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Sample records for transient productivity index

  1. Transient productivity index for numerical well test simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, G.; Ding, D.Y.; Ene, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Pau (France)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The most difficult aspect of numerical simulation of well tests is the treatment of the Bottom Hole Flowing (BHF) Pressure. In full field simulations, this pressure is derived from the Well-block Pressure (WBP) using a numerical productivity index which accounts for the grid size and permeability, and for the well completion. This productivity index is calculated assuming a pseudo-steady state flow regime in the vicinity of the well and is therefore constant during the well production period. Such a pseudo-steady state assumption is no longer valid for the early time of a well test simulation as long as the pressure perturbation has not reached several grid-blocks around the well. This paper offers two different solutions to this problem: (1) The first one is based on the derivation of a Numerical Transient Productivity Index (NTPI) to be applied to Cartesian grids; (2) The second one is based on the use of a Corrected Transmissibility and Accumulation Term (CTAT) in the flow equation. The representation of the pressure behavior given by both solutions is far more accurate than the conventional one as shown by several validation examples which are presented in the following pages.

  2. Transient stability index for online stability assessment and contingency evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribbens-Pavella, M; Murthy, P G; Horward, J L; Carpentier, J L

    1982-04-01

    An on-line methodology is proposed for assessing the robustness of a power system from the point of view of transient stability, and a scalar expression, the transient stability index, is accordingly derived. The reliability and sensitivity of this index are tested by means of simulations for a number of power system cases. The index is shown to be appropriate for online stability assessment, contingency evaluation and preventive control. 14 refs.

  3. EPR and NMR detection of transient radicals and reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic resonance methods in radiation chemistry are illustrated. The most recent developments in pulsed EPR and NMR studies in pulse radiolysis are outlined with emphasis on the study of transient radicals and their reaction products. 12 figures

  4. Malmquist Productivity Index on Efficiency Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezai balf ∗

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, a popular linear programming technique is useful to rate comparatively operational effiency of decision Making Unit (DMU based on the their deterministic inputoutput data. The Malmquist productivity index in DEA, calculable with the distance function, for measurement the productivity change among two variant time period or two variant group in the same time. This index is based on two factor of efficiency change index and a technological change index. In this paper, we operate on the collective Malmquist productivity index, which performs clustering operation DMUs with classification into different levels of efficient frontier, and then we discuss on the relation between Malmquist index on the efficiency layers and their attractiveness and progress

  5. Transient Elastography vs. Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index in Hepatitis C: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, A Z; Mattos, A A

    Many different non-invasive methods have been studied with the purpose of staging liver fibrosis. The objective of this study was verifying if transient elastography is superior to aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index for staging fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A systematic review with meta-analysis of studies which evaluated both non-invasive tests and used biopsy as the reference standard was performed. A random-effects model was used, anticipating heterogeneity among studies. Diagnostic odds ratio was the main effect measure, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves were created. A sensitivity analysis was planned, in which the meta-analysis would be repeated excluding each study at a time. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 11.70 (95% confidence interval = 7.13-19.21) and 8.56 (95% confidence interval = 4.90-14.94) respectively. Concerning the prediction of cirrhosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 66.49 (95% confidence interval = 23.71-186.48) and 7.47 (95% confidence interval = 4.88-11.43) respectively. In conclusion, there was no evidence of significant superiority of transient elastography over aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, but the former proved to be better than the latter concerning prediction of cirrhosis.

  6. Release of fission products in transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.; Lundqwist, R.

    1979-07-01

    A station for automatic sampling of coolant has been put in operation at the Oskarshamn-1 reactor. The release of 131 J and other fission products in spikes in connection with reactor trips and scheduled shutdowns has been measured. A model developed at General Electric has been used to predict the spike release in Oskarshamn-1 and the predicted values have been compared with experimental values. Literature data of iodine spikes in BWR and PWR have been reviewed. (author)

  7. Assessment of Groundwater Susceptibility to Non-Point Source Contaminants Using Three-Dimensional Transient Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Weissmann, Gary S; Fogg, Graham E; Lu, Bingqing; Sun, HongGuang; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2018-06-05

    Groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination is typically quantified by stable indexes, while groundwater quality evolution (or deterioration globally) can be a long-term process that may last for decades and exhibit strong temporal variations. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3- d ), transient index map built upon physical models to characterize the complete temporal evolution of deep aquifer susceptibility. For illustration purposes, the previous travel time probability density (BTTPD) approach is extended to assess the 3- d deep groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination within a sequence stratigraphic framework observed in the Kings River fluvial fan (KRFF) aquifer. The BTTPD, which represents complete age distributions underlying a single groundwater sample in a regional-scale aquifer, is used as a quantitative, transient measure of aquifer susceptibility. The resultant 3- d imaging of susceptibility using the simulated BTTPDs in KRFF reveals the strong influence of regional-scale heterogeneity on susceptibility. The regional-scale incised-valley fill deposits increase the susceptibility of aquifers by enhancing rapid downward solute movement and displaying relatively narrow and young age distributions. In contrast, the regional-scale sequence-boundary paleosols within the open-fan deposits "protect" deep aquifers by slowing downward solute movement and displaying a relatively broad and old age distribution. Further comparison of the simulated susceptibility index maps to known contaminant distributions shows that these maps are generally consistent with the high concentration and quick evolution of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in groundwater around the incised-valley fill since the 1970s'. This application demonstrates that the BTTPDs can be used as quantitative and transient measures of deep aquifer susceptibility to non-point source contamination.

  8. Simulation of Fission Product Liftoff Behavior During Depressurization Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Nam-il; Yoon, Churl; Lee, Sung Nam

    2016-01-01

    As one of crucial technologies for the NHDD project, the development of the GAMMA-FP code is on-going. The GAMMA-FP code is targeted for fission product transport analysis under accident conditions. A well-known experiment named COMEDIE considered two important phenomena, i.e., fission product plateout and liftoff, for fission product transport within the primary circuit of a prismatic high temperature gas cooled reactor. The accumulated fission products on the structural material via the plateout can be liftoff during a blowdown phase after a pipe break accident. Since the fission product liftoff can increase a radioactivity risk, it is important to predict the amount of fission product liftoff during depressurization accidents. In this work, a model for fission product liftoff is implemented into the GAMMA-FP code and the GAMMA-FP code with the implemented model is validated using the COMEDIE blowdown test data. The results of GAMMA-FP show that the GAMMA-FP code can reliably simulate a pressure transient during blowdown phase after a pipe break accident. In addition, a reasonable amount of fission product liftoff was predicted by the GAMMA-FP code. The maximum difference between the measured and predicted liftoff fraction was less than a factor of 10. More in-depth study is required to increase the accuracy of prediction for a fission product liftoff

  9. Body mass index and economic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, E; Garcia, M

    1994-11-01

    The paper reviews the evidence to date on the nutritional links with productivity and then goes on to provide results from a multi-country study on the effects of increasing body mass index (BMI) on productivity. The research relating nutritional status to work capacity is more consistent than the research linking nutritional status to productivity. None of the studies to date elucidate the pathways through which improved nutrition improves economic productivity. In addition, many of the studies that have been conducted on the nutrition/wage links have been based on samples that contained a disproportionate number of male subjects. The few studies that have disaggregated data by gender report different results for men and women. Research conducted at IFPRI is presented to examine the trends in BMI for men and women across countries and for Kenya to examine the relationships between various measures of nutritional status--BMI and height--and energy expenditures in women. BMIs of men show a more consistent relationship with increasing household income than do the BMIs of women. In the case of the Gambia and Kenya, the mean BMI of women decreases with increasing household income. One reason for the apparently low response of BMI to increasing household income in Kenya is the time allocation patterns of women. Women in the Kenya sample spend the largest proportion of their day in home production activities which are energy intensive. In examining the relationship between nutritional indicators and the time devoted to work, the results suggest a significant, positive association between both BMI and height and the amount of time devoted to work. In the models presented, both BMI and height appear to increase the capacity to carry out work. It is difficult to value much of this work time since a disproportionate share is devoted to home production activities. Some of the more classic methods of measuring economic productivity, such as measuring wage rates, are not

  10. COMEDIE BD1 experiment: Fission product behaviour during depressurization transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, R.; Brenet, D.; Hanson, D.L.; Kimball, O.F.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental program in the CEA COMEDIE loop has been carried out to obtain integral test data to validate the methods and transport models used to predict fission product release from the core and plate-out in the primary coolant circuit of the Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) during normal operation and liftoff, and during rapid depressurization transients. The loop consists of an in-pile section with the fuel element, deposition section (heat exchanger), filters for collecting condensible Fission Productions (FP) during depressurization tests and an out-of-pile section devoted to chemical composition control of the gas and on-line analysis of gaseous FP. After steady state irradiation, the loop was subjected to a series of in-situ blowdowns at shear ratios (ratio of the wall shear stress during blowdown to that during steady state operation) ranging from 0.7 to 5.6. The results regarding the FP profiles on the plate-out section, before and after blowdowns are given. It appears that: the plate-out profiles depend on the FP chemistry; the depressurization phases have led to significant desorption of I 131, but on the contrary, they have almost no effect for the other FP such as Ag 110m, Cs 134, Cs 137 and Te 132. (author). 1 ref., 15 figs

  11. 75 FR 33312 - Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...] Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request for... Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) are indexing certain categories of information in product labeling for use as terms to search repositories of approved prescription medical product structured product...

  12. Scientometrics, International Special Indexes, scientific productivity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Noroozi Chakoli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at identifying and validating of indicators used to evaluate research productivity of Iranian researchers. In order to achieve this aim survey and documentary methods are used. Research society consists of a 80 person sample and members of this sample were selected among top researchers of country during recent years (1389-1390 from 4 subject areas of humanities, medical sciences, technology and engineering and basic sciences. Instrument for collecting data is a questionnaire including 47 items focusing on indicators used to evaluate research productivity of researchers. The Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was applied to confirm it’s variability and coefficient equal to 96% was obtained. In order to confirm its validity, formal validity method was used. Responding to questions and testing research hypotheses was conducted at two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics. At the descriptive statistics level, standard deviation, average and frequency and at the inferential statistic’s level, variance analysis, least significant difference and Friedman tests were used. Results of research show that for researchers of humanities, the indicators related to book have high importance while for researchers of basic and medical sciences, indicators related to article have more importance and from point of view of technology and engineering researchers, indicators related to innovations and research plans in comparison to other indicators are more credit at evaluating research productivity of researchers.

  13. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10 -5 and 10 -7 per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively

  14. Simulation of dust production in ITER transient events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestchanyi, S.E.; Landman, I.S.

    2008-01-01

    Dust production from the divertor armour during edge-localised modes (ELMs) has been investigated. Analysis of available experimental data on the dust particle production and the particles distribution on size for the MPG-8 graphite and for NB31 carbon fibre composite (CFC) under the disruption-like surface heat load allowed revealing the unknown mechanical parameters of the NB31 CFC. Using these data the code PEGASUS-3D has been fitted and verified for simulation of the dust production by ELMs. First simulation of the dust production for the ELM of 1 MJ/m 2 heat load and 0.5 ms time duration has been calculated

  15. Simulation of dust production in ITER transient events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, S.E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, P.B. 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: sergey.pestchanyi@ihm.fzk.de; Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, P.B. 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Dust production from the divertor armour during edge-localised modes (ELMs) has been investigated. Analysis of available experimental data on the dust particle production and the particles distribution on size for the MPG-8 graphite and for NB31 carbon fibre composite (CFC) under the disruption-like surface heat load allowed revealing the unknown mechanical parameters of the NB31 CFC. Using these data the code PEGASUS-3D has been fitted and verified for simulation of the dust production by ELMs. First simulation of the dust production for the ELM of 1 MJ/m{sup 2} heat load and 0.5 ms time duration has been calculated.

  16. Developing an Emergency Physician Productivity Index Using Descriptive Health Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding became a major barrier to receiving timely emergency care. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia, we identified variables and factors affecting crowding and performance to develop indicators to help evaluation and improvement. Measuring efficiency of work and activity of throughput processes; it was important to develop an ED physician productivity index. Data on all ED patients' encounters over the last six months of 2014 were retrieved and descriptive health analytics methods were used. Three variables were identified for their influence on productivity and performance; Number of Treated Patients per Physician, Patient Acuity Level and Treatment Time. The study suggested a formula to calculate the productivity index of each physician through dividing the Number of Treated Patients by Patient Acuity Level squared and Treatment Time to identify physicians with low productivity index and investigate causes and factors.

  17. Evolution of the PI - Productivity Index; Evolucao do IP - Indice de Produtividade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, Gilvan Soares [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The productivity index (PI), the most direct and widely used measure of a well productivity, is defined as the ratio of oil-well rate to the associated pressure drawdown - from average reservoir pressure to bottom hole-flowing-well pressure. It is known that the actual value of PI can only be attained at pseudosteady-state condition, which requires a lot of time (days, or even months), what is not practical for most well tests. For this reason, PI is often obtained from short transient flow test, which gives usually an overestimate of the actual PI. How larger than the actual value is the transient PI? This paper investigates the PI evolution, from the earlier transient well's production period up to the pseudosteady-state flow establishment, under single-phase flow, and later on, as pressure drops below saturation pressure and then oil and gas flow through the reservoir to the well. For analysis of PI during the transient period is defined a dimensionless PI (IP{sub D}), as the ratio of the time-dependent transient PI (IP{sub t}), to the constant pseudosteady-state PI (IP{sub pss}). For transient radial flow, IP{sub D} is developed as a function of dimensionless time, t{sub DA}, and depends on the stabilized drainage area, the Dietz shape factor, the skin factor and the well radius. It is shown that transient PI (IP{sub t}) is always greater than the actual PI (IP{sub pss}) and decreases monotonically with time. At the infinite-acting end IPt reaches the smallest value, which is the closest to the actual pseudosteady-state PI, in the range of 1 to 60% higher, for a broad range of shape factors. The more eccentric the well in the drainage area the more IP{sub t} departs from the actual PI. It is presented a couple of reservoir-limit well test field-cases, where the well was produced long enough until a pseudosteady-state flow was established. Its results, among others, illustrate and substantiate the main theoretical developments of this work. (author)

  18. Can transient elastography, Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score predict esophageal varices in HCV-related cirrhotic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Eman M; Omran, Dalia A; El Beshlawey, Mohamad L; Abdo, Mahmoud; El Askary, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are present in approximately 50% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver stiffness measurement (LSM), Fib-4, Forns Index and Lok Score as noninvasive predictors of esophageal varices (EV). This prospective study included 65 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests, transient elastograhy (TE) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were calculated. The diagnostic performances of these methods were assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and receiver operating characteristic curves. All predictors (LSM, FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score) demonstrated statistically significant correlation with the presence and the grade of EV. TE could diagnose EV at a cutoff value of 18.2kPa. Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score could diagnose EV at cutoff values of 2.8, 6.61 and 0.63, respectively. For prediction of large varices (grade 2, 3), LSM showed the highest accuracy (80%) with a cutoff of 22.4kPa and AUROC of 0.801. Its sensitivity was 84%, specificity 72%, PPV 84% and NPV 72%. The diagnostic accuracies of FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were 70%, 70% and76%, respectively, at cutoffs of 3.3, 6.9 and 0.7, respectively. For diagnosis of large esophageal varices, adding TE to each of the other diagnostic indices (serum fibrosis scores) increased their sensitivities with little decrease in their specificities. Moreover, this combination decreased the LR- in all tests. Noninvasive predictors can restrict endoscopic screening. This is very important as non invasiveness is now a major goal in hepatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  19. INDEX - a solution to the high cost of processing transient workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroupe, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985 twelve midwestern utilities formed the Nuclear Employee Data System for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Region III (NEDS III) group. These utilities are Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company, Commonwealth Edison Company, Consumers Power Company, Detroit Edison Company, Illinois Power Company, Indiana and Michigan Electric Company, Iowa Electric Light and Power Company, Northern States Power Company, Toledo Edison Company, Union Electric Company, and Wisconsin Public Service Corporation. Early in 1986, Kansas Gas and Electric of NRC's Region IV joined the group and a cost-benefit study of a nuclear employee data system was initiated. The purpose of this system is to reduce the cost of processing workers requiring unescorted access to nuclear power plants. The involved utilities continued this project as the Integrated Nuclear Data Exchange (INDEX). In 1987 the following additional utilities joined INDEX: Houston Lighting and Power, Pacific Gas and Electric, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Arkansas Power and Light, Louisiana Power and Light, Systems Energy Resources Inc., and Southern California Edison. This paper summarizes the results of the study and discusses the current status of the program

  20. Transient fission product release during reactor shutdown and startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.E.L.; Lewis, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    Sweep gas experiments performed at CRL from 1979 to 1985 have been analysed to determine the fraction of the fission product gas inventory that is released on reactor shutdown and startup. Empirical equations were derived and applied to calculate the xenon release from companion fuel elements and from a well documented experimental fuel bundle irradiated in the NRU reactor. The measured gas release could be matched to within about a factor of two for an experimental irradiation with a burnup of 217 MWh/kgU. (author)

  1. Risk management in crop production based on the regional index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokot Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional index insurance is one of the newer instruments for reducing losses in crop production. The regional index indicates the average yield or average production value in a region, representing the basis for the premium calculation and insurance benefits. The main advantage of this insurance model is that it does not require the damage assessment, which is one of major problems in the relationship between the insured and insurer. In the case of corn, wheat and sunflower production as the most important crops in the region of Ada municipality, the authors describe the methodology of application of the analysed insurance system. Implementation of this contemporary form of insurance in Serbia would reduce the negative financial consequences in agricultural production. The abovementioned model of insurance can be seen as a significant alternative to conventional insurance, which can increase insured area and number of insured, and trust and confidence in insurance companies would also be restored.

  2. Transient fission-product release during reactor shutdown and startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.E.L.; Lewis, B.J.; Dickson, L.W.

    1997-12-01

    Sweep-gas experiments performed at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories from 1979 to 1985 have been further analysed to determine the fraction of the gaseous fission-product inventory that is released on reactor shutdown and startup. Empirical equations were derived and applied to calculate the stable xenon release from companion fuel elements and from a well-documented experimental fuel bundle irradiated in the NRU reactor. The calculated gas release could be matched to the measured values within about a factor of two for an experimental irradiation with a burnup of 217 MWh/kgU. There was also limited information on the fraction of the radioactive iodine that was exposed, but not released, on reactor shutdown. An empirical equation is proposed for calculating this fraction. (author)

  3. Malmquist Index, an Alternative Technique for Measuring Credit Institutions Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study tackles the banking system’s productivity in a more complex manner, that integrates multiple input, multiple output variables, abdicating from the reductionist perspective of clasical methods, which imposed limits in the number of variables, in the process of productivity measurement and interpretation. The advantage of Malmquist productivity indexes consists both in a quantitative evaluation of the global productivity of a credit institution over a specified period of time, and in the decomposition of productivity, in order to underline how much of its change is due to the catch-up effect, and, respectively, to the implementation of new technologies. The results obtained revealed that credit institutions placed on the first three places in the banking system, according to assets value, maintained constant their productivity level during the analysed period, meanwhile the other institutions in our sample registered a slowly improvement in productivity, determined, mainly, by technological changes.

  4. Simulation of dust production in ITER transient events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The tritium retention problem is a critical issue for the tokamak ITER performance. Tritium is trapped in redeposited T-C layers and at the surface of carbon dust, where it is retained in form of various hydrocarbons. The area of dust surface and hence, the amount of tritium deposited on the surface depends on the dust amount and of the dust sizes. The carbon dust appears as a result of brittle destruction at the surface of the carbon fibre composite (CFC) which is now the reference armour material for the most loaded part of tokamak divertor. Stationary heat flux on the ITER divertor armour does not cause its brittle destruction and does not produce dust. However, according to the modern understanding of tokamak fusion devices performance, the most attractive regime of ITER operation is the ELMy H mode. This regime is associated with a repetitive short time increase of heat flux at the CFC divertor armour of 2-3 orders of magnitude over its stationary value during edge localized modes (ELMs). Under influence of these severe heat shocks CFC armour can crack due to the thermostress, producing a dust of carbon. Besides, a carbon dust produced during disruptions due to brittle destruction of the armour under influence of thermoshock. Most of the modern tokamaks do not produce the ELMs powerful enough to cause CFC brittle destruction at the divertor surface, except of very special regimes in JET. This is why the CFC erosion and dust production could be investigated now only theoretically and experimentally in plasma guns and electron beam facilities. Simulation of the CFC brittle destruction has been done using the code PEGASUS already developed and tested in FZK for simulation of erosion for ITER candidate materials under the heat shocks. After upgrades the code was used for simulation of the amount of carbon dust particles and of the distribution of their sizes. The code has been tested against available experimental data from the plasma gun MK-200UG and from the

  5. Simulation of dust production in ITER transient events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestchanyi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The tritium retention problem is a critical issue for the tokamak ITER performance. Tritium is trapped in redeposited T-C layers and at the surface of carbon dust, where it is retained in form of various hydrocarbons. The area of dust surface and hence, the amount of tritium deposited on the surface depends on the dust amount and of the dust sizes. The carbon dust appears as a result of brittle destruction at the surface of the carbon fibre composite (CFC) which is now the reference armour material for the most loaded part of tokamak divertor. Stationary heat flux on the ITER divertor armour does not cause its brittle destruction and does not produce dust. However, according to the modern understanding of tokamak fusion devices performance, the most attractive regime of ITER operation is the ELMy H mode. This regime is associated with a repetitive short time increase of heat flux at the CFC divertor armour of 2-3 orders of magnitude over its stationary value during edge localized modes (ELMs). Under influence of these severe heat shocks CFC armour can crack due to the thermostress, producing a dust of carbon. Besides, a carbon dust produced during disruptions due to brittle destruction of the armour under influence of thermoshock. Most of the modern tokamaks do not produce the ELMs powerful enough to cause CFC brittle destruction at the divertor surface, except of very special regimes in JET. This is why the CFC erosion and dust production could be investigated now only theoretically and experimentally in plasma guns and electron beam facilities. Simulation of the CFC brittle destruction has been done using the code PEGASUS already developed and tested in FZK for simulation of erosion for ITER candidate materials under the heat shocks. After upgrades the code was used for simulation of the amount of carbon dust particles and of the distribution of their sizes. The code has been tested against available experimental data from the plasma gun MK-200UG and from the

  6. Malmquist Productivity Index by Extended VIKOR Method Using Interval Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Fallah, Mohammad; Mohajeri, Amir; Najafi, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    The VIKOR method was developed for multicriteria optimization of complex systems. It determines the compromise ranking list and the compromise solution obtained with the given weights. This method focuses on ranking and selecting from a set of alternatives in the presence of conflicting criteria. Here, the VIKOR method is used for two times $t$ and $t+1$ . In order to calculate the progress or regression via Malmquist productivity index, the positive and negative ideals at ...

  7. Performance of real-time strain elastography, transient elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index in the assessment of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Giovanna; Tinelli, Carmine; Malfitano, Antonello; Dal Bello, Barbara; Filice, Gaetano; Filice, Carlo; Above, Elisabetta; Barbarini, Giorgio; Brunetti, Enrico; Calderon, Willy; Di Gregorio, Marta; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Ludovisi, Serena; Maiocchi, Laura; Michelone, Giuseppe; Mondelli, Mario; Patruno, Savino F A; Perretti, Alessandro; Poma, Gianluigi; Sacchi, Paolo; Zaramella, Marco; Zicchetti, Mabel

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index in assessing fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C by using histologic Metavir scores as reference standard. Consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C scheduled for liver biopsy were enrolled. Liver biopsy was performed on the same day as transient elastography and real-time strain elastography. Transient elastography and real-time strain elastography were performed in the same patient encounter by a single investigator using a medical device based on elastometry and an ultrasound machine, respectively. Diagnostic performance was assessed by using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. One hundred thirty patients (91 men and 39 women) were analyzed. The cutoff values for transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index were 6.9 kPa, 1.82, and 0.37, respectively, for fibrosis score of 2 or higher; 7.3 kPa, 1.86, and 0.70, respectively, for fibrosis score of 3 or higher; and 9.3 kPa, 2.33, and 0.70, respectively, for fibrosis score of 4. AUC values of transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, aspartate-to-platelet ratio index were 0.88, 0.74, and 0.86, respectively, for fibrosis score of 2 or higher; 0.95, 0.80, and 0.89, respectively, for fibrosis score of 3 or higher; and 0.97, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively, for fibrosis score of 4. A combination of the three methods, when two of three were in agreement, showed AUC curves of 0.93, 0.95, and 0.95 for fibrosis scores of 2 or higher, 3 or higher, and 4, respectively. Transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index values were correlated with histologic stages of fibrosis. Transient elastography offered excellent diagnostic performance in assessing severe fibrosis and

  8. Efficient production of antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Keita; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ogawa, Takafumi; Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Yuki; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    Transient gene expression allows a rapid production of diverse recombinant proteins in early-stage preclinical and clinical developments of biologics. Insect cells have proven to be an excellent platform for the production of functional recombinant proteins. In the present study, the production of an antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in lepidopteran insect cells was investigated. The DNA fragments encoding heavy-chain (Hc; Fd fragment) and light-chain (Lc) genes of an Fab fragment were individually cloned into the plasmid vector pIHAneo, which contained the Bombyx mori actin promoter downstream of the B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) IE-1 transactivator and the BmNPV HR3 enhancer for high-level expression. Trichoplusia ni BTI-TN-5B1-4 (High Five) cells were co-transfected with the resultant plasmid vectors using linear polyethyleneimine. When the transfection efficiency was evaluated, a plasmid vector encoding an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was also co-transfected. Transfection and culture conditions were optimized based on both the flow cytometry of the EGFP expression in transfected cells and the yield of the secreted Fab fragments determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under optimal conditions, a yield of approximately 120 mg/L of Fab fragments was achieved in 5 days in a shake-flask culture. Transient gene expression in insect cells may offer a promising approach to the high-throughput production of recombinant proteins. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of ELOCA.Mk5 to calculate transient fission product release from CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.; de Vaal, J.W.; Arimescu, V.I.; McGrady, T.G.; Wong, C.

    1992-04-01

    A change in fuel element power output, or a change in heat transfer conditions, will result in an immediate change in the temperature distribution in a fuel element. The temperature distribution change will be accompanied by concomitant changes in fuel stress distribution that lead, in turn, to a release of fission products to the fuel-to-sheath gap. It is important to know the inventory of fission products in the fuel-to-sheath gap, because this inventory is a major component of the source term for many postulated reactor accidents. ELOCA.Mk5 is a FORTRAN-77 computer code that has been developed to estimate transient releases to the fuel-to-sheath gap in CANDU reactors. ELOCA.Mk5 is an integration of the FREEDOM fission product release model into the ELOCA fuel element thermo-mechanical code. The integration of FREEDOM into ELOCA allows ELOCA.Mk5 to model the feedback mechanisms between the fission product release and the thermo-mechanical response of the fuel element. This paper describes the physical model, gives details of the ELOCA.Mkt code, and describes the validation of the model. We demonstrate that the model gives good agreement with experimental results for both steady state and transient conditions

  10. Optimization and utilization of Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Moneim; Trusa, Jason; Mett, Vadim; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2014-04-19

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in plants is a promising approach to produce vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins within a short period of time. However, this technology is only just beginning to be applied to large-scale production as many technological obstacles to scale up are now being overcome. Here, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for industrial-scale transient protein production based on vacuum infiltration of Nicotiana plants with Agrobacteria carrying launch vectors. Optimization of Agrobacterium cultivation in AB medium allows direct dilution of the bacterial culture in Milli-Q water, simplifying the infiltration process. Among three tested species of Nicotiana, N. excelsiana (N. benthamiana × N. excelsior) was selected as the most promising host due to the ease of infiltration, high level of reporter protein production, and about two-fold higher biomass production under controlled environmental conditions. Induction of Agrobacterium harboring pBID4-GFP (Tobacco mosaic virus-based) using chemicals such as acetosyringone and monosaccharide had no effect on the protein production level. Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration with Agrobacterium laboratory strain GV3101 showed the highest protein production compared to Agrobacteria laboratory strains LBA4404 and C58C1 and wild-type Agrobacteria strains at6, at10, at77 and A4. Co-expression of a viral RNA silencing suppressor, p23 or p19, in N. benthamiana resulted in earlier accumulation and increased production (15-25%) of target protein (influenza virus hemagglutinin).

  11. MATHEMATICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE WELL PRODUCTIVITY INDEX FOR FAST FORCHHEIMER (NON-DARCY) FLOWS IN POROUS MEDIA

    KAUST Repository

    AULISA, EUGENIO

    2009-08-01

    Motivated by the reservoir engineering concept of the well Productivity Index, we introduced and analyzed a functional, denoted as "diffusive capacity", for the solution of the initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) for a linear parabolic equation.21 This IBVP described laminar (linear) Darcy flow in porous media; the considered boundary conditions corresponded to different regimes of the well production. The diffusive capacities were then computed as steady state invariants of the solutions to the corresponding time-dependent boundary value problem. Here similar features for fast or turbulent nonlinear flows subjected to the Forchheimer equations are analyzed. It is shown that under some hydrodynamic and thermodynamic constraints, there exists a so-called pseudo steady state regime for the Forchheimer flows in porous media. In other words, under some assumptions there exists a steady state invariant over a certain class of solutions to the transient IBVP modeling the Forchheimer flow for slightly compressible fluid. This invariant is the diffusive capacity, which serves as the mathematical representation of the so-called well Productivity Index. The obtained results enable computation of the well Productivity Index by resolving a single steady state boundary value problem for a second-order quasilinear elliptic equation. Analytical and numerical studies highlight some new relations for the well Productivity Index in linear and nonlinear cases. The obtained analytical formulas can be potentially used for the numerical well block model as an analog of Piecemann. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  12. Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, H.-E.; Xiao, Y.-F.; Tsai, H.-E.; Lee, C.-H.; Lin, J.-Y.; Wang, J.; Chen, S.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    By utilizing the intensity- and duration-dependent heating and expansion rate of nanoplasma to generate a transient transverse gradient of the refractive index, prepulse controlled laser-beam propagation is demonstrated. The dynamical response of the macroscopic optical refractive index is traced back to the microscopic polarizability of nanoplasmas experimentally, in accordance with hydrodynamic nanoplasma models. In particular, the delay between the prepulse and the main pulse for maximum Rayleigh scattering is found to be longer than that for maximum x-ray emission, supporting the more refined one-dimensional self-consistent hydrodynamic nanoplasma model

  13. Simulating fission product transients via the history-based local-parameter methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.A.; Rouben, B.; Salvatore, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the fission-product-calculation capacity of the history-based local-parameter methodology for evaluating lattice properties for use in core-tracking calculations in CANDU reactors. In addition to taking into account the individual past history of each bundles flux/power level, fuel temperature, and coolant density and temperature that the bundle has seen during its stay in the core, the latest refinement of the history-based method provides the capability of fission-product-drivers. It allows the bundle-specific concentrations of the three basic groups of saturating fission products to be calculated in steady state or following a power transient, including long shutdowns. The new capability is illustrated by simulating the startup period following a typical long-shutdown, starting from a snapshot in the Point Lepreau operating history. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  14. Measuring green productivity of country: A generlized metafrontier Malmquist productivity index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Ying Lin, Eugene; Chen, Ping-Yu; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures environmental productivity in 70 countries over the period 1981–2007. Differences in green (environmental) productivity growth across countries under distinct country specific production frontier are measured using directional distance function model, which incorporates desirable output (GDP) and undesirable output (CO 2 emissions). The metafrontier which envelops the two country groups, developed countries and developing countries, are estimated using balanced panel data for the sample countries over the study period. A parametric method is used to compute technical efficiency change, technical change, and scale efficiency change, which aggregate to the generalized metafrontier Malmquist productivity index. The overall results indicated the two country groups operated under distinct stochastic production frontiers and therefore used different production technologies. It is found that developing countries achieved higher growth in their average environmental productivity relative to the metafrontier. Thus the results coincide with the convergence growth theory

  15. Analysis of fission product release from HTGR core during transient temperature excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takao; Yamatoya, Naotoshi; Onuma, Mamoru

    1978-01-01

    The computer program ''FRANC'' was developed to calculate the release activity of fission products from a high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) core during transient temperature excursions such as a hypothetical loss of forced circulation combined with design basis depressurization. The program utilizes a segmented cylindrical core spatial model with the associated values of the prior fuel irradiation history and temperature conditions. The fission product transport and decay chain behavior is expressed by a set of differential equations. This set of equations describes the entire core inventory of fission products by means of calculated parameters based on the detailed spatial core conditions. The program determines the time-dependent amounts of fission product nuclides escaping from the core into the coolant. Coded in Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL) with double precision, FRANC showed appropriate results for both short- and long-lived fission product nuclides. The sample calculation conducted by applying the program to a large HTGR indicated that it would take about one hour for noble gases and volatile nuclides to be released to the coolant, and several hours for metalic nuclides. (auth.)

  16. Production of the main celiac disease autoantigen by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Soledad Marin Viegas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Celiac Disease (CD is a gluten sensitive enteropathy that remains widely undiagnosed and implementation of massive screening tests is needed to reduce the long term complications associated to untreated CD. The main CD autoantigen, human tissue transglutaminase (TG2, is a challenge for the different expression systems available since its cross-linking activity affects cellular processes. Plant-based transient expression systems can be an alternative for the production of this protein. In this work, a transient expression system for the production of human TG2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves was optimized and reactivity of plant-produced TG2 in CD screening test was evaluated. First, a subcellular targeting strategy was tested. Cytosolic, secretory, endoplasmic reticulum (C-terminal SEKDEL fusion and vacuolar (C-terminal KISIA fusion TG2 versions were transiently expressed in leaves and recombinant protein yields were measured. ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 levels were 9 to 16 fold higher than their cytosolic and secretory counterparts. As second strategy, TG2 variants were co-expressed with a hydrophobic elastin-like polymer (ELP construct encoding for 36 repeats of the pentapeptide VPGXG in which the guest residue X were V and F in ratio 8:1. Protein bodies (PB were induced by the ELP, with a consequent 2 fold-increase in accumulation of both ER-TG2 and vac-TG2. Subsequently, ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 were produced and purified using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 were recognized by three anti-TG2 monoclonal antibodies that bind different epitopes proving that plant-produced antigen has immunochemical characteristics similar to those of human TG2. Lastly, an ELISA was performed with sera of CD patients and healthy controls. Both vac-TG2 and ER-TG2 were positively recognized by IgA of CD patients while they were not recognized by serum from non-celiac controls. These results confirmed the usefulness of plant

  17. Production of extracellular protease and glucose uptake in Bacillus clausii in steady-state and transient continuous cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    The production of the extracellular alkaline protease Savinase(R) (EC 3.4.21.62) and glucose uptake in a non-sporulating strain of Bacillus clausii were investigated by analysing steady-state and transients during continuous cultivations. The specific production rate was found to have an optimum...

  18. Simulation of corrosion product activity in pressurized water reactors under flow rate transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Anwar M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mir, Imran

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of coolant activation due to corrosion products and impurities in a typical pressurized water reactor has been done under flow rate transients. Employing time dependent production and losses of corrosion products in the primary coolant path an approach has been developed to calculate the coolant specific activity. Results for 24 Na, 56 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co and 99Mo show that the specific activity in primary loop approaches equilibrium value under normal operating conditions fairly rapidly. Predominant corrosion product activity is due to Mn-56. Parametric studies at full power for various ramp decreases in flow rate show initial decline in the activity and then a gradual rise to relatively higher saturation values. The minimum value and the time taken to reach the minima are strong functions of the slope of linear decrease in flow rate. In the second part flow rate coastdown was allowed to occur at different flow half-times. The reactor scram was initiated at 90% of the normal flow rate. The results show that the specific activity decreases and the rate of decrease depends on pump half time and the reactor scram conditions

  19. New insight into the parasitic bipolar amplification effect in single event transient production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian-Jun; Chen Shu-Ming; Liang Bin; Deng Ke-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new method is proposed to study the mechanism of charge collection in single event transient (SET) production in 90 nm bulk complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. We find that different from the case in the pMOSFET, the parasitic bipolar amplification effect (bipolar effect) in the balanced inverter does not exist in the nMOSFET after the ion striking. The influence of the substrate process on the bipolar effect is also studied in the pMOSFET. We find that the bipolar effect can be effectively mitigated by a buried deep P + -well layer and can be removed by a buried SO 2 layer. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  20. Techno-economic analysis of a transient plant-based platform for monoclonal antibody production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Somen; Kwong, Aaron T.; Holtz, Barry R.; Erwin, Robert L.; Marcel, Sylvain; McDonald, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant-based biomanufacturing of therapeutic proteins is a relatively new platform with a small number of commercial-scale facilities, but offers advantages of linear scalability, reduced upstream complexity, reduced time to market, and potentially lower capital and operating costs. In this study we present a detailed process simulation model for a large-scale new “greenfield” biomanufacturing facility that uses transient agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown hydroponically indoors under light-emitting diode lighting for the production of a monoclonal antibody. The model was used to evaluate the total capital investment, annual operating cost, and cost of goods sold as a function of mAb expression level in the plant (g mAb/kg fresh weight of the plant) and production capacity (kg mAb/year). For the Base Case design scenario (300 kg mAb/year, 1 g mAb/kg fresh weight, and 65% recovery in downstream processing), the model predicts a total capital investment of $122 million dollars and cost of goods sold of $121/g including depreciation. Compared with traditional biomanufacturing platforms that use mammalian cells grown in bioreactors, the model predicts significant reductions in capital investment and >50% reduction in cost of goods compared with published values at similar production scales. The simulation model can be modified or adapted by others to assess the profitability of alternative designs, implement different process assumptions, and help guide process development and optimization. PMID:27559626

  1. Freedom: a transient fission-product release model for radioactive and stable species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, L.D.; Lewis, B.J.; Iglesias, F.C.

    1989-05-01

    A microstructure-dependent fission-gas release and swelling model (FREEDOM) has been developed for UO 2 fuel. The model describes the transient release behaviour for both the radioactive and stable fission-product species. The model can be applied over the full range of operating conditions, as well as for accident conditions that result in high fuel temperatures. The model accounts for lattice diffusion and grain-boundary sweeping of fusion products to the grain boundaries, where the fission gases accumulate in grain-face bubbles as a result of vacancy diffusion. Release of fission-gas to the free void of the fuel element occurs through the interlinkage of bubbles and cracks on the grain boundaries. This treatment also accounts for radioactive chain decay and neutron-induced transmutation effects. These phenomena are described by mass balance equations which are numerically solved using a moving-boundary, finite-element method with mesh refinement. The effects of grain-face bubbles on fuel swelling and fuel thermal conductivity are included in the ELESIM fuel performance code. FREEDOM has an accuracy of better than 1% when assessed against an analytic solution for diffusional release. The code is being evaluated against a fuel performance database for stable gas release, and against sweep-gas and in-cell fission-product release experiments at Chalk River for active species

  2. Techno-economic analysis of a transient plant-based platform for monoclonal antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Somen; Kwong, Aaron T; Holtz, Barry R; Erwin, Robert L; Marcel, Sylvain; McDonald, Karen A

    Plant-based biomanufacturing of therapeutic proteins is a relatively new platform with a small number of commercial-scale facilities, but offers advantages of linear scalability, reduced upstream complexity, reduced time to market, and potentially lower capital and operating costs. In this study we present a detailed process simulation model for a large-scale new "greenfield" biomanufacturing facility that uses transient agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown hydroponically indoors under light-emitting diode lighting for the production of a monoclonal antibody. The model was used to evaluate the total capital investment, annual operating cost, and cost of goods sold as a function of mAb expression level in the plant (g mAb/kg fresh weight of the plant) and production capacity (kg mAb/year). For the Base Case design scenario (300 kg mAb/year, 1 g mAb/kg fresh weight, and 65% recovery in downstream processing), the model predicts a total capital investment of $122 million dollars and cost of goods sold of $121/g including depreciation. Compared with traditional biomanufacturing platforms that use mammalian cells grown in bioreactors, the model predicts significant reductions in capital investment and >50% reduction in cost of goods compared with published values at similar production scales. The simulation model can be modified or adapted by others to assess the profitability of alternative designs, implement different process assumptions, and help guide process development and optimization.

  3. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  4. An environmental generalised Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indicator and an environmental generalised Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, A

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an environmental generalised productivity indicator and its ratio-based counterpart. The innovative environmental generalised total factor productivity measures inherit the basic structure of both Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index and Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indicator. This methodological contribution shows that these new environmental generalised total factor productivity measures yield the earlier standard Hicks-Moorsteen index and Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen indicator, as well as environmental performance index, as special cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative multivariate analyses of transient otoacoustic emissions and distorsion products in normal and impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamate, Mirela Cristina; Todor, Nicolae; Cosgarea, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The clinical utility of otoacoustic emissions as a noninvasive objective test of cochlear function has been long studied. Both transient otoacoustic emissions and distorsion products can be used to identify hearing loss, but to what extent they can be used as predictors for hearing loss is still debated. Most studies agree that multivariate analyses have better test performances than univariate analyses. The aim of the study was to determine transient otoacoustic emissions and distorsion products performance in identifying normal and impaired hearing loss, using the pure tone audiogram as a gold standard procedure and different multivariate statistical approaches. The study included 105 adult subjects with normal hearing and hearing loss who underwent the same test battery: pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, otoacoustic emission tests. We chose to use the logistic regression as a multivariate statistical technique. Three logistic regression models were developed to characterize the relations between different risk factors (age, sex, tinnitus, demographic features, cochlear status defined by otoacoustic emissions) and hearing status defined by pure-tone audiometry. The multivariate analyses allow the calculation of the logistic score, which is a combination of the inputs, weighted by coefficients, calculated within the analyses. The accuracy of each model was assessed using receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. We used the logistic score to generate receivers operating curves and to estimate the areas under the curves in order to compare different multivariate analyses. We compared the performance of each otoacoustic emission (transient, distorsion product) using three different multivariate analyses for each ear, when multi-frequency gold standards were used. We demonstrated that all multivariate analyses provided high values of the area under the curve proving the performance of the otoacoustic emissions. Each otoacoustic emission test presented high

  6. Academic Productivity in Psychiatry: Benchmarks for the H-Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Swansburg, Rose; Rittenbach, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    Bibliometrics play an increasingly critical role in the assessment of faculty for promotion and merit increases. Bibliometrics is the statistical analysis of publications, aimed at evaluating their impact. The objective of this study is to describe h-index and citation benchmarks in academic psychiatry. Faculty lists were acquired from online resources for all academic departments of psychiatry listed as having residency training programs in Canada (as of June 2016). Potential authors were then searched on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) for their corresponding h-index and total number of citations. The sample included 1683 faculty members in academic psychiatry departments. Restricted to those with a rank of assistant, associate, or full professor resulted in 1601 faculty members (assistant = 911, associate = 387, full = 303). h-index and total citations differed significantly by academic rank. Both were highest in the full professor rank, followed by associate, then assistant. The range in each, however, was large. This study provides the initial benchmarks for the h-index and total citations in academic psychiatry. Regardless of any controversies or criticisms of bibliometrics, they are increasingly influencing promotion, merit increases, and grant support. As such, benchmarking by specialties is needed in order to provide needed context.

  7. Uncovering methods for the prevention of protein aggregation and improvement of product quality in a transient expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Bram; Hsu, Yueh-Rong; Tam, Lei-Ting; Sheng, Jackie; Stevens, Jennitte; Haldankar, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian expression systems are used routinely for the production of recombinant proteins as therapeutic molecules as well as research tools. Transient expression has become increasingly popular in recent years due to its rapid timeline and improvements in expression level. While improvements to transient expression systems have focused mainly on the level of protein expression, the aspect of protein quality has received little attention. The removal of undesirable products, such as aggregation, depends primarily on purification, requiring additional cumbersome steps, which can lead to a lower product yield and longer timelines. In this study, we show that reducing the level of transcription by transfecting at a lower gene dose improves the quality of secreted molecules prone to aggregation. For gene dosing to have this effect, it is critical for the carrier DNA to be an empty vector containing the same elements as the gene containing plasmid. This approach can be used in combination with a temperature shift to hypothermic conditions during production to enhance the effect. The observed improvements not only minimized aggregation levels, but also generated products with overall superior quality, including more homogeneous signal peptide cleavage and N-linked glycosylation profiles. These techniques have produced a similar improvement in product quality with a variety of other molecules, suggesting that this may be a general approach to enhance product quality from transient expression systems. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Sustainable Product Indexing: Navigating the Challenge of Ecolabeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S. Golden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing scientific evidence that improving the sustainability of consumer products can lead to significant gains in global sustainability. Historically, environmental policy has been managed by bureaucracies and institutions in a mechanistic manner; this had led to many early successes. However, we believe that if policy concerning product sustainability is also managed in this way, negative unintended consequences are likely to occur. Thus, we propose a social-ecological systems approach to policy making concerning product sustainability that will lead to more rapid and meaningful progress toward improving the environmental and social impacts of consumer products.

  9. Impact of β- radiolysis and transient products on irradiation-enhanced corrosion of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaignan, C.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis has been undertaken of the various cases of local enhancement of the corrosion rate of zirconium alloys under irradiation. It is observed that in most cases a strong emission of energetic β - is present leading to a local energy desorption rate higher than the core average. This suggests that the local transient radiolytic oxidising species produced in the coolant by the β - particles could contribute to corrosion enhancement, by increasing the local corrosion potential. This process is applicable to the local enhanced corrosion found in front of stainless steels structural parts, due to the contribution of Mn, in front of Pt inserts and Cu-rich cruds. It explains also the irradiation corrosion enhancement of Cu-rich Zr alloys. Enhanced corrosion around neutron absorbing material is explained similarly by pair production from conversion of high energy capture photons in the cladding, leading to energetic electrons. The same process was found to be active with other highly ionising species like α in Ni-rich alloys and fission products in homogeneous reactors. This mechanism, applicable for an explanation of localised irradiation-enhanced corrosion, is proposed to be extended to the reactor core, where the general enhancement of Zr-alloy corrosion under irradiation would be due to the general radiolysis. It suggests that care should be taken to avoid any source of β - emission or other ionising species in the reactor core that could give an increase of energy deposition rate for radiolysis. Also the corrosion testing conditions for the materials to be used in reactors have to be relevant to the radiolytic environments found in the reactor cores. (orig.)

  10. A Semi-Analytical Methodology for Multiwell Productivity Index of Well-Industry-Production-Scheme in Tight Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfeng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the well-industry-production-scheme (WIPS has attracted more and more attention to improve tight oil recovery. However, multi-well pressure interference (MWPI induced by well-industry-production-scheme (WIPS strongly challenges the traditional transient pressure analysis methods, which focus on single multi-fractured horizontal wells (SMFHWs without MWPI. Therefore, a semi-analytical methodology for multiwell productivity index (MPI was proposed to study well performance of WIPS scheme in tight reservoir. To facilitate methodology development, the conceptual models of tight formation and WIPS scheme were firstly described. Secondly, seepage models of tight reservoir and hydraulic fractures (HFs were sequentially established and then dynamically coupled. Numerical simulation was utilized to validate our model. Finally, identification of flow regimes and sensitivity analysis were conducted. Our results showed that there was good agreement between our proposed model and numerical simulation; moreover, our approach also gave promising calculation speed over numerical simulation. Some expected flow regimes were significantly distorted due to WIPS. The slope of type curves which characterize the linear or bi-linear flow regime is bigger than 0.5 or 0.25. The horizontal line which characterize radial flow regime is also bigger 0.5. The smaller the oil rate, the more severely flow regimes were distorted. Well rate mainly determines the distortion of MPI curves, while fracture length, well spacing, fracture spacing mainly determine when the distortion of the MPI curves occurs. The bigger the well rate, the more severely the MPI curves are distorted. While as the well spacing decreases, fracture length increases, fracture spacing increases, occurrence of MWPI become earlier. Stress sensitivity coefficient mainly affects the MPI at the formation pseudo-radial flow stage, almost has no influence on the occurrence of MWPI. This work gains some

  11. Linking climate, gross primary productivity, and site index across forests of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Philip J. Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Assessing forest productivity is important for developing effective management regimes and predicting future growth. Despite some important limitations, the most common means for quantifying forest stand-level potential productivity is site index (SI). Another measure of productivity is gross primary production (GPP). In this paper, SI is compared with GPP estimates...

  12. INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Pette, Dirk; Gondin, Julien; Bizzarini, Emiliana; Kern, Helmut; Hofer, Christian; L?fler, Stefan; Mayr, Winfried; M?dlin, Michaela; Urban, Samantha; Kern, Helmut; Biowski, Peter; Marcante, Andrea; Baba, Alfonc; Ghezzo, Luca; Weis, Luca

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that repeated bouts of exercise (i.e. exercise training) lead to an elevated content of mitochondria within muscle. This adaptation confers metabolic advantages during exercise, such as an increase in the aerobic metabolism of lipids, reduced glycogen usage, and diminished lactate production. The molecular basis for this increase in organelle content involves the activation of PGC-1? along with numerous transcription factors which increase the expression of nuclear genes enco...

  13. PHOBINS: an index file of photon production cross section data and its utility code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Koyama, Kinji; Ido, Masaru; Hotta, Masakazu; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi

    1978-08-01

    The code System PHOBINS developed for reference of photon production cross sections is described in detail. The system is intended to grasp the present status of photon production data and present the information of available data. It consists of four utility routines, CREA, UP-DT, REF and BACK, and data files. These utility routines are used for making an index file of the photon production cross sections, updating the index file, searching the index file and producing a back-up file of the index file. In the index file of the photon production cross sections, a data base system is employed for efficient data management in economical storage, ease of updating and efficient reference. The present report is a reference manual of PHOBINS. (author)

  14. Product sampling during transient continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil and development of a kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng; Natelson, Robert H.; Stikeleather, Larry F.; Roberts, William L.

    2013-01-01

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed for the transient stage of the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Departure functions and group contribution methods were applied to determine

  15. Extrinsic Motivation Index: A New Tool for Managing Labor Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berumen, S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a tool of practical significance for HR managers and firm executives. This tool, which is called Extrinsic Motivation Index (EMI, is meant to measure the extrinsic motivation of employees. By measuring employees' extrinsic motivation, managers are able to track job satisfaction and, subsequently, implement measures aiming both to raise job satisfaction and to improve organizational commitment. In order to test the validity of the model, we apply the EMI to Faculty members at Spanish and German universities. We also carry out simulation experiments in order to to address all possible situations an organization most probably will have to deal with. The results point out significant differences in the level of motivation and commitment of Faculty members. Additionally, the analysis shows several ways in which an organization may manage job satisfaction issues according to on its level of resources.

  16. DEVELOPING AN INDEX FOR FOREST PRODUCTIVITY MAPPING - A CASE STUDY FOR MARITIME PINE PRODUCTION REGULATION IN PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mestre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Productivity is very dependent on the environmental and biotic factors present at the site where the forest species of interest is present. Forest site productivity is usually assessed using empirical models applied to inventory data providing discrete predictions. While the use of GIS-based models enables building a site productivity distribution map. Therefore, the aim of this study was to derive a productivity index using multivariate statistics and coupled GIS-geostatistics to obtain a forest productivity map. To that end, a study area vastly covered by naturally regenerated forests of maritime pine in central Portugal was used. First, a productivity index (PI was built based on Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA by incorporating a classical site index for the species and region (Sh25 - height index model and GIS-derived environmental variables (slope and aspect. After, the PI map was obtained by multi-Gaussian kriging and used as a GIS layer to evaluate maritime pine areas by productivity class (e.g., low, intermediate and high. In the end, the area control method was applied to assess the size and the number of compartments to establish by productivity class. The management compartments of equal productivity were digitized as GIS layer and organized in a temporal progression of stands’ age regularly available for cutting each year during a 50-year schedule. The methodological approach developed in this study proved that can be used to build forest productivity maps which are crucial tools to support forest production regulation.

  17. Measuring Scholastic Production by Dermatopathologists Using the H-Index: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Garth R

    2018-06-01

    Academic advancement in dermatopathology requires evidence of scientific production. The H-index is a useful bibliometric for measuring scientific production because it weights both volume and impact of an individual's scholastic production. The H-index distribution among academic dermatopathologists is unknown. In this cross-sectional study of 299 dermatopathologists with academic appointments in North America, H-index, publication counts, and citation counts were retrieved from Thomas Reuters Web of Science. Analytic statistics were performed to identify best predictors of academic rank and cutoff points between academic ranks. The H-index was a superior predictor of overall academic rank than publication or citation counts. The median H-index for assistant, associate, and full professors was 4, 6, and 11, respectively. H-index cutoff scores of 8 and 10 favored associate and full professor rank, respectively. These data provide benchmarks for dermatopathologists to gauge their scientific productivity against that of their peers. Although advancement decisions will depend on a careful examination of the scope and impact of a candidate's work, assistant professors of dermatopathology with H-index scores of >7 and associate professors of dermatopathology with H-index scores of >9 may wish to consider application for promotion.

  18. Level of the farm intensity organisation as the index of environmental sustainable agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Sawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensity of the farm production organisation in relation to soil organic matter balance in different degree of mechanization process of work for 42 farms situated in different regions of Poland was analysed. Coefficients agricultural production process in ecological, economic and social aspects were presented also. It was shown that indexes; intensity farm production organisation and soil organic matter balance are correlated.

  19. Level of the farm intensity organisation as the index of environmental sustainable agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Sawa

    2009-01-01

    Intensity of the farm production organisation in relation to soil organic matter balance in different degree of mechanization process of work for 42 farms situated in different regions of Poland was analysed. Coefficients agricultural production process in ecological, economic and social aspects were presented also. It was shown that indexes; intensity farm production organisation and soil organic matter balance are correlated.

  20. Influence of biogenic gas production on coalbed methane recovery index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In investigating the effect of biogenic gas production on the recovery of coalbed methane (CBM, coal samples spanning different ranks were applied in the microbial-functioned simulation experiments for biogenic methane production. Based on the biogenic methane yield, testing of pore structures, and the isothermal adsorption data of coals used before and after the simulation experiments, several key parameters related to the recovery of CBM, including recovery rate, gas saturation and ratio of critical desorption pressure to reservoir pressure, etc., were calculated and the corresponding variations were further analyzed. The results show that one of the significant functions of microbial communities on coal is possibly to weaken its affinity for methane gas, especially with the advance of coal ranks; and that by enhancing the pore system of coal, which can be evidenced by the increase of porosity and permeability, the samples collected from Qianqiu (Yima in Henan and Shaqu (Liulin in Shanxi coal mines all see a notable increase in the critical desorption pressure, gas saturation and recovery rate, as compared to the moderate changes of that of Guandi (Xishan in Shanxi coal sample. It is concluded that the significance of enhanced biogenic gas is not only in the increase of CBM resources and the improvement of CBM recoverability, but in serving as an engineering reference for domestic coalbed biogenic gas production.

  1. Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using computer simulation modelling. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... into the model allowed for the introduction of variation between individuals and generations.

  2. Integrated cell and process engineering for improved transient production of a "difficult-to-express" fusion protein by CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Yusuf B; Estes, Scott D; Alves, Christina S; Sinacore, Marty S; James, David C

    2015-12-01

    Based on an optimized electroporation protocol, we designed a rapid, milliliter-scale diagnostic transient production assay to identify limitations in the ability of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to produce a model "difficult-to-express" homodimeric Fc-fusion protein, Sp35Fc, that exhibited very low volumetric titer and intracellular formation of disulfide-bonded oligomeric aggregates post-transfection. As expression of Sp35Fc induced an unfolded protein response in transfected host cells, we utilized the transient assay to compare, in parallel, multiple functionally diverse strategies to engineer intracellular processing of Sp35Fc in order to increase production and reduce aggregation as two discrete design objectives. Specifically, we compared the effect of (i) co-expression of ER-resident molecular chaperones (BiP, PDI, CypB) or active forms of UPR transactivators (ATF6c, XBP1s) at varying recombinant gene load, (ii) addition of small molecules known to act as chemical chaperones (PBA, DMSO, glycerol, betaine, TMAO) or modulate UPR signaling (PERK inhibitor GSK2606414) at varying concentration, (iii) a reduction in culture temperature to 32°C. Using this information, we designed a biphasic, Sp35Fc-specific transient manufacturing process mediated by lipofection that utilized CypB co-expression at an optimal Sp35Fc:CypB gene ratio of 5:1 to initially maximize transfected cell proliferation, followed by addition of a combination of PBA (0.5 mM) and glycerol (1% v/v) at the onset of stationary phase to maximize cell specific production and eliminate Sp35Fc aggregation. Using this optimal, engineered process transient Sp35Fc production was significantly increased sixfold over a 12 day production process with no evidence of disulfide-bonded aggregates. Finally, transient production in clonally derived sub-populations (derived from parental CHO host) screened for a heritably improved capability to produce Sp35Fc was also significantly improved by the optimized

  3. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL GEOCHEMICAL INDEXES OF PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Kasimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a geochemical assessment of the primary involvement of chemical elements in technogenesis in the world and individual countries. In order to compare the intensity of production of various chemical elements in different countries, the authors have introduced a number of new terms and parameters. The new term is “abstract rock” (AR - an elemental equivalent, whose average composition corresponds to the average chemical composition of the upper continental crust. The new parameters are: “conditional technophility of an element” (TY, “specific technophility” (TYN “regional conditional technophility” (TYR, “specific regional technophility” (TN, and “density of regional conditional technophility” (TS. TY equals to the tons of AR per year necessary for the production of the current level of the element. TY of different elements has been estimated for 2008-2010. The highest TY values are associated with C, S, N, Ra, and Au. TY of many micro- and ultramicroelements is of the order of n•1011t. TYN reflects the volume of AR per the world’s capita. TYN changes from the 1960s to 2010 indicates that the Earth’s population is growing much faster than its demand for many chemical elements. TYR, TN, and TS were used for the integrated assessment of technogenesis at the regional scale; they reflect the intensity of the technogenesis process at the level of individual countries and allow comparing countries with different levels of elements production, population, and areas. The TN and TS levels of the leaders in extraction of natural resources are below these values in other countries due to the large territories (Russia, USA, Canada, Australia, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Zambia, Mali, Libya, Mongolia, and Sudan, to the large population (Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Nigeria, or to both high spatial and demographic dimensions (India, Brazil, France, Egypt

  4. Proposal of a production and management index (PMI) for tilapia farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, A; Rey-Castaño, A L; Ruiz-Zarzuela, I; Guarín, M; Iregui, C; de Blas, I

    2016-11-01

    Tilapia is one of the most important species in aquaculture; however, there is no available index to show the performance of a production unit. It is desirable to assess the productivity using indexes, such as the production and management index for shrimps and the European production efficacy factor for broilers. These indexes are based on data production: growth, survival, and feed conversion of a full production cycle. Taking into account these parameters, we propose a production and management index (PMI) for tilapia that is applicable for a specific period of the production cycle. For the construction and validation of the PMI we have used production data from 8,614 monthly records of 2 tilapia farms in Huila Department (Colombia), and because of the complexity of tilapia management, different anomalous situations have been detected and then defined as exceptions. As a result, 419 records were considered extreme values because 1 or more exceptions were met. The value of the PMI varies from 0 (the worst situation) to 3.55, which reflects high variability. We have constructed a PMI for tilapia as the product of 3 elements to obtain a positive value index. Instead of classic parameters, we had to calculate an adapted version of them: the relative average daily growth, the survival (as a complementary value of the estimated monthly mortality), and a feed conversion ratio index. To assess the utility of the PMI, some comparisons were performed using records from black and red tilapia. We observed significant differences depending on tilapia strain (PMI = 1.0248 vs. PMI = 1.1661; tilapia farmers, despite the complexity of the calculation.

  5. INSPIA project: European Index for Sustainable and Productive Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Tarradas, Paula; Jesús González-Sánchez, Emilio; Gómez-Ariza, Manuel; Rass, Gerard; Gardette, Sophie; Whitmore, Gavin; Dyson, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    The concept of sustainable development has evolved from a mere perception for the protection of the environment, to a holistic approach, seeking to preserve not only the environment, but also to achieve sustainability in economics and social wellbeing. Globally, there is a major challenge to face in the agricultural sector: to produce more food, feed and other raw materials to satisfy the increasing demand of a growing population, whilst also contributing to economic prosperity, climate change mitigation / adaptation, social wellbeing and preserving natural capital such as soil, water, biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nowadays, conventional approaches to agriculture are under threat. A more productive and resource efficient agriculture that integrates natural resource protection into its approach will help to meet all these challenges, enabling us to have more of everything - more food, more feed, more non-food crops, more biodiversity and natural habitats - while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, INSPIA is an innovative approach that has worked since 2013 towards demonstration that sustainable productive agriculture is possible thanks to the implementation of a host of best management practices (BMPs) capable of delivering the above achievements. The purpose on INSPIA is to make visible with European decision makers that a sustainable and productive agricultural model exists in a small scale in Europe and that wider dissemination is possible with enabling legislation. INSPIA is demonstrating sustainable agriculture through the implementation of BMPs and the measurement and monitoring of a set of defined indicators (economic, social and environmental ones). INSPIA promotes sustainable practices that protect biodiversity, soils and water and contribute towards maintaining ecosystems services. This holistic sustainable system of productive agriculture is based on the combination of Conservation Agriculture (CA) and Integrated Pest

  6. 56Fe particle exposure results in a long-lasting increase in a cellular index of genomic instability and transiently suppresses adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z.; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal R.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-07-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreERT2/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to 56Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24 h), intermediate (7 d), and/or long time points (2-3 mo) post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, 56Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, 56Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, 56Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These data support

  7. GRASS-SST, Fission Products Gas Release and Fuel Swelling in Steady-State and Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadzki, S.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: GRASS-SST is a comprehensive, mechanistic model for the prediction of fission-gas behaviour in UO 2 -base fuels during steady-state and transient conditions. GRASS-SST treats fission-gas release and fuel swelling on an equal basis and simultaneously treats all major mechanisms that influence fission-gas behaviour. Models are included for intra- and inter-granular fission-gas bubble behaviour as well as a mechanistic description of the role of grain-edge inter-linked porosity on fission-gas release and swelling. GRASS-SST calculations include the effects of gas production from fissioning uranium atoms, bubble nucleation, a realistic equation of state for xenon, lattice bubble diffusivities based on experimental observations, bubble migration, bubble coalescence, re-solution, temperature and temperature gradients, inter-linked porosity, and fission-gas interaction with structural defects (dislocations and grain boundaries) on both the distribution of fission-gas within the fuel and on the amount of fission-gas released from the fuel. GRASS-SST includes the effects of the degree of nonequilibrium in the UO 2 lattice on fission-gas bubble mobility and bubble coalescence and also accounts for the observed formation of grain-surface channels. GRASS-SST also includes mechanistic models for grain-growth/grain boundary sweeping and for the behaviour of fission gas during liquefaction/dissolution and fuel melting conditions. 2 - Method of solution: A system of coupled equations for the evolution of the fission-gas bubble-size distributions in the lattice, on dislocations, on grain faces, and grain edges is derived based on the GRASS-SST models. Given a set of operating conditions, GRASS-SST calculates the bubble radii for the size classes of bubbles under consideration using a realistic equation of state for xenon as well as a generalised capillary relation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of : 1 axial section

  8. A new productivity index to measure economic sustainability of the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Xose A

    2010-01-01

    This document aims to introduce a total productivity index to measure the economic sustainability of the mining industry. This index will take into account any technical developments, means of use of productive factors (i.e. inefficiencies and scale effects) and the effects on the growth of the geological properties in the resources to be exploited (particularly the effects of resource reduction or reserves depletion). This new index will then be applied to the example of the Spanish mining industry, with some interesting findings regarding the configuration of sustainable mining policies.

  9. Transient transfection of serum-free suspension HEK 293 cell culture for efficient production of human rFVIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemophilia A is a bleeding disorder caused by deficiency in coagulation factor VIII. Recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) is an alternative to plasma-derived FVIII for the treatment of hemophilia A. However, commercial manufacturing of rFVIII products is inefficient and costly and is associated to high prices and product shortage, even in economically privileged countries. This situation may be solved by adopting more efficient production methods. Here, we evaluated the potential of transient transfection in producing rFVIII in serum-free suspension HEK 293 cell cultures and investigated the effects of different DNA concentration (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 μg/106 cells) and repeated transfections done at 34° and 37°C. Results We observed a decrease in cell growth when high DNA concentrations were used, but no significant differences in transfection efficiency and in the biological activity of the rFVIII were noticed. The best condition for rFVIII production was obtained with repeated transfections at 34°C using 0.4 μg DNA/106 cells through which almost 50 IU of active rFVIII was produced six days post-transfection. Conclusion Serum-free suspension transient transfection is thus a viable option for high-yield-rFVIII production. Work is in progress to further optimize the process and validate its scalability. PMID:22115125

  10. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects.

  11. Study on environmental impact assessment index system of uranium production base construction plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochao; Song Liquan

    2008-01-01

    The index system on planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction is discussed by using the hiberarchy method according to characteristics of uranium production and environmental protection object of planning assessment. The suggested index system is in favor of persistent exploitation of uranium resource and environmental protection in the uranium mining area, and can provide a reference for planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction in China. (authors)

  12. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588

  13. Rapid high-level production of functional HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in transient plant expression systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01 or a single chain antibody construct (m9, for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production.

  14. Rapid transient production in plants by replicating and non-replicating vectors yields high quality functional anti-HIV antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Sainsbury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product.To assess the quality of antibodies transiently expressed to high levels in plants, we have expressed and characterised the human anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, 2G12, using both replicating and non-replicating systems based on deleted versions of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV RNA-2. The highest yield (approximately 100 mg/kg wet weight leaf tissue of affinity purified 2G12 was obtained when the non-replicating CPMV-HT system was used and the antibody was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Glycan analysis by mass-spectrometry showed that the glycosylation pattern was determined exclusively by whether the antibody was retained in the ER and did not depend on whether a replicating or non-replicating system was used. Characterisation of the binding and neutralisation properties of all the purified 2G12 variants from plants showed that these were generally similar to those of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell-produced 2G12.Overall, the results demonstrate that replicating and non-replicating CPMV-based vectors are able to direct the production of a recombinant IgG similar in activity to the CHO-produced control. Thus, a complex recombinant protein was produced with no apparent effect on its biochemical properties using either high-level expression or viral replication. The speed with which a recombinant pharmaceutical with excellent biochemical characteristics can be produced transiently in plants makes CPMV-based expression vectors an attractive option for

  15. Characteristics and conditions of production of transient luminous events observed over a maritime storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soula, S.; van der Velde, O.; Palmiéri, J.

    2010-01-01

    On the night of 15/16 November 2007, cameras in southern France detected 30 transient luminous events (TLEs) over a storm located in the Corsican region (France). Among these TLEs, 19 were sprites, 6 were halos, and 5 were elves. For 26 of them, a positive “parent” cloud-to-ground lightning (P...... in a sequence had much lower peak currents. Several triangulated sprites were found to be shifted from their P+CG flashes by about 10 to 50 km and preferentially downstream. The observations suggest that the P+CG flashes can initiate both sprites and other CG flashes in a storm....

  16. Science dynamics and research production indicators, indexes, statistical laws and mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with methods to evaluate scientific productivity. In the book statistical methods, deterministic and stochastic models and numerous indexes are discussed that will help the reader to understand the nonlinear science dynamics and to be able to develop or construct systems for appropriate evaluation of research productivity and management of research groups and organizations. The dynamics of science structures and systems is complex, and the evaluation of research productivity requires a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and measures. The book has three parts. The first part is devoted to mathematical models describing the importance of science for economic growth and systems for the evaluation of research organizations of different size. The second part contains descriptions and discussions of numerous indexes for the evaluation of the productivity of researchers and groups of researchers of different size (up to the comparison of research productivities of research communiti...

  17. Comparison of Lipid Accumulation Product Index with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome in Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Nanda, Sunil Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), which confers a high risk for cardiovascular diseases, needs early diagnosis and treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. Lipid accumulation product index has been reported to be an inexpensive marker of visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate lipid accumulation product index as a marker for metabolic syndrome in the Indian population where the prevalence of the condition is steadily increasing. A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted with 72 diagnosed cases of metabolic syndrome and 79 control subjects. In all the participants, body mass index (BMI) and lipid accumulation product index were calculated. The difference between cases and controls in BMI, waist circumference (WC), and lipid accumulation product index was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test/unpaired t-test. Associations of BMI, WC, and lipid accumulation product index with metabolic syndrome were compared by multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis. BMI, WC, and lipid accumulation product index were significantly higher in metabolic syndrome (P product index had the highest prediction accuracy. The parameter also had a high area under curve of 0.901 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.95) and a high sensitivity (76.4%), specificity (91.1%), positive predictive value (88.7%), and negative predictive value (80.9%) for detection of metabolic syndrome. In the Indian population, lipid accumulation product index is a better predictor of metabolic syndrome compared to BMI and WC and should be incorporated in laboratory reports as early, accurate, and inexpensive indicator of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Eggshells as an index of aedine mosquito production. 2: Relationship of Aedes taeniorhynchus eggshell density to larval production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, D S; Ritchie, S A; Webber, L A; Van Essen, F

    1992-03-01

    To test if eggshell density could be used as an index of aedine mosquito production, we compared eggshell density with the larval production of Aedes taeniorhynchus in Florida mangrove basin forests. Quantitative (n = 7) and categorical (n = 34) estimates of annual larval production were regressed against the number of eggshells per cc of soil. Significant regressions were obtained in both instances. Larval production was concentrated in zones with the highest eggshell density. We suggest that eggshell density and distribution can be used to identify oviposition sites and the sequence of larval appearance.

  19. The impact of ownership structure on bank productivity and efficiency: Evidence from semi-parametric Malmquist Productivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study employs the state of the art bias-corrected Malmquist Productivity Index method to examine the sources of efficiency and productivity of the foreign and domestic banks operating in the Malaysian banking sector. The preferred methodology enables us to isolate efforts to catch up to the frontier (efficiency change from shifts in the frontier (technological change [TECHCH]. The results indicate that the Malaysian banking sector has exhibited productivity progress mainly attributed to technological progress. The empirical findings suggest that both the domestic and foreign banks have exhibited productivity progress albeit at different quantum attributed mainly to progress in TECHCH.

  20. Role of the NMDA receptor and iron on free radical production and brain damage following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Doo Soon; Jeon, Jeong Wook; Lee, Jin Soo; Won, Seok Joon; Cho, Sung Ig; Lee, Yong Beom; Gwag, Byoung Joo

    2012-05-21

    Excess activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and iron is believed to contribute to free radical production and neuronal death following hypoxic ischemia. We examined the possibility that both NMDA receptor activation and iron overload determine spatial and temporal patterns of free radical production after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Mitochondrial free radical (MFR) levels were maximally increased in neurons in the core at 1 h and 24 h after tMCAO. Early MFR production was blocked by administration of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, but not deferoxamine, an iron chelator. Neither MK-801 nor deferoxamine attenuated late MFR production in the core. Increased MFRs were observed in penumbral neurons within 6 h and gradually increased over 24 h after tMCAO. Slowly-evolving MFRs in the core and penumbra were accompanied by iron overload. Deferoxamine blocked iron overload but reduced MFR production only in the penumbra. Combined MK-801/deferoxamine reduced late MFR production in both core and penumbra in an additive manner. Combination therapy significantly ameliorated infarction compared with monotherapy. These findings suggest that the NMDA receptor activation and iron overload mediate late MFR production and infarction after tMCAO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rainfall Intensity and Frequency Explain Production Basis Risk in Cumulative Rain Index Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus P.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Huffaker, Ray G.

    2017-12-01

    With minimal moral hazard and adverse selection, weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions through swift compensation at affordable premium. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing gives rise to production basis risk as the selected weather indexes do not sufficiently correspond to actual damages. To address this problem, we develop a stochastic yield model, built upon a stochastic soil moisture model driven by marked Poisson rainfall. Our analysis shows that even under similar temperature and rainfall amount yields can differ significantly; this was empirically supported by a 2-year field experiment in which rain-fed maize was grown under very similar total rainfall. Here, the year with more intense, less-frequent rainfall produces a better yield—a rare counter evidence to most climate change projections. Through a stochastic yield model, we demonstrate the crucial roles of rainfall intensity and frequency in determining the yield. Importantly, the model allows us to compute rainfall pattern-related basis risk inherent in cumulative rain index insurance. The model results and a case study herein clearly show that total rainfall is a poor indicator of yield, imposing unnecessary production basis risk on farmers and false-positive payouts on insurers. Incorporating rainfall intensity and frequency in the design of rain index insurance can offer farmers better protection, while maintaining the attractive features of the weather index insurance and thus fulfilling its promise of financial resilience.

  2. Product sampling during transient continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil and development of a kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2013-11-01

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed for the transient stage of the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Departure functions and group contribution methods were applied to determine the equilibrium constants of the four reversible reactions in the kinetic model. Continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil in subcritical water was conducted experimentally in a lab-scale reactor over a range of temperatures and the concentrations of all neutral components were quantified. Several of the rate constants in the model were obtained by modeling this experimental data, with the remaining determined from calculated equilibrium constants. Some reactions not included in the present, or previous, hydrolysis modeling efforts were identified from glycerolysis kinetic studies and may explain the slight discrepancy between model and experiment. The rate constants determined in this paper indicate that diglycerides in the feedstock accelerate the transition from "emulsive hydrolysis" to "rapid hydrolysis". © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. On the integration of products of Whittaker functions with respect to the second index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    Several new formulas are developed that enable the evaluation of a family of definite integrals containing the product of two Whittaker W κ,μ (x)-functions. The integration is performed with respect to the second index μ, and the first index κ is permitted to have any complex value, within certain restrictions required for convergence. The method utilizes complex contour integration along with various symmetry relations satisfied by the Whittaker functions. The new results derived in this article are complementary to the previously known integrals of products of Whittaker functions, which generally treat integration with respect to either the first index κ or the primary argument x. A physical application involving radiative transport is discussed

  4. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in m...

  5. The Equity Indexed Annuity: A Monte Carlo Forensic Investigation into a Controversial Financial Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Equity Indexed Annuities (EIAs) are controversial financial products because the payoffs to investors are based on formulas that are supposedly too complex for average investors to understand. This brief describes how Monte Carlo simulation can provide insight into the true risk and return of an EIA. This approach can be used as a project…

  6. Steady-state and transient hydrocarbon production in graphite by low energy impact of atomic and molecular deuterium projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Meyer, F.W.

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of steady-state yields of methyl, methane and heavier hydrocarbons for deuterium atomic and molecular ions incident on ATJ graphite, HOPG, and a-C:D thin films in the energy range 10-200 eV/D. The yields were determined using a QMS technique in conjunction with calibrated hydrocarbon leaks. We have also studied transient hydrocarbon production and hydrogen (deuterium) re-emission for 80 and 150 eV/D D + , D 2 + , and D 3 + projectiles incident on ATJ graphite surfaces pre-loaded to steady state by 20 eV/D beams of the corresponding species. Immediately after starting the higher-energy beams, transient hydrocarbon and D 2 re-emission yields significantly larger than steady-state values were observed, which exponentially decayed as a function of beam fluence. The initial yield values were related to the starting hydrocarbon and deuterium densities in the prepared sample, while the exponential decay constants provided information on the hydrocarbon kinetic release and hydrogen (deuterium) detrapping cross-sections.

  7. Evaluation of a reproductive index for estimating productivity of grassland breeding birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M.R.; Norment, C.; Runge, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Declining populations of grassland breeding birds have led to increased efforts to assess habitat quality, typically by estimating density or relative abundance. Because some grassland habitats may function as ecological traps, a more appropriate metric for determining quality is breeding success, which is challenging to determine for many cryptic-nesting grassland birds. This difficulty led Vickery et al. (1992) to propose a reproductive index based on behavioral observations rather than nest fate. We rigorously evaluated the index for 2 years using a Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) population in western New York and found a weak correlation in classification of the breeding stages of monitored territories among multiple observers (r = 0.398). We also discovered a large difference between overall territory and nest success rates independently estimated with the index (9.8% over the entire breeding cycle) and with nest searching and monitoring (41.7% of nests successfully fledged young). Most importantly, we made territory-level comparisons of index estimates with actual nest fate and found that the index correctly predicted fates for only 43% of the monitored nests. A Mayfield logistic regression analysis demonstrated that only index rank 4 (eggs hatched, but young failed to fledge) showed a strong positive correlation with nest success. Although the reproductive index may function as a coarse indicator of habitat suitability (e.g., documenting production in potential ecological traps), in our study the index exhibited neither internal consistency nor the ability to predict nest fate at the plot or territory level and functioned poorly as a substitute for nest searching and monitoring. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  8. A highly efficient autothermal microchannel reactor for ammonia decomposition: Analysis of hydrogen production in transient and steady-state regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Nicolaas; Chiuta, Steven; Bessarabov, Dmitri G.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental evaluation of an autothermal microchannel reactor for H2 production from NH3 decomposition is described. The reactor design incorporates an autothermal approach, with added NH3 oxidation, for coupled heat supply to the endothermic decomposition reaction. An alternating catalytic plate arrangement is used to accomplish this thermal coupling in a cocurrent flow strategy. Detailed analysis of the transient operating regime associated with reactor start-up and steady-state results is presented. The effects of operating parameters on reactor performance are investigated, specifically, the NH3 decomposition flow rate, NH3 oxidation flow rate, and fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio. Overall, the reactor exhibits rapid response time during start-up; within 60 min, H2 production is approximately 95% of steady-state values. The recommended operating point for steady-state H2 production corresponds to an NH3 decomposition flow rate of 6 NL min-1, NH3 oxidation flow rate of 4 NL min-1, and fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio of 1.4. Under these flows, NH3 conversion of 99.8% and H2 equivalent fuel cell power output of 0.71 kWe is achieved. The reactor shows good heat utilization with a thermal efficiency of 75.9%. An efficient autothermal reactor design is therefore demonstrated, which may be upscaled to a multi-kW H2 production system for commercial implementation.

  9. Reservoir characterization and monitoring of cold and thermal heavy oil production using multi-transient EM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmark, F. [Petroleum Geo-Services Asia Pacific Pte Ltd., Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-10-15

    This study emphasized the importance of mapping the in situ subsurface distribution of heavy oil for evaluating the amount of oil in place. The multi-transient electromagnetic (MTEM) method was shown to be an ideal method to characterize the large scale distribution of oil, including the average saturation levels, on the scale needed to optimize oil extraction using steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS). A feasibility study for an MTEM monitoring project would simulate reservoir temperature, water saturation and salinity to determine the evolution over time expressed in resistivity and the expanding steam chamber. The 4 factors influencing the resistivity in the monitoring phase were discussed. The temperature due to steaming causes a significant drop in resistivity of the affected rock volume, while the changes in water saturation affect resistivity. The drop in salinity of the pore water due to mixing with distilled water originating in the condensation of the injected steam causes an increase in resistivity, while the mineral dissolution and overall volume expansion causes formation damage that permanently changes the rock fabric. The overall effect of steam injection is a reduction in resistivity within the main part of the chamber, with a sudden increase in resistivity in the proximity of the injection well due to salt depletion. The lowered resistivity within a halo outside the steam chamber can be attributed to the heat radiation front expanding faster than the maturing steam chamber. The author noted that reservoir simulators do not yet incorporate the dynamic changes in porosity and permeability that are observed as permanent reductions of the elastic moduli and reduced resistivity. It was concluded that in order to fully describe the evolution of the steam chamber, this so called formation damage must be better understood. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  10. The impact of hydraulic flow unit & reservoir quality index on pressure profile and productivity index in multi-segments reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Al-Rbeawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is studying the impact of the hydraulic flow unit and reservoir quality index (RQI on pressure profile and productivity index of horizontal wells acting in finite reservoirs. Several mathematical models have been developed to investigate this impact. These models have been built based on the pressure distribution in porous media, depleted by a horizontal well, consist of multi hydraulic flow units and different reservoir quality index. The porous media are assumed to be finite rectangular reservoirs having different configurations and the wellbores may have different lengths. Several analytical models describing flow regimes have been derived wherein hydraulic flow units and reservoir quality index have been included in addition to rock and fluid properties. The impact of these two parameters on reservoir performance has also been studied using steady state productivity index.It has been found that both pressure responses and flow regimes are highly affected by the existence of multiple hydraulic flow units in the porous media and the change in reservoir quality index for these units. Positive change in the RQI could lead to positive change in both pressure drop required for reservoir fluids to move towards the wellbore and hence the productivity index.

  11. Transient pressure and productivity analysis in carbonate geothermal reservoirs with changing external boundary flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dongying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a triple-medium flow model for carbonate geothermal reservoirs with an exponential external boundary flux is established. The pressure solution under constant production conditions in Laplace space is solved. The geothermal wellbore pressure change considering wellbore storage and skin factor is obtained by Stehfest numerical inversion. The well test interpretation charts and Fetkovich production decline chart for carbonate geothermal reservoirs are proposed for the first time. The proposed Fetkovich production decline curves are applied to analyze the production decline behavior. The results indicate that in carbonate geothermal reservoirs with exponential external boundary flux, the pressure derivative curve contains a triple dip, which represents the interporosity flow between the vugs or matrix and fracture system and the invading flow of the external boundary flux. The interporosity flow of carbonate geothermal reservoirs and changing external boundary flux can both slow down the extent of production decline and the same variation tendency is observed in the Fetkovich production decline curve.

  12. Lipid accumulation product and triglycerides/glucose index are useful predictors of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Banach, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the association of triglycerides/glucose index (TyG index), anthropometrically predicted visceral adipose tissue (apVAT), lipid accumulation product (LAP), visceral adiposity index (VAI) and triglycerides (TG):high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio with insulin resistance (IR) in adult Americans. This study was based on data from three NHANES cycles (2005 to 2010). The TyG index was calculated as ln [TG×fasting glucose/2]. VAI was calculated using gender-specific formulas: men [waist circumference (WC)/39.68+(1.88×body mass index (BMI)]×(TG/1.03)×(1.31/HDL-C); women: [WC/36.58+(1.89×BMI)]×(TG/0.81)×(1.52/HDL-C). LAP index was calculated as [WC-65]×[TG] in men, and [WC-58]×[TG] in women. Correlation and regression analyses accounted for the complex sampling of database. A total of 18,318 subjects was included in this analysis [mean age 47.6Years]; 48.7% (n=8918) men]. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had a significant positive correlation with the TyG index (r=0.502), LAP (r=0.551), apVAT (r=0.454), TG:HDL-C ratio (r=0.441) and VAI (r=451) (pindex is a simple, cheap and accurate although not perfect, surrogate marker of HOMA-diagnosed IR among adult Americans. Moreover, it has higher predictability than other screening tools which traditionally applied. Among the markers, apVAT had the highest specificity and the TG:HDL-C ratio had the highest sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Academic Productivity of US Neurosurgery Residents as Measured by H-Index: Program Ranking with Correlation to Faculty Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkiss, Christopher A; Riley, Kyle J; Hernandez, Christopher M; Oermann, Eric K; Ladner, Travis R; Bederson, Joshua B; Shrivastava, Raj K

    2017-06-01

    Engagement in research and academic productivity are crucial components in the training of a neurosurgeon. This process typically begins in residency training. In this study, we analyzed individual resident productivity as it correlated to publications across all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited neurosurgery training programs in an attempt to identify how programs have developed and fostered a research culture and environment. We obtained a list of current neurosurgery residents in ACGME-accredited programs from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons database. An expanded PubMed and Scopus search was conducted for each resident through the present time. We tabulated all articles attributed to each resident. We then categorized the publications based on each neurosurgical subspecialty while in residency. A spreadsheet-based statistical analysis was performed. This formulated the average number of resident articles, h-indices, and most common subspecialty categories by training program. We analyzed 1352 current neurosurgery residents in 105 programs. There were a total of 10 645 publications, of which 3985 were resident first-author publications during the period of study. The most common subspecialties among all resident publications were vascular (24.9%), spine (16.9%), oncology (16.1%), pediatric (5.6%), functional (4.9%), and trauma (3.8%). The average resident published 2.9 first-author papers with average of 38.0 first-author publications by total residents at each program (range 0-241). The average h-index per resident is 2.47 ± 3.25. When comparing previously published faculty h-index program rankings against our resident h-index rankings, there is a strong correlation between the 2 datasets with a clear delineation between Top-20 productivity and that of other programs (average h-index 4.2 vs 1.7, respectively, P productivity on both the resident and faculty level (average h-index 1.6, 1.9, 3.9 for 1, 2, and

  14. Indexing of gas prices with respect to those of petroleum products: problem and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.; Sauvage, E.; Valette, M.; Liens, G.; Lu, L.

    2009-01-01

    A debate was organized by the French gas association (AFG) on December 2, 2008 around the question of: is it opportune to maintain the present day system of indexing of gas prices with respect to petroleum product prices? Even if the basic reasons justifying this indexing system have changed with time, and despite the recent hostility of the European Commission, this practice remains the standard for the huge majority of gas transactions. Does this indexing system favour the producers? In spite of their apparent interest, do the consumers really wish to replace indexed prices by market prices in a context where strong uncertainties and tensions on gas markets cannot be excluded? Is the present day status quo the result of the situation imposed by producers or is it the consequences of contradictory anticipations between sellers and buyers? Will gas prices remain indexed on petroleum prices in the future and if not, what would be the possible alternatives? These are the questions debated by the participants and reported in this paper with the questions from the audience. (J.S.)

  15. Bibliometric analysis of scientific production indexed in MEDLINE, about hospital based home care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanz-Valero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A thematic and bibliometric analysis was done for the available scientific production about the home care services based in the hospital. Methods: Bibliometric analysis. Data was obtained from MEDLINE database using MeSH “Home Care Services, Hospital-Based” as Major Topic. Search date: July 2016. The study sample was calculated by estimating population parameters for an infinite population and the selection was a simple random without replacement. Results: A total of 386 references were analysed. The number of original articles was of 204 (52,85%, identifying 243 institutions, with an index of cooperation of 3,75±1,16 authors/article. English was the predominant language in 279 (72,28% articles. The obsolescence was of 13 years according to the Burton-Kebler Index and the Price Index was of 14,40%. Bradford nucleon was constituted by 23 journals. The thematic classification determines a relevance of 70.73%. Conclusions: There was a high obsolescence and an anglophone orientation. Also, there was a weak relation between institutions and corporation index. Over the time there was an improvement of the access to the primary source, in line with the Open Access initiative. The production was collected in a high number of journals (in a very dispersed form. The thematic classification meets the studied issue.

  16. Estimating the Fractional Vegetation Cover from GLASS Leaf Area Index Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fractional vegetation cover (FCover is an essential biophysical variable and plays a critical role in the carbon cycle studies. Existing FCover products from satellite observations are spatially incomplete and temporally discontinuous, and also inaccurate for some vegetation types to meet the requirements of various applications. In this study, an operational method is proposed to calculate high-quality, accurate FCover from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS leaf area index (LAI product to ensure physical consistency between LAI and FCover retrievals. As a result, a global FCover product (denoted by TRAGL were generated from the GLASS LAI product from 2000 to present. With no missing values, the TRAGL FCover product is spatially complete. A comparison of the TRAGL FCover product with the Geoland2/BioPar version 1 (GEOV1 FCover product indicates that these FCover products exhibit similar spatial distribution pattern. However, there were relatively large discrepancies between these FCover products over equatorial rainforests, broadleaf crops in East-central United States, and needleleaf forests in Europe and Siberia. Temporal consistency analysis indicates that TRAGL FCover product has continuous trajectories. Direct validation with ground-based FCover estimates demonstrated that TRAGL FCover values were more accurate (RMSE = 0.0865, and R2 = 0.8848 than GEOV1 (RMSE = 0.1541, and R2 = 0.7621.

  17. Production bias and void swelling in the transient regime under cascade damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Foreman, A.J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) studies of collision cascades have firmly established that, in addition to clusters of vacancies, clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) are formed within the cascade volume during the thermal spike phase of a cascade. These clusters are formed in a segregated fashion such that the vacancy-rich core is surrounded by SIA clusters. At temperatures above stage V the vacancies evaporate from the vacancy cluster and diffuse into the medium whereas the SIA clusters remain thermally stable at temperatures even above the peak swelling temperature. This asymmetry in the production of free and mobile vacancies and SIAs gives rise to a production bias. Some of the vacancies evaporating from the vacancy-rich core annihilate at the SIA clusters surrounding it and others escape into the medium. It is this escaping fraction of vacancies which determines the strength of the production bias. Diffusion calculations have been performed to estimate the magnitude of this escaping fraction of vacancies. The necessary cascade parameters for this calculation are obtained from MD simulation experiments. Almost 80% of vacancies retained in the vacancy-rich core of a 20 keV cascade are found to escape the cascade volume containing SIA clusters. We have taken this escape rate to be effective vacancy production rate in the medium and calculated the temporal evolution of SIA clusters, void size and swelling for fully annealed pure copper under neutron irradiation at 523 K. The general trends of the calculated swelling behaviour are found to be in agreement with experimental results. The present calculations provide further validity and support to the concept of production bias. (Author)

  18. Production process reproducibility and product quality consistency of transient gene expression in HEK293 cells with anti-PD1 antibody as the model protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Han, Lei; Zong, Huifang; Chen, Junsheng; Zhang, Baohong; Zhu, Jianwei

    2017-03-01

    Demonstration of reproducibility and consistency of process and product quality is one of the most crucial issues in using transient gene expression (TGE) technology for biopharmaceutical development. In this study, we challenged the production consistency of TGE by expressing nine batches of recombinant IgG antibody in human embryonic kidney 293 cells to evaluate reproducibility including viable cell density, viability, apoptotic status, and antibody yield in cell culture supernatant. Product quality including isoelectric point, binding affinity, secondary structure, and thermal stability was assessed as well. In addition, major glycan forms of antibody from different batches of production were compared to demonstrate glycosylation consistency. Glycan compositions of the antibody harvested at different time periods were also measured to illustrate N-glycan distribution over the culture time. From the results, it has been demonstrated that different TGE batches are reproducible from lot to lot in overall cell growth, product yield, and product qualities including isoelectric point, binding affinity, secondary structure, and thermal stability. Furthermore, major N-glycan compositions are consistent among different TGE batches and conserved during cell culture time.

  19. Indexing Natural Products for Their Potential Anti-Diabetic Activity: Filtering and Mapping Discriminative Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Mouhammad; Rayan, Mahmoud; Zeidan, Nuha; Falah, Mizied; Rayan, Anwar

    2017-09-17

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) poses a major health problem, for which there is an unmet need to develop novel drugs. The application of in silico techniques and optimization algorithms is instrumental to achieving this goal. A set of 97 approved anti-diabetic drugs, representing the active domain, and a set of 2892 natural products, representing the inactive domain, were used to construct predictive models and to index anti-diabetic bioactivity. Our recently-developed approach of 'iterative stochastic elimination' was utilized. This article describes a highly discriminative and robust model, with an area under the curve above 0.96. Using the indexing model and a mix ratio of 1:1000 (active/inactive), 65% of the anti-diabetic drugs in the sample were captured in the top 1% of the screened compounds, compared to 1% in the random model. Some of the natural products that scored highly as potential anti-diabetic drug candidates are disclosed. One of those natural products is caffeine, which is noted in the scientific literature as having the capability to decrease blood glucose levels. The other nine phytochemicals await evaluation in a wet lab for their anti-diabetic activity. The indexing model proposed herein is useful for the virtual screening of large chemical databases and for the construction of anti-diabetes focused libraries.

  20. Indexing Natural Products for Their Potential Anti-Diabetic Activity: Filtering and Mapping Discriminative Physicochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhammad Zeidan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM poses a major health problem, for which there is an unmet need to develop novel drugs. The application of in silico techniques and optimization algorithms is instrumental to achieving this goal. A set of 97 approved anti-diabetic drugs, representing the active domain, and a set of 2892 natural products, representing the inactive domain, were used to construct predictive models and to index anti-diabetic bioactivity. Our recently-developed approach of ‘iterative stochastic elimination’ was utilized. This article describes a highly discriminative and robust model, with an area under the curve above 0.96. Using the indexing model and a mix ratio of 1:1000 (active/inactive, 65% of the anti-diabetic drugs in the sample were captured in the top 1% of the screened compounds, compared to 1% in the random model. Some of the natural products that scored highly as potential anti-diabetic drug candidates are disclosed. One of those natural products is caffeine, which is noted in the scientific literature as having the capability to decrease blood glucose levels. The other nine phytochemicals await evaluation in a wet lab for their anti-diabetic activity. The indexing model proposed herein is useful for the virtual screening of large chemical databases and for the construction of anti-diabetes focused libraries.

  1. Management model of productive capacity: integrating theory of constraints and the global operational efficiency index (IROG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Pacheco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of management capacity in productive systems integrating the concepts of the Theory of Constraints and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The main objective of this study is to discuss and propose a model of management capacity, able to answer the following key questions: i capacity indicators which should be considered and how to measure them to measure the productive capacity of manufacturing systems? ii what is the real productive capacity of the system analyzed under a determined relationship between capacity and demand? The discussion of the proposed model is relevant because the definition of productive capacity system enables better management of resources and capabilities, improve production scheduling on the factory floor and meeting the demands imposed by the market. This paper presents the proposition of using the Operating Income Index Global (IROG with a different approach from traditional literature dealing with the theme, presented by Nakajima (1988. The results of this paper enable to develop a model to determine the capacity of the production system and the impact on the productive capacity of the entire system, not to consider the quality conformances that occur after the bottleneck resource of the production flow.

  2. Benchmarking road safety of U.S. states: a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Gokhan; McAvoy, Deborah

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a DEA based Malmquist index model was developed to assess the relative efficiency and productivity of U.S. states in decreasing the number of road fatalities. Even though the national trend in fatal crashes has reached to the lowest level since 1949 (Traffic Safety Annual Assessment Highlights, 2010), a state-by-state analysis and comparison has not been studied considering other characteristics of the holistic national road safety assessment problem in any work in the literature or organizational reports. In this study, a DEA based Malmquist index model was developed to assess the relative efficiency and productivity of 50 U.S. states in reducing the number of fatal crashes. The single output, fatal crashes, and five inputs were aggregated into single road safety score and utilized in the DEA-based Malmquist index mathematical model. The period of 2002-2008 was considered due to data availability for the inputs and the output considered. According to the results, there is a slight negative productivity (an average of -0.2 percent productivity) observed in the U.S. on minimizing the number of fatal crashes along with an average of 2.1 percent efficiency decline and 1.8 percent technological improvement. The productivity in reducing the fatal crashes can only be attributed to the technological growth since there is a negative efficiency growth is occurred. It can be concluded that even though there is a declining trend observed in the fatality rates, the efficiency of states in utilizing societal and economical resources towards the goal of zero fatality is not still efficient. More effective policy making towards increasing safety belt usage and better utilization of safety expenditures to improve road condition are derived as the key areas to focus on for state highway safety agencies from the scope of current research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Economic values and selection index in different Angus-Nellore cross-bred production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, G M; Savegnago, R P; El Faro, L; Mosaquatro Roso, V; de Paz, C C P

    2018-06-01

    Bioeconomic models were developed to calculate economic values (EV) for economically important traits in beef cattle, to evaluate the impact of these traits on production profitability, to assess possible market changes with a payment system and to develop economic selection indexes for Angus cattle for two production systems. Two beef cattle production systems were simulated as follows: a cow-calf cycle (CC) and a complete cycle (CoC). Following selection, positive changes in the EV were observed. In the CC, each 1.0% increment in weaning weight (WW), weaning rate (WR) and pregnancy rate (PR) resulted in increases in US$ 1.30, US$ 3.68 and US$ 3.55 per cow/year in profit, respectively. In the CoC, EV of US$ 1.01, US$ 1.79, US$ 1.19, US$ 1.34, US$ 6.84 and US$ 7.86 per cow/year were obtained for WW, year weight, yearling weight, final weight, WR and PR, respectively. The payment system for carcass quality showed that the scenario considering that 100% of the animals displayed uniform carcasses exhibited the highest EV and was considered optimal. Considering the sensitivity analysis, the price paid per animal was the factor that most affected the EV in both systems. The selection indexes obtained may be used in similar production systems, and the use of EV and selection indexes are important tools for any production system with positive change in profit after selection. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Planting spacing and NK fertilizing on physiological indexes and fruit production of papaya under semiarid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monteiro Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The nutritional requirements of papaya (Carica papaya L. increase continuously throughout the crop cycle, especially for potassium and nitrogen, which are the most required nutrients and act on plant vital functions such as photosynthetic activity, respiration, transpiration and stomatal regulation. An experiment was conducted from November 2010 to December 2012 to evaluate physiological indexes and fruit production of papaya cv. Caliman-01 as a function of planting spacing and NK fertilizing. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 4 × 4, using 2 planting spacing [simple rows (3.8 × 2.0 m and double rows (3.8 × 2.0 × 1.8 m], 4 nitrogen doses (320, 400, 480 and 560 g of N per plant-1 and 4 potassium doses (380, 475, 570 and 665 g of K2O per plant-1 with 4 replications of 3 plants each. The following variables were evaluated: leaf area index (LAI, leaf chlorophyll index (a, b and total index, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (Int.PAR, in µmol∙m-2∙s-1, efficiency use of photosynthetically active radiation (Ef.PAR and fruit yield. The fruit production and physiological characteristics of papaya cv. Caliman-01 depend on planting spacing. Under the soil, climate and plant conditions of this study, 665 g of K2O and 320 g of N per plant under double spacing could be recommended for the production of papaya cv. Caliman-01.

  5. Index of Real Sector Returns as Price Benchmarking for Islamic Banking Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Researchers of Islamic Banking Department

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Islamic Banking is closely related to the real sector. Then, its operation should reflect the real sector which is expected to contribute to the sustainable economic growth. Nevertheless, Islamic banks are still benchmarking the price of their products (profit sharing and sales on interest rate. This is as an implication of the implementation of the dual banking system. Moreover, the small portion of Islamic banking compared to the total national banks causes the competitiveness of Islamic banking product in terms of pricing has a high correlation with the interest rate of conventional counterpart. This phenomenon indicates the need to find.Method – This research employed library research method since this paper relies on secondary data by thoroughly reviewing the most relevant literature. The paper attempt to propose a pricing indicator which is based on the real sector activities as the root of Islamic banking operations.Result – Theoretically, this indicator can reflect the real rate of return of every industry sector. In addition, it can help Bank Indonesia to monitor the real sector performance and analyze the possible gap between real sector activities and financial sector. Furthermore, when the benchmark of real rate of real sector return is available, the return index of Islamic banking reflecting the profit sharing performance of the whole Islamic banking industry can be formulated. This concept is different with other indexes which are corresponding to the price of financial assets.Conclusion – In general, return index of real sector as a reference for Islamic banking product pricing is expected to define the way of non-interest return analysis, to calculate the non-interest return of selected sectors that becomes the focus of analysis using Cash Recovery Rates (CRR, forming an index of industry by sector in the second stage, by doing a certain weighting of those companies, to analyze the relationship between macro

  6. Rapid Transient Production of a Monoclonal Antibody Neutralizing the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) in Nicotiana benthamiana and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapisit, Kaewta; Srijangwad, Anchalee; Chuanasa, Taksina; Sukrong, Suchada; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Mason, Hugh S; Nilubol, Dachrit; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo

    2017-12-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and high mortality rate in neonatal piglets. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has been reported in Europe, America, and Asia including Thailand. The disease causes substantial losses to the swine industry in many countries. Presently, there is no effective PEDV vaccine available. In this study, we developed a plant-produced monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C10 as a prophylactic candidate to prevent the PEDV infection. Recently, plant expression systems have gained interest as an alternative for the production of antibodies because of many advantages, such as low production cost, lack of human and animal pathogen, large scalability, etc. The 2C10 mAb was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce using geminiviral vector. After purification by protein A affinity chromatography, the antibody was tested for the binding and neutralizing activity against PEDV. Our result showed that the plant produced 2C10 mAb can bind to the virus and also inhibit PEDV infection in vitro . These results show excellent potential for a plant-expressed 2C10 as a PEDV prophylaxis and a diagnostic for PEDV infection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Satellite remote sensing for estimating leaf area index, FPAR and primary production. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boresjoe Bronge, Laine [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Land vegetation is a critical component of several biogeochemical cycles that have become the focus of concerted international research effort. Most ecosystem productivity models, carbon budget models, and global models of climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry require vegetation parameters to calculate land surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in the carbon cycle, the energy balance and in environmental impact assessment studies. The possibility of quantitatively estimating vegetation parameters of importance in this context using satellite data has been explored by numerous papers dealing with the subject. This report gives a summary of the present status and applicability of satellite remote sensing for estimating vegetation productivity by using vegetation index for calculating leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Some possible approaches for use of satellite data for estimating LAI, FPAR and net primary production (NPP) on a local scale are suggested. Recommendations for continued work in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn investigation areas, where vegetation data and NDVI-images based on satellite data have been produced, are also given.

  8. Satellite remote sensing for estimating leaf area index, FPAR and primary production. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boresjoe Bronge, Laine

    2004-03-01

    Land vegetation is a critical component of several biogeochemical cycles that have become the focus of concerted international research effort. Most ecosystem productivity models, carbon budget models, and global models of climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry require vegetation parameters to calculate land surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in the carbon cycle, the energy balance and in environmental impact assessment studies. The possibility of quantitatively estimating vegetation parameters of importance in this context using satellite data has been explored by numerous papers dealing with the subject. This report gives a summary of the present status and applicability of satellite remote sensing for estimating vegetation productivity by using vegetation index for calculating leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Some possible approaches for use of satellite data for estimating LAI, FPAR and net primary production (NPP) on a local scale are suggested. Recommendations for continued work in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn investigation areas, where vegetation data and NDVI-images based on satellite data have been produced, are also given

  9. Comparing the dynamic performance of wastewater treatment systems: A metafrontier Malmquist productivity index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2015-09-15

    The assessment of productivity change of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to improve the performance over time of the facilities evaluated. This study assessed and compared the productivity growth of WWTPs operating with non-homogeneous technologies. The metafrontier Malmquist productivity index (MMPI) was computed for a sample of 99 WWTPs encompassing 4 alternative technologies: activated sludge (AS), aerated lagoon (AL), trickling filter (TF) and rotating biological contactor (BD). The results indicated that, on average, WWTPs with AS and BD exhibited better performance over time than WWTPs with AL and TF. The MMPI indicates that, over the period 2007-2009, the productivity rose by 0.9% and 0.3% for AS and BD technologies, respectively, whilst for the AL and TF processes, the productivity decreased by 0.5% and 2.2%, respectively. The decomposition of the MMPI into efficiency change (EC) and technical change (TC) illustrated that EC was a positive driver of productivity change for WWTPs that use AS, whilst TC contributed positively to the productivity growth of WWTPs using AL and BD. Several policy implications to help managers make informed decisions were drawn from our empirical analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating and interpreting a common stochastic component for the Brazilian industrial production index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Picchetti

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a state-space formulation to model a common stochastic component in four different series that constitute the aggregate index of industrial production in Brazil. This estimated common component is then interpreted as a measurement of behavior of fundamentals in the brazilian economy and compared to the actual aggregate index.A partir de uma formulação em espaço de estado, modelamos um componente estocástico comum para quatro séries distintas que compõem o índice agregado de produção industrial calculado pelo IBGE para o Brasil. Esse componente estocástico comum estimado é então interpretado como uma medida do comportamento de fundamentos da economia brasileira, e comparado com o índice agregado efetivo.

  11. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Sing Ho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problem plaguing propane dehydrogenation process is the coke formation on the Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst which leads to catalyst deactivation. Due to information paucity, the physicochemical characteristics of the commercially obtained regenerated Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst (operated in moving bed reactor and coke formation at different temperatures of reaction were discussed. The physicochemical characterization of regenerated catalyst gave a BET surface area of 104.0 m2/g with graphitic carbon content of 8.0% indicative of incomplete carbon gasification during the industrial propylene production. Effect of temperatures on coke formation was identified by studying the product yield via temperature-programmed reaction carried out at 500oC, 600oC and 700oC. It was found that ethylene was precursor to carbon laydown while propylene tends to crack into methane. Post reaction, the spent catalyst possessed relatively lower surface area and pore radius whilst exhibited higher carbon content (31.80% at 700oC compared to the regenerated catalyst. Significantly, current studies also found that higher reaction temperatures favoured the coke formation. Consequently, the propylene yield has decreased with reaction temperature. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th March 2013; Revised: 28th April 2013; Accepted: 6th May 2013[How to Cite: Kah, S.H., Joanna Jo, E.C., Sim, Y.C., Chin, K.C. (2013. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 77-82. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82] | View in  |

  12. Increasing urban community empowerment through changing of poverty rate index on the productive zakat impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenal, M. H.; Astuti, A. D.; Sadariyah, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    We show how changes in poverty measures can be applied into growth of islamic philanthropy distribution via zakat, and we use the methodology to zakat community development (ZCD) program in Bantul during the 2016. The purpose of the present paper is to prove zakat is able to be a solution part for the community empowerment. The result is the number of productive zakat program beneficiaries whose income is below the poverty line (poor category) before the program are 244 people (H = 0.171) and after the program change to 168 (H = 0.118), which means the program has succeeded in reducing the number of poor people by 76 people (5.34 percent). The poverty gap (P1) of beneficiaries of productive zakat program in Bantul also decrease. The gap between poverty line and average income of beneficiaries is Rp 63,763 before the program, while the gap after the program is Rp 56,992. The income gap (I) is also decline from 0.197 to 0.169. Poverty severity of beneficiaries of productive zakat program in Bantul seen by Sen Index (P2) decrease from 0.093 to 0.062, while using Foster-Greer-Thorbecke Index (P3), the poverty severity decrease from 0.010 to 0.004. The analysis revealed the zakat community empowerment was significant economically in suppressing the poverty rate, and possible for reducing inequality and ending poverty in Indonesia.

  13. Combinatorial treatment with lithium chloride enhances recombinant antibody production in transiently transfected CHO and HEK293E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Che Lin; Kwang Ha, Tae; Min Lee, Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Lithium chloride (LiCl), which induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, is known as a specific production rate (qp)-enhancing additive in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture. To determine the potential of LiCl as a chemical additive that enhances transient gene expression (TGE), Li......Cl was added to the CHO-NK and human embryonic kidney 293E (HEK293E) cell cultures before and/or after transfection with polyethylenimine as a transfection reagent. The effect of this addition on transfection efficiency (pre-treatment) and qp enhancement during TGE (post-treatment) was examined. For the TGE...... of monoclonal antibody (mAb) in CHO-NK cells, pretreatment alone with 10 mM LiCl and post-treatment alone with 5 mM LiCl resulted in 1.2- and 3.4-fold increase of maximum mAb concentration (MMC), respectively, compared with the TGE without LiCl treatment. Furthermore, combinatorial treatment with LiCl (10 m...

  14. Automatic generation of the index of productive syntax for child language transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, Khairun-nisa; Liu, Yang; Iglesias, Aquiles; Solorio, Thamar; Dollaghan, Christine

    2014-03-01

    The index of productive syntax (IPSyn; Scarborough (Applied Psycholinguistics 11:1-22, 1990) is a measure of syntactic development in child language that has been used in research and clinical settings to investigate the grammatical development of various groups of children. However, IPSyn is mostly calculated manually, which is an extremely laborious process. In this article, we describe the AC-IPSyn system, which automatically calculates the IPSyn score for child language transcripts using natural language processing techniques. Our results show that the AC-IPSyn system performs at levels comparable to scores computed manually. The AC-IPSyn system can be downloaded from www.hlt.utdallas.edu/~nisa/ipsyn.html .

  15. Production of human interferon alfa 2b in plants of Nicotiana excelsior by Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindarovska, Y R; Gerasymenko, I M; Sheludko, Y V; Olevinskaya, Z M; Spivak, N Y; Kuchuk, N V

    2010-01-01

    Human interferon alpha2b gene was transiently expressed in Nicotiana excelsior plants. Fusion with N. plumbaginifolia calreticulin signal peptide for improved apoplast targeting and carrying out the expression under optimized conditions resulted in maximal interferon activity of 3.2 x 10(3) IU/g fresh weight (FW) with an average of 2.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(3) IU/g FW. It proves that N. excelsior is a suitable host for Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of genes encoding physiologically active human proteins. The transient expression conditions optimized for GFP marker protein were confirmed to be preferable for hIFN alpha2b.

  16. Spring fasting behavior in a marine apex predator provides an index of ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Douglas, David C.; Muhlenbruch, Vanessa L; Atwood, Todd C.; Regehr, Eric V.; Richardson, Evan; Pilfold, Nicholas; Derocher, Andrew E.; Durner, George M.; Stirling, Ian; Amstrup, Steven C.; St Martin, Michelle; Pagano, Anthony M.; Simac, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    The effects of declining Arctic sea ice on local ecosystem productivity are not well understood but have been shown to vary inter-specifically, spatially, and temporally. Because marine mammals occupy upper trophic levels in Arctic food webs, they may be useful indicators for understanding variation in ecosystem productivity. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are apex predators that primarily consume benthic and pelagic-feeding ice-associated seals. As such, their productivity integrates sea ice conditions and the ecosystem supporting them. Declining sea ice availability has been linked to negative population effects for polar bears but does not fully explain observed population changes. We examined relationships between spring foraging success of polar bears and sea ice conditions, prey productivity, and general patterns of ecosystem productivity in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (CSs). Fasting status (≥7 days) was estimated using serum urea and creatinine levels of 1,448 samples collected from 1,177 adult and subadult bears across three subpopulations. Fasting increased in the Beaufort Sea between 1983–1999 and 2000–2016 and was related to an index of ringed seal body condition. This change was concurrent with declines in body condition of polar bears and observed changes in the diet, condition and/or reproduction of four other vertebrate consumers within the food chain. In contrast, fasting declined in CS polar bears between periods and was less common than in the two Beaufort Sea subpopulations consistent with studies demonstrating higher primary productivity and maintenance or improved body condition in polar bears, ringed seals, and bearded seals despite recent sea ice loss in this region. Consistency between regional and temporal variation in spring polar bear fasting and food web productivity suggests that polar bears may be a useful indicator species. Furthermore, our results suggest that spatial and temporal ecological variation is important in

  17. Analysis, improvement and application of the MODIS leaf area index products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenze

    Green leaf area governs the exchanges of energy, mass and momentum between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. Therefore, leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation (0.4-0.7 mum) absorbed by the vegetation canopy (FPAR) are widely used in vegetation monitoring and modeling. The launch of Terra and Aqua satellites with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard provided the first global products of LAI and FPAR, derived mainly from an algorithm based on radiative transfer. The objective of this research is to comprehensively evaluate the Terra and Aqua MODIS LAI/FPAR products. Large volumes of these products have been analyzed with the goal of understanding product quality with respect to version (Collection 3 versus 4), algorithm (main versus back-up), snow (snow-free versus snow on the ground) and cloud (cloud-free versus cloudy) conditions. Field validation efforts identified several key factors that influence the accuracy of algorithm retrievals. The strategy of validation efforts guiding algorithm refinements has led to progressively more accurate LAI/FPAR products. The combination of products derived from the Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors increases the success rate of the main radiative transfer algorithm by 10-20 percent over woody vegetation. The Terra Collection 4 LAI data reveal seasonal swings in green leaf area of about 25 percent in a majority of the Amazon rainforests caused by variability in cloud cover and light. The timing and the influence of this seasonal cycle are critical to understanding tropical plant adaptation patterns and ecological processes. The results presented in this dissertation suggest how the product quality has gradually improved largely through the efforts of validation activities. The Amazon case study highlights the utility of these data sets for monitoring global vegetation dynamics. Thus, these results can be seen as a benchmark for evaluation of

  18. Reliability measures for indexed semi-Markov chains applied to wind energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in many engineering problems as well as in the planning and development of a wind farm. In this paper we address the issue of energy production by wind turbines by using an indexed semi-Markov chain as a model of wind speed. We present the mathematical model, the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10kW). We show how to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability and maintainability functions. We compare the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 min. - Highlights: • Semi-Markov models. • Time series generation of wind speed. • Computation of availability, reliability and maintainability.

  19. A GIS-derived integrated moisture index to predict forest composition and productivity of Ohio forests (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Martin E. Dale; Charles T. Scott; Anantha Prasad; Anantha Prasad

    1997-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) approach was used in conjunction with forest-plot data to develop an integrated moisture index (IMI), which was then used to predict forest productivity (site index) and species composition for forests in Ohio. In this region, typical of eastern hardwoods across the Midwest and southern Appalachians, topographic aspect and position...

  20. Some bibliometric indexes for members of the Scientific Association of Animal Production (ASPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study calculated several bibliometric indexes to analyze the scientific output of 363 members of the Scientific Association of Animal Production (ASPA in Italy, based on their publications listed by ISIThompson, Web of Science database (search period from 1989 until 2006. Five main research areas were considered: AGR/17 (Animal genetics and breeding, AGR/18 (Animal nutrition and feeding, AGR/19 (Animal husbandry, AGR/20 (Poultry, rabbits and fish production and External researcher (Ere. Position groups were: FP (Full Professor, AP (Associate Professor, Re (Researcher, EReUni (scientists working temporarily at the University or professors of an area different from AGR/17-20, and EReInst (scientists working at other institutions. Each institution was classified according to three geographical areas of Italy: North, Centre and South. Main calculated bibliometric indexes were: Ni = total number of papers published by member i over yi years; yi = number of years publishing of member i; Ci. = total number of citations of member i; IFpersonal. = Ci./Ni, Personal Impact factor of member i; Total IFjournal. = Sum of impact factor reported by the ISI-Thompson database of the journal in which a paper of member i was published (Journal Citation Reports Science Edition, 2004; Mean IFjournal. = Mean impact factor of all papers published in journals having a recognized IFjournal. by the ISI-Thompson database for member i; h = number of papers with at least h citations; m = h/y, i.e. average increase of h over the yi years publishing; and a = Ci./h2. Among the studied bibliometric indexes, Ni, Ci., Total IFjournal. and h are reliable, while IFpersonal. and Mean IFjournal. are not, to evaluate the scientific career of Animal Scientists in Italy. FP and members of AGR/17 tend to show the highest values of bibliometric indexes. Most ASPA members work in the North of Italy, which shows the highest median and highest percentage of scientists with maximum values

  1. Registering, indexing and digitally preserving RDBCI: Production indicators of 2003 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildenir Carolino Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of explosion and digital preservation issues are totally in vogue today. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyze bibliographically the typeset production and published the “RDBCI: Revista Digital de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação” in these its thirteen years of existence, in order to disclose the analysis of published scientific production, featuring the themes of articles and the most representative authors, contributing to the community area in question as well as enhance the importance of the magazine to the field of Library and Information Science. The journal is entirely digital, born and incubated on free platform OJS/SEER, provided by IBICT since 2004. Moreover, in these years of experience the magazine is effective information vehicle of the area and its existence confirms that electronic publications born in this format, survive in the digital world. From 2013, the RDBCI began to integrate Cariniana Network (IBICT, digitally preserving your entire collection through the LOCKSS software, and other institutions aggregated to the network, and in March 2016 began to integrate The Keepers Registry, making If the first Brazilian publication to be part of this international digital preservation network. The methodology adopted was through a survey of articles published from 2003 to 2016, collecting data such as access numbers, downloads, and other statistical and qualitative indicators, making use of tools such as Google Analytics, Altmetrics, Index h and alternative metrics as well as databases, directories, portals and indexes where the journal is indexed. We believe the result of this work serves as a qualitative analysis model for other periodicals and promotes growth of more national and international scientific publications with open access.

  2. Identification of refined petroleum products in contaminated soils using an identification index for GC chromatograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dongwook; Ko, Myoung-Soo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Kwon, Man Jae; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Seunghak

    2015-08-01

    Hydrocarbons found in the environment are typically characterized by gas chromatography (GC). The shape of the GC chromatogram has been used to identify the source of petroleum contamination. However, the conventional practice of simply comparing the peak patterns of source products to those of environmental samples is dependent on the subjective decisions of individual analysts. We have developed and verified a quantitative analytical method for interpreting GC chromatograms to distinguish refined petroleum products in contaminated soils. We found that chromatograms for gasoline, kerosene, and diesel could be divided into three ranges with boundaries at C6, C8, C16, and C26. In addition, the relative peak area (RPA(GC)) of each range, a dimensionless ratio of the peak area within each range to that of the total range (C6-C26), had a unique value for each petroleum product. An identification index for GC chromatograms (ID(GC)), defined as the ratio of RPA(GC) of C8-C16 to that of C16-C26, was able to identify diesel and kerosene sources in samples extracted from artificially contaminated soils even after weathering. Thus, the ID(GC) can be used to effectively distinguish between refined petroleum products in contaminated soils.

  3. An Evaluation of h-Index as a Measure of Research Productivity Among Canadian Academic Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiayi; Gholami, Arian; Stone, Nicholas; Bartoszko, Justyna; Thoma, Achilleas

    2018-02-01

    Evaluation of research productivity among plastic surgeons can be complex. The Hirsch index (h-index) was recently introduced to evaluate both the quality and quantity of one's research activity. It has been proposed to be valuable in assessing promotions and grant funding within academic medicine, including plastic surgery. Our objective is to evaluate research productivity among Canadian academic plastic surgeons using the h-index. A list of Canadian academic plastic surgeons was obtained from websites of academic training programs. The h-index was retrieved using the Scopus database. Relevant demographic and academic factors were collected and their effects on the h-index were analyzed using the t test and Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U test. Nominal and categorical variables were analyzed using χ 2 test and 1-way analysis of variance. Univariate and multivariate models were built a priori. All P values were 2 sided, and P h-index of 7.6. Over 80% of the surgeons were male. Both univariable and multivariable analysis showed that graduate degree ( P h-index. Limitations of the study include that the Scopus database and the websites of training programs were not always up-to-date. The h-index is a novel tool for evaluating research productivity in academic medicine, and this study shows that the h-index can also serve as a useful metric for measuring research productivity in the Canadian plastic surgery community. Plastic surgeons would be wise to familiarize themselves with the h-index concept and should consider using it as an adjunct to existing metrics such as total publication number.

  4. Nature is the best source of anticancer drugs: Indexing natural products for their anticancer bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Anwar; Raiyn, Jamal; Falah, Mizied

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is considered one of the primary diseases that cause morbidity and mortality in millions of people worldwide and due to its prevalence, there is undoubtedly an unmet need to discover novel anticancer drugs. However, the traditional process of drug discovery and development is lengthy and expensive, so the application of in silico techniques and optimization algorithms in drug discovery projects can provide a solution, saving time and costs. A set of 617 approved anticancer drugs, constituting the active domain, and a set of 2,892 natural products, constituting the inactive domain, were employed to build predictive models and to index natural products for their anticancer bioactivity. Using the iterative stochastic elimination optimization technique, we obtained a highly discriminative and robust model, with an area under the curve of 0.95. Twelve natural products that scored highly as potential anticancer drug candidates are disclosed. Searching the scientific literature revealed that few of those molecules (Neoechinulin, Colchicine, and Piperolactam) have already been experimentally screened for their anticancer activity and found active. The other phytochemicals await evaluation for their anticancerous activity in wet lab.

  5. Nature is the best source of anticancer drugs: Indexing natural products for their anticancer bioactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Rayan

    Full Text Available Cancer is considered one of the primary diseases that cause morbidity and mortality in millions of people worldwide and due to its prevalence, there is undoubtedly an unmet need to discover novel anticancer drugs. However, the traditional process of drug discovery and development is lengthy and expensive, so the application of in silico techniques and optimization algorithms in drug discovery projects can provide a solution, saving time and costs. A set of 617 approved anticancer drugs, constituting the active domain, and a set of 2,892 natural products, constituting the inactive domain, were employed to build predictive models and to index natural products for their anticancer bioactivity. Using the iterative stochastic elimination optimization technique, we obtained a highly discriminative and robust model, with an area under the curve of 0.95. Twelve natural products that scored highly as potential anticancer drug candidates are disclosed. Searching the scientific literature revealed that few of those molecules (Neoechinulin, Colchicine, and Piperolactam have already been experimentally screened for their anticancer activity and found active. The other phytochemicals await evaluation for their anticancerous activity in wet lab.

  6. Academic Productivity of Neurosurgeons Working in the United Kingdom: Insights from the H-Index and Its Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, Aimun A B; Wiggins, A N; Loan, J J M; Emelifeoneu, J; Fouyas, I P; Brennan, P M

    2016-02-01

    Academic metrics can be used to compare the productivity of researchers. We aimed to use a variety of bibliometric parameters to assess the productivity of neurosurgeons working in the United Kingdom. Neurosurgical consultants working in the United Kingdom were identified using the Society of British Neurosurgeons' Audit Programme website. Baseline data collected included year of entry to specialist register, academic position and award of higher degree. Google Scholar was used to compute a range of academic metrics for each consultant including the h-index, hi-norm, e-index and g-index. Non-parametric tests were used to compare median results. Median metrics for the whole cohort were: h-index (5), hi-norm (3), g-index (10.4) and e-index (9). The top 3 units based on h-index were Addenbrookes (13), Great Ormond Street (12.5) and Queen's Square (11.5). The h-index correlated with academic position [Prof (17.5), Senior Lecturer (10.5) and non-academic (5); P 10 year (7), neurosurgeons through the analysis of a number of citation metrics. It provides a benchmark bibliometric profile and we advocate future comparative assessments as a means to assess impact of and guide academic policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  8. The Big Mac Index, Consumer Price Index and Productivity Bias: Does Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis Hold for Asian Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Shiao Wern

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate market basket to be used in conducting PPP tests has long been the object of debate in literature (Sarno and Taylor, 2002). Perhaps, the different compositions of goods and services and the existence of non-tradable elements in the market basket could play the important roles in explaining deviations from PPP. Given the issues on the choice of an appropriate price measure and the non-tradable productivity bias, therefore in this paper, we attempt to assess and com...

  9. Study of Scientific Production of Community Medicines' Department Indexed in ISI Citation Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademloo, Mohammad; Khaseh, Ali Akbar; Siamian, Hasan; Aligolbandi, Kobra; Latifi, Mahsoomeh; Yaminfirooz, Mousa

    2016-10-01

    In the scientometric, the main criterion in determining the scientific position and ranking of the scientific centers, particularly the universities, is the rate of scientific production and innovation, and in all participations in the global scientific development. One of the subjects more involved in repeatedly dealt with science and technology and effective on the improvement of health is medical science fields. In this research using scientometric and citation analysis, we studied the rate of scientific productions in the field of community medicine, which is the numbers of articles published and indexed in ISI database from 2000 to 2010. This study is scientometric using the survey and analytical citation. The study samples included all of the articles in the ISI database from 2000 to 2010. For the data collection, the advance method of searching was used at the ISI database. The ISI analyses software and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results showed that among the five top universities in producing documents, Tehran University of Medical Sciences with 88 (22.22%) documents are allocated to the first rank of scientific products. M. Askarian with 36 (90/9%) published documents; most of the scientific outputs in Community medicine, in the international arena is the most active author in this field. In collaboration with other writers, Iranian departments of Community Medicine with 27 published articles have the greatest participation with scholars of English authors. In the process of scientific outputs, the results showed that the scientific process was in its lowest in the years 2000 to 2004, and while the department of Community medicine in 2009 allocated most of the production process to itself. Iranian Journal of Public Health and Saudi Medical Journal each of them had 16 articles which had most participation rate in the publishing of community medicine's department. On the type of carrier, community medicine's department by

  10. Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

    2007-11-01

    Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available.

  11. Optimizing the transient transfection process of HEK-293 suspension cells for protein production by nucleotide ratio monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Los Milagros Bassani Molinas, Maria; Beer, Christiane; Hesse, F

    2014-01-01

    Large scale, transient gene expression (TGE) is highly dependent of the physiological status of a cell line. Therefore, intracellular nucleotide pools and ratios were used for identifying and monitoring the optimal status of a suspension cell line used for TGE. The transfection efficiency upon po...

  12. Outline of operation and control system and analytical investigation of transient behavior of an out-of-pile hydrogen production system for HTTR heat utilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hada, Kazuhiko; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro.

    1997-10-01

    The hydrogen production system by steam reforming of natural gas is to be constructed to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization systems with the HTTR. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile test system is planned to investigate the system characteristics, to develop high-temperature components such as a reformer, a high-temperature isolation valve and so on, and to verify operation and control technologies and safety technology at accidents. This paper presents outline of operation and control systems and analytical review of transient behavior of the out-of-pile hydrogen production system. Main function of the operation and control systems is made not to give disturbance to the HTTR at transient state under start-up and stop operations. The operation modes are separated into two ones, namely normal and accident operation modes, and operation sequences are made for each operation mode. The normal operation sequence includes start-up, steady operation and stop of the out-of-pile system. The accident one deals with accident conditions at which supply of feed gas is stopped and helium gas is cooled passively by the steam generator. Transient behavior of the out-of-pile system was analyzed numerically according as the operation sequences. As the results, it was confirmed that the designed operation and control systems are adequate to the out-of-pile system. (author)

  13. Rising methods and leavening agents used in the production of bread do not impact the glycaemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredensborg, Monica Hardman; Perry, Tracy; Mann, Jim; Chisholm, Alex; Rose, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the glycaemic index of breads produced using different rising methods and leavening agents. Eleven bread varieties were selected based on method of production, and divided between three groups of ten participants (mean +/- SD age 30.0 +/- 10.7 years and BMI 22.9 +/- 2.8). Standard glycaemic index testing protocol was implemented after an overnight fast, using glucose as the reference food, and collecting blood samples over a two-hour period. Glycemic index was calculated using the usual method. Additionally, incremental area under the curve data were log transformed and glycaemic index was calculated using regression analysis. Mean glycaemic index values of the breads in ascending order were as follows: Swiss Rye; 60, Long oat; 68, Sourdough+oats; 71, Long rye; 76, Short oat; 77, Short whole meal; 78, Long whole meal; 80, Sourdough; 82, Short rye; 82, Yeast; 88, and Desem; 92. There were significant differences in mean glycaemic index values between Swiss Rye and Yeast (p = 0.010), Swiss Rye and Desem (p = 0.007) and Sourdough+oats and Desem (p = 0.043). The rising method and leavening agents used in this study did not impact on the glycaemic index of the breads tested. Other factors, such as increased bread density, and the addition of whole grains may be required to produce bread with a low glycaemic index.

  14. CO_2 emissions reduction of Chinese light manufacturing industries: A novel RAM-based global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrouznejad, Ali; Yang, Guo-liang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has become one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Chinese government has realized the importance of energy conservation and prevention of the climate changes for sustainable development of China's economy and set targets for CO_2 emissions reduction in China. In China industry contributes 84.2% of the total CO_2 emissions, especially manufacturing industries. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist productivity (MP) index are the widely used mathematical techniques to address the relative efficiency and productivity of a group of homogenous decision making units, e.g. industries or countries. However, in many real applications, especially those related to energy efficiency, there are often undesirable outputs, e.g. the pollutions, waste and CO_2 emissions, which are produced inevitably with desirable outputs in the production. This paper introduces a novel Malmquist–Luenberger productivity (MLP) index based on directional distance function (DDF) to address the issue of productivity evolution of DMUs in the presence of undesirable outputs. The new RAM (Range-adjusted measure)-based global MLP index has been applied to evaluate CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries. Recommendations for policy makers have been discussed. - Highlights: •CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries are measured. •A novel RAM based Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index has been developed. •Recommendation to policy makers for reducing CO_2 reduction in China are given.

  15. Body mass index predicts aldosterone production in normotensive adults on a high-salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Adler, Gail K; Perlstein, Todd; Seely, Ellen W; Hopkins, Paul N; Williams, Gordon H; Garg, Rajesh

    2007-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying obesity-mediated cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. Aldosterone and insulin resistance both are associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to test the hypotheses that aldosterone production is elevated and associated with insulin resistance in overweight adults on a high-sodium diet. Healthy normotensive adults were categorized as lean body mass index (BMI) less than 25 kg/m(2) (n = 63) or overweight BMI 25 kg/m(2) or greater (n = 57). After 7 d of a high-sodium diet, participants fasted overnight and remained supine throughout hemodynamic and laboratory assessments and angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation. The overweight group, compared with the lean group, had higher 24-h urinary aldosterone (9.0 +/- 0.8 vs. 6.6 +/- 0.5 microg per 24 h; P = 0.003) and higher AngII-stimulated serum aldosterone (11.4 +/- 1.0 vs. 9.0 +/- 0.6 ng/dl; P = 0.04). There were no differences in 24-h urinary cortisol or sodium or supine measurements of plasma renin activity, serum aldosterone, or serum potassium. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was predicted by urinary aldosterone excretion (r = 0.32, P = 0.03) and serum aldosterone response to AngII stimulation (r = 0.28, P = 0.02) independent of age and BMI. Urinary aldosterone excretion and AngII-stimulated aldosterone are increased in overweight, compared with lean, normotensive adults. The correlation of these measures of aldosterone production with insulin resistance suggests a potential role for aldosterone in the pathophysiology of obesity-mediated insulin resistance.

  16. [Carbohydrates and mental performance--the role of glycemic index of food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciok, Janusz; Dolna, Agnieszka

    2006-03-01

    The role of carbohydrates in proper functioning of central nervous system measured by parameters of cognitive performance was described. The only source of energy for the brain is glucose, which stimulates the production and secretion of acetylocholine. Important are also enough high blood level of insulin and the level of insulin growth factor (IGF). Many studies had showed that breakfast intake improves the ability of concentration, reaction time, learning ability, mood and memory. Not sufficient amount of nutritional carbohydrates may in opposite be negative for the results of some tests measuring cognitive performance. The results of studies showing that the disturbances in utilization of carbohydrates, present in the patients with diabetes, increase the risk of abnormalities of cognitive performance. There is some evidence that the kind of ingested carbohydrates is important. Several studies suggest that the intake of carbohydrates characterized by low glycemic index (GI) may be favorable for some parameters of cognitive performance, because of prolonged time of stable glicaemia after food ingestion.

  17. Importance of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and Dose Length Product (DLP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    This work is under the auspice of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) projects (RAF/9/053) untitled S trengthening of the technical capacity for the protection patients and worker . The goal of this work is to highlight the importance of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and the Dose Length product (DLP). Measures were done at Polyclinic of Ilafy and CRDT Anosivavaka, Antananarivo, Madagascar. Doses were evaluated by use of pencil ionization chamber model 6000-10 connected with an electrometer RAD-CHECK model 06-256. Knowledge of dose indicator and Diagnostic Reference Level (DRL) allow the monitoring of scanner within the appropriate average dosimeter. It also insures the progressive determination for the most adapted dose requirements by choice of parameters available on scanner device. Measurements confirmed that doses from scanner devices of the two centers were under DRL requirements proposed by the IAEA, the European Commission (EC) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The present results confirm that the patient delivered doses for the two centers are optimized. [fr

  18. Nature is the best source of anti-inflammatory drugs: indexing natural products for their anti-inflammatory bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Miran; Rayan, Mahmoud; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Falah, Mizied; Raiyn, Jamal; Abdallah, Ziyad; Rayan, Anwar

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to index natural products for less expensive preventive or curative anti-inflammatory therapeutic drugs. A set of 441 anti-inflammatory drugs representing the active domain and 2892 natural products representing the inactive domain was used to construct a predictive model for bioactivity-indexing purposes. The model for indexing the natural products for potential anti-inflammatory activity was constructed using the iterative stochastic elimination algorithm (ISE). ISE is capable of differentiating between active and inactive anti-inflammatory molecules. By applying the prediction model to a mix set of (active/inactive) substances, we managed to capture 38% of the anti-inflammatory drugs in the top 1% of the screened set of chemicals, yielding enrichment factor of 38. Ten natural products that scored highly as potential anti-inflammatory drug candidates are disclosed. Searching the PubMed revealed that only three molecules (Moupinamide, Capsaicin, and Hypaphorine) out of the ten were tested and reported as anti-inflammatory. The other seven phytochemicals await evaluation for their anti-inflammatory activity in wet lab. The proposed anti-inflammatory model can be utilized for the virtual screening of large chemical databases and for indexing natural products for potential anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the glycemic index of bakery products: influence of the reformulation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Mairal, A; Peñalva-Lapuente, C; Iglesia, I; Urtasun, L; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Remón, S; Cortés, E; Moreno, L A

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate whether the modification of ingredients of two bakery products, muffins and bread, reduces their glycemic index, by means of in vitro and in vivo procedures. In vitro and in vivo glycemic index were evaluated for two types of bread and two types of muffins including one standard product for each category. For the in vitro determination, kinetics of starch digestion method was used. For the in vivo procedure, postprandial glucose measured as IAUC was obtained in a group of eighteen healthy volunteers (ten did the test with muffins and eight with breads). In in vitro, a reduction in the expected glycemic index regarding the control muffin was achieved with the partial substitution of wheat flour by a mixture of resistant starch, dextrin and lentil flour. In breads, with the partial substitution of wheat flour by a mixture of resistant starch and dextrins, a decrease in the expected glycemic index was also observed. In in vivo, a reduction in GI was also achieved both in muffin and in bread. All the obtained GI was higher in in vitro method. Despite the fact that in vitro overestimate in vivo method, the trend in the reduction in GI seems to be similar in both methods. With the substitution assayed, a reduction in the expected glycemic index and the glycemic index were obtained both in muffins and in breads.

  20. Effect of Anoxia on Respiration Rate (Fermentative Index and Ethanol Production of Onion Bulbs (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benkeblia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological behavior, including carbon dioxide production, fermentative index (FI and ethanolic production of onion bulbs kept under total anoxia (l00% N2 was investigated. During the first 24 hours, carbon dioxide production increased from 0.01 to 1.56 kPa Co2, and the average rate of the increase in CO2; production between 0 and 24 hours was 0.09 kPa/h. The Q10, of the fermentative index was l.9. Ethanol produced by onion bulbs kept under anoxia during 6 hours was temperature dependent, and was 0.563 and 0.760 pmol kg-1h-1 at 10 and 20°C respectively, while at 4°C the quantity produced was not detected. It is concluded that onion seems to be less tolerant to anoxia than other vegetables such as artichoke, cauliflower, tomato, potato and asparagus.

  1. Work productivity among adults with varied Body Mass Index: Results from a Canadian population-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaldo Sanchez Bustillos; Kris Gregory Vargas, III; Raul Gomero-Cuadra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and work productivity, including absenteeism and presenteeism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine work productivity among adults with varied BMI using population-based data. Methods: Data source was the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey. The outcomes reflected work absence (absenteeism) and reduced activities at work (presenteeism). The key explanatory variable was BMI in six categories. Logistic re...

  2. Climate Risk and Production Shocks: Using Index Insurance to Link Climate Science to Policy for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarney, G. R.; Osgood, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in developing countries are often severely impacted by droughts and other climate related events. However, agricultural insurance programs are largely unavailable in lower-income countries because of limitations in traditional loss-based indemnity insurance. As a result, it is often the case that farmers who are the most vulnerable to climate shocks lack access to the insurance tools that could help to reduce their production risk. Index insurance, a recent financial innovation, has the potential to increase access to insurance for smallholder farmers (Barrett et al. 2007). Index insurance allows farmers to insure their production risk based on a weather index (such as total seasonal rainfall) rather than on crop yields. The use of a weather index addresses many of the perverse incentive problems found in traditional crop insurance, and greatly reduces the costs of insuring smallholder farmers. The trade-off in index insurance, however, is limited accuracy in calibrating payouts to actual losses, a phenomenon commonly known as basis risk. While index insurance has promise as a risk-smoothing instrument, many argue it has greater promise as a mechanism for improving access to credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries (e.g. Barnett, Barrett & Skees 2008). In these areas, farmers are often fully exposed to climate shocks, which greatly affect their willingness to borrow. By smoothing the uncertainty in climate shocks, insurance may allow farmers to take credit for productive risks. There has been much discussion as to the optimal strategy for combining index insurance with credit, specifically if the financial institutions or the individual farmers themselves should hold the insurance policy. Many existing insurance implementations insure the farmer directly. However, since a weather index is a proxy for yield loss based on regional data, there is basis risk due to uninsured idiosyncratic differences between farmers. As a response to

  3. The Transient Elliptic Flow of Power-Law Fluid in Fractal Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋付权; 刘慈群

    2002-01-01

    The steady oil production and pressure distribution formulae of vertically fractured well for power-law non-Newtonian fluid were derived on the basis of the elliptic flow model in fractal reservoirs. The corresponding transient flow in fractal reservoirs was studied by numerical differentiation method: the influence of fractal index to transient pressure of vertically fractured well was analyzed. Finally the approximate analytical solution of transient flow was given by average mass conservation law. The study shows that using elliptic flow method to analyze the flow of vertically fractured well is a simple method.

  4. Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Masa, Dina B

    2003-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) of commonly consumed bakery products supplemented with increasing levels of coconut (Cocos nucifera) flour was determined in ten normal and ten diabetic subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick before and after feeding and were analysed for glucose levels using a clinical chemistry analyser. The significantly low-GI (cake (GI 51.8 (sem 3.3)), with 200-250 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour/kg had GI ranging from 61.3 to 71.4. Among the test foods, pan de sal (GI 87.2 (sem 5.5)) and multigrain loaf (GI 85.2 (sem 6.8)) gave significantly higher GI with 50 and 100 g coconut flour/kg respectively (Pflour/kg respectively gave a GI ranging from 62.7 to 71.6 and did not differ significantly from the test foods with 150 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour. In conclusion, the GI of coconut flour-supplemented foods decreased with increasing levels of coconut flour and this may be due to its high dietary fibre content. The results of the present study may form a scientific basis for the development of coconut flour as a functional food. However, the fat content of coconut flour-supplemented food should always be considered to optimize the functionality of coconut fibre in the proper control and management of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Sensitivity of fire weather index to different reanalysis products in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bedia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires are a major concern on the Iberian Peninsula, and the establishment of effective prevention and early warning systems are crucial to reduce impacts and losses. Fire weather indices are daily indicators of fire danger based upon meteorological information. However, their application in many studies is conditioned to the availability of sufficiently large climatological time series over extensive geographical areas and of sufficient quality. Furthermore, wind and relative humidity, important for the calculation of fire spread and fuel flammability parameters, are relatively scarce data. For these reasons, different reanalysis products are often used for the calculation of surrogate fire danger indices, although the agreement with those derived from observations remains as an open question to be addressed.

    In this study, we analyze this problem focusing on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI – and the associated Seasonal Severity Rating (SSR – and considering three different reanalysis products of varying resolutions on the Iberian Peninsula: NCEP, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim. Besides the inter-comparison of the resulting FWI/SSR values, we also study their correspondence with observational data from 7 weather stations in Spain and their sensitivity to the input parameters (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity.

    As a general result, ERA-Interim reproduces the observed FWI magnitudes with better accuracy than NCEP, with lower/higher correlations in the coast/inland locations. For instance, ERA-Interim summer correlations are above 0.5 in inland locations – where higher FWI magnitudes are attained – whereas the corresponding values for NCEP are below this threshold. Nevertheless, departures from the observed distributions are generally found in all reanalysis, with a general tendency to underestimation, more pronounced in the case of NCEP. In spite of these limitations, ERA-Interim may still

  6. Single-phase Near-well Permeability Upscaling and Productivity Index Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Shamsollah Noorbakhsh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir models with many grid blocks suffer from long run time; it is hence important to deliberate a method to remedy this drawback. Usual upscaling methods are proved to fail to reproduce fine grid model behaviors in coarse grid models in well proximity. This is attributed to rapid pressure changes in the near-well region. Standard permeability upscaling methods are limited to systems with linear pressure changes; therefore, special near-well upscaling approaches based on the well index concept are proposed for these regions with non-linear pressure profile. No general rule is available to calculate the proper well index in different heterogeneity patterns and coarsening levels. In this paper, the available near-well upscaling methods are investigated for homogeneous and heterogeneous permeability models at different coarsening levels. It is observed that the existing well index methods have limited success in reproducing the well flow and pressure behavior of the reference fine grid models as the heterogeneity or coarsening level increases. Coarse-scale well indexes are determined such that fine and coarse scale results for pressure are in agreement. Both vertical and horizontal wells are investigated and, for the case of vertical homogeneous wells, a linear relationship between the default (Peaceman well index and the true (matched well index is obtained, which considerably reduces the error of the Peaceman well index. For the case of heterogeneous vertical wells, a multiplier remedies the error. Similar results are obtained for horizontal wells (both heterogeneous and homogeneous models.

  7. Reducing Production Basis Risk through Rainfall Intensity Frequency (RIF) Indexes: Global Sensitivity Analysis' Implication on Policy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus; Huffaker, Ray; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions with swift compensation at affordable premium thanks to its minimal adverse selection and moral hazard. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing causes the presence of "production basis risk" that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. To reduce basis risk without additional data collection cost, we propose the use of rain intensity and frequency as indexes as it could offer better protection at the lower premium by avoiding basis risk-strike trade-off inherent in the total rainfall index. We present empirical evidences and modeling results that even under the similar cumulative rainfall and temperature environment, yield can significantly differ especially for drought sensitive crops. We further show that deriving the trigger level and payoff function from regression between historical yield and total rainfall data may pose significant basis risk owing to their non-unique relationship in the insured range of rainfall. Lastly, we discuss the design of index insurance in terms of contract specifications based on the results from global sensitivity analysis.

  8. Gulf of Mexico IFR Aeronautical Chart Index - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The IFR Enroute Aeronautical Chart series is designed to meet the needs of users who require a digital version chart. This is the visual index to the charts for the...

  9. Visceral Adiposity Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Index: Two Alternate Body Indices to Identify Chronic Kidney Disease among the Rural Population in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the relative strength of the association between anthropometric obesity indices and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Another objective was to examine whether the visceral adiposity index (VAI and lipid accumulation product index (LAPI can identify CKD in the rural population of China. There were 5168 males and 6024 females involved in this cross-sectional study, and 237 participants (2.12% suffered from CKD. Obesity indices included body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, VAI and LAPI. VAI and LAPI were calculated with triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, BMI and WC. VAI = [WC/39.68 + (1.88 × BMI] × (TG /1.03 × (1.31/ HDL for males; VAI = [WC/36.58 + (1.89 × BMI] × (TG/0.81 × (1.52/HDL for females. LAPI = (WC-65 × TG for males, LAPI = (WC-58 × TG for females. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. The prevalence of CKD increased across quartiles for WHtR, VAI and LAPI. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the presence of CKD for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of each anthropometric measure showed that the VAI was the best predictor of CKD in females (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.09–8.47, p < 0.001. VAI showed the highest AUC for CKD (AUC: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.65–0.72 and LAPI came second (AUC: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.61–0.70 in females compared with BMI (both p-values < 0.001. However, compared with the traditional index of the BMI, the anthropometric measures VAI, LAPI, WC, and WHtR had no statistically significant capacity to predict CKD in males. Our results showed that both VAI and LAPI were significantly associated with CKD in the rural population of northeast China. Furthermore, VAI and LAPI were superior to BMI, WC and WHtR for predicting CKD only in females.

  10. Hemolysis is associated with low reticulocyte production index and predicts blood transfusion in severe malarial anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Fendel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falciparum Malaria, an infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is among the leading causes of death and morbidity attributable to infectious diseases worldwide. In Gabon, Central Africa, one out of four inpatients have severe malarial anemia (SMA, a life-threatening complication if left untreated. Emerging drug resistant parasites might aggravate the situation. This case control study investigates biomarkers of enhanced hemolysis in hospitalized children with either SMA or mild malaria (MM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Ninety-one children were included, thereof 39 SMA patients. Strict inclusion criteria were chosen to exclude other causes of anemia. At diagnosis, erythrophagocytosis (a direct marker for extravascular hemolysis, EVH was enhanced in SMA compared to MM patients (5.0 arbitrary units (AU (interquartile range (IR: 2.2-9.6 vs. 2.1 AU (IR: 1.3-3.9, p<0.01. Furthermore, indirect markers for EVH, (i.e. serum neopterin levels, spleen size enlargement and monocyte pigment were significantly increased in SMA patients. Markers for erythrocyte ageing, such as CD35 (complement receptor 1, CD55 (decay acceleration factor and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin-V-binding were investigated by flow cytometry. In SMA patients, levels of CD35 and CD55 on the red blood cell surface were decreased and erythrocyte removal markers were increased when compared to MM or reconvalescent patients. Additionally, intravascular hemolysis (IVH was quantified using several indirect markers (LDH, alpha-HBDH, haptoglobin and hemopexin, which all showed elevated IVH in SMA. The presence of both IVH and EVH predicted the need for blood transfusion during antimalarial treatment (odds ratio 61.5, 95% confidence interval (CI: 8.9-427. Interestingly, this subpopulation is characterized by a significantly lowered reticulocyte production index (RPI, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the multifactorial pathophysiology of SMA

  11. The influence of gender and product design on farmers' preferences for weather-indexed crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Sonia; Krupnik, Timothy J; Rossi, Frederick; Khanam, Fahmida

    2016-05-01

    Theoretically, weather-index insurance is an effective risk reduction option for small-scale farmers in low income countries. Renewed policy and donor emphasis on bridging gender gaps in development also emphasizes the potential social safety net benefits that weather-index insurance could bring to women farmers who are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change risk and have low adaptive capacity. To date, no quantitative studies have experimentally explored weather-index insurance preferences through a gender lens, and little information exists regarding gender-specific preferences for (and constraints to) smallholder investment in agricultural weather-index insurance. This study responds to this gap, and advances the understanding of preference heterogeneity for weather-index insurance by analysing data collected from 433 male and female farmers living on a climate change vulnerable coastal island in Bangladesh, where an increasing number of farmers are adopting maize as a potentially remunerative, but high-risk cash crop. We implemented a choice experiment designed to investigate farmers' valuations for, and trade-offs among, the key attributes of a hypothetical maize crop weather-index insurance program that offered different options for bundling insurance with financial saving mechanisms. Our results reveal significant insurance aversion among female farmers, irrespective of the attributes of the insurance scheme. Heterogeneity in insurance choices could however not be explained by differences in men's and women's risk and time preferences, or agency in making agriculturally related decisions. Rather, gendered differences in farmers' level of trust in insurance institutions and financial literacy were the key factors driving the heterogeneous preferences observed between men and women. Efforts to fulfill gender equity mandates in climate-smart agricultural development programs that rely on weather-index insurance as a risk-abatement tool are therefore

  12. Anandamide induces matrix metalloproteinase-2 production through cannabinoid-1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 in human dental pulp cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Keiko; Oyama, Tohru; Sakuta, Tetsuya; Tokuda, Masayuki; Torii, Mitsuo

    2012-06-01

    Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine [AEA]) is one of the main endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids are implicated in various physiological and pathologic functions, inducing not only nociception but also regeneration and inflammation. The role of the endocannabinoid system in peripheral organs was recently described. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of AEA on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 induction in human dental pulp cells (HPC). We examined AEA-induced MMP-2 production and the expression of AEA receptors (cannabinoid [CB] receptor-1, CB2, and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 [TRPV1]) in HPC by Western blot. MMP-2 concentrations in supernatants were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We then investigated the role of the AEA receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase in AEA-induced MMP-2 production in HPC. AEA significantly induced MMP-2 production in HPC. HPC expressed all 3 types of AEA receptor (CB1, CB2, and TRPV1). AEA-induced MMP-2 production was blocked by CB1 or TRPV1 antagonists and by small interfering RNA for CB1 or TRPV1. Furthermore, c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor also reduced MMP-2 production. We demonstrated for the first time that AEA induced MMP-2 production via CB1 and TRPV1 in HPC. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Indoor transient SOA formation from ozone + α-pinene reactions: Impacts of air exchange and initial product concentrations, and comparison to limonene ozonolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, Somayeh; Waring, Michael S.

    2015-07-01

    The ozonolysis of reactive organic gases (ROG), e.g. terpenes, generates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) indoors. The SOA formation strength of such reactions is parameterized by the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), a.k.a. SOA yield, which is the mass ratio of generated SOA to oxidized ROG. AMFs vary in magnitude both among and for individual ROGs. Here, we quantified dynamic SOA formation from the ozonolysis of α-pinene with 'transient AMFs,' which describe SOA formation due to pulse emission of a ROG in an indoor space with air exchange, as is common when consumer products are intermittently used in ventilated buildings. We performed 19 experiments at low, moderate, and high (0.30, 0.52, and 0.94 h-1, respectively) air exchange rates (AER) at varying concentrations of initial reactants. Transient AMFs as a function of peak SOA concentrations ranged from 0.071 to 0.25, and they tended to increase as the AER and product of the initial reactant concentrations increased. Compared to our similar research on limonene ozonolysis (Youssefi and Waring, 2014), for which formation strength was driven by secondary ozone reactions, the AER impact for α-pinene was opposite in direction and weaker, while the initial reactant product impact was in the same direction but stronger for α-pinene than for limonene. Linear fits of AMFs for α-pinene ozonolysis as a function of the AER and initial reactant concentrations are provided so that future indoor models can predict SOA formation strength.

  14. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger Ulf

    2013-01-01

    vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid...... and GPP (R-2 = 0.85, p remote Arctic regions....... (C) 2013 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS) Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. First direct landscape-scale measurement of tropical rain forest Leaf Area Index, a key driver of global primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Clark; Paulo C. Olivas; Steven F. Oberbauer; Deborah A. Clark; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (leaf area per unit ground area, LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity but has never previously been measured directly at the landscape scale in tropical rain forest (TRF). We used a modular tower and stratified random sampling to harvest all foliage from forest floor to canopy top in 55 vertical transects (4.6 m2) across 500 ha of old growth in...

  16. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  17. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  18. Ranking of concern, based on environmental indexes, for pharmaceutical and personal care products: an application to the Spanish case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de García, Sheyla; Pinto, Gilberto Pinto; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta Mata, Rubén I

    2013-11-15

    A wide range of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are present in the environment, and many of their adverse effects are unknown. The emergence of new compounds or changes in regulations have led to dynamical studies of occurrence, impact and treatment, which consider geographical areas and trends in consumption and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. A Quantitative study of Structure-Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) was performed to assess the possible adverse effects of ninety six PPCPs and metabolites with negligible experimental data and establish a ranking of concern, which was supported by the EPA EPI Suite™ interface. The environmental and toxicological indexes, the persistence (P), the bioaccumulation (B), the toxicity (T) (extensive) and the occurrence in Spanish aquatic environments (O) (intensive) were evaluated. The most hazardous characteristics in the largest number of compounds were generated by the P index, followed by the T and B indexes. A high number of metabolites has a concern score equal to or greater than their parent compounds. Three PBT and OPBT rankings of concern were proposed using the total and partial ranking method (supported by a Hasse diagram) by the Decision Analysis by Ranking Techniques (DART) tool, which was recently recommended by the European Commission. An analysis of the sensibility of the relative weights of these indexes has been conducted. Hormones, antidepressants (and their metabolites), blood lipid regulators and all of the personal care products considered in this study were at the highest levels of risk according to the PBT and OPBT total rankings. Furthermore, when the OPBT partial ranking was performed, X-ray contrast media, H2 blockers and some antibiotics were included at the highest level of concern. It is important to improve and incorporate useful indexes for the predicted environmental impact of PPCPs and metabolites and thus focus experimental analysis on the compounds that require

  19. The Effect of the 2007 Financial Crisis on the Information Technologies Sector: Application of Malmquist Productivity Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Oğuzhan Oruç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the 2007 financial crisis on the productivity of information technologies sector by applying Malmquist Productivity Index method. In the research, 20 enterprises operating in the information technologies sector in the list of Fortune 500 and their 6 years data are taken between the periods of 2005-2010. In the method, short and long term liabilities and shareholders’ equity are used as inputs while total income and net profit are used as outputs. As a result, it is observed that productivity of information technologies sector decreased, each year in compare to previous year, respectively in 2007, 2008 and 2009 while it increased in 2005 and 2010. It is additionally observed that in those years when the productivity decreased, component of technical change also decreased while component of efficiency change increased.

  20. Photon Recollision Probability: a Useful Concept for Cross Scale Consistency Check between Leaf Area Index and Foliage Clumping Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisek, J.

    2017-12-01

    Clumping index (CI) is the measure of foliage aggregation relative to a random distribution of leaves in space. CI is an important factor for the correct quantification of true leaf area index (LAI). Global and regional scale CI maps have been generated from various multi-angle sensors based on an empirical relationship with the normalized difference between hotspot and darkspot (NDHD) index (Chen et al., 2005). Ryu et al. (2011) suggested that accurate calculation of radiative transfer in a canopy, important for controlling gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) (Baldocchi and Harley, 1995), should be possible by integrating CI with incoming solar irradiance and LAI from MODIS land and atmosphere products. It should be noted that MODIS LAI/FPAR product uses internal non-empirical, stochastic equations for parameterization of foliage clumping. This raises a question if integration of the MODIS LAI product with empirically-based CI maps does not introduce any inconsistencies. Here, the consistency is examined independently through the `recollision probability theory' or `p-theory' (Knyazikhin et al., 1998) along with raw LAI-2000/2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) data from > 30 sites, surveyed across a range of vegetation types. The theory predicts that the amount of radiation scattered by a canopy should depend only on the wavelength and the spectrally invariant canopy structural parameter p. The parameter p is linked to the foliage clumping (Stenberg et al., 2016). Results indicate that integration of the MODIS LAI product with empirically-based CI maps is feasible. Importantly, for the first time it is shown that it is possible to obtain p values for any location solely from Earth Observation data. This is very relevant for future applications of photon recollision probability concept for global and local monitoring of vegetation using Earth Observation data.

  1. Fatty Liver Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects without Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lung Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fatty liver index (FLI and lipid accumulation product (LAP are indexes originally designed to assess the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease, respectively. Both indexes have been proven to be reliable markers of subsequent metabolic syndrome; however, their ability to predict metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease has not been clarified. Methods. We enrolled consecutive subjects who received health check-up services at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Fatty liver disease was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The ability of the FLI and LAP to predict metabolic syndrome was assessed by analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve. Results. Male sex was strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, and the LAP and FLI were better than other variables to predict metabolic syndrome among the 29,797 subjects. Both indexes were also better than other variables to detect metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease (AUROC: 0.871 and 0.879, resp., and the predictive power was greater among women. Conclusion. Metabolic syndrome increases the cardiovascular disease risk. The FLI and LAP could be used to recognize the syndrome in both subjects with and without fatty liver disease who require lifestyle modifications and counseling.

  2. Slow and stopped light in active gain composite materials of metal nanoparticles. Ultralarge group index-bandwidth product predicted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang-Hyon; Choe, Song-Hyok [Institute of Lasers, State Academy of Sciences, Unjong District, Pyongyang (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Chip-compatible slow light devices with large group index-bandwidth products and low losses are of great interest in the community of modern photonics. In this work, active gain materials containing metal nanoparticles are proposed as the slow and stopped light materials. Gain-assisted high field enhancement in metal nanoparticles and the resultant strong dispersion lead to such phenomena. From the Maxwell-Garnett model, it is revealed that the metal nanocomposite exhibits the infinitely large group index when the gain of the host medium and the filling factor of metal nanoparticles satisfy a critical condition. For the gain of the host above the critical value, one can observe slowing down effect with amplification of light pulses. Significantly large group index-bandwidth products, which vary from a few to several thousand or even infinity depending on the gain value of the host medium, have been numerically predicted in active silica glasses containing spheroidal metal nanoparticles, as examples. The proposed scheme inherently provides the widely varying operating spectral range by changing the aspect ratio of metal nanoparticles and chip-compatibility with low cost. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes e por produto de distorção em escolares Transient evoked otoacustic emissions and distortion product in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Melo Vasconcelos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Após os cinco anos de idade, a principal queixa em crianças que não ouvem normalmente é a dificuldade de aprendizagem. OBJETIVOS: Comparar os resultados suspeitos de perda auditiva pela triagem com os exames de emissões otoacústicas evocadas (EOAE transientes (EOAT e por produto de distorção (EOAPD, com dados dos exames audiométricos; observar qual dos dois procedimentos de EOAE responde melhor para triagem em escolares. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Avaliar 451 escolares da 1ª série do ensino fundamental, em escolas públicas de São Luís. Foram feitos, na própria escola, os exames otoscópicos com remoção de cerume quando necessário e os exames de EOAT e EOAPD em todos os escolares. Nas crianças que apresentaram alteração em algum dos exames de EOAT e/ou EOAPD foram realizadas a audiometria e imitanciometria. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Prospectivo Transversal. RESULTADOS: Freqüência de 18,6% de rolhas de cerume. Após triagem com EOAT e EOAPD não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparamos os resultados dos exames que falharam somente nas EOAT e EOAPD com dados dos exames audiométricos, no entanto quando comparado esses dados com falha nos dois exames houve diferença significante (pPast five years of age, the main complaint of children who are hard of hearing is that they have difficulty in learning. AIM: Compare these results to suspected hearing loss, through triage with the exams of evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAE transients (TEOAE and by distortion product (DPEOAE, using data from audiometric exams; observe which of the procedures of EOAE better respond to school children triage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate 451 school children, grade one students, from the public schools in São Luís. At school, otoscopic exams with the removal of wax and the TEOAE and DPEOAE exams were also carried on all school children. Audiometry and acoustic impedance were performed on the children who presented

  4. Development of a new heat tolerance index for selecting productive goats for the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; Mostafa, S.I.; Habib, A.A.; Elmasry, A.M.; Abdelsamee, A.M.; Abolnaga, A.I.; Kassab, F.A.; Abdelhamid, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    A heat tolerance index previously developed in cattle was verified in two breeds of goats to identify young heat tolerant animals capable of maintaining liveweight and milk yield on exposure to high environmental temperatures. Twelve Baladi and Bedouin goats were divided into two equal groups and offered either river or salt water (1.8% Mediterranean sea salt). The animals were maintained in climatic chambers at 18 deg. C and 70% RH for an initial four day period followed by another four days at 38 deg. C and 50% RH for seven hours per day. On the second day of each period, each animal was injected intravenously with tritiated water and total body water (TBW) determined. The percentage increase in TBW induced by the high temperature treatment was subtracted from 100 and the TBW heat tolerance index (HTI) was calculated. TBW-HTI correlated significantly with the percentage increase in live body weight (LBW) in goats over a three month exposure to heat stress and with the percentage decrease in daily milk yield over a seven day heat exposure period. TBW-HTI averages of Baladi and Bedouin goats drinking river water were 81 and 88 respectively while those drinking salt water were 86 and 92 respectively. The equations for the predicted percentage increase in liveweight (Y) in a hot environment for Baladi and Bedouin goats were Y = -38.56 + 0.728X and Y = -45.27 + 0.622X respectively, where X is the TBW-HTI index; the predicted percentage decrease in milk yield in a hot environment Y for all goats was Y = 142.28-1.339X. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. Transient gene expression in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Mignaqui

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It produces severe economic losses in the livestock industry. Currently available vaccines are based on inactivated FMD virus (FMDV. The use of empty capsids as a subunit vaccine has been reported to be a promising candidate because it avoids the use of virus in the vaccine production and conserves the conformational epitopes of the virus. In this report, we explored transient gene expression (TGE in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of FMDV recombinant empty capsids as a subunit vaccine. The recombinant proteins produced, assembled into empty capsids and induced protective immune response against viral challenge in mice. Furthermore, they were recognized by anti-FMDV bovine sera. By using this technology, we were able to achieve expression levels that are compatible with the development of a vaccine. Thus, TGE of mammalian cells is an easy to perform, scalable and cost-effective technology for the production of a recombinant subunit vaccine against FMDV.

  6. Footprint area analysis of binary imaged Cupriavidus necator cells to study PHB production at balanced, transient, and limited growth conditions in a cascade process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlja, Denis; Koller, Martin; Novak, Mario; Braunegg, Gerhart; Horvat, Predrag

    2016-12-01

    Statistical distribution of cell and poly[3-(R)-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) granule size and number of granules per cell are investigated for PHB production in a five-stage cascade (5CSTR). Electron microscopic pictures of cells from individual cascade stages (R1-R5) were converted to binary pictures to visualize footprint areas for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and non-PHA biomass. Results for each stage were correlated to the corresponding experimentally determined kinetics (specific growth rate μ and specific productivity π). Log-normal distribution describes PHA granule size dissimilarity, whereas for R1 and R4, gamma distribution best reflects the situation. R1, devoted to balanced biomass synthesis, predominately contains cells with rather small granules, whereas with increasing residence time τ, maximum and average granule sizes by trend increase, approaching an upper limit determined by the cell's geometry. Generally, an increase of intracellular PHA content and ratio of granule to cell area slow down along the cascade. Further, the number of granules per cell decreases with increasing τ. Data for μ and π obtained by binary picture analysis correlate well with the experimental results. The work describes long-term continuous PHA production under balanced, transient, and nutrient-deficient conditions, as well as their reflection on the granules size, granule number, and cell structure on the microscopic level.

  7. What is the Optimal Water Productivity Index for Irrigated Grapevines? Case of 'Godello' and 'Albariño' cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, María; Martínez, Emma M.; Rey, Benjamín J.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2015-04-01

    Different studies have tackled the conceptual and terminological study of crop water use indicators, mainly water use efficiency (WUE) and water productivity (WP) (Pereira et al., 2012; Scheierling et al., 2014). The high number of stakeholders, working about agricultural water use (hydrology and hydrogeology, civil and irrigation engineering, agronomy and crop physiology, economics), has hindered the real improvement thereof, from a multidisciplinary perspective. For example, Flexas et al. (2010) reviewed the future improvements in water use efficiency in grapevines, from a physiological approach. In this study, two grapevine cultivars, priority in Galicia (Spain): 'Godello' (DO Valdeorras) and 'Albariño' (DO Rías Baixas, two locations), was assessed in relation to four water productivity index, focus on irrigation systems, agronomy and crop physiology aspects, during a wet year (2012). All WP index was referred to farm yield level (kg ha-1); where the denominator applied to WPTWU, include all components of soil water balance; to WPTWUfarm, introduced rainfall and irrigation depth; to WPIrrig, only irrigation depth applied; and to WPT, crop transpiration was used. In the last index, SIMDualKc model was used to partitioning crop evapotranspiration and cover crop transpiration. Different ranges of values was obtained for both cultivars, WPTWUfarm was higher in cv 'Godello' than in cv 'Albariño', 3.8 and 0.9 kg m-3 respectively. Average value to WPIrrig has showed: 17.6 kg m-3 for cv 'Albariño' and 15.5 kg m-3 for cv 'Godello', due to a reduction of 60% of irrigation depth in DO Rías Baixas. However, for both locations, higher WPIrrig was obtained to drip irrigation system versus subsurface drip irrigation. WPT showed a different tendency, rain-fed 'Godello' and surface drip irrigation 'Albariño' treatments obtained higher values (6.8 and 3.6 kg m-3), with higher WPT to cv 'Godello' for all treatments versus 'Albariño'. Results had showed that water

  8. Neste Oy starts the production of extra high viscosity index lubricating oil in Porvoo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilander, H.

    1997-01-01

    Neste Oy is starting the manufacture of basic oil, used in advanced motor lubricants, in Finland. The plant will start the manufacture of the EHVI (Extra High Viscosity) by the end of 1997. The EHVI basic oil is a synthetic-like oil product, suitable for manufacture of high-quality lubricants. In the beginning the production of the basic oil will be about 50 000 tons/a. The investment costs of the plants are 180 million FIM

  9. Fertility and productivity index rating of some soils conditioned by climate and topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okae-Anti, Daniel; Imoro, Abukari Z.

    2004-10-01

    In the humid tropics, well-drained soils with abundant loose iron concretions, soils with very little weatherable minerals left and of poor chemical status due to the abundance of low activity clays, pose serious limitations to agricultural productivity. Accurate and reliable soil productivity information is needed in the form of crop yield estimates and productivity indices. We investigated the productive potential of some acrisols and plinthosols by computing productivity indices (PI) and estimating yields of four test crops, namely cowpea, groundnut, maize and soybean. PI was based on physico-chemical parameters expected to regulate air-water relations, have a role in determining the mechanical resistance to crop roots and the volume of soil, and, contribute to the fertility status of the soils. Very low Pls in the order 7.2x10 - 5, 9.6x10 - 5 and 8.32x10 - 4 were observed for Nyankpala, Changnayili and Kpelesawgu series respectively. Based on the inherently low fertility status of these soils, maize, planted as a sole crop or in rotation with groundnut is the sustainable cropping system for the soils. A return of crop residue to the soil is envisaged as a long term practice to maintain adequate levels of organic matter. (author)

  10. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infants with urinary tract malformations (UTM presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI are prone to develop transient type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (THPA1. Objective. Report on patient series with characteristics of THPA1, UTM and/or UTI and suggestions for the diagnosis and therapy. Methods. Patients underwent blood and urine electrolyte and acid-base analysis, serum aldosterosterone levels and plasma rennin activity measuring; urinalysis, urinoculture and renal ultrasound were done and medical and/or surgical therapy was instituted. Results. Hyponatraemia (120.9±5.8 mmol/L, hyperkalaemia (6.9±0.9 mmol/L, metabolic acidosis (plasma bicarbonate, 11±1.4 mmol/L, and a rise in serum creatinine levels (145±101 μmol/L were associated with inappropriately high urinary sodium (51.3±17.5 mmol/L and low potassium (14.1±5.9 mmol/L excretion. Elevated plasma aldosterone concentrations (170.4±100.5 ng/dL and the very high levels of the plasma aldosterone to potassium ratio (25.2±15.6 together with diminished urinary K/Na values (0.31±0.19 indicated tubular resistance to aldosterone. After institution of appropriate medical and/or surgical therapy, serum electrolytes, creatinine, and acid-base balance were normalized. Imaging studies showed ureteropyelic or ureterovesical junction obstruction in 3 and 2 patients, respectively, posterior urethral valves in 3, and normal UT in 1 patient. According to our knowledge, this is the first report on THPA1 in the Serbian literature. Conclusion. Male infants with hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis have to have their urine examined and the renal ultrasound has to be done in order to avoid both, the underdiagnosis of THPA1 and the inappropriate medication.

  11. Adjusting Quality index Log Values to Represent Local and Regional Commercial Sawlog Product Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris D. McCauley; Joseph J. Mendel; Joseph J. Mendel

    1969-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is not only to report the results of a comparative analysis as to how well the Q.I. method predicts log product values when compared to commercial sawmill log output values, but also to develop a methodology which will facilitate the comparison and provide the adjustments needed by the sawmill operator.

  12. Evaluation of Mist-net Sampling as an Index to Productivity in Kirtland's Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnathan Bart; Cameron Kepler; Paul Sykes; Carol Bocetti

    1999-01-01

    Many applied and theoretical investigations require information on how productivity varies in time and space (Temple and Wiens 1989, DeSante 1995). Examples include studies of habitat quality, population trends, life-history tactics, and metapopulation dynamics. From a demographic perspective, reproductivity is the number of young, counted at a given time of year,...

  13. Relationship of Aboveground Biomass Production Site Index and Soil Characteristics in a Loblolly Pine Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minyi Zhou; Thomas J. Dean

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the continuing studies of the Cooperative Research in Sustainable Silviculture and Soil Productivity (CRiSSSP), 24 experimental plots in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand have recently been installed near Natchitoches, LA. The plots were uniformly assigned to 3 blocks based on topography (i.e., up slope, midslope, and down slope)....

  14. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  15. Assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned buildings using PMV index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, R. [Halton OY, Kausala (Finland); Tan, F. [CapitaLand Commercial Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-07-01

    This theoretical study reports on the assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned office buildings using the PMV approach and makes use of Wyon's reviews [D.P. Wyon, P.O. Fanger, B.W. Olesen, C.J.K. Pedersen, The mental performance of subjects clothed for comfort at two different air temperatures, Ergonomics 18 (1975) 358-374; D.P. Wyon, Individual microclimate control: required range, probable benefits and current feasibility, in: Proceedings of Indoor Air '96, Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, 1996; D.P. Wyon, Indoor environmental effects on productivity. IAQ 96 Paths to better building environments/Keynote address. Y. Kevin. Atlanta, ASHRAE, pp. 5-15] as the basis to compare and to relate how the productivity loss could be minimised through improved thermal comfort design criteria. The finding shows that task-related performance is significantly correlated with the human perception of thermal environment that in turn is dependent on temperatures. Different combinations of thermal criteria (air velocity, clo, metabolic, etc.) can lead to similar PMV value and the PMV equation is useful to predict productivity loss that is due to the rate of change in thermal conditions. The study also highlights the issues that remain to be resolved in future research. (author)

  16. The relationship between lipid accumulation product, visceral adiposity index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZHANG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the correlation between lipid accumulation product (LAP, visceral adiposity index (VAI and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in adults, and explore whether to use such correlation as indications is superior to the traditional body fat index based on body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Methods  The present work was a cross-sectional study involving 501 healthy adults (321 males and 180 females from the community of Chongqing Municipality. Anthropometric indexes [height, weight, WC, hip circumference (HC], blood pressure (BP, fasting lipid profile and levels of fasting and post-load glucose, insulin and hs-CRP were measured, and BMI, WHR, WHtR, fasting insulin resistant homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, LAP and VAI were calculated. The correlations between hs-CRP and other variables were analyzed. Results  Following the elevation of titer of the hs-CRP, LAP, VAI, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, BP, glucose level, HOMA-IR, insulin, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and apolipoprotein B (ApoB increased (P<0.05, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1 levels declined (P<0.0001. Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated that hs-CRP was correlated with all variances (P<0.01 except for total cholesterol (TC (P=0.181 and LDL -C (P=0.325. According to forward stepwise multiple regression analysis with hs-CRP as the dependent variance, WC was the only variance entering the regression model. Conclusion  LAP, VAI levels are correlated with hs-CRP level but not the major determinant factors of hs-CRP. WC is stronger than other variances in the association with hs-CRP in adults, and is still an independent predictor of inflammation.

  17. Determination of a refractive index and an extinction coefficient of standard production of CVD-graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Martínez, Efraín; Gabás, Mercedes; Barrutia, Laura; Pesquera, Amaia; Centeno, Alba; Palanco, Santiago; Zurutuza, Amaia; Algora, Carlos

    2015-01-28

    The refractive index and extinction coefficient of chemical vapour deposition grown graphene are determined by ellipsometry analysis. Graphene films were grown on copper substrates and transferred as both monolayers and bilayers onto SiO2/Si substrates by using standard manufacturing procedures. The chemical nature and thickness of residual debris formed after the transfer process were elucidated using photoelectron spectroscopy. The real layered structure so deduced has been used instead of the nominal one as the input in the ellipsometry analysis of monolayer and bilayer graphene, transferred onto both native and thermal silicon oxide. The effect of these contamination layers on the optical properties of the stacked structure is noticeable both in the visible and the ultraviolet spectral regions, thus masking the graphene optical response. Finally, the use of heat treatment under a nitrogen atmosphere of the graphene-based stacked structures, as a method to reduce the water content of the sample, and its effect on the optical response of both graphene and the residual debris layer are presented. The Lorentz-Drude model proposed for the optical response of graphene fits fairly well the experimental ellipsometric data for all the analysed graphene-based stacked structures.

  18. Change of trade balance analysis in agricultural and food products with using of index pyramidal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of the trade balance in Czech Republic in the field of agricultural and food products. The main goal is to determine the influence of analytical indicators; in this case these are changes of quantity and average unit price of export and import; over the synthetic indicator – change of trade balance. Next step of this analysis is to calculate the portions of change of inputs volume and change of total productivity of inputs over the change of export caused by change of quantity. To fulfill this aim it is suitable to use methods for pyramidal decomposition of indicators – chain substitution, logarithmic and functional methods. These methods are compared and the results are interpreted.

  19. Poison 1 - a programme for calculation of reactivity transients due to fission product poisoning and its application in continuous determination of xenon and samarium poisoning in reactor KS-150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, S.B.

    1973-12-01

    The report contains a user's description of the 3-dimensional programme POISON 1 for calculating reactivity transients due to fission-product poisoning during changes of reactor power. The chapter dealing with Xe poisoning contains a description of Xe tables, the method of operational determination of Xe poisoning, use of Xe transients for calibrating control rods and means of shutting down the reactor without being overriden by Xe poisoning. Sm poisoning is determined continuously on the basis of the power diagram of reactor operation. In conclusion a possibility of using the programme in a process computer in combination with self-powered detectors as local power sensors is indicated. (author)

  20. Application of preference selection index method for decision making over the design stage of production system life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Attri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of production system shows the progress of production system from the inception to the termination of the system. During each stage, mainly in the design stage, certain strategic decisions have to be taken. These decisions are more complex as the decision makers have to assess a wide range of alternatives based on a set of conflicting criteria. As the decision making process is found to be unstructured, characterized by domain dependent knowledge, there is a need to apply an efficient multi-criteria decision making (MCDM tool to help the decision makers in making correct decisions. This paper explores the application of a novel MCDM method i.e. Preference selection index (PSI method to solve various decision-making problems that are generally encountered in the design stage of production system life cycle. To prove the potentiality, applicability and accuracy of PSI method in solving decision making problem during the design stage of production system life cycle, five examples are cited from the literature and are compared with the results obtained by the past researchers.

  1. Oligonucleotide indexing of DNA barcodes: identification of tuna and other scombrid species in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botti Sara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA barcodes are a global standard for species identification and have countless applications in the medical, forensic and alimentary fields, but few barcoding methods work efficiently in samples in which DNA is degraded, e.g. foods and archival specimens. This limits the choice of target regions harbouring a sufficient number of diagnostic polymorphisms. The method described here uses existing PCR and sequencing methodologies to detect mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in complex matrices such as foods. The reported application allowed the discrimination among 17 fish species of the Scombridae family with high commercial interest such as mackerels, bonitos and tunas which are often present in processed seafood. The approach can be easily upgraded with the release of new genetic diversity information to increase the range of detected species. Results Cocktail of primers are designed for PCR using publicly available sequences of the target sequence. They are composed of a fixed 5' region and of variable 3' cocktail portions that allow amplification of any member of a group of species of interest. The population of short amplicons is directly sequenced and indexed using primers containing a longer 5' region and the non polymorphic portion of the cocktail portion. A 226 bp region of CytB was selected as target after collection and screening of 148 online sequences; 85 SNPs were found, of which 75 were present in at least two sequences. Primers were also designed for two shorter sub-fragments that could be amplified from highly degraded samples. The test was used on 103 samples of seafood (canned tuna and scomber, tuna salad, tuna sauce and could successfully detect the presence of different or additional species that were not identified on the labelling of canned tuna, tuna salad and sauce samples. Conclusions The described method is largely independent of the degree of degradation of DNA source and can thus be applied to

  2. Oligonucleotide indexing of DNA barcodes: identification of tuna and other scombrid species in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Sara; Giuffra, Elisabetta

    2010-08-23

    DNA barcodes are a global standard for species identification and have countless applications in the medical, forensic and alimentary fields, but few barcoding methods work efficiently in samples in which DNA is degraded, e.g. foods and archival specimens. This limits the choice of target regions harbouring a sufficient number of diagnostic polymorphisms. The method described here uses existing PCR and sequencing methodologies to detect mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in complex matrices such as foods. The reported application allowed the discrimination among 17 fish species of the Scombridae family with high commercial interest such as mackerels, bonitos and tunas which are often present in processed seafood. The approach can be easily upgraded with the release of new genetic diversity information to increase the range of detected species. Cocktail of primers are designed for PCR using publicly available sequences of the target sequence. They are composed of a fixed 5' region and of variable 3' cocktail portions that allow amplification of any member of a group of species of interest. The population of short amplicons is directly sequenced and indexed using primers containing a longer 5' region and the non polymorphic portion of the cocktail portion. A 226 bp region of CytB was selected as target after collection and screening of 148 online sequences; 85 SNPs were found, of which 75 were present in at least two sequences. Primers were also designed for two shorter sub-fragments that could be amplified from highly degraded samples. The test was used on 103 samples of seafood (canned tuna and scomber, tuna salad, tuna sauce) and could successfully detect the presence of different or additional species that were not identified on the labelling of canned tuna, tuna salad and sauce samples. The described method is largely independent of the degree of degradation of DNA source and can thus be applied to processed seafood. Moreover, the method is highly flexible

  3. Growing Degree Vegetation Production Index (GDVPI): A Novel and Data-Driven Approach to Delimit Season Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, W. D.; Spruce, J.; Ross, K. W.; Gasser, J.; Grulke, N.

    2014-12-01

    Growing Degree Vegetation Production Index (GDVPI) is a parametric approach to delimiting vegetation seasonal growth and decline cycles using incremental growing degree days (GDD), and NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) 8-day composite cumulative integral data. We obtain a specific location's daily minimum and maximum temperatures from the nearest National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather stations posted on the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) Climate Data Online (CDO) archive and compute GDD. The date range for this study is January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2012. We employ a novel process, a repeating logistic product (RLP), to compensate for short-term weather variability and data drops from the recording stations and fit a curve to the median daily GDD values, adjusting for asymmetry, amplitude, and phase shift that minimize the sum of squared errors when comparing the observed and predicted GDD. The resulting curve, here referred to as the surrogate GDD, is the time-temperature phasing parameter used to convert Cartesian NDVI values into polar coordinate pairs, multiplying the NDVI values as the radial by the cosine and sine of the surrogate GDD as the angular. Depending on the vegetation type and the original NDVI curve, the polar NDVI curve may be nearly circular, kidney-shaped, or pear-shaped in the case of conifers, deciduous, or agriculture, respectively. We examine the points of tangency about the polar coordinate NDVI curve, identifying values of 1, 0, -1, or infinity, as each of these represent natural inflection points. Lines connecting the origin to each tangent point illustrate and quantify the parametrically segmentation of the growing season based on the GDD and NDVI ostensible dependency. Furthermore, the area contained by each segment represents the apparent vegetation production. A particular benefit is that the inflection points are determined

  4. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  5. Advanced oxidation protein products sensitized the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 via NADPH oxidase 1 and 4 to cause mechanical hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoting Ding

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a possible pathogenesis of hyperalgesia. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs, a new family of oxidized protein compounds, have been considered as a novel marker of oxidative stress. However, the role of AOPPs in the mechanism of hyperalgesia remains unknown. Our study aims to investigate whether AOPPs have an effect on hyperalgesia and the possible underlying mechanisms. To identify the AOPPs involved, we induced hyperalgesia in rats by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA in hindpaw. The level of plasma AOPPs in CFA-induced rats was 1.6-fold in comparison with what in normal rats (P<0.05. After intravenous injection of AOPPs-modified rat serum albumin (AOPPs-RSA in Sprague-Dawley rats, the paw mechanical thresholds, measured by the electronic von Frey system, significantly declined. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that AOPPs increased expressions of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG tissues. In-vitro studies were performed on primary DRG neurons which were obtained from both thoracic and lumbar DRG of rats. Results indicated that AOPPs triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS production in DRG neurons, which were significantly abolished by ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC and small-interfering RNA (siRNA silencing of Nox1 or Nox4. The expressions of Nox1, Nox4, TRPV1 and CGRP were significantly increased in AOPPs-induced DRG neurons. And relevant siRNA or inhibitors notably suppressed the expressions of these proteins and the calcium influxes in AOPPs-induced DRG neurons. In conclusion, AOPPs increased significantly in CFA-induced hyperalgesia rats and they activated Nox1/Nox4-ROS to sensitize TRPV1-dependent Ca2+ influx and CGRP release which led to inducing mechanical hyperalgesia.

  6. Comparison of thermodynamic and environmental indexes of natural gas, syngas and hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargigli, Silvia; Raugei, Marco; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamic efficiency and the environmental sustainability of selected processes that deliver gaseous energy carriers (natural gas, syngas from coal gasification, and hydrogen from steam reforming of natural gas and alkaline electrolysis) is explored by means of a multi-criteria, multi-scale approach based on four methods: material flow accounting, energy analysis, exergy analysis, and energy synthesis. The average energy and exergy conversion efficiencies of syngas (76% and 75%, respectively) are found to be higher than those for hydrogen (64% and 55%). However, coal-to-syngas conversion generates a significant amount of solid waste, which should be dealt with carefully. In addition, the material intensity is much higher for syngas (e.g. abiotic MI=768 g/g) than for natural gas and hydrogen (21 and 39 g/g, respectively), indicating a higher load on the environment. On the other hand, the energy intensity (transformity) for syngas (5.25x10 4 seJ/J) is shown to be lower than for hydrogen (9.66x10 4 seJ/J), indicating a lower demand for global environmental support. Therefore, material intensities and transformities offer two complementary pieces of information: transformities account for the 'memory' of the environmental resources that were used up in the past for the production of the inputs, whereas MIs are strictly calculated within the time frame of the life cycle of the investigated process. The higher transformity values calculated for pure hydrogen suggest careful and appropriate use of such an energy vector

  7. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  8. Lower Mitochondrial Energy Production of the Thigh Muscles in Patients With Low-Normal Ankle-Brachial Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Zane, Ariel; Oberdier, Matt; Canepa, Marco; Studenski, Stephanie; Simonsick, Eleanor; Spencer, Richard G; Fishbein, Kenneth; Reiter, David; Lakatta, Edward G; McDermott, Mary M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2017-08-30

    Lower muscle mitochondrial energy production may contribute to impaired walking endurance in patients with peripheral arterial disease. A borderline ankle-brachial index (ABI) of 0.91 to 1.10 is associated with poorer walking endurance compared with higher ABI. We hypothesized that in the absence of peripheral arterial disease, lower ABI is associated with lower mitochondrial energy production. We examined 363 men and women participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging with an ABI between 0.90 and 1.40. Muscle mitochondrial energy production was assessed by post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant ( k PCr) measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the left thigh. A lower post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant reflects decreased mitochondria energy production.The mean age of the participants was 71±12 years. A total of 18.4% had diabetes mellitus and 4% were current and 40% were former smokers. Compared with participants with an ABI of 1.11 to 1.40, those with an ABI of 0.90 to 1.10 had significantly lower post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant (19.3 versus 20.8 ms -1 , P =0.015). This difference remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and cholesterol levels ( P =0.028). Similarly, post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant was linearly associated with ABI as a continuous variable, both in the ABI ranges of 0.90 to 1.40 (standardized coefficient=0.15, P =0.003) and 1.1 to 1.4 (standardized coefficient=0.12, P =0.0405). An ABI of 0.90 to 1.10 is associated with lower mitochondrial energy production compared with an ABI of 1.11 to 1.40. These data demonstrate adverse associations of lower ABI values with impaired mitochondrial activity even within the range of a clinically accepted definition of a normal ABI. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions in persons with ABIs of 0.90 to 1.10 can prevent

  9. Productivity of Veterans Health Administration laboratories: a College of American Pathologists Laboratory Management Index Program (LMIP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenstein, Paul N; Wang, Edward; O'Donohue, Tom

    2003-12-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VA) operates the largest integrated laboratory network in the United States. To assess whether the unique characteristics of VA laboratories impact efficiency of operations, we compared the productivity of VA and non-VA facilities. Financial and activity data were prospectively collected from 124 VA and 131 non-VA laboratories enrolled in the College of American Pathologists Laboratory Management Index Program (LMIP) during 2002. In addition, secular trends in 5 productivity ratios were calculated for VA and non-VA laboratories enrolled in LMIP from 1997 through 2002. Veterans Health Administration and non-VA facilities did not differ significantly in size. Inpatients accounted for a lower percentage of testing at VA facilities than non-VA facilities (21.7% vs 37.3%; P benefits; P depreciation, and maintenance than their non-VA counterparts (all P <.001), resulting in lower overall cost per on-site test result (2.64 dollars vs 3.40 dollars; P <.001). Cost per referred (sent-out) test did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Analysis of 6-year trends showed significant increases in both VA (P <.001) and non-VA (P =.02) labor productivity (on-site tests/total FTE). Expenses at VA laboratories for labor per test, consumables per test, overall expense per test, and overall laboratory expense per discharge decreased significantly during the 6-year period (P <.001), while in non-VA facilities the corresponding ratios showed no significant change. Overall productivity of VA laboratories is superior to that of non-VA facilities enrolled in LMIP. The principal advantages enjoyed by the VA are higher-than-average labor productivity (tests/FTE) and lower-than-average consumable expenses.

  10. Wind erosion risk in the southwest of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, and its relationship to the productivity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silenzi, Juan C.; Echeverría, Nora E.; Vallejos, Adrián G.; Bouza, Mariana E.; De Lucia, Martín P.

    2012-01-01

    Wind erosion risk (WER) for soils of each municipality in the southwest (SW) of Buenos Aires Province (10,491,172 ha) was determined using the wind erosion equation (WEQ) model. WER results from multiplying the soil erodibility index (" I") of the soil by the climatic factor ( C). WER (Mg ha -1 year -1) of each municipality was: Bahía Blanca: 22.4, Coronel Dorrego: 18.6, Coronel Pringles: 4.5, Coronel Rosales: 48.2, Coronel Suárez: 4.5, Guaminí: 3.0, Patagones: 104.6, Puan: 12.2, Saavedra: 3.0, Tornquist: 6.8, and Villarino: 31.7. The maximum weighted average of " I" (Mg ha -1 year -1) corresponded to Coronel Rosales (87.6), Patagones (87.2), Villarino (85.7), Puan (67.9); Guaminí (59.6), Coronel Dorrego (53.1), and Bahía Blanca (39.3); the remaining municipalities ranged between 34.9 and 32.1 Mg ha -1 year -1. The highest C (%) corresponded to Patagones (120), Bahía Blanca (57), Coronel Rosales (55), Villarino (37), Coronel Dorrego (35), Tornquist (21), and Puan (18); for the remaining municipalities it was 14%. The productivity index (PI) is known to establish a numerical value of the productive capacity of lands. The relationship between WER and PI, weighted averages, in all the studied municipalities was fitted by means of a linear model, WER (Mg ha -1 year -1) = 95.23 - 2.09 * PI (%) ( R2 = 66%), and a second-order polynomial model, WER (Mg ha -1 year -1) = 139.41 - 5.86 * PI (%) + 0.07 * PI 2 (%) ( R2 = 74%). No statistically significant relationship was found between WER and PI for each municipality.

  11. [Peruvian scientific production in medicine and collaboration networks, analysis of the Science Citation Index 2000-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2010-09-01

    To describe the Peruvian scientific production in indexed journals in the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and the characteristics of the institutional collaborative networks. All papers published in the ISI database (Clinical Medicine collection) were included during 2000 to 2009 with at least one author with a Peruvian affiliation. The publication trend, address of corresponding author, type of article, institution, city (only for Peru), and country were evaluated. The collaborative networks were analized using the Pajek® software. 1210 papers were found, increasing from 61 in 2000 to 200 in 2009 (average of 121 articles/year). 30.4% articles included a corresponding author from a Peruvian institution. The average of authors per article was 8.3. Original articles represented 82.1% of total articles. Infectious diseases-related journals concentrated most of the articles. The main countries that collaborate with Peru are: USA (60.4%), England (12.9%), and Brazil (8.0%). Lima concentrated 94.7% of the publications and three regions (Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna) did not register any publication. Only two universities published more than one article/year and four institutions published more than 10 articles/year. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia published 45% of the total number of articles, being the most productive institution and which concentrated the most number of collaborations with foreign institutions. The ministry of Health--including all dependencies--published 37.3% of the total number of publications. There is a higher level of collaboration with foreign institutions rather than local institutions. The Peruvian scientific production in medicine represented in the ISI database is very low but growing, and is concentrated in Lima and in a few institutions. The most productive Peruvian institutions collaborate more intensively with foreign journals rather than local institutions.

  12. Evaluation of cochlear function in normal-hearing young adults exposed to MP3 player noise by analyzing transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaolalla Montoya, Francisco; Ibargüen, Agustín Martinez; Vences, Ana Rodriguez; del Rey, Ana Sanchez; Fernandez, Jose Maria Sanchez

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to recreational noise may cause injuries to the inner ear, and transient evoked (TEOAEs) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) may identify these cochlear alterations. The goal of this study was to evaluate TEOAEs and DPOAEs as a method to diagnose early cochlear alterations in young adults exposed to MP3 player noise. We performed a prospective study of the cochlear function in normal-hearing MP3 player users by analyzing TEOAE and DPOAE incidence, amplitude, and spectral content. We gathered a sample of 40 ears from patients between 19 and 29 years old (mean age 24.09 years, SD 3.9 years). We compared the results with those of a control group of 232 ears not exposed to MP3 noise from patients aged 18 to 32 years (mean age 23.35 years, SD 2.7 years). Fifty percent of ears were from females and 50% were from males. Subjects who had used MP3 players for most years and for more hours each week exhibited a reduction in TEOAE and DPOAE incidence and amplitudes and an increase in DPOAE thresholds. TEOAEs showed a statistically significant lower incidence and amplitudes for normal-hearing subjects using MP3 players at frequencies of 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz. DPOAE incidence was lower at 700, 1000, 1500, and 2000 Hz; the amplitudes were lower at frequencies between 1500 and 6000 Hz; and the thresholds were higher for all frequency bands, statistically significant at frequencies from 1500 to 6000 Hz, p MP3 player noise exposure may be detectable by analyzing TEOAEs and DPOAEs before the impairment becomes clinically apparent.

  13. Associations between high prepregnancy body mass index, breast-milk expression, and breast-milk production and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Geraghty, Sheela R; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2011-03-01

    Breast-milk expression is widely practiced by American mothers, but little is known about who expresses milk, how expression affects breastfeeding, or whether overweight or obese women, who have less breastfeeding success than do normal-weight women, express milk differently. We investigated 1) whether breast-milk expression behavior differed by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) category and 2) whether the different breastfeeding behaviors of overweight (BMI: ≥25 and obese (BMI: ≥30) women resulted in different breastfeeding outcomes. The subjects (n = 2288) provided information on BMI and breast-milk production, feeding, and expression in mail-in questionnaires as part of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Longitudinal and cross-sectional data were analyzed by using regression procedures adjusted for confounding. Women of different BMI categories overall did not differ in whether, when, or why they expressed breast milk. Before 2 mo postpartum, however, obese women were more likely (P = 0.04, unadjusted) to try milk expression and were less likely (P = 0.01, unadjusted) to express milk successfully. In addition, overweight or obesity was associated (P milk production only in women who never expressed milk. In overweight or obese women, those who ever expressed milk had longer durations of breastfeeding (P milk. Breast-milk expression behaviors may differ by maternal BMI category only in the early postpartum period. In addition, breast-milk expression may reduce differences between BMI categories in the duration of breastfeeding and support longer durations of breastfeeding.

  14. Applying the energy productivity index that considers maximized energy reduction on SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Under the trend of global energy prices continuously going up, this paper considers the concept of maximized energy reduction to model the energy productivity index by decomposing it into energy technical change and energy efficiency change. The paper takes the eight SADC (Southern Africa Development Community ) members as an example to estimate their energy efficiency, energy productivity change, energy technical change, energy efficiency change, and rebound effect on energy use, as well as to test the Jevons Paradox. The time period of the data spans 2005 to 2009. The empirical result shows large energy performance differences among the eight SADC members. Not one country among the eight members is an energy technology innovator. After calculating the rebound effect and testing the Jevons Paradox, the result shows that there seems to be no obvious Jevons Paradox in this economic region. - Highlights: • This paper discusses the concept of maximized energy reduction. • The method is applied towards the Southern Africa Development Community members. • This paper also investigates the rebound effect of energy use. • We offer suggestions on energy use and CO 2 emission reductions.

  15. Bibliometric Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine Scientific Production between 1982 and 2016 Indexed in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consentino, Ricardo; Santos, Maria João; Matos, Luís Carlos; Machado, Jorge Pereira

    2018-05-03

    Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be understood as a system of sensations and findings designed to establish the functional vegetative state of the body. This state may be treated by several therapeutic methods such as acupuncture, Chinese pharmacotherapy, dietetics, Tuina , and Qigong . Nowadays, as a result of several evidence-based reported beneficial effects over specific pathological conditions, there is an increasing tendency to integrate some of these practices in Western medicine. The main goal of this study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of TCM scientific production between 1982 and 2016 indexed in PubMed, by analyzing several parameters including time and location distribution, publication quality, experimental design, and treatment methods. Methods: The methodology was based on the quantitative inventory of published scientific research indexed in PubMed medical subject headings (MeSH), sorted within the broad term “Traditional Chinese Medicine” and integrating the following criteria as limit filters: “Species: Humans”, “Article Type: Clinical Trial”. In addition, the articles’ triage was ruled by temporal limitations set between 1945 and 2016. Results: The overall analysis of data allowed observation of an average annual growth of approximately 33%, with a productive peak of 122 articles in 2007. The scientific production was distributed in 27 countries, led by China (76.1%), followed by the United States of America (3.0%) and South Korea (2.1%). A significant amount of references were published in Chinese journals: more than 50%; however, these journals had a low impact factor. The most cited treatments in the keywords section of the articles were phytotherapy (55%) and acupuncture (40%). Conclusion: The increasing demand for TCM seems to be due to factors such as lower side effects and greater efficacy in some patients not responding well to conventional therapy. As a result, a considerable amount of TCM science

  16. Customer Satisfaction Index Model on Three Level Of Socioeconomic Status In Bogor Case Study: Customer Satisfaction on Branded Cooking Oil Product

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Setiawan

    2014-01-01

    Customer satisfaction index models have been developed in many countries, including Indonesia. Those models were commonly not focused on the socioeconomic status (SES) of the customer, sothis condition could be a research gap. The aims of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction index model of branded cooking oil product in Bogor, Indonesia based on SES established from the household monthly routine consumption. Questionnaires were used as primary data collection instrument in th...

  17. The "lipid accumulation product" performs better than the body mass index for recognizing cardiovascular risk: a population-based comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Henry S

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 may not be the best marker for estimating the risk of obesity-related disease. Consistent with physiologic observations, an alternative index uses waist circumference (WC and fasting triglycerides (TG concentration to describe lipid overaccumulation. Methods The WC (estimated population minimum 65 cm for men and 58 cm for women and TG concentration from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 9,180, statistically weighted to represent 100.05 million US adults were used to compute a "lipid accumulation product" [LAP = (WC-65 × TG for men and (WC-58 × TG for women] and to describe the population distribution of LAP. LAP and BMI were compared as categorical variables and as log-transformed continuous variables for their ability to identify adverse levels of 11 cardiovascular risk factors. Results Nearly half of the represented population was discordant for their quartile assignments to LAP and BMI. When 23.54 million with ordinal LAP quartile > BMI quartile were compared with 25.36 million with ordinal BMI quartile > LAP quartile (regression models adjusted for race-ethnicity and sex the former had more adverse risk levels than the latter (p 0.1. As continuous variables, LAP provided a consistently more adverse beta coefficient (slope than BMI for nine cardiovascular risk variables (p 0.2. Conclusion LAP (describing lipid overaccumulation performed better than BMI (describing weight overaccumulation for identifying US adults at cardiovascular risk. Compared to BMI, LAP might better predict the incidence of cardiovascular disease, but this hypothesis needs prospective testing.

  18. RFSP simulations of Darlington FINCH refuelling transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, E.V.; Chow, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Immediately after refuelling of a channel, the fresh bundles are free of fission products. Xenon-135, the most notable of the saturating fission products, builds up to an equilibrium level in about 30 h. The channel power of the refuelled channel would therefore initially peak and then drop to a steady-state level. The RFSP code can track saturating-fission-product transients and power transients. The Fully INstrumented CHannels (FINCHs) in Darlington NGS provides channel power data on the refuelling power transients. In this paper, such data has been used to identify the physical evidence of the fission-product transient effect on channel power, and to validate RFSP fission-product-driver calculation results. (author)

  19. Transient drainage summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage

  20. PSH Transient Simulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-21

    PSH Transient Simulation Modeling presentation from the WPTO FY14 - FY16 Peer Review. Transient effects are an important consideration when designing a PSH system, yet numerical techniques for hydraulic transient analysis still need improvements for adjustable-speed (AS) reversible pump-turbine applications.

  1. Adiposity indicators lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as alternate criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic obesity in adult

    OpenAIRE

    Mariya Tabassum; Md. Matiur Rahman; Miliva Mozaffor

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic obesity refers to the state of having metabolic syndrome irrespective of one’s BMI. This study was aimed to elucidate the lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as simple and alternate criteria for the detecting metabolic obesity in adult. The study was conducted in 200 adult (age range: 19-45 years). According to lipid accumulation product and Triglyceride-glucose index, the prevalence of metabolic obesity was 54.0% and 53.5% respectively. With a cutoff value of ...

  2. Rapid Scientific Promotion of Scientific Productions in Stem Cells According to The Indexed Papers in The ISI (web of knowledge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijani, Rahim

    2015-01-01

    In recent years emphasis has been placed on evaluation studies and the publication of scientific papers in national and international journals. In this regard the publication of scientific papers in journals in the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database is highly recommended. The evaluation of scientific output via articles in journals indexed in the ISI database will enable the Iranian research authorities to allocate and organize research budgets and human resources in a way that maximises efficient science production. The purpose of the present paper is to publish a general and valid view of science production in the field of stem cells. In this research, outputs in the field of stem cell research are evaluated by survey research, the method of science assessment called Scientometrics in this branch of science. A total of 1528 documents was extracted from the ISI database and analysed using descriptive statistics software in Excel. The results of this research showed that 1528 papers in the stem cell field in the Web of Knowledge database were produced by Iranian researchers. The top ten Iranian researchers in this field have produced 936 of these papers, equivalent to 61.3% of the total. Among the top ten, Soleimani M. has occupied the first place with 181 papers. Regarding international scientific participation, Iranian researchers have cooperated to publish papers with researchers from 50 countries. Nearly 32% (452 papers) of the total research output in this field has been published in the top 10 journals. These results show that a small number of researchers have published the majority of papers in the stem cell field. International participation in this field of research unacceptably low. Such participation provides the opportunity to import modern science and international experience into Iran. This not only causes scientific growth, but also improves the research and enhances opportunities for employment and professional development. Iranian

  3. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  4. Comparison of African American Children's Performances on a Minimal Competence Core for Morphosyntax and the Index of Productive Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Ida J; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L; Swartzlander, Elaina; Morris, Lekeitha R

    2016-02-01

    This study is a response to the need for evidence-based measures of spontaneous oral language to assess African American children under the age of 4 years. We determined if pass/fail status on a minimal competence core for morphosyntax (MCC-MS) was more highly related to scores on the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn)-the measure of convergent criterion validity-than to scores on 3 measures of divergent validity: number of different words (Watkins, Kelly, Harbers, & Hollis, 1995), Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised (Shriberg, Austin, Lewis, McSweeney, & Wilson, 1997), and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Roid & Miller, 1997). Archival language samples for 68 African American 3-year-olds were analyzed to determine MCC-MS pass/fail status and the scores on measures of convergent and divergent validity. Higher IPSyn scores were observed for 60 children who passed the MCC-MS than for 8 children who did not. A significant positive correlation, rpb = .73, between MCC-MS pass/fail status and IPSyn scores was observed. This coefficient was higher than MCC-MS correlations with measures of divergent validity: rpb = .13 (Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised), rpb = .42 (number of different words in 100 utterances), and rpb = .46 (Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised). The MCC-MS has convergent criterion validity with the IPSyn. Although more research is warranted, both measures can be potentially used in oral language assessments of African American 3-year-olds.

  5. [Scientific production and cancer-related collaboration networks in Peru 2000-2011: a bibliometric study in Scopus and Science Citation Index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Huamaní, Charles; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Samanez-Figari, César; González-Alcaide, Gregorio

    2013-03-01

    A bibliometric study was carried out to describe the scientific production on cancer written by Peruvians and published in international health journals, as well as to assess the scientific collaboration networks. It included articles on cancer written in Peru between the years 2000 and 2011 and published in health journals indexed in SCOPUS or Science Citation Index Expanded. In the 358 articles identified, an increase in the production was seen, from 4 articles in 2000 to 57 in 2011.The most studied types were cervical cancer (77 publications); breast cancer (53), and gastric cancer (37). The National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN) was the most productive institution (121 articles) and had the highest number of collaborations (180 different institutions). 52 clinical trials were identified, 29 of which had at least one author from INEN. We can conclude that, cancer research is increasing in Peru, the INEN being the most productive institution, with an important participation in clinical trials.

  6. Simulation of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aerosol index using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System aerosol reanalysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Gassó, Santiago; Ahn, Changwoo; Buchard, Virginie; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Torres, Omar

    2017-11-01

    We provide an analysis of the commonly used Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) product for qualitative detection of the presence and loading of absorbing aerosols. In our analysis, simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances are produced at the OMI footprints from a model atmosphere and aerosol profile provided by the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications aerosol reanalysis (MERRAero). Having established the credibility of the MERRAero simulation of the OMI AI in a previous paper we describe updates in the approach and aerosol optical property assumptions. The OMI TOA radiances are computed in cloud-free conditions from the MERRAero atmospheric state, and the AI is calculated. The simulated TOA radiances are fed to the OMI near-UV aerosol retrieval algorithms (known as OMAERUV) is compared to the MERRAero calculated AI. Two main sources of discrepancy are discussed: one pertaining to the OMI algorithm assumptions of the surface pressure, which are generally different from what the actual surface pressure of an observation is, and the other related to simplifying assumptions in the molecular atmosphere radiative transfer used in the OMI algorithms. Surface pressure assumptions lead to systematic biases in the OMAERUV AI, particularly over the oceans. Simplifications in the molecular radiative transfer lead to biases particularly in regions of topography intermediate to surface pressures of 600 and 1013.25 hPa. Generally, the errors in the OMI AI due to these considerations are less than 0.2 in magnitude, though larger errors are possible, particularly over land. We recommend that future versions of the OMI algorithms use surface pressures from readily available atmospheric analyses combined with high-spatial-resolution topographic maps and include more surface pressure nodal points in their radiative transfer lookup tables.

  7. TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0169 TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION Dr. Burhan Bayraktaroglu Devices for Sensing Branch Aerospace Components & Subsystems...SUBTITLE TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Burhan...88ABW-2017-3747, Clearance Date 31 July 2017. Paper contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Transient electronics is an emerging technology area that lacks proper

  8. The predictive effect of inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product index on clinical symptoms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Esra Nur; Yalcin, Serenat Eris; Dugan, Nadiye

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study is to analyse the inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with age and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls and to determine whether the investigated parameters are potential markers for the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. We also aim to determine whether these inflammatory markers are predictive for developing some clinical implications, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance (IR), associated with PCOS. A total of 34 adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS, and 33 age and BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited for our study. All participants were nonobese (BMIpredictive effect of investigated inflammatory markers and LAP index on CVD risk among PCOS patients after adjustment for abdominal obesity. We also found a positive predictive effect of WBC and a negative predictive effect of lymphocytes on IR in PCOS patients after adjustment for abdominal obesity. We did not find any predictor effect of NEO on IR, but it was a positive predictive marker for an elevated HOMA-IR index. Elevated NEO, CRP levels and LAP index could have potential roles in the etiopathogenesis of PCOS in nonobese adolescents and younger aged females,NEO could be a predictive marker for elevated HOMA-IR index, and WBC and lymphocytes could be predictive for the development of IR among nonobese adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Neutron-induced interactions: index of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, M.H.; Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-01-01

    Indexes to the neutron-induced interaction data in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976 are tabulated. The tabulation has two arrangements: isotope (ZA) order and reaction-number order

  10. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Neutron-induced interactions: index of experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, M.H.; Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-07-04

    Indexes to the neutron-induced interaction data in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976 are tabulated. The tabulation has two arrangements: isotope (ZA) order and reaction-number order.

  11. Production physiology and morphology of Populus species and their hybrids grown under short rotation. II. Biomass components and harvest index of hybrid and parental species clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. E. [Univ. of Tuscia, Viterbo, (Italy); Ceulemans, R. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium); Heilman, P. E. [Washington State Univ., Olympia, WA (United States); Isebrands, J. G.; Stettler, R. F.; Hinckley, T. M. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1997-03-01

    Growth and biomass components of four poplar clones were studied during four consecutive years of short-rotation culture in western Washington, U.S.A. Results confirmed previous observations indicating the high productive potential of hybrid clones. In two of the hybrid clones tested, large differences in biomass distribution among tree components and in the pattern of growth were evident, as indicated by harvest index and root/shoot ratios. Results suggest that the clonal differences shown in total biomass, in allocation to different tree components, and in harvest index, have important implications for future poplar breeding programs. 39 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Production Efficiency of Cocoon Shell of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae: Lepidoptera, as an Index for Evaluating the Nutritive Value of Mulberry, Morus sp. (Moraceae, Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaja Suresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional efficiency of mulberry leaves consumed by silkworms, Bombyx mori L., is usually evaluated in terms of the proportion of cocoon shell weight to the amount of food ingested. The production efficiency of cocoon shell is generally used to identify the superiority of a mulberry variety for silkworm rearing. In this study the production efficiency of cocoon shell was used as an index for evaluating the nutritive value of different mulberry varieties of India. Among the varieties, V-1, having highest production efficiency of cocoon shell with less amount of food ingested and highest digestibility, is regarded as the best suitable variety with nutritive values ideal for silkworm rearing.

  13. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI: A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verslycke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener” products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green” in the absence of a universally accepted definition. We recently developed the Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI which is ultimately intended to be a globally implementable tool that comprehensively scores and ranks hazards to human health, safety, and the environment for products used in oil and gas operations. CSI scores are assigned to products designed for the same use (e.g., surfactants, catalysts on the basis of product composition as well as intrinsic hazard properties and data availability for each product component. As such, products with a lower CSI score within a product use group are considered to have a lower intrinsic hazard compared to other products within the same use group. The CSI provides a powerful tool to evaluate relative product hazards; to review and assess product portfolios; and to aid in the formulation of products.

  14. Integrating Chlorophyll fapar and Nadir Photochemical Reflectance Index from EO-1/Hyperion to Predict Cornfield Daily Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Kustas, William P.; Russ, Andrew L.; Prueger, John H.; Yao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The concept of light use efficiency (Epsilon) and the concept of fraction of photosynthetically active ration (PAR) absorbed for vegetation photosynthesis (PSN), i.e., fAPAR (sub PSN), have been widely utilized to estimate vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). It has been demonstrated that the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is empirically related to e. An experimental US Department of Agriculture (USDA) cornfield in Maryland was selected as our study field. We explored the potential of integrating fAPAR(sub chl) (defined as the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll) and nadir PRI (PRI(sub nadir)) to predict cornfield daily GPP. We acquired nadir or near-nadir EO-1/Hyperion satellite images that covered the cornfield and took nadir in-situ field spectral measurements. Those data were used to derive the PRI(sub nadir) and fAPAR (sub chl). The fAPAR (sub chl) is retrieved with the advanced radiative transfer model PROSAIL2 and the Metropolis approach, a type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation procedure. We define chlorophyll light use efficiency Epsilon (sub chl) as the ratio of vegetation GPP as measured by eddy covariance techniques to PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (Epsilon(sub chl) = GPP/APAR (sub chl). Daily Epsilon (sub chl) retrieved with the EO-1 Hyperion images was regressed with a linear equation of PRI (sub nadir) Epsilon (sub chl) = Alpha × PRI (sub nadir) + Beta). The satellite Epsilon(sub chl- PRI (sub nadir) linear relationship for the cornfield was implemented to develop an integrated daily GPP model [GPP = (Alpha × PRI(sub nadir) + Beta) × fAPAR (sub chl) × PAR], which was evaluated with fAPAR (sub chl) and PRI (sub nadir) retrieved from field measurements. Daily GPP estimated with this fAPAR (sub chl-) PRI (nadir) integration model was strongly correlated with the observed tower in-situ daily GPP (R(sup 2) = 0.93); with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.71 g C mol-(sup -1) PPFD and coefficient of variation (CV) of 16

  15. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  16. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  17. Research Productivity and Rankings of Anesthesiology Departments in Canada and the United States: The Relationship Between the h-Index and Other Common Metrics [RETRACTED].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Alexandra C; Alavifard, Sepand; Walker, Benjamin; Miller, Donald R; Ramsay, Tim; Boet, Sylvain

    2018-03-05

    To evaluate the relative research productivity and ranking of anesthesiology departments in Canada and the United States, using the Hirsch index (h-index) and 4 other previously validated metrics. We identified 150 anesthesiology departments in Canada and the United States with an accredited residency program. Publications for each of the 150 departments were identified using Thomson's Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science, and the citation report for each department was exported. The bibliometric data were used to calculate publication metrics for 3 time periods: cumulative (1945-2014), 10 years (2005-2014), and 5 years (2010-2014). The following group metrics were then used to determine the publication impact and relative ranking of all 150 departments: h-index, m-index, total number of publications, sum of citations, and average number of citations per article. Ranking for each metric were also stratified by using a proxy for departmental size. The most common journals in which US and Canadian anesthesiology departments publish their work were identified. The majority (23 of the top 25) of top-ranked anesthesiology departments are in the United States, and 2 of the top 25 departments (University of Toronto; McGill University) are in Canada. There was a strong positive relationship between each of h-index, total number of publications, and the sum of citations (0.91-0.97; P productivity on most metrics. The most frequent journals in which US and Canadian anesthesiology departments publish are Anesthesiology, Anesthesia and Analgesia, and the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. Our study ranked the Canadian and US anesthesiology departmental research productivity using the h-index applied to each department, total number of publications, total number of citations, and average number of citations. The strong relationship between the h-index and both the number of publications and number of citations of anesthesiology departments shows that the departments

  18. Process of irradiating an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer to produce low melt index copolymers, and products of said process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Application of ionizing radiation in a dose between 0.5 and 1.5 megareps to copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate lowers the melt index and increases the toughness and flexibility of the copolymers without substantially decreasing solubility or thermoplasticity. The increased toughness and flexibility carries over into blends with wax or polyethylene. (author)

  19. Scholarly Productivity of Social Work Faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Are h-Index Scores a Suitable Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Isiah, Jr.; Smith, Belinda Davis; Green, Makeba T.; Anderson, Brian; Harry, Sonja V.; Byrd, Yolanda M.; Pratt-Harris, Natasha C.; Bolden, Errol S.; Hill, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Faculty scholarship at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) has in the past served as a blueprint for the Black masses. Even today, HBCU faculty scholarship continues to be an informative source to communicate accurate information regarding marginalized groups. This study examines h-index scores of 65 faculty members at five…

  20. Indicators and Methods for Evaluating Economic, Ecosystem and Social Services Provisioning: A Human Well-being Index (HWBI) Research Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) is a composite measure that incorporates economic, environmental, and societal well-being elements through the eight domains of connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and securit...

  1. Work productivity among adults with varied Body Mass Index: Results from a Canadian population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Sanchez Bustillos

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: This study found that obesity is an independent risk factor for reduced work productivity. Both absenteeism and presenteeism were associated with obesity. However, being overweight was weakly associated with work productivity.

  2. 30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to consider include prices received in spot sales of gas, residue gas or gas plant products, other... part, or timely, for a quantity of gas, residue gas, or gas plant product. (j) Non-binding MMS reviews..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas § 206.174 How do I value...

  3. Summary of transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews the papers on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) transient analyses given at the American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors. Most of the papers were based on the systems calculations performed using the TRAC-PWR, RELAP5 and RETRAN codes. The status of the nuclear industry in the code applications area is discussed. It is concluded that even though comprehensive computer codes are available for plant transient analysis, there is still a need to exercise engineering judgment, simpler tools and even hand calculations to supplement these codes

  4. Efficiency and Productivity of County-level Public Hospitals Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis Model and Malmquist Index in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian-Nian; Wang, Cun-Hui; Ni, Hong; Wang, Heng

    2017-12-05

    China began to implement the national medical and health system and public hospital reforms in 2009 and 2012, respectively. Anhui Province is one of the four pilot provinces, and the medical reform measures received wide attention nationwide. The effectiveness of the above reform needs to get attention. This study aimed to master the efficiency and productivity of county-level public hospitals based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model and Malmquist index in Anhui, China, and then provide improvement measures for the future hospital development. We chose 12 country-level hospitals based on geographical distribution and the economic development level in Anhui Province. Relevant data that were collected in the field and then sorted were provided by the administrative departments of the hospitals. DEA models were used to calculate the dynamic efficiency and Malmquist index factors for the 12 institutions. During 2010-2015, the overall average relative service efficiency of 12 county-level public hospitals was 0.926, and the number of hospitals achieved an effective DEA for each year from 2010 to 2015 was 4, 6, 7, 7, 6, and 8, respectively, as measured using DEA. During this same period, the average overall production efficiency was 0.983, and the total productivity factor had declined. The overall production efficiency of five hospitals was >1, and the rest are productivity has not been effectively improved. County-level public hospitals need to combine their own reality to find their own deficiencies.

  5. PWR systems transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.F.; Peeler, G.B.; Abramson, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of transients in pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems involves the assessment of the response of the total plant, including primary and secondary coolant systems, steam piping and turbine (possibly including the complete feedwater train), and various control and safety systems. Transient analysis is performed as part of the plant safety analysis to insure the adequacy of the reactor design and operating procedures and to verify the applicable plant emergency guidelines. Event sequences which must be examined are developed by considering possible failures or maloperations of plant components. These vary in severity (and calculational difficulty) from a series of normal operational transients, such as minor load changes, reactor trips, valve and pump malfunctions, up to the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary reactor coolant system pipe known as a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA). The focus of this paper is the analysis of all those transients and accidents except loss of coolant accidents

  6. Transients: The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Speis, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to clarify the basis for the regulator's concerns for transient events. Transients are defined as both anticipated operational occurrences and postulated accidents. Recent operational experience, supplemented by improved probabilistic risk analysis methods, has demonstrated that non-LOCA transient events can be significant contributors to overall risk. Topics considered include lessons learned from events and issues, the regulations governing plant transients, multiple failures, different failure frequencies, operator errors, and public pressure. It is concluded that the formation of Owners Groups and Regulatory Response Groups within the owners groups are positive signs of the industry's concern for safety and responsible dealing with the issues affecting both the US NRC and the industry

  7. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Felipe Elli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú, five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1, and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, SPAD index, leaf area index (LAI, Global Radiation Interception (GRI and grain yield. The Tukey test (p < 0.05 was used for the comparison between the means of cultivar and growth reducer factors, and for a regression analysis to evaluate N levels. Increasing the dose of nitrogen promotes an increase in LAI of plants of wheat crops differently among cultivars, which leads to a greater degree of global radiation interception. At doses higher or equal to 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, there are significant differences in grain yield between treatments with and without the application of the growth reducer. The significant interaction between growth reducer and nitrogen dose, showed that applications of growth reducer increase the GRI at doses above and below 80 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Nitrogen rates of 138 and 109 Kg ha-1 are responsible for maximum grain yields of wheat, which is 4235 and 3787 Kg ha-1 with and without the use of growth reducer, respectively.

  8. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon. The influence of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on biogeochemistry of carbon in the Arabian Sea during. 1997–1998. 433 ... Coupled equations for transient water flow, heat flow, ... Penang Island, Malaysia. 661 .... Methane emission.

  9. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  10. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús G. Arámburo-Gálvez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-free (SF, sugar-reduced (SR, or low-glycemic-index (low GI cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016. The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p < 0.001 and by product categories (53.57% versus 26.92%, respectively; p < 0.001. Five categories of products labeled as SF, SR, and low GI (oats, cookies and crackers, flours, snacks, and tostadas/totopos had higher prices than their conventional counterparts (p < 0.05. In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  11. The economic impact of reactor transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.; Vine, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the cost estimation of transients and the causal relationship between transients and accidents. It is suggested that the calculation of the actual cost of a transient that has occurred is impossible without computerized records. Six months of operating experience reports, based on a survey of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs) conducted by the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC), are analyzed. The significant costs of a reactor transient are the repair costs resulting from severe damage to plant equipment, the cost of scrams (the actions the system is designed to take to avoid safety risks), US NRC fines, negative publicity, utility rates and revenues. It is estimated that the Three Mile Island-2 accident cost the US over $100 billion in nuclear plant delays and cancellations, more expensive fuel, oil imports, backfits, bureaucratic, administrative and legal costs, and lost productivity

  12. Estimating the risk of cyanobacterial occurrence using an index integrating meteorological factors: application to drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Mouhamed; Bird, David; Nguyen-Quang, Tri; de Boutray, Marie-Laure; Zamyadi, Arash; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Lemaire, Bruno J; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    The sudden appearance of toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms is still largely unpredictable in waters worldwide. Many post-hoc explanations for CB bloom occurrence relating to physical and biochemical conditions in lakes have been developed. As potentially toxic CB can accumulate in drinking water treatment plants and disrupt water treatment, there is a need for water treatment operators to determine whether conditions are favourable for the proliferation and accumulation of CB in source waters in order to adjust drinking water treatment accordingly. Thus, a new methodology with locally adaptable variables is proposed in order to have a single index, f(p), related to various environmental factors such as temperature, wind speed and direction. The index is used in conjunction with real time monitoring data to determine the probability of CB occurrence in relation to meteorological factors, and was tested at a drinking water intake in Missisquoi Bay, a shallow transboundary bay in Lake Champlain, Québec, Canada. These environmental factors alone were able to explain a maximum probability of 68% that a CB bloom would occur at the drinking water treatment plant. Nutrient limitation also influences CB blooms and intense blooms only occurred when the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total phosphorus (TP) mass ratio was below 3. Additional monitoring of DIN and TP could be considered for these source waters prone to cyanobacterial blooms to determine periods of favourable growth. Real time monitoring and the use of the index could permit an adequate and timely response to CB blooms in drinking water sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis Felipe Elli; Braulio Otomar Caron; Sandro Luis Petter Medeiros; Elder Eloy; Gean Charles Monteiro; Denise Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú), five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1), and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteri...

  14. Customer Satisfaction Index Model on Three Level Of Socioeconomic Status In Bogor Case Study: Customer Satisfaction on Branded Cooking Oil Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction index models have been developed in many countries, including Indonesia. Those models were commonly not focused on the socioeconomic status (SES of the customer, sothis condition could be a research gap. The aims of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction index model of branded cooking oil product in Bogor, Indonesia based on SES established from the household monthly routine consumption. Questionnaires were used as primary data collection instrument in this study, while data analysis was carried out with variance based structural equation modeling (SEM which is also known as Partial Least Square (PLS model, and Kruskall Wallis nonparametric test. Perceived quality, perceived value and customer expectation as were significantly influencing the customer satisfaction construct in the structural model. This study also concluded that there is different level of overall customer satisfaction on the three levels of customer’s SES

  15. The lipid accumulation product as a useful index for identifying abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J-Y; Sung, Y-A; Lee, H J

    2013-04-01

    The lipid accumulation product, a combination of waist circumference and triglycerides concentration, has been suggested as a better marker for abnormal glucose regulation than BMI. We aimed to compare the lipid accumulation product and BMI as useful markers for abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women. The lipid accumulation product was calculated using the formula [waist circumference (cm) - 58] × triglycerides (mmol/l). Glucose tolerance status was determined using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 2810 Korean women aged 18-39 years from the general population. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation was 6.8% (isolated impaired fasting glucose 1.8%, isolated impaired glucose tolerance 4.0%; impaired fasting glucose + impaired glucose tolerance 0.4% and diabetes mellitus 0.6%). According to the quintile distributions of the lipid accumulation product and BMI, women with a lipid accumulation product quintile greater than their BMI quintile exhibited significantly greater areas under the curve and higher levels of 2-h post-load glucose, insulin, homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance and lipid profiles than did women with a BMI quintile greater than their lipid accumulation product quintile. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the lipid accumulation product exhibited a higher odds ratio for abnormal glucose regulation than did BMI after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, previous history of gestational diabetes and family history of diabetes (odds ratios 3.5 and 2.6 of the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of lipid accumulation product and BMI, respectively). The lipid accumulation product could be useful for identifying the young Korean women with abnormal glucose regulation. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  16. A methodology to determine the level of automation to improve the production process and reduce the ergonomics index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Amaya, Alejandro; Anaya-Pérez, María Elena; Benítez-Baltazar, Víctor Hugo

    2017-08-01

    Companies are constantly looking for improvements in productivity to increase their competitiveness. The use of automation technologies is a tool that have been proven to be effective to achieve this. There are companies that are not familiar with the process to acquire automation technologies, therefore, they abstain from investments and thereby miss the opportunity to take advantage of it. The present document proposes a methodology to determine the level of automation appropriate for the production process and thus minimize automation and improve production taking in consideration the ergonomics factor.

  17. MATHEMATICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE WELL PRODUCTIVITY INDEX FOR FAST FORCHHEIMER (NON-DARCY) FLOWS IN POROUS MEDIA

    KAUST Repository

    AULISA, EUGENIO; IBRAGIMOV, AKIF; VALKO, PETER; WALTON, JAY

    2009-01-01

    This IBVP described laminar (linear) Darcy flow in porous media; the considered boundary conditions corresponded to different regimes of the well production. The diffusive capacities were then computed as steady state invariants of the solutions

  18. Calculation of the surface water pollution index in the evaluation of environmental component of product life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Аскольдович Проскурнин

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment feasibility of the combined effect of the product life cycle on the environment is grounded. As an example, the pollution of surface waters at the production stage is considered in the article. A mechanism of ranking indicators of surface water pollution according to their importance is proposed. An algorithm for checking the consistency of the statistical expert judgment in determining weight coefficient for the indicators of pollution, based on the use of the concordance coefficient, is given

  19. Transient flow combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Non-steady combustion problems can result from engine sources such as accelerations, decelerations, nozzle adjustments, augmentor ignition, and air perturbations into and out of the compressor. Also non-steady combustion can be generated internally from combustion instability or self-induced oscillations. A premixed-prevaporized combustor would be particularly sensitive to flow transients because of its susceptability to flashback-autoignition and blowout. An experimental program, the Transient Flow Combustion Study is in progress to study the effects of air and fuel flow transients on a premixed-prevaporized combustor. Preliminary tests performed at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, a reference velocity of 30 m/s, and a pressure of 700 kPa. The airflow was reduced to 1/3 of its original value in a 40 ms ramp before flashback occurred. Ramping the airflow up has shown that blowout is more sensitive than flashback to flow transients. Blowout occurred with a 25 percent increase in airflow (at a constant fuel-air ratio) in a 20 ms ramp. Combustion resonance was found at some conditions and may be important in determining the effects of flow transients.

  20. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámburo-Gálvez, Jesús G; Ontiveros, Noé; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Gracia-Valenzuela, Martina H; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2017-12-18

    Sugar-free (SF), sugar-reduced (SR), or low-glycemic-index (low GI) cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016). The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p snacks, and tostadas/totopos) had higher prices than their conventional counterparts ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  1. Nontargeted, Rapid Screening of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Products for Authenticity Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Combination with Conformity Index and Multivariate Statistical Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Kia, Ali-Reza Fardin; Srigley, Cynthia; Chung, Jin Kyu; Mossoba, Magdi M

    2016-10-01

    A rapid tool for evaluating authenticity was developed and applied to the screening of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) retail products by using Fourier-transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in combination with univariate and multivariate data analysis methods. Using disposable glass tubes, spectra for 62 reference EVOO, 10 edible oil adulterants, 20 blends consisting of EVOO spiked with adulterants, 88 retail EVOO products and other test samples were rapidly measured in the transmission mode without any sample preparation. The univariate conformity index (CI) and the multivariate supervised soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification tool were used to analyze the various olive oil products which were tested for authenticity against a library of reference EVOO. Better discrimination between the authentic EVOO and some commercial EVOO products was observed with SIMCA than with CI analysis. Approximately 61% of all EVOO commercial products were flagged by SIMCA analysis, suggesting that further analysis be performed to identify quality issues and/or potential adulterants. Due to its simplicity and speed, FT-NIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used as a complementary tool to conventional official methods of analysis to rapidly flag EVOO products that may not belong to the class of authentic EVOO. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Urbanization Alters the Influence of Weather and an Index of Forest Productivity on Avian Community Richness and Guild Abundance in the Seattle Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Shryock

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in weather and forest productivity influence the abundance and richness of bird populations, however in a rapidly urbanizing landscape the relative importance of each factor may vary. We assessed this possibility in the Seattle, WA, USA region by correlating 10 years of bird richness and relative abundance of nine guilds indicative of their tolerance of human development, migration, diet and use of human food subsidies with an annual index of forest productivity (vegetation greenness derived from a 250 m resolution Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI product from the MODIS satellite and weather (variation in the Oceanic Niño Index, which estimates the strength of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, a major driver of local temperature and precipitation. We found that variation in NDVI exerted a strong influence on the richness of the avian community and the abundance of guilds in landscapes undergoing active development, but was less influential in areas of established housing development or forested reserves. Relative to NDVI, weather was much less influential on the abundance of guilds at actively changing sites, and slightly more influential in forest reserves and established developments. Following the warm winter and during the dry summer associated with a strong El Niño, migrants and herbivores declined in changing landscapes, insectivores declined in established developments, and herbivores declined while synanthropic species increased in reserves. These changes may presage the effects of climate change in the Pacific Northwest, which are expected to be similar to El Niño conditions. To buffer these changes in native bird communities, planners, developers, regulators, and home owners should minimize the loss of vegetation during development and attempt to quickly achieve mature landscaping that preferably provides food and shelter for birds.

  3. Identification and genome organization of saponin pathway genes from a wild crucifer, and their use for transient production of saponins in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Kuzina, Vera; Erthmann, Pernille Ø; Fukushima, Ery Odette; Augustin, Jörg M; Olsen, Carl Erik; Scholtalbers, Jelle; Volpin, Hanne; Andersen, Sven Bode; Hauser, Thure P; Muranaka, Toshiya; Bak, Søren

    2015-11-01

    The ability to evolve novel metabolites has been instrumental for the defence of plants against antagonists. A few species in the Barbarea genus are the only crucifers known to produce saponins, some of which make plants resistant to specialist herbivores, like Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth. Genetic mapping in Barbarea vulgaris revealed that genes for saponin biosynthesis are not clustered but are located in different linkage groups. Using co-location with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance, transcriptome and genome sequences, we identified two 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases that form the major triterpenoid backbones. LUP2 mainly produces lupeol, and is preferentially expressed in insect-susceptible B. vulgaris plants, whereas LUP5 produces β-amyrin and α-amyrin, and is preferentially expressed in resistant plants; β-amyrin is the backbone for the resistance-conferring saponins in Barbarea. Two loci for cytochromes P450, predicted to add functional groups to the saponin backbone, were identified: CYP72As co-localized with insect resistance, whereas CYP716As did not. When B. vulgaris sapogenin biosynthesis genes were transiently expressed by CPMV-HT technology in Nicotiana benthamiana, high levels of hydroxylated and carboxylated triterpenoid structures accumulated, including oleanolic acid, which is a precursor of the major resistance-conferring saponins. When the B. vulgaris gene for sapogenin 3-O-glucosylation was co-expressed, the insect deterrent 3-O-oleanolic acid monoglucoside accumulated, as well as triterpene structures with up to six hexoses, demonstrating that N. benthamiana further decorates the monoglucosides. We argue that saponin biosynthesis in the Barbarea genus evolved by a neofunctionalized glucosyl transferase, whereas the difference between resistant and susceptible B. vulgaris chemotypes evolved by different expression of oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs). © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 414 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... of an algebraic function for the permutation of truth table columns, Abstract ... appraisal and productivity levels in selected Nigerian universities, Abstract.

  5. Transient hardened power FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Fischer, T.A.; Huang, C.C.C.; Meyer, W.J.; Smith, C.S.; Blanchard, R.A.; Fortier, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    N-channel power FETs offer significant advantages in power conditioning circuits. Similiarily to all MOS technologies, power FET devices are vulnerable to ionizing radiation, and are particularily susceptible to burn-out in high dose rate irradiations (>1E10 rads(Si)/sec.), which precludes their use in many military environments. This paper will summarize the physical mechanisms responsible for burn-out, and discuss various fabrication techniques designed to improve the transient hardness of power FETs. Power FET devices were fabricated with several of these techniques, and data will be presented which demonstrates that transient hardness levels in excess of 1E12 rads(Si)/sec. are easily achievable

  6. Transients in the Vivitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, C.M.; Frick, G.; Roumie, M.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical measurements are presented for the construction of a model for the study of transients in the Vivitron. Observation of the transmission of electrical pulses in the porticos clearly shows transmission-line behaviour. Measurements of the vector impedance of the outer porticos show the same transmission-line properties, but also gives a description of the modification from a pure transmission line due to the circular electrodes. The results of this investigation should allow the construction of a computer model which predicts the evolution of the transients in the case of a spark in the Vivitron. (orig.)

  7. The influence of body mass index on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsov, S.; Trajceska, L.; van Oeveren, W.; Smit, A. J.; Dzekova, P.; Stegmayr, B.; Sikole, A.; Rakhorst, G.; Graaff, R.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The level of skin autofluorescence (AF) at a given moment is an independent predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Skin AF is a measure of the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of nutrition

  8. An international comparison of productivity change in the textile and clothing industry: a bootstrapped Malmquist index approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Firms in the textile and clothing industry operate in competitive international markets characterized by the liberalized trade after the removal of multi-fiber agreement quotas in 2005, and have to address rapid changes in consumer preferences and production technology. Hence, improving

  9. Transient stability probability evaluation of power system incorporating with wind farm and SMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Miao, Lu; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    Large scale renewable power generation brings great challenges to the power system operation and stabilization. Energy storage is one of the most important technologies to face the challenges. This paper proposes a method for transient stability probability evaluation of power system with wind farm...... and SMES. Firstly, a modified 11-bus test system with both wind farm and SMES has been implemented. The wind farm is represented as a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Then a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system is presented. Uncertain...... the probability indices. With the proposed method based on Monte-Carlo simulation and bisection method, system stability is "measured". Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve...

  10. Serial type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) load measurement allows differentiation between regressing cervical lesions and serial virion productive transient infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depuydt, Christophe E; Jonckheere, Jef; Berth, Mario; Salembier, Geert M; Vereecken, Annie J; Bogers, Johannes J

    2015-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is strongly associated with the development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. Not all persistent infections lead to cancer. Viral load measured at a single time-point is a poor predictor of the natural history of HPV infections. However the profile of viral load evolution over time could distinguish nonprogressive from progressive (carcinogenic) infections. A retrospective natural history study was set up using a Belgian laboratory database including more than 800,000 liquid cytology specimens. All samples were submitted to qPCR identifying E6/E7 genes of 18 HPV types. Viral load changes over time were assessed by the linear regression slope. Database search identified 261 untreated women with persistent type-specific HPV DNA detected (270 infections) in at least three of the last smears for a average period of 3.2 years. Using the coefficient of determination (R²) infections could be subdivided in a latency group (n = 143; R² < 0.85) and a regressing group (n = 127; R² ≥ 0.85). In (≥3) serial viral load measurements, serial transient infections with latency is characterized by a nonlinear limited difference in decrease or increase of type-specific viral load (R² < 0.85 and slopes between 2 measurements 0.0010 and −0.0010 HPV copies/cell per day) over a longer period of time (1553 days), whereas regression of a clonal cell population is characterized by a linear (R² ≥ 0.85) decrease (−0.0033 HPV copies/cell per day) over a shorter period of time (708 days; P < 0.001). Using serial HPV type-specific viral load measurements we could for the first time identify regressing CIN2 and CIN3 lesions. Evolution of the viral load is an objective measurable indicator of the natural history of HPV infections and could be used for future triage in HPV-based cervical screening programs

  11. Índice de previsão de produção de leite para vacas Jersey Index for predicting milk production in Jersey cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Laloni

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o uso de vários modelos de criação intensiva e semi-extensiva desfavorece a adoção generalizada de métodos de manejo do gado bovino, principalmente do gado leiteiro. Mesmo assim, a produção leiteira pode ser melhorada a partir do uso de tecnologias que possam garantir o manejo adequado do rebanho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um índice de previsão de produção de leite para vacas Jersey em lactação, de genética de alta produtividade, em regime semi-estabulado, nas condições tropicais. Para a obtenção do índice, consideraram-se a temperatura e a umidade relativa do ambiente e a velocidade do ar, assim como valores de precipitação pluviométrica, temperatura do solo do pasto e a radiação solar como agentes estressores, os quais podem alterar a produção de leite. O experimento considerou dois tratamentos: A - as vacas permaneceram em sala de espera guarnecida com chuveiro e ventiladores, por um período 30 min antes da ordenha; B - as vacas não tiveram acesso a essa sala de espera (controle. Fora do período de ordenha, as vacas tiveram acesso ao pasto. Observou-se que as diferenças de médias de produção entre os tratamentos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Foram procedidas as análises para efeito de elaboração do modelo e chegou-se a um modelo factível, considerando a relação entre produção e a precipitação, assim como a temperatura máxima do solo do pasto.In Brazil the adoption of several models of cattle confinement leads to special conditions for management methods in dairy production, which can be improved by the use of technology that assures better herd management. Indexes relating environmental variables to production are applied for the prediction of milk production. The values of temperature and relative humidity, rain index, solar radiation and pasture soil temperature are generally considered potential stress agents for cows. The objective of this research was

  12. Measurement of the drift mobilities and the mobility-lifetime products of charge carriers in a CdZnTe crystal by using a transient pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H Y; Kwon, Y K; Lee, C S; Lee, J H; Moon, J Y

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present results on the measurement of the drift mobility and the mobility-lifetime product of charge carriers in a 16-pixellated CdZnTe detector. For the determination of an interaction position based on the pulse rise-time method in a CZT detector, it is necessary to characterize the transport properties governed by drift mobility and lifetime for electrons and holes. In order to extract the transport properties of an electron and a hole, we bombarded 5.5-MeV alpha particles from a 241 Am source and 81-keV gamma rays emitted from a 133 Ba source on the negatively biased contact of the CZT detector. A time-of-flight (TOF) method was used to measure the electron drift mobility at room temperature whose value turned out to be 906.4 cm 2 /Vc s. With the Hecht's equation, the electron mobility-lifetime product was also determined from the bias-dependent alpha response and was equal to (9.88 ± 2.33) x 10 -3 cm 2 /V. On the other hand, the hole mobility-lifetime product was evaluated by a model based on the average charge collection efficiency which accounts for the absorption probability with a given photon energy. By using a single parameter fitting of the model, we obtained the hole mobility-lifetime product of (8.28 ± 0.17) x 10 -4 cm 2 /V.

  13. Transient changes in milk production efficiency and bacterial community composition resulting from near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- and low-efficiency Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if milk production efficiency (MPE) is altered by near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- (HE) and low-MPE (LE) cows and to characterize ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) prior to exchange and over time post-exchange. Three pai...

  14. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  15. Transient cavitation in pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to set up a one-dimensional mathematical model, which describes the transient flow in pipelines, taking into account the influence of cavitation and free gas. The flow will be conceived of as a three-phase flow of the liquid, its vapour and non-condensible gas. The

  16. Food product health warnings promote dietary self-control through reductions in neural signals indexing food cue reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Daniel H; Summerell, Patrick; Ng, Alyssa; Dixon, Helen; Murawski, Carsten; Wakefield, Melanie; Bode, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions. Existing research into the efficacy of these intervention strategies has predominantly employed self-report and population level measures, and little evidence exists to support the contention that these measures counteract food cue reactivity at the time of decision making. Using a dietary self-control priming paradigm, we demonstrated that brief exposure to food product health warnings enhanced dietary self-control. Further, we analysed electroencephalographic correlates of selective attention and food cue evoked craving (N1, P3, LPP) to show that health warning exposure reduced the automatic appetitive response towards palatable food cues. These findings contribute to existing evidence that exogenous information can successfully prime latent goals, and substantiate the notion that food product health warnings may provide a new avenue through which to curb excessive energy intake and reduce rising obesity rates.

  17. Compressive Transient Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Qilin

    2017-04-01

    High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.

  18. Searching for MHz Transients with the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisensky, Emil; Peters, Wendy; Giacintucci, Simona; Clarke, Tracy; Kassim, Namir E.; hyman, Scott D.; van der Horst, Alexander; Linford, Justin; Waldron, Zach; Frail, Dale

    2018-01-01

    NRL and NRAO have expanded the low frequency capabilities of the VLA through the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE, http://vlite.nrao.edu/ ), effectively making the instrument two telescopes in one. VLITE is a commensal observing system that harvests data from the prime focus in parallel with normal Cassegrain focus observing on a subset of VLA antennas. VLITE provides over 6000 observing hours per year in a > 5 square degree field-of-view using 64 MHz bandwidth centered on 352 MHz. By operating in parallel, VLITE offers invaluable low frequency data to targeted observations of transient sources detected at higher frequencies. With arcsec resolution and mJy sensitivity, VLITE additionally offers great potential for blind searches of rarer radio-selected transients. We use catalog matching software on the imaging products from the daily astrophysics pipeline and the LOFAR Transients Pipeline (TraP) on repeated observations of the same fields to search for coherent and incoherent astronomical transients on timescales of a few seconds to years. We present the current status of the VLITE transient science program from its initial deployment on 10 antennas in November 2014 through its expansion to 16 antennas in the summer of 2017. Transient limits from VLITE’s first year of operation (Polisensky et al. 2016) are updated per the most recent analysis.

  19. Food product health warnings promote dietary self-control through reductions in neural signals indexing food cue reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Rosenblatt

    Full Text Available Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions. Existing research into the efficacy of these intervention strategies has predominantly employed self-report and population level measures, and little evidence exists to support the contention that these measures counteract food cue reactivity at the time of decision making. Using a dietary self-control priming paradigm, we demonstrated that brief exposure to food product health warnings enhanced dietary self-control. Further, we analysed electroencephalographic correlates of selective attention and food cue evoked craving (N1, P3, LPP to show that health warning exposure reduced the automatic appetitive response towards palatable food cues. These findings contribute to existing evidence that exogenous information can successfully prime latent goals, and substantiate the notion that food product health warnings may provide a new avenue through which to curb excessive energy intake and reduce rising obesity rates. Keywords: Health warnings, Dietary decision making, Self-control, Electroencephalogram, EEG, N1, P3, LPP

  20. Potassium as an index of fruit content in baby food products. Part I. Banana-containing and apricot-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R A; Theuer, R C

    1991-01-01

    Percentage ingredient labeling has been proposed for baby foods. We determined whether or not the potassium content of baby foods could be used to verify the quantity of fruit when the characterizing ingredients were apricots or bananas, fruits rich in potassium. Official values for potassium in fruit (USDA Handbook No. 8-9) did not agree well with actual analyses. The potassium levels of products of known composition were accurately predicted from analyses of the actual ingredients used to make the foods. For banana-containing monofruit products of variable or unknown composition, potassium analysis led to fruit level estimates consistent with either the known composition or the label declaration. For products of unknown composition made with apricot concentrate, however, potassium analysis led to fruit level estimates lower than the probable fruit content. The quantity of fruit in baby foods made with potassium-rich fruits can be estimated from the potassium content if the potassium value for the fruit is representative of the actual ingredients used to make the product. If potassium analysis is to be used to verify compliance with percentage ingredient labeling, there must be statutory specification of the single-strength fruit level for fruit reconstituted from concentrate.

  1. Water-food-energy nexus index: analysis of water-energy-food nexus of crop's production system applying the indicators approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Inas

    2017-10-01

    Analysis the water-food-energy nexus is the first step to assess the decision maker in developing and evaluating national strategies that take into account the nexus. The main objective of the current research is providing a method for the decision makers to analysis the water-food-energy nexus of the crop production system at the national level and carrying out a quantitative assessment of it. Through the proposed method, indicators considering the water and energy consumption, mass productivity, and economic productivity were suggested. Based on these indicators a water-food-energy nexus index (WFENI) was performed. The study showed that the calculated WFENI of the Egyptian summer crops have scores that range from 0.21 to 0.79. Comparing to onion (the highest scoring WFENI,i.e., the best score), rice has the lowest WFENI among the summer food crops. Analysis of the water-food-energy nexus of forty-two Egyptian crops in year 2010 was caried out (energy consumed for irrigation represent 7.4% of the total energy footprint). WFENI can be applied to developed strategies for the optimal cropping pattern that minimizing the water and energy consumption and maximizing their productivity. It can be applied as a holistic tool to evaluate the progress in the water and agricultural national strategies. Moreover, WFENI could be applied yearly to evaluate the performance of the water-food-energy nexus managmant.

  2. Measuring the Total-Factor Carbon Emission Performance of Industrial Land Use in China Based on the Global Directional Distance Function and Non-Radial Luenberger Productivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Industry is a major contributor to carbon emissions in China, and industrial land is an important input to industrial production. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the carbon emission performance of industrial land use is necessary for making reasonable carbon reduction policies that promote the sustainable use of industrial land. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic changes in the total-factor carbon emission performance of industrial land use (TCPIL in China by applying a global directional distance function (DDF and non-radial Luenberger productivity index. The empirical results show that the eastern region enjoys better TCPIL than the central and western regions, but the regional gaps in TCPIL are narrowing. The growth in NLCPILs (non-radial Luenberger carbon emission performance of industrial land use in the eastern and central regions is mainly driven by technological progress, whereas efficiency improvements contribute more to the growth of NLCPIL in the western region. The provinces in the eastern region have the most innovative and environmentally-friendly production technologies. The results of the analysis of the influencing factors show implications for improving the NLCPIL, including more investment in industrial research and development (R&D, the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies, reduction in the use of fossil energy, especially coal, in the process of industrial production, actively learning about foreign advanced technology, properly solving the problem of surplus labor in industry and the expansion of industrial development.

  3. Transient expression of β-glucuronidase gene in indica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    co-transfer of DNAs to cells was monitored by analyzing transient gus expression 24 h after .... induction frequency was determined by measuring the ... Effect of age on transient expression of gus gene and production of hygromycin .... japonica varieties via electric discharge particle acceleration of .... yellow stem borer.

  4. Phenotypically divergent classification of preweaned heifer calves for feed efficiency indexes and their correlations with heat production and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, J M; Coelho, S G; Machado, F S; Azevedo, R A; Lima, J A M; Carneiro, J C; Lage, C F A; Ferreira, A L; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Campos, M M

    2018-03-07

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess if there is phenotypical divergence for feed efficiency (FE) during the preweaning phase; (2) if FE is correlated with heat production (HP) measured by the face mask method or (3) by surface skin temperature via thermography, and (4) whether these methods are applicable to preweaned calves. Holstein × Gyr heifer calves (n = 36, birth body weight = 32.4 ± 6.6 kg) were enrolled and on trial between 4 and 12 wk of age and were classified into 2 residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG) groups: high efficiency (HE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 9) and low efficiency (LE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 8). Calves were fed milk (6 L/d) and solid feed (95% starter and 5% chopped Tifton 85 hay, as fed). Growth was monitored weekly and feed intake (milk and solid feed) daily, during the whole period. Gas exchanges (O 2 consumption and production of CO 2 and CH 4 ) were obtained using a face mask at 45 ± 5 d of age and HP was estimated. Maximum temperatures were measured at 7 sites with an infrared camera at 62 ± 7 d of age. There was divergence in RFI and RG. Respectively, HE and LE calves had RFI of -0.14 and 0.13 kg/d, and RG of 0.05 and -0.07 kg/d. Dry matter intake was 15% lower in HE-RFI compared with LE-RFI, but no differences were observed in average daily weight gain. Within the RG test, no differences were observed in dry matter intake or average daily gain. The HE-RFI calves consumed less O 2 (L/d) and produced less CO 2 (L/d). Heart rate and HP were lower for HE-RFI calves compared with LE-RFI. Residual feed intake was correlated with HP (r = 0.48), O 2 consumption (r = 0.48), CO 2 production (r = 0.48), and heart rate (r = 0.40). No differences were observed in HP and gas exchanges between RG groups. Methane production was null in both groups. Eye temperature measured by thermography was 0.5°C greater in HE-RG than LE-RG calves. Differences in skin temperature between HE and LE calves were not observed at

  5. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  6. Transient osteoporosis of hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH in a 50-year-old man including the clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, management, and clinical progress. TOH is a rare self-limiting condition that typically affects middle-aged men or, less frequently, women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Affected individuals present clinically with acute hip pain, limping gait, and limited ranges of hip motion. TOH may begin spontaneously or after a minor trauma. Radiographs are typically unremarkable but magnetic resonance (MR imaging studies yield findings consistent with bone marrow edema. TOH is referred to as regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO if it travels to other joints or the contralateral hip. TOH often resembles osteonecrosis but the two conditions must be differentiated due to different prognoses and management approaches. The term TOH is often used interchangeably and synonymously with transient bone marrow edema (TBME.

  7. Stability of Ignition Transients

    OpenAIRE

    V.E. Zarko

    1991-01-01

    The problem of ignition stability arises in the case of the action of intense external heat stimuli when, resulting from the cut-off of solid substance heating, momentary ignition is followed by extinction. Physical pattern of solid propellant ignition is considered and ignition criteria available in the literature are discussed. It is shown that the above mentioned problem amounts to transient burning at a given arbitrary temperature distribution in the condensed phase. A brief survey...

  8. Transient FDTD simulation validation

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui Tellería, Ricardo; Riu Costa, Pere Joan; Silva Martínez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In computational electromagnetic simulations, most validation methods have been developed until now to be used in the frequency domain. However, the EMC analysis of the systems in the frequency domain many times is not enough to evaluate the immunity of current communication devices. Based on several studies, in this paper we propose an alternative method of validation of the transients in time domain allowing a rapid and objective quantification of the simulations results.

  9. Nelson-Farrar cost indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Nelson-Farrar Cost Indexs. Topics covered include: economic analysis, petroleum refineries, petroleum industry, pumps, compressors, beat exchangers, cost estimation, productivity and wages

  10. MHD aspects of coronal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzer, U.

    1979-10-01

    If one defines coronal transients as events which occur in the solar corona on rapid time scales (< approx. several hours) then one would have to include a large variety of solar phenomena: flares, sprays, erupting prominences, X-ray transients, white light transients, etc. Here we shall focus our attention on the latter two phenomena. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 RDG

  11. Higher body mass index and lower intake of dairy products predict poor glycaemic control among Type 2 Diabetes patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Ping Soon; Chan, Yoke Mun; Huang, Soo Lee

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to determine factors contributing to glyceamic control in order to provide better understanding of diabetes management among Type 2 Diabetes patients. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic and medical history. As a proxy measure for glycaemic control, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was obtained as secondary data from the medical reports. Perceived self-care barrier on diabetes management, diet knowledge and skills, and diet quality were assessed using pretested instruments. With a response rate of 80.3%, 155 subjects were recruited for the study. Mean HbA1c level of the subjects was 9.02 ± 2.25% with more than 70% not able to achieve acceptable level in accordance to WHO recommendation. Diet quality of the subjects was unsatisfactory especially for vegetables, fruits, fish and legumes as well as from the milk and dairy products group. Higher body mass index (BMI), poorer medication compliance, lower diet knowledge and skill scores and lower intake of milk and dairy products contributed significantly on poor glycaemic control. In conclusion, while perceived self-care barriers and diet quality failed to predict HbA1c, good knowledge and skill ability, together with appropriate BMI and adequate intake of dairy products should be emphasized to optimize glycaemic control among type 2 diabetes patients.

  12. Higher body mass index and lower intake of dairy products predict poor glycaemic control among Type 2 Diabetes patients in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Soon Shu

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to determine factors contributing to glyceamic control in order to provide better understanding of diabetes management among Type 2 Diabetes patients. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic and medical history. As a proxy measure for glycaemic control, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c was obtained as secondary data from the medical reports. Perceived self-care barrier on diabetes management, diet knowledge and skills, and diet quality were assessed using pretested instruments. With a response rate of 80.3%, 155 subjects were recruited for the study. Mean HbA1c level of the subjects was 9.02 ± 2.25% with more than 70% not able to achieve acceptable level in accordance to WHO recommendation. Diet quality of the subjects was unsatisfactory especially for vegetables, fruits, fish and legumes as well as from the milk and dairy products group. Higher body mass index (BMI, poorer medication compliance, lower diet knowledge and skill scores and lower intake of milk and dairy products contributed significantly on poor glycaemic control. In conclusion, while perceived self-care barriers and diet quality failed to predict HbA1c, good knowledge and skill ability, together with appropriate BMI and adequate intake of dairy products should be emphasized to optimize glycaemic control among type 2 diabetes patients.

  13. Application of a method of analysis of remote sensing data obtained by targeting the estimated productivity in cane for quantifying panela NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rueda Calier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity estimation sugar cane is very important for Colombian economy. The Net Primary Production (NPP model is applied on present investigation from Kumar & Monteith to regional scale. Analyzing spatiotemporal with geomantic techniques and edaphoclimatic environment characterization. Field surveys were conducted too, to acquire physiological information of plants evaluated and soil conditions of the plantation under study. The data acquired was input in ArcGIS10.1 software, to make processing these. A series thematic map was resulted from data processing from spatiotemporal distribution of plantation soil characteristics and biophysical characteristics. The variables fPAR, PAR, EUR was calculate from Kumar & Monteith efficiency model. Remote sensing and mathematic models related and fraction absorbed photosynthetically active radiation derivates from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and incident photosynthetically active radiation in land sensors recorded was calculated. Chemical and physical properties in laboratory tests were realized to soil, for relation knowledge between edaphoclimatic conditions and biophysical variables related with the sugar cane biomass gainer for Panela production. The information integrated from Geographic Information System (GIS and edaphic data and climatic data in country recorded, shows the behavior of the plantation as it develops.

  14. Modelling and transient simulation of water flow in pipelines using WANDA Transient software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Akpan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pressure transients in conduits such as pipelines are unsteady flow conditions caused by a sudden change in the flow velocity. These conditions might cause damage to the pipelines and its fittings if the extreme pressure (high or low is experienced within the pipeline. In order to avoid this occurrence, engineers usually carry out pressure transient analysis in the hydraulic design phase of pipeline network systems. Modelling and simulation of transients in pipelines is an acceptable and cost effective method of assessing this problem and finding technical solutions. This research predicts the pressure surge for different flow conditions in two different pipeline systems using WANDA Transient simulation software. Computer models were set-up in WANDA Transient for two different systems namely; the Graze experiment (miniature system and a simple main water riser system based on some initial laboratory data and system parameters. The initial laboratory data and system parameters were used for all the simulations. Results obtained from the computer model simulations compared favourably with the experimental results at Polytropic index of 1.2.

  15. Transient shielded liquid hydrogen containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, A.P.; Herring, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen in the liquid phase has been limited in duration due to the thermal performance constraints of conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers available. Conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers lose hydrogen because of their relatively high heat leak and variations in usage pattern of hydrogen due to shutdowns. Local regulations also discourage venting of hydrogen. Long term storage of Liquid Hydrogen without product loss was usually accomplished using Liquid Nitrogen sacrificial shields. This paper reports on a new low heat leak container developed and patented that will extend the storage time of liquid hydrogen by five hundred percent. The principle of operation of the Transient Shields which makes the extraordinary performance of this container feasible is described in this paper. Also covered are the impact of this new container on present applications of hydrogen and the new opportunities afforded to Liquid hydrogen in the world hydrogen market

  16. Human mesenchymal stromal cells transiently increase cytokine production by activated T cells before suppressing T-cell proliferation: effect of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerquis, Jessica; Romieu-Mourez, Raphaëlle; François, Moïra; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Young, Yoon Kow; Zhao, Jing; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) suppress T-cell proliferation, especially after activation with inflammatory cytokines. We compared the dynamic action of unprimed and interferon (IFN)-γ plus tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-pretreated human bone marrow-derived MSCs on resting or activated T cells. MSCs were co-cultured with allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at high MSC-to-PBMC ratios in the absence or presence of concomitant CD3/CD28-induced T-cell activation. The kinetic effects of MSCs on cytokine production and T-cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed. Unprimed MSCs increased the early production of IFN-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 by CD3/CD28-activated PBMCs before suppressing T-cell proliferation. In non-activated PBMC co-cultures, low levels of IL-2 and IL-10 synthesis were observed with MSCs in addition to low levels of CD69 expression by T cells and no T-cell proliferation. MSCs also decreased apoptosis in resting and activated T cells and inhibited the transition of these cells into the sub-G0/G1 and the S phases. With inhibition of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, MSCs increased CD3/CD28-induced T-cell proliferation. After priming with IFN-γ plus TNF-α, MSCs were less potent at increasing cytokine production by CD3/CD28-activated PBMCs and more effective at inhibiting T-cell proliferation but had preserved anti-apoptotic functions. Unprimed MSCs induce a transient increase in IFN-γ and IL-2 synthesis by activated T cells. Pre-treatment of MSCs with IFN-γ plus TNF-α may increase their effectiveness and safety in vivo. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  18. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  19. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  20. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  1. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  2. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Magnetic transients in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.; Tanaka, K.

    1981-01-01

    We present data on magnetic transients (mgtr's) observed in flares on 1980 July 1 and 5 with Big Bear videomagnetograph (VMG). The 1980 July 1 event was a white light flare in which a strong bipolar mgtr was observed, and a definite change in the sunspots occurred at the time of the flare. In the 1980 July 5 flare, a mgtr was observed in only one polarity, and, although no sunspot changes occurred simultaneous with the flare, major spot changes occurred in a period of hours

  4. Familial Transient Global Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Rhys Davies

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA, a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology.

  5. The effect of shade on the container index and pupal productivity of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens breeding in artificial containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, D; Albicócco, A P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether certain attributes of larval breeding sites are correlated with pupal productivity (i.e. numbers of pupae collected per sampling period), so that these could be used as the focus for control measures to enhance control efficiency. Therefore, the objectives were to identify the months of highest pupal productivity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban temperate cemetery in Argentina where artificial containers of containers and to determine whether the composition of the containers affected pupal productivity. Over a period of 9 months, 200 randomly chosen water-filled containers (100 sunlit and 100 shaded), out of approximately 3738 containers present (approximately 54% in shade), were examined each month within a cemetery (5 ha) in Buenos Aires (October 2006 to June 2007). In total, 3440 immatures of Cx pipiens and 1974 of Ae. aegypti were collected. The larvae : pupae ratio was 10 times greater for the former, indicating that larval mortality was greater for Cx pipiens. Both mosquito species showed a higher container index (CI) in shaded than in sunlit containers (Ae. aegypti: 12.8% vs. 6.9% [chi(2) = 17.6, P container and the number of pupae per pupa-positive container did not differ significantly between sunlit and shaded containers for either species. Therefore, the overall relative productivity of pupae per ha of Ae. aegypti and Cx pipiens was 2.3 and 1.8 times greater, respectively, in shaded than in sunlit areas as a result of the greater CIs of containers in shaded areas. Neither the CI nor the number of immatures per infested container differed significantly among container types of different materials in either lighting condition. The maximum CI and total pupal counts occurred in March for Ae. aegypti and in January and February for Cx pipiens. The estimated peak abundance of pupae in the whole cemetery reached a total of approximately 4388 in the middle of March for Ae

  6. X-ray Transients in M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A. K. H.; Garcia, M. R.; Primini, F. A.; Murray, S. S.; McClintock, J. E.

    2002-06-01

    A bright X-ray transient was detected by Chandra on 2002 June 2 with a series of 5 HRC-I snapshots. The new source CXOU J004154.6+405648 (R.A.=00h41m54s.64, Dec.=+40d56m48s.0, +/- 1", J2000) is discovered at a luminosity (0.3-10 keV) of 1.5 x 1038 erg/s (assuming an absorbed power-law model with photon index = 2 and NH = 1021 cm-2 at a distance of 780 kpc).

  7. Measurand transient signal suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transient signal suppressor for use in a controls system which is adapted to respond to a change in a physical parameter whenever it crosses a predetermined threshold value in a selected direction of increasing or decreasing values with respect to the threshold value and is sustained for a selected discrete time interval is presented. The suppressor includes a sensor transducer for sensing the physical parameter and generating an electrical input signal whenever the sensed physical parameter crosses the threshold level in the selected direction. A manually operated switch is provided for adapting the suppressor to produce an output drive signal whenever the physical parameter crosses the threshold value in the selected direction of increasing or decreasing values. A time delay circuit is selectively adjustable for suppressing the transducer input signal for a preselected one of a plurality of available discrete suppression time and producing an output signal only if the input signal is sustained for a time greater than the selected suppression time. An electronic gate is coupled to receive the transducer input signal and the timer output signal and produce an output drive signal for energizing a control relay whenever the transducer input is a non-transient signal which is sustained beyond the selected time interval.

  8. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  9. Gender-specific contribution of cardiometabolic index and lipid accumulation product to left ventricular geometry change in general population of rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Sun, Yingxian; Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Chen, Shuang; Ye, Ning; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Lijun

    2018-04-10

    Despite current interest in the unfavorable impact of cardiometabolic index (CMI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) on diabetes and cardiovascular risk, information regarding the relation of CMI and LAP to left ventricular (LV) geometry has not been specifically addressed. We aimed to examine the hypothesis: (1) CMI and LAP represent an independent determinant of LV remodeling in general population of rural China; (2) there are gender differences in obesity-related alterations in terms of LV morphology. The sample for this cross-sectional analysis included 11,258 participants (mean age 53.9 years; 54.0% females) who underwent assessment of basic metabolic and anthropometric parameters in rural areas of northeast China. Comprehensive echocardiography-defined LV geometric pattern was determined according to left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness. The prevalence rate of eccentric and concentric LV hypertrophy (LVH) presented a proportional increase with elevated quartiles of CMI and LAP in a dose-response manner (all P factor of 3.552 and 1.768 in females and males, respectively. In contrast to females, where LAP fourth quartile and concentric LVH were positively associated (OR:2.544, 95%CI:1.537-4.209), higher LAP did not correlate with concentric LVH in males (OR:1.234, 95%CI:0.824-1.849). CMI and LAP give rise to a new paradigm of accounting for gender difference in obesity-related abnormal LV geometry, an effect that was substantially greater in females. These two indices, acting in concert, may also be advantageous prognostically for refining cardiovascular risk stratification in individuals with LV remodeling.

  10. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index improve remote-sensing gross primary production estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carvalhais, N.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Julitta, T.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the performances of different optical indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP) of herbaceous stratum in a Mediterranean savanna with different nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) availability. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence yield computed at 760 nm (Fy760), scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using high spectral resolution spectrometers covering the visible near-infrared regions. GPP was measured using canopy chambers on the same locations sampled by the spectrometers. We tested whether light-use efficiency (LUE) models driven by remote-sensing quantities (RSMs) can better track changes in GPP caused by nutrient supplies compared to those driven exclusively by meteorological data (MM). Particularly, we compared the performances of different RSM formulations - relying on the use of Fy760 or sPRI as a proxy for LUE and NDVI or MTCI as a fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - with those of classical MM. Results showed higher GPP in the N-fertilized experimental plots during the growing period. These differences in GPP disappeared in the drying period when senescence effects masked out potential differences due to plant N content. Consequently, although MTCI was closely related to the mean of plant N content across treatments (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), it was poorly related to GPP (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.05). On the contrary sPRI and Fy760 correlated well with GPP during the whole measurement period. Results revealed that the relationship between GPP and Fy760 is not unique across treatments, but it is affected by N availability. Results from a cross-validation analysis showed that MM (AICcv = 127, MEcv = 0.879) outperformed RSM (AICcv =140, MEcv = 0.8737) when soil moisture was used to constrain the seasonal dynamic of LUE. However

  11. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  12. Work plan: transient release from LMFBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.; Fontana, M.H.

    1975-09-01

    The proposed LMFBR Transient Release Program at ORNL is designed to investigate, by means of ex-reactor experiments and analytical modeling, the release and transport of fuel, fission products, and transuranic elements from fast reactor cores in the event of certain hypothetical accidents. It is desired to experimentally produce energy depositions that are characteristic of severe hypothetical reactor transients by the application of direct electrical current to mixed-oxide fuels under sodium. The experimental program includes tests with and without sodium, investigations of alternative methods of generating fuel and sodium aerosols, the use of UO 2 as a fuel simulant, additions of tracers as fission product simulants, effects of radiation, and under-water and under-sodium efforts to study the behavior of the vapor bubble itself. Analytical modeling will accompany all phases of the program, and the data will be correlated with models developed. 21 references. (auth)

  13. The joy of transient chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tél, Tamás [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, and MTA-ELTE Theoretical Physics Research Group, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest H-1117 (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  14. Transient osteoporosis of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWalter, Patricia; Hassan Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip is an uncommon cause of hip pain, mostly affecting healthy middle-aged men and also women in the third trimester of pregnancy. We present a case of transient osteoporosis of the hip in a 33-year-old non-pregnant female patient. This case highlights the importance of considering a diagnosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip in patients who present with hip pain. (author)

  15. The ZTF Bright Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Gooba, A.

    2018-06-01

    As a supplement to the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) public alerts (ATel #11685) we plan to report (following ATel #11615) bright probable supernovae identified in the raw alert stream from the ZTF Northern Sky Survey ("Celestial Cinematography"; see Bellm & Kulkarni, 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 71) to the Transient Name Server (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il) on a daily basis; the ZTF Bright Transient Survey (BTS; see Kulkarni et al., 2018; arXiv:1710.04223).

  16. The joy of transient chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tél, Tamás

    2015-09-01

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  17. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.

    1989-12-01

    Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new technique that reduces the occurrence of self-absorption in optically thick solid samples so that analytically useful emission spectra may be observed. Conventional emission spectroscopy, in which the sample is held at an elevated, uniform temperature, is practical only for optically thin samples. In thick samples the emission from deep layers of the material is partially absorbed by overlying layers.1 This self-absorption results in emission spectra from most optically thick samples that closely resemble black-body spectra. The characteristic discrete emission bands are severely truncated and altered in shape. TIRES bypasses this difficulty by using a laser to heat only an optically thin surface layer. The increased temperature of the layer is transient since the layer will rapidly cool and thicken by thermal diffusion; hence the emission collection must be correlated with the laser heating. TIRES may be done with both pulsed and cw lasers.2,3 When a pulsed laser is used, the spectrometer sampling must be synchronized with the laser pulsing so that only emission during and immediately after each laser pulse is observed.3 If a cw laser is used, the sample must move rapidly through the beam. The hot, transient layer is then in the beam track on the sample at and immediately behind the beam position, so the spectrometer field of view must be limited to this region near the beam position.2 How much self-absorption the observed emission suffers depends on how thick the heated layer has grown by thermal diffusion when the spectrometer samples the emission. Use of a pulsed laser synchronized with the spectrometer sampling readily permits reduction of the time available for heat diffusion to about 100 acs .3 When a cw laser is used, the heat-diffusion time is controlled by how small the spectrometer field of view is and by how rapidly the sample moves past within this field. Both a very small field of view and a

  18. On transient effects in violent nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.; Belkacem, M.; Feng-Shou Zhang; Academia Sinica, Lanzhou, GS

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that the numerical simulations of the recently developed Boltzmann-Langevin model exhibit large dynamical fluctuations in momentum space during the early stages of heavy-ion collisions, which arise from an interplay between the nuclear meanfield and binary collisions. It is pointed out that this transient behaviour provides an initial seed for the development of density fluctuations, and could strongly influence the particle production cross-sections at subthreshold energies. (author) 13 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Application of a combined superconducting fault current limiter and STATCOM to enhancement of power system transient stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdad, Belkacem, E-mail: bemahdad@mselab.org; Srairi, K.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •A simple interactive model SFCL–STATCOM Controller is proposed to enhance the transient stability. •The STATCOM controller is integrated in coordination with the SFCL to support the excessive reactive power during fault. •Voltage stability index based continuation power flow is used to locate the STATCOM and the SFCL. •The clearing time improved compared to other cases (with only SFCL, with only STATCOM). •The choice of the STATCOM parameters is very important to exploit efficiently the integration of STATCOM Controller. -- Abstract: Stable and reliable operation of the power system network is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between energy production and power demand under large disturbance such as short circuit or important line tripping. This paper investigates the use of combined model based superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) and shunt FACTS Controller (STATCOM) for assessing the transient stability of a power system considering the automatic voltage regulator. The combined model located at a specified branch based on voltage stability index using continuation power flow. The main role of the proposed combined model is to achieve simultaneously a flexible control of reactive power using STATCOM Controller and to reduce fault current using superconducting technology based SFCL. The proposed combined model has been successfully adapted within the transient stability program and applied to enhance the transient power system stability of the WSCC9-Bus system. Critical clearing time (CCT) has been used as an index to evaluate and validate the contribution of the proposed coordinated Controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness and perspective of this combined Controller to enhance the dynamic power system performances.

  20. Anticipated transients without scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lellouche, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses in various degrees of depth the publications WASH-1270, WASH-1400, and NUREG-0460, and has as its purpose a description of the technical work done by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) personnel and its contractors on the subject of anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). It demonstrates the close relation between the probability of scram failure derived from historical scram data and that derived from the use of component data in a model of a system (the so-called synthesis method), such as was done in WASH-1400. The inherent conservatism of these models is demonstrated by showing that they predict significantly more events than have in fact occurred and that such models still predict scram failure probabilities low enough to make ATWS an insignificant contributor to accident risk

  1. Transient fuel melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, L.; Schmitz, F.

    1982-10-01

    The observation of micrographic documents from fuel after a CABRI test leads to postulate a specific mode of transient fuel melting during a rapid nuclear power excursion. When reaching the melt threshold, the bands which are characteristic for the solid state are broken statistically over a macroscopic region. The time of maintaining the fuel at the critical enthalpy level between solid and liquid is too short to lead to a phase separation. A significant life-time (approximately 1 second) of this intermediate ''unsolide'' state would have consequences on the variation of physical properties linked to the phase transition solid/liquid: viscosity, specific volume and (for the irradiated fuel) fission gas release [fr

  2. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliha, George; Morgan, Jordan; Vrahas, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy (TOP) is a rare yet perhaps under-reported condition that has affected otherwise healthy pregnancies throughout the world. The condition presents suddenly in the third trimester of a usually uneventful pregnancy and progressively immobilizes the mother. Radiographic studies detect drastic loss of bone mass, elevated rates of turnover in the bone, and oedema in the affected portion. Weakness of the bone can lead to fractures during delivery and other complications for the mother. Then, within weeks of labour, symptoms and radiological findings resolve. Aetiology is currently unknown, although neural, vascular, haematological, endocrine, nutrient-deficiency, and other etiologies have been proposed. Several treatments have also been explored, including simple bed rest, steroids, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, induced termination of pregnancy, and surgical intervention. The orthopedist plays an essential role in monitoring the condition (and potential complications) as well as ensuring satisfactory outcomes for both the mother and newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  4. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  5. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  6. Transient Go: A Mobile App for Transient Astronomy Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D.; Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Drake, A.; Early, J.; Ivezic, Z.; Jacoby, S.; Kanbur, S.

    2016-12-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is set to revolutionize human interaction with the real world as demonstrated by the phenomenal success of `Pokemon Go'. That very technology can be used to rekindle the interest in science at the school level. We are in the process of developing a prototype app based on sky maps that will use AR to introduce different classes of astronomical transients to students as they are discovered i.e. in real-time. This will involve transient streams from surveys such as the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) today and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in the near future. The transient streams will be combined with archival and latest image cut-outs and other auxiliary data as well as historical and statistical perspectives on each of the transient types being served. Such an app could easily be adapted to work with various NASA missions and NSF projects to enrich the student experience.

  7. Effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Y; Yin, Z Y; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z H

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium. This experiment consisted 30 days. The milk and blood samples were collected in the last day of the trail. Intakes were recorded in the last 2 days of the trail. Supplementation of fatty acid calcium decreased significantly dry matter intake (DMI) (p < 0.01). Addition fatty acid calcium decreased milk protein percentage (p < 0.01) and milk SNF percentage (p < 0.01), but increased MUN (p < 0.05). Supplemented fatty acid decreased concentration of blood BHBA (p < 0.05), but increased TG, NEFA, glucagon, GLP-1, CCK, leptin, ApoA-IV, serotonin and MSH concentration in blood, the CCK concentration and feed intake showed a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  9. Pressure transients in pipeline systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This text is to give an overview of the necessary background to do investigation of pressure transients via simulations. It will describe briefly the Method of Characteristics which is the defacto standard for simulating pressure transients. Much of the text has been adopted from the book Pressur...

  10. One-dimensional transient radiative transfer by lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping

    2013-10-21

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional slab containing scattering media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. By using a fully implicit backward differencing scheme to discretize the transient term in the radiative transfer equation, a new type of lattice structure is devised. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are examined firstly. Afterwards, effects of the medium properties such as the extinction coefficient, the scattering albedo and the anisotropy factor, and the shapes of laser pulse on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Results of the present method are found to compare very well with the data from the literature. For an oblique incidence, the LBM results in this paper are compared with those by Monte Carlo method generated by ourselves. In addition, transient radiative transfer in a two-Layer inhomogeneous media subjected to a short square pulse irradiation is investigated. At last, the LBM is further extended to study the transient radiative transfer in homogeneous medium with a refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. Several trends on the time-resolved signals different from those for refractive index of 1 (i.e. refractive-index-matched boundary) are observed and analysed.

  11. Transient regional osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Marquina, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel-Ángel; Cano, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Transient regional osteoporosis (TRO) is a disease that predisposes to fragility fracture in weight bearing joints of mid-life women and men. Pregnant women may also suffer the process, usually at the hip. The prevalence of TRO is lower than the systemic form, associated with postmenopause and advanced age, but may be falsely diminished by under-diagnosis. The disease may be uni- or bilateral, and may migrate to distinct joints. One main feature of TRO is spontaneous recovery. Pain and progressive limitation in the functionality of the affected joint(s) are key symptoms. In the case of the form associated with pregnancy, difficulties in diagnosis derive from the relatively young age at presentation and from the clinical overlapping with the frequent aches during gestation. Densitometric osteoporosis in the affected region is not always present, but bone marrow edema, with or without joint effusion, is detected by magnetic resonance. There are not treatment guidelines, but the association of antiresorptives to symptomatic treatment seems to be beneficial. Surgery or other orthopedic interventions can be required for specific indications, like hip fracture, intra-medullary decompression, or other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  13. Congestion management enhancing transient stability of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2010-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, where market parties try to maximize their profits, it is necessary to keep an acceptable level of power system security to retain the continuity of electricity services to customers at a reasonable cost. Congestion in a power system is turned up due to network limits. After relieving congestion, the network may be operated with a reduced transient stability margin because of increasing the contribution of risky participants. In this paper, a novel congestion management method based on a new transient stability criterion is introduced. Using the sensitivity of corrected transient stability margin with respect to generations and demands, the proposed method so alleviates the congestion that the network can more retain its transient security compared with earlier methods. The proposed transient stability index is constructed considering the likelihood of credible faults. Indeed, market parties participate by their security-effective bids rather than raw bids. Results of testing the proposed method along with the earlier ones on the New-England test system elaborate the efficiency of the proposed method from the viewpoint of providing a better transient stability margin with a lower security cost. (author)

  14. Lipid Accumulation Product (LAP) and Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) as Markers of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Associated Disturbances in Young Argentine Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzese, Giselle A; Cerrrone, Gloria E; Gamez, Juan M; Graffigna, Mabel N; Belli, Susana; Lioy, Gustavo; Mormandi, Eduardo; Otero, Patricia; Levalle, Oscar A; Motta, Alicia B

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder. PCOS women are at high risk of developing insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disorders since young age. We aimed to study the reliability of lipid accumulation product (LAP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) as markers of metabolic disturbances (MD) associated with IR in young reproductive aged PCOS patients. We also evaluated the association between LAP and VAI and the presence of hyperandrogenism. In a cross-sectional study, 110 PCOS patients and 88 control women (18-35 years old) were recruited. PCOS patients were divided into 2 groups, as hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic considering the signs of hyperandrogenism (clinical or biochemical). Anthropometric measurements were taken and blood samples collected. Metabolic and anthropometric characteristics and their association with IR and associated MD were evaluated and LAP and VAI were calculated. LAP and VAI were compared with TC/HDL-c and TG/HDL-c to define the best markers of MD in this population. Independently of the phenotype, young PCOS patients showed high IR and dyslipidemia. Both LAP and VAI showed to be more effective markers to assess MD and IR in these young women than TG/HDL-c or TC/HDL-c [cut-off values: LAP: 18.24 (sensitivity: 81.43% specificity: 73.49%), positive predictive value (PPV): 75.0%, negative predictive value (NPV): 77.27%, VAI: 2.19 (sensitivity: 81.16% specificity: 72.15% PPV: 74.65% NPV: 72.22%)]. LAP and VAI are representative markers to assess MD associated with IR in young PCOS patients. All PCOS patients, independently of their androgenic condition, showed high metabolic risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Explosive and radio-selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40

    sitive measurements will lead to very accurate mass loss estimation in these supernovae. .... transients are powerful probes of intervening media owing to dispersion ...... A., & Chandra, P. 2011, Nature Communications,. 2, 175. Chakraborti, S.

  16. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  17. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  18. Louisiana ESI: LG_INDEX (Large Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  19. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  20. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  1. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Transient use of information visualization may support specific tasks without permanently changing the user interface. Transient visualizations provide immediate and transient use of information visualization close to and in the context of the user’s focus of attention. Little is known, however......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...... programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent...

  2. Transient thyrotoxicosis during nivolumab treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, M. J.; van den Berg, G.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Hiltermann, T. J. N.; Groen, H. J. M.; Rutgers, A.; Links, T. P.

    Two patients presented with transient thyrotoxicosis within 2-4 weeks after starting treatment with nivolumab. This thyrotoxicosis turned into hypothyroidism within 6-8 weeks. Temporary treatment with a beta blocker may be sufficient.

  3. Probabilistic assessment of power system transient stability incorporating SMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiakun, E-mail: Jiakun.Fang@gmail.com [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yao, Wei [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wen, Jinyu, E-mail: jinyu.wen@hust.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheng, Shijie; Tang, Yuejin; Cheng, Zhuo [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Probabilistic study of power system with wind farm and SMES is proposed. ► Quantitative relationship between system stability and SMES capacity is given. ► System stability increases with the capacity of the SMES. ► System stability decreases with the penetration of wind power. ► Together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized. -- Abstract: This paper presents a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system incorporating the wind farm and the SMES. Uncertain factors include both sequence of disturbance in power grid and stochastic generation of the wind farm. The spectrums of disturbance in the grid as the fault type, the fault location, the fault clearing time and the automatic reclosing process with their probabilities of occurrence are used to calculate the probability indices, while the wind speed statistics and parameters of the wind generator are used in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate samples for the studies. With the proposed method, system stability is ”measured”. Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve, together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized economically.

  4. Probabilistic assessment of power system transient stability incorporating SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jiakun; Yao, Wei; Wen, Jinyu; Cheng, Shijie; Tang, Yuejin; Cheng, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Probabilistic study of power system with wind farm and SMES is proposed. ► Quantitative relationship between system stability and SMES capacity is given. ► System stability increases with the capacity of the SMES. ► System stability decreases with the penetration of wind power. ► Together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized. -- Abstract: This paper presents a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system incorporating the wind farm and the SMES. Uncertain factors include both sequence of disturbance in power grid and stochastic generation of the wind farm. The spectrums of disturbance in the grid as the fault type, the fault location, the fault clearing time and the automatic reclosing process with their probabilities of occurrence are used to calculate the probability indices, while the wind speed statistics and parameters of the wind generator are used in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate samples for the studies. With the proposed method, system stability is ”measured”. Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve, together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized economically

  5. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  6. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  7. Transient two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.

    1974-01-01

    The following papers related to two-phase flow are summarized: current assumptions made in two-phase flow modeling; two-phase unsteady blowdown from pipes, flow pattern in Laval nozzle and two-phase flow dynamics; dependence of radial heat and momentum diffusion; transient behavior of the liquid film around the expanding gas slug in a vertical tube; flooding phenomena in BWR fuel bundles; and transient effects in bubble two-phase flow. (U.S.)

  8. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  9. Growth impairment due to transient hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K; Chalew, S; Kowarski, A A

    1986-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome in childhood is generally recognized by classical features such as truncal obesity, striae, easy bruising, moon facies, hypertension and growth retardation. Exceptionally, Cushing's syndrome has been reported to present as growth failure alone. We diagnosed transient hypercortisolism in 6 children who had poor growth as their only presenting abnormality. The 6 children all had integrated concentrations of cortisols (IC-F) (14.1 +/- 1.7 micrograms/dl; mean +/- 1 SD) which exceeded the IC-F in healthy children and adults (5.7 +/- 1.5 micrograms/dl; P less than 0.001). The IC-F of these 6 index cases overlapped the range of IC-F in patients with pathologically proven Cushing's syndrome (20.2 +/- 4.7 micrograms/dl). Four of the 6 patients were treated with human growth hormone for 8 months and showed a marked improvement in their growth rates. Four patients have entered puberty and are growing at normal rates. Three of the 6 children had normal repeat IC-Fs, subsequently, at a time they had normal growth rates. In 1-1/2 to 3 years of follow-up, none of the patients developed any other stigmata of Cushing's syndrome. We conclude that transient hypercortisolism, documented by the IC-F, may cause growth failure without other symptoms of Cushing's syndrome. Growth hormone therapy may improve the growth rate of these children at the time of their poor growth.

  10. Transient magnetoviscosity of dilute ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Aquino, Denisse; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic field induced change in the viscosity of a ferrofluid, commonly known as the magnetoviscous effect and parameterized through the magnetoviscosity, is one of the most interesting and practically relevant aspects of ferrofluid phenomena. Although the steady state behavior of ferrofluids under conditions of applied constant magnetic fields has received considerable attention, comparatively little attention has been given to the transient response of the magnetoviscosity to changes in the applied magnetic field or rate of shear deformation. Such transient response can provide further insight into the dynamics of ferrofluids and find practical application in the design of devices that take advantage of the magnetoviscous effect and inevitably must deal with changes in the applied magnetic field and deformation. In this contribution Brownian dynamics simulations and a simple model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations are applied to explore the dependence of the transient magnetoviscosity for two cases: (I) a ferrofluid in a constant shear flow wherein the magnetic field is suddenly turned on, and (II) a ferrofluid in a constant magnetic field wherein the shear flow is suddenly started. Both simulations and analysis show that the transient approach to a steady state magnetoviscosity can be either monotonic or oscillatory depending on the relative magnitudes of the applied magnetic field and shear rate. - Research Highlights: →Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations were used to study the transient behavior of the magnetoviscosity of ferrofluids. →Damped and oscillatory approach to steady state magnetoviscosity was observed for step changes in shear rate and magnetic field. →A model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations qualitatively captured the damped and oscillatory features of the transient response →The transient behavior is due to the interplay of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and Brownian torques on the suspended particles.

  11. Ultrafast Degenerate Transient Lens Spectroscopy in Semiconductor Nanosctructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontyev A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the non-resonant excitation and probing of the nonlinear refractive index change in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor quantum dots through degenerate transient lens spectroscopy. The signal oscillates at the center laser field frequency, and the envelope of the former in quantum dots is distinctly different from the one in bulk sample. We discuss the applicability of this technique for polarization state probing in semiconductor media with femtosecond temporal resolution.

  12. Pressure transients across HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.; Reynolds, G.; Ricketts, C.; Smith, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle facilities require ventilation for health and safety reasons. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are located within ventilation systems to trap radioactive dust released in reprocessing and fabrication operations. Pressure transients within the air cleaning systems may be such that the effectiveness of the filtration system is questioned under certain accident conditions. These pressure transients can result from both natural and man-caused phenomena: atmospheric pressure drop caused by a tornado or explosions and nuclear excursions initiate pressure pulses that could create undesirable conditions across HEPA filters. Tornado depressurization is a relatively slow transient as compared to pressure pulses that result from combustible hydrogen-air mixtures. Experimental investigation of these pressure transients across air cleaning equipment has been undertaken by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and New Mexico State University. An experimental apparatus has been constructed to impose pressure pulses across HEPA filters. The experimental equipment is described as well as preliminary results using variable pressurization rates. Two modes of filtration of an aerosol injected upstream of the filter is examined. A laser instrumentation for measuring the aerosol release, during the transient, is described

  13. Recent development of transient electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient electronics are an emerging class of electronics with the unique characteristic to completely dissolve within a programmed period of time. Since no harmful byproducts are released, these electronics can be used in the human body as a diagnostic tool, for instance, or they can be used as environmentally friendly alternatives to existing electronics which disintegrate when exposed to water. Thus, the most crucial aspect of transient electronics is their ability to disintegrate in a practical manner and a review of the literature on this topic is essential for understanding the current capabilities of transient electronics and areas of future research. In the past, only partial dissolution of transient electronics was possible, however, total dissolution has been achieved with a recent discovery that silicon nanomembrane undergoes hydrolysis. The use of single- and multi-layered structures has also been explored as a way to extend the lifetime of the electronics. Analytical models have been developed to study the dissolution of various functional materials as well as the devices constructed from this set of functional materials and these models prove to be useful in the design of the transient electronics.

  14. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  15. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, F.A.; El Messiry, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  16. Transient Radiation Darkening Features in VISAR Window materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.D.; Moy, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied and characterized radiation-induced changes in the index of refraction of materials used in Z experiments. Interferometric measurements of the radiation-induced change in the real part, n, of the complex index of refraction, N = n + iK, have been made in lithium fluoride (LiF), sapphire, and fused silica samples. Our results indicate that the index changes are small, with δn/n ∼ 1 x 10 -5 /kGy. In addition, we have characterized the dose dependence of the radiation-induced transient radiation darkening (TRD) of these materials, which is related to K, the imaginary part of the refractive index. We have also measured time-resolved spectral profiles of TRD in LiF and sapphire, and have examined the results in terms of known color centers and possible colloid aggregation

  17. Índice térmico ambiental de produtividade para frangos de corte Environmental thermal index of productivity for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Medeiros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de desenvolver um índice térmico ambiental de produtividade para frangos de corte - IAPfc, que reúna, em um único valor, os efeitos da temperatura, umidade e velocidade do ar, conduziu-se um experimento com frangos Avian Farm, machos, criados de 1 a 21 dias de idade, em galpões convencionais com condições climáticas naturais e dos 22 aos 42 dias (abate em câmaras climáticas. Os tratamentos compreenderam combinações de 16, 20, 26, 32 e 36 ºC de temperatura (t, com 20, 34, 55, 76 e 90% de umidade relativa (u e 0; 0,6; 1,5; 2,4 e 3,0 m s-1 de velocidade do ar (v, sendo estas combinações feitas com base no delineamento composto central rotacional da metodologia de superfície de resposta. As dietas experimentais atenderam às exigências nutricionais, de acordo com cada fase de criação, e para todos os tratamentos. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: ganho de peso, consumo de ração diário, temperatura retal e freqüência respiratória, obtendo-se o modelo estatístico IAPfc = 45,6026 - 2,31072 t - 0,368331 u + 9,70922 v + 0,0549243 t² + 0,0012183 u² + 0,66329 v² + 0,0128968 tu - 0,300928 tv - 0,0595245 uv, baseado no desempenho animal e em parâmetros fisiológicos.In this study, the influence of temperature, relative humidity and air velocity in the development process of Avian Farm male chickens was analyzed in order to develop an environmental thermal index for productivity of broiler chickens - IAPfc. The chickens were first raised from 1 to 21 days of age in a conventional poultry-shed under natural conditions. Between 22nd and 42nd day (slaughter the chickens were kept in climatic chambers. The treatments consisted of combination of levels of variables: temperature (t 16, 20, 26, 32 and 36 ºC; relative humidity (u 20, 34, 55, 76 and 90%, and air velocity (v 0; 0.6; 1.5; 2.4 and 3.0 m s-1, according to the central rotatable composite design of the response surface methodology. The experimental diets attained

  18. HEDL experimental transient overpower program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikido, T.; Culley, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    HEDL is conducting a series of experiments to evaluate the performance of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) prototypic fuel pins up to the point of cladding breach. A primary objective of the program is to demonstrate the adequacy of fuel pin and Plant Protective System (PPS) designs for terminated transients. Transient tests of prototypic FFTF fuel pins previously irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) have demonstrated the adequacy of the PPS and fuel pin designs and indicate that a very substantial margin exists between PPS-terminated transients and that required to produce fuel pin cladding failure. Additional experiments are planned to extend the data base to high burnup, high fluence fuel pin specimens

  19. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  20. Transient analysis of DTT rakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.S.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model for the determination of the cross-sectionally averaged transient mass flux of a two-phase fluid flowing in a conduit instrumented by a Drag-Disk Turbine Transducer (DTT) Rake and a multibeam gamma densitometer. Parametric studies indicate that for a typical blowdown transient, dynamic effects such as rotor inertia can be important for the turbine-meter. In contrast, for the drag-disk, a frequency response analysis showed that the quasisteady solution is valid below a forcing frequency of about 10 Hz, which is faster than the time scale normally encountered during blowdowns. The model showed reasonably good agreement with full scale transient rake data, where the flow regimes were mostly homogeneous or stratified, thus indicating that the model is suitable for the analysis of a DTT rake. (orig.)

  1. Transient analysis of multicavity klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Ruth, R.D.

    1988-09-01

    We describe a model for analytic analysis of transients in multicavity klystron output power and phase. Cavities are modeled as resonant circuits, while bunching of the beam is modeled using linear space-charge wave theory. Our analysis has been implemented in a computer program which we use in designing multicavity klystrons with stable output power and phase. We present as examples transient analysis of a relativistic klystron using a magnetic pulse compression modulator, and of a conventional klystron designed to use phase shifting techniques for RF pulse compression. 4 refs., 4 figs

  2. Transient formation of forbidden lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmej, F.B.; Rosmej, O.N.

    1996-01-01

    An explanation of anomalously long time scales in the transient formation of forbidden lines is proposed. The concept is based on a collisionally induced density dependence of the relaxation times of metastable level populations in transient plasma. Generalization leads to an incorporation of diffusion phenomena. We demonstrate this new concept for the simplest atomic system: the He-like isoelectronic sequence. A new interpretation of the observed long duration and anomalously high intensity of spin-forbidden emission in hot plasmas is given. (author)

  3. Transient formation of forbidden lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F.B. [Bochum Univ., Ruhr (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik V; Rosmej, O.N. [VNIIFTRI, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). MISDC

    1996-05-14

    An explanation of anomalously long time scales in the transient formation of forbidden lines is proposed. The concept is based on a collisionally induced density dependence of the relaxation times of metastable level populations in transient plasma. Generalization leads to an incorporation of diffusion phenomena. We demonstrate this new concept for the simplest atomic system: the He-like isoelectronic sequence. A new interpretation of the observed long duration and anomalously high intensity of spin-forbidden emission in hot plasmas is given. (author).

  4. Emulsification index of petroleum products by bacteria isolated from mangrove; Taxa de emulsificacao de derivados do petroleo por bacterias isoladas de mangue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepsky, Natascha; Queiroz, Fernanda; Barcelos, Mabel Araujo de; Fontana, Luis Francisco; Bittencourt, Jose Augusto Pires; Pimenta, Alessandro L.; Silva, Frederico Sobrinho da; Bispo, Maria das Gracas Silveira; Crapez, Mirian Araujo Carlos [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha]. E-mail: mirian@vm.uff.br

    2003-07-01

    Oil spillage during ship transportation or at gas stations may be deleterious to environment due to its affinity for organic matter and its prompt distribution over the ground water surface, limiting bioremediation. The usage of bacterial surfactants can enhance the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from the impacted area. Thus, the study of bacterial emulsification is relevant for improved environmental decontamination programs. Three Bacillus spp. were isolated from mangrove sediment of APA de Guapimirim -RJ, a protection area previously impacted with petroleum hydrocarbon. Emulsification index was quantified from gasoline, kerosene and Arabian light. The bacteria showed a high emulsification index, especially for gasoline, that seemed to be related to its biomass. Our results indicated a possible utilization of this biosurfactant in the environmental remediation on areas impacted with gasoline or Arabian light. (author)

  5. MODELLING OF NON-ROAD TRANSIENT CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kotus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the modeling of NRTC (Non-Road Transient Cycle test procedure based on previously measured characteristics of fuel consumption, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrocarbons (HC, nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulates (PM production. It makes possible to compare the current technical condition of an internal combustion engine of an agricultural tractor with its previous state or other tractor’s engine. Based on measured characteristics, it is also possible to model any other cycle without further measurements (NRSC test procedure, cycle for specific conditions – mountain tractor, etc.. The result may thus contribute to improving the environment by reducing the production of harmful substances emitted into the air and save money due to reduced fuel consumption.

  6. Transient attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied

  7. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    401–406. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 401. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal. P K KHARE*, P L JAIN† and R K PANDEY‡. Department of Postgraduate Studies & Research in Physics & Electronics, Rani Durgavati University,. Jabalpur 482 001, India. †Department of Physics, Government PG College, Damoh 470 ...

  8. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  9. Fuel rod behaviour during transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, H.; Haste, T.J.; Cameron, R.F.; Sinclair, J.E.

    1982-04-01

    The fuel pin performance code SLEUTH, the transient codes FRAP-T5 and TRAFIC and the clad deformation code CANSWEL-2 are described. It is shown how the codes treat gas release, pin cooling, cladding deformation and interaction, gap conductance etc. The materials properties used are indicated. (author)

  10. Simulation Model of a Transient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens; Sørensen, Poul; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation model of a controller that enables an active-stall wind turbine to ride through transient faults. The simulated wind turbine is connected to a simple model of a power system. Certain fault scenarios are specified and the turbine shall be able to sustain operati...

  11. Stationary and Transient Response Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen

    1982-01-01

    The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...

  12. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  13. [Transient amnesia in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellal, François

    2006-03-01

    The two main aetiologies of transient amnesia in the elderly are idiopathic transient global amnesia (TGA) and iatrogenic or toxic amnesia. Vascular and epileptic amnesia are less common. According to the literature, transient psychogenic amnesia, which is a frequent cause of amnesia at age 30 to 50, is very rare in the elderly. TGA is the prototypical picture of transient amnesia. It occurs more often after age 50, with no identified cause, even if some authors accept emotional stress or minor head trauma as occasional precipitants. The mechanism of TGA remains a matter of discussion. It may be the consequence of a spreading depression similar to that described in migraine with aura, but other arguments support an ischemic mechanism. Iatrogenic amnesias are mainly caused by benzodiazepines (BZs) or anticholinergics. The former may occur in a non-anxious subject, who is not a usual consumer of BZ and takes a single dose. The latter are more often due to a hypersensitivity to anticholinergic drugs, in particular in patients presenting with a covert, incipient Alzheimer's disease. A vascular origin must be considered when amnesia is accompanied by other neurological symptoms, and when the regression of the amnesic disorder is slow, lasting several days. It results from lesions involving various mechanisms and locations, mainly subcortical. Partial seizures, most often mesio-temporal, more rarely frontal, may be the cause of transient amnesia in the elderly, in the absence of a past history of epilepsy. The red flag supportive of an epileptic origin is the repetition of stereotyped amnesic episodes. EEG demonstration of seizures may be difficult and the response to antiepileptic drugs effective on partial seizures is usually good.

  14. Research of the transient management in TQNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Longzhang; Lin Chuanqing

    2008-01-01

    Transient management is the basic technical subject in nuclear power plant. Since the Third Qinshan nuclear power company (TQNPC) successful completes the commissioning in 2003, the transient management work start at the transient management item selection and the flow definition. Now TQNPC have a complete transient management system and the management flow. In the last two years, TNQPC have finished the historic transient data collection for two units, and confirmed that the plant's key systems and equipments are at safe state. The development of the transient management subject would build a reliable foundation for the plant safe operation, plant lifetime management and periodic safety review. (author)

  15. The transient reaction characteristic of piperonal and anthraquinone derivative: a pulse radiolytic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianhua; Lin Weizhen; Wang Wenfeng; Yao Side

    2006-01-01

    Piperonal belongs to naturally organic compound and anthraquinone-2-sulfate is a important anthraquinone derivative. In this work, the transient reaction characteristic of piperonal and anthraquinone derivative has been investigated. The transient absorption spectra of the product from electron transfer reaction between piperonal and anthraquinone-2-sulfate was obtained, the electron transfer between electron donor and acceptor was observed directly. (authors)

  16. Sleep modifications in acute transient global amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Frisullo, Giovanni; Marano, Giuseppe; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Vollono, Catello; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2013-09-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary memory loss characterized by an abrupt onset of antero-grade and retrograde amnesia, totally reversible. Since sleep plays a major role in memory consolidation, and in the storage of memory-related traces into the brain cortex, the aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate changes in sleep macro-structure in TGA; (2) to assess modifications in sleep micro-structure in TGA, with particular reference to the arousal EEG and to cyclic alternating pattern (CAP); (3) to compare sleep parameters in TGA patients with a control group of patients with acute ischemic events ("minor stroke" or transient ischemic attack [TIA]) clinically and neuroradiologically "similar" to the TGA. TGA GROUP: 17 patients, (8 men and 9 women, 60.2 ± 12.5 years). Stroke or TIA (SoT) group: 17 patients hospitalized in the Stroke Unit for recent onset of minor stroke or TIA with hemispheric localization; healthy controls (HC) group: 17 healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex. Patients and controls underwent full-night polysomnography. In the multivariate analysis (conditions TGA, SoT, and HC) a significant effect of the condition was observed for sleep efficiency index, number of awakenings longer 1 min, REM latency, CAP time, and CAP rate. TGA and SoT differed only for CAP time and CAP rate, which were lower in the TGA group. Microstructural modification associated with tga could be consequent to: (1) hippocampal dysfunction and memory impairment; (2) impairment of arousal-related structures (in particular, cholinergic pathways); (3) emotional distress.

  17. Index of cyber integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  18. Nuclear power plant transients: where are we

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, D.

    1984-05-01

    This document is in part a postconference review and summary of the American Nuclear Society sponsored Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors Conference held in Jackson, Wyoming, September 26-29, 1983, and in part a reflection upon the issues of plant transients and their impact on the viability of nuclear power. This document discusses state-of-the-art knowledge, deficiencies, and future directions in the plant transients area as seen through this conference. It describes briefly what was reported in this conference, emphasizes areas where it is felt there is confidence in the nuclear industry, and also discusses where the experts did not have a consensus. Areas covered in the document include major issues in operational transients, transient management, transient events experience base, the status of the analytical tools and their capabilities, probabilistic risk assessment applications in operational transients, and human factors impact on plant transients management

  19. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Akira; Rondoni, Lamberto; Botrugno, Antonio; Pizzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call ''transient osmosis . We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Fast thermal transients on valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferjancic, M.; Stok, B.; Halilovic, M.; Koc, P.; Mole, N.; Otrin, Z.; Kotar, A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the regulatory body methods to supervise nuclear safety of a nuclear power plant is a review of plant modifications and evaluation of their impact on plant operating experience. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) licensed in April 2003 the use of leak-before-break (LBB) methodology in the Krsko NPP for the primary loop including surge line and connecting pipelines with minimal diameter of 6 inch. The SNSA decision based also on fracture mechanics analyses that include direct pipe failure mechanisms such as water hammer, creep damage, erosion and corrosion, fatigue and environmental conditions over the entire life of the plant. The evaluation of the operating transients pointed out, that presumed loadings, used for the LBB analysis, did not incorporate all the fast thermal transients data. For that purpose the SNSA requested Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FS) in Ljubljana to perform additional analyses. The results of the analysis shall confirm the validity of the LBB analysis. (author)

  1. Pressure transient in liquid lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.G.; Wang, X.Q.

    1995-01-01

    The pressure surge that results from a step change of flow in liquid pipelines, commonly known as water hammer, was analyzed by an eigenfunction method. A differential-integral Pressure wave equation and a linearized velocity equation were derived from the equations of mass and momentum conservation. Waveform distortion due to viscous dissipation and pipe-wall elastic expansion is characterized by a dimensionless transmission number K. The pressure surge condition, which is mathematically singular, was used in the solution procedure. The exact solutions from numerical calculation of the differential-integral equation provide a complete Pressure transient in the pipe. The problems are also calculated With the general-purpose computer code COMMIX, which solves the exact mass conservation equation and Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions were compared with published experimental results, and agreement was good. The effect of turbulence on the pressure transient is discussed in the light of COMMIX calculational results

  2. Superresolution microscopy with transient binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Julia; Raab, Mario; Holzmeister, Susanne; Schmitt-Monreal, Daniel; Grohmann, Dina; He, Zhike; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2016-06-01

    For single-molecule localization based superresolution, the concentration of fluorescent labels has to be thinned out. This is commonly achieved by photophysically or photochemically deactivating subsets of molecules. Alternatively, apparent switching of molecules can be achieved by transient binding of fluorescent labels. Here, a diffusing dye yields bright fluorescent spots when binding to the structure of interest. As the binding interaction is weak, the labeling is reversible and the dye ligand construct diffuses back into solution. This approach of achieving superresolution by transient binding (STB) is reviewed in this manuscript. Different realizations of STB are discussed and compared to other localization-based superresolution modalities. We propose the development of labeling strategies that will make STB a highly versatile tool for superresolution microscopy at highest resolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    . The chapter ends by proposing a systematic method that can be used when doing the insulation co-ordination study for a line, as well as the modelling requirements, both modelling depth and modelling detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic...... typically used for the screens of cables (both-ends bonding and cross-boding) and also presents methods that can be used to estimate the maximum current of a cable for different types of soils, i.e. thermal calculations. The end of the chapter introduces the shunt reactor, which is an important element...... detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic example....

  4. Remote Sensing of Leaf Area Index from LiDAR Height Percentile Metrics and Comparison with MODIS Product in a Selectively Logged Tropical Forest Area in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important parameter to describe the capacity of forests to intercept light and thus affects the microclimate and photosynthetic capacity of canopies. In general, tropical forests have a higher leaf area index and it is a challenge to estimate LAI in a forest with a very dense canopy. In this study, it is assumed that the traditional Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived fractional vegetation cover (fCover has weak relationship with leaf area index in a dense forest. We propose a partial least squares (PLS regression model using the height percentile metrics derived from airborne LiDAR data to estimate the LAI of a dense forest. Ground inventory and airborne LiDAR data collected in a selectively logged tropical forest area in Eastern Amazonia are used to map LAI from the plot level to the landscape scale. The results indicate that the fCover, derived from the first return or the last return, has no significant correlations with the ground-based LAI. The PLS model evaluated by the leave-one-out validation shows that the estimated LAI is significantly correlated with the ground-based LAI with an R2 of 0.58 and a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.13. A data comparison indicates that the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS LAI underestimates the landscape-level LAI by about 22%. The MODIS quality control data show that in the selected tile, the cloud state is not the primary factor affecting the MODIS LAI performance; rather, the LAI from the main radiative transfer (RT algorithm contributes much to the underestimation of the LAI in the tropical forest. In addition, the results show that the LiDAR-based LAI has a better response to the logging activities than the MODIS-based LAI, and that the leaf area reduction caused by logging is about 13%. In contrast, the MODIS-based LAI exhibits no apparent spatial correlation with the LiDAR-based LAI. It is suggested that the main algorithm of MODIS should be

  5. Applications of transient annealing to solar cell processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentini, G.G. (C.N.R. Istituto LAMEL, Bologna (Italy))

    1983-01-01

    The economical reasons supporting the introduction of transient annealing in solar cell manufacturing are briefly discussed. Such techniques may play an important role, as they are compatible with the request of high throughput, automated processing together with the high quality of the p-n junction which are necessary for large scale economical production of photovoltaic energy. A survey of the applications of the different transient annealing techniques to solar cell processing has been developed by comparing in detail the results obtained up to now the case of solid and liquid phase transient annealing, associated with dry techniques such as Ion Implantation or dopant deposition on the wafer surface. The possibility of using laser pulses for the formation of the p-n junction by incorporation of dopant atoms from a suitable gaseous environment, has also been examined.

  6. LLL transient-electromagnetics-measurement facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Miller, E.K.; Hudson, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    The operation and hardware of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's transient-electromagnetics (EM)-measurement facility are described. The transient-EM range is useful for determining the time-domain transient responses of structures to incident EM pulses. To illustrate the accuracy and utility of the EM-measurement facility, actual experimental measurements are compared to numerically computed values

  7. Learning from anticipated and abnormal plant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, B.

    1983-01-01

    A report is given of the American Nuclear Society topical meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Transients in Light Water Reactors held in Jackson, Wyoming in September 1983. Industry involvement in the evaluation of operating experience, human error contributions, transient management, thermal hydraulic modelling, the role of probabilistic risk assessment and the cost of transient incidents are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. A transient absorption study of allophycocyanin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transient dynamics of allophycocyanin trimers and monomers are observed by using the pump-probe, transient absorption technique. The origin of spectral components of the transient absorption spectra is discussed in terms of both kinetics and spectroscopy. We find that the energy gap between the ground and excited ...

  9. Adaptive sampling of AEM transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Massa, Domenico; Florio, Giovanni; Viezzoli, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the sampling of the electromagnetic transient as acquired by airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems. Typically, the sampling of the electromagnetic transient is done using a fixed number of gates whose width grows logarithmically (log-gating). The log-gating has two main benefits: improving the signal to noise (S/N) ratio at late times, when the electromagnetic signal has amplitudes equal or lower than the natural background noise, and ensuring a good resolution at the early times. However, as a result of fixed time gates, the conventional log-gating does not consider any geological variations in the surveyed area, nor the possibly varying characteristics of the measured signal. We show, using synthetic models, how a different, flexible sampling scheme can increase the resolution of resistivity models. We propose a new sampling method, which adapts the gating on the base of the slope variations in the electromagnetic (EM) transient. The use of such an alternative sampling scheme aims to get more accurate inverse models by extracting the geoelectrical information from the measured data in an optimal way.

  10. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2010-05-06

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution.

  11. Cortical computations via transient attractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver L C Rourke

    Full Text Available The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories. Earlier work that has explored this method has done so by emphasizing one attractor from a limited, pre-defined set. Here, we describe an alternative, a Transient Attractor network, which can learn any pattern presented to it, store several simultaneously, and robustly recall them on demand using targeted probes in a manner reminiscent of Hopfield networks. We hypothesize that such functionality could be usefully embedded within sensory cortex, and allow for a flexibly-gated short-term memory, as well as conferring the ability of the network to perform automatic de-noising, and separation of input signals into distinct perceptual objects. We demonstrate that the stored information can be refreshed to extend storage time, is not sensitive to noise in the system, and can be turned on or off by simple neuromodulation. The diverse capabilities of transient attractors, as well as their resemblance to many features observed in sensory cortex, suggest the possibility that their actions might underlie neural processing in many sensory areas.

  12. Cortical computations via transient attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, Oliver L C; Butts, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories. Earlier work that has explored this method has done so by emphasizing one attractor from a limited, pre-defined set. Here, we describe an alternative, a Transient Attractor network, which can learn any pattern presented to it, store several simultaneously, and robustly recall them on demand using targeted probes in a manner reminiscent of Hopfield networks. We hypothesize that such functionality could be usefully embedded within sensory cortex, and allow for a flexibly-gated short-term memory, as well as conferring the ability of the network to perform automatic de-noising, and separation of input signals into distinct perceptual objects. We demonstrate that the stored information can be refreshed to extend storage time, is not sensitive to noise in the system, and can be turned on or off by simple neuromodulation. The diverse capabilities of transient attractors, as well as their resemblance to many features observed in sensory cortex, suggest the possibility that their actions might underlie neural processing in many sensory areas.

  13. Empirical Study on Total Factor Productive Energy Efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region-Analysis based on Malmquist Index and Window Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Ding, Shuai; An, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies the energy efficiency of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to finds out the trend of energy efficiency in order to improve the economic development quality of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Based on Malmquist index and window analysis model, this paper estimates the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region empirically by using panel data in this region from 1991 to 2014, and provides the corresponding political recommendations. The empirical result shows that, the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased from 1991 to 2014, mainly relies on advances in energy technology or innovation, and obvious regional differences in energy efficiency to exist. Throughout the window period of 24 years, the regional differences of energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shrank. There has been significant convergent trend in energy efficiency after 2000, mainly depends on the diffusion and spillover of energy technologies.

  14. The study of stability and changes poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), coefficient of the (Polyen Index) in burger production of Kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) during storage at - 18 °C

    OpenAIRE

    Khanipour, Ali Asghar; Moradian Sorkhi, Fateme; Fahim Dejban, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    Berger is one of the most significant products as fish paste, now produced of red meat and red meat waste with different qualities, does not have much nutritional value .Using fish as an alternative to red meat, diversify and enhance the quality of nutritional value and the ability to use for all ages in the community of the aims of this study were , in addition the combined use of a cultured marine species is effective and to raise the index of unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids in the ...

  15. Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K.; Stetson, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

  16. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  17. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  18. The detection of transient directional couplings based on phase synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, T; Fell, J; Lehnertz, K, E-mail: twagner@uni-bonn.d [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    We extend recent approaches based on the concept of phase synchronization to enable the time-resolved investigation of directional relationships between coupled dynamical systems from short and transient noisy time series. For our approach, we consider an observed ensemble of a sufficiently large number of time series as multiple realizations of a process. We derive an index that quantifies the direction of transient interactions and assess its statistical significance using surrogate techniques. Analysing time series from noisy and chaotic systems, we demonstrate numerically the applicability and limitations of our approach. Our findings from an exemplary application to event-related brain activities underline the importance of our method for improving knowledge about the mechanisms underlying memory formation in humans.

  19. The detection of transient directional couplings based on phase synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, T; Fell, J; Lehnertz, K

    2010-01-01

    We extend recent approaches based on the concept of phase synchronization to enable the time-resolved investigation of directional relationships between coupled dynamical systems from short and transient noisy time series. For our approach, we consider an observed ensemble of a sufficiently large number of time series as multiple realizations of a process. We derive an index that quantifies the direction of transient interactions and assess its statistical significance using surrogate techniques. Analysing time series from noisy and chaotic systems, we demonstrate numerically the applicability and limitations of our approach. Our findings from an exemplary application to event-related brain activities underline the importance of our method for improving knowledge about the mechanisms underlying memory formation in humans.

  20. Dynamika przyrostu masy i produktywność stokłosy bezostnej i stokłosy uniolowatej przy zróżnicowanym nawożeniu azotem w doświadczeniu polowym. Cz. I. Wskaźniki produktywności i plony [Dynamics of mass increase and productivity of smooth brome grass and rescue grass with different nitrogen fertilization in field experiments. Part I. Indexes of productivity and yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Skrabka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of daily dry weight increment and assimilation area of the investigated plants the production indexes NAR, LAI and CGR and yields of dry weight were calculated for three years. The comparison of indexes and yields showed that the dynamics and mass increment of rescue grass are higher that those of smooth brome grass.

  1. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  2. Transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jackie Y L; Loh, Keh Chuan; Yeo, George S H; Chee, Yam Cheng

    2002-06-01

    To characterise the clinical, biochemical and thyroid antibody profile in women with transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum. Prospective observational study. Hospital inpatient gynaecological ward. Women admitted with hyperemesis gravidarum and found to have hyperthyroidism. Fifty-three women were admitted with hyperemesis gravidarum and were found to have hyperthyroidism. Each woman was examined for clinical signs of thyroid disease and underwent investigations including urea, creatinine, electrolytes, liver function test, thyroid antibody profile and serial thyroid function test until normalisation. Gestation at which thyroid function normalised, clinical and thyroid antibody profile and pregnancy outcome (birthweight, gestation at delivery and Apgar score at 5 minutes). Full data were available for 44 women. Free T4 levels normalised by 15 weeks of gestation in the 39 women with transient hyperthyroidism while TSH remained suppressed until 19 weeks of gestation. None of these women were clinically hyperthyroid. Thyroid antibodies were not found in most of them. Median birthweight in the infants of mothers who experienced weight loss of > 5% of their pre-pregnancy weight was lower compared with those of women who did not (P = 0.093). Five women were diagnosed with Graves' disease based on clinical features and thyroid antibody profile. In transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum, thyroid function normalises by the middle of the second trimester without anti-thyroid treatment. Clinically overt hyperthyroidism and thyroid antibodies are usually absent. Apart from a non-significant trend towards lower birthweights in the infants of mothers who experienced significant weight loss, pregnancy outcome was generally good. Routine assessment of thyroid function is unnecessary for women with hyperemesis gravidarum in the absence of any clinical features of hyperthyroidism.

  3. Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Efficiency and Productivity of County-level Public Hospitals Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis Model and Malmquist Index in Anhui, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Nian Li

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In 2010–2015, the relative service efficiency of 12 county-level public hospitals in Anhui Province showed a decreasing trend, and the service efficiency of each hospital changed. In the past 6 years, although some hospitals have been effective, the efficiency of the county-level public hospitals in Anhui Province has not improved significantly, and the total factor productivity has not been effectively improved. County-level public hospitals need to combine their own reality to find their own deficiencies.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 801 - 850 of 1011 ... ... heat transfer enhancement methods applied in parabolic trough ... Vol 35, No 2 (2016), REVIEW OF WIRELESS MIMO CHANNEL ... Vol 17, No 1 (1996), Simulation of Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 286 ... Vol 1 (1998), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Controller For Power System Transient Stability, Abstract ... Vol 21 (2015), An Analysis of Zooplankton Fauna Associated with Mangrove and Non-Mangrove Ecosystems in Mauritius ...

  7. Grounding modelling for transient overvoltage simulation in electric power transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno O, German; Valencia V, Jaime A; Villada, Fernando

    1992-01-01

    Grounding plays an important role in transmission line outages and consequently on electric energy transmission quality indexes. Fundamentals of an accurate modelling for transient behaviour analysis, particularly for the response of transmission lines to lightning, are presented. Also, a method to take into account the electromagnetic propagation guided by the grounding electrodes and finally to assess the grounding impedance in order to simulate the transmission line behaviour under lightning is presented. Analysis of impedance behaviour for diverse configurations and simulation results of over voltages on a real 220 kV line are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the method and of the computational program developed

  8. Stedy emission from recurrent transient pulsar 0535+26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchanda, R.K.; Bazzano, A.; Polcaro, V.F.; Padula, C.D.L.; Obertini, P.

    1984-01-01

    A steady hard X-ray emission between 20-100 keV was observed from the 104 sec pulsar 0535+26 during the quiescent phase of transient activity. The present observations corespond to the binary phase of 0.7 taking 110d as the binary period. The observed flux was comparable to approx.20 milli-crab and a power law spectrum with spectral index αapprox.1.2 fits the data, and significantly differs from the observed spectrum during the outburst

  9. The course of transient hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, A J; Cleary, P D; Sarnie, M K; Klerman, G L

    1993-03-01

    This study examined the longitudinal course of patients known to have had a previous episode of transient hypochondriasis. Twenty-two transiently hypochondriacal patients and 24 nonhypochondriacal patients from the same general medical clinic were reexamined after an average of 22 months with the use of self-report questionnaires, structured diagnostic interviews, and medical record review. The hypochondriacal patients continued to manifest significantly more hypochondriacal symptoms, more somatization, and more psychopathological symptoms at follow-up. They also reported significantly more amplification of bodily sensations and more functional disability and utilized more medical care. These differences persisted after control for differences in medical morbidity and marital status. Only one hypochondriacal patient, however, had a DSM-III-R diagnosis of hypochondriasis at follow-up. Multivariate analyses revealed that the only significant predictors of hypochondriacal symptoms at follow-up were hypochondriacal symptoms and the tendency to amplify bodily sensations at the baseline evaluation. Hypochondriacal symptoms appear to have some temporal stability: patients who experienced hypochondriacal episodes at the beginning of the study were significantly more hypochondriacal 2 years later than comparison patients. They were not, however, any more likely to develop DSM-III-R-defined hypochondriasis. Thus, hypochondriacal symptoms may be distinct from the axis I disorder. The data are also compatible with the hypothesis that preexisting amplification of bodily sensations is an important predictor of subsequent hypochondriacal symptoms.

  10. Transient global amnesia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel DR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David R Spiegel, Justin Smith, Ryan R Wade, Nithya Cherukuru, Aneel Ursani, Yuliya Dobruskina, Taylor Crist, Robert F Busch, Rahim M Dhanani, Nicholas Dreyer Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Abstract: Transient global amnesia (TGA is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of an extraordinarily large reduction of anterograde and a somewhat milder reduction of retrograde episodic long-term memory. Additionally, executive functions are described as diminished. Although it is suggested that various factors, such as migraine, focal ischemia, venous flow abnormalities, and epileptic phenomena, are involved in the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of TGA, the factors triggering the emergence of these lesions are still elusive. Recent data suggest that the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress plays a pivotal part in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an impairment of hippocampal function during TGA. In this review, we discuss clinical aspects, new imaging findings, and recent clinical–epidemiological data with regard to the phenotype, functional anatomy, and putative cellular mechanisms of TGA. Keywords: transient global amnesia, vascular, migraines, psychiatric

  11. Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makiko; Cashman, John R; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Trimethylaminuria, or fish odor syndrome, includes a transient or mild malodor caused by an excessive amount of malodorous trimethylamine as a result of body secretions. Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in self-reported subjects suffering from malodor and even in healthy women harboring functionally active flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Methods FMO3 metabolic capacity (conversion of trimethylamine to trimethylamine N-oxide) was defined as the urinary ratio of trimethylamine N-oxide to total trimethylamine. Results Self-reported Case (A) that was homozygous for inactive Arg500stop FMO3, showed decreased metabolic capacity of FMO3 (i.e., ~10% the unaffected metabolic capacity) during 120 days of observation. For Case (B) that was homozygous for common [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 polymorphisms, metabolic capacity of FMO3 was almost ~90%, except for a few days surrounding menstruation showing 90%) metabolic capacity, however, on days around menstruation the FMO3 metabolic capacity was decreased to ~60–70%. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function. PMID:17257434

  12. Prismatic Core Coupled Transient Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortensi, J.; Pope, M.A.; Strydom, G.; Sen, R.S.; DeHart, M.D.; Gougar, H.D.; Ellis, C.; Baxter, A.; Seker, V.; Downar, T.J.; Vierow, K.; Ivanov, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design concepts that have existed for some time. Several prismatic units have operated in the world (DRAGON, Fort St. Vrain, Peach Bottom) and one unit is still in operation (HTTR). The deterministic neutronics and thermal-fluids transient analysis tools and methods currently available for the design and analysis of PMRs have lagged behind the state of the art compared to LWR reactor technologies. This has motivated the development of more accurate and efficient tools for the design and safety evaluations of the PMR. In addition to the work invested in new methods, it is essential to develop appropriate benchmarks to verify and validate the new methods in computer codes. The purpose of this benchmark is to establish a well-defined problem, based on a common given set of data, to compare methods and tools in core simulation and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. The benchmark-working group is currently seeking OECD/NEA sponsorship. This benchmark is being pursued and is heavily based on the success of the PBMR-400 exercise.

  13. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...... at birth should not vary between countries. Finally the distributional assumptions are relaxed as compared to the assumptions made in an earlier work by the author. These assumptions concern the calculation of the life expectancy change due to the removal of an accident source. Moreover a simple public...... consistency problems with the standard power function expression of the LQI are pointed out. It is emphasized that the combination coefficient in the convex differential combination between the relative differential of the gross domestic product per capita and the relative differential of the expected life...

  14. A COMETHE version with transient capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van; Lebon, G.; Mathieu, P.

    1980-01-01

    A version of the COMETHE code is under development to simulate transient situations. This paper focuses on some aspects of the transient heat transfer models. Initially the coupling between transient heat transfer and other thermomechanical models is discussed. An estimation of the thermal characteristic times shows that the cladding temperatures are often in quasi-steady state. In order to reduce the computing time, calculations are therefore switched from a transient to a quasi-static numerical procedure as soon as such a quasi-equilibrium is detected. The temperature calculation is performed by use of the Lebon-Lambermont restricted variational principle, with piecewise polynoms as trial functions. The method has been checked by comparison with some exact results and yields good agreement for transient as well as for quasi-static situations. This method therefore provides a valuable tool for the simulation of the transient behaviour of nuclear reactor fuel rods. (orig.)

  15. Experience with transients in German NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindauer, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines reactor accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany based on the formal reporting system for licensee event reports (LERs) and a special investigation on all unplanned power variations in 3 PWRs. The significant transients experienced by BWR type reactors are analyzed. The main goal is to find weak points which caused the transient or influenced its course in an unfavorable way in order to improve the affected plant and others. The complete survey of all transients, with normally little or no safety relevance, allows statistical evaluations and the analysis of trends. It is concluded that significant transients were mainly experienced at older plants, whereas plants of an advanced design produced very few significant transients. The most frequent human errors which lead to transients are failure search in electronic systems and errors during design and commissioning

  16. Study on the transient properties of amorphous solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrity, Manu; Dhariwal, S. R.

    2016-05-01

    The transient response for the solar cell when switched off from steady-state can provide useful information about the quality of the material used for fabrication of the device. In this paper we shall discuss the photovoltaic transients of amorphous silicon solar cells when switched off from open circuit configuration and illuminated by electrical pulse. The open-circuit voltage (Voc) decay can be performed by two methods, by optical excitation and by electrical pulse. When one of carriers has a concentration much higher than the other the photoconductivity is dominated by majority carriers; in that case the Voc decay which depends on the np product can be used as complementary method for obtaining information about the minority carriers. Also the series resistance drop in an electrical Voc decay method can be used to obtain a IJ't product as an additional information regarding the material of the device.

  17. Evaluating the Welfare of Index Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min

    affects both the demand for the product and the welfare of individuals making take-up decisions. We study the impact of basis risk on insurance take-up and on expected welfare in a laboratory experiment with an insurance frame. We measure the expected welfare of index insurance to individuals while......Index insurance was conceived to be a product that would simplify the claim settlement process and make it more objective, reducing transaction costs and moral hazard. However, index insurance also exposes the insured to basis risk, which arises because there can be a mismatch between the index...... risks that are different from preferences exhibited for their actuarially-equivalent counterparts. We study the potential link between index insurance demand and attitudes towards compound risks. We test the hypothesis that the compound risk nature of index insurance induced by basis risk negatively...

  18. Transient analysis for resolving safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Layman, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) has a Generic Safety Analysis Program to help resolve high priority generic safety issues. This paper describes several high priority safety issues considered at NSAC and how they were resolved by transient analysis using thermal hydraulics and neutronics codes. These issues are pressurized thermal shock (PTS), anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and reactivity transients in light of the Chernobyl accident

  19. Analysis of transient signals by Wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, Rosani Libardi da; Silva, Aucyone A. da; Ting, Daniel K.S.; Oliveira Neto, Jose Messias de

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to apply the Wavelet Transform in transient signals. The Wavelet technique can outline the short time events that are not easily detected using traditional techniques. In this work, the Wavelet Transform is compared with Fourier Transform, by using simulated data and rotor rig data. This data contain known transients. The wavelet could follow all the transients, what do not happen to the Fourier techniques. (author)

  20. Instrument response during overpower transients at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, C.C.; Bauer, T.H.; Hill, D.J.; Froehle, P.H.; Klickman, A.E.; Tylka, J.P.; Doerner, R.C.; Wright, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A program to empirically analyze data residuals or noise to determine instrument response that occurs during in-pile transient tests is out-lined. As an example, thermocouple response in the Mark III loop during a severe overpower transient in TREAT is studied both in frequency space and in real-time. Time intervals studied included both constant power and burst portions of the power transient. Thermocouple time constants were computed. Benefits and limitations of the method are discussed

  1. Low temperature hot air drying of potato cubes subjected to osmotic dehydration and intermittent microwave: drying kinetics, energy consumption and product quality indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghannya, Jalal; Bozorghi, Somayyeh; Heshmati, Maryam Khakbaz

    2018-04-01

    Hot-air drying is a slow energy-extensive process. Use of intermittent microwave (IM) in hot-air (HA) drying of food products is characterized with advantages including reduced process time, energy saving, and improved final quality. In this study, the effect of IM-HA drying following an osmotic dehydration (OD) pretreatment was analyzed on qualitative and quantitative properties of the output (i.e. effective moisture diffusion coefficient (Deff), shrinkage, bulk density, rehydration and energy consumption). Temperature and airflow velocity were fixed at 40°C and 1 m/s, respectively. The process variables included sucrose solution concentration at five levels (0 or control, 10, 30, 50 and 70 w/w%), microwave output power at four levels (0 or control, 360, 600 and 900 W), and pulse ratio at four levels (1, 2, 3 and 4). Use of osmotic dehydration in combination with IM-HA drying reduced the drying time by up to about 54%. Increasing the osmotic solution concentration to 30% and using higher pulse ratios increased the Deff. The lowest shrinkage and bulk density as well as the highest rehydration belonged to the 900 W microwave power and pulse ratio of 4. The lowest energy consumption was observed when using the 900 W power level, showing 63.27% less consumption than the HA drying method.

  2. OPTICAL TRANSIENT DETECTOR (OTD) LIGHTNING V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Transient Detector (OTD) records optical measurements of global lightning events in the daytime and nighttime. The data includes individual point...

  3. Silent Aortic Dissection Presenting as Transient Locked-In Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadour, Wadih; Goldwasser, Brian; Biederman, Robert W.; Taffe, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection is a medical emergency. Without prompt recognition and treatment, the mortality rate is high. An atypical presentation makes timely diagnosis difficult, especially if the patient is experiencing no characteristic pain. Many patients with aortic dissection are reported to have presented with various neurologic manifestations, but none with only a presentation of transient locked-in syndrome. Herein, we report a case of completely painless aortic dissection in a woman who presented with a transient episode of anarthria, quadriplegia, and preserved consciousness. On physical examination, she had a 40-point difference in blood pressure between her left and right arms, and a loud diastolic murmur. The diagnosis of acute aortic dissection was reached via a combination of radiography, computed tomography, echocardiography, and a high index of clinical suspicion. The patient underwent emergency surgery and ultimately experienced a successful outcome. To our knowledge, this is the 1st report of aortic dissection that presented solely as locked-in syndrome. We suggest that silent aortic dissection be added to the differential diagnosis for transient locked-in syndrome. PMID:18941610

  4. Transient ischemic attack: diagnostic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messé, Steven R; Jauch, Edward C

    2008-08-01

    A transient ischemic attack portends significant risk of a stroke. Consequently, the diagnostic evaluation in the emergency department is focused on identifying high-risk causes so that preventive strategies can be implemented. The evaluation consists of a facilitated evaluation of the patient's metabolic, cardiac, and neurovascular systems. At a minimum, the following tests are recommended: fingerstick glucose level, electrolyte levels, CBC count, urinalysis, and coagulation studies; noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head; electrocardiography; and continuous telemetry monitoring. Vascular imaging studies, such as carotid ultrasonography, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography, should be performed on an urgent basis and prioritized according to the patient's risk stratification for disease. Consideration should be given for echocardiography if no large vessel abnormality is identified.

  5. Measurement of fast transient pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procaccia, Henri

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy, reliability and sensitivity of a pressure transducers define its principal static characteristics. When the quantity measured varies with time, the measurement carries a dynamic error and a delay depending on the frequency of this variation. Hence, when fast pressure changes in a fluid have to be determined, different kinds of pressure transducers can be used depending on their inherent dynamic characteristics which must be compared with those of the transient phenomenon to be analysed. The text describes the pressure transducers generally employed in industry for analysing such phenomenon and gives two practical applications developed in the EDF: the first submits the measurements and results of pump cavitation tests carried out at the Vitry II EDF power station; the second deals with hammer blows particularly noticed in nuclear power stations and required the use of transducers of exceptionally high performance such as strain gauge transducers and piezoelectric transducers (response time within 1m sec.) [fr

  6. Transient global amnesia after taking sibutramine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pin-Kuei; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Wang, Pao-Yu

    2010-03-01

    Sibutramine (Meridia in the United States, Reductil in Europe) is approved for weight reduction and weight maintenance. Although amnesia and seizure is listed as a reported adverse event of sibutramine in the US product information, our literature search in the PubMed website database found no published reports of theses adverse events. We report a 39-year-old healthy woman who had an episode of sudden memory loss lasting for several hours after taking sibutramine for 4 days. Cranial computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance angiography of the head all showed normal results. Electroencephalogram showed spike and wave complexes with phase reversal in the left mesial temporal area. Transient global amnesia was suspected clinically and transient epileptic amnesia provoked by sibutramine was also proposed. Three months after this episode, the follow-up electroencephalogram was normal. This patient did not take any anticonvulsant, and there were no more episodes of memory impairment. This case serves to emphasize that sibutramine which was used for weight reduction might induce transient global amnesia or provoke transient epileptic amnesia. Physicians should be careful to monitor for this adverse effect when sibutramine is prescribed.

  7. Transient photoconductivity in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpawenayo, P.

    1997-07-01

    Localized states in amorphous semiconductors are divided in disorder induced shallow trap levels and dangling bonds deep states. Dangling bonds are assumed here to be either neutral or charged and their energy distribution is a single gaussian. Here, it is shown analytically that transient photocurrent in amorphous semiconductors is fully controlled by charge carriers transitions between localized states for one part and tunneling hopping carriers on the other. Localized dangling bonds deep states act as non radiative recombination centres, while hopping tunnelling is assisted by the Coulomb interaction between defects sites. The half-width of defects distribution is the disorder parameter that determines the carrier hopping time between defects sites. The macroscopic time that explains the long decay response times observed will all types of amorphous semiconductors is duly thought to be temperature dependent. Basic equations developed by Longeaud and Kleider are solved for the general case of a semiconductor after photo-generation. It turns out that the transient photoconductivity decay has two components; one with short response times from carriers trap-release transitions between shallow levels and extended states and a hopping component made of inter-dependent exponentials whose time constants span in larger ranges depending on disorder. The photoconductivity hopping component appears as an additional term to be added to photocurrents derived from existing models. The results of the present study explain and complete the power law decay derived in the multiple trapping models developed 20 years ago only in the approximation of the short response time regime. The long response time regime is described by the hopping macroscopic time. The present model is verified for all samples of amorphous semiconductors known so far. Finally, it is proposed to improved the modulated photoconductivity calculation techniques by including the long-lasting hopping dark documents

  8. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  9. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  10. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  11. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  12. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  13. Robotic exoskeleton assessment of transient ischemic attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Simmatis

    Full Text Available We used a robotic exoskeleton to quantify specific patterns of abnormal upper limb motor behaviour in people who have had transient ischemic attack (TIA. A cohort of people with TIA was recruited within two weeks of symptom onset. All individuals completed a robotic-based assessment of 8 behavioural tasks related to upper limb motor and proprioceptive function, as well as cognitive function. Robotic task performance was compared to a large cohort of controls without neurological impairments corrected for the influence of age. Impairment in people with TIA was defined as performance below the 5th percentile of controls. Participants with TIA were also assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score, Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA of the arm, the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT, the Purdue pegboard test (PPB, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. Age-related white matter change (ARWMC, prior infarction and cella-media index (CMI were assessed from baseline CT scan that was performed within 24 hours of TIA. Acute infarction was assessed from diffusion-weighted imaging in a subset of people with TIA. Twenty-two people with TIA were assessed. Robotic assessment showed impaired upper limb motor function in 7/22 people with TIA patients and upper limb sensory impairment in 4/22 individuals. Cognitive tasks involving robotic assessment of the upper limb were completed in 13 participants, of whom 8 (61.5% showed significant impairment. Abnormal performance in the CMSA arm inventory was present in 12/22 (54.5% participants. ARWMC was 11.8 ± 6.4 and CMI was 5.4 ± 1.5. DWI was positive in 0 participants. Quantitative robotic assessment showed that people who have had a TIA display a spectrum of upper limb motor and sensory performance deficits as well as cognitive function deficits despite resolution of symptoms and no evidence of tissue infarction.

  14. Robotic exoskeleton assessment of transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmatis, Leif; Krett, Jonathan; Scott, Stephen H; Jin, Albert Y

    2017-01-01

    We used a robotic exoskeleton to quantify specific patterns of abnormal upper limb motor behaviour in people who have had transient ischemic attack (TIA). A cohort of people with TIA was recruited within two weeks of symptom onset. All individuals completed a robotic-based assessment of 8 behavioural tasks related to upper limb motor and proprioceptive function, as well as cognitive function. Robotic task performance was compared to a large cohort of controls without neurological impairments corrected for the influence of age. Impairment in people with TIA was defined as performance below the 5th percentile of controls. Participants with TIA were also assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA) of the arm, the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT), the Purdue pegboard test (PPB), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Age-related white matter change (ARWMC), prior infarction and cella-media index (CMI) were assessed from baseline CT scan that was performed within 24 hours of TIA. Acute infarction was assessed from diffusion-weighted imaging in a subset of people with TIA. Twenty-two people with TIA were assessed. Robotic assessment showed impaired upper limb motor function in 7/22 people with TIA patients and upper limb sensory impairment in 4/22 individuals. Cognitive tasks involving robotic assessment of the upper limb were completed in 13 participants, of whom 8 (61.5%) showed significant impairment. Abnormal performance in the CMSA arm inventory was present in 12/22 (54.5%) participants. ARWMC was 11.8 ± 6.4 and CMI was 5.4 ± 1.5. DWI was positive in 0 participants. Quantitative robotic assessment showed that people who have had a TIA display a spectrum of upper limb motor and sensory performance deficits as well as cognitive function deficits despite resolution of symptoms and no evidence of tissue infarction.

  15. Index Grids - MDC_STLIndex_poly

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon coverage of Miami-Dade County Single Tile Library (STL) Index layer, which indicates allowable data extent house in the production environment. Boundaries...

  16. Plasma transport studies using transient techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Brower, D.L.; Efthimion, P.

    1991-01-01

    Selected topics from the Transient Transport sessions of the Transport Task Force Workshop, held February 19-23, 1990, in Hilton Head, South Carolina are summarized. Presentations on sawtooth propagation, ECH modulation, particle modulation, and H-mode transitions are included. The research results presented indicated a growing theoretical understanding and experimental sophistication in the application of transient techniques to transport studies. (Author)

  17. The LOFAR Transients Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, B.; Fender, R.; Wijers, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Transients Key Science Project (TKP) is one of six Key Science Projects of the next generation radio telescope LOFAR. Its aim is the study of transient and variable low-frequency radio sources with an extremely broad science case ranging from relativistic jet sources to pulsars, exoplanets,

  18. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  19. Synchronizing noisy nonidentical oscillators by transient uncoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, Aditya, E-mail: adityat@iitk.ac.in; Mannattil, Manu, E-mail: mmanu@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Schröder, Malte, E-mail: malte@nld.ds.mpg.de [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc, E-mail: timme@nld.ds.mpg.de [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Physics, Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Chakraborty, Sagar, E-mail: sagarc@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Synchronization is the process of achieving identical dynamics among coupled identical units. If the units are different from each other, their dynamics cannot become identical; yet, after transients, there may emerge a functional relationship between them—a phenomenon termed “generalized synchronization.” Here, we show that the concept of transient uncoupling, recently introduced for synchronizing identical units, also supports generalized synchronization among nonidentical chaotic units. Generalized synchronization can be achieved by transient uncoupling even when it is impossible by regular coupling. We furthermore demonstrate that transient uncoupling stabilizes synchronization in the presence of common noise. Transient uncoupling works best if the units stay uncoupled whenever the driven orbit visits regions that are locally diverging in its phase space. Thus, to select a favorable uncoupling region, we propose an intuitive method that measures the local divergence at the phase points of the driven unit's trajectory by linearizing the flow and subsequently suppresses the divergence by uncoupling.

  20. Transient survivability of LMR oxide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.T.; Pitner, A.L.; Bard, F.E.; Culley, G.E.; Hunter, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel pin integrity during transient events must be assessed for both the core design and safety analysis phases of a reactor project. A significant increase in the experience related to limits of integrity for oxide fuel pins in transient overpower events has been realized from testing of fuel pins irradiated in FFTF and PFR. Fourteen FFTF irradiated fuel pins were tested in TREAT, representing a range of burnups, overpower ramp rates and maximum overpower conditions. Results of these tests along with similar testing in the PFR/TREAT program, provide a demonstration of significant safety margins for oxide fuel pins. Useful information applied in analytical extrapolation of fuel pin test data have been developed from laboratory transient tests on irradiated fuel cladding (FCTT) and on unirradiated fuel pellet deformation. These refinements in oxide fuel transient performance are being applied in assessment of transient capabilities of long lifetime fuel designs using ferritic cladding

  1. Characterizing transient noise in the LIGO detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, L. K.

    2018-05-01

    Data from the LIGO detectors typically contain many non-Gaussian noise transients which arise due to instrumental and environmental conditions. These non-Gaussian transients can be an issue for the modelled and unmodelled transient gravitational-wave searches, as they can mask or mimic a true signal. Data quality can change quite rapidly, making it imperative to track and find new sources of transient noise so that data are minimally contaminated. Several examples of transient noise and the tools used to track them are presented. These instances serve to highlight the diverse range of noise sources present at the LIGO detectors during their second observing run. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  2. Nuclear reactors transients identification and classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Paulo Henrique

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the study and test of a system capable to identify and classify transients in thermo-hydraulic systems, using a neural network technique of the self-organizing maps (SOM) type, with the objective of implanting it on the new generations of nuclear reactors. The technique developed in this work consists on the use of multiple networks to do the classification and identification of the transient states, being each network a specialist at one respective transient of the system, that compete with each other using the quantization error, that is a measure given by this type of neural network. This technique showed very promising characteristics that allow the development of new functionalities in future projects. One of these characteristics consists on the potential of each network, besides responding what transient is in course, could give additional information about that transient. (author)

  3. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  4. Clinical applications of transient elastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Sik Jung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease represents a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As prognosis and management depend mainly on the amount and progression of liver fibrosis, accurate quantification of liver fibrosis is essential for therapeutic decision-making and follow-up of chronic liver diseases. Even though liver biopsy is the gold standard for evaluation of liver fibrosis, non-invasive methods that could substitute for invasive procedures have been investigated during past decades. Transient elastography (TE, FibroScan® is a novel non-invasive method for assessment of liver fibrosis with chronic liver disease. TE can be performed in the outpatient clinic with immediate results and excellent reproducibility. Its diagnostic accuracy for assessment of liver fibrosis has been demonstrated in patients with chronic viral hepatitis; as a result, unnecessary liver biopsy could be avoided in some patients. Moreover, due to its excellent patient acceptance, TE could be used for monitoring disease progression or predicting development of liver-related complications. This review aims at discussing the usefulness of TE in clinical practice.

  5. Defect detection using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaki Umar; Ibrahim Ahmad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2008-08-01

    An experimental research had been carried out to study the potential of transient thermography in detecting sub-surface defect of non-metal material. In this research, eight pieces of bakelite material were used as samples. Each samples had a sub-surface defect in the circular shape with different diameters and depths. Experiment was conducted using one-sided Pulsed Thermal technique. Heating of samples were done using 30 kWatt adjustable quartz lamp while infra red (IR) images of samples were recorded using THV 550 IR camera. These IR images were then analysed with ThermofitTMPro software to obtain the Maximum Absolute Differential Temperature Signal value, ΔΤ m ax and the time of its appearance, τ m ax (ΔΤ). Result showed that all defects were able to be detected even for the smallest and deepest defect (diameter = 5 mm and depth = 4 mm). However the highest value of Differential Temperature Signal (ΔΤ m ax), were obtained at defect with the largest diameter, 20 mm and at the shallowest depth, 1 mm. As a conclusion, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique to detect sub-surface defects of bakelite material is proportionately related with the size of defect diameter if the defects are at the same depth. On the contrary, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique inversely related with the depth of defect if the defects have similar diameter size. (Author)

  6. Transient shocks beyond the heliopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermo, R L; Pogorelov, N V; Burlaga, L F

    2015-01-01

    The heliopause is a rich, dynamic surface affected by the time-dependent solar wind. Stream interactions due to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), corotating interaction regions (CIRs), and other transient phenomena are known to merge producing global merged interaction regions (GMIRs). Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) show that GMIRs, as well other time-dependent structures in the solar wind, may produce compression/rarefaction waves and shocks in the LISM behind the heliopause. These shocks may initiate wave activity observed by the Voyager spacecraft. The magnetometer onboard Voyager 1 indeed observed a few structures that may be interpreted as shocks. We present numerical simulations of such shocks in the year of 2000, when both Voyager spacecraft were in the supersonic solar wind region, and in 2012, when Voyager 1 observed traveling shocks. In the former case, Voyager observations themselves provide time- dependent boundary conditions in the solar wind. In the latter case, we use OMNI data at 1 AU to analyze the plasma and magnetic field behavior after Voyager 1 crossed the heliospheric boundary. Numerical results are compared with spacecraft observations. (paper)

  7. Transient phenomena in multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    This book is devoted to formulation of the two-phase system. Emphasis is given to classical instantaneous equations of mass momentum and energy for local conditions and respective averaging procedures and their relevance to the structure of transfer laws. In formulating an equation for a two-velocity continuum, two-phase dispersed flow, two-velocity and local inertial effects associated with contraction and expansion of the mixture have been considered. Particular attention is paid to the effects of interface topology and area concentration as well as the latter's dependence on interfacial transfer laws. Also covered are low bubble concentrations in basic nonuniform unsteady flow where interactions between bubbles are negligible but where the effects of bubbles must still be considered. Special emphasis has been given to the pairwise interaction of the bubble and respective hydrodynamic equations describing the motion of a pair of spherical bubbles through a liquid This book introduces turbulence phenomena in two-phase flow and related problems of phase distribution in two-phase flow. This includes an extensive survey of turbulence and phase distribution models in transient two-phase flow. It is shown that if the turbulent structure of the continuous phase of bubbly two-phase is either measured or can be predicted, then the observed lateral phase distribution can be determined by using an multidimensional two-fluid model in which all lateral forces are properly modeled

  8. Characterization and Simulation of Transient Vibrations Using Band Limited Temporal Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Smallwood

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is described to characterize shocks (transient time histories in terms of the Fourier energy spectrum and the temporal moments of the shock passed through a contiguous set of band pass filters. The product model is then used to generate of a random process as simulations that in the mean will have the same energy and moments as the characterization of the transient event.

  9. Diffraction of white-light supercontinuum by femtosecond laser-induced transient grating in carbon bisulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huang; Yan-Qiang, Yang; Ying-Hui, Wang; Zhi-Ren, Zheng; Wen-Hui, Su

    2010-01-01

    Experiments on fs laser-induced transient grating (LITG) in carbon bisulfide (CS 2 ) are carried out to explore the chirp characteristics of a white-light supercontinuum (SC) generated by a 800-nm, 160-fs laser pulse in a 4-mm thick Al 2 O 3 crystal. Two orders of diffraction signals of SC by fs LITG in CS 2 are observed, demonstrating that both the third-order process and the fifth-order process are present simultaneously. The experimental results also imply that the formation of an fs transient refractive-index grating in CS 2 is mainly due to the electronic polarization process. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  10. Fission gas behavior during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of non-equilibrium fission in fuel elements undergoing fast thermal transients is analyzed. To facilitate the analysis, a new variable, the equilibrium variable (EV) is defined. This variable, together with bubble radius, completely specifies a bubble with respect to its size and equilibrium condition. The analysis is coded using a two-variable (radius and EV) multigroup numerical approximation that accepts as input the time-temperature history, the time-fission rate history, and the time-thermal gradient history of the fuel element. Studies were performed to test the code for convergence with respect to the time interval and the number of groups chosen. For a series of transient simulation studies, the measurements obtained at HEDL (microscopic examination of intragranular porosity in oxide fuel transient-tested in TREAT) are used. Two different transient histories were selected; the first, a high-temperature transient (HTT) with a peak at 2477 0 K and the second, a low-temperature transient (LTT) with a peak-temperature at 2000 0 K. The LTT was simulated for three different conditions: Bubbles were allowed to move via (a) only biased migration, (b) via random migration, and (c) via both mechanisms. The HTT was also run for both mechanisms. The agreement with HEDL microscopic observations was fair for bubbles smaller than 964 A in diameter, and poor for larger bubbles. Bubbles that grew during the heat-up part of the transient were frozen at a larger size during the cool down

  11. Characterizing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examine typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA's vehicle and engine testing drive cycles to characterize that transient fuel usage, and then describe the changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine operation.

  12. New developments in French transient monitoring: SYSFAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'huby, Y.; Genette, P.; Faidy, C.; Kappler, F.; Balley, J.; Bimont, G.

    1991-01-01

    After more than ten years of experience with Transient Monitoring and Logging Procedure (TMLP) and six years of successfully experience with Fatiguemeters, EDF has decided to study a new concept of Fatigue Monitoring System: SYSFAC. This new automatic system which is developed to be operating in all the French PWR units is composed of three modules: mechanical transient logging, functional transient logging and fatiguemeters. This application must be connected to the on-site data acquisition system without complementary instrumentation on the plant. (author)

  13. Transient phenomena in electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W

    1964-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot

  14. Transient analysis capabilities at ABB-CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The transient capabilities at ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) Nuclear Power are a function of the computer hardware and related network used, the computer software that has evolved over the years, and the commercial technical exchange agreements with other related organizations and customers. ABB-CEA is changing from a mainframe/personal computer network to a distributed workstation/personal computer local area network. The paper discusses computer hardware, mainframe computing, personal computers, mainframe/personal computer networks, workstations, transient analysis computer software, design/operation transient analysis codes, safety (licensed) analysis codes, cooperation with ABB-Atom, and customer support

  15. Transient burnout in flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Kuroyanagi, Toshiyuki

    1981-01-01

    A transient flow reduction burnout experiment was conducted with water in a uniformly heated, vertically oriented tube. Test pressures ranged from 0.5 to 3.9 MPa. An analytical method was developed to obtain transient burnout conditions at the exit. A simple correlation to predict the deviation of the transient burnout mass velocity at the tube exit from the steady state mass velocity obtained as a function of steam-water density ratio and flow reduction rate. The correlation was also compared with the other data. (author)

  16. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  17. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  18. Transient behavior of Cu/ZnO-based methanol synthesis catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Chorkendorff, Ib; Knudsen, Ida

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the methanol synthesis reaction over a Cu/ZnO-based catalyst reveal a transient methanol production that depends on the pretreatment gas. Specifically, the methanol production initially peaks after a pretreatment with an intermediate mixture of H2 and CO (20–80% H2...

  19. Length determination on industrial polymer parts from measurement performed under transient temperature conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Madruga, Daniel González; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    A way to reduce the cost of metrology in manufacturing is to perform dimensional verification directly in the production environment, avoiding a long and expensive acclimatization phase. In this work the effect of a transient temperature state, typical of the production environment, was investiga...

  20. simulation of electromagnetic transients in power systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1996-09-01

    Sep 1, 1996 ... Transients in power systems are initiated by abrupt changes to otherwise steady operating conditions. These changes would .... The method is applicable both to single transmission in real time. The method is applicable both ...

  1. Fuel cladding mechanical properties for transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.; Hanson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Out-of-pile simulated transient tests have been conducted on irradiated fast-reactor fuel pin cladding specimens at heating rates of 10 0 F/s (5.6 0 K/s) and 200 0 F/s (111 0 K/s) to generate mechanical property information for use in describing cladding behavior during off-normal events. Mechanical property data were then analyzed, applying the Larson-Miller Parameter to the effects of heating rate and neutron fluence. Data from simulated transient tests on TREAT-tested fuel pins demonstrate that Plant Protective System termination of 3$/s transients prevents significant damage to cladding. The breach opening produced during simulated transient testing is shown to decrease in size with increasing neutron fluence

  2. Detection of Transient Signals in Doppler Spectra

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Signal processing is used to detect transient signals in the presence of noise. Two embodiments are disclosed. In both embodiments, the time series from a remote...

  3. Transient management using the safety function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.; Barrow, J.H.; Bischoff, G.C.; Callaghan, V.M.; Pearce, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    The safety function approach is described. Its use in the development of a transient management procedures system includes optimal recovery procedures tailored to specific, anticipated symptom sets and a functional recovery procedure which is more general. Simulator evaluations are described

  4. Development of a transient criticality evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, C.C.; Eaton, M.D.; Miles, B.; Ziver, A.K.; Gomes, J.L.M.A.; Umpleby, A.P.; Piggott, M.D.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de

    2005-01-01

    In developing a transient criticality evaluation method we model, in full spatial/temporal detail, the neutron fluxes and consequent power and the evolving material properties - their flows, energies, phase changes etc. These methods are embodied in the generic method FETCH code which is based as far as possible on basic principles and is capable of use in exploring safety-related situations somewhat beyond the range of experiment. FETCH is a general geometry code capable of addressing a range of criticality issues in fissile materials. The code embodies both transient radiation transport and transient fluid dynamics. Work on powders, granular materials, porous media and solutions is reviewed. The capability for modelling transient criticality for chemical plant, waste matrices and advanced reactors is also outlined. (author)

  5. Climatic feedbacks between stationary and transient eddies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branscome, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary eddies make a significant contribution to poleward heat transport during Northern Hemisphere winter, equaling the transport by transient eddies. On the other hand, stationary eddy transport during the summer is negligible. The effect of topography on time-mean stationary waves and low-frequency variability has been widely studied. In contrast, little attention has been given to the climatic feedbacks associated with stationary eddies. Furthermore, the relationship between stationary and transient eddies in the context of global and regional climate is not well understood. The response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing is likely to have some dependence on stationary wave transport and its interaction with transient eddies. Some early GCM simulations and observational analyses indicate a strong feedback between the meridional heat fluxes of stationary and transient eddies

  6. Acoustic Transient Source Localization From an Aerostat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scanlon, Michael; Reiff, Christian; Noble, John

    2006-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has conducted experiments using acoustic sensor arrays suspended below tethered aerostats to detect and localize transient signals from mortars, artillery and small arms fire...

  7. Attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Fernando; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Palacios, Alicia; Argenti, Luca; Cheng, Yan; Chini, Michael; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zenghu

    2015-01-01

    We extend attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS) to the study of hydrogen molecules, demonstrating the potential of the technique to resolve – simultaneously and with state resolution – both the electronic and nuclear dynamics. (paper)

  8. Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available

  9. Partial discharge transients: The field theoretical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1998-01-01

    Up until the mid-1980s the theory of partial discharge transients was essentially static. This situation had arisen because of the fixation with the concept of void capacitance and the use of circuit theory to address what is in essence a field problem. Pedersen rejected this approach and instead...... began to apply field theory to the problem of partial discharge transients. In the present paper, the contributions of Pedersen using the field theoretical approach will be reviewed and discussed....

  10. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, J.; Schivo, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  11. PC-Reactor-core transient simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1989-10-01

    PC-REATOR, a reactor core transient simulation code has been developed for the real-time operator training on a IBM-PC microcomputer. The program presents capabilities for on-line exchange of the operating parameters during the transient simulation, by friendly keyboard instructions. The model is based on the point-kinetics approximation, with 2 delayed neutron percursors and up to 11 decay power generating groups. (author) [pt

  12. Modeling of Transients in an Enrichment Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandino, Maria; Delmastro, Dario; Brasnarof, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a mathematical model is presented in order to describe the dynamic behavior inside a closed enrichment loop, the latter representing a single stage of an uranium gaseous diffusion enrichment cascade.The analytical model is turned into a numerical model, and implemented through a computational code.Transients of two species separation were numerically analyzed, including setting times of each magnitude, behavior of each one of them during different transients, and redistribution of concentrations along the closed loop

  13. Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Kuzmin; Irina V. Soboleva; Elena V. Dolotova

    2011-01-01

    Transient exciplex formation mechanism of excited-state electron transfer reactions is analyzed in terms of experimental data on thermodynamics and kinetics of exciplex formation and decay. Experimental profiles of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for transient exciplex formation and decay are considered for several electron transfer reactions in various solvents. Strong electronic coupling in contact pairs of reactants causes substantial decrease of activation energy relative to that for c...

  14. Transient ischemic attack presenting in an elderly patient with transient ophthalmic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparshi Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient ischemic attack (TIA is a transient neurological deficit of cerebrovascular origin without infarction which may last only for a short period and can have varying presentations. We report a case of 58-year-old male with presenting features of sudden onset transient vertical diplopia and transient rotatory nystagmus which self-resolved within 12 h. Patient had no history of any systemic illness. On investigating, hematological investigations and neuroimaging could not explain these sudden and transient findings. A TIA could possibly explain these sudden and transient ocular findings in our patient. This case report aims to highlight the importance of TIA for ophthalmologists. We must not ignore these findings as these could be warning signs of an impending stroke which may or may not be detected on neuroimaging. Thus, early recognition, primary prevention strategies, and timely intervention are needed.

  15. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...

  16. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  17. GRI Index 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...

  18. 2016 GRI Index

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...

  19. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  20. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  1. Flow transients experiments with refrigerant-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; D'Annibale, F.; Farello, G.E.; Setaro, T.

    1986-01-01

    Flow transients have been investigated in a wide range of thermal-hydraulics situations with Refrigerannt-12. Six pressures (including the reference to PWR and BWR characteristic liquid to vapour densities ratios), several periods of the flowrate transients coastdown during the simulated flow decays, and different specific mass flowrate have been studied emploiyng a circular duct test section (Dsub(i)=7,5 mm). Two heated lengths of the test section have been considered (L = 2300 and 1180 mm). Experimental data have shown the complete inadequacy of steady-state critical heat flux correlations in predicting the onset of boiling crisis during fast flow transients (half-flow decay time, tsub(h)lt5.0-6.0 s). The flow transient does not show dependence, in terms of DNB conditions ,upon the length of the test section: the ratio between transient and steady-state critical mass flowrate is not dependent on the tested geometry. The time interval from the start of the flowrate transient to the onset of DNB (time to crisis), has been experimentally determined for all the runs. Data analysis for a better theoretical prediction of the phenomenon has been accomplished, and a design correlation for DNB conditons and time to crisis prediction has been proposed

  2. Towards a mechanistic understanding of transient fission gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.R.; Small, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent experimental results on transient fission gas release from oxide fuels are briefly reviewed. These together with associated microstructural observations are compared with the main models for fission gas behaviour. Single gas atom diffusion, bubble migration, heterogeneous percolation and grain boundary sweeping are examined as possible release mechanisms. The role of gas trapping in bubbles and re-solution by irradiation and thermal processes are included in the comparison. As much of the data, and the main range of interest for light water reactor fuels, is for release during mild transients in fuel with a burn-up below 4%, the role of gas retention on grain boundaries is very important and in some cases dominant. The grain boundaries are found to respond very differently to various gas arrival rates and to local temperature conditions. This can lead to early interlinkage and release in some cases, but retention with accompanying large swelling in others. The role of fission products and the local oxygen content of the fuel are found to be important. The effective fuel stoichiometry is likely to change significantly during transients with substantial effects on the transport processes controlling fission gas behaviour. The results of the evaluation of the models are summarized in mechanism maps for intragranular and grain boundary behaviour. (author). 36 refs, 8 figs

  3. Analysis of transients in the SRP test pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, J.P.

    1976-11-01

    Analysis of the hypothetical upper limit accident in the Savannah River Test Pile showed that the offsite thyroid dose from fission product release would be -3 of the 10-CFR-100 guideline dose for 95 percent of measured meteorological conditions. Offsite whole body dose would be negligible. The Test Pile was modified to limit the length of test piece that can be charged to the pile. These modifications reduce the potential offsite dose to -5 of the regulatory guidelines. Assessment of Test Pile safety included calculations of transients initiated by a variety of reactivity additions that were either terminated or not terminated by safety systems. Reactivity addition mechanisms considered were abnormally driving control rods out of the pile and charging abnormal test pieces into the pile. The transients were evaluated in the adiabatic approximation in which three-dimensional calculations of static flux shapes and reactivity were superimposed on point reactor kinetics calculations. Negative reactivity feedback effects appropriate for the pile and the temperature dependence of material properties, such as specific heat and thermal conductivity, were included. The results show that, for the worst initiators, safety systems can prevent the temperature rise from exceeding 1 0 C anywhere in the Test Pile. If the safety systems do not function, the pile temperatures will increase until the transient is ended by the inherent negative reactivity effects, including the melting of some fuel

  4. Transient plant transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Principles, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenek, Pavel; Samajova, Olga; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used as a versatile tool for development of stably transformed model plants and crops. However, the development of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation methods attracted substantial attention in recent years. Transient transformation methods offer several applications advancing stable transformations such as rapid and scalable recombinant protein production and in planta functional genomics studies. Herein, we highlight Agrobacterium and plant genetics factors affecting transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium into the plant cell nucleus and subsequent transient transgene expression. We also review recent methods concerning Agrobacterium mediated transient transformation of model plants and crops and outline key physical, physiological and genetic factors leading to their successful establishment. Of interest are especially Agrobacterium based reverse genetics studies in economically important crops relying on use of RNA interference (RNAi) or virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The applications of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation technology in biotech industry are presented in thorough detail. These involve production of recombinant proteins (plantibodies, vaccines and therapeutics) and effectoromics-assisted breeding of late blight resistance in potato. In addition, we also discuss biotechnological potential of recombinant GFP technology and present own examples of successful Agrobacterium mediated transient plant transformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  6. On transient irradiation behavior of HTGR fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortenson, S.C.; Okrent, D.

    1977-01-01

    An examination of HTGR TRISO coated fuel particles was made in which the particles' stress-strain histories were determined during both steady-state and transient operating conditions. The basis for the examination was a modified version of a computer code written by Kaae which assumed spherical symmetry, isotropic thermal expansion, isotropic elastic constants, time-temperature-irradiation invariant materials properties, and steady state operation during particle exposure. Additionally, the Kaae code modelled potential separation of layers at the SiC-inner PyC interface and considered that several entrapped fission products could exist in either the gaseous or solid state, dependent upon particle operating conditions. Using the modified code which modelled transient behavior in a quasi-static fashion, a series of both steady-state and transient operating condition computer simulations was made. For the former set of runs, a candidate set of particle dimensions and a nominal set of materials' properties was assumed. Layer thicknesses were assumed to be normally distributed about the nominal thickenesses and a probability distribution of SiC tensile stresses was generated; sensitivity of the stress distribution to assumed standard deviation of the layer thicknesses was acute. Further, this series of steady-state runs demonstrated that for certain combinations of the assumed PyC-SiC bond interface strength and irradiation-induced creep constant, anomalous predicted stresses may be obtained in the PyC layers. The steady-state runs also suggest that transient behavior would most likely not be significant at fast neutron exposures below about 10 21 NVT due to both low fission gas pressure and likely beneficial interface separation

  7. Transient bimodality in interacting particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, P.; Pellegrinotti, A.; Presutti, E.; Vares, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors consider a system of spins which have values ± 1 and evolve according to a jump Markov process whose generator is the sum of two generators, one describing a spin-flip Glauber process, the other a Kawasaki (stirring) evolution. It was proven elsewhere that if the Kawasaki dynamics is speeded up by a factor var-epsilon -2 , then, in the limit var-epsilon → 0 (continuum limit), propagation of chaos holds and the local magnetization solves a reaction-diffusion equation. They choose the parameters of the Glauber interaction so that the potential of the reaction term in the reaction-diffusion equation is a double-well potential with quartic maximum at the origin. They assume further that for each var-epsilon the system is in a finite interval of Z with var-epsilon -1 sites and periodic boundary conditions. They specify the initial measure as the product measure with 0 spin average, thus obtaining, in the continuum limit, a constant magnetic profile equal to 0, which is a stationary unstable solution to the reaction-diffusion equation. They prove that at times of the order var-epsilon -1/2 propagation of chaos does not hold any more and, in the limit as var-epsilon → 0, the state becomes a nontrivial superposition of Bernoulli measures with parameters corresponding to the minima of the reaction potential. The coefficients of such a superposition depend on time (on the scale var-epsilon -1/2 ) and at large times (on this scale) the coefficient of the term corresponding to the initial magnetization vanishes (transient bimodality). This differs from what was observed by De Masi, Presutti, and Vares, who considered a reaction potential with quadratic maximum and no bimodal effect was seen, as predicted by Broggi, Lugiato, and Colombo

  8. Outreach screening of drug users for cirrhosis with transient elastography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moessner, Belinda K; Jørgensen, Tina R; Skamling, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Aims  Transient elastography (TE) is a non-invasive sensitive tool for diagnosing cirrhosis in hospital-based cohorts. This study aimed to evaluate TE as a screening tool for cirrhosis among drug users. Design  Cross-sectional study. Setting  All treatment centres in the county of Funen, Denmark....... Participants  Drug users attending treatment centres during the presence of the study team. Measurements  Liver stiffness measurements (LSM) by transient elastography using the Fibroscan device; blood tests for viral hepatitis, HIV infection and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels; and routine liver tests. Individuals...... with LSM ≥ 8 kPa were referred to the hospital for treatment evaluation. Individuals with LSM ≥ 12 kPa were recommended a liver biopsy. Findings  Among 175 drug users negative for hepatitis C, 13% had LSM = 8-11.9 kPa and 4% had LSM ≥ 12 kPa; elevated LSM was associated with a body mass index (BMI) > 30...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  14. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gestational diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, usually developing in the third trimester and remitting spontaneously 4–6 weeks post-partum. It is mainly caused by excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts which metabolises arginine vasopressin (AVP). Its diagnosis is challenging, and the treatment requires desmopressin. A 38-year-old Chinese woman was referred in the 37th week of her first single-gestation due to polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia. She was known to have gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the second trimester, well-controlled with diet. Her medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated decreased skin turgor; her blood pressure was 102/63 mmHg, heart rate 78 beats/min and weight 53 kg (BMI 22.6 kg/m2). Laboratory data revealed low urine osmolality 89 mOsmol/kg (350–1000), serum osmolality 293 mOsmol/kg (278–295), serum sodium 144 mmol/l (135–145), potassium 4.1 mmol/l (3.5–5.0), urea 2.2 mmol/l (2.5–6.7), glucose 3.5 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3%. Bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and full blood count were normal. The patient was started on desmopressin with improvement in her symptoms, and normalisation of serum and urine osmolality (280 and 310 mOsmol/kg respectively). A fetus was delivered at the 39th week without major problems. After delivery, desmopressin was stopped and she had no further evidence of polyuria, polydipsia or nocturia. Her sodium, serum/urine osmolality at 12-weeks post-partum were normal. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the neurohypophyseal T1-bright spot situated ectopically, with a normal adenohypophysis and infundibulum. She remains clinically well, currently breastfeeding, and off all medication. This case illustrates some challenges in the diagnosis and management of transient gestational DI. Learning points Gestational DI is a rare complication of

  15. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Pedro; Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, usually developing in the third trimester and remitting spontaneously 4-6 weeks post-partum. It is mainly caused by excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts which metabolises arginine vasopressin (AVP). Its diagnosis is challenging, and the treatment requires desmopressin. A 38-year-old Chinese woman was referred in the 37th week of her first single-gestation due to polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia. She was known to have gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the second trimester, well-controlled with diet. Her medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated decreased skin turgor; her blood pressure was 102/63 mmHg, heart rate 78 beats/min and weight 53 kg (BMI 22.6 kg/m(2)). Laboratory data revealed low urine osmolality 89 mOsmol/kg (350-1000), serum osmolality 293 mOsmol/kg (278-295), serum sodium 144 mmol/l (135-145), potassium 4.1 mmol/l (3.5-5.0), urea 2.2 mmol/l (2.5-6.7), glucose 3.5 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3%. Bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and full blood count were normal. The patient was started on desmopressin with improvement in her symptoms, and normalisation of serum and urine osmolality (280 and 310 mOsmol/kg respectively). A fetus was delivered at the 39th week without major problems. After delivery, desmopressin was stopped and she had no further evidence of polyuria, polydipsia or nocturia. Her sodium, serum/urine osmolality at 12-weeks post-partum were normal. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the neurohypophyseal T1-bright spot situated ectopically, with a normal adenohypophysis and infundibulum. She remains clinically well, currently breastfeeding, and off all medication. This case illustrates some challenges in the diagnosis and management of transient gestational DI. Gestational DI is a rare complication of pregnancy occurring in two to four out of

  16. Metastable Packaging For Transient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    26  Figure 27. Raman Spectra of PPA Thermal Degradation Products, PPA, oPA and Coating ....... 27  List of Tables Table Page... magnesium (Mg) resistors onto the PPA/PAG substrates. Using Mg resistors as a model system, two different PAGs were investigated, triphenylsulfonium...during casting. 3.1.3 Effect of Polymer on Mg Circuit Traces To demonstrate the effect of polymer on the chemical stability of magnesium (Mg) circuits

  17. An index of financial safety of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Jia

    2015-04-01

    indexes rose, which indicates the external environment improved so did China’s financial safety status; from 2012 to 2013 indexes declined because due to the rapid development of banks’ financial products and trust products, banks’ off-balance-sheet assets and liquidity risks increased. The changes of financial safety indexes are generally identical with those of China’s financial safety status.Research limitations/implications: In the empirical analysis part, this article tries to selective 24 indicators synthetic index of China's financial security, but due to some of the indicators data acquisition is relatively difficult, can only Selective 10 of 25 indicators and gather the annual data of 10 indicators from 2003 to 2013 to synthetic index. The information of eliminated indicators cannot be reflected in the index. Index change also does not reflect of the risk from these indicators. In order to make up for the above limitations, this paper is mainly to introduce and analysis our latest financial institutions business trends associated with these eliminated indicators to get the conclusions more reliable.Originality/value: The aim of this research is to estimate financial safety of China with the application of the index of financial safety of a country using the annual data of 2003-2013. Through synthetic index of financial security measure the risks of China's financial system, provide the basis for the government macro financial policy. The Originality of the paper is mainly manifested in incorporating factors which have made important impacts on China’s financial safety in recent years, but have not been taken into consideration in the existing studies into the newly constructed financial safety index system. For example, some factors that cannot be controlled easily might have huge hidden risk hazards. To be more specific, factors such as off-balance-sheet business, interbank business and shadow banking might trigger liquidity risks. In this way, the

  18. Mechanism for transient migration of xenon in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.-Y.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Andersson, D. A.; Stanek, C. R.; Sickafus, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we report recent work on atomistic modeling of diffusion migration events of the fission gas product xenon in UO 2 nuclear fuel. Under nonequilibrium conditions, Xe atoms can occupy the octahedral interstitial site, in contrast to the thermodynamically most stable uranium substitutional site. A transient migration mechanism involving Xe and two oxygen atoms is identified using basin constrained molecular dynamics employing a Buckingham type interatomic potential. This mechanism is then validated using density functional theory calculations using the nudged elastic band method. An overall reduction in the migration barrier of 1.6-2.7 eV is obtained compared to vacancy-mediated diffusion on the uranium sublattice.

  19. Closed Form Solution of Synchronous Machine Short Circuit Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson H.M. Sianipar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the closed form solution of the synchronous machine transients undergoing short circuit. That analytic formulation has been derived based on linearity and balanced conditions of the fault. Even though restrictive, the proposed method will serve somehow or other as a new resource for EMTP productivity. Indisputably superior, the closed-form formulation has some features inimitable by discretization such as continuity, accuracy and absolute numerical stability. Moreover, it enables us to calculate states at one specific instant independent of previous states or a snapshot, which any discretization methods cannot do.

  20. 21 CFR 516.167 - Removal from the index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal from the index. 516.167 Section 516.167... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.167 Removal from the index. (a) After due...

  1. A new supersymmetric index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Fendley, P.; Intriligator, K.; Vafa, C.

    1992-01-01

    We show that Tr(-1) F F e -βH is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of β. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painleve III and the affine Toda equations. (orig.)

  2. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All

  3. Transient cognitive dynamics, metastability, and decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively discussed at length for the last 15 years. One of the popular points of view is that metastable states play a key role in the execution of cognitive functions. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that most of these functions are the result of transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such transients may consist of a sequential switching between different metastable cognitive states. The main problem faced when using dynamical theory to describe transient cognitive processes is the fundamental contradiction between reproducibility and flexibility of transient behavior. In this paper, we propose a theoretical description of transient cognitive dynamics based on the interaction of functionally dependent metastable cognitive states. The mathematical image of such transient activity is a stable heteroclinic channel, i.e., a set of trajectories in the vicinity of a heteroclinic skeleton that consists of saddles and unstable separatrices that connect their surroundings. We suggest a basic mathematical model, a strongly dissipative dynamical system, and formulate the conditions for the robustness and reproducibility of cognitive transients that satisfy the competing requirements for stability and flexibility. Based on this approach, we describe here an effective solution for the problem of sequential decision making, represented as a fixed time game: a player takes sequential actions in a changing noisy environment so as to maximize a cumulative reward. As we predict and verify in computer simulations, noise plays an important role in optimizing the gain.

  4. Advanced Instrumentation for Transient Reactor Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael L.; Anderson, Mark; Imel, George; Blue, Tom; Roberts, Jeremy; Davis, Kurt

    2018-01-31

    Transient testing involves placing fuel or material into the core of specialized materials test reactors that are capable of simulating a range of design basis accidents, including reactivity insertion accidents, that require the reactor produce short bursts of intense highpower neutron flux and gamma radiation. Testing fuel behavior in a prototypic neutron environment under high-power, accident-simulation conditions is a key step in licensing nuclear fuels for use in existing and future nuclear power plants. Transient testing of nuclear fuels is needed to develop and prove the safety basis for advanced reactors and fuels. In addition, modern fuel development and design increasingly relies on modeling and simulation efforts that must be informed and validated using specially designed material performance separate effects studies. These studies will require experimental facilities that are able to support variable scale, highly instrumented tests providing data that have appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. Finally, there are efforts now underway to develop advanced light water reactor (LWR) fuels with enhanced performance and accident tolerance. These advanced reactor designs will also require new fuel types. These new fuels need to be tested in a controlled environment in order to learn how they respond to accident conditions. For these applications, transient reactor testing is needed to help design fuels with improved performance. In order to maximize the value of transient testing, there is a need for in-situ transient realtime imaging technology (e.g., the neutron detection and imaging system like the hodoscope) to see fuel motion during rapid transient excursions with a higher degree of spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy. There also exists a need for new small, compact local sensors and instrumentation that are capable of collecting data during transients (e.g., local displacements, temperatures, thermal conductivity, neutron flux, etc.).

  5. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1995. 2. Main subject (Part 3. Research and development of a product compatibility indexing technology); 1995 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Honronhen (Seihin tekigosei shihyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the product compatibility indexing technology, extracted from the achievements in the development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1995. In the environmental compatibility of operating works, development was made on a surveillance operating screen which is said to have high compatibility with human senses and recognition characteristics, and a prospect was obtained on superiority in performance. Improvement was given to the facilities to experiment and measure the mental work load indexes (brain wave and pulse variation and the like). Device and operation compatibility technology requires functional design that can handle how to identify different works and the work features considering changes in experiences and skills of the workers. A computer system was structured for stimulation and task execution as the system to support the environment for indexing experiments. The product compatibility study is in the stage of having structured its framework, rather than performing specific researches. However, when the framework is completed, it will be possible to implement basic guidance presentation for spatial design, and product evaluation for individual persons with arbitrary body forms. In addition, the framework could be utilized as a manual for individual product indexing and design evaluation. (NEDO)

  6. Indexes to Volume 75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUBJECT INDEX. Mathematical .... A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and ... Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 .... Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet.

  7. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Watermelon Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index When planning your meals: ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  8. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 1034 ... Vol 49, No 2 (2007), African Index Medicus: Improving access to African ... insulin therapy initiation among patients with type 2 diabetes attending a ... Risk Factors Implicated in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Abstract PDF.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 194 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 14, No 1 (2000), A functional categoriality of adjectives in ... Vol 1, No 1 (1987), Alienation and affirmation: The humanistic vision of Bessie Head, Abstract PDF.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index ... in a USA school setting: Merging transition theory with a narrative approach, Abstract ... Citation analysis of theses and dissertations submitted at the ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index .... The challenge of thesis supervision in an art university, Abstract ... No 2 (2004), Robert Sternberg's mental self-government theory and its contribution to ...

  13. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 346 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and hygiene promotion services in Rungwe district, Tanzania, Abstract .... as seen in NIgerian teaching hospital: pattern and a simple classification, Abstract.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 437 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... prospects and realistic strategies to its implementation in Nigeria\\'s Institute of ... and Communication Technology (ICT) in information dissemination, Abstract.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 901 - 950 of 1355 ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Vol 22, No 2 (2018), Performance evaluation of a locally fabricated sawdust fired oven for ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 788 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 26, No 1 (2018), Gender differentials in the perception of .... Vol 25, No 1 (2017), Impact of total quality management on students' academic performance in ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 465 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and twinning data of an igbo kindred during the Nigerian Civil War, Abstract ... on laboratory estimations with special reference to clinical chemistry, Abstract.

  19. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 1260 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Consumption of ammonia-nitrogen by aob in immobilized batch culture, Abstract PDF .... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, Design an automatic temperature ...