its transformation from the historic to the contemporary period. It highlights the socio-economic and cultural transformation and its implications for future conservation and development.

  11. Comparative Studies for What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guedes de Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ISCPES stands for International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sports and it is going to celebrate its 40th anniversary in 2018. Since the beginning (Israel 1978 the main goals of the Society were established under a worldwide mind set considering five continents and no discrimination of any kind. The founders wanted to compare Physical Education and Sports across the world, searching for the best practices deserving consideration and applied on the purpose of improving citizen quality of life. The mission still stands for “Compare to learn and improve”. As all the organizations lasting for 39 years, ISCPES experienced several vicissitudes, usually correlated with world economic cycles, social and sports changes, which are in ISS journal articles - International Sport Studies. ISS journal is Scopus indexed, aiming to improve its quality (under evaluation to reach more qualified students, experts, professionals and researchers; doing so it will raise its indexation, which we know it is nowadays a more difficult task. First, because there are more journals trying to compete on this academic fierce competitive market; secondly, because the basic requirements are getting more and more hard to gather in the publishing environment around Physical Education and Sports issues. However, we can promise this will be one of our main strategic goals. Another goal I would like to address on this Editorial is the language issue. We have this second strategic goal, which is to reach most of languages spoken in different continents; besides the English language, we will reach Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries. For that reason, we already defined that all the abstracts in English will be translated into Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese words so people can find them on any search browser. That will expand the demand for our journal and articles, increasing the number of potential readers. Of course this opportunity, given by

  12. Transition, tradition, and nostalgia; postsocialist transformations in a comparative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Chris

    2012-12-01

    The concepts of transition and tradition have not been the object of much original theoretical work in recent Anglophone socio-cultural anthropology. The term transition has been applied loosely to the demise of socialist regimes in Eastern Europe and their replacement by market economies and more pluralist forms of government. However, these objectives have proved elusive and most anthropologists therefore speak of open-ended "transformation processes" rather than a linear shift to capitalist democracy. Use of the concept of tradition has been much influenced by the work of historians on the "invention of tradition". This paper explores how societies, in particular elite groups, construct different types of tradition in the wake of historical caesurae. Paying particular attention to the concept of nostalgia, it compares perceptions of the past in Britain, where social change has been largely gradual, with those in empires and states which experienced sharp political discontinuities in the twentieth century. To explain and understand nostalgia for socialism in large sections of the population in many postsocialist states, it is necessary to investigate not only economic and social mobility and related material factors but also factors pertaining to identity, especially collective identities.

  13. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  14. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  15. Cities in Sustainability Transitions: Comparing Helsinki and Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kuokkanen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sustainability transitions are manifested as the needed scope to meet sustainability challenges at the local and global scales. While sustainability transitions are ubiquitous, each transition is nested in a specific spatial context. Especially, due to accelerating urbanization, cities are increasingly important agents, but they are also understudied geographical loci of change. Urban transitions are interesting because they operate at both the national and global scales, concentrating people, wealth, and resources. They have both regime and niche elements, as they act as an incubation space for novel experiments, ideas, and alternative social movements. Thus, this paper aims to improve understanding of the geographical context and spatial scales from a multilevel perspective and develop a framework for analytic comparison. Furthermore, the paper draws insights from two empirical cases, namely the cities of Helsinki and Istanbul. Consequently, opportunities and challenges for instigating context-specific sustainability transitions can be identified.

  16. Economic System and Transition Mode : A Comparative Research on Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    This passage mainly deals with the problem of why different transition countries have different transition mode and different economic performance. According to this research, it has been found that the economic system of the traditional socialist countries played an important role in their process of reform and transition. The socialist countries with their different economic systems had determined the economic performance, the space, as well as the environment of the transition. All of this...

  17. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian

    2013-01-01

    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  18. Comparable Measures of Accessibility to Public Transport Using the General Transit Feed Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjoo Bok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays a critical role in the sustainability of urban settings. The mass mobility and quality of urban lives can be improved by establishing public transport networks that are accessible to pedestrians within a reasonable walking distance. Accessibility to public transport is characterized by the ease with which inhabitants can reach means of transportation such as buses or metros. By measuring the degree of accessibility to public transport networks using a common data format, a comparative study can be conducted between different cities or metropolitan areas with different public transit systems. The General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS by Google Developers allows this by offering a common format based on text files and sharing the data set voluntarily produced and contributed by the public transit agencies of many participating cities around the world. This paper suggests a method to assess and compare public transit accessibility in different urban areas using the GTFS feed and demographic data. To demonstrate the value of the new method, six examples of metropolitan areas and their public transit accessibility are presented and compared.

  19. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  20. PUREX transition project case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    In December 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) directed that the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant be shut down and deactivated because it was no longer needed to support the nation's production of weapons-grade plutonium. The PUREX/UO 2 Deactivation Project will establish a safe and environmentally secure configuration for the facility and preserve that configuration for 10 years. The 10-year span is used to predict future maintenance requirements and represents the estimated time needed to define, authorize, and initiate the follow-on decontamination and decommissioning activities. Accomplishing the deactivation project involves many activities. Removing major hazards, such as excess chemicals, spent fuel, and residual plutonium are major goals of the project. The scope of the PUREX Transition Project is described within

  1. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  2. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C., E-mail: mccribei@iq.usp.br [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Molecular, Departamento de Química Fundamental, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Fabio F.; Costa, Fanny N. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Giles, Carlos [Depto. de Física da Matéria Condensada, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-14

    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  3. Lost in transition? Comparing strategies of electricity companies in Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Laure; Zérah, Marie-Hélène

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of energy transition when implemented by private utilities. In 2000, the Delhi government privatized electricity distribution to three private distribution companies. Most research was concerned with the impact of privatization on energy reliability, tariff settings and regulation issues. This paper looks at two under-researched themes: the expansion of services to poorer neighborhoods and the rollout of clean energy policies. This focus allows to unpack the materiality of socio-technical systems, to analyze how energy infrastructures are being technically deployed on the ground and to identify which social approach is used. To detail the specific practices of each company provides a more nuanced and accurate understanding of the reform. In-depth analysis of the three private utilities show that they interpret the reform mandate differently: they use a varied range of technical tools; they respond differently to social concerns in poorer neighborhoods; and they have distinctive internal management choices and corporate cultures. All these four factors can strengthen or undermine the transition towards increased access and clean energy. - Highlights: • Energy transition in an emerging cities aims at balancing environmental and social concerns. • Utilities have distinct transition paths despite similar privatization and regulation framework. • Utilities paths depend on spatial, social, managerial and corporate considerations. • Utilities' strategies are shaped by urban challenges rather than by energy policies

  4. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Study in the Esophageal Motility Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Esophageal motility was evaluated from the analysis of 10 consecutive swallows using liquid bolus containing 0.5 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc tin colloid. We have reviewed our experience of esophageal transit study in the 20 normal volunteers and 55 patients with dysphagia that was not related to mechanical obstruction. The purpose of this study is to measure the esophageal transit in normal subjects and in patients with various esophageal motility disorders. The overall sensitivity and specificity of radionuclide esophageal transit study in detecting esophageal motor abnormality were compared with manometric results as a gold standard, which were 80% and 100% respectively. Radionuclide transit study is a safe, rapid, noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  5. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Study in the Esophageal Motility Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook

    1993-01-01

    Esophageal motility was evaluated from the analysis of 10 consecutive swallows using liquid bolus containing 0.5 mCi of 99m Tc tin colloid. We have reviewed our experience of esophageal transit study in the 20 normal volunteers and 55 patients with dysphagia that was not related to mechanical obstruction. The purpose of this study is to measure the esophageal transit in normal subjects and in patients with various esophageal motility disorders. The overall sensitivity and specificity of radionuclide esophageal transit study in detecting esophageal motor abnormality were compared with manometric results as a gold standard, which were 80% and 100% respectively. Radionuclide transit study is a safe, rapid, noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  6. Compare the phase transition properties of VO2 films from infrared to terahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shan; Shi, Qiwu; Huang, Wanxia; Peng, Bo; Mao, Zhenya; Zhu, Hongfu

    2018-06-01

    VO2 with reversible semiconductor-metal phase transition properties is particularly available for the application in smart opto-electrical devices. However, there are rare reports on comparing its phase transition properties at different ranges. In this study, the VO2 films are designed with the similar crystalline structure and stoichiometry, but different morphologies by inorganic and organic sol-gel methods, and their phase transition characteristics are compared both at infrared and terahertz range. The results indicate that the VO2 film prepared by inorganic sol-gel method shows more compact nanostructure. It results in larger resistivity change, infrared and terahertz switching ratio in the VO2 film. Moreover, it presents that the phase transition intensity of VO2 film in terahertz range is more sensitive to its microstructure. This work is helpful for understanding the susceptibility of terahertz switching properties of VO2 to its microstructure. And it can provide insights for the applications of VO2 in terahertz smart devices.

  7. Prominence-corona interface compared with the chromosphere-corona transition region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrall, F Q; Schmahl, E J [Harvard Coll. Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. (USA)

    1976-11-01

    The intensities of 52 EUV emission lines from each of 9 hedgerow prominences observed at the limb with the Harvard experiment on ATM-Skylab have been compared with intensities from the interior of network cells at the center of the disk, in order to compare the prominence-corona (P-C) interface with the chromosphere-corona (C-C) transition region. The intensity ratio Isub(cell)/Isub(prominence) for each line varies systematically (in all of the prominences observed), with the temperature of formation of the line as approximately Tsup(-0.6). The density sensitive C III (formed at T approximately 9x10/sup 4/ K) line ratio Isub(lambda1175)/Isub(lambda977) implies an average density 1.3x10/sup 9/ electrons cm/sup -3/ in the P-C interface and approximately 4 times this value in the C-C transition of the cells. The total optical thickness at the head of the Lyman continuum is < approximately 10 in most of the prominences studied; in two of the prominences, however, the possibility that tau/sub 0/ is large cannot be rejected. Methods of analysis of these EUV data are developed assuming both a resolved and an unresolved internal prominence structure. Although the systematic differences between the P-C interface and the C-C transition are stressed, the similarities are probably more remarkable and may be a result of fine structure in the C-C transition.

  8. A comparative study of magnetic field induced meta-magnetic transition in nanocrystalline and bulk Pr0.65(Ca0.7Sr0.3)0.35MnO3 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suvayan; Das, Kalipada; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta; Das, I.

    2017-06-01

    In our present study we highlight the observations of external magnetic field induced sharp meta-magnetic transition in polycrystalline bulk as well as nanocrystalline form of Pr0.65(Ca0.7Sr0.7)0.35MnO3 compound. Interestingly, such behavior persists in the nanoparticles regardless of the disorder broadened transition. However, higher magnetic field is required for nanoparticles having average particle size ∼40 nm for such meta-magnetic transition, which differs from the general trends of the pure charge ordered nano materials. The interfacial strain between the different magnetic domains plays the important role in magnetic isothermal properties of nanoparticles, when the samples are cooled down in different cooling field. Additionally, both the bulk and nanoparticle compounds exhibit spontaneous phase separation and significantly large magnetoresistance at the low temperature region due to the melting of charge ordered fraction.

  9. The Transit/Admission Lounge study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gilligan, P

    2009-01-01

    In response to persistent overcrowding of Emergency Departments in Ireland, the Department of Health and Health Service Executive provided funding for "Transit Lounge" areas to be built. These lounges were to provide a location for patients to wait in beds pending the availability of a ward bed. This research was performed to assess the impact of such a lounge on the overcrowding of the Emergency Department and on patient outcomes. The time period from the opening of the Transit Lounge was compared with the same period a year earlier. The Transit Lounge delivers a comfortable place for patients to wait. It does not reduce Emergency Department overcrowding and has been associated with an increased time waiting for a ward bed. The solution to overcrowding is the creation of real capacity in the system so that ward beds are available in acute hospitals for the "unscheduled unwell".

  10. Study of transition probabilities in 192Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulet, C.; Sergolle, H.; Hubert, P.P.; Lindblad, T.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus 192 Pt is Coulomb excited with 370 MeV 84 Kr projectiles. Levels up to spin 8 + (10 + ) in the ground band and up to 6 + in the γ-band are observed. The B(E2) values implied by the observed yields are compared with predictions of different nuclear models. Particular attention is paid to the ground band transition rates and the rotation-alignment model

  11. Phase Transitions, Diffraction Studies and Marginal Dimensionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    Continuous phase transitions and the associated critical phenomena have been one of the most active areas of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. This short review is only one cut through this huge subject and the author has chosen to emphasize diffraction studies as a basic ...

  12. Cranial nerve vascular compression syndromes of the trigeminal, facial and vago-glossopharyngeal nerves: comparative anatomical study of the central myelin portion and transitional zone; correlations with incidences of corresponding hyperactive dysfunctional syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Bulent; Sindou, Marc; Meyronet, David; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Simon, Emile; Mertens, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomy of the central myelin portion and the central myelin-peripheral myelin transitional zone of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves from fresh cadavers. The aim was also to investigate the relationship between the length and volume of the central myelin portion of these nerves with the incidences of the corresponding cranial dysfunctional syndromes caused by their compression to provide some more insights for a better understanding of mechanisms. The trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves from six fresh cadavers were examined. The length of these nerves from the brainstem to the foramen that they exit were measured. Longitudinal sections were stained and photographed to make measurements. The diameters of the nerves where they exit/enter from/to brainstem, the diameters where the transitional zone begins, the distances to the most distal part of transitional zone from brainstem and depths of the transitional zones were measured. Most importantly, the volume of the central myelin portion of the nerves was calculated. Correlation between length and volume of the central myelin portion of these nerves and the incidences of the corresponding hyperactive dysfunctional syndromes as reported in the literature were studied. The distance of the most distal part of the transitional zone from the brainstem was 4.19  ±  0.81 mm for the trigeminal nerve, 2.86  ±  1.19 mm for the facial nerve, 1.51  ±  0.39 mm for the glossopharyngeal nerve, and 1.63  ±  1.15 mm for the vagus nerve. The volume of central myelin portion was 24.54  ±  9.82 mm(3) in trigeminal nerve; 4.43  ±  2.55 mm(3) in facial nerve; 1.55  ±  1.08 mm(3) in glossopharyngeal nerve; 2.56  ±  1.32 mm(3) in vagus nerve. Correlations (p  nerves and incidences of the corresponding diseases. At present it is rather well-established that primary trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vago

  13. Gallium colonic transit study patterns in obstructive defecation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Sun, W.M.; Gaffney, R.; Ganesananthan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Idiopathic constipation may be due to delayed colonic transit or ano-rectal dysfunction and obstructive defecation. The aim of this study was to relate patterns of colonic transit to results of ano-rectal manometry. Sixteen patients (4 males, 12 females, age 20-58 years) were studied. All underwent ano-rectal manometric studies and colonic transit studies. The transit studies were performed following the oral ingestion of 4 MBq 67 Gacitrate with images performed at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. Computed data on half clearance times (T 1/2 ), mean activity positions (MAP) and segmental tracer retention were obtained. Five patients had normal ano-rectal manometry, 7 decreased rectal sensation and 4 absent or paradoxical ano-rectal reflex (anismus). The T 1/2 for subjects with normal manometry was 78.5 ± 11.9 h, decreased rectal sensation 73 ± 4.9 h and the anismus group 52 ± 12.1 h (P < 0.05). Total retention at 72 h was less at 56 ± 3.73 h in the anismus group compared to normal manometry (74.7 ± 12.2) and decreased rectal sensation (90.7 ± 12.1), with higher MAP and less tracer in the right colon at 48 h in the anismus group (P < 0.05). The results indicate that colonic transit studies in constipated patients with anismus have different patterns to those with normal anorectal manometry or decreased rectal sensation

  14. Detroit regional transit study : a study of factors that enable and inhibit effective regional transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    An interdisciplinary team of six faculty members and six students at the University of Detroit Mercy (UDM) conducted a : comprehensive study of the factors enabling or inhibiting development of effective regional transit. Focusing on Metro Detroit an...

  15. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  16. Water evaporation: a transition path sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varilly, Patrick; Chandler, David

    2013-02-07

    We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. On the basis of thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

  17. Study of the phase transition dynamics of the L to H transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.; Rhodes, T.L.; Rettig, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    A highly radiating zone (MARFE) just above the divertor X-point has been used to access the marginal transition regime P sep ∼ P thres to study the existence of a critical point for the L to H transition. Phase transition models predict that at the critical point, the transition duration increases and the plasma parameters vary continuously between L-mode and H-mode. In these experiments, the L to H transition duration increased 50--100 times over fast transitions. However, the evolution of E r shear, edge density gradient, H-mode pedestal, and fluctuations is essentially unchanged from that in fast transitions. The only difference is in the speed with which and the degree to which the fluctuation amplitudes are transiently reduced. This difference is understandable in terms of the time scales for fluctuation amplitude reduction (≤ 100 micros) and edge pressure gradient increase (several ms), provided the edge fluctuations are pressure-gradient driven

  18. Transit value capture coordination : case studies, best practices, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    This study is based on the hypothesis that coordination between transit capital planners, municipal taxation authorities, and private developers and stakeholders can be a benefit to transit capital projects that choose to use value capture as a fundi...

  19. Comparing Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy Combined With Intravesical Chemotherapy Versus Intravesical Chemotherapy Alone: A Randomised Prospective Pilot Study for T1G3 Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma After Bladder-Preserving Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junxing, E-mail: Junxingchen@hotmail.com; Yao, Zhijun, E-mail: yaozhijun1985@qq.com; Qiu, Shaopeng, E-mail: qiushp@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Chen, Lingwu, E-mail: chenlingwu@hotmail.com [First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Urology (China); Wang, Yu, E-mail: zsyyjr@163.com; Yang, Jianyong, E-mail: yangjianyong_2011@163.com; Li, Jiaping, E-mail: jpli3s@126.com [First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Interventional Oncology (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) followed by bladder-preserving surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with T1G3 BTCC were randomly divided into two groups. After bladder-preserving surgery, 29 patients (age 30-80 years, 24 male and 5 female) received intra-arterial chemotherapy in combination with intravesical chemotherapy (group A), whereas 31 patients (age 29-83 years, 26 male and 5 female) were treated with intravesical chemotherapy alone (group B). Twenty-nine patients were treated with intra-arterial epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) + cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) chemotherapy 2-3 weeks after bladder-preserving surgery once every 4-6 weeks. All of the patients received the same intravesical chemotherapy: An immediate prophylactic was administered in the first 6 h. After that, therapy was administered one time per week for 8 weeks and then one time per month for 8 months. The instillation drug was epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) and lasted for 30-40 min each time. The end points were tumour recurrence (stage Ta, T1), tumour progression (to T2 or greater), and disease-specific survival. During median follow-up of 22 months, the overall survival rate, tumour-specific death rate, recurrence rate, progression rate, time to first recurrence, and adverse reactions were compared between groups. Results: The recurrence rates were 10.3 % (3 of 29) in group A and 45.2 % (14 of 31) in group B, and the progression rates were 0 % (0 of 29) in group A and 22.6 % (7 of 31) in group B. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding recurrence (p = 0.004) and progression rates (p = 0.011). Median times to first recurrence in the two groups were 15 and 6.5 months, respectively. The overall survival rates were 96.6 and 87.1 %, and the tumour-specific death rates were 0 % (0 of 29) and 13.5 % (4 of 31

  20. Sex work: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  1. Legislative processes in transition : comparative study of the legislative processes in Finland, Slovenia and the United Kingdom as a source of inspiration for enhancing the efficiency of the Dutch legislative process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voermans, W.; Napel, H.-M. ten; Diamant, M.; Groothuis, M.; Steunenberg, B.; Passchier, R.; Pack, S.

    2012-01-01

    The main research question of the current study is when whether the efficiency of the Dutch legislative procedure for parliamentary acts indeed constitutes a problem, in particular if compared to the achievements of legislative processes in several other European countries and, if that turns out to

  2. Gifted Students in Transition: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Jodi J.

    2017-01-01

    Gifted students in transition to college may be at risk for underachievement, difficult transition, or even attrition. Giftedness by itself is not always sufficient for academic success in college. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to construct a theory regarding the process of transition to college for high-achieving gifted high…

  3. Theory for Explaining and Comparing the Dynamics of Education in Transitional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2016-01-01

    Countries all over the world find themselves in the throes of revolution, change, transition or transformation. Because of the complexities of these momentous events, it is no simple matter to describe and evaluate them. This paper suggests that comparative educationists apply a combination of three theories as a lens through which such national…

  4. Non-performing loans and systemic risk: comparative analysis of Serbia and countries in transition CESEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimir Vukovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research on the impact of non-performing loans to the systemic risk in the domestic banking system and a comparison with other countries in transition, as well as on certain EU countries. It is important to metion that the extreme bank-centricity caused the extension of the analysis to the entire financial sector of Serbia. Therefore, macroeconomic and macro-financial component of systemic risk were separated. In order to more precisely determine the main effects of non-performing loans in the propagation of systemic risk, the authors have created and used two new synthetic indicators in the research. The first is the macroeconomic contagion with non-performing loans (problematic loans expressed as a percentage of GDP, and the second is the infection of financial sector with non-performing loans (the proportional share of these loans in the assets of the financial sector. Analysis of the period just before and during the current financial crisis and the recession (2007-2012 showed that the NPLs (non-performing loans are the main generator of systemic risk in the financial and real sectors of Serbia. In addition, the survey results show that the applied synthetic indicators measure total system risk and its basic components more accurately then the analytical, which have only been in use until now. Comparative analysis showed similar results, not only in the countries in transition, but also in developed ones. The results of this study provide guidance and represent an important input for economic policymakers, because the systemic risk is the greatest immediate threat to economic prosperity and financial stability of each country

  5. Comparative study Beamnrc VS Pinnacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Reyes, J. C.; Macias Jaen, J.; Jimenez Ortega, E.

    2013-01-01

    Has been developed in JAVA a software application called JJGAMMA, capable of manipulating the environment BEAMNRC and Pinnacle output formats 3 , comfortable, fast and accurately. As particular application you can use to compare dose distributions (plans for treatments, checking fields for modeling and clinical accelerators Commissioner) using, as objective criteria, function or Gamma index. (Author)

  6. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936

  7. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  8. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jiang; Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can elimin...

  9. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.; Tyhurst, Janis

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea Corina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Price Index in Transition Countries in the Time of Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation with all its features can be divided in two segments - good and bad. When we look at the good side of globalisation, it is obvious that it has erased boundaries between countries in terms of trade, education, knowledge sharing, and other new technologies, while on the other hand, the bad side is that it has created a considerable gap between developed and developing countries, then different types of commercial, political and other conditioning, and dependence on strong, developed states. A great contribution to the negative part of globalisation was of economic instability that occurred at the beginning of this century and which consequences are still present in the world. In this article, we presented the impact of economic instability on the price index trough a comparative analysis of transition countries such as Montenegro, Serbia and Croatia over a period of five years (Croatia has just recently become a member of the European Union and due to that fact it was included in this study. The survey covered price indices relating to the prices of industrial products for the domestic markets, consumer price indices, indices of the hospitality services and the prices of the agricultural products.

  12. Inuit Health in Transition: the Nuka study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    biological samples. The studies in Nunavik and Greenland are not identical but share protocols on diabetes, heart disease, diet, smoking, social capital, self rated health, gambling and many other topics. The study is being geographically expanded to cover also Nunavut, Labrador and East Greenland......, and comparable studies have yielded data from Alaska Natives and Norwegian Sami. A number of researchers will present results from the study at this meeting and we shall hear a lot about the link between diet and health. I will take one step back and look at the social determinants of dietary patterns...... in Greenland in a life course perspective. First different ways to determine dietary patterns will be examined; then the association of parents' background, childhood conditions, education, place of residence, job and wealth with diet will be analysed. Finally, the association of diet with other determinants...

  13. New numerical method to study phase transitions and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jooyoung; Kosterlitz, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    We present a powerful method of identifying the nature of transitions by numerical simulation of finite systems. By studying the finite size scaling properties of free energy barrier between competing states, we can identify unambiguously a weak first order transition even when accessible system sizes are L/ξ < 0.05 as in the five state Potts model in two dimensions. When studying a continuous phase transition we obtain quite accurate estimates of critical exponents by treating it as a field driven first order transition. The method has been successfully applied to various systems

  14. Comparative study of Butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galmes Belmonte, F.B.

    1998-01-01

    This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

  15. Gastric Emptying and Gastrointestinal Transit Compared among Native and Hydrolyzed Whey and Casein Milk Proteins in an Aged Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Julie E; Young, Wayne; McKenzie, Catherine M; Haggarty, Neill W; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-12-13

    Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is accentuated with hydrolysates, similar to soy. Adult male rats (18 months old) were fed native whey or casein, hydrolyzed whey (WPH) or casein (CPH), hydrolyzed blend (HB; 60% whey:40% casein), or hydrolyzed soy for 14 days then treated with loperamide, prucalopride, or vehicle-control for 7 days. X-ray imaging tracked bead-transit for: gastric emptying (GE; 4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine (LI) transit (12 h). GE for whey was 33 ± 12% faster than that for either casein or CPH. SI transit was decreased by 37 ± 9% for casein and 24 ± 6% for whey compared with hydrolyzed soy, and persisted for casein at 12 h. Although CPH and WPH did not alter transit compared with their respective intact counterparts, fecal output was increased by WPH. Slowed transit by casein was reversed by prucalopride (9-h), but not loperamide. However, rapid GE and slower SI transit for the HB compared with intact forms were inhibited by loperamide. The expected slower GI transit for casein relative to soy provided a comparative benchmark, and opioid receptor involvement was corroborated. Our findings provide new evidence that whey slowed SI transit compared with soy, independent of GE. Increased GI transit from stomach to colon for the HB compared with casein suggests that including hydrolyzed milk proteins in foods may benefit those with slowed intestinal transit.

  16. Spin Density Distribution in Open-Shell Transition Metal Systems: A Comparative Post-Hartree-Fock, Density Functional Theory, and Quantum Monte Carlo Study of the CuCl2 Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarel, Michel; Giner, Emmanuel; Scemama, Anthony; Ramírez-Solís, Alejandro

    2014-12-09

    We present a comparative study of the spatial distribution of the spin density of the ground state of CuCl2 using Density Functional Theory (DFT), quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), and post-Hartree-Fock wave function theory (WFT). A number of studies have shown that an accurate description of the electronic structure of the lowest-lying states of this molecule is particularly challenging due to the interplay between the strong dynamical correlation effects in the 3d shell and the delocalization of the 3d hole over the chlorine atoms. More generally, this problem is representative of the difficulties encountered when studying open-shell metal-containing molecular systems. Here, it is shown that qualitatively different results for the spin density distribution are obtained from the various quantum-mechanical approaches. At the DFT level, the spin density distribution is found to be very dependent on the functional employed. At the QMC level, Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) results are strongly dependent on the nodal structure of the trial wave function. Regarding wave function methods, most approaches not including a very high amount of dynamic correlation effects lead to a much too high localization of the spin density on the copper atom, in sharp contrast with DFT. To shed some light on these conflicting results Full CI-type (FCI) calculations using the 6-31G basis set and based on a selection process of the most important determinants, the so-called CIPSI approach (Configuration Interaction with Perturbative Selection done Iteratively) are performed. Quite remarkably, it is found that for this 63-electron molecule and a full CI space including about 10(18) determinants, the FCI limit can almost be reached. Putting all results together, a natural and coherent picture for the spin distribution is proposed.

  17. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  18. Transition from oxcarbazepine to eslicarbazepine acetate: A single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Jussi; Rainesalo, Sirpa; Peltola, Jukka

    2017-03-01

    There is limited clinical evidence for comparison between oxcarbazepine (OXC) and eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in terms of tolerability, or how to execute the change from OXC to ESL. We report the process of transitioning patients with focal epilepsy from previous OXC treatment to ESL due to tolerability problems. The rationale for change from OXC is reported, and the outcome with respective to this rationale is analyzed in terms of tolerability and efficacy. The subjects were transitioned overnight from OXC to ESL in a hospital inpatient setting. An evaluation of the effects of the transition was made after 1 and 3 months. All adverse events (AEs) were recorded following the transition period. Subjects were classified by outcome in terms of AEs. Twenty-three subjects were transitioned from OXC to ESL. Fifteen patients OXC-related AEs reduced significantly after transition. Particularly, most of (93%) the AEs presented in the morning resolved after transition to ESL. No patient had an increase in seizure frequency following the transition. The incidence of ESL-related AEs was 39% at 1 month and 13% at 3 month follow-up; however, all patients continued ESL throughout the study period. This study demonstrates that patients suffering from OXC-related AEs improve in terms of tolerability after a switch to ESL with maintaining seizure control. This improvement is more pronounced if the OXC-related AEs are most evident following morning dosing of OXC. Transition can be safely executed in an outpatient setting.

  19. Theoretical studies of transition metal complexes with nitriles and isocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Maksim L

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical studies of transition metal complexes with nitriles and isocyanides are reviewed. The electronic structures and the nature of coordination bonds in these complexes are discussed. The correlation between the electronic structures of transition metal complexes with nitriles and isocyanides and their structural properties, spectroscopic characteristics, and reactivities are considered. The bibliography includes 121 references.

  20. Comparing electricity transitions: A historical analysis of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherp, Aleh; Vinichenko, Vadim; Jewell, Jessica; Suzuki, Masahiro; Antal, Miklós

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to understanding national variations in using low-carbon electricity sources by comparing the evolution of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan. It develops and applies a framework for analyzing low-carbon electricity transitions based on interplay of techno-economic, political and socio-technical processes. We explain why in the 1970s–1980s, the energy paths of the two countries were remarkably similar, but since the 1990s Germany has become a leader in renewables while phasing out nuclear energy, whereas Japan has deployed less renewables while becoming a leader in nuclear power. We link these differences to the faster growth of electricity demand and energy insecurity in Japan, the easier diffusion of onshore wind power technology and the weakening of the nuclear power regime induced by stagnation and competition from coal and renewables in Germany. We show how these changes involve the interplay of five distinct mechanisms which may also play a role in other energy transitions. - Highlights: • We identify five mechanisms which play a role in national low-carbon electricity transitions. • Use of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan diverged in the 1990s. • Wind power diffused to Germany from Denmark but different geography stalled it in Japan. • Demand growth and energy insecurity prompted nuclear power expansion in Japan. • Competition with domestic coal and wind led to the demise of nuclear power in Germany.

  1. Older Persons’ Transitions in Care (OPTIC: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Greta G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs. During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS, and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases. Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and

  2. A computational study of pressure-induced structural transition in ThSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinadh, Ch.U.M.; Rajagopalan, M.; Natarajan, S.

    1997-01-01

    The pressure induced phase transition from NaCl-type to CsCl-type structure in ThSb was studied using total energy calculations by tight-binding linear muffin tin orbital (TBLMTO) method within atomic sphere approximation (ASA). The density of states (DOS) at ambient pressure was compared with resonant photoemission studies (PES). The variation in interatomic distances during the transition was found to be in agreement with high pressure x-ray diffraction (HPXRD) studies. (author)

  3. Comparative Analysis of Light-Harvesting Antennae and State Transition in chlorina and cpSRP Mutants1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    State transitions in photosynthesis provide for the dynamic allocation of a mobile fraction of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to photosystem II (PSII) in state I and to photosystem I (PSI) in state II. In the state I-to-state II transition, LHCII is phosphorylated by STN7 and associates with PSI to favor absorption cross-section of PSI. Here, we used Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with defects in chlorophyll (Chl) b biosynthesis or in the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) machinery to study the flexible formation of PS-LHC supercomplexes. Intriguingly, we found that impaired Chl b biosynthesis in chlorina1-2 (ch1-2) led to preferentially stabilized LHCI rather than LHCII, while the contents of both LHCI and LHCII were equally depressed in the cpSRP43-deficient mutant (chaos). In view of recent findings on the modified state transitions in LHCI-deficient mutants (Benson et al., 2015), the ch1-2 and chaos mutants were used to assess the influence of varying LHCI/LHCII antenna size on state transitions. Under state II conditions, LHCII-PSI supercomplexes were not formed in both ch1-2 and chaos plants. LHCII phosphorylation was drastically reduced in ch1-2, and the inactivation of STN7 correlates with the lack of state transitions. In contrast, phosphorylated LHCII in chaos was observed to be exclusively associated with PSII complexes, indicating a lack of mobile LHCII in chaos. Thus, the comparative analysis of ch1-2 and chaos mutants provides new evidence for the flexible organization of LHCs and enhances our understanding of the reversible allocation of LHCII to the two photosystems. PMID:27663408

  4. Comparative Analysis of Light-Harvesting Antennae and State Transition in chlorina and cpSRP Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    State transitions in photosynthesis provide for the dynamic allocation of a mobile fraction of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to photosystem II (PSII) in state I and to photosystem I (PSI) in state II. In the state I-to-state II transition, LHCII is phosphorylated by STN7 and associates with PSI to favor absorption cross-section of PSI. Here, we used Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with defects in chlorophyll (Chl) b biosynthesis or in the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) machinery to study the flexible formation of PS-LHC supercomplexes. Intriguingly, we found that impaired Chl b biosynthesis in chlorina1-2 (ch1-2) led to preferentially stabilized LHCI rather than LHCII, while the contents of both LHCI and LHCII were equally depressed in the cpSRP43-deficient mutant (chaos). In view of recent findings on the modified state transitions in LHCI-deficient mutants (Benson et al., 2015), the ch1-2 and chaos mutants were used to assess the influence of varying LHCI/LHCII antenna size on state transitions. Under state II conditions, LHCII-PSI supercomplexes were not formed in both ch1-2 and chaos plants. LHCII phosphorylation was drastically reduced in ch1-2, and the inactivation of STN7 correlates with the lack of state transitions. In contrast, phosphorylated LHCII in chaos was observed to be exclusively associated with PSII complexes, indicating a lack of mobile LHCII in chaos Thus, the comparative analysis of ch1-2 and chaos mutants provides new evidence for the flexible organization of LHCs and enhances our understanding of the reversible allocation of LHCII to the two photosystems. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Disciplinary Disjunctures in the Transition from Secondary School to Higher Education Study of Modern Foreign Languages: A Case Study from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Brett, Angela; Canning, John

    2011-01-01

    Discussions of student transition from the study of languages in UK high schools to the study of languages at university usually focus on the vertical transition, comparing the differences in curricula and approach to languages taken in each sector. Whilst acknowledging that this aspect of the student transition is important, this article explores…

  6. Energy Transition in the Nebular City: Connecting Transition Thinking, Metabolism Studies, and Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griet Juwet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transforming urban infrastructures is an essential part of creating more sustainable urban regions. But rethinking these complex systems requires a better understanding of their spatial dimensions and their relation with urban morphology and spatial structure. This paper addresses that gap by examining different conceptualizations of technical infrastructure and space in science, technology and society studies (STS, transition thinking, urban metabolism studies, and urban political ecology, and draws connections with the spatial perspective of urban planning and design. It illustrates and tests these concepts through the case of energy transition in the Flemish region of Belgium. Transport and supply networks have played a crucial role in facilitating, structuring, and reproducing the region’s characteristic dispersed and energy-intensive urban landscape. Bringing different disciplinary perspectives together, the research broadens the conceptualization of the spatial dimension in transition thinking, and identifies useful concepts and design parameters for urban design to engage with the technical and socio-political complexity of transforming urban infrastructure. It reveals the energy transition as an inherently spatial project, and explores the spatially and socio-politically transformative potential of the transition towards a new energy system.

  7. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can eliminate the oscillations. The characteristics of momentum drag of the single-stage fans in transition are similar to that of the two-stage fans, but with the peak of drag lowered from 0.63 to 0.4 of the aircraft weight. The strategy to start transition from a negative angle of attack −21° further reduces the peak of drag to 0.29 of the weight. The strategy also reduces the peak of pitching torque, which needs upward extra thrusts of 0.39 of the weight to eliminate. The peak of rolling moment in transition needs differential upward thrusts of 0.04 of the weight to eliminate. The requirements for extra thrusts in transition lead to a total thrust–weight ratio of 0.7, which makes the aircraft more efficient for high speed cruise flight (higher than 0.7 Ma.

  8. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  9. Scintigraphic colonic transit study in children with chronic constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Tsunehiro; Uemura, Sadashige; Nakaoka, Tatsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshikiyo; Tanimoto, Terutaka; Sone, Teruki

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation can be caused either by slow colonic transit or by functional fecal retention. The treatment strategy for chronic constipation should be based on its etiology. Scintigraphic colonic transit study (SCTS) is useful for dividing the cause of the constipation into slow colonic transit and functional fecal retention. SCTS is also useful for judging the therapeutic effect and postoperative intestinal motility of Hirschsprung's disease, anorectal molformation, and others. As SCTS is a safe, simple, and painless examination, it is one of the most important examinations in evaluating chronic constipation. (author)

  10. Study of the coefficients of internal conversion for transition energies approaching the threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farani Coursol, Nelcy.

    1979-01-01

    Internal conversion coefficients were determined experimentally with great accuracy for areas of transition energies, which constitute tests for the theories (energies at the most ten kEv above the threshold of K shell), then the results obtained were compared with the values calculated (or to be calculated) from theoretical models. Owing to the difficulties raised by the precise determination of the internal conversion coefficients (ICC), in the first stage we selected radionuclides with a relatively simple decay pattern, the transitions: 30 keV of sup(93m)Nb, 35 keV of sup(125m)Te, 14 keV of 57 Fe and 39 keV of sup(129m)Xe. It was observed that 'problems' exist with respect to the ICC's of the great multipolarity transitions, so the transitions of this kind were examined in a systematic manner. The possibility of penetration effects occurring for the transitions studied experimentally was examined. The considerations are presented which 'authorized' us to disregard the dynamic part of the ICC for the transitions approaching the threshold (L selection rules and life of nuclear levels in relation to Weisskopf-Moszkowski estimations). The Kurie straight line was determined experimentally for the β - transition and the Qsub(β) was evaluated with an important accuracy gain compared with the values available at present. Finally, a certain number of ICC's of transitions already determined with good precision were recalculated, in order to extend our analysis and detect any possible systematic errors [fr

  11. A comparative analysis of performance and cost metrics associated with a diesel to biodiesel fleet transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrake, Scott O.; Landis, Amy E.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Collinge, William O.; Xue Xiaobo

    2010-01-01

    With energy security, economic stabilization, and environmental sustainability being at the forefront of US policy making, the development of biodiesel production and use within the United States has been growing at an astonishing rate. According to the latest DOE energy report, biodiesel production and consumption in the US has decreased since its peak in 2008, but still remains an important factor in the US energy mix. However, despite recent studies showing that B5 has similar performance qualities to that of the currently used ultra-low-sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) fleet managers and corporations still remain hesitant regarding a switch to B5. This research examined the major areas of concern that arise with transitioning fleets from ULSD to B5 with the goal of alleviating those concerns with quantitative results from an actual fleet implementation and transition. In conjunction with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) a comparison of cost, cold weather fuel properties, engine performance, fuel economy, and maintenance and repairs was conducted using data obtained over 3 years from a pilot study. The results found that B5 performed as well or better than ULSD in all performance metrics. - Research Highlights: →Conducted multi-year study of a DOT fleet transition from ULSD to biodiesel (B5)→No significant difference in cold weather performance, engine power output, or torque→No significant difference in fuel economy→No resulting increase in maintenance and repair costs or frequency→Life-cycle costing revealed no hidden costs as a result of B5 implementation

  12. Study of the Transition Flow Regime using Monte Carlo Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H. A.

    1999-01-01

    This NASA Cooperative Agreement presents a study of the Transition Flow Regime Using Monte Carlo Methods. The topics included in this final report are: 1) New Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) procedures; 2) The DS3W and DS2A Programs; 3) Papers presented; 4) Miscellaneous Applications and Program Modifications; 5) Solution of Transitional Wake Flows at Mach 10; and 6) Turbulence Modeling of Shock-Dominated Fows with a k-Enstrophy Formulation.

  13. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  14. Study of coupled-cluster correlations on electromagnetic transitions and hyperfine structure constants of W VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, Anal; Majumder, Sonjoy; Roy, Sourav; Dutta, Narendra Nath

    2017-01-01

    This work presents precise calculations of important electromagnetic transition amplitudes along with details of their many-body correlations using the relativistic coupled-cluster method. Studies of hyperfine interaction constants, useful for plasma diagnostics, with this correlation exhaustive many-body approach, are another important area of this work. The calculated oscillator strengths of allowed transitions, amplitudes of forbidden transitions and lifetimes are compared with the other theoretical results wherever available and they show a good agreement. Hyperfine constants of different isotopes of W VI, presented in this paper, will be helpful in gaining an accurate picture of the abundances of this element in different astronomical bodies. (paper)

  15. Report on the behalf of the special commission for the examination of the bill project, after activation of the accelerated procedure, related to energy transition for a green growth (nr 2188) - Nr 2230. Volume I, Volume II - comparative table, Volume III - hearings, impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareigts, Ericka; Battistel, Marie-Noelle; Buis, Sabine; Baupin, Denis; Plisson, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The first volume of this huge report reports the general discussion and the detailed examination, discussion and modifications of the French bill project on energy transition. The addressed topics are: the definition of common objectives for a successful energy transition, for a strengthening of France energy independence and for the struggle against global warming; a better renovation of buildings to save energy, to reduce prices and to create jobs; the development of clean transports to improve air quality and to protect health; the struggle against wastage and the promotion of circular economy from product design to product recycling; the promotion of renewable energies to diversify our energies and valorise territorial resources; the strengthening of nuclear safety and citizen information; the simplification and clarification of procedures for efficiency and competitiveness gains; the empowerment of citizen, enterprises, territories and State to act together. The second volume proposes a table which gives a comparative overview between the bill project text and the text modified and adopted by the commission. The third volume reports hearings of the minister and of several representatives of professional, public, and consumer organisations and bodies. It also contains the report of an impact study performed on all the different arrangements and measures contained by the bill project

  16. Study abroad: perspectives on transitions to adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Irish immrama literary style seems the most appropriate way to represent student narratives based on their study abroad experiences in Ireland. The chapters containing the\\ud immrama of students are an ethnographic experiment in which the reflexivity students demonstrated through the interview process is presented in narrative form. This writing style provides the context for the examination of issues related to academic aspirations, professional, and personal wandering, and how study abr...

  17. Development of a new method for small bowel transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Guang-Uei; Tsai, Chien-Chung; Lin, Wan-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Currently, most studies combine the small bowel transit examination with gastric emptying time examination. There are significant drawbacks to this method. The radiotracer does not enter the small intestine in a bolus and the starting time for transit in the duodenum is difficult to define. This makes the result unreliable. In this study, we used a commercial enteric capsule containing radioactive charcoal to solve these problems. Activated charcoal powder was mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate and loaded to the enteric capsule which can resist gastric acid and dissolve only in the small intestine, in-vitro stability experiment was performed by immersing these capsules in a colorless phosphate buffer of variable pH which mimicked the condition in stomach and small intestine. In addition, ten healthy Chinese volunteers were included for in-vivo experiment. Anterior and posterior views of abdomen were obtained at regular 30-minute intervals until the eighth hour after administration of the radioactive enteric capsule. Small bowel transit time was calculated. The enteric capsule remained intact for at least 480 minutes in the solution mimicking gastric content (pH=3.0) and disrupted at a mean duration of 227.2 minutes at a pH of 6.8 and at a mean duration of 212.4 minutes at a pH of 7.4 in the solution mimicking pancreaticobiliary secretions. In nine of ten volunteers, the small bowel transit time was between 30 to 270 minutes with a mean transit time of 140 min. In one volunteer, we failed to detect the exact time of small bowel transit because the capsule remained in the stomach throughout the study for up to 8 hours. We consider activated charcoal labeled with Tc-99m pertechnetate using an enteric capsule as the carrier to be a potential radioactive marker for small bowel transit study. (author)

  18. Work organization, health, and obesity in urban transit operators: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Marnie; Choi, BongKyoo; Schnall, Peter L

    2017-11-01

    Urban transit operators have high rates of obesity, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk-factors compared to other occupations. There have been few qualitative studies exploring the interrelationships between the organization of transit work, stress, and health including obesity, from the perspective of operators. Five focus groups were conducted at five Divisions in a transit authority in Southern California and included 65 bus and rail operators. Operators reported a great deal of stress related to their work, including 1) time pressures and lack of recovery time; 2) long work shifts and overtime; 3) feeling unsafe when dealing with the public; 4) lack of respect from supervisors and management. Operators believed stressful working conditions negatively impacted their health and weight. This qualitative study yielded new as well as confirmatory data about stress and transit work organization, health, and weight in operators. This study will add to future survey research and interventions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Phase transition in lead titanate thin films: a Brillouin study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, P; Dugautier, C; Moch, P; Marrec, F Le; Karkut, M G

    2002-01-01

    The elastic properties of both polycrystalline and epitaxial PbTiO 3 (PTO) thin films are studied using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The epitaxial PTO films were prepared by pulsed laser ablation on (1) a [0 0 1] single crystal of SrTiO 3 (STO) doped with Nb and (2) a [0 0 1] STO buffered with a layer of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . The polycrystalline PTO films were prepared by sol-gel on a Si substrate buffered with TiO 2 and Pt layers. The data analysis takes into account the ripple and the elasto-optic contributions. The latter significantly affects the measured spectra since it gives rise to a Love mode in the p-s scattering geometry. At room temperature, the spectra of the epitaxially grown samples are interpreted using previously published elastic constants of PTO single crystals. Sol-gel samples exhibit appreciable softening of the effective elastic properties compared to PTO single crystals: this result is explained by taking into account the random orientation of the microscopic PTO grains. For both the polycrystalline and the epitaxial films we have determined that the piezoelectric terms do not contribute to the spectra. The temperature dependence of the spectra shows strong anomalies of the elastic properties near the ferroelectric phase transition. Compared to the bulk, T C is higher in the sol-gel films, while in the epitaxial films the sign of the T C shift depends on the underlying material

  20. Fluorescence Imaging Study of Transition in Underexpanded Free Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Jennifer A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Nowak, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for studying the onset of transition to turbulence. For this study, we have used PLIF of nitric oxide (NO) to image underexpanded axisymmetric free jets issuing into a low-pressure chamber through a smooth converging nozzle with a sonic orifice. Flows were studied over a range of Reynolds numbers and nozzle-exit-to-ambient pressure ratios with the aim of empirically determining criteria governing the onset of turbulence. We have developed an image processing technique, involving calculation of the standard deviation of the intensity in PLIF images, in order to aid in the identification of turbulence. We have used the resulting images to identify laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Jet scaling parameters were used to define a rescaled Reynolds number that incorporates the influence of a varying pressure ratio. An empirical correlation was found between transition length and this rescaled Reynolds number for highly underexpanded jets.

  1. Depth distribution of glyphosate and organic matter after 5 years of agroecology transition compared with industrial agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Zamora, Martin; Barbera, Agustin; Castro Franco, Mauricio; Domenech, Marisa; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The industrial model of agriculture, defined here by its capital intensity and dependence on massive inputs like seeds, fertilizer, and pesticides, is reducing soil organic matter and increasing the inefficiency in agrochemical used. Ecological impacts of industrial agriculture include pollution by pesticides, soil organic matter loss and soil degradation, among many others, with the consequent human health risks. Many of the negative effects of industrial agriculture are remote from fields and farms. The impacts of industrial agriculture on the environment, public health, and rural communities make it an unsustainable way to grow our food over the long term. An alternative approach to the industrial agriculture is the agroecology which has shown promising success on the ground and is actually the only way to ensure that all people have access to sufficient, healthful food. Farming systems designed and managed according to ecological principles can meet the food needs of society while addressing these pressing environmental and social issues. Our concept of agroecological transition is based on increasing resource use efficiency (e.g. fertilizer, pesticides and water), recycling waste or byproducts of one subsystem in another and applying sound? agricultural practices or precision-agriculture technologies. The objective of this work was to compare two production systems: a) industrial agriculture, b) agroecological transition with respect to the impact on the glyphosate load and the organic matter content in the soil and its distribution in depth. The study sites were two field of 15 ha each located at Barrow Experimental Station (38°19´S, 60°15´W). Soil ECa mapping was carried out and the complete experimental area was divided in three ECa classes with similar soil characteristics. Therefore, soil sampling was carried out by zones, based on three ECa classes at each production systems. Soil samples were taken at 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm depth

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  3. Transition to Postgraduate Study: Postgraduate Ecological Systems and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbell, Jane; O'Donnell, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and examines the distal and proximal systems which construct social science postgraduate study in the UK and analyses the emergent identities of postgraduate students as they negotiate the multiple and interacting practices in their transition to study. The data represent part of a one-year research project, funded by the…

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  5. The esophageal transit in normal persons and in carrier of Chagas disease and progressive systemic sclerosis. A scintiscanning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.B. de.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study is determine, by a scintiscanning method, how 10 ml of water, swallowed at one time, transit by the esophagus of normal persons and carriers of diseases, that attacking the esophagus motility. The other aim was determine the characteristics of the transit by the esophagus in carriers of chagasic esophagus diseases and of progressive systemic sclerosis. The study of esophageal transit was made by the technetium 99, with a gamma camera for detecting and quantifying the radioactivity. Several images of the esophageal transit, with persons in supine and seat positions, for processing the radioactivity curves x time are studied and compared. (C.G.C.)

  6. Pyrolysis in Groningen, Netherlands. Feasibility study on a transition coalition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemons, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a study on the technical, economical and financial feasibility of a pyrolysis factory for the processing and energetic application of biomass wastes in the Dutch province Groningen are presented and discussed. Also, attention is paid to the implementation of the planned pyrolysis factory in one or more transition programmes. [nl

  7. Application of Kissinger analysis to glass transition and study of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 4. Application of Kissinger analysis to glass transition and study of thermal degradation kinetics of phenolic–acrylic IPNs ... Author Affiliations. S Goswami1 K Kiran1. Department of Polymer Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi 835 215, India ...

  8. Veterans' Transitions to Community College: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Veterans on college campuses are not new; however, the recent influx of veterans returning home from war-time service present challenges to the colleges they attend. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the transition process experienced by veterans leaving military service and attending community college for the first time.…

  9. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  10. 3-dimensional lattice studies of the electroweak phase transition at MHiggs∼ 70 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertler, M.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Kripfganz, J.

    1996-06-01

    We study the electroweak phase transition by lattice simulations of an effective 3-dimensional theory, for a Higgs mass of about 70 GeV. Exploiting, among others, a variant of the equal weight criterion of phase equilibrium, we obtain transition temperature, latent heat and surface tension, and compare with M H ∼35 GeV. In the broken phase masses and Higgs condensates are compared to perturbation theory. For the symmetric phase, bound state masses and the static force are determined. (orig.)

  11. Mathematics education and comparative historical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner RODRIGUES VALENTE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its aims: to characterize the area of research «history of mathematics education» and to defend the idea that mathematics education has constituted a privileged research theme within the field of comparative historical studies. To achieve these aims, the text includes references to a review of the literature concerning comparative studies, the analysis of two fundamental moments focused on attempts to internationalize the mathematics curriculum, both of which occurred during the 20th century, and, to end, a case study emanating from an international cooperation between researchers in Brazil and Portugal.

  12. Comparative study of bioethanol production from sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more ...

  13. Supplementary data: Comparative studies on sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Page 1. Supplementary data: Comparative studies on sequence characteristics around translation initiation codon in four eukaryotes. Qingpo Liu and Qingzhong Xue. J. Genet. 84, 317–322. Table 1. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of 39 base positions around the AUG codon in the four eukaryotic species studied.

  14. Mapping and navigating transitions - The multi-level perspective compared with arenas of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    actors to navigate. The second concern builds on the observation that actors engage at all levels in society including visions, institutions, and innovations. The third concern addresses the role of academic theories and advice regarding governance of transition processes in which they function......Transitions of socio-technical systems imply the reconfiguration of institutions and politics making made evident the need to understand and intervene in existing patterns of growth and socio-technical practices in more sustainable directions. In recent decades, theories of transitions have been...... introduced, which include the multi-level approach indicating ways to govern transitions through understanding the interactions between niches, regimes and landscapes. An alternative approach is suggested, which takes its outset in arenas of development and increased awareness of actors and their way...

  15. A Comparative Study Of Stock Price Forecasting Using Nonlinear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diteboho Xaba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the in-sample forecasting accuracy of three forecasting nonlinear models namely: the Smooth Transition Regression (STR model, the Threshold Autoregressive (TAR model and the Markov-switching Autoregressive (MS-AR model. Nonlinearity tests were used to confirm the validity of the assumptions of the study. The study used model selection criteria, SBC to select the optimal lag order and for the selection of appropriate models. The Mean Square Error (MSE, Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE served as the error measures in evaluating the forecasting ability of the models. The MS-AR models proved to perform well with lower error measures as compared to LSTR and TAR models in most cases.

  16. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  17. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...... of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate...

  18. The deconfinement phase transition at large N: A study of the hot twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Kogut, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The deconfinement phase transition for SU(54) gauge theory is studied using twisted Eguchi-Kawai methods. Expectation values of the action, the Wilson line and the energy density are measured. We find evidence for deconfining phase transition and compare our data with the naive string picture. (orig.)

  19. The transition radiation. 2. experimental study of the optical transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G.; Seguin, S.; Striby, S.

    1999-01-01

    Optical-transition-radiation-based diagnostics have been widely used for many years on electron accelerators in order to measure beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. These diagnostics are very attractive for high brightness electron beams used as drivers for radiation sources. Such diagnostics have been performed on the ELSA facility (18 MeV electron energy, 100 A peak current) using both a single interface and an OTR-Wartski interferometer. We present the accelerator, the experimental set-up and the method for analyzing the OTR angular distribution. Then, the experimental results are described and compared with those from the three gradient method. In addition, we present a beam energy measurement using OTR interferogram analysis. (author)

  20. Assessment of colonic transit time using MRI: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann, Sonja; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Lienemann, Andreas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Campus Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Ladurner, Roland; Mussack, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Surgery and Traumatology, Campus Innenstadt, Munich (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate a new, non-invasive examination method using MRI for the quantification of the colonic transit time after oral administration of gadolinium-saline solution filled capsules. Healthy volunteers without previous or acute symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders were enrolled. After a 3-day diet for the standardization of gastrocolonic content the volunteers swallowed five Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9%-filledcapsules. Seven different concentrations of Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9% solution between 1:0 and 0:1 were tested in a dilution series. Following ingestion of capsules, coronal Flash T1 and True Fisp sequences using a 1.5 Tesla system were obtained at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 60 h. Sequences were analyzed by two independent experts for locating the capsules. Overall colonic transit time was separately analyzed for both genders. Fifteen healthy volunteers (7 females, 8 males; mean age 34{+-}13 years) were enrolled. The phantom study provided the best contrast in both the T1-and T2-weighted sequences defining a ratio of 1:10 for Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9% solution. The mean transit time accounted for 41{+-}9 h in women and for 31{+-}10 h in men. MRI is an adequate method for the assessment of colonic transit time offering the advantages of no exposure to radiation, short examination time, possible dynamic evaluation of the transit and the practicability in terms of a future adoption to clinical routine. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of colonic transit time using MRI: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhmann, Sonja; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Lienemann, Andreas; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Ladurner, Roland; Mussack, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate a new, non-invasive examination method using MRI for the quantification of the colonic transit time after oral administration of gadolinium-saline solution filled capsules. Healthy volunteers without previous or acute symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders were enrolled. After a 3-day diet for the standardization of gastrocolonic content the volunteers swallowed five Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9%-filledcapsules. Seven different concentrations of Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9% solution between 1:0 and 0:1 were tested in a dilution series. Following ingestion of capsules, coronal Flash T1 and True Fisp sequences using a 1.5 Tesla system were obtained at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 60 h. Sequences were analyzed by two independent experts for locating the capsules. Overall colonic transit time was separately analyzed for both genders. Fifteen healthy volunteers (7 females, 8 males; mean age 34±13 years) were enrolled. The phantom study provided the best contrast in both the T1-and T2-weighted sequences defining a ratio of 1:10 for Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9% solution. The mean transit time accounted for 41±9 h in women and for 31±10 h in men. MRI is an adequate method for the assessment of colonic transit time offering the advantages of no exposure to radiation, short examination time, possible dynamic evaluation of the transit and the practicability in terms of a future adoption to clinical routine. (orig.)

  2. The transition radiation. 2. experimental study of the optical transition radiation; Le rayonnement de transition: 2. etude experimentale du rayonnement de transition optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G.; Seguin, S.; Striby, S

    1999-07-01

    Optical-transition-radiation-based diagnostics have been widely used for many years on electron accelerators in order to measure beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. These diagnostics are very attractive for high brightness electron beams used as drivers for radiation sources. Such diagnostics have been performed on the ELSA facility (18 MeV electron energy, 100 A peak current) using both a single interface and an OTR-Wartski interferometer. We present the accelerator, the experimental set-up and the method for analyzing the OTR angular distribution. Then, the experimental results are described and compared with those from the three gradient method. In addition, we present a beam energy measurement using OTR interferogram analysis. (author)

  3. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  4. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  5. Comparative study of quantum anharmonic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; De Pace, Arturo; Lopez, Jorge A.

    2004-01-01

    We perform a study of various anharmonic potentials using a recently developed method. We calculate both the wave functions and the energy eigenvalues for the ground and first excited states of the quartic, sextic and octic potentials with high precision, comparing the results with other techniques available in the literature

  6. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonu

    Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.

  7. AMERICAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    BAS, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce the Education System of the United States of America (USA) and to compare it with the Turkish Education System. The Education System of the United States of America was held from different factors (e.g., education structure, curriculum and instruction, principal selection, educational supervision, special education ,teacher education, finance for education, international examinations, vs.) and these factors were explained under headlines in the study...

  8. A comparative study of magnetic field induced meta-magnetic transition in nanocrystalline and bulk Pr{sub 0.65}(Ca{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}){sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Suvayan [CMP Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Center for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, JD-2, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098, West Bengal (India); Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Das, Kalipada, E-mail: kalipadadasphysics@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta [Center for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, JD-2, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098, West Bengal (India); Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Das, I. [CMP Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Field induced sharp meta-magnetic transition appears even in nanocrystalline sample. • Magnetic field for the meta-magnetic transition enhances depending upon the cooling field. • This unusual behavior is addressed by the effect of the interfacial strains. - Abstract: In our present study we highlight the observations of external magnetic field induced sharp meta-magnetic transition in polycrystalline bulk as well as nanocrystalline form of Pr{sub 0.65}(Ca{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.7}){sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} compound. Interestingly, such behavior persists in the nanoparticles regardless of the disorder broadened transition. However, higher magnetic field is required for nanoparticles having average particle size ∼40 nm for such meta-magnetic transition, which differs from the general trends of the pure charge ordered nano materials. The interfacial strain between the different magnetic domains plays the important role in magnetic isothermal properties of nanoparticles, when the samples are cooled down in different cooling field. Additionally, both the bulk and nanoparticle compounds exhibit spontaneous phase separation and significantly large magnetoresistance at the low temperature region due to the melting of charge ordered fraction.

  9. A comparative study of various advanced fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, H.; Tomita, Y.; Nomura, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of comparing the merits and demerits of various advanced fuel cycles, parametric studies of operation conditions are examined. The effects of nuclear elastic collisions and synchrotron radiation are taken into account. It is found that the high-#betta# Catalyzed DD fuel cycle with the transmutation of fusion-produced tritium into helium-3 is most feasible from the point of view of neutron production and tritium handling. The D-D fuel cycles seem to be less attractive compared to the Catalyzed DD. The p- 11 B and p- 6 Li fusion plasmas hardly attain the plasma Q value relevant to reactors. (author)

  10. Transition from blastomere to trophectoderm biopsy: comparing two preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Lluc; Parriego, Mònica; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta; Arroyo, Gemma; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Coroleu, Bonaventura; Vidal, Francesca; Veiga, Anna

    2018-05-25

    SummaryShortly after the implementation of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) techniques for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A), the discussion about the transition from day 3 to blastocyst stage biopsy was initiated. Trophectoderm biopsy with CCS is meant to overcome the limitations of cleavage-stage biopsy and single-cell analysis. The aim of this study was to assess the results obtained in our PGT-A programme after the implementation of this new strategy. Comparisons between the results obtained in 179 PGT-A cycles with day 3 biopsy (D+3) and fresh embryo transfer, and 204 cycles with trophectoderm biopsy and deferred (frozen-thawed) embryo transfer were established. Fewer embryos were biopsied and a higher euploidy rate was observed in the trophectoderm biopsy group. No differences in implantation (50.3% vs. 61.4%) and clinical pregnancy rate per transfer (56.1% vs. 65.3%) were found. Although the mean number of euploid embryos per cycle did not differ between groups (1.5 ± 1.7 vs. 1.7 ± 1.8), the final number of euploid blastocysts available for transfer per cycle was significantly higher in the trophectoderm biopsy group (1.1 ± 1.3 vs. 1.7 ± 1.8). This factor led to an increased cumulative live birth rate in this last group (34.1% vs. 44.6%). Although both strategies can offer good results, trophectoderm biopsy offers a more robust diagnosis and the intervention is less harmful for the embryos so more euploid blastocysts are finally available for transfer and/or vitrification.

  11. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  12. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  13. Studies of electron transitions using solid He pressure techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirber, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in the topology of the Fermi surfaces of metals occur with variation of temperature or stoichiometry in a number of metallic systems of current interest. Pressure generated by a variety of techniques has proven to be the most useful experimental variable in the study of these transitions, but in most cases only solid He techniques yield sufficiently hydrostatic conditions to permit direct measurements of the Fermi surface as a function of pressure

  14. A simple method for preparing radioactive capsules in colon transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shyhjen; Lin Wanyu; Tsai Shihchuan; Chen Granhun

    2000-01-01

    Colon transit study is currently performed by delivering technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled activated charcoal to the colon in a methacrylate-coated capsule (coated capsule). However, the coating procedure is complicated and methacrylate has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore, a simpler method is needed for the clinical routine use of colon transit study. In this study, we used a commercial empty enteric capsule and a coated capsule for the measurement of colon transit time. We compared the in vitro stability and in vivo scintigraphy of 99m Tc-labelled activated charcoal in the coated capsule and the enteric capsule to evaluate the possibility of clinical usage of the enteric capsule for colon transit time study. Activated charcoal powder was mixed with 99m Tc-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) and vaporized to dryness. The dry 99m Tc-DTPA activated charcoal was loaded into the coated capsule and the enteric capsule. In vitro stability study was performed by immersing these capsules in a colourless buffer of variable pH which mimicked the conditions in the stomach and the small bowel. Capsule disruption was determined. Colon transit scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DTPA charcoal was performed in five normal volunteers using these two capsules. The in vitro stability of these two types of capsule was similar and the colon transit scintigraphy findings were almost identical. Most capsules dissolved in the ascending colon and very few in the terminal ileum. It is concluded that enteric capsule is a suitable alternative to coated capsule for measurement of colon transit. (orig.)

  15. Comparative Study of Bancruptcy Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isye Arieshanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early indication of bancruptcy is important for a company. If companies aware of  potency of their bancruptcy, they can take a preventive action to anticipate the bancruptcy. In order to detect the potency of a bancruptcy, a company can utilize a a model of bancruptcy prediction. The prediction model can be built using a machine learning methods. However, the choice of machine learning methods should be performed carefully. Because the suitability of a model depends on the problem specifically. Therefore, in this paper we perform a comparative study of several machine leaning methods for bancruptcy prediction. According to the comparative study, the performance of several models that based on machine learning methods (k-NN, fuzzy k-NN, SVM, Bagging Nearest Neighbour SVM, Multilayer Perceptron(MLP, Hybrid of MLP + Multiple Linear Regression, it can be showed that fuzzy k-NN method achieve the best performance with accuracy 77.5%

  16. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-01

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-μm length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  17. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-15

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-{mu}m length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  18. Robust canonical correlations: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, JA; Croux, Christophe; Filzmoser, P; Oliveira, MR

    2005-01-01

    Several approaches for robust canonical correlation analysis will be presented and discussed. A first method is based on the definition of canonical correlation analysis as looking for linear combinations of two sets of variables having maximal (robust) correlation. A second method is based on alternating robust regressions. These methods axe discussed in detail and compared with the more traditional approach to robust canonical correlation via covariance matrix estimates. A simulation study ...

  19. Comparative Study on Water Impact Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liang; Yang, Hao; Yan, Shiqiang; Ma, Qingwei; Bihnam, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative numerical study for the water impact problems due to dropping of triangular wedges or ship sections. In the numerical investigation, both the dynamic mesh technique and immersed boundary method adopting fixed Cartesian grids have been adopted in order to conform to the motion of the structure. For the former, a multiple-phase solver with the volume of fluid for identifying the free surface is implemented. In the simulation using this method, both the compress...

  20. Study of transition metal oxides by photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.R.; Sarma, D.D.; Vasudevan, S.; Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Systematics in the X-ray photoelectron spectra (X.p.e.s.) of Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Nb oxides with the metal ion in different oxidation states as well as of related series of mono-, sesqui- and di-oxides of the first row of transition metals have been investigated in detail. Core level binding energies, spin-orbit splittings and exchange splittings are found to exhibit interesting variations with the oxidation state of the metal or the nuclear charge. The 3d binding energies of the monoxides show a proportionality to Goodenough's (R - RC). Other aspects of interest in the study are the satellite structure and final state effects in the X.p.e.s. of the oxides, and identification of different valence states in oxides of the general formulae Mn02n-1 and M304. The nature of changes in the 3d bands of oxides undergoing metal-insulator transitions is also indicated. (author)

  1. Linear pneumatic motors – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconescu Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the performance of single-acting cylinders, diaphragm cylinders and pneumatic muscles, and offers users information that allows the selection of an optimum technical solution. Such a study was necessary, in view of the numerous papers on pneumatic muscle applications found in literature, that assert the superiority of pneumatic muscles over other pneumatic linear motors in relation to quantities like dimensions, mass, developed force or energy-to-mass ratios, however without offering concrete data.

  2. A comparative study of two shovel designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, A; Asfour, S S; Waly, S M; Koshy, J G

    1993-10-01

    In the present study a modified shovel design with two perpendicular shafts is presented. This modified, two-shaft shovel was compared with a regular shovel. The modified shovel was evaluated and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using surface electromyography recorded from the lumbar paraspinal muscles. The new shovel design was also tested in a field study using ratings of perceived exertion. The results indicate that there was a significant reduction in EMG values of the lumbar paraspinal muscles and a consistent reduction in perceived exertion ratings while the modified shovel was being used for removing dirt in digging trenches up to 90 cm in depth.

  3. [Nonprocess autism in children: comparative etiopathogenetic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, V E

    1979-01-01

    Etiopathogenesis of the childhood autism syndrome of a non-process nature is discussed on the basis of a comparative study of 156 children aged from 3 to 16 years. In the etiological complex there is a prevalence of early exogenous-organic noxious factors, which is reflected in disturbances of mental divelopment, maturation of the system of hemispheric pair work. The data of follow-up studies and treatment confirm a conclusion about a residual-organic basis in the syndrome of childhood autism.

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of microstrip-to-slot line uniplanar transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Jong-Gwan; Dib, Nihad I.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Simons, Rainee N.; Taub, Susan R.

    1994-05-01

    Recent advances in MMCI technology make it possible to construct transitions from CPW-to-microstrip with via hole, microstrip-to-slot line and microshield line-to-CPW all of which have potential applications in the feed network of antennas. In this study we investigate the characteristics of the microstrip-to-slot line uniplanar transition using the finite element methods (FEM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) techniques, and compared the theoretical results with the measurements. In both cases, the results agree with the measurements within a few percent.

  5. A study of the colonic transit function by dual radionuclide colon scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weidong; Sun Buzhou; Song Changyi; Lu Jinyan; Wang Shejiao; Zheng Xianghong; Huang Lin; Lei Yamei

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To establish a new, simple and noninvasive method which can quantitatively analyze the colonic transit function by dual radionuclide colon scintigraphy. Methods: 24 patients with constipation and 32 normal controls were studied. Na 131 I was sealed into capsule made by polyvinylchloride which can not be digested and absorbed in gastrointestinal tract. Patients and normal volunteers swallow 131 I capsules and drink 99 Tc m labelled sulfur colloid solution at the same time. The static image was acquired at the regular time, then calculate the Geometric Center values (GC). Results: 1) The capsules can be clearly located through the colonic contour shown by 99 Tc m labeled sulfur colloid when it reached the large bowel. 2) The transiting time from mouth to cecum, through colon and through whole gastrointestinal in normal people were (6.61 +- 1.94), (36.61 +- 10.51) and (42.72 +- 10.02) h, respectively, in constipation group were (8.03 +- 3.63), (65.50 +- 28.40) and (74.05 +- 28.17) h, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in two groups compared with each other. But the transiting time through colon and whole gastrointestinal in constipation was slower than that in normal people, with significant difference (P < 0.01). 3) Through examination the colonic transit abnormality can be divided into three patterns: whole colon transit delay, right-colon transit delay and left-colon transit delay. Conclusions: This method is a simple, physiologic and quantitative in evaluating the colonic transit, it can also stage the colonic dyskinesia of the patients

  6. An Analysis of Public Transit Connectivity Index in Tehran. The Case Study: Tehran Multi-Modal Transit Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Mamdoohi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public transit is a major priority in modern management of large cities and metropolitan areas in particular. Public transit systems in such cities consist of a large number of nodes and lines which are represented by a complex network. A station for public transit is a bridge between the people and public transit network, based on which, the concept of input and output power for each station can be defined. The objective of this study is the application of the transit connectivity indices to the multimodal transit network in the city of Tehran. The public transit network data employed in this study is taken from Tehran Traffic Control Company, and Tehran Urban and Suburban Railway Operation Company. The methodology for measuring transit connectivity consists of three measures: Node connectivity, Line connectivity and Regional connectivity, where activity density is applied to these measures. The results of node connectivity analysis shows that most of the node connectivity in concentrated in the city center with many nodes in the center along routes going north and south. The line connectivity analysis shows that there is a concentration of highly connected lines that are near Tehran municipality region 12 and 16. Finally, we find that areas with more metro and bus facilities with respect to the other areas, have a better regional connectivity. One of these areas includes Sadeghiyeh Metro Station which is the junction of Tehran Metro Line 2 and Tehran Metro Line 5 which have a high connectivity power. Results of this study can be used to suggest some ideas on how future investments in rail and bus should be prioritized. Particularly in Transit Oriented Development (TOD and sustainble development projects, urban planners can design transit stations with high performance to access the crucial services in poor areas.

  7. Self-management socialism compared to social market economy in transition: Are there convergent paths?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulaj, Isa

    2009-01-01

    Despite considerable and miscellaneous research in transition economics, some of its aspects have yet to evolve and come up with a more standard theory. After the initial systemic change in two versions of socialist systems - centralist in the former Soviet Union (FSU), and self-management in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), and rush towards a market-based system, setbacks in economic performance were marked by a sharp decline in living standards for the majority of...

  8. Comparing Transition-Edge Sensor Response Times in a Modified Contact Scheme with Different Support Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, A. D.; Kenyon, M. E.; Bumble, B.; Runyan, M. C.; Echternach, P. E.; Holmes, W. A.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the thermal conductance, G, and effective time constants, tau, of three transition-edge sensors (TESs) populated in arrays operated from 80-87mK with T(sub C) approximately 120mK. Our TES arrays include several variations of thermal architecture enabling determination of the architecture that demonstrates the minimum noise equivalent power (NEP), the lowest tau and the trade-offs among designs. The three TESs we report here have identical Mo/Cu bilayer thermistors and wiring structures, while the thermal architectures are: 1) a TES with straight support beams of 1mm length, 2) a TES with meander support beams of total length 2mm and with 2 phononfilter blocks per beam, and 3) a TES with meander support beams of total length 2mm and with 6 phonon-filter blocks per beam. Our wiring scheme aims to lower the thermistor normal state resistance R(sub N) and increase the sharpness of the transition alpha=dlogR/dlogT at the transition temperature T(sub C). We find an upper limit of given by (25+/-10), and G values of 200fW/K for 1), 15fW/K for 2), and 10fW/K for 3). The value of alpha can be improved by slightly increasing the length of our thermistors.

  9. Comparative Study of Daylighting Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandala Ariani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess five daylighting calculation method commonly used in architectural study. The methods used include hand calculation methods (SNI/DPMB method and BRE Daylighting Protractors, scale models studied in an artificial sky simulator and computer programs using Dialux and Velux lighting software. The test room is conditioned by the uniform sky conditions, simple room geometry with variations of the room reflectance (black, grey, and white color. The analyses compared the result (including daylight factor, illumination, and coefficient of uniformity value and examines the similarity and contrast the result different. The color variations trial is used to analyses the internally reflection factor contribution to the result.

  10. Unique properties associated with normal martensitic transition and strain glass transition – A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Ni, Yan; Gao, Jinghui; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Xiaobing; Wang, Yunzhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the unique properties of strain glass which is different from that of normal martensite. ► We describe the importance of point defects in the formation of strain glass and related properties. ► The role of point defect can be attributed to global transition temperature effect (GTTE) and local field effect (LFE). -- Abstract: The transition behavior and unique properties associated with normal martensitic transition and strain glass transition are investigated by computer simulations using the phase field method. The simulations are based on a physical model that assumes that point defects alter the thermodynamic stability of martensite and create local lattice distortion. The simulation results show that strain glass transition exhibits different properties from those found in normal martensitic transformations. These unique properties include diffuse scattering pattern, “smear” elastic modulus peak, disappearance of heat flow peak and non-ergodicity. These simulation predictions agree well with the experimental observations

  11. Comparative Study of Silk-Silk Alloy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ye; Jao, Dave; Hu, Wenbing; Wolf, Nathan; Rocks, Eva-Marie; Hu, Xiao

    Silk fibroin materials can be used for various kinds of biomedical applications. We report a comparative study of silk-silk blend materials using thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Four groups of silk-silk blend films: Mori-Tussah, Mori-Muga, Mori-Eri and Mori-Thai, were fabricated from aqueous solutions and blended at different weight ratios, respectively. These silk-silk blend systems exploit the beneficial material properties of both silks. DSC and temperature-modulated DSC were used to measure the transition temperatures and heat capacity of these water-based silk-silk blend films. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to characterize secondary structures of silk-silk blends. This study demonstrates that Mori silk are fully miscible with Tussah, Muga, Eri and Thai silk at different weight ratios without phase separation. Glass transition temperatures, degradation temperatures and the contents of alpha-helix and random coils of those silk-silk blend films can be controlled by changing the contents of different silks in the blend system. The features of Mori silk combined with the attributes of Tussah, Muga, Eri and Thai silk offer a useful suite of materials for a variety of applications in the future.

  12. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  13. Internal Structure Quality Control of Solid Pharmaceuticals. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.

  14. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  15. CURRICULAR OFFER INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is the determination of students’ satisfaction regarding curricular activities. The study has been accomplished using the qualitative and quantitative research, using the bibliographic study, various secondary sources and different primary sources. The study is developed with a marketing research and accomplished using the survey method. 699 students from four universities have been questioned. Due to a comparative study the University of Applied Sciences Worms, University of Applied Sciences Wiesbaden Rüsselsheim, University of Applied Sciences Frankfurt am Main and Nürtingen-Geislingen University have been analysed and their similarities and differences have been identified. The collected data, based on the established sample, is evaluated through univariate and bivariate analysis. In accordance with the evaluated sample, specific gaps from each region are identified regarding the curricular offer of the analysed universities. As a result to the conducted study, recommendations for the University of Applied Sciences Worms regarding the student’s satisfaction concerning the curricular offer are presented.

  16. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  17. An ab initio study on the transition paths from graphite to diamond under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiao; Zhou Xiangfeng; Wang Huitian; Qian Guangrui; Zhao Zhisheng; Tian Yongjun

    2013-01-01

    We calculate and compare the transition paths from graphite to two types of diamond using the variable cell nudged elastic band method. For the phase transition from graphite to cubic diamond, we analyze in detail how the π bonds transit to the σ bonds in an electronic structure. Meanwhile, a new transition path with a lower energy barrier for the transformation from graphite to hexagonal diamond is discovered. The path has its own peculiar sp 2 –sp 3 bonding configurations, serving as a transition state. Further calculation suggests that the sp 2 –sp 3 transition state represents an expected general phenomenon for cold-compressed graphite. (paper)

  18. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  19. Transition economy and happiness - the Czech Republic compared with the Netherlands in the 1990-2004 period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ophem, van J.A.C.; Kohout, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the subject Transition economy and happiness - a case study of the Czech Republic in a comparison with The Netherlands in the 1990-2004 period. The paper addresses the following two questions: 1. How has the level of happiness changed since 199 0 in the Czech Republic and in The

  20. Comparative care and outcomes for acute coronary syndromes in Central and Eastern European Transitional countries: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fraser G D; Brogan, Richard A; Alabas, Oras; Laut, Kristina G; Quinn, Tom; Bugiardini, Raffaele; Gale, Chris P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to compare quality of care and outcomes following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Central and Eastern European Transitional (CEET) countries. This was a review of original ACS articles in CEET countries from PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Medline and Embase databases published in English from November 2003 to February 2014. Seventeen manuscripts fulfilled the search criteria. Of 19 CEET countries studied, there were no published ACS management or outcome data for four countries. In-hospital mortality for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) ranged from 6.3% in the Czech Republic to 15.3% in Latvia. In-hospital mortality for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) ranged from 3.0% in Poland to 20.7% in Romania. For STEMI, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ranged from 1.0% to over 92.0%, fibrinolytic therapy from 0.0% to 49.6%, and no reperfusion therapy from 7.0% to 63.0%. Many CEET countries do not have published ACS care and outcomes data. Of those that do, there is evidence for substantial geographical variation in early mortality. Wide variation in emergency reperfusion strategies for STEMI suggests that acute cardiac care is likely to be modifiable and if addressed could reduce mortality from ACS in CEET countries. The collection of ACS care and outcomes data across Europe must be prioritised. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  1. Experimental study of transition from laminar to turbulent flow in vertical narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chang; Gao Puzhen; Wang Zhanwei; Tan Sichao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of wall heating on the laminar to turbulent transition is experimentally studied. ► The flow characteristic demonstrates that heating leads to the delay of transition from laminar to turbulent regimes. ► The heat transfer characteristics also indicates that heating leads to the delay of flow regime transition. - Abstract: Experimental investigation of flow and heat transfer characteristics of a vertical narrow channel with uniform heat flux condition are conducted to analysis the effect of wall heating on the laminar to turbulent transition. The friction factor in the heating condition is compared with that in the adiabatic condition and the results show that wall heating leads to the delay of laminar to turbulent transition. In addition, the heat transfer characteristic indicates that the critical Reynolds number at the point of laminar flow breakdown increases with the increase of fluid temperature difference, and the local Nusselt number at the point of laminar breakdown increases with the increase of the inlet Reynolds number. The analyses of the flow and heat transfer characteristics both indicate that the heating has a stabilizing effect on the water flow at present experimental scale.

  2. Dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity: case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, William; Andersen, Melvin E.; Bogdanffy, Matthew S.; Bus, James S.; Cohen, Steven D.; Conolly, Rory B.; David, Raymond M.; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Dorman, David C.; Gaylor, David W.; Hattis, Dale; Rogers, John M.; Setzer, R. Woodrow; Swenberg, James A.; Wallace, Kendall

    2004-01-01

    Experience with dose response and mechanisms of toxicity has shown that multiple mechanisms may exist for a single agent along the continuum of the full dose-response curve. It is highly likely that critical, limiting steps in any given mechanistic pathway may become overwhelmed with increasing exposures, signaling the emergence of new modalities of toxic tissue injury at these higher doses. Therefore, dose-dependent transitions in principal mechanisms of toxicity may occur, and could have significant impact on the interpretation of reference data sets for risk assessment. To illustrate the existence of dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity, a group of academic, government, and industry scientists, formed under the leadership of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI), developed a series of case studies. These case studies included acetaminophen, butadiene, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, manganese, methylene chloride, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), progesterone/hydroxyflutamide, propylene oxide, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, and zinc. The case studies formed the basis for technical discourse at two scientific workshops in 2003

  3. A comparative study of bike lane injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jung Hee; Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyu Nam; Choi, Seung Pill

    2012-02-01

    Because of the increased number of bicycle riders and governmental promotions, a recent increase in the construction of bicycle lanes has occurred. We aimed to characterize injuries specific to bicycle lane accidents by comparing them with injuries that occurred on regular roadways. On the basis of our findings, we provide suggestions on proper preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective study on 408 cases obtained between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010. Of these cases, 387 met the criterion that the location of the injury could be confirmed by telephone or via review of the patient's chart. Data regarding age, gender, Injury Severity Score, time of the accident, location of the accident, and other characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0K. Of the 387 cases, 204 (52.7%) patients were injured in bicycle lanes and 183 (47.3%) were injured on regular roadways. Comparing cases of bicycle lane injuries and non-bicycle lane injuries, there were no differences in age, day of the week, season, or the time at which the accident occurred. Bicycle helmets were used more frequently in bicycle lane injuries (33.2% vs. 13.7%; p cases, falls (42.6%) and collisions with other vehicles (39.3%) were the most common causes of injury. Although the severity of injuries was slightly lower in bicycle lane cases, it was not significantly lower than non-bicycle lane cases. Although people are increasingly using bicycle lanes for safety, this study shows that they are not definitively safer. Therefore, improvements in the policies related to implementing bicycle lane safety are needed, for example, by enforcing the use of protective gear or preventing the use of bicycle lanes by pedestrians. More safety education programs are also needed. III.

  4. Laproscopic versus open appendectomy: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, B.; Naureen Ali, N.; Shamim, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the results of open with laparoscopic appendectomy in terms of postoperative pain, rate of wound infection and hospital stay. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in Department of Surgery, Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, over a period of six months. Patients undergoing surgery for acute appendicitis were randomly assigned into one of the two groups (A or B) after obtaining written and informed consent. In Group-A patients underwent open appendectomy and in Group B laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Post operatively pain chart and wound infection was recorded and, at the time of discharge, number of days in hospital was calculated. Result: Sixty patients (38 male, 22 female), with clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis based on Alvarado score of six and above, were included in the study. They were randomized into 2 groups of A and B with 30 patients in each group. Group-A comprised open appendectomy procedure and Group-B comprised laparoscopic appendectomy. Mean comparison of postoperative pain by visual analogue scale, was significantly low in Group B, compared with Group A, on day 0, 1 and 2. Number of days in Hospital was 4.1 +- 0.8 days in Group A and 1.5 +- 0.06 days in Group B. None of the patients in Group B, while 8 (26.67%) patients in-Group A, developed postoperative wound infection at 1 week follow up. Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendectomy is safe and effective. Wound infection and postoperative pain is significantly lower after this mode of surgery. (author)

  5. Challenges associated with transition to caregiver role following diagnostic disclosure of Alzheimer disease: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Francine; Lévesque, Louise; Lachance, Lise; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Coulombe, Renée

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease is rising. The large number of new cases identified each year means that many new families will set upon a long trajectory of caring for a relative with dementia. Diagnostic disclosure of Alzheimer's disease marks the official transition to the caregiver role, yet this early period of the caregiver career have rarely been studied. Based on Meleis's theoretical framework for role transition, the objectives of this study were to document the characteristics of the caregiving context during the transition to the caregiver role following diagnostic disclosure of Alzheimer's disease and to compare these characteristics by caregiver gender and kinship tie to the relative. A descriptive design was used. Data were collected using standardized measures selected in accordance with the role transition theoretical framework. The sample recruited in Quebec (Canada) cognition clinics comprised 122 caregivers of an elderly relative diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in the past nine months. Findings reveal the context of care to be marked by several challenges for caregivers. The majority of caregivers receives little informal support, has poor knowledge of available formal services, and has difficulty planning ahead for the relative's future care needs. Caregivers themselves report a lack of preparedness to provide care. Compared with men caregivers, women seem to have more problems controlling disturbing thoughts about their new caregiver role and to experience more family conflicts and psychological distress. Compared with offspring caregivers, spouse caregivers are less able to respond to the relative's disruptive behaviors, make less use of problem-solving strategies, and report fewer family conflicts. The challenges faced by caregivers during the transition to the caregiver role are sensitive to nursing interventions. Pro-active interventions from the outset of the caregiving career, such as early assessment of caregiver needs for

  6. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Rizka

    2018-02-01

    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small-moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  7. The atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions: an observational and numerical study from two different datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Mariano; Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Ander Arrillaga, Jon

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the temporal evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) along the transition period from a diurnal typical convection to a nocturnal more frequently stable situation. This period is known as late afternoon or evening transition, depending on the specific definitions employed by different authors [1]. In order to obtain a proper characterization, we try to learn whether or not the behaviour of these transitional boundary layers is strongly dependent on local conditions. To do so, two sets of evening transitions are studied from data collected at two different experimental sites. These locations correspond to research facilities named CIBA (Spain) and CRA (France), which are the places where atmospheric field campaigns have been conducted during the last years, such as CIBA2008 and BLLAST 2011, respectively. In order to get comparable situations, we focus especially on transitions with weak synoptic forcing, and consider daily astronomical sunset as a reference time. A statistical analysis on main parameters related to the transition is carried out for both locations, and the average behaviour is shown as well as extreme values according to the timing. A similar pattern in the qualitative evolution of many variables is found. Nevertheless, several relevant differences in the progress of key variables are obtained too. Moisture, both from the soil and the air, is thought to have great relevance in explaining many of the differences found between the two sites. Some case studies are explored, focusing on the role played by the atmospheric turbulence. Complementary, numerical experiments are also performed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, in order to test the role of humidity, by artificially varying it in some of the simulations. [1] Lothon, M. and coauthors (2014): The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931-10960.

  8. Comparative study of flare control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a digital, three dimensional, automatic control law designed to achieve an optimal transition of a B-737 aircraft between glide slope conditions and the desired final touchdown condition is presented. The digital control law is a time invariant, state estimate feedback law, and the design is capable of using the microwave landing system. Major emphasis is placed on the reduction of aircraft noise in communities surroundings airports, the reduction of fuel consumption, the reduction of the effects of adverse weather conditions on aircraft operations, and the efficient use of airspace in congested terminal areas. Attention is also given to the development of the capability to perform automatic flares from steep glide slopes to precise touchdown locations.

  9. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  10. Comparative studies of stellarator and tokamak transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, U; Burhenn, R; Geiger, J; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H J; Kuehner, G; Ledl, L; Simmet, E E; Walter, H [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-Euratom Association, Garching (Germany); ECRH Team; W7-AS Team

    1997-09-01

    Transport properties in the W7-AS stellarator and in tokamaks are compared. The parameter dependences and the absolute values of the energy confinement time are similar. Indications are found that the density dependence, which is usually observed in stellarator confinement, can vanish above a critical density. The density dependence in stellarators seems to be similar to that in the linear ohmic confinement regime, which, in small tokamaks, extends to high density values, too. Because of the similarity in the gross confinement properties, transport in stellarators and tokamaks should not be dominated by the parameters which are very different in the two concepts, i.e. magnetic shear, major rational values of the rotational transform and plasma current. A difference in confinement is that there exists evidence for pinches in the particle and, possibly, energy transport channels in tokamaks whereas in stellarators no pinches have been observed, so far. In order to study the effect of plasma current and toroidal electric fields, stellarator discharges were carried out with an increasing amount of plasma current. From these experiments, no clear evidence of a connection of pinches with these parameters is found. The transient response in W7-AS plasmas can be described in terms of a non-local model. As in tokamaks, also cold pulse experiments in W7-AS indicate the importance of non-local transport. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL AMORTIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA GURAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.

  12. Comparative study on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.

  13. A Comparative Study of Human Saposins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Garrido-Arandia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Saposins are small proteins implicated in trafficking and loading of lipids onto Cluster of Differentiation 1 (CD1 receptor proteins that in turn present lipid antigens to T cells and a variety of T-cell receptors, thus playing a crucial role in innate and adaptive immune responses in humans. Despite their low sequence identity, the four types of human saposins share a similar folding pattern consisting of four helices linked by three conserved disulfide bridges. However, their lipid-binding abilities as well as their activities in extracting, transporting and loading onto CD1 molecules a variety of sphingo- and phospholipids in biological membranes display two striking characteristics: a strong pH-dependence and a structural change between a compact, closed conformation and an open conformation. In this work, we present a comparative computational study of structural, electrostatic, and dynamic features of human saposins based upon their available experimental structures. By means of structural alignments, surface analyses, calculation of pH-dependent protonation states, Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic potentials, and molecular dynamics simulations at three pH values representative of biological media where saposins fulfill their function, our results shed light into their intrinsic features. The similarities and differences in this class of proteins depend on tiny variations of local structural details that allow saposins to be key players in triggering responses in the human immune system.

  14. Assays for mammalian tyrosinase: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jara, J.R.; Solano, F.; Lozano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed

  15. First-principles study of doping effect on the phase transition of zinc oxide with transition metal doped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Liang; Hou, Tingjun; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yanfei; Guo, Zhenyu; Li, Youyong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the doping effect on B4, B1 structures and phase transition of ZnO. ► We calculate the phase transition barrier and phase transition path of doped ZnO. ► The transition metal doping decreases the bulk modulus and phase transition pressure. ► The magnetic properties are influenced by the phase transition process. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a promising material for its wide application in solid-state devices. With the pressure raised from an ambient condition, ZnO transforms from fourfold wurtzite (B4) to sixfold coordinated rocksalt (B1) structure. Doping is an efficient approach to improve the structures and properties of materials. Here we use density-functional theory (DFT) to study doped ZnO and find that the transition pressure from B4 phase to B1 phase of ZnO always decreases with different types of transition metal (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni) doped, but the phase transition path is not affected by doping. This is consistent with the available experimental results for Mn-doped ZnO and Co-doped ZnO. Doping in ZnO causes the lattice distortion, which leads to the decrease of the bulk modulus and accelerates the phase transition. Mn-doped ZnO shows the strongest magnetic moment due to its half filled d orbital. For V-doped ZnO and Cr-doped ZnO, the magnetism is enhanced by phase transition from B4 to B1. But for Mn-doped ZnO, Fe-doped ZnO, Co-doped ZnO, and Ni-doped ZnO, B1 phase shows weaker magnetic moment than B4 phase. These results can be explained by the amount of charge transferred from the doped atom to O atom. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the doping approach to change the structures and properties of ZnO.

  16. Tax evasion and income source: A comparative experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    We compare tax evasive behavior in a country in transition from communism to that in a developed economy by running an experiment across distinct social groups in Albania and the Netherlands. Aside from the tax compliance decision, subjects choose a source of income, where one type enables

  17. Transitions in Structure in Oil-in-Water Emulsions As Studied by Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.; Gruijthuijsen, van K.; Venema, P.; Linden, van der E.

    2007-01-01

    Transitions in structure of sodium caseinate stabilized emulsions were studied using conventional rheometry as well as diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS). Structural differences were induced by different amounts of stabilizer, and transitions in structure were induced by acidification. Special

  18. System Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Discrete Event Simulation Model Programmer's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    In order to examine specific automated guideway transit (AGT) developments and concepts, UMTA undertook a program of studies and technology investigations called Automated Guideway Transit Technology (AGTT) Program. The objectives of one segment of t...

  19. Transition radiation electron beam diagnostic study at ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, X.Z.; Wang, X.J.; Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have started a program to develop transition radiation based electron beam diagnostics at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper, we will discuss a technique to estimate the lower limit in electron beam divergence measurement with single foil transition radiation and two-foil transition radiation interferometer. Preliminary experimental data from 4.5 MeV electron beam will be presented

  20. Transition and Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: Findings From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Joshi, Gauri S.

    2016-01-01

    Students with intellectual disability historically struggle with post-school outcomes. However, much of the research on students with intellectual disability relative to post-school outcomes and transition services is aggregated for students with mild, moderate, and severe intellectual disability. This secondary analysis of the National…

  1. Comparative empirical analysis of flow-weighted transit route networks in R-space and evolution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ailing; Zang, Guangzhi; He, Zhengbing; Guan, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Urban public transit system is a typical mixed complex network with dynamic flow, and its evolution should be a process coupling topological structure with flow dynamics, which has received little attention. This paper presents the R-space to make a comparative empirical analysis on Beijing’s flow-weighted transit route network (TRN) and we found that both the Beijing’s TRNs in the year of 2011 and 2015 exhibit the scale-free properties. As such, we propose an evolution model driven by flow to simulate the development of TRNs with consideration of the passengers’ dynamical behaviors triggered by topological change. The model simulates that the evolution of TRN is an iterative process. At each time step, a certain number of new routes are generated driven by travel demands, which leads to dynamical evolution of new routes’ flow and triggers perturbation in nearby routes that will further impact the next round of opening new routes. We present the theoretical analysis based on the mean-field theory, as well as the numerical simulation for this model. The results obtained agree well with our empirical analysis results, which indicate that our model can simulate the TRN evolution with scale-free properties for distributions of node’s strength and degree. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the global evolutional mechanism of transit network that will be used to exploit planning and design strategies for real TRNs.

  2. Density functional theory studies of transition metal nanoparticles in catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Rankin, Rees; Zeng, Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Periodic Density Functional Theory calculations are capable of providing powerful insights into the structural, energetics, and electronic phenomena that underlie heterogeneous catalysis on transition metal nanoparticles. Such calculations are now routinely applied to single crystal metal surfaces...... and to subnanometer metal clusters. Descriptions of catalysis on truly nanosized structures, however, are generally not as well developed. In this talk, I will illustrate different approaches to analyzing nanocatalytic phenomena with DFT calculations. I will describe case studies from heterogeneous catalysis...... and electrocatalysis, in which single crystal models are combined with Wulff construction-based ideas to produce descriptions of average nanocatalyst behavior. Then, I will proceed to describe explicitly DFT-based descriptions of catalysis on truly nanosized particles (

  3. Aging studies for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT)

    CERN Document Server

    Åkesson, T; Bondarenko, V; Capéans-Garrido, M; Catinaccio, A; Cwetanski, Peter; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dolgoshein, B A; Dressnandt, N; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gavrilenko, I; Grichkevitch, Y; Gagnon, P; Hajduk, Z; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Konovalov, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Lundberg, B; Luehring, F C; Markina, I; Manara, A; McFarlane, K; Mitsou, V; Muraviev, S; Newcomer, F M; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Olszowska, J; Peshekhonov, V D; Rembser, C; Romaniouk, A; Rhone, O; Rust, D R; Shchegelskii, V; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Smirnova, L N; Sosnovtsev, V V; Sutchkov, S; Tartarelli, F; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the aging and material validation studies carried out for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the different phenomena observed in straw tubes operating with the chosen Xe/CF//4/CO//2 mixture. The most serious effects observed are silicon deposition on the anode wire and damage of the anode wire gold plating. Etching phenomena and active radical effects are also discussed. With a careful choice of all materials and components, and with good control of the water contamination in the active gas, the ATLAS TRT will operate reliably for 10 years at the LHC design luminosity. To demonstrate this fully, more work is still needed on the gas system purification elements, in particular to understand their interplay with the active species containing fluorine created in the avalanche process under irradiation.

  4. A Study of Radiative Bottomonium Transitions using Converted Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use (111 ± 1) million Υ(3S) and (89 ± 1) million Υ(2S) events recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at SLAC to perform a study of radiative transitions betwen bottomonium states using photons that have been converted to e + e - pairs by the detector material. They observe Υ(3S) → γχ b0,2 (1P) decay, make precise measurements of the branching fractions for χ b1,2 (1P, 2P) → γΥ(1S) and χ b1,2 (2P) → γΥ(2S) decays, and search for radiative decay to the η b (1S) and η b (2S) states.

  5. Transitional processes: Territorial organization of authorities and the future constitution of Serbia comparative analysis of five constitutional models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Ljubiša M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a comparative analysis of territorial organization of authorities in five constitutional models for Serbia. The paper consists of the following chapters: Introduction, Outline of the Constitution of Kingdom of Serbia, Basic Principles of the New Constitution of Serbia - DSS, Outline of Constitution of Republic of Serbia - DS Constitutional Solutions for Serbia - BCLJP, Project of Constitution of Republic of Serbia - Forum iuris, Conclusion. The analysis of territorial organization of authorities has been seen in the context of the processes of transition and archiving the important principles of civil society and civil autonomies.

  6. Transition Systems and Non-Standard Employment in Early Career: Comparing Japan and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdorf, Christian; Helbling, Laura Alexandra; Inui, Akio

    2017-01-01

    Even though Japan and Switzerland are characterised by comparatively low youth unemployment rates, non-standard forms of employment are on the rise, posing a risk to the stable integration of young labour market entrants. Drawing on the French approach of societal analysis, this paper investigates how country-specific school-to-work transition…

  7. Some neutron scattering studies on magnetic and molecular phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevaart, L.

    1978-01-01

    In this thesis neutron-scattering investigations on two different systems are described. The first study is concerned with the magnetic ordering phenomena in pseudo two-dimensional (d = 2), two-component antiferromagnets K 2 Mnsub(1-x)Msub(x)F 4 (M = Fe, Co), as a function of the composition x and temperature T. For one of the samples in this series, K 2 Musub(0.978)Fesub(0.022)F 4 , the influence of an external magnetic field on the ordering characteristics was studied in addition. The second study deals with the rotational motions of the NH 4 + groups in NH 4 ZnF 3 in relation with the structural phase transition at Tsub(c) = 115.1 K. The experimental techniques were chosen according to the requirements of each of these two subjects. The former study was carried out by observing the elastic magnetic neutron scattering with a double-axis diffractometer, whereas for the latter study time-of-flight (TOF) techniques were applied to observe the inelastic and quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering by the protons of the rotating NH 4 + groups. (Auth.)

  8. Comparative Studies on Some Physicochemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial and nutritional processes have increased the demands for oil and this in turn has led to the search for oils from different types of seeds. It is in this vein that baobab seed oil was extracted, analyzed and some of it physicochemical properties compared with those of vegetable, peanut and palm oils. The percentage ...

  9. A comparative study of fingerprint thinning algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, NP

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available are compared in terms of the quality of the skeletons they produce (i.e. connectivity and spurious branches) as well as the time complexity associated with each algorithm. Results show that faster algorithms have difficulty preserving connectivity. Zhang...

  10. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  11. Calcaneal fracture classification: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Ginai, Abida Z.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Patka, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Comparing different types of calcaneal fractures, associated treatment options, and outcome data is currently hampered by the lack of consensus regarding fracture classification. A systematic search for articles dealing with calcaneal fracture was performed, and the prevalence of use of each

  12. The Teaching of Anthropology: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    College-level anthropology teaching in various countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia, is compared. Terminology is examined and historical background is provided. Also discussed are educational crises, the organization of teaching, and teaching methods. (RM)

  13. Older adults’ home- and community-based care service use and residential transitions: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ya-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As Home-and Community-Based Services (HCBS, such as skilled nursing services or personal care services, have become increasingly available, it has become clear that older adults transit through different residential statuses over time. Older adults may transit through different residential statuses as the various services meet their needs. The purpose of this exploratory study was to better understand the interplay between community-dwelling older adults’ use of home- and community-based services and their residential transitions. Methods The study compared HCBS service-use patterns and residential transitions of 3,085 older adults from the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging. Based on older adults’ residential status at the three follow-up interviews, four residential transitions were tracked: (1 Community-Community-Community (CCC: Resided in community during the entire study period; (2 Community-Institution-Community (CIC: Resided in community at T1, had lived in an institution at some time between T1 and T2, then had returned to community by T3; (3 Community-Community-Institution (CCI: Resided in community between at T1, and betweenT1 and T2, including at T2, but had used institutional services between T2 and T3; (4 Community-Institution-Institution (CII: Resided in community at T1 but in an institution at some time between T1 and T2, and at some time between T2 and T3.. Results Older adults’ use of nondiscretionary and discretionary services differed significantly among the four groups, and the patterns of HCBS use among these groups were also different. Older adults’ use of nondiscretionary services, such as skilled nursing care, may help them to return to communities from institutions. Personal care services (PCS and senior center services may be the key to either support elders to stay in communities longer or help elders to return to their communities from institutions. Different combinations of PCS with other

  14. Study on Stress Development in the Phase Transition Layer of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Chai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress development is one of the significant factors leading to the failure of thermal barrier coating (TBC systems. In this work, stress development in the two phase mixed zone named phase transition layer (PTL, which grows between the thermally grown oxide (TGO and the bond coat (BC, is investigated by using two different homogenization models. A constitutive equation of the PTL based on the Reuss model is proposed to study the stresses in the PTL. The stresses computed with the proposed constitutive equation are compared with those obtained with Voigt model-based equation in detail. The stresses based on the Voigt model are slightly higher than those based on the Reuss model. Finally, a further study is carried out to explore the influence of phase transition proportions on the stress difference caused by homogenization models. Results show that the stress difference becomes more evident with the increase of the PTL thickness ratio in the TGO.

  15. Stable isotopes of transition and post-transition metals as tracers in environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Tomas D.; Baskaran, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The transition and post-transition metals, which include the elements in Groups 3–12 of the Periodic Table, have a broad range of geological and biological roles as well as industrial applications and thus are widespread in the environment. Interdisciplinary research over the past decade has resulted in a broad understanding of the isotope systematics of this important group of elements and revealed largely unexpected variability in isotope composition for natural materials. Significant kinetic and equilibrium isotope fractionation has been observed for redox sensitive metals such as iron, chromium, copper, molybdenum and mercury, and for metals that are not redox sensitive in nature such as cadmium and zinc. In the environmental sciences, the isotopes are increasingly being used to understand important issues such as tracing of metal contaminant sources and fates, unraveling metal redox cycles, deciphering metal nutrient pathways and cycles, and developing isotope biosignatures that can indicate the role of biological activity in ancient and modern planetary systems.

  16. Study of the hard-disk system at high densities: the fluid-hexatic phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier-Y-Terán, Luis; Machorro-Martínez, Brian Ignacio; Chapela, Gustavo A; Del Río, Fernando

    2018-06-21

    Integral equations of uniform fluids have been considered unable to predict any characteristic feature of the fluid-solid phase transition, including the shoulder that arises in the second peak of the fluid-phase radial distribution function, RDF, of hard-core systems obtained by computer simulations, at fluid densities very close to the structural two-step phase transition. This reasoning is based on the results of traditional integral approximations, like Percus-Yevick, PY, which does not show such a shoulder in hard-core systems, neither in two nor three dimensions. In this work, we present results of three Ansätze, based on the PY theory, that were proposed to remedy the lack of PY analytical solutions in two dimensions. This comparative study shows that one of those Ansätze does develop a shoulder in the second peak of the RDF at densities very close to the phase transition, qualitatively describing this feature. Since the shoulder grows into a peak at still higher densities, this integral equation approach predicts the appearance of an orientational order characteristic of the hexatic phase in a continuous fluid-hexatic phase transition.

  17. University Transitions and Gender: From Choice of Studies to Academic Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Alícia; Hernàndez, Francesc Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of the authors' research using a case study of a Spanish university, the sociological component of gender is an important factor in building transitions at university. When the authors refer to university transitions they are talking about two periods. Firstly, they refer to the transition of undergraduate students from upper…

  18. Hans Strahl's pioneering studies in comparative placentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2010-01-01

    Hans Strahl, a contemporary of Duval and Hubrecht, made many important contributions to comparative placentation. Despite this he is not well known and some of his original observations tend to be attributed to later authors. Strahl published a classification of placental types based on their shape...... of the most important findings made by Strahl including work on placentation in carnivores and higher primates that remains unsurpassed....

  19. Comparative study of some new EPR dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzimami, K.S.; Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations have been made of four new radiation dosimetry EPR candidates from the same family of materials: sulfamic acid, sulfanillic acid, homotaurine, and taurine. Mass energy attenuation coefficients, mass stopping power values and the time dependence of the radiation induced radicals are compared. Also investigated are the microwave saturation behavior and the effect of applied modulation amplitude on both peak-to-peak line width (W PP ) and peak-to-peak signal height (H PP ). The dosimeters are characterized by simple spectra and stable radiation-induced radicals over reasonable durations, especially in taurine dosimeters. Sulfamic acid dosimeters possessed the highest sensitivity followed by taurine and homotaurine and sulfanillic. - Highlights: ► Several EPR dosimeters were suggested based on SO 3 − radical. ► Taurine, homotaurine, sulfanilic, and sulfamic acid all possess simple EPR spectra. ► Dosimeters were compared to each other in terms of the dosimetric point of view. ► Energy dependence curves of the selected dosimeters were compared to eachother

  20. Manager's Discretionary Power and Comparability of Financial Reports: An Analysis of the Regulatory Transition Process in Brazilian Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mussoi Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to directly evaluate the impact of the accounting regulatory flexibility movement on the comparability of financial reports. The country chosen for the analysis was Brazil, because it was one of the few countries in the world where a process of regulatory change from a completely rule-based standard with a strong link to tax accounting (Lopes, 2011 to a principle-based standard with greater need for decision by managers who prepare the financial reports took place. To measure comparability, the accounting function similarity model developed by DeFranco, Kothari and Verdi (2011 was used. The companies analyzed were all listed ones with full data for the period concerned having, at least, a pair company within the same economic activity sector. To obtain the research results, we adopted a panel data model where the years 2005 to 2012 were compared to the year 2004. The results obtained prove that, on average, there was no significant decrease in the comparability level within country during the regulatory transition period in Brazil. On the contrary, there was an increase in genuine comparability in the year 2012 when compared to 2004. In the model adjusted by stepwise, the years 2011 and 2012 had a significantly higher average comparability when compared to 2004. The results found corroborate other researches addressing the quality of accounting information (Collins, Pasewark, & Riley, 2012; Psaros & Trotman, 2004; Agoglia, Doupnik, & Tsakumis, 2011 and prove the superiority of the principle-based standard also over the comparability of financial reports. The main conclusion of this research is that increasing manager's discretionary power through flexibility of accounting standards does not decrease the comparability of financial reports.

  1. Comparative transport studies of ''1212'' superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapud, Albert; Wu, Judy; Yan, Shaolin; Xie, Yi-Yuan; Kang, Byeongwon; Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    HgBa 2 CaCu 2 O 6+δ (Hg-1212) thin films were fabricated by exchanging the TI cations in TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7-δ (Tl-1212) thin films with Hg cations, causing a 30-K increase in Tc. To determine how this exchange effects such a Tc increase, the irreversibility lines, temperature dependence of critical current density, and temperature dependence of Hall angle of Hg-1212 and T1-1212 thin films were measured and then compared. The results strongly suggest that the Tc shift is caused by a doubling of charge carrier density

  2. Clinical Evaluation of Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Studies using Liquid and Solid Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook; Hyun, Jin Hai; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-15

    The author performed radionuclide esophageal transit studies(RETS) with liquid and solid boluses using the same day protocol in 90 normal controls and 164 patients with various primary esophageal motility disorders who were diagnosed by manometric criteria and clinical courses. The authors calculated mean esophageal transit time(MTT) and mean residual retention(MRR) in each of the liquid and solid studies, and classified time-activity curve(TAC) patterns. The normal criteria of RETS with liquid bolus were MTT<24 sec, MRR<9%, and the TAC pattern that showed rapid declining slope and flat low residual(Type 1). The normal criteria of RETS with solid bolus were MTT<35 sec, MRR<9% and TAC of type 1. With these normal criteria, the sensitivity and the specificity of the liquid study were 62.2% and 97.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 75.4% with the solid study. The author also found that the RETS was highly reproducible. The achalasia typically showed no effective emptying of both liquid and solid boluses during the whole study period, and was well differentiated by its extremely long transit time and high retention from the other motility disorders. The diffuse esophageal spasm(DES) and nonspecific esophageal motility disorder(NEMD) showed intermediate delay in transit time and increased retention. In the groups of hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter(LES), hypotensive LES and nutcracker, there noted no significant difference with the normal control group in terms of MTT and MRR. The DES and NEMD could be more easily identified by solid studies that showed more marked delay in MTT and increased MRR as compared with the liquid study. In conclusion, esophageal scintigraphy is a safe, noninvasive and physiologic method for the evaluation of esophageal emptying.

  3. Light-scattering study of the glass transition in lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, M. A.; Winer, W. O.; Medina, F. D.; Oshea, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    The sound velocity of four lubricants has been measured as a function of temperature and pressure using Brillouin scattering. A change in slope of the velocity as a function of temperature or pressure allowed the determination of the glass transition temperature and pressure. The glass transition data were used to construct a phase diagram for each lubricant. The data indicate that the glass transition temperature increased with pressure at a rate which ranged from 120 to 200 C/GPa. The maximum pressure attained was 0.69 GPa and the temperature range was from 25 to 100 C.

  4. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…

  5. Comparative studies on different molecular methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to evaluate two molecular methods for epidemiological typing of multi drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Mansoura Hospitals. In this study, a total of 300 clinical isolates were collected from different patients distributed among Mansoura Hospitals, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.

  6. A Comparative Comment on the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...

  7. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important decision-making stages. Meanwhile, impacts of development on the environmental components will be also analyzed. This research studies various methods of predicting the environmental changes and determining the ...

  8. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Siqi Han; Dmitry Tumin; Zhenchao Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. Objective: The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. Methods: We use Cox proportional hazards models and ...

  9. Comparative analysis of the gene expression profile of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang with and without fermented milk as a vehicle during transit in a simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jicheng; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Wenyi; Bao, Qiuhua; Wei, Aibin; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping

    2012-06-01

    Studies have found that the survival of probiotics could be strongly enhanced with dairy products as delivery vehicles, but the molecular mechanism by which this might occur has seldom been mentioned. In this study, microarray technology was used to detect the gene expression profile of Lactobacillus casei Zhang with and without fermented milk used as a delivery vehicle during transit in simulated gastrointestinal juice. Numerous genes of L. casei Zhang in strain suspension were upregulated compared to those from L. casei Zhang in fermented milk. These data might indicate that L. casei Zhang is stimulated directly without the protection of fermented milk, and the high-level gene expression observed here may be a stress response at the transcriptional level. A large proportion of genes involved in translation and cell division were downregulated in the bacteria that were in strain suspension during transit in simulated intestinal juice. This may impede protein biosynthesis and cell division and partially explain the lower viability of L. casei Zhang during transit in the gastrointestinal tract without the delivery vehicle. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  11. Comparative study of void fraction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.C.; Freitas, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Some models for the calculation of void fraction in water in sub-cooled boiling and saturated vertical upward flow with forced convection have been selected and compared with experimental results in the pressure range of 1 to 150 bar. In order to know the void fraction axial distribution it is necessary to determine the net generation of vapour and the fluid temperature distribution in the slightly sub-cooled boiling region. It was verified that the net generation of vapour was well represented by the Saha-Zuber model. The selected models for the void fraction calculation present adequate results but with a tendency to super-estimate the experimental results, in particular the homogeneous models. The drift flux model is recommended, followed by the Armand and Smith models. (F.E.) [pt

  12. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  13. Recent aging studies for the ATLAS transition radiation tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Capéans-Garrido, M; Anghinolfi, F; Arik, E; Baker, O K; Baron, S; Benjamin, D; Bertelsen, H; Bondarenko, V; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Cardiel-Sas, L; Catinaccio, A; Cetin, S A; Cwetanski, Peter; Dam, M; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dologshein, B; Dressnandt, N; Driouichi, C; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gagnon, P; Grichkevitch, Y; Grigalashvili, N S; Hajduk, Z; Hansen, P; Kayumov, F; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Khristatchev, A; Konovalov, S; Koudine, L; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Krüger, K; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Luehring, F C; Lundberg, B; Maleev, V; Markina, I; McFarlane, K W; Mialkovski, V; Mindur, B; Mitsou, V A; Morozov, S; Munar, A; Muraviev, S; Nadtochy, A; Newcorner, F M; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Olszowska, J; Passmore, S; Patritchev, S; Peshekhonov, V D; Petti, R; Price, M; Rembser, C; Rohne, O; Romaniouk, A; Rust, D R; Ryabov, Yu; Ryzhov, V; Shchegelskii, V; Seliverstov, D M; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Sosnovtsev, V V; Soutchkov, V; Spiridenkov, E; Szczygiel, R; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H; Zalite, A

    2004-01-01

    The transition radiation tracker (TRT) is one of the three subsystems of the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment. It is designed to operate for 10 yr at the LHC, with integrated charges of similar to 10 C/cm of wire and radiation doses of about 10 Mrad and 2 multiplied by 10**1**4 neutrons/cm**2. These doses translate into unprecedented ionization currents and integrated charges for a large-scale gaseous detector. This paper describes studies leading to the adoption of a new ionization gas regime for the ATLAS TRT. In this new regime, the primary gas mixture is 70%Xe-27%CO**2-3%O**2. It is planned to occasionally flush and operate the TRT detector with an Ar-based ternary mixture, containing a small percentage of CF**4, to remove, if needed, silicon pollution from the anode wires. This procedure has been validated in realistic conditions and would require a few days of dedicated operation. This paper covers both performance and aging studies with the new TRT gas mixture. 12 Refs.

  14. War And Reconstruction: Four Comparative Case Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four case studies are taken from four different continents, four different wars under .... and revolutionary changes in the structures and power relations in society and ..... general public accept nowadays that although states' rights were the ...

  15. Phytochemical screening and study of comparative antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... Objectives: In this study, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts of ... of resistance in bacteria previously susceptible to ... increase in antibiotic resistance in hospitals and ..... extraction process (Masoko et al., 2008). Use of ...

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HONEY COLLECTED FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... content, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, color intensity ... used in this study on the basis of date of harvest, geographical origin. ... The determination of physical and chemical parameters such as content of water, ...

  17. Moessbauer study of phase transitions under high hydrostatic pressures. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the hydrostatic pressure influence on Moessbauer spectrum parameters are obtained over the pressure range including the area of structural phase transition. A linear increase of the Moessbauer effect probability (recoilless fraction) is accompanied by a linear decrease of the electron density at tin nuclei within the pressure range foregoing the phase transition. The electric resistance and the recoilless fraction of the new phase of Mg 2 Sn are lower, but the electron density at tin nuclei is greater than the initial phase ones. Hydrostatic conditions allow to fix clearly the diphasic transition area and to determine the influence of the pressure on the Moessbauer line position and on the recoilless fraction of the high pressure phase. The phase transition heat Q = 415 cal mol -1 is calculated using recoilless fractions of the high and low pressure phases at 25 kbar. The present results are qualitatively and quantitatively different from the results, obtained at nonhydrostatic conditions. (author)

  18. Neutron scattering studies of the phase-transitions of ices by thermal-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Kolesnikov, A.; Li, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering was used to study the phase-transition process of high-density amorphous (hda) ice produced by pressurising ice-Ih at 16 kbar and 77 K to low-density amorphous (Ida) ice, ice-Ic and ice-Ih by thermobaric treatments. The results show that when annealing temperature is lower than 136 K no obvious phase-transition was observed and transformation of the hda to the lda ice occurs between 136 and 144 K which is very closed to the theoretically calculated value 135 K (1). Comparing the lda spectrum with the vapour deposited low-density amorphous ice (2) shows a number of differences in the translational and vibrational regions, such as the low energy cut off of the vibrational band. On the other hand, the recovered lda from the hda ice has a similar spectrum as ice-Ih. (author)

  19. Study of Transitions between Wetting States on Microcavity Arrays by Optical Transmission Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Smistrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a simple and fast optical method based on transmission microscopy to study the stochastic wetting transitions on micro- and nanostructured polymer surfaces immersed in water. We analyze the influence of immersion time and the liquid pressure on the degree of water......-Laplace equation for the water menisci in the cavities and the diffusion of dissolved gas molecules in the water. In addition, the wetting transitions had a stochastic nature, which resulted from the short diffusion distance for dissolved gas molecules in the water between neighboring cavities. Furthermore, we...... compared the contact angle properties of two polymeric materials (COC and PP) with moderate hydrophobicity. We attributed the difference in the water repellency of the two materials to a difference in the wetting of their nanostructures. Our experimental observations thus indicate that both the diffusion...

  20. A comparative history of commercial transition in three West African slave trading economies, 1630 to 1860

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalrymple-Smith, Angus

    2017-01-01

    The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a

  1. Changes in physical activity during the retirement transition: a theory-based, qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Suzanne; O'Brien, Nicola; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2015-02-21

    There are considerable inter-individual differences in the direction and degree of change in physical activity (PA) levels during the retirement transition. There is currently a limited theoretical understanding of how these differences can be explained. This study aimed to explore and compare perceptions about how theory-based factors influence PA change during the transition from employment to retirement among individuals approaching retirement and recently retired. Theory-based, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 28 adults (15 retired) within 24 months of retirement. Participants were sampled to reflect a diverse range of socio-economic and occupational backgrounds. The interview was based on the 12 domains within the Theory Domain Framework and designed to elicit anticipated or experienced retirement-related changes in PA behaviour and perceived determinants. Interview transcripts were analysed using Framework analysis to explore intra- and inter-individual perceptions of how PA changes after retirement and the factors which may influence this change. The majority of participants perceived retirement to be related to an increase in PA levels. Four themes emerged from the data regarding factors perceived to influence changes in PA behaviour after retirement: (1) resources for PA; (2) structure of daily life in retirement; (3) opportunities for PA; and (4) transitional PA phases after retirement. Retirement is associated with a number of inter-related changes and opportunities which can have a positive or negative impact on PA behaviour. The influence of these factors does not appear to be static and may change over time. A number of different transitional phases may be experienced after leaving work and each phase may have a differential impact on PA behaviour. The findings of this qualitative study contribute to the theoretical understanding of PA change during the retirement transition. Each post-retirement PA

  2. Comparative study of connectivity in telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Indra Pratap; Kapoor, Lily; Daman, Repu; Mishra, Saroj Kanta

    2008-10-01

    Communication links are the lifelines for telemedicine practice. Various terrestrial and satellite media can be used; however, each has its own plus and minus side. The current study was designed to evaluate three types of telecommunication media used for telemedical videoconference at the Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow Telemedicine program over a period of 20 months. The evaluation was based on analysis of technical parameters recorded in a prescribed proforma designed for the study purpose and maintained prospectively after completion of each event. Only technical issues were addressed. At the end of the study period, analysis of data revealed that leased line-based terrestrial Internet Protocol (IP) was better than Sky IP. Integrated Services Digital Network media were found technically less acceptable for telemedical videoconference.

  3. Images of alcohol in the transition to adulthood : Comparing different geographies: examples from Italy and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The aim in this study is to narrow the gap in knowledge about how young people understand their direct (personal) and indirect (others ) drinking experiences by investigating images of alcohol (Sulkunen, 2007) among Italian and Finnish adolescents and young people on the threshold of adulthood. Italy and Finland are considered examples of geographies (Sulkunen, 2013) characterised by different social values and socialisation practices, but also facing common global challenges (Beck, 20...

  4. A comparative history of commercial transition in three West African slave trading economies, 1630 to 1860

    OpenAIRE

    Dalrymple-Smith, Angus

    2017-01-01

    The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a result of the British decision to abolish their transatlantic slave trade in 1807 and subsequently persuading or forcing other nations to do the same. This thesis makes two principal contributions to t...

  5. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  6. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  7. Comparative Anticonvulsant Study of Epoxycarvone Stereoisomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Rodrigues Salgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stereoisomers of the monoterpene epoxycarvone (EC, namely (+-cis-EC, (−-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC, were comparatively evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in specific methodologies. In the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced anticonvulsant test, all of the stereoisomers (at 300 mg/kg increased the latency to seizure onset, and afforded 100% protection against the death of the animals. In the maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES test, prevention of tonic seizures was also verified for all of the isomers tested. However, the isomeric forms (+ and (−-trans-EC showed 25% and 12.5% inhibition of convulsions, respectively. In the pilocarpine-induced seizures test, all stereoisomers demonstrated an anticonvulsant profile, yet the stereoisomers (+ and (−-trans-EC (at 300 mg/kg showed a more pronounced effect. A strychnine-induced anticonvulsant test was performed, and none of the stereoisomers significantly increased the latency to onset of convulsions; the stereoisomers probably do not act in this pathway. However, the stereoisomers (+-cis-EC and (+-trans-EC greatly increased the latency to death of the animals, thus presenting some protection. The four EC stereoisomers show promise for anticonvulsant activity, an effect emphasized in the isomers (+-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC for certain parameters of the tested methodologies. These results serve as support for further research and development of antiepileptic drugs from monoterpenes.

  8. Comparative study on software development methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Liviu DESPA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current state of knowledge in the field of software development methodologies. It aims to set the stage for the formalization of a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects. The paper starts by depicting specific characteristics in software development project management. Managing software development projects involves techniques and skills that are proprietary to the IT industry. Also the software development project manager handles challenges and risks that are predominantly encountered in business and research areas that involve state of the art technology. Conventional software development stages are defined and briefly described. Development stages are the building blocks of any software development methodology so it is important to properly research this aspect. Current software development methodologies are presented. Development stages are defined for every showcased methodology. For each methodology a graphic representation is illustrated in order to better individualize its structure. Software development methodologies are compared by highlighting strengths and weaknesses from the stakeholder's point of view. Conclusions are formulated and a research direction aimed at formalizing a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects is enunciated.

  9. Toucan and hornbill beaks: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasuaki; Bodde, Sara G; Meyers, Marc A

    2010-02-01

    The structure and mechanical behavior of Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) and Wreathed Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) beaks were compared. The beak of both species is a sandwich-structured composite, having an exterior, or rhamphotheca, consisting of multiple layers of keratin scales and a core composed of a fibrous network of bony closed-cell foam. The rhamphotheca is an arrangement of approximately 50microm diameter, overlapping, keratin tiles. The hornbill rhamphotheca exhibits a surface morphology on the ridged casque that is distinguishable from that observed on the bill proper. Intermediate filaments in the keratin matrix were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The Young's modulus measurements of toucan rhamphotheca indicate isotropy in longitudinal and transverse directions, whereas those of hornbill rhamphotheca may suggest anisotropy. The compressive response of beak foam is governed by brittle crushing behavior. The crushing strength of hornbill foam is six times higher than that of toucan foam. Micro- and nanoindentation hardness values were measured for rhamphotheca and foam trabeculae of toucan and hornbill specimens. The sandwich design of beaks was analyzed using the Karam-Gibson and Dawson-Gibson models. The presence of a cellular core increases the bending resistance (Brazier moment) by a factor of 3-6 while decreasing the compressive strength by only 50%.

  10. Comparative study of two treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Lupiani Castellanos, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study of the comparison of the clinical dosimetry between planners can deduce that the differences are in the majority of the cases below 3%, and only in cases where the field size is small, we found significant discrepancies, although justifiable. On the one hand it is different calculation algorithm and implementation on the other, the modeling of the accelerator. (Author)

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONSERVATIVE RESECTION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-05-05

    May 5, 1999 ... Depmment of Surgery, University Teaching Hospital, PMB 2076. Jos, Nigeria ... Design: A retrospective study of patients with thyroid cancers that were managed during an ... This logical basis for either cure or palliation of a .... palliative purposes. A mixed ... Pulmonary metastasis are usually of the classical.

  12. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  13. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  14. Comparative study of fixation density maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelke, U.; Liu, H.; Wang, Junle; Callet, Le P.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Zepernick, H.-J.; Maeder, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fixation density maps (FDM) created from eye tracking experiments are widely used in image processing applications. The FDM are assumed to be reliable ground truths of human visual attention and as such, one expects a high similarity between FDM created in different laboratories. So far, no studies

  15. Earthquake correlations and networks: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Mohan, T. R.; Revathi, P. G.

    2011-04-01

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E EULEEJ1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.69.06610669, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

  16. Earthquake correlations and networks: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Mohan, T. R.; Revathi, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

  17. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  18. Comparative study of radon in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Shaza Ismail Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted primarily to contribute radon data for radon map in Sudan and identify regions with elevated radon levels and improve data collection and analysis for the future radon levels evaluation. This study partially covered three states of Sudan ( Red Sea - Khartoum - South Khordofan). Previous work done has been considered in this study which focused and investigated the levels of radon concentration in ( indoor radon gas and water) by using gamma spectrometry equipped with ( HPGe detector) or (Na1 (T1) detector). The results obtained are within the acceptable levels and dose not poses any risk from radiation protection point of view. Red Sea state ( port-sudan): (124.39±6.21) Bq/m 3 . Khartoum state ( Suba): (151.52) Bq/m 3 . (Omdurman): ( 127±23) Bq/m 3 . Radon in water: (59) Bq/L. South Kordofan State: (102.8) Bq/m 3 . In water (Kadugli): (3 1 39)) Bq/L.(Author)

  19. A comparative study of various decalcification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi′s fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich′s Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.

  20. Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aim to get more information about agoraphobia (AG which is an independent diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and to evaluate overlaps or differences between agoraphobia and panic disorder (PD upon sociodemographic features and comorbidity with considering relation of these two disorders. Material and Method: Sociodemographic Data Form was given and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I was applied to 33 patients diagnosed as AG and 34 patients diagnosed as PD with AG (PDA.Results: AG group consisted of 21 females (63.1%, 12 males (36%, totally 33 patients and PDA group consisted of 23 females (67.6%, 11 males (32.4%, totally 34 patients. Mean age of onset was 32.4±10.2 in PDA group and 31.1±12.1 in AG group. According to sociodemographic features, violence in family and smoking rates were significantly higher in PDA group than AG group. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD as a comorbidity was higher in PDA group. Discussion: In this study, we tried to identify the overlaps and differences of PDA and AG. For a better recognition of AG, further studies are needed.

  1. The impact of the Thai motorcycle transition on road traffic injury: Thai Cohort Study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Thailand. The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall. In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.

  2. Study of Electric Monopole Transitions in $^{76,78}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the run at ISOLDE performed last August we completed the study of the decay properties of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $ ^{76, 78, 80}$Kr by measuring the lifetime of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $^{76}$Kr. This was done by applying the $\\beta \\gamma\\gamma$ (t) fast timing method to the $\\beta^{+} $-decay of $^{76}$Rb. For the first time the method was applied to proton-rich nuclei at ISOLDE. This required some special modifications of the experimental set-up previously used for the case of $\\beta^{-}$-decay due to the presence of intense annihilation radiation. The experiment has been successful and enough data have been collected for the determination of the lifetime. The analysis is in progress. From a very preliminary estimate it would appear that the lifetime value falls in the range 20-60 ps. Combining this value with the previously measured ratio \\[\\frac{B(E0; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})}{B(E2; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 2^{+}_{1})}\\] It is possible to extract an estimate of the monopole transition...

  3. A framework for the comparative study of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriagereka, Juan; Reggia, James A; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2013-07-18

    Comparative studies of language are difficult because few language precursors are recognized. In this paper we propose a framework for designing experiments that test for structural and semantic patterns indicative of simple or complex grammars as originally described by Chomsky. We argue that a key issue is whether animals can recognize full recursion, which is the hallmark of context-free grammar. We discuss limitations of recent experiments that have attempted to address this issue, and point out that experiments aimed at detecting patterns that follow a Fibonacci series have advantages over other artificial context-free grammars. We also argue that experiments using complex sequences of behaviors could, in principle, provide evidence for fully recursive thought. Some of these ideas could also be approached using artificial life simulations, which have the potential to reveal the types of evolutionary transitions that could occur over time. Because the framework we propose has specific memory and computational requirements, future experiments could target candidate genes with the goal of revealing the genetic underpinnings of complex cognition.

  4. Urban city transportation mode and respiratory health effect of air pollution: a cross-sectional study among transit and non-transit workers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Chris E; Ettebong, E O; Akpan, E E; Samson, T K; Daniel, Nyebuk E

    2012-01-01

    To assess the respiratory health effect of city ambient air pollutants on transit and non-transit workers and compare such effects by transportation mode, occupational exposure and sociodemographic characteristics of participants. Cross-sectional, randomised survey. A two primary healthcare centre survey in 2009/2010 in Uyo metropolis, South-South Nigeria. Of the 245 male participants recruited, 168 (50 taxi drivers, 60 motorcyclists and 58 civil servants) met the inclusion criteria. These include age 18-35 years, a male transit worker or civil servant who had worked within Uyo metropolis for at least a year prior to the study, and had no history of respiratory disorders/impairment or any other debilitating illness. The adjusted ORs for respiratory function impairment (force vital capacity (FVC) and/or FEV(1)air pollution by occupation and transportation mode was independently associated with respiratory functions impairment and incident respiratory symptoms among participants. Motorcyclists had the highest effect, with adjusted OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.402 to 16.207 for FVCair pollution on city transit workers globally. The role of other confounders acting synergistically to cause a more deleterious effect is obvious. In all, the effect depends on the mode and duration of exposure.

  5. THE HOMOGENEOUS STUDY OF TRANSITING SYSTEMS (HoSTS). I. THE PILOT STUDY OF WASP-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Faedi, Francesca; Pollacco, Don [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Doyle, Amanda P.; Smalley, Barry [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Ghezzi, Luan; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V. [Observatorio Nacional, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Sousa, Sergio; Santos, Nuno C. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Barros, Susana C. C. [LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, F-13388 Marseille (France); Schuler, Simon C. [Stewart Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Collier Cameron, Andrew, E-mail: yilen.gomez@vanderbilt.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    We present the fundamental stellar and planetary properties of the transiting planetary system WASP-13 within the framework of the Homogeneous Study of Transiting Systems (HoSTS). HoSTS aims to derive the fundamental stellar (T{sub eff}, [Fe/H], M{sub *}, R{sub *}) and planetary (M{sub pl}, R{sub pl}, T{sub eq}) physical properties of known transiting planets using a consistent methodology and homogeneous high-quality data set. Four spectral analysis techniques are independently applied to a Keck+HIRES spectrum of WASP-13 considering two distinct cases: unconstrained parameters and constrained log g from transit light curves. We check the derived stellar temperature against that from a different temperature diagnostic based on an INT+IDS H{alpha} spectrum. The four unconstrained analyses render results that are in good agreement, and provide an improvement of 50% in the precision of T{sub eff}, and of 85% in [Fe/H] with respect to the WASP-13 discovery paper. The planetary parameters are then derived via the Monte Carlo Markov Chain modeling of the radial velocity and light curves, in iteration with stellar evolutionary models to derive realistic uncertainties. WASP-13 (1.187 {+-} 0.065 M{sub Sun }; 1.574 {+-} 0.048 R{sub Sun }) hosts a Saturn-mass, transiting planet (0.500 {+-} 0.037 M{sub Jup}; 1.407 {+-} 0.052 R{sub Jup}), and is at the end of its main-sequence lifetime (4-5.5 Gyr). Our analysis of WASP-13 showcases that both a detailed stellar characterization and transit modeling are necessary to well determine the fundamental properties of planetary systems, which are paramount in identifying and determining empirical relationships between transiting planets and their hosts.

  6. A Comparative Study in Communication Texts & Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mohsenian Rad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is to study the characteristics and general nature of audience and is described it as "Audience phantasm" in developing countries. It firstly notes that there will be consequences such as audience distancing themselves from local and official media if policy makers and media officials' imaginations of audiences become far from related bare facts have happened in the era of global media and the nature of audiences. Knowing and analyzing the image of audiences presented in new communication theories. Accordingly, as the abovementioned authorities’ viewpoint of audiences exposed to media messages keeps distance from the true nature of media activities, media‐message receivers and their current position in the booming market of media, as termed by Mohsenyan Rad as “Message Bazaar”, there will possibly be disastrous social, cultural, political, and even economic consequences with regard to media uses.Then the history and definitions of “audience”, "uses & gratifications theory" and the concept of "Audience Phantasm" is described. After that, based on those and the increased options as well as the right of selecting of today-audience in the situation of message bazaar, as a result the characteristics of them are explained.

  7. TOPEM DSC study of glass transition region of polyurethane cationomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pielichowska, Kinga; Król, Piotr; Król, Bożena; Pagacz, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TOPEM DSC method was employed to investigate the glass transition (T g ) region of fluorinated polyurethane cationomers. ► Introduction of fluorine compounds significantly changes thermal behaviour of cationomers in the T g region of hard segments. ► Introduction of fluorine compound leads to changes of the slope in activation diagram of glass transition. - Abstract: In this paper TOPEM DSC method was employed to investigate the glass transition region of fluorinated polyurethane cationomers. Fluorinated polyurethane cationomers have been synthesised in the reaction of MDI with poly(ethylene glycol) (600) and butane1,4-diol or N-methyl- or N-butyldiethanolamine and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-1,4-butanediol. Better rigidity was found for generally amorphous cationomer coats. It was found that introduction of fluorine compound changes thermal behaviour of polyurethane cationomers as well as leads to changes in the slope in activation diagram profiles of glass transition in comparison to polyuretahene cationomer without fluorine compound. Application of TOPEM DSC allows to obtain more information concerning frequency dependence of glass transition region and thermodynamical stability of polyurethane structures.

  8. Barriers to Physical Activity in a Mass Transit Population: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhibha M; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The physical inactivity epidemic continues be one of the greatest public health challenges in contemporary society in the United States. The transportation industry is at greater risk of physical inactivity, compared with individuals in other sectors of the workforce. The aim of this study was to use the Nominal Group Technique, a focus group technique, to examine mass transit employees' perceptions of the barriers to physical activity at their worksite. Three focus groups (n = 31) were conducted to examine mass transit employees' perceptions of barriers to physical activity at the worksite. Salient barriers included (1) changing work schedules, (2) poor weather conditions, and (3) lack of scheduled and timely breaks. Findings were consistent with previous research demonstrating shift work, poor weather, and lack of breaks can negatively impact mass transit employees' ability to be physically active. Although physical activity barriers for this population have been consistent for the last 20 years, public health practice and policy have not changed to address these barriers. Future studies should include conducing focus groups stratified by job classification (eg, operators, maintenance, and clerical) along with implementing and evaluating worksite-based physical activity interventions and policy changes.

  9. The nature and implications of support in graduate nurse transition programs: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga; Currie, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that support is critical to graduate nurse transition from novice to advanced beginner-level practitioner and to the integration of neophyte practitioners into safe and effective organizational processes. Just what constitutes support, however, and why (if at all) support is important, when, ideally, support should be given, by whom, how, and for how long, have not been systematically investigated. Building on the findings (previously reported) of a year long study that had, as its focus, an exploration and description of processes influencing the successful integration of new graduate nurses into safe and effective organizational processes and systems, the findings presented in this article strongly suggest that support is critical to the process of graduate nurse transition, and that integration into "the system" is best provided during the first 4 weeks of a graduate nurse transition program and thereafter at the beginning of each ward rotation; that "informal teachers" and the graduate nurses themselves are often the best sources of support; and that the most potent barriers to support being provided are the untoward attitudes of staff toward new graduates. Drawing on the overall findings of the study, a new operational definition of support is proposed and recommendations are made for future comparative research on the issue.

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo study of the superconductor-insulator transition in the dual vortex representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hasan; Gazit, Snir; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini

    The superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) in two dimensions is a paradigm for quantum criticality that has been observed experimentally in Josephson junction arrays, superconducting thin films, and cold atoms trapped in an optical lattice. The conventional picture of the transition is in terms of the condensation of bosonic degrees of freedom (Cooper pairs in superconductors). Interestingly, the transition has a dual description, where the insulating phase is a Bose condensate of vortices. We study the SIT numerically by means of a large-scale quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation in the vortex representation. This provides direct access to both the boson and vortex degrees of freedom and allows us to numerically test the duality and quantify deviations from self-duality. Our main focus is on critical properties such as the vortex and the boson phase stiffness. We compare our results to previous studies in the bosonic representation. We acknowledge support from Grant DOE-BES DE-FG02-07ER46423 (HK, NT).

  11. Q-values of mirror transitions for fundamental interaction studies

    CERN Multimedia

    The $Ft$ values for the $0^{+} \\rightarrow 0^{+}$ superallowed $\\beta$-transitions currently provide the best test of the CVC hypothesis, and the most precise determination of the V$_{ud}$ element of the CKM matrix. Recent experimental advances, including direct mass measurements with Penning traps, have led to the precision in the corrected $Ft$ values being dominated by the theoretical corrections rather than experiment. An alternative route are the isospin $T$=1/2 mirror transitions where experimental uncertainties dominate over the theoretical inputs and which can provide an independent test of CVC, and ultimately an independent evaluation of V$_{ud}$. We propose mass measurements of 4 different mirror transitions aiming for a precision of better than 100eV on the ${Q}$-values.

  12. Calorimetric study of water's two glass transitions in the presence of LiCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Guadalupe N.; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Bove, Livia E.; Corti, Horacio R.

    2018-01-01

    A DSC study of dilute glassy LiCl aqueous solutions in the water-dominated regime provides direct evidence of a glass-to-liquid transition in expanded high density amorphous (eHDA)-type solutions. Similarly, low density amorphous ice (LDA) exhibits a glass transition prior to crystallization to ice Ic. Both glass transition temperatures are independent of the salt concentration, whereas the magnitude of the heat capacity increase differs. By contrast to pure water, the glass transition endpoint for LDA can be accessed in LiCl aqueous solutions above 0.01 mole fraction. Furthermore, we also reveal the endpoint for HDA's glass transition, solving the question on the width of both glass transitions. This suggests that both equilibrated HDL and LDL can be accessed in dilute LiCl solutions, supporting the liquid–liquid transition scenario to understand water's anomalies. PMID:29442107

  13. [Hepatic transit times and liver elasticity compared with meld in predicting a 1 year adverse clinical outcome of a clinically diagnosed cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Tomáš; Piešťanská, Zuzana; Hlavatý, Tibor; Holomáň, Jozef; Glasa, Jozef; Payer, Juraj

    Hepatic transit times measured by the contrast enhanced ultrasonography and liver elasticity were found to predict a clinically significant portal hypertension. However, these modalities we not yet sufficiently evaluated in predicting adverse clinical outcome in patients with clinically diagnosed cirrhosis (D´Amico stages > 1), having a clinically significant portal hypertension. The aim of our study was to assess the predictive power of the liver transit times and the liver elasticity on an adverse clinical outcome of clinically diagnosed cirrhosis compared with the MELD score. The study group included 48 consecutive outpatients with cirrhosis in the 2., 3. and 4. DAmico stages. Patients with stage 4 could have jaundice, patients with other complications of portal hypertension were excluded. Transit times were measured from the time of intravenous administration of contrast agent (Sonovue) to a signal appearance in a hepatic vein (hepatic vein arrival time, HVAT) or time difference between the contrast signal in the hepatic artery and hepatic vein (hepatic transit time, HTT) in seconds. Elasticity was measured using the transient elastography (Fibroscan). The transit times and elasticity were measured at baseline and patients were followed for up for 1 year. Adverse outcome of cirrhosis was defined as the appearance of clinically apparent ascites and/or hospitalization for liver disease and/or death within 1 year. The mean age was 61 years, with female/male ratio 23/25. At baseline, the median Child-Pugh score was 5 (IQR 5.0-6.0), MELD 9.5 (IQR 7.6 to 12.1), median HVAT was 22 s (IQR 19-25) and HTT 6 (IQR 5-9). HTT and HVAT negatively correlated with Child-Pugh (-0.351 and -0.441, p = 0.002) and MELD (-0.479 and -0.388, p = 0.006) scores. The adverse outcome at 1-year was observed in 11 cases (22.9 %), including 6 deaths and 5 hospitalizations. Median HVAT in those with/without the adverse outcome was 20 seconds (IQR 19.3-23.5) compared with 22 s (IQR 19-26, p

  14. Studies of the phase transitions in UAs with neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Lander, G.H.; Shapiro, S.M.; Vogt, O.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium arsenide is known to order with the type-I antiferromagnetic (AF) structure at approx. 126 K, and exhibit a first-order transition to the type-IA AF structure at T/sub N//2. We have now reexamined these transitions with a single crystal. Above T/sub N/ UAs exhibits critical scattering suggesting a tendency to order with an incommensurate wavevector, but then suddenly orders with the AF-I structure. The analysis of the data shows the need to consider anisotropic exchange interactions of cubic symmetry between U moments

  15. Study of a transition radiation detector for the DO experiment at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinstein, F.

    1988-06-01

    The DZero experiment will study proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV in the center of mass produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (USA). The main features of the detector are an excellent hermetical calorimeter and a very good identification of muons and electrons. The Transition Radiation Detector contributes to electron/jet discrimination. Transition radiation is emitted when a charge particle crosses the interface between two media of different refraction indices. A N foils radiator produces about N/137 soft X rays when the Lorentz factor gamma of the particle is greater than a threshold of the order of 1000. The radiated energy saturates when gamma goes to infinity. These properties allow to separate electrons from pions until 140 GeV. This study presents the results of a test on a 5 GeV electron and pion beam of a prototype of chamber and of three radiators made of lithium foils, polypropylene foils, and polyethylene fibers. The detector response to pions and electrons is compared to theoretical predictions. Different statistical methods of electron/pion separation are compared on the experimental data. A method has been performed using likelihood functions which obtains a pion rejection greater than 50 for an electron efficiency of 90%. The performances are compared to those of other TRDs [fr

  16. Pressure induced phase transitions in transition metal nitrides: Ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Anurag; Chauhan, Mamta [Advanced Material Research Lab, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior 474010 (India); Singh, R.K. [Department of Physics, ITM University, Gurgaon 122017 (India)

    2011-12-15

    We have analyzed the stability of transition metal nitrides (TMNs) XN (X = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) in their original rocksalt (B1) and hypothetical CsCl (B2) type phases under high compression. The ground state total energy calculation approach of the system has been used through the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) type parameterization as exchange correlation functional. In the whole series of nitrides taken into consideration, tantalum nitride is found to be the most stable. We have observed that under compression the original B1-type phase of these nitrides transforms to a B2-type phase. We have also discussed the computation of ground state properties, like the lattice constant (a), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) and first order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (B'{sub 0}) of the TMNs and their host elements. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Coordination to transition metal surfaces : a theoretical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, van R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed that describes the chemisorption of CO to transition metal surfaces analogous to the HOMO-LUMO concept of MO theory. An explanation is given for the exptl. observation that CO adsorbs on top at the (111), face of Pt, but bridge at the (111) face of Ni. One is due

  18. Comparative Glycoproteome Analysis: Dynamics of Protein Glycosylation during Metamorphic Transition from Pelagic to Benthic Life Stages in Three Invertebrates

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2012-02-03

    The life cycle of most benthic marine invertebrates has two distinct stages: the pelagic larval stage and the sessile juvenile stage. The transition between the larval stage and the juvenile stage is often abrupt and may be triggered by post-translational modification of proteins. Glycosylation, a very important post-translational modification, influences the biological activity of proteins. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by glycoprotein-specific fluorescence staining and mass spectrometry with the goal of identifying glycosylation pattern changes during larval settlement and metamorphosis in barnacles, bryozoans, and polychaetes. Our results revealed substantial changes in the protein glycosylation patterns from larval to juvenile stages. Before metamorphosis, the degree of protein glycosylation was high in the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa, whereas it increased after metamorphosis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. We identified 19 abundant and differentially glycosylated proteins in these three species. Among the proteins, cellular stress- and metabolism-related proteins exhibited distinct glycosylation in B. amphitrite and B. neritina, whereas fatty acid metabolism-related proteins were abundantly glycosylated in P. vexillosa. Furthermore, the protein and gene expression analysis of some selected glycoproteins revealed that the degree of protein glycosylation did not always complement with transcriptional and translational changes associated with the larval-juvenile transition. The current study provides preliminary information on protein glycosylation in marine invertebrates that will serve as a solid basis for future comprehensive analysis of glycobiology during larval settlement and metamorphosis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Transit use and physical activity: Findings from the Houston travel-related activity in neighborhoods (TRAIN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Gregory; Durand, Casey P; Shuval, Kerem; Kohl Iii, Harold W; Salvo, Deborah; Sener, Ipek; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee

    2018-03-01

    Transportation-related physical activity can significantly increase daily total physical activity through active transportation or walking/biking to transit stops. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between transit-use and self-reported and monitor-based physical activity levels in a predominantly minority population from the Houston Travel-Related Activity in Neighborhoods (TRAIN) Study. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 865 adults living in Houston, Texas between 2013 and 2015. The exposure variable was transit-use (non-users, occasional users, and primary users). Self-reported and accelerometer-determined physical activity were the outcomes of interest. Regression models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other covariates of interest were built to test the hypothesis that transit user status was directly associated with 1) minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity and 2) the prevalence of achieving the physical activity guidelines. The majority of participants were female, non-Hispanic black, and almost one-third had a high school education or less. After adjustment, primary transit-use was associated with 134.2 ( p  < 0.01) additional mean minutes per week of self-reported moderate-intensity transportation-related physical activity compared to non-users. Further, primary users had 7.3 (95% CI: 2.6-20.1) times the relative adjusted odds of meeting physical activity recommendations than non-users based on self-reported transportation-related physical activity. There were no statistically significant associations of transit-use with self-reported leisure-time or accelerometer-derived physical activity. Transit-use has the potential for a large public health impact due to its sustainability and scalability. Therefore, encouraging the use of transit as a means to promote physical activity should be examined in future studies.

  20. Laser transit anemometer and Pitot probe comparative measurements in a sharp cone boundary layer at Mach 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.; Ocheltree, S. L.; Russ, C. E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Laser transit anemometer (LTA) measurements of a 7 degree sharp cone boundary layer were conducted in the Air Force/AEDC Supersonic Tunnel A Mach 4 flow field. These measurements are compared with Pitot probe measurements and tricone theory provided by AEDC staff. Measurements were made both in laminar and turbulent boundary layers of the model. Comparison of LTA measurements with theory showed agreement to better than 1 percent for the laminar boundary layer cases. This level of agreement was obtained after small position corrections, 0.01 to 0.6 mm, were applied to the experimental data sets. Pitot probe data when compared with theory also showed small positioning errors. The Pitot data value was also limited due to probe interference with the flow near the model. The LTA turbulent boundary layer data indicated a power law dependence of 6.3 to 6.9. The LTA data was analyzed in the time (Tau) domain in which it was obtained and in the velocity domain. No significant differences were noted between Tau and velocity domain results except in one turbulent boundary layer case.

  1. Switching from motorcycle taxi to walking: A case study of transit station access in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornraht Pongprasert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the factors affecting residents near transit stations within 1000 m, who are referred to as transit-oriented development (TOD residents, to reduce motorcycle taxi use and encourage walking to stations. These two modes of commuting are the most popular among over 85% of residents. However, motorcycle taxis are the main pedestrian barriers that hinder easy access and walkability in TODs of Bangkok, because they ride, stop, and provide services on sidewalks. From 2013 to 2015, these problems substantially increased the number of motorcycle taxis that are not willing and able to follow the rules. The increasing number of pedestrian accidents on sidewalks is related to the increase in the number of motorcycle taxis. According to a survey on pedestrian safety with 249 respondents, over 25% of walkers feel unsafe to walk, while 40% of motorcycle-taxi users riding to stations do not walk because they are afraid of accidents. In modal split, the share of walking reduces from 76% for areas < 500 m, to 25% for areas between 500 and 1000 m from transit stations, respectively. Hence, the number of motorcycle taxis in the 500–1000 m range is twice as high compared to that within the 500 m area. If motorcycle taxi users would accept a longer walking distance to station by 36 m or would be willing to walk to the station within 9.15 min, 54% of them may switch to walking to stations. Moreover, based on the estimation results of the logistic regression models, middle-adult aged residents, office employees, residents owning a car, and people living far from stations are less likely to walk. Average income households and commuters during non-peak hours tend to use motorcycle taxis more. On the other hand, residents living far from stations tend to use motorcycle taxis less, because most of the motorcycle taxi services are located near transit stations. Keywords: Transit accessibility, Pedestrian, Walkability

  2. An Alignment-Free Algorithm in Comparing the Similarity of Protein Sequences Based on Pseudo-Markov Transition Probabilities among Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yushuang; Song, Tian; Yang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jialiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel alignment-free method for comparing the similarity of protein sequences. We first encode a protein sequence into a 440 dimensional feature vector consisting of a 400 dimensional Pseudo-Markov transition probability vector among the 20 amino acids, a 20 dimensional content ratio vector, and a 20 dimensional position ratio vector of the amino acids in the sequence. By evaluating the Euclidean distances among the representing vectors, we compare the similarity of protein sequences. We then apply this method into the ND5 dataset consisting of the ND5 protein sequences of 9 species, and the F10 and G11 datasets representing two of the xylanases containing glycoside hydrolase families, i.e., families 10 and 11. As a result, our method achieves a correlation coefficient of 0.962 with the canonical protein sequence aligner ClustalW in the ND5 dataset, much higher than those of other 5 popular alignment-free methods. In addition, we successfully separate the xylanases sequences in the F10 family and the G11 family and illustrate that the F10 family is more heat stable than the G11 family, consistent with a few previous studies. Moreover, we prove mathematically an identity equation involving the Pseudo-Markov transition probability vector and the amino acids content ratio vector.

  3. First-principles studies on graphene-supported transition metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Sanjubala; Khanna, Shiv N.; Gruner, Markus E.; Entel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical studies on the structure, stability, and magnetic properties of icosahedral TM 13 (TM = Fe, Co, Ni) clusters, deposited on pristine (defect free) and defective graphene sheet as well as graphene flakes, have been carried out within a gradient corrected density functional framework. The defects considered in our study include a carbon vacancy for the graphene sheet and a five-membered and a seven-membered ring structures for graphene flakes (finite graphene chunks). It is observed that the presence of defect in the substrate has a profound influence on the electronic structure and magnetic properties of graphene-transition metal complexes, thereby increasing the binding strength of the TM cluster on to the graphene substrate. Among TM 13 clusters, Co 13 is absorbed relatively more strongly on pristine and defective graphene as compared to Fe 13 and Ni 13 clusters. The adsorbed clusters show reduced magnetic moment compared to the free clusters

  4. Studies of the Superconducting Transition in the Mo/Au-Bilayer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John; Smith, Stephen; Iyomoto, naoko; Bandler, Simon; Chervenak, Jay; Brown, Ari; Brekowsky, Regis; Kilbourne, Caroline; Robinson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    At NASA Goddard, microcalorimeter arrays using superconducting transition edge sensor thermometers (TESs) are under development for high energy resolution X-ray astrophysics applications. We report on our studies of the superconducting transition in our Mo/Au-bilayer TES films including: low current measurements of the superconducting bilayer's resistance transition versus temperature on pixels with different normal metal absorber attachment designs and measured temperature scaling of the critical current and critical magnetic field.

  5. Home Away from Home?: A Case Study of Student Transitions to an International Branch Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Kaitlin Oyler

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the transition experience of home-campus students attending an international branch campus. The studied was informed by a diverse range of literature, including the internationalization of higher education and student affairs, development of international branch campuses, students in transition, the development of student…

  6. Value of radionuclide oesophageal transit in studies of functional dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas-Elvira, J.M.; Martinez-Parades, M.; Velasco-Lajo, T.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide oesophageal transit time was evaluated in 70 individuals, divided into three groups: normal individuals, patients with non-organic dysphagia and patients with primary oesophageal motility disorders treated with per-endoscopic forced pneumatic dilatation. In all of them the oesophageal transit time of a bolus of water with 18.5 MBq (500 μCi) of 99 Tcsup(m) sulphur colloid was assessed, as was the percentage of residual activity of the bolus in the oesophagus. There was a significant difference in these parameters between the control group and the group with non-organic dysphagia, the diagnostic capacity of this test being 93% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 90% negative predictive value, which suggests its inclusion in diagnostic protocols of dysphagias. In patients with primary oesophageal motility disorders, a significant decrease in values of residual activity has been observed after treatment with per-endoscopic forced pneumatic dilation. (author)

  7. Transitional circuitry for studying the properties of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubochkina, N.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to a new view of the structure of DNA as an intellectual scheme possessing the properties of logic and memory. The theory of transient circuitry, developed by the author for optimal computer circuits, revealed an amazing structural similarity between mathematical models of transition silicon elements and logic and memory circuits of solid state transient circuitry and atomic models of parts of DNA.

  8. Occupational correlates of smoking among urban transit operators: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B; Lipton, Rob; Banerjee, Aniruddha

    2007-12-20

    Workers in blue-collar and service occupations smoke at higher rates than workers in white-collar and professional occupations. Occupational stress may explain some of the occupational class differences in smoking and quitting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over a ten year period among a multiethnic cohort of urban transit operators, while accounting for demographic factors and alcohol. The sample consists of 654 San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI) transit operators who participated in two occupational health studies and biennial medical examinations during 1983-85 and 1993-95. Workers who had initiated, increased, or maintained their smoking over the ten year period were compared to workers who remained non-smokers. Occupational factors included self-rated frequency of job problems (e.g., difficulties with equipment, passengers, traffic), job burnout (i.e., the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory), time needed to unwind after work, and years employed as a transit operator. A series of logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over time. Approximately 35% of the workers increased, initiated, or maintained their smoking over the ten-year period. Frequency of job problems was significantly associated with likelihood of smoking increase, initiation, or maintenance (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09, 1.55). Black operators were significantly more likely to have smoked over the ten-year period compared to operators in other racial/ethnic groups. Understanding the role of work-related stress vis-à-vis smoking behavior is of critical importance for crafting workplace smoking prevention and cessation interventions that are applicable to blue-collar work settings, and for developing policies that mitigate occupational stress.

  9. Occupational correlates of smoking among urban transit operators: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Aniruddha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workers in blue-collar and service occupations smoke at higher rates than workers in white-collar and professional occupations. Occupational stress may explain some of the occupational class differences in smoking and quitting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over a ten year period among a multiethnic cohort of urban transit operators, while accounting for demographic factors and alcohol. Methods The sample consists of 654 San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI transit operators who participated in two occupational health studies and biennial medical examinations during 1983–85 and 1993–95. Workers who had initiated, increased, or maintained their smoking over the ten year period were compared to workers who remained non-smokers. Occupational factors included self-rated frequency of job problems (e.g., difficulties with equipment, passengers, traffic, job burnout (i.e., the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, time needed to unwind after work, and years employed as a transit operator. A series of logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over time. Results Approximately 35% of the workers increased, initiated, or maintained their smoking over the ten-year period. Frequency of job problems was significantly associated with likelihood of smoking increase, initiation, or maintenance (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09, 1.55. Black operators were significantly more likely to have smoked over the ten-year period compared to operators in other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion Understanding the role of work-related stress vis-à-vis smoking behavior is of critical importance for crafting workplace smoking prevention and cessation interventions that are applicable to blue-collar work settings, and for developing policies that mitigate occupational stress.

  10. A comparative study on two explosive acetone peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorshev, V. Yu.; Sinditskii, V.P., E-mail: vps@rctu.ru; Smirnov, S.P.

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • The most accurate heats of DADP and TATP sublimation were evaluated from experimental vapor pressures in a widened temperature range. • DADP is more volatile while more thermally stable peroxide than TATP. • DADP reveals lesser sensitivity to drop-weight impact, flame temperature, burning rate, and initiating efficiency as compared with TATP. - Abstract: Two explosive cyclic acetone peroxides, diacetone diperoxide (DADP) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) have been studied in respect of thermal decomposition, burning behavior, impact sensitivity, and initiating efficiency. Using the glass Bourdon gauge technique, the vapor pressures of TATP and DADP were determined over the temperature range 75–144 °C and 67–120 °C, respectively. The kinetic parameters of decomposition of the peroxides in the gas phase have been obtained in the temperature interval of 140–200 °C. The decomposition of both DADP and TATP followed the first-order reaction to high degrees of decay with close activation energies of 159.2 kJ/mol (38.0 kcal/mol) and 165.8 kJ/mol (39.6 kcal/mol), respectively. The decomposition rate constants of DADP were found to be approximately 2 times less than those of TATP. The linear burning rate of DADP measured in a constant-pressure window bomb appeared to be approximately 5 times less than that of TATP. Temperature profiles in the combustion wave were measured at subatmospheric pressures with the help of thin tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. The leading reaction on combustion of both volatile peroxides was assumed to occur in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the leading reaction derived from the combustion data showed a good agreement with kinetic parameters of low-temperature thermal decomposition extrapolated to the high-temperature flame zone. In the drop-weight impact test, DADP appeared to be notably less sensitive peroxide than TATP. No deflagration-to-detonation transition was observed when RDX was attempted to explode by

  11. Synchrotron X-ray topographic studies of para-ferroelectric transition in ammonium sulphate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, H.L.; Roberts, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonium sulphate undergoes a para-ferroelectric transition at 223 K. The transition is presumably first order in nature. White radiation topographic studies of this transition are presented here. The existence of pre-transition effects due to lattice deformation leading to severe strain is noticed. This sometimes resulted in dislocation generation. The well defined phase boundary observed in this crystal confirms the first order nature of this transition. The zigzag nature of the phase boundary with preferably oriented segments has been attributed to the specific properties of the strain tensors of the transition. Ferroelectric domains have also been detected by faint dynamical x-ray contrast of their images. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig

  12. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    2001-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  13. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    1999-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  14. Health and wellbeing during transition to adulthood for young people with intellectual disabilities: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Southward, Genevieve; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Philo, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, deploying both emic and etic coding categories. This study provides direct insights into the issues on health and wellbeing that young people with ID and their parents find important during transition. The primary health implication of transition centred on mental health and wellbeing; young people experienced heightened anxiety during transition, and themes identified as contributing to anxiety included: a lack of meaningful activity following school exit; inadequate support during transition; and difficulties associated with 'growing up'. Problem behaviours and obesity were also implicated. The transition from school needs to be better supported in order to ease anxiety for young people during this difficult period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential of public transit as a transportation control measure: Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillings, M.

    1998-07-01

    This report is the final product of the Clean Air Project of the National Association of Regional Councils/NARC. It documents a nationwide study of transit projects and programs initiated in the wake of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments/CAAA and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991/ISTEA. The study purpose was to assess the experience, limitations, and value of public transit as a potential transportation control measure/TCM, i.e., generates significant air quality benefits by eliminating or reducing emissions from motor vehicles. Four in-depth case studies and six additional projects featured as innovations in transportation are offered as examples investigating the potential of transit as a TCM. These case studies and innovations highlight the efforts of ten metropolitan areas and transit agencies which have succeed in developing and implementing innovative transit strategies.

  16. Esophageal transit in patients bearing diabetes mellitus: contribution to its study with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.M.; Almeida Cruz, M.G. de; Lima, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Among the disorders brought about by diabetes mellitus one may include the involvement of the esophageal innervation, which leads to motor disturbances of the esophagus even in non-symptomatic phases. Taking into consideration how simple and sensitive the scintigraphic method is, in the study of esophageal motility, the authors have proposed to compare the duration of esophageal transit with radionuclide in patients bearing diabetes mellitus and in normal individuals. Thirty-three diabetic patients and 26 controls were studied. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (insulin dependents, 11 patients): group B (insulin non dependents, 22 patients). The study showed that the alterations in the time of esophageal transit predominated in groups of diabetics that were insulin non dependents, having no connection with the duration of the disease. In the group of insulin dependents the abnormalities found were related to the duration of the disease. The results obtained showed the importance of this method in the study of diabetic patients with a possible involvement of esophageal motility. (author)

  17. Study of the low energy gamma transitions of molybdenum 99; Etude des transitions gamma de basse energie du molybdene 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravier, J.

    1959-07-01

    The study of the decay scheme of Mo{sup 99} has been performed on the magnetic iron-less and double focalization spectrograph of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lyon. Methods of internal and external conversion have been used. The intensities of the Mo{sup 99} sources used were not strong enough to determine the characteristics of the internal conversion accurately but were sufficient to precise the decay scheme at low energy. We have determined the internal conversion ratio for the transition of 180 KeV, we have got: 0.13 ± 0.03 which is not in agreement with the value given by a previous experiment based on γ-γ coincidence. Our method seems to be more reliable. We confirm the E2 feature of this transition and its 5/2+ spin. We have determined another important parameter for the 180 KeV de-excitation: the percentage of transitions that do not pass by the isomeric level but by the 140 KeV level is (6 ± 2)%, the isomeric level being at 142 KeV. The gamma spectra at low energy has been studied through the photoelectric effect in a lead converter [French] L'etude du schema de desintegration du Mo{sup 99} deja faite par differents auteurs a ete reprise par des methodes de conversion interne et externe, an moyen du spectrographe magnetique sans fer et a double focalisation de l'Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon. Apres avoir cherche les possibilites d'obtention de sources de haute activite specifique par separation isotopique Szilard-Chalmers sur des molybdates alcalins, le spectre de conversion interne a basse energie a ete mesure. Ainsi se trouverent etre determines les coefficients partiaux de conversion interne. Le spectre γ a basse energie a ete etudier au moyen de l'effet photoelectrique sur un convertisseur de plomb. Les coefficients de conversion interne et les intensites relatives des differentes transitions ont ete calcules moyennant certaines hypotheses. La comparaison entre les valeurs donnees par la theorie et l'experience des differentes

  18. Photoelectron Angular Distributions of Transition Metal Dioxide Anions - a joint experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanov, Ivan; Gunaratne, Dasitha; Harmon, Christopher; Sofo, Jorge; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2012-02-01

    Angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) studies of the MO2- (M=Ti, Zr, Hf, Co, Rh) clusters are presented for the first time along with theoretical calculations of their properties. We confirm previously reported non-angular PES results for the vertical detachment energies (VDE), vibrational energies and geometric structures of these clusters and further explore the effect of the 'lanthanide contraction' on the MO2- clusters by comparing the electronic spectra of 4d and 5d transition metal dioxides. Angular-resolved PES provides the angular momentum contributions to the HOMO of these clusters and we use theoretical calculations to examine the HOMO and compare to our experimental results. First-principles calculations are done using both density functional theory (DFT) and the coupled-cluster, singles, doubles and triples (CCSD(T)) methods.

  19. Magneto-optical study of the Verwey transition in magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, J.R.; Behan, A.J.; Mokhtari, A.; Ahmed, M.R.; Blythe, H.J.; Fox, A.M.; Gehring, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    We have made the first detailed Faraday measurements on thin films of Fe 3 O 4 for 10 xy , which is analysed for the changes in the energy, oscillator strength, and width of the transitions. A significant anomaly is seen in these optical parameters within about 10 K of the Verwey temperature. However, there are also some differences between the optical parameters above and below T v over a wider temperature range. The results are interpreted to give valuable information on the orbital ordering

  20. Monte Carlo study of dynamic phase transition in Ising metamagnet driven by oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharyya, Muktish

    2011-01-01

    The dynamical responses of Ising metamagnet (layered antiferromagnet) in the presence of a sinusoidally oscillating magnetic field are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The time average staggered magnetisation plays the role of dynamic order parameter. A dynamical phase transition was observed and a phase diagram was plotted in the plane formed by field amplitude and temperature. The dynamical phase boundary is observed to shrink inward as the relative antiferromagnetic strength decreases. The results are compared with that obtained from pure ferromagnetic system. The shape of dynamic phase boundary observed to be qualitatively similar to that obtained from previous meanfield calculations. - Highlights: → The time average staggered magnetisation plays the role of dynamic order parameter. → A dynamical phase transition was observed and a phase diagram was plotted in the plane formed by field amplitude and temperature. → The dynamical phase boundary is observed to shrink inward as the relative antiferromagnetic strength decreases. → The results are compared with that obtained from pure ferromagnetic system. → The shape of dynamic phase boundary observed to be qualitatively similar to that obtained from previous meanfield calculation.

  1. Design of the study on transitions in employment, ability and motivation (STREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Wind, A. de; Leijten, M.S.; Joling, C.I.; Blatter, B.M. van; Burdorf, A.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of healthy and productive work participation among persons aged 45–64 years. A research framework was developed with main outcomes of productivity and transitions in

  2. Saudi Deaf Students Post-Secondary Transitioning Experience: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almotiri, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) international students transition to post-secondary institutions is important for ensuring their academic and personal success. In this grounded theory study, five Saudi Arabian students who are DHH and enrolled at Gallaudet University were interviewed about their transition experience. Participants…

  3. What Do We Compare When We Compare Religions? Philosophical Remarks on the Psychology of Studying Comparative Religion Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The issue of comparison is a vexing one in religious and theological studies, not least for teachers of comparative religion in study abroad settings. We try to make familiar ideas fresh and strange, in settings where students may find it hard not to take "fresh" and "strange" as signs of existential threat. The author explores…

  4. High-resolution study of Gamow-Teller transitions in the 47Ti(3He,t)47V reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganioǧlu, E.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Algora, A.; Csatlós, M.; Deaven, J. M.; Estevez-Aguado, E.; Guess, C. J.; Gulyás, J.; Hatanaka, K.; Hirota, K.; Honma, M.; Ishikawa, D.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Matsubara, H.; Meharchand, R.; Molina, F.; Okamura, H.; Ong, H. J.; Otsuka, T.; Perdikakis, G.; Rubio, B.; Scholl, C.; Shimbara, Y.; Susoy, G.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Thies, J. H.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Zenihiro, J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions in nuclear structure and astrophysical nuclear processes, we have studied Tz=+3/2→+1/2, GT transitions starting from the 47Ti nucleus in the (3He,t) charge-exchange reaction at 0∘ and at an intermediate incident energy of 140 MeV/nucleon. The experiments were carried out at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka, using the high-resolution facility with a high-dispersion beam line and the Grand-Raiden spectrometer. With an energy resolution of 20 keV, individual GT transitions were observed and GT strength was derived for each state populated up to an excitation energy (Ex) of 12.5 MeV. The GT strength was widely distributed from low excitation energy up to 12.5 MeV, where we had to stop the analysis because of the high level density. The distribution of the GT strengths was compared with the results of shell model calculations using the GXPF1 interaction. The calculations could reproduce the experimental GT distributions well. The GT transitions from the ground state of 47Ti and the M1 transitions from the isobaric analog state in 47V to the same low-lying states in 47V are analogous. It was found that the ratios of GT transition strengths to the ground state, the 0.088-MeV state, and the 0.146-MeV state are similar to the ratios of the strengths of the analogous M1 transitions from the isobaric analog state (IAS) to these states. The measured distribution of the GT strengths was also compared with those starting from the Tz=+3/2 nucleus 41K to the Tz=+1/2 nucleus 41Ca.

  5. Influence of parental factors on adolescents' transition to first sexual intercourse in Nairobi, Kenya: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigbo, Chinelo C; Kabiru, Caroline W; Mumah, Joyce N; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien

    2015-08-21

    Several studies have demonstrated a link between young people's sexual behavior and levels of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, and parental discipline in Western countries. However, little is known about this association in African settings, especially among young people living in high poverty settings such as urban slums. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of parental factors (monitoring, communication, and discipline) on the transition to first sexual intercourse among unmarried adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya. Longitudinal data collected from young people living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya were used. The sample was restricted to unmarried adolescents aged 12-19 years at Wave 1 (weighted n = 1927). Parental factors at Wave 1 were used to predict adolescents' transition to first sexual intercourse by Wave 2. Relevant covariates including the adolescents' age, sex, residence, school enrollment, religiosity, delinquency, and peer models for risk behavior were controlled for. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of interest. All analyses were conducted using Stata version 13. Approximately 6% of our sample transitioned to first sexual intercourse within the one-year study period; there was no sex difference in the transition rate. In the multivariate analyses, male adolescents who reported communication with their mothers were less likely to transition to first sexual intercourse compared to those who did not (p impacts on delaying sexual debut, and possibly reducing sexual risk behaviors, among young people in high-risk settings such as slums.

  6. Esophageal transit study using a sliding sum image. Application to patients with probable and definite systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Inaki, Anri; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Hosoya, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal complication is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc), but scintigraphic transit patterns based on each subtype have not been understood well. The aim of this study was to develop a new algorithm for integrating a dynamic esophageal transit study and to apply the method to patients with SSc. A total of 40 patients suspected of having SSc were examined by a dynamic esophageal transit study. The subtypes included 32 with definite SSc (15 limited cutaneous type and 17 diffuse cutaneous type) and 8 with probable SSc. The serial esophageal images were shifted and summed to a functional image (sliding sum image) and compared to a conventional condensed image analysis. Esophageal retention fraction at 90 s (R 90 ) and half-time (T 1/2 ) of transit were also measured. The four patterns of the sliding sum image and condensed image agreed in all patients. Abnormal retention patterns were observed in none of the 8 (0%) patients with the probable SSc and in 15 of 32 (47%) patients with definite SSc (p=0.014). The severity of scleroderma assessed by modified Rodnan skin thickness score correlated with that of esophageal retention R 90 (p=0.04). The sliding sum image is a simple and effective method for integrating esophageal transit. Patients with definite SSc and severe scleroderma had significantly higher retention patterns, while probable SSc patients showed no esophageal dysmotility. (author)

  7. Mortality in Transition: Study Protocol of the PrivMort Project, a multilevel convenience cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Irdam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal and proximal (individual causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. Methods The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals’ health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. Discussion In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition

  8. Mortality in Transition: Study Protocol of the PrivMort Project, a multilevel convenience cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irdam, Darja; King, Lawrence; Gugushvili, Alexi; Azarova, Aytalina; Fazekas, Mihaly; Scheiring, Gabor; Stefler, Denes; Doniec, Katarzyna; Horvat, Pia; Kolesnikova, Irina; Popov, Vladimir; Szelenyi, Ivan; Marmot, Michael; Murphy, Michael; McKee, Martin; Bobak, Martin

    2016-07-30

    Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal) and proximal (individual) causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation) and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption) in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals' health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition experiences for individual respondents and their families across

  9. Theoretical studies of the electronic properties of transition metals and transition metal compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alward, J.F. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An efficient new technique is presented for rapidly determining a near-optimum pseudopotential for use in electronic energy band structure calculations. The electronic energy band structures of TiC and ZrC have been obtained and the corresponding reflectivity spectra are in fair agreement with the data. The TiC wavefunctions have been used to determine the electronic charge distribution in the (100) plane, and the results indicate that there is a net transfer of electronic charge from the titanium atom to the carbon atom. By also calculating the energy band structures of TiN and ZrN, and comparing with the carbide results, it was shown that the rigid-band model is not valid. Using the reflectivity data of Weaver, Lynch, and Olson, the electronic energy band structures of tantalum and vanadium were calculated. The vanadium density of valence states is in good agreement with Eastman's photoemission data. Furthermore, the Ta and V reflectivity spectra have been shown to be in good agreement with the data. Finally, the Fermi surfaces calculated for both Ta and V are in very good agreement with Fermi surface data

  10. Symptomatic menopausal transition and subsequent bipolar disorder among midlife women with major depression: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chi; Yang, Albert C; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei; Li, Cheng-Ta; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that menopausal transition played an important role in the clinical course of major depression and bipolar disorder. However, the role of symptomatic menopausal transition in diagnostic conversion from major depression to bipolar disorder was still unknown. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 50,273 midlife women aged between 40 and 60 years in 2002∼2008 with major depression were enrolled in our study and divided into two subgroups based on the presence (n = 21,120) or absence (n = 29,153) of symptomatic menopausal transition. Subjects who had subsequent bipolar disorder during the follow-up were identified. Midlife women with major depression and symptomatic menopausal transition had a higher incidence of the diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder (7.3 vs. 6.6%, p = 0.003) than those with major depression alone. Cox regression analysis after adjusting for demographic data and psychiatric comorbidities further showed that symptomatic menopausal transition was associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07∼1.23) among midlife women with major depression. Sensitivity test after excluding the 1-year and 3-year observation exhibited the consistent findings (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09∼1.28; HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.08∼1.34). Midlife women with the dual diagnoses of major depression and symptomatic menopausal transition had an increased risk of the diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder compared to those with major depression alone. Further studies may be required to investigate the underlying mechanisms among menopausal transition and the diagnostic conversion from major depression to bipolar disorder.

  11. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. Objective: The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. Methods: We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort. Results: Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. Conclusions: The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation. Contribution: The paper shows how stratification by field of study creates gendered demographic outcomes for college graduates. It also demonstrates that women's decisions regarding marriage and parenthood do not uniformly respond to the economic prospect of their work.

  12. The multi-level perspective analysis: Indonesia geothermal energy transition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaksono, A.; Murphy, J.; Sharp, J. H.; Younger, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    The study adopts a multi-level perspective in technology transition to analyse how the transition process in the development of geothermal energy in Indonesia is able to compete against the incumbent fossil-fuelled energy sources. Three levels of multi-level perspective are socio-technical landscape (ST-landscape), socio-technical regime (ST-regime) and niche innovations in Indonesia geothermal development. The identification, mapping and analysis of the dynamic relationship between each level are the important pillars of the multi-level perspective framework. The analysis considers the set of rules, actors and controversies that may arise in the technological transition process. The identified geothermal resource risks are the basis of the emerging geothermal technological innovations in Indonesian geothermal. The analysis of this study reveals the transition pathway, which yields a forecast for the Indonesian geothermal technology transition in the form of scenarios and probable impacts.

  13. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of pressure-induced phase transition in ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Israel; Durandurdu, Murat

    2006-01-01

    The pressure-induced phase transition in zinc sulfide is studied using a constant-pressure ab initio technique. The reversible phase transition from the zinc-blende structure to a rock-salt structure is successfully reproduced through the simulations. The transformation mechanism at the atomistic level is characterized and found to be due to a monoclinic modification of the simulation cell, similar to that obtained in SiC. This observation supports the universal transition state of high-pressure zinc-blende to rock-salt transition in semiconductor compounds. We also study the role of stress deviations on the transformation mechanism and find that the system follows the same transition pathway under nonhydrostatic compressions as well

  14. Technology Transition and Adoption: A Study in Search of Metrics for Evaluating Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    develops a technology on time, within budget, and performs as advertised meets all conventional standards for success. However, if the technology gets...Model-Based Integration of Embedded Software ( MoBIES ) 0 USAF 1 0 0 0 0 76 Project Mobius: A Study on the Feasibility of Learning by Reading 0 0 0 1 0...Engine Generator (MSEG) Program 50 1 0 1,203 0 0 1 75 Model-Based Integration of Embedded Software ( MoBIES ) 45 1 0 1,659 0 0 1 76 Project Mobius: A

  15. Numerical study of compressible magnetoconvection with an open transitional boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanami, H.; Tajima, T.

    1990-08-01

    We study by computer simulation nonlinear evolution of magnetoconvection in a system with a dynamical open boundary between the convection region and corona of the sun. We study a model in which the fluid is subject to the vertical gravitation, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and high stratification, through an MHD code with the MacCormack-Donner cell hybrid scheme in order to well represent convective phenomena. Initially the vertical fluid flux penetrates from the convectively unstable zone at the bottom into the upper diffuse atmosphere. As the instability develops, the magnetic fields are twisted by the convection motion and the folding magnetic fields is observed. When the magnetic pressure is comparable to the thermal pressure in the upper layer of convective zone, strong flux expulsion from the convective cell interior toward the cell boundary appears. Under appropriate conditions our simulation exhibits no shock formation incurred by the fluid convected to the photosphere, in contrast to earlier works with box boundaries. The magnetic field patterns observed are those of concentrated magnetic flux tubes, accumulation of dynamo flux near the bottom boundary, pinched flux near the downdraft region, and the surface movement of magnetic flux toward the downdraft region. Many of these computationally observed features are reminiscent of solar observations of the fluid and magnetic structures of their motions

  16. Comparative Glycoproteome Analysis: Dynamics of Protein Glycosylation during Metamorphic Transition from Pelagic to Benthic Life Stages in Three Invertebrates

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Zhang, Yu; Wong, Yue Him; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most benthic marine invertebrates has two distinct stages: the pelagic larval stage and the sessile juvenile stage. The transition between the larval stage and the juvenile stage is often abrupt and may be triggered by post

  17. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Siqi; Tumin, Dmitry; Qian, Zhenchao

    2016-01-01

    Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort. Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation.

  18. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Siqi; Tumin, Dmitry; Qian, Zhenchao

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. OBJECTIVE The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. METHODS We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort. RESULTS Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. CONCLUSIONS The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation. PMID:29075146

  19. High Precision Renormalization Group Study of the Roughening Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenbusch, M; Pinn, K

    1994-01-01

    We confirm the Kosterlitz-Thouless scenario of the roughening transition for three different Solid-On-Solid models: the Discrete Gaussian model, the Absolute-Value-Solid-On-Solid model and the dual transform of the XY model with standard (cosine) action. The method is based on a matching of the renormalization group flow of the candidate models with the flow of a bona fide KT model, the exactly solvable BCSOS model. The Monte Carlo simulations are performed using efficient cluster algorithms. We obtain high precision estimates for the critical couplings and other non-universal quantities. For the XY model with cosine action our critical coupling estimate is $\\beta_R^{XY}=1.1197(5)$. For the roughening coupling of the Discrete Gaussian and the Absolute-Value-Solid-On-Solid model we find $K_R^{DG}=0.6645(6)$ and $K_R^{ASOS}=0.8061(3)$, respectively.

  20. Magneto-optical study of the Verwey transition in magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Behan, A.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Mokhtari, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Ahmed, M.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Blythe, H.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Fox, A.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gehring, G.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: G.A.Gehring@Sheffield.ac.uk

    2007-03-15

    We have made the first detailed Faraday measurements on thin films of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} for 10transitions. A significant anomaly is seen in these optical parameters within about 10 K of the Verwey temperature. However, there are also some differences between the optical parameters above and below T {sub v} over a wider temperature range. The results are interpreted to give valuable information on the orbital ordering.

  1. Experimental study of the lifetime and phase transition in neutron-rich Zr 98 ,100 ,102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S.; Régis, J.-M.; Jolie, J.; Saed-Samii, N.; Warr, N.; Korten, W.; Zielińska, M.; Salsac, M.-D.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T.; Simpson, G. S.; Drouet, F.; Vancraeyenest, A.; de France, G.; Clément, E.; Stezowski, O.; Ur, C. A.; Urban, W.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyák, Zs.; Larijani, C.; Townsley, C.; Carroll, R.; Wilson, E.; Mach, H.; Fraile, L. M.; Paziy, V.; Olaizola, B.; Vedia, V.; Bruce, A. M.; Roberts, O. J.; Smith, J. F.; Scheck, M.; Kröll, T.; Hartig, A.-L.; Ignatov, A.; Ilieva, S.; Lalkovski, S.; Mǎrginean, N.; Otsuka, T.; Shimizu, N.; Togashi, T.; Tsunoda, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Rapid shape changes are observed for neutron-rich nuclei with A around 100. In particular, a sudden onset of ground-state deformation is observed in the Zr and Sr isotopic chains at N = 60: Low-lying states in N ≤58 nuclei are nearly spherical, while those with N ≥60 have a rotational character. Nuclear lifetimes as short as a few picoseconds can be measured using fast-timing techniques with LaBr3(Ce) scintillators, yielding a key ingredient in the systematic study of the shape evolution in this region. We used neutron-induced fission of 241Pu and 235U to study lifetimes of excited states in fission fragments in the A ˜100 region with the EXILL-FATIMA array located at the PF1B cold neutron beam line at the Institut Laue-Langevin. In particular, we applied the generalized centroid difference method to deduce lifetimes of low-lying states for the nuclei 98Zr (N = 58), 100Zr, and 102Zr (N ≥60 ). The results are discussed in the context of the presumed phase transition in the Zr chain by comparing the experimental transition strengths with the theoretical calculations using the interacting boson model and the Monte Carlo shell model.

  2. Animal models to study the impact of nutrition on the immune system of the transition cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana

    2018-02-01

    The immune system is particularly challenged in transition cows as marked physiological changes occur in this period which are driven by late gestation, partus and onset of lactation. As a consequence, the metabolic and nutritional state of the cow also changes significantly with possible implications for the plasticity and flexibility of the immune system. In order to understand how the balance between metabolism, nutritional status and the immune system is maintained under challenging conditions, such as an infection, various animal models can be used which specifically manipulate the nutritional status through various feeding and management strategies. Such models aim at exploring the immunological response to a challenge under largely varying nutritional and metabolic states. As energy balance (EB) is strongly associated both with the metabolic state and with the immunoreactivity of the cows the manipulation of the EB by either influencing energy intake or energy excretion with milk, or by both, offers model opportunities for studying EB effects on the immune system. For example, assigning cows with a higher body condition score (BCS) at least 6 weeks prior to calving to an energy-dense diet exceeding the energy requirement in combination with a decelerated increase in the concentrate feed proportion post partum was shown to be effective in inducing a ketotic metabolic state under ad libitum feeding conditions. Compared to an adequately managed control group this model allows studying immune responses in the transit period and in dependence on dietary interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transitional lumbosacral vertebral anomaly in the dog: a radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Transitional lumbosacral vertebral anomalies have for some time been suggested as a possible cause of cauda equina syndrome (especially in the German shepherd dog [GSD]), a condition recently thought to be inherited. The frequency of this condition within a large clinical population and the radiographic features used in its detection are reported. In a group of 143 patients, the sexes were similarly represented and the GSD was greatly over represented. The anomaly is characterised by separation of the first sacral segment that was identified on the lateral view by the presence of a radiolucent disc space between what are normally the first and second sacral segments. On the ventrodorsal view, the anomaly was characterised by separation of the spinous processes between what are normally the first and second sacral segments. In the presence of the transitional segment, the nature of the sacroiliac joint at the level of the anomalous segment varies from a strong ilial attachment, with the presence of a wing-like lateral process, to a weakened ilial attachment because of the presence of a lateral process, shaped as that seen on a lumbar segment. These patterns were present unilaterally or bilaterally and result in symmetrical or asymmetrical patterns. The effect of the weakening of the sacroiliac attachment was thought to result in premature disc degeneration, which, together with spinal canal stenosis, resulted in potential compression of the overlying spinal nerves and creation of a cauda equina syndrome. The condition is thought to have clinical significance and should be selected against in breeding, especially in the GSD

  4. Multiple and multidimensional transitions from trainee to trained doctor: a qualitative longitudinal study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lisi; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Morrison, Jill; Muldoon, Janine; Needham, Gillian; Siebert, Sabina; Rees, Charlotte

    2017-12-01

    To explore trainee doctors' experiences of the transition to trained doctor, we answer three questions: (1) What multiple and multidimensional transitions (MMTs) are experienced as participants move from trainee to trained doctor? (2) What facilitates and hinders doctors' successful transition experiences? (3) What is the impact of MMTs on trained doctors? A qualitative longitudinal study underpinned by MMT theory. Four training areas (health boards) in the UK. 20 doctors, 19 higher-stage trainees within 6 months of completing their postgraduate training and 1 staff grade, associate specialist or specialty doctor, were recruited to the 9-month longitudinal audio-diary (LAD) study. All completed an entrance interview, 18 completed LADs and 18 completed exit interviews. Data were analysed cross-sectionally and longitudinally using thematic Framework Analysis. Participants experienced a multiplicity of expected and unexpected, positive and negative work-related transitions (eg, new roles) and home-related transitions (eg, moving home) during their trainee-trained doctor transition. Factors facilitating or inhibiting successful transitions were identified at various levels: individual (eg, living arrangements), interpersonal (eg, presence of supportive relationships), systemic (eg, mentoring opportunities) and macro (eg, the curriculum provided by Medical Royal Colleges). Various impacts of transitions were also identified at each of these four levels: individual (eg, stress), interpersonal (eg, trainees' children spending more time in childcare), systemic (eg, spending less time with patients) and macro (eg, delayed start in trainees' new roles). Priority should be given to developing supportive relationships (both formal and informal) to help trainees transition into their trained doctor roles, as well as providing more opportunities for learning. Further longitudinal qualitative research is now needed with a longer study duration to explore transition journeys for

  5. Energy transitions in France: lessons learned from prospective studies. Contribution to the National Debate on Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibas, Ruben; Hourcade, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    After having outlined that the debates on energy transition in France focus on three main issues (management of greenhouse gas emissions, future of nuclear within the French energy mix, energy security), the authors report the use of the Imaclim-R France model (a multi-sector recursive hybrid model) which is adapted to sensitivity studies for the whole set of hypotheses. As energy parameters, they use data provided by ENCILOWCARB scenarios from a European project (Engaging civil society in low carbon scenarios). After having examined that they are not sufficient to conduct a transition strategy leading to a F4 pathway of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and/or a progressive phasing out nuclear, they consider the policies which are necessary to mobilise potentials of energy saving and emission reduction. Several scenarios are studied in terms of energy and environmental performances and in terms of economic and social performances: scenarios based on policies and measures with or without additional component (carbon tax, social negotiation, carbon finance)

  6. A study of the static to kinetic friction transition of polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Edward Chungjen

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the transition from static to kinetic friction for structural polymers and continues previous research conducted by Dr. N. S. Eiss, B. McCann, and R. Molique. A new test apparatus which simultaneously measures friction, normal load, and relative velocity was developed to study this transition. The polymers used in this study were nylon, ABS, polycarbonate, and fiberglass filled and unfilled polypropylene. Creep effects of polymers on the static coefficie...

  7. Transition conductivity study of high temperature superconductor compounds: the role of fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnon, V.

    1991-04-01

    This memory subject is the transition conductivity study of high temperature superconductors in corelation with their anisotropy. Systematic conductivity measurements were made on YBaCuO and BaSrCaCuO in relation with temperature from 4.2 K to 1200 K, and with a magnetic field up to 8 T in several directions. Oxygen order has an effect on the characteristics at YBaCuO transition conductivity. The activation energy for oxygen absorption is about 0.5eV. One method of analysis of the conductivity fluctuations about the transition temperature is proposed. Two separate rates are noticeable in YBaCuO compound. The 3 D fluctuations rate in the immediate neighbourghood of the transition lets place to the 2 D fluctuations rate at high temperature. Transitions temperatures governing each rate are different, that's incompatible with the formula proposed by Lawrence and Doniach. On the other hand, the analogy with quasi-2 D magnetic systems seems more relevant. A magnetic field application or a lowering of oxygen concentration removes the 3 D fluctuations rate. Non ohmic effects observed at the transition conductivity foot are analysis as a non-linear 2 D excitation manifestation of the supraconductive phase. Finally, by measurements on strontium doped YBaCuO crystals, we confirm a metal-insulator transition along the C-Axe when oxygen concentration reduces. This is connected with the specific heat jump. All these results uplighten the fundamental bidimensional character of high transition temperature superconductivity [fr

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Comparative Luminescence Studies of Rare-Earth-Doped Gd2O3 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyngrope, D.; Singh, L. R.; Prasad, A. I.; Bora, A.

    2018-04-01

    A facile direct precipitation method was used for the synthesis of luminescence nanomaterial. Gd2O3 doped with rare earth element Eu3+ is synthesized by polyol route. The synthesized nanoparticles show their characteristic red emission. The nanoparticles are characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) study. The synthesized nanoparticles are spherical particles with 30 nm size. The photoluminescence studies show the characteristic Eu3+ red emission. The PL study shows the intensity of the magnetic dipole transition ( 5 D0 \\to 7 F1 ) at 592 nm compared to that of the electronic dipole transition ( 5 D0 \\to 7 F2 ) at 615 nm. The nanomaterials can show significant application in various display devices and biomedical applications for tracking.

  9. Exploring the need for Transition Readiness Scales within cystic fibrosis services: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Mary; Houghton, Catherine

    2018-07-01

    To explore healthcare professionals' and patients' perceptions of the potential use of a Transition Readiness Scale in cystic fibrosis care. This included an examination of barriers and facilitators to its implementation along with the identification of key items to include in a Transition Readiness Scale. Due to increasing life expectancy and improved quality of life, more adolescents with cystic fibrosis are transitioning from paediatric to adult health care. To assess and correctly manage this transition, a more structured approach to transition is advocated. This can be achieved using a Transition Readiness Scale to potentially identify or target areas of care in which the adolescent may have poor knowledge. These key items include education, developmental readiness taking into account relationships, reproduction, future plans and self-management skills. Existing tools to gauge readiness concentrate mainly on education and self-care needs assessment as their key items. Currently, there is no specific cystic fibrosis Transition Readiness Scale in use in Ireland or internationally. The study used a descriptive qualitative design. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (n = 8) and analysed using a thematic approach. The findings identified the potential benefits of this tool and second the resources which need to be in place before its development and implementation into cystic fibrosis services. Transition Readiness Scales have substantial relevance with cystic fibrosis services emphasising the importance of establishing the necessary resources prior to its implementation. These were identified as more staff, a dedicated private space and staff training and education. Significant resources are needed to fully integrate Transition Readiness Scales in practice. The study findings suggest multidisciplinary collaborations, and patient engagement is pivotal in planning and easing the transition process for adolescents with cystic fibrosis. © 2018 The

  10. Influence of defects on the adhesion of transition metals on non-polar MgO(001) surface: comparative theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovskii, Yu.F.; Kotomin, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: First principles simulations were performed for noble (Ag) and transition (Cu) atoms adsorbed on regular and defective MgO(001) substrate [1]. Both metal atoms and surface O vacancies (F s centers) were distributed uniformly with one Ag (Cu) atom or F 2 defect per 2x2 surface supercell. Surface O 2- ions are the energetically more preferable for metal atom adsorption on a regular substrate as compared to Mg 2+ ions. The nature of the interaction between Ag or Cu adatoms and a defectless MgO substrate is physisorption (despite the difference in the adsorption energies: 0.62 eV vs. 0.39 eV per Cu and Ag adatom, respectively). Above the F s centers, metal atoms are bounded much stronger as compared with the regular O 2- sites (2.4 eV vs. 2.1 eV per Cu and Ag adatoms, respectively). This is accompanied by a substantial charge transfer towards each adatom (Δq Cu = 0.41 e and Δq Ag = 0.32 e) as well as a formation of partly covalent Me-F s bonds across the interface (Mulliken bond populations p Cu-F s = 0.25 e and p Ag-F s = 0.33 e). Thus, adsorption of transition metal atom on the defective MgO(001) substrate clearly indicates a strong electrostatic bonding because of the considerable interfacial charge redistribution. [1] Yu.F. Zhukovskii, E.A. Kotomin, and G. Borstel, Adsorption of single Ag and Cu atoms on regular and defective MgO(001) substrates: an ab initio study - Vacuum, 73 (2004) in press

  11. Study of Confinement/Deconfinement Transition in AdS/QCD with Generalized Warp Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Sachan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study analytical solutions of charged black holes and thermally charged AdS with generalized warped factors in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton system. We calculate Euclidean action for charged AdS and thermally charged AdS. The actions in both backgrounds are regularized by the method of background subtraction. The study of phase transition between charged black hole and thermally charged AdS gives an insight into the confinement/deconfinement transition. The plots of grand potential versus temperature and chemical potential versus transition temperature are obtained.

  12. Comparative Study of Magnetic Instabilities in Cerium Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrazzini, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    The variety of new phases and physical phenomena discovered in intermetallic compounds containing Rare Earths or Actinides has motivated, during the last four decades, the sustained study of their magnetic phase diagrams.The current interest is focused on the investigation of the region of the phase diagram where the magnetic order of Cerium, Ytterbium and Uranium based systems is destabilized.In this region different behaviours have been detected, such as non conventional superconductivity and the anomalous dependencies of the thermal, magnetic and transport properties at very low temperatures, associated to non-Fermi liquid behaviour.A simple model, the Doniach diagram, has guided the interpretation of the destabilization of the magnetic order in the previously mentioned systems.However, most of the systems that have been studied so far cannot be described within this model.This fact has motivated the development of a phenomenological classification of phase diagrams that has been mostly applied to cerium based compounds.This classification defines three types of phase diagrams, that can be distinguished by the way in which the magnetic transition is suppressed when a control parameter (such as doping or pressure) is driven towards its critical value.Within this scenario, we study the suppression of the antiferromagnetic order of the intermetallic compounds CeIn 3 , CeRh 2 Si 2 and CePd 2 Al 3 as a function of Ce-ligand alloying.The resulting systems, CeIn 3-x Sn x , Ce(Cu x Rh 1-x ) 2 Si 2 and CePd 2-x Ni x Al 3 , present different crystalline structures and the effects produced by the alloying process are different in each case.We analyse the resulting magnetic phase diagrams, and compare them with the above mentioned phenomenological classification.With such a purpose, we study in detail the region in which the magnetic instability takes place, in the proximity of the respective critical concentrations.Taking into account both our results and those reported in

  13. Solvent deuteration enhancement of hydrophobicity: DSC study of the inverse temperature transition of elastin-based polypeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihao Luan; Urry, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    As previously shown, the polypentapeptide of elastin, (Val 1 -Pro 2 -Gly 3 -Val 4 -Gly 5 ) n or simply poly(VPGVG), undergoes an inverse temperature transition which is seen macroscopically as a phase separation with a dense viscoelastic phase of about 60% water, 40% peptide by weight and which is characterized molecularly by increase in intra- and intermolecular order as evidenced by formation of specific hydrophobic contacts. Furthermore, from an extensive study of polypentapeptides of the composition poly[f x (VPGXG), f v (VPGVG)], where f x + f v = 1 and X is any of the amino acid residues with apolar (hydrophobic) side chains, it has been shown that the temperature of the transition decreases and the heat of the transition increases with increased hydrophobicity. In the present paper differential scanning calorimetry has been utilized to determine the effect of D 2 O on the temperature and heats of the inverse temperature transitions for poly(VPGVG), poly(IPGVG), poly(LPGVG), and poly(VPAVG) and in the latter case in the presence of 0.5 and 1.0 N NaCl and of 1,2, and 3 M urea. In all cases, the effect of D 2 O as compared to H 2 O is to lower the transition temperature about 2 C and to increase the heat of the transition about 10%, and this occurs also in the presence of NaCl, which itself lowers the temperature and increases the heat, and in the presence of urea, which itself raises the temperature and decreases the heat of the transition. It is concluded that the effect of replacement of H 2 O by D 2 O by D 2 O in these polypeptides is to effect a small but consistent increase in the expression of hydrophobicity

  14. Measurement of small bowel transit time by 99Tcm-SC imaging: preliminary clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaohua; Xu Jingying; Bei Lian; Zhu Chaohui; Ba Jiantao

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a method of measuring small bowel transit time (SBTT) by 99 Tc m -sulfur collide (SC) imaging and to compare with the method of added lactose in the test meal. Methods: 20 healthy volunteers and 26 patients with gastrointestinal disorders were studied. In fasting state, the subjects were asked to ingest the 99 Tc m -SC labelled solid meal within 5 minutes, then the image acquisition was immediately started with SPECT. The images were acquired every 15 min during the first hour, at 30 min intervals during 2∼4 hours and hourly thereafter until 80% radioactivity had entered the colon. One week later, the same procedure of imaging with 15 g lactulose added in the test meal was performed. The regions of interest (ROIs) were taken at stomach and colon, and the SBTT was calculated by deconvolution or by subtraction of the 50% time of gastric emptying from the 50% time of colon filling. Results: 1) The mean SBTT of 20 healthy volunteers was (4.2 +- 0.5) h, oral-caecum transit time (OCTT) was (4.3 +- 0.6) h; lactulose shortened the SBTT by (1.8 +- 0.6) h; 2) 26 patients showed different results of SBTT due to their different gastrointestinal disorders bases. Conclusions: 99 Tc m -SC imaging was a noninvasive and useful method to measure SBTT. The added lactulose can shorten the examination time and help to identify the time of food to the ileocecal region

  15. Transition from Ambrisentan to Bosentan in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Single-Center Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Gang Gong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Two endothelin receptor antagonists (ETRAs, bosentan and ambrisentan, are approved for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. However, there is little information about the transition strategy between these two ETRAs. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy from ambrisentan to bosentan. Methods: Twenty PAH patients were enrolled into the single-center, open-labelled prospective study. Echocardiogram, WHO functional class (WHO-FC, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD, right heart catheterization, and hemotology were collected. After receiving oral 5 mg ambrisentan daily initially for one year, the patients were divided into two arms: eight patients switched to bosentan, while the remaining 12 patients continued ambrisentan. Characteristics at baseline, 1-and 2-year follow-up points were compared. Results: There were no significant differences in echocardiogram, WHO-FC, hemodynamics, demographics and liver function at baseline, 1-and 2-year points in both arms. 6MWD in bosentan group was significantly shorter at baseline. But there were no significant differences of 6MWD at 1- and 2-year points. Conclusions: It is safe for stable PAH patients to transition from ambrisentan to bosentan without hemodynamic or hematologic deterioration.

  16. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowlam, S.; Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I.; Yiannakou, Y.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically

  17. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlam, S. [Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland (United Kingdom); Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom); Yiannakou, Y.J. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yan.yiannakou@cddft.nhs.uk

    2008-12-15

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically.

  18. Systems Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Discrete Event Simulation Model User's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    In order to examine specific Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) developments and concepts, and to build a better knowledge base for future decision-making, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) undertook a new program of studies and techn...

  19. A Conceptual Framework for Studying the Safety of Transitions in Emergency Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behara, Ravi; Wears, Robert L; Perry, Shawna J; Eisenberg, Eric; Murphy, Lexa; Vanderhoef, Mary; Shapiro, Marc; Beach, Christopher; Croskerry, Pat; Cosby, Karen

    2005-01-01

    .... We observed transitions of care in five hospital emergency departments as part of a larger study on safety in emergency care and found that in addition to many other differences in work patterns...

  20. DNS Studies of Transitional Hypersonic Reacting Flows Over 3-D Hypersonic Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong, Xiaolin

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research project are to develop CFD techniques and to conduct DNS studies of fundamental flow physics leading to boundary-layer instability and transition in hypersonic flows...

  1. NPS Transit System Passenger Boardings Study: Converting Ticket Sales to Passenger Boardings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the reporting of passenger boardings (unlinked passenger trips) by NPS transit systems that use a ticket sales conversion methodology. By studying and validating the park units' passenger boarding methodology from converting tick...

  2. Reliability centered maintenance : a case study of railway transit maintenance to achieve optimal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify the types of obstacles and patterns experienced by a single heavy rail transit agency located in North America that embedded a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Process. The outcome of t...

  3. Assessing transition trajectories towards a sustainable energy system: A case study on the Dutch transition to climate-neutral transport fuel chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurs, R.A.A.; Hekkert, M.P.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Nieuwlaar, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the ex ante evaluation of technological trajectories. As a case we study the Dutch transport energy system and its transition to climate neutrality. Two technological trajectories are proposed: (i) a sequence of transition steps based on radical infrastructural

  4. Neutron diffraction studies of transition metal hydride complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetzle, T.F.; Bau, R.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of H 3 Ta(C 5 H 5 ) 2 (III), HW 2 (CO) 9 (NO) (IV), and HW 2 (CO) 8 (NO) (P(OCH 3 ) 3 ) (V) have been completed. Preliminary results are available for HFeCo 3 (CO) 9 [P(OCH 3 ) 3 ] 3 (VII). This work, together with studies of HMo 2 (C 5 H 5 ) 2 (CO) 4 (P(CH 3 ) 2 ) (VI) and [(C 2 H 5 ) 4 N] + [HCr 2 (CO) 10 ] - carried out at Argonne has led to some general observations on the geometry and the nature of bonding in these compounds. For example, in the structures of IV and V, both of which have bent W--H--W linkages (less than W--H--W in the range 125-130 0 ), there is conclusive evidence for the existence of a closed three-center W--H--W bond with significant metal-metal interaction. Such is the case, because extensions of the axial W--C and W--N bonds trans to the hydride intersect at a point near the center of the W--H--W triangle. The geometry of VI, which also contains a bent M--H--M bond, is consistent with that of IV and V. Bridging M--H bonds in these second- and third-row hydrides range in length from 1.85 to 1.89 A, compared to 1.75 A in the first-row polynuclear complex VII. For metals of corresponding rows, bridging M--H bonds are about 0.1 A longer than terminal bonds, which are classified as single covalent bonds

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech Comparing Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial compared the experimental Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment to the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition (NDP3; Williams & Stephens, 2004), used widely in clinical practice in Australia and the United Kingdom. Both programs aim to improve speech motor planning/programming for children…

  6. The study of structural phase transitions and static properties using transition metal model pseudopotential (TMMP) for Ca and Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhecha, Shalu, E-mail: shalurakhecha@yahoo.com; Vyas, P. R.; Gohel, V. B. [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad - 380009, Gujarat (India); Bhatt, N. K. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar - 388120, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present communication, we have computed static and dynamic properties (binding energy-E, bulk modulus-B and second moment- <ω{sup 2}>) as well as first order pressure induced phase transition (FCC-BCC) using local form of pseudopotential for Calcium and Strontium. The form of pseudopotential used for the computation is directly extracted from Generalized Pseudopotential Theory (GPT) which contains three parameters (r{sub c}, r{sub d} and β). We have suggested a simple method using which pseudopotential is determined by single parameter (β). Our computed results for binding energy and bulk modulii are in excellent agreement with experimental findings and are better than other theoretical results. The present study confirms that s-d hybridization is accounted properly in the presently used pseudopotential and can be extended for the study of lattice mechanical properties of these metals.

  7. Ternary Amides Containing Transition Metals for Hydrogen Storage: A Case Study with Alkali Metal Amidozincates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hujun; Richter, Theresia M M; Pistidda, Claudio; Chaudhary, Anna-Lisa; Santoru, Antonio; Gizer, Gökhan; Niewa, Rainer; Chen, Ping; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The alkali metal amidozincates Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2 and K2[Zn(NH2)4] were, to the best of our knowledge, studied for the first time as hydrogen storage media. Compared with the LiNH2-2 LiH system, both Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2-12 LiH and K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH systems showed improved rehydrogenation performance, especially K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH, which can be fully hydrogenated within 30 s at approximately 230 °C. The absorption properties are stable upon cycling. This work shows that ternary amides containing transition metals have great potential as hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Neutron and x-ray scattering studies of ferroelectric phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.

    1982-08-01

    The subject of ferroelectric type phase transitions is introduced by means of examples of two main classes (a) displacive transitions, e.g. KNbO 3 , and (b) order-disorder transitions, e.g. NaNO 2 . The significance of crystal structure and crystal dynamics (i.e. the phonon dispersion relations) for ferroelectric behaviour is emphasized. The chief methods for structure determination are x-ray and neutron diffraction, while the most powerful of all techniques for studying phonon properties is that of coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The most useful type of neutron spectrometer for phase transition studies, the triple axis crystal spectrometer, is discussed in detail. The history of the soft mode theory of displacive phase transitions, and its application to the antiferroelectric and 'almost ferroelectric' transitions in SrTiO 3 , provides an introduction to more recent developments in this area, including over-damped soft modes, central peaks and critical scattering, incommensurate phase transitions (e.g. K 2 SeO 4 ), amplitudons, phasons and finally solitions. The treatment throughout is descriptive and introductory, designed for graduate students

  9. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  10. Patient quality of life in the Mayo Clinic Care Transitions program: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faucher J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Joshua Faucher,1 Jordan Rosedahl,2 Dawn Finnie,3 Amy Glasgow,3 Paul Takahashi4 1Mayo Medical School, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 2Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Department of Health Science Research, Mayo Clinic, 3Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, 4Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Background: Transitional care programs are common interventions aimed at reducing medical complications and associated readmissions for patients recently discharged from the hospital. While organizations strive to reduce readmissions, another important related metric is patient quality of life (QoL. Aims: To compare the relationship between QoL in patients enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Care Transitions (MCCT program versus usual care, and to determine if QoL changed in MCCT participants between baseline and 1-year follow-up. Methods: A baseline survey was mailed to MCCT enrollees in March 2013. Those who completed a baseline survey were sent a follow-up survey 1 year later. A cross-sectional survey of usual care participants was mailed in November 2013. We included in our analysis 199 participants (83 in the MCCT and 116 in usual care aged over 60 years with multiple comorbidities and receiving primary care. Primary outcomes were self-rated QoL; secondary outcomes included self-reported general, physical, and mental health. Intra- and intergroup comparisons of patients were evaluated using Pearson’s chi-squared analysis. Results: MCCT participants had more comorbidities and higher elder risk assessment scores than those receiving usual care. At baseline, 74% of MCCT participants reported responses of good-to-excellent QoL compared to 64% after 1 year (P=0.16. Between MCCT and usual care, there was no significant difference in self-reported QoL (P=0.21. Between baseline and follow-up in MCCT patients, and compared to usual care, there were no significant

  11. Non-Conventional Techniques for the Study of Phase Transitions in NiTi-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Villa, Elena; Passaretti, Francesca; Albertini, Franca; Cabassi, Riccardo; Pasquale, Massimo; Sasso, Carlo Paolo; Coïsson, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and electrical resistance measurements are the two most common techniques for the study of the phase transition path and temperatures of shape memory alloys (SMA) in stress-free condition. Besides, it is well known that internal friction measurements are also useful for this purpose. There are indeed some further techniques which are seldom used for the basic characterization of SMA transition: dilatometric analysis, magnetic measurements, and Seebeck coefficient study. In this work, we discuss the attitude of these techniques for the study of NiTi-based phase transition. Measurements were conducted on several fully annealed Ni50- x Ti50Cu x samples ranging from 3 to 10 at.% in Cu content, fully annealed at 850 °C for 1 h in vacuum and quenched in water at room temperature. Results show that all these techniques are sensitive to phase transition, and they provide significant information about the existence of intermediate phases.

  12. A Systematic Transport and Thermodynamic Study of Heavy Transition Metal Oxides with Hexagonal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrouna, Kamal

    There is no apparent, dominant interaction in heavy transition metal oxides (TMO), especially in 5d-TMO, where all relevant interactions are of comparable energy scales, and therefore strongly compete. In particular, the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) strongly competes with the electron-lattice and on-site Coulomb interaction (U). Therefore, any tool that allows one to tune the relative strengths of SOI and U is expected to offer an opportunity for the discovery and study of novel materials. BaIrO3 is a magnetic insulator driven by SOI, whereas the isostructural BaRuO3 is a paramagnetic metal. The contrasting ground states have been shown to result from the critical role of SOI in the iridate. This dissertation thoroughly examines a wide array of newly observed novel phenomena induced by adjusting the relative strengths of SOI and U via a systematic chemical substitution of the Ru4+(4d 4) ions for Ir4+(5d5) ions in BaIrO3, i.e., in high quality single crystals of BaIr1--x RuxO3(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0). Our investigation of structural, magnetic, transport and thermal properties reveals that Ru substitution directly rebalances the competing energies so profoundly that it generates a rich phase diagram for BaIr 1--xRuxO 3 featuring two major effects: (1) Light Ru doping (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) prompts a simultaneous and precipitous drop in both the magnetic ordering temperature TC and the electrical resistivity, which exhibits metal-insulator transition at around TC. (2) Heavier Ru doping (0.41 ≤ x ≤ 0.82) induces a robust metallic and spin frustration state. For comparison and contrast, we also substituted Rh4+(4d 5) ions for Ir4+(5d5) ions in BaIrO3, i.e. in BaIr1--xRhxO 3(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1), where Rh only reduces the SOI, but without altering the band filling. Hence, this system remains tuned at the Mott instability and is very susceptible to disorder scattering which gives rise to Anderson localization. KEYWORDS: spin-orbit interaction, heavy transition metal oxides

  13. Nitrogen fertilisation of durum wheat: a case study in Mediterranean area during transition to conservation agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Galieni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N nutrition plays a key role for high yields and quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf. Husn; in Mediterranean environments, data regarding N fertilisation management during the transition phase to conservation agriculture (CA are limited. The aim of this work was to study the effects of N fertiliser forms and rates on yield and some quality traits of durum wheat, during the transition period to CA in Mediterranean areas; moreover, indication on the recommendable N form/rate combinations have been given. Field trials were carried out in south of Italy, during the first two years of transition to CA (from 2010 to 2012 in a durum wheat-based rotation. Following a split-plot design arranged on a randomised complete blocks with three replications, two N forms (main plots - urea and calcium nitrate - and four N rates (sub-plots - 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha–1 - plus an un-fertilised Control, were compared. The following parameters were analysed: grain yield, N-input efficiency, grains protein concentration (GPC, total gluten, gluten fractions and minerals concentration in kernels. Calcium nitrate gave the highest yield (4.48 t ha–1, as predicted by the quadratic model, at 146 kg N ha–1, on average. This was particularly noticeable in 2012, when the distribution of rainfall and temperatures regimes as well as residues’ status could have favoured such N-form. These results were confirmed by the observed higher values of all indices describing N-input efficiency. High GPC values (14.8% were predicted at slightly higher N-rates (173 kg N ha–1, averaging both N forms. In particular, gluten proteins and glutenin/gliadin ratio accrued as the N doses increased, reaching the highest values at 150 kg N ha–1, also positively affecting the quality of durum wheat flour. Iron and zinc concentrations were noticeably increased (38% and 37% on average by N supply, probably due to the enhanced water use efficiency under

  14. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: a Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Bambang Yudi

    2005-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  15. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  16. Genetic diversity, classification and comparative study on the larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity, classification and comparative study on the larval phenotypic ... B. mori showed different performance based on larval phenotypic data. The analysis of variance regarding the studied traits showed that different strains have ...

  17. Theoretical study of B3-to-B1 phase transition in ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Tianquan; Cao, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    The pressure-induced phase transformation from B3 to B1 structures in ZnS using first-principle projector-augmented wave method is studied. To understand the nature and driving force behind the transition, the interesting properties in both phases, including enthalpy, phonon dispersion curves and elastic constants, are systematically investigated. The results show that the calculated transition pressure is within the range of 16.33 GPa to 19.04 GPa, which is in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The transition process can be viewed as the appearance and disappearance of very slight lattice distortion accompanied by the movement of Zn and S atoms along the [111] crystallographic axis. The physical driving force of the B3–B1 phase transition is confirmed to be a coupling effect between the mechanical instability of B3 phase under pressure and the softening acoustic phonon mode resulting from the pressure-induced lattice deformation. For B1 phase, it is further predicted that a new phase transition takes place at about 59.9 GPa. - Highlights: • The phase transformation from B3 to B1 structures in ZnS is studied using first-principle method. • The predicted transition pressure is within the range of 16.33 to 19.04 GPa. • The transition process can be viewed as the appearance and disappearance of very slight lattice distortion. • Physical driving force of the transition is a coupling effect between the mechanical instability and softening phonon. • For B1 phase, it is further predicted that a new phase transition takes place at about 59.9 GPa.

  18. Sub-chronic toxicological studies of transition metal complexes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, Naproxen metal complexes showed comparatively lower side effects than naproxen. Hematological report suggested that naproxen was in process of initiating inflammation which was justified by decreasing the mean value hemoglobin and hematocrit level and increasing the white blood cells level. There were ...

  19. The BEST study - a prospective study to compare business class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. As many as 10% of airline passengers travelling without prophylaxis for long distances may develop a venous thrombosis. There is, however, no evidence that economy class travellers are at increased risk of thrombosis. Objectives. A suitably powered prospective study, based on the incidence of deep-vein ...

  20. Feasibility study on the verification of actual beam delivery in a treatment room using EPID transit dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Tae Seong; Chung, Eun Ji; Son, Jaeman; Yoon, Myonggeun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of transit dosimetry using commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) with simple calibration method to verify the beam delivery based on detection of large errors in treatment room. Twenty four fields of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were selected from four lung cancer patients and used in the irradiation of an anthropomorphic phantom. The proposed method was evaluated by comparing the calculated dose map from TPS and EPID measurement on the same plane using a gamma index method with a 3% dose and 3 mm distance-to-dose agreement tolerance limit. In a simulation using a homogeneous plastic water phantom, performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, the average passing rate of the transit dose based on gamma index was high enough, averaging 94.2% when there was no error during beam delivery. The passing rate of the transit dose for 24 IMRT fields was lower with the anthropomorphic phantom, averaging 86.8% ± 3.8%, a reduction partially due to the inaccuracy of TPS calculations for inhomogeneity. Compared with the TPS, the absolute value of the transit dose at the beam center differed by −0.38% ± 2.1%. The simulation study indicated that the passing rate of the gamma index was significantly reduced, to less than 40%, when a wrong field was erroneously irradiated to patient in the treatment room. This feasibility study suggested that transit dosimetry based on the calculation with commercial TPS and EPID measurement with simple calibration can provide information about large errors for treatment beam delivery

  1. Optimizing Bus Frequencies under Uncertain Demand: Case Study of the Transit Network in a Developing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various factors can make predicting bus passenger demand uncertain. In this study, a bilevel programming model for optimizing bus frequencies based on uncertain bus passenger demand is formulated. There are two terms constituting the upper-level objective. The first is transit network cost, consisting of the passengers’ expected travel time and operating costs, and the second is transit network robustness performance, indicated by the variance in passenger travel time. The second term reflects the risk aversion of decision maker, and it can make the most uncertain demand be met by the bus operation with the optimal transit frequency. With transit link’s proportional flow eigenvalues (mean and covariance obtained from the lower-level model, the upper-level objective is formulated by the analytical method. In the lower-level model, the above two eigenvalues are calculated by analyzing the propagation of mean transit trips and their variation in the optimal strategy transit assignment process. The genetic algorithm (GA used to solve the model is tested in an example network. Finally, the model is applied to determining optimal bus frequencies in the city of Liupanshui, China. The total cost of the transit system in Liupanshui can be reduced by about 6% via this method.

  2. SU-F-T-17: A Feasibility Study for the Transit Dosimetry with a Glass Dosimeter in Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S; Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W; Chung, M; Kim, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Gangdonggu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Confirming the dose delivered to a patient is important to make sure the treatment quality and safety of the radiotherapy. Measuring a transit dose of the patient during the radiotherapy could be an interesting way to confirm the patient dose. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of the transit dosimetry with a glass dosimeter in brachytherapy. Methods: We made a phantom that inserted the glass dosimeters and placed under patient lying on a couch for cervix cancer brachytherapy. The 18 glass dosimeters were placed in the phantom arranged 6 per row. A point putting 1cm vertically from the source was prescribed as 500.00 cGy. Solid phantoms of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 cm were placed between the source and the glass dosimeter. The transit dose was measured each thickness using the glass dosimeters and compared with a treatment planning system (TPS). Results: When the transit dose was smaller than 10 cGy, the average of the differences between measured values and calculated values by TPS was 0.50 cGy and the standard deviation was 0.69 cGy. If the transit dose was smaller than 100 cGy, the average of the error was 1.67 ± 4.01 cGy. The error to a point near the prescription point was −14.02 cGy per 500.00 cGy of the prescription dose. Conclusion: The distances from the sources to skin of the patient generally are within 10 cm for cervix cancer cases in brachytherapy. The results of this preliminary study showed the probability of the glass dosimeter as the transit dosimeter in brachytherapy.

  3. Magnetic transition phase diagram of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on HOPG: Experimental and micromagnetic modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, M., E-mail: mrivera@fisica.unam.m [Imperial College London, Department of Chemistry, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Rios-Reyes, C.H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, C.P. 02200, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, C.P. 42181 (Mexico); Mendoza-Huizar, L.H. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, C.P. 42181 (Mexico)

    2011-04-15

    The magnetic transition from mono- to multidomain magnetic states of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrodes was studied experimentally using Magnetic Force Microscopy. From these images, it was found that the critical size of the magnetic transition is dominated by the height rather than the diameter of the aggregate. This experimental behavior was found to be consistent with a theoretical single-domain ferromagnetic model that states that a critical height limits the monodomain state. By analyzing the clusters magnetic states as a function of their dimensions, magnetic exchange constant and anisotropy value were obtained and used to calculate other magnetic properties such as the exchange length, magnetic wall thickness, etc. Finally, a micromagnetic simulation study correctly predicted the experimental magnetic transition phase diagram. - Research highlights: > Electrodeposition of cobalt clusters. > Mono to multidomain magnetic transition. > Magnetic phase diagram.

  4. Magnetic transition phase diagram of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on HOPG: Experimental and micromagnetic modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, M.; Rios-Reyes, C.H.; Mendoza-Huizar, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic transition from mono- to multidomain magnetic states of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrodes was studied experimentally using Magnetic Force Microscopy. From these images, it was found that the critical size of the magnetic transition is dominated by the height rather than the diameter of the aggregate. This experimental behavior was found to be consistent with a theoretical single-domain ferromagnetic model that states that a critical height limits the monodomain state. By analyzing the clusters magnetic states as a function of their dimensions, magnetic exchange constant and anisotropy value were obtained and used to calculate other magnetic properties such as the exchange length, magnetic wall thickness, etc. Finally, a micromagnetic simulation study correctly predicted the experimental magnetic transition phase diagram. - Research highlights: → Electrodeposition of cobalt clusters. →Mono to multidomain magnetic transition. → Magnetic phase diagram.

  5. Assessment of colorectal length using the electromagnetic capsule tracking system: a comparative validation study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, E B; Poulsen, J L; Haase, A M; Frøkjaer, J B; Schlageter, V; Scott, S M; Krogh, K; Drewes, A M

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centreline' of capsule movement and comparing it with known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed with the system. The 3D-Transit system consists of electromagnetic capsules that can be tracked as they traverse the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty-five healthy subjects were examined with both 3D-Transit and MRI. Another 21 healthy subjects were examined with 3D-Transit on two consecutive days. Computation of colorectal length from capsule passage was possible for 60 of the 67 3D-Transit recordings. The length of the colorectum measured with MRI and 3D-Transit was 95 (75-153) cm and 99 (77-147) cm, respectively (P = 0.15). The coefficient of variation (CV) between MRI and 3D-Transit was 7.8%. Apart from the caecum/ascending colon being 26% (P = 0.002) shorter on MRI, there were no other differences in total or segmental colorectal lengths between methods (all P > 0.05). The length of the colorectum measured with 3D-Transit on two consecutive days was 102 (73-119) cm and 103 (75-123) cm (P = 0.67). The CV between days was 7.3%. The 3D-Transit system allows accurate and reliable determination of colorectal length compared with MRI-derived colorectal length and between days. Antegrade or retrograde capsule movement relative to this centreline, as well as the length and speed of movements, may be determined by future studies to allow better classification and treatment in patients with dysmotility. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. A single-center, prospective, double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized study of the effect of a vibrating capsule on colonic transit in patients with chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A D; Camilleri, M; Acosta, A; Boldingh, A; Busciglio, I; Burton, D; Ryks, M; Zinsmeister, A R

    2017-07-01

    In an open-label study of 26 patients with IBS-C and chronic constipation, treatment with a vibrating (VIBRANT) capsule twice a week for 7.5 weeks resulted in 88.5% responders. Effects on colonic transit are unclear. We aimed to compare effects of VIBRANT and sham capsule treatment on colonic transit in patients with functional constipation. Patients with functional constipation (Rome III criteria) were randomized to VIBRANT or sham capsule treatment for 8 weeks and underwent scintigraphic colonic transit measurements during week 8. We estimated the overall rate of colonic transit from the slope of progression of colonic geometric center over 48 hours. The capsule was activated 8 hours after ingestion, and the vibration sequence included 240 cycles. There were no significant group differences in overall colonic transit [GC48, 2.76 (IQR 2.42-4.03) for sham group and 3.46 (2.55-4.61) for active treatment group (P=.13)]. Additionally, the progression of the isotope through the colon was numerically faster, though not significantly different (slope, P=.14) in the VIBRANT capsule group compared to the sham group. Three participants in the VIBRANT capsule group had accelerated colonic transit at 32 hours and faster colonic transit slope compared to the 95th percentile of the sham group. Although there were no group differences between VIBRANT and sham capsule treatment on colonic transit, at least one (and possibly three) of 12 patients receiving the VIBRANT capsule had faster colonic transit. The vibration parameters to accelerate colonic transit in patients with functional constipation require further optimization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Glass transition temperature of PMMA/modified alumina nanocomposite: Molecular dynamic study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Maryam; Davoodi, Jamal; Javanbakht, Mahdi; Rezaei, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of alumina and modified alumina nanoparticles in a PMMA/alumina nanocomposite was investigated. To attain this goal, the glass transition behavior of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), PMMA/alumina and PMMA/hydroxylated alumina nanocomposites were investigated by molecular dynamic simulations (MD). All the MD simulations were performed using the Materials Studio 6.0 software package of Accelrys. To obtain the glass transition temperature, the variation of density vs. t...

  8. Assembly of Collagen Matrices as a Phase Transition Revealed by Structural and Rheologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Forgacs, Gabor; Newman, Stuart A.; Hinner, Bernhard; Maier, Christian W.; Sackmann, Erich

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the structural and viscoelastic properties of assembling networks of the extracellular matrix protein type-I collagen by means of phase contrast microscopy and rotating disk rheometry. The initial stage of the assembly is a nucleation process of collagen monomers associating to randomly distributed branched clusters with extensions of several microns. Eventually a sol-gel transition takes place, which is due to the interconnection of these clusters. We analyzed this transition...

  9. Transit use and physical activity: Findings from the Houston travel-related activity in neighborhoods (TRAIN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Knell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation-related physical activity can significantly increase daily total physical activity through active transportation or walking/biking to transit stops. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between transit-use and self-reported and monitor-based physical activity levels in a predominantly minority population from the Houston Travel-Related Activity in Neighborhoods (TRAIN Study. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 865 adults living in Houston, Texas between 2013 and 2015. The exposure variable was transit-use (non-users, occasional users, and primary users. Self-reported and accelerometer-determined physical activity were the outcomes of interest. Regression models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other covariates of interest were built to test the hypothesis that transit user status was directly associated with 1 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity and 2 the prevalence of achieving the physical activity guidelines. The majority of participants were female, non-Hispanic black, and almost one-third had a high school education or less. After adjustment, primary transit-use was associated with 134.2 (p<0.01 additional mean minutes per week of self-reported moderate-intensity transportation-related physical activity compared to non-users. Further, primary users had 7.3 (95% CI: 2.6–20.1 times the relative adjusted odds of meeting physical activity recommendations than non-users based on self-reported transportation-related physical activity. There were no statistically significant associations of transit-use with self-reported leisure-time or accelerometer-derived physical activity. Transit-use has the potential for a large public health impact due to its sustainability and scalability. Therefore, encouraging the use of transit as a means to promote physical activity should be examined in future studies. Keywords: Physical activity, Transportation, Commuting, Motor activity, Urban health

  10. A study of the transition pathways of school level scholarship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    intervention. The benefits reported included a sound preparation for life and academic studies, and other benefits that the .... fied (on average) in this study as stress inducing. Adding further ...... Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

  11. Comparative pelvic development of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri): conservation and innovation across the fish-tetrapod transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Catherine Anne; Joss, Jean Mp; Ahlberg, Per E

    2013-01-23

    The fish-tetrapod transition was one of the major events in vertebrate evolution and was enabled by many morphological changes. Although the transformation of paired fish fins into tetrapod limbs has been a major topic of study in recent years, both from paleontological and comparative developmental perspectives, the interest has focused almost exclusively on the distal part of the appendage and in particular the origin of digits. Relatively little attention has been paid to the transformation of the pelvic girdle from a small unipartite structure to a large tripartite weight-bearing structure, allowing tetrapods to rely mostly on their hindlimbs for locomotion. In order to understand how the ischium and the ilium evolved and how the acetabulum was reoriented during this transition, growth series of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri and the Mexican axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum were cleared and stained for cartilage and bone and immunostained for skeletal muscles. In order to understand the myological developmental data, hypotheses about the homologies of pelvic muscles in adults of Latimeria, Neoceratodus and Necturus were formulated based on descriptions from the literature of the coelacanth (Latimeria), the Australian Lungfish (Neoceratodus) and a salamander (Necturus). In the axolotl and the lungfish, the chondrification of the pelvic girdle starts at the acetabula and progresses anteriorly in the lungfish and anteriorly and posteriorly in the salamander. The ilium develops by extending dorsally to meet and connect to the sacral rib in the axolotl. Homologous muscles develop in the same order with the hypaxial musculature developing first, followed by the deep, then the superficial pelvic musculature. Development of the pelvic endoskeleton and musculature is very similar in Neoceratodus and Ambystoma. If the acetabulum is seen as being a fixed landmark, the evolution of the ischium only required pubic pre-chondrogenic cells to migrate posteriorly. It

  12. Comparative study of casual and regular workers' job satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the comparative study of regular and casual workers' job satisfaction and commitment in two selected banks in Lagos State, A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 145 respondents were selected for the study using proportionate stratified sampling technique.

  13. Magnetic phase transitions in Er7Rh3 studied on single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutaoka, Takanori; Obata, Keisuke; Cheyvuth, Seng; Koyama, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Magnetic and electrical properties of Er 7 Rh 3 were studied on single crystals. • The magnetic phase diagram along the c-axis was constructed. • The field-induced magnetic transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 can be explained by the magnetic structure with two magnetic propagation vectors. • The anomalies of electrical resistivity can also be described by the magnetic structure in Er 7 Rh 3 . - Abstract: Magnetic phase transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 with the Th 7 Fe 3 type hexagonal structure have been studied on single crystals by measuring magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity. Er 7 Rh 3 possesses antiferromagnetic state below T N = 13 K. In the ordered state, the two successive magnetic transitions at T t1 = 6.2 K and T t2 = 4.5 K were observed. Several field-induced magnetic transitions were also observed along the a- and c-axes below T N ; magnetic field H – temperature T phase diagram along the c-axis was constructed. The field-induced magnetic transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 can be explained by the magnetic structure with two magnetic propagation vectors which were derived by the previous neutron diffraction studies. Electrical resistivity shows humps just below the magnetic transition temperatures, T N and T t1 due to the super-zone gap formation at the Fermi level; these anomalies can also be described by the magnetic structure changes in Er 7 Rh 3

  14. A SPITZER IRS STUDY OF INFRARED VARIABILITY IN TRANSITIONAL AND PRE-TRANSITIONAL DISKS AROUND T TAURI STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espaillat, C.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Sargent, B.; Muzerolle, J.; Nagel, E.; Calvet, N.; Watson, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a Spitzer IRS study of variability in 14 T Tauri stars in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions. The sample is composed of transitional and pre-transitional objects which contain holes and gaps in their disks. We detect variability between 5 and 38 μm in all but two of our objects on timescales of 2-3 years. Most of the variability observed can be classified as seesaw behavior, whereby the emission at shorter wavelengths varies inversely with the emission at longer wavelengths. For many of the objects we can reasonably reproduce the observed variability using irradiated disk models, particularly by changing the height of the inner disk wall by ∼20%. When the inner wall is taller, the emission at the shorter wavelengths is higher since the inner wall dominates the emission at 2-8 μm. The taller inner wall casts a larger shadow on the outer disk wall, leading to less emission at wavelengths beyond 20 μm where the outer wall dominates. We discuss how the possible presence of planets in these disks could lead to warps that cause changes in the height of the inner wall. We also find that crystalline silicates are common in the outer disks of our objects and that in the four disks in the sample with the most crystalline silicates, variability on timescales of 1 week is present. In addition to explaining the infrared variability described above, planets can create shocks and collisions which can crystallize the dust and lead to short timescale variability.

  15. Implicit Segmentation of a Stream of Syllables Based on Transitional Probabilities: An MEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teinonen, Tuomas; Huotilainen, Minna

    2012-01-01

    Statistical segmentation of continuous speech, i.e., the ability to utilise transitional probabilities between syllables in order to detect word boundaries, is reflected in the brain's auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). The N1 and N400 ERP components are typically enhanced for word onsets compared to random syllables during active…

  16. X-ray-emission studies of chemical bonding in transition-metal silicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P.J.W.; Leuken, H. van; Groot, R.A. de; Fuggle, J.C.; Reiter, S.; Wiech, G.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    1991-01-01

    We present Si L2,3 emission-band spectra of a series of 3d and 4d transition-metal (TM) silicides, together wtih Si K emission-band spectra of four 3d TM disilicides. The data are compared with augmented-spherical-wave density-of-states (DOS) calculations, and good agreement is found. The trends we

  17. 77 FR 25152 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-National Longitudinal Transitions Study-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... attended; and scores on reading and mathematics achievement tests. The system of records also includes... congressionally mandated national assessment of Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA). It will be... characteristics? Compare Current Transition-Age Students With an IEP to Their Peers in Prior Cohorts How do the...

  18. Ecological agriculture in South-India : an agro-economic comparison and study of transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.; Werf, van der E.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes two research programmes carried out on ecological agriculture in South-India. Experiences of twelve farmers in transition towards ecological agriculture are described and analysed. The comparative performance of seven farmer pairs, consisting of one ecological and one

  19. Ecological agriculture in South-India : an agro-economic comparison and study of transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, de, A.; Werf, van der, E.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes two research programmes carried out on ecological agriculture in South-India. Experiences of twelve farmers in transition towards ecological agriculture are described and analysed. The comparative performance of seven farmer pairs, consisting of one ecological and one conventional reference farm, is analysed in relation to agronomic and economic performance

  20. Dirac-Hartree-Fock studies of X-ray transitions in meitnerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfelder, C.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.

    2008-01-01

    The K -shell and L -shell ionizations potentials for 268 109 Mt were calculated at the Dirac-Hartree-Fock level taking into account quantum electrodynamic and finite nuclear-size effects. The K α1 transition energies for different ionization states are accurately predicted and compared with recent experiments in the α -decay of 272 111 Rg. (orig.)

  1. Comparative study of neutron irradiation and carbon doping in MgB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzler, C.; Zehetmayer, M.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.

    2007-01-01

    We compare the reversible and irreversible magnetic properties of superconducting carbon doped and undoped MgB 2 single crystals before and after neutron irradiation. A large number of samples with transition temperatures between 38.3 and 22.8 K allows us to study the effects of disorder systematically. Striking similarities are found in the modification of the reversible parameters by irradiation and doping, which are discussed in terms of impurity scattering and changes of the Fermi surface. The irreversible properties are influenced by two counteracting mechanisms: they are enhanced by the newly introduced pinning centers but degraded by changes in the thermodynamic properties. Accordingly, the large neutron induced defects and the small defects from carbon doping lead to significantly different effects on the irreversible properties. Finally, the fishtail effect caused by all kinds of disorder is discussed in terms of an order-disorder transition of the flux-line lattice

  2. From Comparative Education to Comparative Pedagogy: A Physical Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades forces of globalization and the rise of and access to information technology have transformed the nature of educational research. Traditional disciplines such as comparative education have not been immune to these transformational impacts. Although one might expect globalization to promote the study of comparative…

  3. Photoelectron spectroscopic studies of some transition metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, A.D.

    1974-01-01

    Photoelectron spectra of polycrystalline samples of Cu, Ag and Au at photon energies of 21.22, 40.81 eV and 1487 eV were measured. The corrected 40.81 eV results were compared to theoretical band structure calculations and monochromatized x-ray photoelectron results. Correlation of hitherto unresolved peaks in the 40.81 eV spectra was observed. Comparison of the relative intensities of the spectral d bands and the theoretical calculations revealed discrepancies which were assigned to matrix element modulation effects in the photoelectron emission process. Experimental measurements and theories of the electronic structure of disordered alloy systems were reviewed. The 21.22 eV and 40.81 eV photoelectron spectra of some AgPd and AgAu alloys were measured. The spectra were compared with previous x-ray photon results, and with theoretical calculations based on the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA) model of disordered alloy systems. The present results were found to give more clearly defined spectral details, with differences in the comparison reflecting the simplifying assumptions of the CPA calculation. (author)

  4. Spin glass transition in canonical AuFe alloys: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Gui-Bin; Zhu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Although spin glass transitions have long been observed in diluted magnetic alloys, e.g. AuFe and CuMn alloys, previous numerical studies are not completely consistent with the experiment results. The abnormal critical exponents of the alloys remain still puzzling. By employing parallel tempering algorithm with finite-size scaling analysis, we investigated the phase transitions in canonical AuFe alloys. Our results strongly support that spin glass transitions occur at finite temperatures in the alloys. The calculated critical exponents agree well with those obtained from experiments. -- Highlights: ► By simulation we investigated the abnormal critical exponents observed in canonical SG alloys. ► The critical exponents obtained from our simulations agree well with those measured from experiments. ► Our results strongly support that RKKY interactions lead to SG transitions at finite temperatures.

  5. Experimental study of linear magnetic dichroism in photoionization satellite transitions of atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenkaelae, K.; Alagia, M.; Feyer, V.; Richter, R.; Prince, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Laser orientation in the initial state has been used to study the properties of satellite transitions in inner-shell photoionization of rubidium atoms. The linear magnetic dichroism in the angular distribution (LMDAD) has been utilized to probe the continuum waves of orbital angular momentum conserving monopole, and angular momentum changing conjugate satellites, accompanying the 4p ionization of atomic Rb. We show experimentally that LMDAD of both types of satellite transitions is nonzero and that LMDAD of monopole satellites, measured as a function of photon energy, mimics the LMDAD of direct photoionization, whereas the LMDAD of conjugate transitions deviates drastically from that trend. The results indicate that conjugate transitions cannot be described theoretically without explicit inclusion of electron-electron interaction. The present data can thus be used as a very precise test of current models for photoionization.

  6. Walk Score® and Transit Score® and Walking in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Moore, Kari A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® and Transit Score® are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking (“walkability”) and access to transportation. Purpose To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with self-reported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multi-city and diverse population-based sample of adults. Methods Data from a sample of 4552 residents of Baltimore MD; Chicago IL; Forsyth County NC; Los Angeles CA; New York NY; and St. Paul MN from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2010–2012) were linked to Walk Score and Transit Score (collected in 2012). Logistic and linear regression models estimated ORs of not walking and mean differences in minutes walked, respectively, associated with continuous and categoric Walk Score and Transit Score. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results After adjustment for site, key sociodemographic, and health variables, a higher Walk Score was associated with lower odds of not walking for transport and more minutes/week of transport walking. Compared to those in a “walker’s paradise,” lower categories of Walk Score were associated with a linear increase in odds of not transport walking and a decline in minutes of leisure walking. An increase in Transit Score was associated with lower odds of not transport walking or leisure walking, and additional minutes/week of leisure walking. Conclusions Walk Score and Transit Score appear to be useful as measures of walkability in analyses of neighborhood effects. PMID:23867022

  7. A study of the transition pathways of school level scholarship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study tracked the progress of alumni of an educational intervention two or three years post school, in order to investigate their pathways to their destinations of work and study. Forty percent of the alumni were successfully traced, and asked to fill in an online questionnaire. Of the 104 traced alumni, 80% reported good ...

  8. Important Questions of Comparative Studies in Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazyura, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the "identity" of comparative education as a field of study or a discipline has been discussed for decades. Yet a kind of systematic structure that provides the basic principles for a coherent exposition of the field remains open. "Comparative education" is no longer conceived as an imaginary field's coherence but,…

  9. Comparative Study of Biogas Yield Pattern in Some Animal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was a laboratory based work which compared Biogas yield patterns in some animal and household wastes. The parameters studied included dilution and concentration of substrates, the effect of available space in the digester, and the comparative biogas yield from different wastes. The method of research ...

  10. Mobile Learning vs. Traditional Classroom Lessons: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furió, D.; Juan, M.-C.; Seguí, I.; Vivó, R.

    2015-01-01

    Different methods can be used for learning, and they can be compared in several aspects, especially those related to learning outcomes. In this paper, we present a study in order to compare the learning effectiveness and satisfaction of children using an iPhone game for learning the water cycle vs. the traditional classroom lesson. The iPhone game…

  11. Comparative ultrasound study of acute lateral ankle ligament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The return to competitive level of sport dates were also documented and compared. A single blind randomised control study comparing the JSFB rehabilitation programme with conventional ankle rehabilitation programmes was used. Ultrasound examinations were done on all first time lateral ankle ligament injuries 72 ...

  12. Participation in modified sports programs: a longitudinal study of children's transition to club sport competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Casey, Meghan M; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Young, Janet A; Payne, Warren R

    2015-07-14

    Many children are not physically active enough for a health benefit. One avenue of physical activity is modified sport programs, designed as an introduction to sport for young children. This longitudinal study identified trends in participation among children aged 4-12 years. Outcomes included continuation in the modified sports program, withdrawal from the program or transition to club sport competition. De-identified data on participant membership registrations in three popular sports in the Australian state of Victoria were obtained from each sport's state governing body over a 4-year period (2009-2012 for Sport A and 2010-2013 for Sports B and C). From the membership registrations, those who were enrolled in a modified sports program in the first year were tracked over the subsequent three years and classified as one of: transition (member transitioned from a modified sport program to a club competition); continue (member continued participation in a modified sport program; or withdraw (member discontinued a modified program and did not transition to club competition). Many modified sports participants were very young, especially males aged 4-6 years. More children withdrew from their modified sport program rather than transitioning. There were age differences between when boys and girls started, withdrew and transitioned from the modified sports programs. If we can retain children in sport it is likely to be beneficial for their health. This study highlights considerations for the development and implementation of sport policies and programming to ensure lifelong participation is encouraged for both males and females.

  13. Theoretical study of solvent effects on the coil-globule transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, James M.; Opps, Sheldon B.; Abou Risk, Nicholas

    2009-06-01

    The coil-globule transition of a polymer in a solvent has been studied using Monte Carlo simulations of a single chain subject to intramolecular interactions as well as a solvent-mediated effective potential. This solvation potential was calculated using several different theoretical approaches for two simple polymer/solvent models, each employing hard-sphere chains and hard-sphere solvent particles as well as attractive square-well potentials between some interaction sites. For each model, collapse is driven by variation in a parameter which changes the energy mismatch between monomers and solvent particles. The solvation potentials were calculated using two fundamentally different methodologies, each designed to predict the conformational behavior of polymers in solution: (1) the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory and (2) a many-body solvation potential (MBSP) based on scaled particle theory introduced by Grayce [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 5171 (1997)]. For the PRISM calculations, two well-studied solvation monomer-monomer pair potentials were employed, each distinguished by the closure relation used in its derivation: (i) a hypernetted-chain (HNC)-type potential and (ii) a Percus-Yevick (PY)-type potential. The theoretical predictions were each compared to results obtained from explicit-solvent discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations on the same polymer/solvent model systems [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 194904 (2006)]. In each case, the variation in the coil-globule transition properties with solvent density is mostly qualitatively correct, though the quantitative agreement between the theory and prediction is typically poor. The HNC-type potential yields results that are more qualitatively consistent with simulation. The conformational behavior of the polymer upon collapse predicted by the MBSP approach is quantitatively correct for low and moderate solvent densities but is increasingly less accurate for higher densities. At high solvent densities

  14. Study of ion viscosity by spontaneous L-H transitions under marginal hot cathode biasing in the Tohoku University Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Utoh, H.; Takenaga, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Inagaki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Nishimura, K.; Ogawa, H.; Takayama, M.; Shinde, J.; Ogawa, M.; Aoyama, H.; Iwazaki, K.; Okamoto, A.; Shinto, K.; Sasao, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using the spontaneous transition condition under marginal hot cathode biasing, the ion viscosity at the L-H transition was estimated in various magnetic configurations in the Tohoku University Heliac. The critical viscosity, which is the viscosity at the transition point, was experimentally estimated from the J x B driving force. The critical viscosities in different magnetic configurations were in agreement with the neoclassical predictions within a factor of 2 and were compared with the viscosities obtained in the externally forced biasing experiments. Although the transition points were spread over a wide range, poloidal Mach numbers at the transition point were concentrated near the viscosity maxima predicted by the theory

  15. A comparative study of the palliative care needs of heart failure and cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Norma

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: Studies suggest that patients with advanced heart failure (HF) have unmet palliative care (PC) needs. However, many of these studies have been retrospective or based on patients receiving poorly coordinated ad hoc care. We aimed to demonstrate whether the PC needs of patients with advanced HF receiving specialist multidisciplinary coordinated care are similar to cancer patients deemed to have specialist PC needs; thereby justifying the extension of specialist PC services to HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a cross-sectional comparative cohort study of 50 HF patients and 50 cancer patients, using quantitative and qualitative methods. Both patient cohorts were statistically indistinguishable in terms of symptom burden, emotional wellbeing, and quality-of-life scores. HF patients had good access to community and social support. HF patients particularly valued the close supervision, medication monitoring, ease of access to service, telephone support, and key worker provided at the HF unit. A small subset of patients had unmet PC needs. A palliative transition point is described. CONCLUSION: HF patients should not be excluded from specialist PC services. However, the majority of their needs can be met at a HF unit. Recognition of the palliative transition point may be key to ensuring that end-of-life issues are addressed. The palliative transition point needs further evaluation.

  16. A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia ... By taking an approach that emphasizes life course poverty and gender ... Goal #5, Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

  17. Comparative Studies on the Cardiovascular System in the Wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    http://ww.bioline.org.br/ja. Comparative Studies on the Cardiovascular System in the Wistar Rat (Rattus .... norvegicus) were gotten from the animal house of the. Department of Anatomy .... Locomotion and Respiration in. Marine Air – Breathing ...

  18. Comparative Study on the Proximate Analysis and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-01-19

    Jan 19, 2018 ... especially when compared with synthetic drugs. Moreso, due to their ... 1992), antihypertensive (Kamanyi et al., 1991) and antiglycaemic agents ..... extensive toxicity study on both plants needs to be done to ascertain their ...

  19. Comparative morphological and ecological studies of two Stachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, comparative morphological and ecological studies of Stachys balansae and S. carduchorum were investigated. Morphologically, general views of taxa and micromorphological features of the trichomes were studied. S. balansae differs from S. carduchorum in its leaves sericeouspilose on the upper surface and ...

  20. Comparative Study of Internal Efficiency in Private and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The education sector has been undergoing regular reviews so that to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness in resource utilization. This study was designed to make a comparative study of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools of Manga Division, Nyamira District, Kenya. Specifically, the study not ...

  1. Comparative Transcriptomes Profiling of Photoperiod-sensitive Male Sterile Rice Nongken 58S During the Male Sterility Transition between Short-day and Long-day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yingguo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS rice, Nongken 58S, was discovered in 1973. It has been widely used for the production of hybrid rice, and great achievements have been made in improving rice yields. However, the mechanism of the male sterility transition in PGMS rice remains to be determined. Results To investigate the transcriptome during the male sterility transition in PGMS rice, the transcriptome of Nongken 58S under short-day (SD and long-day (LD at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages was compared. Seventy-three and 128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages, respectively. Five and 22 genes were markedly up-regulated (≥ 5-fold, and two and five genes were considerably down-regulated (≥ 5-fold under SD during the male sterility transition. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis revealed that four biological processes and the circadian rhythms and the flowering pathways coordinately regulated the male sterility transition. Further quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the circadian rhythms of OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsGI, Hd1, OsLHY and OsDof in leaves were obviously different between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under LD conditions. Moreover, both OsPRR37 and Hd1 in the inflorescence displayed differences between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under both LD and SD conditions. Conclusion The results presented here indicate that the transcriptome in Nongken 58S was significantly suppressed under LD conditions. Among these DEGs, the circadian rhythm and the flowering pathway were involved in the male sterility transition. Furthermore, these pathways were coordinately involved in the male sterility transition in PGMS rice.

  2. Health system strengthening in Cambodia-a case study of health policy response to social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John; Khut, Qiu Yi; Oum, Sophal; Annear, Peter; Ky, Veng

    2009-10-01

    Cambodia, following decades of civil conflict and social and economic transition, has in the last 10 years developed health policy innovations in the areas of health contracting, health financing and health planning. This paper aims to outline recent social, epidemiological and demographic health trends in Cambodia, and on the basis of this outline, to analyse and discuss these policy responses to social transition. Sources of information included a literature review, participant observation in health planning development in Cambodia between 1993 and 2008, and comparative analysis of demographic health surveys between 2000 and 2005. In Cambodia there have been sharp but unequal improvements in child mortality, and persisting high maternal mortality rates. Data analysis demonstrates associations between location, education level and access to facility based care, suggesting the dominant role of socio-economic factors in determining access to facility based health care. These events are taking place against a background of rapid social transition in Cambodian history, including processes of decentralization, privatization and the development of open market economic systems. Primary policy responses of the Ministry of Health to social transition and associated health inequities include the establishment of health contracting, hospital health equity funds and public-private collaborations. Despite the internationally recognized health policy flexibility and innovation demonstrated in Cambodia, policy response still lags well behind the reality of social transition. In order to minimize the delay between transition and response, new policy making tactics are required in order to provide more flexible and timely responses to the ongoing social transition and its impacts on population health needs in the lowest socio-economic quintiles.

  3. School Transitions: A Qualitative Study of the Supports Provided by Washington State Special Education Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of special education administrators in the transition planning process for children with disabilities ages 3-21 in selected Washington school districts. A basic qualitative study was selected to construct meaning from a described phenomenon. The study sought to identify and explain how special education…

  4. Frailty transitions and types of death in Chinese older adults: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-yan; Wang, Xiao-feng; Shi, Yan; Hai, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known about the adverse effects of frailty transitions. In this study, we aimed to characterize the transitions between frailty states and examine their associations with the type of death among older adults in China, a developing country with a rapidly growing aging population. Methods We used data of 11,165 older adults (aged 65–99 years) from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Overall, 44 health deficits were used to construct frailty index (FI; range: 0–1), which was then categorized into a three-level variable: nonfrail (FI ≤0.10), prefrail (0.100.21). Outcome was four types of death based on bedridden days and suffering state (assessed in the 2008 wave of CLHLS). Results During the 3-year period, 3,394 (30.4%) participants had transitioned between different frailty states (nonfrail, prefrail, and frail), one-third transitioned to death, and one-third remained in previous frailty states. Transitions to greater frailty (ie, “worsening”) were more common than transitions to lesser frailty (ie, “improvement”). Among four categories of frailty transitions, “worsening” and “remaining frail” had increased risks of painful death, eg, with odds ratios of 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.41, 2.62) and 4.75 (95% CI =3.32, 6.80), respectively, for type 4 death (ie, ≥30 bedridden days with suffering before death). Conclusion This large sample of older adults in China supports that frailty is a dynamic process, characterized by frequent types of transitions. Furthermore, those who remained frail had the highest likelihood of experiencing painful death, which raises concerns about the quality of life in frail populations. PMID:29805253

  5. Temperature-dependent vibrational spectroscopy to study order-disorder transitions in charge transfer complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Isaac

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Charge-transfer (CT complexes are a promising class of materials for the semiconductor industry because of their versatile properties. This class of compounds shows a variety of phase transitions, which are of interest because of their potential impact on the electronic characteristics. Here temperature-dependent vibrational spectroscopy is used to study structural phase transitions in a set of organic CT complexes. Splitting and broadening of infrared-active phonons in the complex formed between pyrene and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA confirm the structural transition is of the order-disorder type and complement previous x-ray diffraction (XRD results. We show that this technique is a powerful tool to characterize transitions, and apply it to a range of binary CT complexes composed of polyaromatic hyrdocarbons (anthracene, perylene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and stilbene and PMDA. We extend the understanding of transitions in perylene-PMDA and pyrene-PMDA, and show that there are no order-disorder transitions present in anthracene-PMDA, stilbene-PMDA and phenanthrene-PMDA in the temperature range investigated here.

  6. Temperature-dependent vibrational spectroscopy to study order-disorder transitions in charge transfer complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Rohan; Goetz, Katelyn P.; Roberts, Drew; Jurchescu, Oana D.; McNeil, L. E.

    2018-02-01

    Charge-transfer (CT) complexes are a promising class of materials for the semiconductor industry because of their versatile properties. This class of compounds shows a variety of phase transitions, which are of interest because of their potential impact on the electronic characteristics. Here temperature-dependent vibrational spectroscopy is used to study structural phase transitions in a set of organic CT complexes. Splitting and broadening of infrared-active phonons in the complex formed between pyrene and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) confirm the structural transition is of the order-disorder type and complement previous x-ray diffraction (XRD) results. We show that this technique is a powerful tool to characterize transitions, and apply it to a range of binary CT complexes composed of polyaromatic hyrdocarbons (anthracene, perylene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and stilbene) and PMDA. We extend the understanding of transitions in perylene-PMDA and pyrene-PMDA, and show that there are no order-disorder transitions present in anthracene-PMDA, stilbene-PMDA and phenanthrene-PMDA in the temperature range investigated here.

  7. A proposal to study the esophageal transit by biomagnetic and scintigraphic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghastanli, N.A.; Braga, F.J.H.N.; Baffa, O.

    1996-01-01

    The initial results for a new apparatus to study the esophageal transit time is studied in asymptomatic persons for a yogurt bolus (10 ml). The bolus is uniformly labeled with 5 g of ferrite powder (biomagnetic study, B) or 350 MBq of 99m Tc (scintigraphic study, C). For the B study the detection is made by means two pair of coils in opposite phase excited by a 10 k Hz sinusoidal voltage. The signal response is obtained when the bolus traverses the coils placed on the regions-of-interest (ROIs) of the esophagus (furcula, F and xiphoid process, X) and produces a signal voltage that is measured by a lock-in amplifier Stanford SR530. For C studies an Orbiter Siemens scintillation camera is used linked to a computer. The data analysis shows a (4.1±0.7)s in B studies and (3.7±0.9)s in C studies (R=0.6, P<0.07)

  8. Transitions Study of predictors of illness progression in young people with mental ill health: study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, R; Jorm, A F; Hickie, I B; Yung, A R; Pantelis, C; Amminger, G P; Glozier, N; Killackey, E; Phillips, L; Wood, S J; Mackinnon, A; Scott, E; Kenyon, A; Mundy, L; Nichles, A; Scaffidi, A; Spiliotacopoulos, D; Taylor, L; Tong, J P Y; Wiltink, S; Zmicerevska, N; Hermens, Daniel; Guastella, Adam; McGorry, P D

    2015-02-01

    An estimated 75% of mental disorders begin before the age of 24 and approximately 25% of 13-24-year-olds are affected by mental disorders at any one time. To better understand and ideally prevent the onset of post-pubertal mental disorders, a clinical staging model has been proposed that provides a longitudinal perspective of illness development. This heuristic model takes account of the differential effects of both genetic and environmental risk factors, as well as markers relevant to the stage of illness, course or prognosis. The aim of the Transitions Study is to test empirically the assumptions that underpin the clinical staging model. Additionally, it will permit investigation of a range of psychological, social and genetic markers in terms of their capacity to define current clinical stage or predict transition from less severe or enduring to more severe and persistent stages of mental disorder. This paper describes the study methodology, which involves a longitudinal cohort design implemented within four headspace youth mental health services in Australia. Participants are young people aged 12-25 years who have sought help at headspace and consented to complete a comprehensive assessment of clinical state and psychosocial risk factors. A total of 802 young people (66% female) completed baseline assessments. Annual follow-up assessments have commenced. The results of this study may have implications for the way mental disorders are diagnosed and treated, and progress our understanding of the pathophysiologies of complex mental disorders by identifying genetic or psychosocial markers of illness stage or progression. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Temperature-dependent study of isotropic-nematic transition for a Gay-Berne fluid using density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ram Chandra

    2007-01-01

    We have used the density-functional theory to study the effect of varying temperature on the isotropic-nematic transition of a fluid of molecules interacting via the Gay-Berne intermolecular potential. The nematic phase is found to be stable with respect to isotropic phase in the temperature range 0.80≤T*≤1.25. Pair correlation functions needed as input information in density-functional theory is calculated using the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory. We find that the density-functional theory is good for studying the isotropic-nematic transition in molecular fluids if the values of the pair-correlation functions in the isotropic phase are known accurately. We have also compared our results with computer simulation results wherever they are available

  10. Thermodynamic study of phase transitions of imidazoles and 1-methylimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ana R.R.P.; Monte, Manuel J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Sublimation vapor pressures of imidazole, N-methylimidazole and four derivatives were measured. → Liquid vapor pressures were also measured for four of the compounds studied. → Vapor pressure results enabled determination of sublimation, vaporization, and fusion enthalpy. → From enthalpies of sublimation, enthalpies of intermolecular N-H...N bonds were estimated. - Abstract: The vapor pressures of imidazole, N-methylimidazole and of their dichloro and dicyano substituted compounds were measured at different temperatures, in the crystalline phase for two of them, and in crystalline and liquid phases for the other four. From these measurements, enthalpies and standard entropies of sublimation and vaporization were derived. The results allowed the determination of the triple points (p, T) coordinates of the four compounds studied in both condensed phases as well as the calculation of their enthalpy of fusion. Enthalpies and temperatures of fusion were also determined using d.s.c. The experimental results enabled the estimation of the enthalpy of the intermolecular N-H...N bonds in the imidazoles studied.

  11. Thermodynamic study of phase transitions of imidazoles and 1-methylimidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ana R.R.P., E-mail: ana.figueira@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Monte, Manuel J.S., E-mail: mjmonte@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > Sublimation vapor pressures of imidazole, N-methylimidazole and four derivatives were measured. > Liquid vapor pressures were also measured for four of the compounds studied. > Vapor pressure results enabled determination of sublimation, vaporization, and fusion enthalpy. > From enthalpies of sublimation, enthalpies of intermolecular N-H...N bonds were estimated. - Abstract: The vapor pressures of imidazole, N-methylimidazole and of their dichloro and dicyano substituted compounds were measured at different temperatures, in the crystalline phase for two of them, and in crystalline and liquid phases for the other four. From these measurements, enthalpies and standard entropies of sublimation and vaporization were derived. The results allowed the determination of the triple points (p, T) coordinates of the four compounds studied in both condensed phases as well as the calculation of their enthalpy of fusion. Enthalpies and temperatures of fusion were also determined using d.s.c. The experimental results enabled the estimation of the enthalpy of the intermolecular N-H...N bonds in the imidazoles studied.

  12. Study of transitional nuclei at TRISTAN. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    During the past calendar year the Oklahoma group has participated in decay studies on the following nuclides: 99 Rb, 99 Sr, 101 Y, and 100 Y. The resulting information on the structure of these nuclides has defined band structure for the first time in the odd-A nuclei in this region. The principal investigator also participated in a measurement of the g-factor of an excited state in 97 Zr and two attempts to measure the quadrupole moment of the same state. Details of these and other activities are given

  13. Social ecological predictors of the transition to overweight in youth: results from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools (TEENS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Lytle, Leslie A; Chen, Vincent

    2008-07-01

    To explore the social ecological predictors of the transition to overweight in youth, as shown in results from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools study. Longitudinal data from a school-based intervention trial. Adolescents who were involved in the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools intervention study who reported a healthful weight at baseline in 1998 (n=1,728). Transition to overweight status (body mass index > or =85th percentile) at follow-up in eighth grade. Generalized linear mixed model regression. Factors in the social, environmental, individual, and behavioral domains had significant unadjusted relationships with a transition to overweight status. In the multivariate analysis, adolescents who perceived themselves to be overweight at baseline were 2.3 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up compared to those with a normal weight self-perception. Compared to nondieters, current dieters were 2.6 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up, and boys were nearly three times more likely to transition to overweight status at follow-up compared with girls. Individual factors, primarily related to a self-perception of being overweight, were the strongest predictors of transitioning to overweight as adolescents progressed from seventh through eighth grade. A better understanding of the relationship between weight concern and transition to overweight is needed.

  14. Coal Transition in the Netherlands. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, Ben; Hoelsgens, Rick

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. This document provides on overview of coal transitions in the Netherlands in the post-war period. The main focus is an in depth case study of the reconversion of the Limburg region in the South-east of the country which took place from 1965 to 1990. This is discussed in the first part of the document. The later part of the document discusses the re-emergence of coal as an energy source in the Netherlands and present challenges to phasing out coal use

  15. Applications of neural networks to the studies of phase transitions of two-dimensional Potts models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.-D.; Tan, D.-R.; Jiang, F.-J.

    2018-04-01

    We study the phase transitions of two-dimensional (2D) Q-states Potts models on the square lattice, using the first principles Monte Carlo (MC) simulations as well as the techniques of neural networks (NN). We demonstrate that the ideas from NN can be adopted to study these considered phase transitions efficiently. In particular, even with a simple NN constructed in this investigation, we are able to obtain the relevant information of the nature of these phase transitions, namely whether they are first order or second order. Our results strengthen the potential applicability of machine learning in studying various states of matters. Subtlety of applying NN techniques to investigate many-body systems is briefly discussed as well.

  16. Comparative Study of Bio-implantable Acoustic Generator Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D; Roundy, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a comparative study of the design spaces of two bio-implantable acoustically excited generator architectures: the thickness-stretch-mode circular piezoelectric plate and the bending-mode unimorph piezoelectric diaphragm. The generators are part of an acoustic power transfer system for implanted sensors and medical devices such as glucose monitors, metabolic monitors, drug delivery systems, etc. Our studies indicate that at small sizes the diaphragm architecture outperforms the plate architecture. This paper will present the results of simulation studies and initial experiments that explore the characteristics of the two architectures and compare their performance

  17. Studies of iodine concentration in steel and transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormann, C.; Kozlowski, W.; Oleksi-Frenzel, J.; Nachtigall, K.; Neste, A. van; Welsh, M.; Titze-Zaeske, B.; Plieth, W.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive iodine which originates from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants as a fission product and consists mainly of the radioactive isotopes 129 I, 131 I, and of the inactive 127 I, must be quantitatively adsorbed at the end of the process for the purpose of safe waste disposal. Inspite of using high-alloy austenitic chrome nickel steels, major corrosion effects were observed at tubes and containers of the PASSAT dissolver waste gas purifier. This research project serves to clarify the question in which parts of the installation iodine concentration is to be expected under certain conditions. Furthermore it serves to identify the redox state of iodine in the various installation components. For this purpose steel (1.4306esu and 1.4563N), zirconium and titanium were studied in nitric iodic media. With the objective of calculating iodine adsorption isotherms, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: FTIR, ellipsometry, 131 I radiotracer method, cyclo-voltametry, closed circuit potential measurements, ion chromatography. (orig./DG) [de

  18. International comparative studies of education and large scale change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howie, Sarah; Plomp, T.; Bascia, Nina; Cumming, Alister; Datnow, Amanda; Leithwood, Kenneth; Livingstone, David

    2005-01-01

    The development of international comparative studies of educational achievements dates back to the early 1960s and was made possible by developments in sample survey methodology, group testing techniques, test development, and data analysis (Husén & Tuijnman, 1994, p. 6). The studies involve

  19. Information Technology Diffusion: A Comparative Case Study of Intranet Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Zolla, George A., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This exploratory study identifies factors that influence the adoption and diffusion of intranet technology. A comparative case study of bipolar organizations is used to identify crucial implementation factors and create an innovation adoption model. A strategic approach for the adoption and diffusion of intranet technology is then presented.

  20. New Image Qualities in Education: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çankaya, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Turkish and European Union Countries Educations in terms of the new image qualities such as data like access to online education, digital access, foreign languages learnt per pupil, research & development investments, human resources employed in science and technology, the study opportunities offered to…

  1. Comparative study of some mechanical and release properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablets formulated with cashew gum (CAG), povidone (PVP) and gelatin (GEL) as binders were studied and compared. The parameters studied were tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), friability (F), disintegration time (DT) and percentage drug released ...

  2. Comparative study of atrial fibrillation and AV conduction in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Tweel, I. van der

    1987-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is one ofthe most common cardiac arrhythmias in humans. It a1so occurs quite frequent1y in dogs and horses. Comparative study of this arrhythmia may contribute to better understanding of the pathophysiologica1 mechanisms involved. In this study, we present a quantitative

  3. A Comparative Study of Learning Organisation Practices of Indian Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sonali; Neelam, Netra; Behl, Abhishek; Acharya, Sabyasachi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we compared the learning organisation practices of Indian Businesses across sectors. Methodology: The study is based on a sample of 406 managers of banking, information technology and information technology enabled services (IT/ITES), manufacturing, hotel & hospitality and hospital and healthcare sectors. Learning…

  4. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Bacterial Flora of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...

  5. Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of automatic teller machines, public toilets and public transport commercial motorcycle crash ... Conclusion: This study has revealed the ability of these public devices to serve as vehicle of transmission of microorganisms with serious health implications.

  6. A comparative study of chromosome morphology among some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... genetic source of wheat, some cytogenetic analysis reported (Chennaveeraiah, 1960; Badaeva et al., 1998,. 2001) and indicated that all A. crassa chromosomes can be identified by their morphology and C-banding patterns. Cytogenetical studies have been carried out on A. crassa but a comparative study ...

  7. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  8. Comparative Study of Teenage Pregnancy in Lagos State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a comparative study of the obstetric performance of primiparous teenagers and ... 2006-31st December, 2007) in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital,Ikeja. ... The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study population was 1.01% with ...

  9. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  10. Comparative Study on the Effects of Crude Extracts of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on the effects of crude extracts of pterocarpus soyauxii and Telfairia occidentalis on haematological parameters of albino wistar rats was carried out. Forty nine albino rats of both sexes, weighing between 150 and 250 g were used for the study. The rats were divided into seven groups of seven rats each.

  11. Longitudinal Study of Body Mass Index in Young Males and the Transition to Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Gutina, Anna; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Despite a growing understanding that the social determinants of health have an impact on body mass index (BMI), the role of fatherhood on young men's BMI is understudied. This longitudinal study examines BMI in young men over time as they transition from adolescence into fatherhood in a nationally representative sample. Data from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health supported a 20-year longitudinal analysis of 10,253 men beginning in 1994. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created and changes in BMI were examined based on fatherhood status (nonfather, nonresident father, resident father), fatherhood years, and covariates. Though age is positively associated with BMI over all years for all men, comparing nonresident and resident fathers with nonfathers reveals different trajectories based on fatherhood status. Entrance into fatherhood is associated with an increase in BMI trajectory for both nonresident and resident fathers, while nonfathers exhibit a decrease over the same period. In this longitudinal, population-based study, fatherhood and residence status play a role in men's BMI. Designing obesity prevention interventions for young men that begin in adolescence and carry through young adulthood should target the distinctive needs of these populations, potentially improving their health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Efficacy of electroacupuncture for symptoms of menopausal transition: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhishun; Wang, Yang; Xu, Huanfang; Wu, Jiani; He, Liyun; Jiang, John Yi; Yan, Shiyan; Du, Ruosang; Liu, Baoyan

    2014-06-21

    Previous studies have shown that acupuncture can alleviate postmenopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, but few studies have assessed symptoms during the menopausal transition (MT) period. Thus, the effect of acupuncture upon MT symptoms is unclear. We designed a large-scale trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of electroacupuncture for MT symptoms compared with sham electroacupuncture and at observing the safety of electroacupuncture. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 360 women will be randomized to either an electroacupuncture group or a sham electroacupuncture group. During the 8-week-long treatment, a menopause rating scale, average 24-hour hot flash score, Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire score, and level of female hormones will be observed. Follow-ups at the 20th and 32nd week will be made. Though there is no completely inert placebo acupuncture and blinding is difficult in acupuncture trials, the placebo effect of EA can still be partially excluded in this study. For the placebo control, we use non-points and a tailor-made sham needle. This needle is different from a retractable needle, which is usually used for sham acupuncture. The needle in this trial is more simply constructed and more acceptable to Chinese people. We expect to evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture for MT symptoms and clarify its effect on these symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01849172 (Date of registration: 05/05/2013).

  13. The energy transition: new dialogues between cities and local stakeholders. Exploratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxer, Olivia; Lacassagne, Sylvie; Guerin, Laura; Dupas, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Energy Cities has carried out an exploratory study for cities and diverse project leaders desiring to start a sustainable energy transition in collaboration with all stakeholders in their territory. Local authorities have a key role to play in climate and energy policies and in the energy transition towards a low carbon, energy efficient and sustainable society. However, they cannot act alone. They often control only a small percentage of the emissions of local greenhouse gases directly, and this percentage rarely exceeds a quarter. It is therefore necessary to rely on the involvement of local stakeholders, which in turn will provide an opportunity for these stakeholders to be ambitious through innovative actions. How to stimulate stakeholders' involvement? In the past several years, a number of citizens', economic actors' or other local actors' initiatives have contributed to the energy transition of territories. These initiatives are based on empowerment. For instance, stakeholders can get access and the power to act on innovative tools and approaches, such as social economy, stakeholders' participation, crowd-funding, renewable energy citizen cooperatives and fab labs. Two primary questions to explore: As coordinators and pilots of local strategies for energy transition, how can local authorities foster, identify, support and replicate local energy transition initiatives? What dialogue should local authorities and leaders of local initiatives engage in? How can they drive new modes of governance, where stakeholders share responsibility to co-develop public policies, manage their city, and encourage the energy transition at the local level? We selected more than ten European energy transition initiatives, as diverse as they are innovative, anticipating new forms of governance and new ways to act and collaborate. The exploratory study does not only describe their process but it also analyses the synergies between the different stakeholders and the role the

  14. The menopause transition experiences of Chinese Singaporean women: an exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui-Koon; Mackey, Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Menopause, a developmental occurrence that takes place in midlife, marks the end of a woman's fertile phase. Cultural norms, social influences, and personal perceptions related to menopause may influence its meaning and how each woman experiences this transition. Little is known about the menopausal experiences of Asian women. This study explores the menopause transition experiences of ethnic Chinese women in Singapore. Using a qualitative design, the researchers conducted audio-taped interviews in 2010 with 14 menopausal and postmenopausal Chinese Singaporean women aged 40-60 years. Thematic analysis was used to analyze interviews. Two main themes were identified: (a) experiencing symptoms and (b) managing symptoms during menopause transition. The most commonly reported symptoms were abnormal bleeding, hot flushes, and emotional changes. Most participants described their transition to be uneventful and ordinary and reported two significant symptoms at most. The strategies women used to manage their transition included using Western and traditional Chinese medical interventions and seeking support from family and friends. This study provides new insights into how ethnic Chinese women in Singapore experience menopause transition. Findings can assist nurses and healthcare workers in the local context to better understand menopausal women's needs and guide nurses to implement suitable health promotional strategies for women under their care in both hospital and community settings. Although ethnicity is not necessarily a determinant of symptom experience during menopause transition, health education for menopausal women should be based on knowledge of culture-specific practices. Nurses caring for menopausal women in hospital and community settings in Singapore should evaluate the use of medications prescribed by Western and Chinese herbal medical professionals as well as those that are self-prescribed.

  15. CHALLENGES IN THE STUDIES OF COMPARATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS OF GENDER EQUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnblom, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Why are comparisons interesting, or what are comparisons all about? In this article, the comparative ambition in the social constructivist tradition is scrutinized, and the other articles of the issue are used as examples of what is seen as principle problems of comparative studies. The first part of the article deals with the need of reflexivity in order for the researcher to avoid implicit notions of «good gender equality» or «real feminism». In the second part, the problems of comparative ...

  16. Comparative study of wavelets of the first and second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ososkov, G.A.; Shitov, A.B.; Stadnik, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    In order to compare efficiency a comprehensive set of benchmarking tests is developed, which is used to compare abilities of continuous wavelet transform of the vanishing momenta type as well as the second generation wavelets constructed on the basis of the lifting scheme. It is based on processing of various types of pure and contaminated harmonic signals, delta-function, study of the signal phase dependence and the gain-frequency characteristics. The results of a comparative multiscale analysis allow one to reveal advantages and flaws of the considered types of wavelets

  17. A Comparative Study of Spreadsheet Applications on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera V. S. M. Chintapalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobile screen sizes and feature enhancement for mobile applications have increased the number of users accessing spreadsheets on mobile devices. This paper reports a comparative usability study on four popular mobile spreadsheet applications: OfficeSuite Viewer 6, Documents To Go, ThinkFree Online, and Google Drive. We compare them against three categories of usability criteria: visibility; navigation, scrolling, and feedback; and interaction, satisfaction, simplicity, and convenience. Measures for each criterion were derived in a survey. Questionnaires were designed to address the measures based on the comparative criteria provided in the analysis.

  18. Comparative study of oxihydrogen injection in turbocharged compression ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, L.; Lelea, D.

    2018-01-01

    This document proposes for analysis, comparative study of the turbocharged, compression-ignition engine, equipped with EGR valve, operation in case the injection in intake manifold thereof a maximum flow rate of 1l/min oxyhydrogen resulted of water electrolysis, at two different injection pressures, namely 100 Pa and 3000 Pa, from the point of view of flue gas opacity. We found a substantial reduction of flue gas opacity in both cases compared to conventional diesel operation, but in different proportions.

  19. Anonymity communication VPN and Tor: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, E.

    2018-03-01

    VPN and Tor is a technology based on anonymity communication. These two technologies have their advantage and disadvantage. The objective of this paper is to find the difference between VPN and Tor technologies by comparing their security of communication on the public network based on the CIA triad concept. The comparative study in this paper is based on the survey method. At last, the result of this paper is a recommendation on when to use a VPN and Tor to secure communication

  20. A Service Member's Self in Transition : A Longitudinal Case Study Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimell, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a narrative approach with a dialogical framework, a longitudinal case study is presented that describes a service member's self in transition from active service into the civilian population. An analysis and interpretation of the case study leads to the hypothesis that if a dominant

  1. Academic Culture and Citizenship in Transitional Societies: Case Studies from China and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Through organizational case studies conducted at Guangdong University of Foreign Studies in China and Central European University in Hungary, this paper examines academic culture and citizenship in societies transitioning from communist to market-driven social and economic structures. The article presents a new model of citizenship, representing…

  2. A Qualitative Study of Characteristics, Competencies, and Strategies of Transition Staff Working with Urban Latino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Lorenzo, Omayra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore characteristics, competencies, and strategies of transition program employment representatives who attain successful employment outcomes for urban Latino/a youths with disabilities. This study employed in-depth interviewing as a method of data collection. The central research question guiding…

  3. A magnetic resonance study of 3d transition metals and thermal donors in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezep, D.A. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of 3d-transition metal impurities in silicon (titanium and iron in particular) and a study of oxygen-related heat-treatment centers in silicon, both carried out mainly by magnetic resonances techniques like EPR and ENDOR. 119 refs.; 31 figs.; 14 tabs

  4. Biomarkers in Czech workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene: a transitional epidemiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albertini, Richard J.; Srám, Radim J.; Vacek, Pamela M.; Lynch, Jeremiah; Nicklas, Janice A.; van Sittert, Nico J.; Boogaard, Peter J.; Henderson, Rogene F.; Swenberg, James A.; Tates, Ad D.; Ward, Jonathan B.; Wright, Michael; Ammenheuser, Marinel M.; Binkova, Blanka; Blackwell, Walter; de Zwart, Franz A.; Krako, Dean; Krone, Jennifer; Megens, Hendricus; Musilová, Petra; Rajská, Gabriela; Ranasinghe, Asoka; Rosenblatt, Judah I.; Rössner, Pavel; Rubes, Jiri; Sullivan, Linda; Upton, Patricia; Zwinderman, Ailko H.

    2003-01-01

    A multiinstitutional, transitional epidemiologic study was conducted with a worker population in the Czech Republic to evaluate the utility of a continuum of non-disease biological responses as biomarkers of exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD)* in an industrial setting. The study site included two BD

  5. Comparing distance education and conventional education: observations from a comparative study of post-registration nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Duffy

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study presents a comparison of assessment results achieved by distancelearning students and classroom-based students undertaking the same module in a degree course. The purpose of the comparison is to provide some objective measurement of the quality of distance education in relation to conventional classroom-based education. The authors have selected three groups of students, who have all undertaken the same module in the B. Sc Health Studies degree programme offered by the University of Paisley. One group (in Paisley undertook their studies by means of conventional classroom-based education, the second (in Hong Kong by supported distance learning with face-to-face contact in the form of tutorials, and the third (in a geographically dispersed group in the United Kingdom and other countries by supported distance learning with no face-to-face contact. The results obtained by these three groups of students were analysed. Because of the differences in the size of the groups, the Kruskal- Wallis 1- Way Anova test was applied to validate the face value findings. The authors include findings from the literature comparing distance education with conventional education and from cross-cultural studies to present their data in context. Analysis of the assessment results showed that students from all three groups were successful in their studies, but the students studying by distance learning obtained significantly higher end-of-module results than their classroom-based colleagues. This latter finding reflects the conclusion that other investigators have reached In their discussion the authors identify educational, cultural and personal factors that may help to explain their findings. A limitation in the study is that it concerns only one module in the degree programme. The research now moves on to comparing students who have undertaken the whole degree programme by the means described

  6. Criminal Justice Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McAra, Lesley; McVie, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This report explores transitions into the adult criminal justice system amongst a large cohort of young people who were involved in the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. It includes: a description of patterns of criminal convictions and disposals for young people up to age 19 (on average); an examination of the characteristics and institutional histories of cohort members with a criminal record as compared with youngsters with no such record; and an exploration of the profile of...

  7. Study of shape phase transition at N = 60 in Zr and Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, J.B.; Sharma, S.

    2011-01-01

    The level structure of Zr, Mo, Ru and Pd in the region of A = 100 has been of much interest recently. At N=60 the level structure varies rather sharply. Below N = 60 the structure is vibrator like and at N > 60, the structure corresponds to a rotor. The use of single term expression for level energies in the study of shape phase transition at N=60 is illustrated here. The much sharper shape transition of Zr and slower for Pd is exhibited. There being only two free parameters one can study the nuclei with fewer levels as well

  8. Theoretical Study of Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities of Boron Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian Yi, Zhang; Neng Wu, Zheng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text PDF Though the electrons configuration for boron atom is simple and boron atom has long been of interest for many researchers, the theoretical studies for properties of BI are not systematic, there are only few results reported on energy levels of high excited states of boron, and transition measurements are generally restricted to transitions involving ground states and low excited states without considering fine structure effects, provided only multiplet results, values for transitions between high excited states are seldom performed. In this article, by using the scheme of the weakest bound electron potential model theory calculations for energy levels of five series are performed and with the same method we give the transition probabilities between excited states with considering fine structure effects. The comprehensive set of calculations attempted in this paper could be of some value to workers in the field because of the lack of published calculations for the BI systems. The perturbations coming from foreign perturbers are taken into account in studying the energy levels. Good agreement between our results and the accepted values taken from NIST has been obtained. We also reported some values of energy levels and transition probabilities not existing on the NIST data bases.

  9. The Ebb and Flow of Filipino First-Time Fatherhood Transition Space: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, Neil Jupiter E; de Guzman, Allan B; Matienzo, Evangeline T

    2016-11-01

    Fatherhood, as a developmental process, is both a human experience and a text that needs to be read. For developing nations like the Philippines, little is known about the process undergone by first-time fathers on their transition to fatherhood, and how nurses can play a significant role in assisting them. This grounded theory study purported to conceptualize the multifaceted process of transition from the lens of Filipino first-time fathers' lived experiences. A total of 20 first-time fathers from Metro Manila, Philippines, were purposively selected to take part in an individual, semistructured, and in-depth interview. The Glaserian (classical) method of analysis was specifically used, and field texts were inductively analyzed using a repertory grid. Member checking and correspondence were done to validate the findings of the study. Six surfacing stages emerged relative to the process of transition. Interestingly, The B.R.I.D.G.E. Theory of First-Time Fatherhood Transition Space describes how these fathers progress from the beholding, reorganizing, inhibiting, delivering, grasping, and embracing phases toward successful transition. This emerged theoretical model can be used in framing health care programs where the needs of fathers during this period are met and addressed. Finally, it can also be used in guiding nurses in their provision of a more empathetic care for first-time fathers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. DSC studies of retrogradation and amylose-lipid transition taking place in gamma-irradiated wheat starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, K.; Gluszewski, W.; Eliasson, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    It has been already shown that degradation resulting from gamma irradiation induces a decrease in order of starch granules and influences gelatinisation taking place during heating of starch and flour suspensions. In presented paper, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) studies were carried out for wheat starch, non-irradiated and irradiated using doses in the range from 5 to 30 kGy. The influence of the conditions applied during DSC measurements on the possibility to observe differences between the amylose-lipid complex transition and retrogradation taking place in the non-irradiated and particularly irradiated starch samples was checked. The better differentiation between the amylose-lipid complex transition taking place in particular samples accompanied by the better reproducity were obtained in the case of dense suspensions as compared to the watery suspensions as well as during the first analysis performed for the recrystallised gels

  11. Study on the curie transition of P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Septiyani Arifin, Devi; Ruan, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to decipher the mechanism of Curie transition of piezoelectric crystals of poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE). The unique polarity of P(VDF-TrFE) crystalline phase below curie transition temperature is attributed to the lattice packing of all-trans molecular chains, which allocates all the substituted fluorine atoms on one side of molecular chains and hydrogen atoms on the other side. Therefore, a net dipole moment is created across the lateral packing of molecular chains. Nevertheless, due to the mutual repulsion among fluorene atoms, this all-trans conformation is not stable, and ready to change above Curie temperature, where thermal kinetic energy is sufficient to cause segmental rotation. As being illustrated by in-situ recorded X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis, the concerned curie transition is deciphered as a one-step process which is involved two process and this is different from conventional one-step solid-solid transitions. Accompanied with this one-step process during heating, the occurrence of lamellar bending is inferred for elucidating the decline of stacking regularity of crystalline lamellae, which reversibly recover during subsequent cooling. However, as the crystalline lamellae of P(VDF-TrFE) are confined in between the stacking of crystalline lamellae of PVDF, lamellar bending is restricted accordingly. As a result, a certain fraction of the piezoelectric crystalline lamellae was found to survive through the Curie transition. Thus, in addition to the suggestion of a one-step process as a new concept for understanding the Curie transition, the relationship between the lamellar stacking and transition of molecular packing is unveiled as well in this research.

  12. Analysis tools for precision studies of hadronic three-body decays and transition form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Sebastian Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Due to the running coupling constant of Quantum Chromodynamics one of the pillars of the Standard Model, the strong interactions, is still insufficiently understood at low energies. In order to describe the interactions of hadrons that form in this physical regime, one has to devise methods that are non-perturbative in the strong coupling constant. In particular hadronic three-body decays and transition form factors present a great challenge due to the complex analytic structure ensued by strong final-state interactions. In this thesis we present two approaches to tackle these processes. In the first part we use a modified version of non-relativistic effective field theory to analyze the decay η→3π. This perturbative low-energy expansion is ideally suited to study the effects of ππ rescattering and contributes greatly to the understanding of the slope parameter of the η→3π 0 Dalitz plot, a quantity that is strongly influenced by final-state interactions and has presented a long-standing puzzle for theoretical approaches. In the second part we present dispersion relations as a non-perturbative means to study three-particle decays. Using the example of η'→ηππ we give a detailed introduction to the framework and its numerical implementation. We confront our findings with recent experimental data from the BES-III and VES collaborations and discuss whether the extraction of πη scattering parameters, one of the prime motives to study this decay channel, is feasible in such an approach. A more clear-cut application is given in our study of the decays ω/φ→3π due to the relative simplicity of this decay channel: our results are solely dependent on the ππ P-wave scattering phase shift. We give predictions for the Dalitz plot distributions and compare our findings to very precise data on φ→3π by the KLOE and CMD-2 collaborations. We also predict Dalitz plot parameters that may be determined in future high-precision measurements of ω→3π and

  13. Analysis tools for precision studies of hadronic three-body decays and transition form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Sebastian Philipp

    2013-02-14

    Due to the running coupling constant of Quantum Chromodynamics one of the pillars of the Standard Model, the strong interactions, is still insufficiently understood at low energies. In order to describe the interactions of hadrons that form in this physical regime, one has to devise methods that are non-perturbative in the strong coupling constant. In particular hadronic three-body decays and transition form factors present a great challenge due to the complex analytic structure ensued by strong final-state interactions. In this thesis we present two approaches to tackle these processes. In the first part we use a modified version of non-relativistic effective field theory to analyze the decay {eta}{yields}3{pi}. This perturbative low-energy expansion is ideally suited to study the effects of {pi}{pi} rescattering and contributes greatly to the understanding of the slope parameter of the {eta}{yields}3{pi}{sup 0} Dalitz plot, a quantity that is strongly influenced by final-state interactions and has presented a long-standing puzzle for theoretical approaches. In the second part we present dispersion relations as a non-perturbative means to study three-particle decays. Using the example of {eta}'{yields}{eta}{pi}{pi} we give a detailed introduction to the framework and its numerical implementation. We confront our findings with recent experimental data from the BES-III and VES collaborations and discuss whether the extraction of {pi}{eta} scattering parameters, one of the prime motives to study this decay channel, is feasible in such an approach. A more clear-cut application is given in our study of the decays {omega}/{phi}{yields}3{pi} due to the relative simplicity of this decay channel: our results are solely dependent on the {pi}{pi} P-wave scattering phase shift. We give predictions for the Dalitz plot distributions and compare our findings to very precise data on {phi}{yields}3{pi} by the KLOE and CMD-2 collaborations. We also predict Dalitz plot

  14. On the transition to sustainability: an analysis of the costs of school feeding compared with the costs of primary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Donald; Burbano, Carmen; Gelli, Aulo; Risley, Claire; Neeser, Kristie

    2011-09-01

    The current food, fuel, and financial crises have highlighted the importance of school feeding programs both as a social safety net for children living in poverty and food insecurity, and as part of national educational policies and plans. To examine the costs of school feeding, in terms of both the absolute cost per child and the cost per child relative to overall education expenditure and gross domestic product (GDP) in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Data on the costs of school feeding in different countries were collected from multiple sources, including World Food Programme project data, reports from government ministries, and, where such searches failed, newspaper articles and other literature obtained from internet searches. Regression models were then used to analyze the relationships between school feeding costs, the per capita costs of primary education and GDP per capita. School feeding programs in low-income countries exhibit large variations in cost, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. As countries get richer, however, school feeding costs become a much smaller proportion of the investment in education. The per capita costs of feeding relative to education decline nonlinearly with increasing GDP. These analyses suggest that the main reason for this decline in the relative cost of school feeding versus primary education is a greatly increased investment per child in primary education as GDP rises, but a fairly flat investment in food. The analyses also show that there appears to be a transitional discontinuity at the interface between the lower- and middle-income countries, which tends to coincide with changes in the capacity of governments to take over the management and funding of programs. Further analysis is required to define these relationships, but an initial conclusion is that supporting countries to maintain an investment in school feeding through this transition may emerge as a key role for development partners.

  15. Methods and models used in comparative risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devooght, J.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative risk studies make use of a large number of methods and models based upon a set of assumptions incompletely formulated or of value judgements. Owing to the multidimensionality of risks and benefits, the economic and social context may notably influence the final result. Five classes of models are briefly reviewed: accounting of fluxes of effluents, radiation and energy; transport models and health effects; systems reliability and bayesian analysis; economic analysis of reliability and cost-risk-benefit analysis; decision theory in presence of uncertainty and multiple objectives. Purpose and prospect of comparative studies are assessed in view of probable diminishing returns for large generic comparisons [fr

  16. Study of morphological variation of northern Neotropical Ariidae reveals conservatism despite macrohabitat transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Madlen; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Salzburger, Walter; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2018-03-27

    Morphological convergence triggered by trophic adaptations is a common pattern in adaptive radiations. The study of shape variation in an evolutionary context is usually restricted to well-studied fish models. We take advantage of the recently revised systematics of New World Ariidae and investigate skull shape evolution in six genera of northern Neotropical Ariidae. They constitute a lineage that diversified in the marine habitat but repeatedly adapted to freshwater habitats. 3D geometric morphometrics was applied for the first time in catfish skulls and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses were performed to test for the impact of habitat on skull diversification after habitat transition in this lineage. We found that skull shape is conserved throughout phylogeny. A morphospace analysis revealed that freshwater and marine species occupy extreme ends of the first principal component axis and that they exhibit similar Procrustes variances. Yet freshwater species occupy the smallest shape space compared to marine and brackish species (based on partial disparity), and marine and freshwater species have the largest Procrustes distance to each other. We observed a single case of shape convergence as derived from 'C-metrics', which cannot be explained by the occupation of the same habitat. Although Ariidae occupy such a broad spectrum of different habitats from sea to freshwater, the morphospace analysis and analyses of shape and co-variation with habitat in a phylogenetic context shows that conservatism dominates skull shape evolution among ariid genera.

  17. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influence of fare price on transit use which is measured by price elasticity of demand and proposes the optimum fare price if the common fare is used. The analysis is based on the findings from the stated preference survey techniques. Finally, the conclusion on fare level that encourage more patronage, maintain service quality and operator revenue is addressed.

  18. Usefulness of the UBCTM (urinary bladder cancer) test compared to urinary cytology for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in patients with hematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Myung Cheol; Kang, Do Young; Seong, Youl Koon

    2001-01-01

    Urinary cytology and cystoscopic exam are effective methods for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). But the former shows drawbacks such as the need for a well-trained examiner, and wide imprecision related to the variability of microscopic exam; the latter is a invasive method. UBC TM test detects the epitope on specific cytokeratin fragments released from epithelium of bladder cancer by immunoradiometric assay. We compared UBC TM test with urinary cytology for diagnosis of TCC to evaluate the utility of UBC TM test. Eighty-four patients with hematuria were included in our study, UBC TM tests (IDL Biotech, Sweden) were assayed in mid-stream urine according to the ordinary assay protocol. Nineteen patients were confirmed as TCC by cystoscopic examination and underwent transurethral resection (Group A). Other patients had various benign urinary tract conditions (Group B). Samples were considered positive as the UBC TM concentration was greater than 12 μg/L. UBC TM levels were significantly different between group A (95.9 ±166.4 μg/L) and group B (19.2 ± 85.6 μg/L)(p TM test and 100% (65/65) in cytology. UBC TM test was significantly more sensitive in stage Ta, T 1 tumors (84.6 vs 38.5%, p TM test showed a tendency to be more sensitive as the grade was higher (83.3% in Grade 1, 90% in Grade II and 100% in Grade III). UBC TM test could be a useful method in distinguishing TCC from other benign genitourinary diseases. Moreover, UBC TM test could be an especially valuable marker for diagnosis of TCC in patients with early TCC of low grade TCC compared to urinary cytology. Therefore, mbined use of UBC TM test in association with cytology is helpful to overcome the limited sensitivity of cytology

  19. Phase stabilisation of hexagonal barium titanate doped with transition metals: A computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.A.; Freeman, C.L.; Harding, J.H.; Sinclair, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    Interatomic potentials recently developed for the modelling of BaTiO 3 have been used to explore the stabilisation of the hexagonal polymorph of BaTiO 3 by doping with transition metals (namely Mn, Co, Fe and Ni) at the Ti-site. Classical simulations have been completed on both the cubic and hexagonal polymorphs to investigate the energetic consequences of transition metal doping on each polymorph. Ti-site charge compensation mechanisms have been used for the multi-valent transition metal ions and cluster binding energies have been considered. Simulations show a significant energetic gain when doping occurs at Ti sites in the face sharing dimers (Ti 2 sites) of the hexagonal polymorph compared with the doping of the cubic polymorph. This energetic difference between the two polymorphs is true for all transition metals tested and all charge states and in the case of tri- and tetra-valent dopants negative solution energies are found for the hexagonal polymorph suggesting actual polymorph stabilisation occurs with the incorporation of these ions as observed experimentally. Oxidation during incorporation of Ni 2+ and Fe 3+ ions has also been considered. - Graphical abstract: The representation of the strongest binding energy clusters for tri-valent dopants—(a) Ti 2 /O 1 cluster and (b) Ti 2 /O 2 cluster. Highlights: ► Classical simulations show a significant energetic gain when doping occurs at Ti sites in the face sharing dimers (Ti2 sites) of the hexagonal polymorph compared with the doping of the cubic polymorph. ► This energetic difference between the two polymorphs is true for all transition metals tested and all charge states. ► In the case of tri- and tetra- valent dopants negative solution energies are found for the hexagonal polymorph suggesting actual polymorph stabilisation occurs with the incorporation of these ions

  20. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  1. Study of the conditions for spontaneous H-mode transitions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; Groebner, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A series of scaling studies attempting to correlate the H(high)-mode power threshold (P TH ) with global parameters have been conducted. Data from these discharges is also being used to look for dependence of P TH on local edge parameters and to test theories of the transition. Boronization and better operational techniques have resulted in lower power thresholds and weaker density scaling. Neon impurity injection experiments show that radiation also plays a role in determining P TH . A low density threshold for the L(low)-H(high) transition has been linked with the locked mode low density limit, and can be reduced with the use of an error field correcting coil. Highly developed edge diagnostics, with spatial resolution as low as 5 mm, are used to evaluate how the power threshold depends on local edge conditions. Preliminary analysis of local edge conditions for parameter scans of n e , B T , and I p in single-null discharges, and the X-point imbalance in double-null discharges-show that, just before the transition to H-mode, the edge temperatures near the separatrix are approximately constant at 100 i e *i , varied from 2 to 17, demonstrating that a transition condition as simple as v *i = constant is inconsistent with the data. The local edge parameters of n e , T e , and T i do not always follow the same global scaling as P TH . Therefore, theories of the L-H transition need not be constrained by these scalings

  2. Homogeneous Studies of Transiting Extrasolar Planets: Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John

    2011-09-01

    We now know of over 500 planets orbiting stars other than our Sun. The jewels in the crown are the transiting planets, for these are the only ones whose masses and radii are measurable. They are fundamental for our understanding of the formation, evolution, structure and atmospheric properties of extrasolar planets. However, their characterization is not straightforward, requiring extremely high-precision photometry and spectroscopy as well as input from theoretical stellar models. I summarize the motivation and current status of a project to measure the physical properties of all known transiting planetary systems using homogeneous techniques (Southworth 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 in preparation). Careful attention is paid to the treatment of limb darkening, contaminating light, correlated noise, numerical integration, orbital eccentricity and orientation, systematic errors from theoretical stellar models, and empirical constraints. Complete error budgets are calculated for each system and can be used to determine which type of observation would be most useful for improving the parameter measurements. Known correlations between the orbital periods, masses, surface gravities, and equilibrium temperatures of transiting planets can be explored more safely due to the homogeneity of the properties. I give a sneak preview of Homogeneous Studies Paper 4, which includes the properties of thirty transiting planetary systems observed by the CoRoT, Kepler and Deep Impact space missions. Future opportunities are discussed, plus remaining problems with our understanding of transiting planets. I acknowledge funding from the UK STFC in the form of an Advanced Fellowship.

  3. Experimental study of boundary layer transition on an airfoil induced by periodically passing wake (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, T.C. [Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, W.P.; Kang, S.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the phenomena of wake-induced transition of the boundary layers on a NACA0012 airfoil using measured phase-averaged data. Especially, the phase-averaged wall shear stresses are reasonably evaluated using the principle of Computational Preston Tube Method. Due to the passing wake, the turbulent patch is generated in the laminar boundary layer on the airfoil and the boundary layer becomes temporarily transitional. The patches propagate downstream with less speed than free-stream velocity and merge with each other at further downstream station, and the boundary layer becomes more transitional. The generation of turbulent patch at the leading edge of the airfoil mainly depends on velocity defects and turbulent intensity profiles of passing wakes. However, the growth and merging of turbulent patches depend on local streamwise pressure gradients as well as characteristics of turbulent patches. In this transition process, the present experimental data show very similar features to the previous numerical and experimental studies. It is confirmed that the two phase-averaged mean velocity dips appear in the outer region of transitional boundary layer for each passing cycle. Relatively high values of the phase-averaged turbulent fluctuations in the outer region indicate the possibility that breakdown occurs in the outer layer not near the wall. (author). 21 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  5. Comparative study on the pathogenic effects of Diminazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in goats to compare the pathogenic effects of .... membrane was examined, the rectal temperature of the goats was recorded ... the plasma layer, the content was expressed on the slide and covered with slip. ... measure analysis of variance in SPSS version 15.0 (2000). ..... Canadanian Journal of.

  6. Comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products.

  7. A comparative study on the aphrodisiac activity of food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Any substance that increases erectile function, sexual performance and enjoyment is considered an aphrodisiac. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of food plants Mondia whitei, Chenopodium album, Cucurbita pepo and Sclerocarya birrea extracts at a fixed dose of 200mg/kg body weight on ...

  8. Comparative study of the influence of lecture and demonstration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching methods are teacher's skills and manipulations on the subject matter and the desired responses from the learner. With the application of effective method, the teaching of agricultural science will be facilitated. The study compared the influence of lecture method and demonstration method on the teaching of ...

  9. Comparative study on corpus development for Malay investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on corpus development for Malay investment fraud detection in website. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this research is to develop a corpus for Malay investment fraud so that it can be used in ...

  10. A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.630, p=0.068 and p=0.047, respectively) (Table 2). A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding parenchymal blood flow during liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. S Zhou, X-J Xue, R-R Li, D-F Chen, W-Y Chen, G-X Liu, ...

  11. Comparative phytochemical and growth inhibitory studies on the leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative phytochemical and growth inhibitory studies on the leaf and root bark extracts of securinega Virosa (roxb ex. Willd) baill ... The growth inhibitory tests were carried out between 1-30 mg/ in a period of 24-96 h while the phytochemical screening was carried out on the plant parts using standard methods. At 24 h ...

  12. Comparative study of the properties of ordinary portland cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored metakaolin as alternative material to cement. It compares the properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete and binary concrete containing metakaolin as partial replacement of OPC. Two set of concrete samples; one with 10% Metakaolin (MK) replacing OPC by weight, and the other without ...

  13. Homeless Adolescents' Perceptions of Positive Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…

  14. A Comparative Study on the Influence of Formal (School) Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Study on the Influence of Formal (School) Career Guidance and Non-Formal (Parents) Career Guidance on Secondary School Students' ... These participants were purposively selected from a population of four research sites in Harare; (Ministry of education, Ministry of health, Business office and industry).

  15. A comparative study of Interactions between chronic Alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The effects of drinking 10% alcohol solution for 12 weeks on daily body weight, and drinking and feeding behaviour were studied in Sprague – Dawley rats of both sexes. Daily measurement of body weight, fluid intake and food consumption were recorded and compared. Multiple linear regression analysis was ...

  16. 65 Comparative Studies of Some Polypores Using High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Comparative Studies of Some Polypores Using High Performance Liquid. Chromatography. Ofodile L. N., Attah L. E. Agbaje Williams and Simmonds, M. S. J ... Chromatography characteristics of their secondary metabolites. ..... Roja, G. and Rao, P. S. (1998) Biotechnology investigation in medicinal plants for the product.

  17. A comparative study of the flow enhancing properties of bentonite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of granule flow enhancing property of bentonite, magnesium stearate, talc and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was undertaken. Bentonite was processed into fine powder. A 10 %w/w of starch granules was prepared and separated into different sizes (˂180, 180-500, 500-710 and 710-850 μm).

  18. Comparative study of the physiochemical and structural properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of some physiochemical and structural parameters of brown (mature) and green (immature) coconut fibre as adsorbents was studied. The physiochemical and structural properties evaluated were surface area, moisture content, pH, bulk density, pore volume, porosity, ash content, tortuocity and metal ...

  19. A Comparative Study of The Economic Performance of Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the better irrigation method between large scale and motorised pump to recommend to farmers in Katsina state of Nigeria. The target populations were Farmers Under Large Scale (FULS) and Farmers Using Motorised Pumps (FUMP) and were compared along their socio-economic characteristics, ...

  20. Comparative study of electron conduction in azulene and naphthalene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    tional or electronic devices. Recent advances in experi- mental techniques have allowed ... stimulates us to study the electronic conduction in azulene molecule and to compare that with its isomer, naphthalene. ..... ernment of India, for funding and (SD) acknowledges CSIR,. Government of India, for a research fellowship.

  1. Comparative study of oven and traditionally roasted suya : an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of oven and traditionally roasted suya: an indigenous Nigerian meat. M C Okafor, H U Nwanjo, G O Oze. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Production Research Avancees Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 131-136. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Comparative studies of chemically synthesized and RF plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. April 2015 physics pp. 653–665. Comparative studies of ... MS received 16 April 2013; revised 5 February 2014; accepted 28 May 2014 ... RF plasma polymerization; poly(o-toluidine); Fourier transform infrared; UV–visible ... tial applications, e.g., as electrodes and membranes for electrochemical energy ...

  3. A Comparative Study of Igala and Igbo Culture and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Study of Igala and Igbo Culture and Communication Systems in Ata Igala ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... I adopted particpant observation as an instrument of ethnographic design of fact finding, ... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  4. Africa and Ethnic Conflict Management: A Comparative Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relying on the comparative study of Nigeria and South Africa, it is the contention in this paper that ethnic conflict which has been at the heart of African countries development problem is a product of skewed economy, authoritarian governance and religious bigotry. There is no gainsaying the fact that African countries in ...

  5. Comparative study of thermal insulation boards from leaf and bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, several researches have succeeded in using these plants and agro waste fibres in developing renewable and environmentally friendly thermal insulation products. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of insulation boards made from leave and bark fibres of Pilios tigma thonningii L.in terms of density, ...

  6. a comparative study on different bmi category and physical fitness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... International License. Libraries Resour. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON DIFF. FITNESS HEALTH RELATED COMP. V. Eswaramoorthi. 2,3. , M. R. Abdullah. Kosni. 2. , N. Alias. 1. East Coast Environmental Research Ins. Badak Campus, Kuala Teren. 2. Faculty of Applied Social Science,. Kuala Terengganu 2.

  7. Comparative Noise Pollution Study Of Some Major Towns In Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative noise pollution studies have been carried out in some major towns in Delta State, Nigeria using a PIONneer 65 noise dosimeter. The noise measurements were taken at ten points within each of the towns at an interval of 30 minutes during the peak period of the day and at the cool of the night. The results ...

  8. Research Governance and the Role of Evaluation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molas-Gallart, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Through a comparative study of the United Kingdom and Spain, this article addresses the effect of different research governance structures on the functioning and uses of research evaluation. It distinguishes three main evaluation uses: distributive, improvement, and controlling. Research evaluation in the United Kingdom plays important…

  9. Comparative study of growth and linear body measurements in Anak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the performance of two different breeds of broilers (Anak and Hubbard) using body weight and body linear measurements. Data on a total of 200 (100 each) Anak and Hubbard broiler breeds were collected weekly and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The parameters investigated ...

  10. Comparative study between the use of Macintosh Laryngoscope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study between the use of Macintosh Laryngoscope and Airtraq in patients with cervical spine immobilization. ... Conclusion: The Airtraq Laryngoscope offers a new approach for the management of difficult airway like patients with potential cervical spine injury, it is fast, easy to use, gets an easy view of the ...

  11. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks surrounding these activities, the article provides new…

  12. Comparative study of genetic influence on the susceptibility of exotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated comparatively the genetic influence on the susceptibility of exotic cockerels, pullets and broilers to natural infection with infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus in a flock of 150 seven-week-old exotic breed of chickens comprising of 50 Black Harco cockerels, 50 Black Harco pullets and 50 White ...

  13. The Comparative Rowhouse Study: An Introduction to Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshorn, Paul

    1982-01-01

    A course is described that involves a comparative study of Philadelphia rowhouses. Students each visit a house and complete its architectural drawing according to established guidelines. The drawings are later reduced and offset printed for sale. A series of exercises focuses on a number of design elements. (MSE)

  14. Comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products. These fungi were ...

  15. Accessing powerful knowledge: a comparative study of two first year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study of two first year sociology courses run at an elite South African university in order to speak to student perspectives on the sociology curriculum. The paper provides a comparative analysis of the academic experiences of extended degree (ED) students registered on two first year courses, ...

  16. Comparative study on calcium, magnesium and cobalt in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on calcium, magnesium and cobalt in diabetic and non diabetic patients (males) in Punjab, Pakistan. A Anjum, M Yousaf, M Zuber, HB Ahmad, AF Zahoor, ZI Khan, K Ahmad, S Naheed, KG Ali, A Jabbar, TH Bukhari, S Hina, S Ahmad, MK Mukhtar, M Arshad, A Hussain ...

  17. A comparative study of the performances of some estimators of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These estimators are compared using the finite properties of estimators' criteria namely; sum of biases, sum of variances and sum of the mean squared error of the estimated parameter of the model at different levels of autocorrelation and sample size through Monte – Carlo studies. Results show that at each level of ...

  18. A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness health related component of sedentary male youth in Terengganu. V Eswaramoorthi, M.R. Abdullah, H Juahir, A.B.H.M. Maliki, R.M. Musa, N.A. Kosni, N Alias, N.B. Raj, S.M.M. Rasid, A Adnan ...

  19. Pedestrian Path Prediction with Recursive Bayesian Filters: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, N.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intelligent vehicles, we perform a comparative study on recursive Bayesian filters for pedestrian path prediction at short time horizons (< 2s). We consider Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) based on single dynamical models and Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) combining several such

  20. Comparative Study Of Two Non-Selective Cyclooxygenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative study of the effects of two non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors ibuprofen and paracetamol on maternal and neonatal growth was conducted using 15 Sprague dawley rats, with mean body weight ranging between 165 and 179g. The rats were separated at random into three groups (A, B and C).

  1. Comparative study of magnetization in conventional and high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissian, B.V.B.; Grover, A.K.; Balakrishnan, G.; Paulose, P.L.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a comparative study of thermomagnetic history effects and anomalous variations in isothermal magnetization hysteresis curves in a High T compound (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 ) with two specimens of Nb are presented. They show that the former behaves like any hard type c II superconductor

  2. Magnetic layering transitions in a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer nano-structure: Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziti, S.; Aouini, S.; Labrim, H.; Bahmad, L.

    2017-02-01

    We study the magnetic layering transitions in a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer nano-structure, under the effect of an external magnetic field. We examine the magnetic properties, of this model of the spin S=1 Ising ferromagnetic in real nanostructure used in several scientific domains. For T=0, we give and discuss the ground state phase diagrams. At non null temperatures, we applied the Monte Carlo simulations giving important results summarized in the form of the phase diagrams. We also analyzed the effect of varying the external magnetic field, and found the layering transitions in the polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer nano-structure.

  3. Positron annihilation lifetime studies of sol-gel transition of carrageenan gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Li, H.L.; Ujihara, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurement was applied to study the sol-gel transition of anionic polysaccharide aqueous solutions in terms of free-volume parameters the size, intensity, and size distribution of free volumes of the gelation of K-form κ-carrageenan solutions as a function of temperature. Slight variations of free volume size and intensity against temperature were observed near 295 K. The correlation of free-volume data with other physical properties vibrational spectra (IR and Raman), conductivity, SAXS, elastic measurement, differential scanning calorimetry were investigated to understand the mechanism of sol-gel transition of carrageenan. (author)

  4. Numerical study of the glass-glass transition in short-ranged attractive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Sciortino, Francesco; Tartaglia, Piero

    2004-01-01

    We report extensive numerical simulations in the glass region for a simple model of short-ranged attractive colloids, the square well model. We investigate the behaviour of the density autocorrelation function and of the static structure factor in the region of temperatures and packing fractions where a glass-glass transition is expected according to theoretical predictions. We strengthen our observations by studying both waiting time and history dependence of the numerical results. We provide evidence supporting the possibility that activated bond-breaking processes destabilize the attractive glass, preventing the full observation of a sharp glass-glass kinetic transition

  5. Cross-Validation of Numerical and Experimental Studies of Transitional Airfoil Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frere, Ariane; Hillewaert, Koen; Sarlak, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance characteristic of airfoils are the main input for estimating wind turbine blade loading as well as annual energy production of wind farms. For transitional flow regimes these data are difficult to obtain, both experimentally as well as numerically, due to the very high...... sensitivity of the flow to perturbations, large scale separation and performance hysteresis. The objective of this work is to improve the understanding of the transitional airfoil flow performance by studying the S826 NREL airfoil at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 4:104 and 1:105) with two inherently different...

  6. Modelling study of magnetic and concentration phase transition in ultrathin antiferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonid, Afremov; Aleksandr, Petrov

    2014-01-01

    Using the method of the ''average spin'' a modelling study of magnetic and concentration phase transition in ultrathin antiferromagnetic of different crystalline structure has been carried out. It has been shown, that relative change of Neel temperature is subject to the power law with negative index which doesn't depend on the film's crystal kind. The calculation of the dependence of phase transition critical concentration in diluted magnetic material on the film thickness has been made out. The legitimacy of the use of the method developed for modelling of magnetic and concentration phase transition in different nanostructures is certified by accordance between the results of calculations and the experimental data

  7. Phase Transition between Black and Blue Phosphorenes: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lesheng; Yao, Yi; Reeves, Kyle; Kanai, Yosuke

    Phase transition of the more common black phosphorene to blue phosphorene is of great interest because they are predicted to exhibit unique electronic and optical properties. However, these two phases are predicted to be separated by a rather large energy barrier. In this work, we study the transition pathway between black and blue phosphorenes by using the variable cell nudge elastic band method combined with density functional theory calculation. We show how diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method can be used for determining the energetics of the phase transition and demonstrate the use of two approaches for removing finite-size errors. Finally, we predict how applied stress can be used to control the energetic balance between these two different phases of phosphorene.

  8. Prediction of transition from common adolescent bipolar experiences to bipolar disorder: 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijssen, Marijn J A; van Os, Jim; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo, Katja; Mengelers, Ron; Wichers, Marieke

    2010-02-01

    Although (hypo)manic symptoms are common in adolescence, transition to adult bipolar disorder is infrequent. To examine whether the risk of transition to bipolar disorder is conditional on the extent of persistence of subthreshold affective phenotypes. In a 10-year prospective community cohort study of 3021 adolescents and young adults, the association between persistence of affective symptoms over 3 years and the 10-year clinical outcomes of incident DSM-IV (hypo)manic episodes and incident use of mental healthcare was assessed. Transition to clinical outcome was associated with persistence of symptoms in a dose-dependent manner. Around 30-40% of clinical outcomes could be traced to prior persistence of affective symptoms. In a substantial proportion of individuals, onset of clinical bipolar disorder may be seen as the poor outcome of a developmentally common and usually transitory non-clinical bipolar phenotype.

  9. Study of near-critical states of liquid-vapor phase transition of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelyanov, A N; Shakhray, D V; Golyshev, A A

    2015-01-01

    Study of thermodynamic parameters of magnesium in the near-critical point region of the liquid-vapor phase transition and in the region of metal-nonmetal transition was carried out. Measurements of the electrical resistance of magnesium after shock compression and expansion into gas (helium) environment in the process of isobaric heating was carried out. Heating of the magnesium surface by heat transfer with hot helium was performed. The registered electrical resistance of expanded magnesium was about 10 4 -10 5 times lower than the electrical resistance of the magnesium under normal condition at the density less than the density of the critical point. Thus, metal-nonmetal transition was found in magnesium. (paper)

  10. Electronic topological transition in zinc under pressure: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilanti, G.; Trapananti, A.; Pascarelli, S.; Minicucci, M.; Principi, E.; Liscio, F.; Twarog, A.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc metal has been studied at high pressure using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to investigate the role of the different degrees of hydrostaticity on the occurrence of structural anomalies following the electronic topological transition, two pressure transmitting media have been used. Results show that the electronic topological transition, if it exists, does not induce an anomaly in the local environment of compressed Zn as a function of hydrostatic pressure and any anomaly must be related to a loss of hydrostaticity of the pressure transmitting medium. The near-edge structures of the spectra, sensitive to variations in the electronic density of states above the Fermi level, do not show any evidence of electronic transition whatever pressure transmitting medium is used

  11. Comparative study of contrast dacryocystogram and nuclear dacryocystogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Saparoff, G.R.; Dolan, K.D.; Chaudhuri, T.K.

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study was run between conventional radiographic contrast dacryocystogram and radioisotope scan of the lacrimal drainage apparatus (henceforth called ''nuclear dacryocystogram''). A total of 20 contrast dacryocystograms (DCG), 22 irrigations, and 42 nuclear dacryocystograms (DCG) were performed in 21 patients having symptoms of obstruction in the lacrimal drainage system. The study revealed that there was a good correlation between these two diagnostic techniques and nuclear DCG was, perhaps, superior to contrast DCG. (U.S.)

  12. British and Italian electric power systems: Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolli, A.

    1992-01-01

    This study compares the new electricity system in England, Wales and Scotland, after the 1989 Electricity Act, and the Italian electricity system (as modified by the January, 9, 1991, Law No. 9 and by the December 5, 1991, Decree No. 386 made law (No. 35) on January, 29, 1992). The study focuses on legal aspects and socio-economic factors influencing planning and organizing by the national electric power industries in their efforts to maintain supply and demand equilibrium

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Iordache; Nicolae Petrescu; Cornel Ianache

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Moreni city (Romania). In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process li...

  14. Study on microstructure of transition zone and its strong contrast of single T700 carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xinshuang; Zhang, Kexiang [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fan, Zhen; Feng, Zhihai [National Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Composite Materials, Aerospace Research Institute of Materials and Processing Technology, Beijing 100076 (China); He, LianLong, E-mail: llhe@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • The transition zone of T700 carbon fiber was first identified with higher density in addition to higher orientation. • The higher sample density still existed while the higher orientation disappeared after heat treatment at 2800 °C. • The strong contrast of the transition zone mainly results from its higher density. • The transition zone with higher density and orientation may exist not only in the T700 but other PAN-based carbon fibers. - Abstract: The transition zone (TZ) between the skin and core of Toray T700 carbon fiber was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The higher basal-plane orientation was identified in the TZ compared with the skin and core, but it disappeared after heat treatment at 2800 °C. Plasmon peak energy in the TZ was higher than that in the skin and core about 0.7–0.8 eV, indicating the TZ with higher density. No element concentration existed in the TZ. The TZ with strong contrast manifests itself before and after heat treatment, and formation mechanism of its strong contrast was proposed.

  15. Comparative Pharmacokinetics Study of Icariin and Icariside II in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore the pharmacokinetic properties of icariin (ICA and icariside II (ICA II following intragastric and intravenous administration in rats, a rapid and sensitive method by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ICA and ICA II in rat plasma. The quantification was performed by using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 677.1/531.1 for ICA, 515.1/369.1 for ICA II and 463.1/301.1 for diosmetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (IS. The assay showed linearity over the concentration range of 1.03–1032 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients of 0.9983 and 0.9977. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 15%. The lower limit of quantification for both ICA and ICA II was 1.03 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery of ICA and ICA II was more than 86.2%. The LC-MS/MS method has been successfully used in the pharmacokinetic studies of ICA and ICA II in rats. The results indicated that 91.2% of ICA was transformed into ICA II after oral administration by rats, whereas only 0.4% of ICA was transformed into ICA II after intravenous administration. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ICA and ICA II after oral administration revealed that the Cmax and AUC0–t of ICA II were 3.8 and 13.0 times higher, respectively, than those of ICA. However, after intravenous administration, the Cmax and AUC0–t of ICA II were about only 12.1% and 4.2% of those of ICA. These results suggest that ICA and ICA II have distinct pharmacokinetic properties, and the insights obtained facilitate future pharmacological action studies.

  16. The efficacy of primary care chaplaincy compared with antidepressants: a retrospective study comparing chaplaincy with antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gordon

    2017-07-01

    Aim To determine the effectiveness of primary care chaplaincy (PCC) when used as the sole intervention, with outcomes being compared directly with those of antidepressants. This was to be carried out in a homogenous study population reflective of certain demographics in the United Kingdom. Increasing numbers of patients are living with long-term conditions and 'modern maladies' and are experiencing loss of well-being and depression. There is an increasing move to utilise non-pharmacological interventions such as 'talking therapies' within this context. Chaplaincy is one such 'talking therapy' but within primary care its evidence base is sparse with only one quantitative study to date. There is therefore a need to evaluate PCC excluding those co-prescribed antidepressants, as this is not evidenced in the literature as yet. PCC also needs to be directly compared with the use of antidepressants to justify its use as a valid alternative treatment for loss of well-being and depression. This was a retrospective observational study based on routinely collected data. There were 107 patients in the PCC group and 106 in the antidepressant group. Socio-demographic data were collected. Their pre- and post-intervention (either chaplaincy or antidepressant) well-being was assessed, by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) which is a validated Likert scale. Findings The majority of both groups were female with both groups showing marked ethnic homogeneity. PCC was associated with a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in well-being at a mean follow-up of 80 days. This treatment effect was maintained after those co-prescribed antidepressants were removed. PCC was associated with an improvement in well-being similar to that of antidepressants with no significant difference between the two groups.

  17. Studying the Adhesion Force and Glass Transition of Thin Polystyrene Films by Atomic Force Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Hua; Qian, Xiaoqin; Guan, Li

    2018-01-01

    microscopy (AFM)-based forcedistance curve to study the relaxation dynamics and the film thickness dependence of glass transition temperature (T-g) for normal thin polystyrene (PS) films supported on silicon substrate. The adhesion force (F-ad) between AFM tip and normal thin PS film surfaces...

  18. Immigrant and Refugee Mothers' Experiences of the Transition into Childcare: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gioia, Katey

    2015-01-01

    With increasing numbers of families arriving in Australia for humanitarian reasons or through migration, childcare centres may often be the first point of contact with dominant cultural practices for these families. This period of transition into childcare can be a fraught with anxiety. This article reports on findings from a case study conducted…

  19. Preparing Chinese International Business Students for the Transition to Undergraduate Study in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberton, Geoff; Ashton-Hay, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The diverse range of academic, social and cultural challenges experienced by Asian students when studying at Western universities is well documented. This research involved a pre-departure curriculum designed to ease the intercultural transition and adjustment for Chinese international students to a new learning environment in Australia. Moving…

  20. Transition from Clinical Manager to University Lecturer: A Self-Reflective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldland, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a case study exploring the author's use of reflective practice to facilitate the transition in role from a clinical manager with teaching responsibilities in a critical care unit to university lecturer. The similarities and differences in the roles with respect to learner characteristics, teaching contexts and effective teaching…