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Sample records for transgene expression system

  1. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  2. The Q System: A Repressible Binary System for Transgene Expression, Lineage Tracing and Mosaic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Christopher J.; Tasic, Bosiljka; Russler, Emilie V.; Liang, Liang; Luo, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new repressible binary expression system based on the regulatory genes from the Neurospora qa gene cluster. This ‘Q system’ offers attractive features for transgene expression in Drosophila and mammalian cells: low basal expression in the absence of the transcriptional activator QF, high QF-induced expression, and QF repression by its repressor QS. Additionally, feeding flies quinic acid can relieve QS repression. The Q system offers many applications including: 1) intersectiona...

  3. [The establishment and identification of GPx-1(P198L) gene systemic expression transgenic mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-qin; Zhu, Yan-he; Lin, Lin; Gao, Deng-feng; Niu, Xiao-lin

    2015-01-01

    To generate systemic expression human cellular glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) (198Leu) transgenic mice model in order to investigate the functional variants in GPx-1 gene in oxidative stress-related diseases. After linearization with BamnH I and Acc I, the transgenic construct GPx-1 (198Leu) was microinjected into the zygotes of C57BL/6J mice to generate transgenic mice, whose genotype was detected by PCR with specific primers. The GPx-1 gene expression profile was determined by Western blotting. 13 transgenic founder mice were successfully generated. Western blotting result showed that the protein expression level of 4 transgenic mice in hearts were higher than that of wild type mice. Human GPx-1PSL transgenic mice was successfully established. This kind of animal model is of significance for making further researches on oxidative stress-related diseases.

  4. Targeted gene expression in transgenic Xenopus using the binary Gal4-UAS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Katharine O; Nutt, Stephen L; Amaya, Enrique

    2002-02-05

    The transgenic technique in Xenopus allows one to misexpress genes in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. However, this system suffers from two experimental limitations. First, the restriction enzyme-mediated integration procedure relies on chromosomal damage, resulting in a percentage of embryos failing to develop normally. Second, every transgenic embryo has unique sites of integration and unique transgene copy number, resulting in variable transgene expression levels and variable phenotypes. For these reasons, we have adapted the Gal4-UAS method for targeted gene expression to Xenopus. This technique relies on the generation of transgenic lines that carry "activator" or "effector" constructs. Activator lines express the yeast transcription factor, Gal4, under the control of a desired promoter, whereas effector lines contain DNA-binding motifs for Gal4-(UAS) linked to the gene of interest. We show that on intercrossing of these lines, the effector gene is transcribed in the temporal and spatial manner of the activator's promoter. Furthermore, we use the Gal4-UAS system to misexpress Xvent-2, a transcriptional target of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling during early embryogenesis. Embryos inheriting both the Gal4 activator and Xvent-2 effector transgenes display a consistent microcephalic phenotype. Finally, we exploit this system to characterize the neural and mesodermal defects obtained from early misexpression of Xvent-2. These results emphasize the potential of this system for the controlled analyses of gene function in Xenopus.

  5. The Q system: a repressible binary system for transgene expression, lineage tracing, and mosaic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J; Tasic, Bosiljka; Russler, Emilie V; Liang, Liang; Luo, Liqun

    2010-04-30

    We describe a new repressible binary expression system based on the regulatory genes from the Neurospora qa gene cluster. This "Q system" offers attractive features for transgene expression in Drosophila and mammalian cells: low basal expression in the absence of the transcriptional activator QF, high QF-induced expression, and QF repression by its repressor QS. Additionally, feeding flies quinic acid can relieve QS repression. The Q system offers many applications, including (1) intersectional "logic gates" with the GAL4 system for manipulating transgene expression patterns, (2) GAL4-independent MARCM analysis, and (3) coupled MARCM analysis to independently visualize and genetically manipulate siblings from any cell division. We demonstrate the utility of the Q system in determining cell division patterns of a neuronal lineage and gene function in cell growth and proliferation, and in dissecting neurons responsible for olfactory attraction. The Q system can be expanded to other uses in Drosophila and to any organism conducive to transgenesis. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tetracycline-inducible system for regulation of skeletal muscle-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Mischala A.; Bales, Mark A.; Fought, Amber N.; Rosburg, Kristopher C.; Munger, Stephanie J.; Antin, Parker B.

    2003-01-01

    Tightly regulated control of over-expression is often necessary to study one aspect or time point of gene function and, in transgenesis, may help to avoid lethal effects and complications caused by ubiquitous over-expression. We have utilized the benefits of an optimized tet-on system and a modified muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter to generate a skeletal muscle-specific, doxycycline (Dox) controlled over-expression system in transgenic mice. A DNA construct was generated in which the codon optimized reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) was placed under control of a skeletal muscle-specific version of the mouse MCK promoter. Transgenic mice containing this construct expressed rtTA almost exclusively in skeletal muscles. These mice were crossed to a second transgenic line containing a bi-directional promoter centered on a tet responder element driving both a luciferase reporter gene and a tagged gene of interest; in this case the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. Compound hemizygous mice showed high level, Dox dependent muscle-specific luciferase activity often exceeding 10,000-fold over non-muscle tissues of the same mouse. Western and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated similar Dox dependent muscle-specific induction of the tagged calpastatin protein. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the tet-on system to provide a tightly regulated over-expression system in adult skeletal muscle. The MCKrtTA transgenic lines can be combined with other transgenic responder lines for skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of any target gene of interest.

  7. A Double-Switch Cell Fusion-Inducible Transgene Expression System for Neural Stem Cell-Based Antiglioma Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in neural stem cell- (NSC- based tumor-targeted gene therapy showed that NSC vectors expressing an artificially engineered viral fusogenic protein, VSV-G H162R, could cause tumor cell death specifically under acidic tumor microenvironment by syncytia formation; however, the killing efficiency still had much room to improve. In the view that coexpression of another antitumoral gene with VSV-G can augment the bystander effect, a synthetic regulatory system that triggers transgene expression in a cell fusion-inducible manner has been proposed. Here we have developed a double-switch cell fusion-inducible transgene expression system (DoFIT to drive transgene expression upon VSV-G-mediated NSC-glioma cell fusion. In this binary system, transgene expression is coregulated by a glioma-specific promoter and targeting sequences of a microRNA (miR that is highly expressed in NSCs but lowly expressed in glioma cells. Thus, transgene expression is “switched off” by the miR in NSC vectors, but after cell fusion with glioma cells, the miR is diluted and loses its suppressive effect. Meanwhile, in the syncytia, transgene expression is “switched on” by the glioma-specific promoter. Our in vitro and in vivo experimental data show that DoFIT successfully abolishes luciferase reporter gene expression in NSC vectors but activates it specifically after VSV-G-mediated NSC-glioma cell fusion.

  8. Combinatorial Screening for Transgenic Yeasts with High Cellulase Activities in Combination with a Tunable Expression System.

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    Yoichiro Ito

    Full Text Available Combinatorial screening used together with a broad library of gene expression cassettes is expected to produce a powerful tool for the optimization of the simultaneous expression of multiple enzymes. Recently, we proposed a highly tunable protein expression system that utilized multiple genome-integrated target genes to fine-tune enzyme expression in yeast cells. This tunable system included a library of expression cassettes each composed of three gene-expression control elements that in different combinations produced a wide range of protein expression levels. In this study, four gene expression cassettes with graded protein expression levels were applied to the expression of three cellulases: cellobiohydrolase 1, cellobiohydrolase 2, and endoglucanase 2. After combinatorial screening for transgenic yeasts simultaneously secreting these three cellulases, we obtained strains with higher cellulase expressions than a strain harboring three cellulase-expression constructs within one high-performance gene expression cassette. These results show that our method will be of broad use throughout the field of metabolic engineering.

  9. Self-processing 2A-polyproteins--a system for co-ordinate expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, C; Cooke, S E; Barakate, A; El Amrani, A; Ryan, M D

    1999-02-01

    Achieving co-ordinate, high-level and stable expression of multiple transgenes in plants is currently difficult. Expression levels are notoriously variable and influenced by factors that act independently on transgenes at different genetic loci. Instability of expression due to loss, re-arrangement or silencing of transgenes may occur, and is exacerbated by increasing numbers of transgenic loci and repeated use of homologous sequences. Even linking two or more genes within a T-DNA does not necessarily result in co-ordinate expression. Linking proteins in a single open reading frame--a polyprotein--is a strategy for co-ordinate expression used by many viruses. After translation, polyproteins are processed into constituent polypeptides, usually by proteinases encoded within the polyprotein itself. However, in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a sequence (2A) of just 16-20 amino acids appears to have the unique capability to mediate cleavage at its own C-terminus by an apparently enzyme-independent, novel type of reaction. This sequence can also mediate cleavage in a heterologous protein context in a range of eukaryotic expression systems. We have constructed a plasmid in which the 2A sequence is inserted between the reporter genes chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS), maintaining a single open reading frame. Here we report that expression of this construct in wheatgerm lysate and transgenic plants results in efficient cleavage of the polyprotein and co-ordinate expression of active CAT and GUS. Self-processing polyproteins using the FMDV 2A sequence could therefore provide a system for ensuring co-ordinated, stable expression of multiple introduced proteins in plant cells.

  10. Systemic and oral immunogenicity of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed by transgenic peanut plants in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, Abha; Renukaradhya, G.J.; Rajasekhar, M.; Sita, G. Lakshmi; Shaila, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Rinderpest causes a devastating disease, often fatal, in wild and domestic ruminants. It has been eradicated successfully using a live, attenuated vaccine from most part of the world leaving a few foci of disease in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. We have developed transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants expressing hemagglutinin (H) protein of rinderpest virus (RPV), which is antigenically authentic. In this work, we have evaluated the immunogenicity of peanut-expressed H protein using mouse model, administered parenterally as well as orally. Intraperitoneal immunization of mice with the transgenic peanut extract elicited antibody response specific to H. These antibodies neutralized virus infectivity in vitro. Oral immunization of mice with transgenic peanut induced H-specific serum IgG and IgA antibodies. The systemic and oral immunogenicity of plant-derived H in absence of any adjuvant indicates the potential of edible vaccine for rinderpest

  11. A three-component gene expression system and its application for inducible flavonoid overproduction in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yue; Cao, Cong-Mei; Vikram, Meenu; Park, Sunghun; Kim, Hye Jin; Hong, Jong Chan; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Koiwa, Hisashi

    2011-03-08

    Inducible gene expression is a powerful tool to study and engineer genes whose overexpression could be detrimental for the host organisms. However, only limited systems have been adopted in plant biotechnology. We have developed an osmotically inducible system using three components of plant origin, RD29a (Responsive to Dehydration 29A) promoter, CBF3 (C-repeat Binding Factor 3) transcription factor and cpl1-2 (CTD phosphatase-like 1) mutation. The osmotic stress responsible RD29a promoter contains the CBF3 binding sites and thus RD29A-CBF3 feedforward cassette enhances induction of RD29a promoter under stress. The cpl1-2 mutation in a host repressor CPL1 promotes stress responsible RD29a promoter expression. The efficacy of this system was tested using PAP1 (Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1) transgene, a model transcription factor that regulates the anthocyanin pathway in Arabidopsis. While transgenic plants with only one or two of three components did not reproducibly accumulate anthocyanin pigments above the control level, transgenic cpl1 plants containing homozygous RD29a-PAP1 and RD29a-CBF3 transgenes produced 30-fold higher level of total anthocyanins than control plants upon cold treatment. Growth retardation and phytochemical production of transgenic plants were minimum under normal conditions. The flavonoid profile in cold-induced transgenic plants was determined by LC/MS/MS, which resembled that of previously reported pap1-D plants but enriched for kaempferol derivatives. These results establish the functionality of the inducible three-component gene expression system in plant metabolic engineering. Furthermore, we show that PAP1 and environmental signals synergistically regulate the flavonoid pathway to produce a unique flavonoid blend that has not been produced by PAP1 overexpression or cold treatment alone.

  12. A three-component gene expression system and its application for inducible flavonoid overproduction in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Feng

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression is a powerful tool to study and engineer genes whose overexpression could be detrimental for the host organisms. However, only limited systems have been adopted in plant biotechnology. We have developed an osmotically inducible system using three components of plant origin, RD29a (Responsive to Dehydration 29A promoter, CBF3 (C-repeat Binding Factor 3 transcription factor and cpl1-2 (CTD phosphatase-like 1 mutation. The osmotic stress responsible RD29a promoter contains the CBF3 binding sites and thus RD29A-CBF3 feedforward cassette enhances induction of RD29a promoter under stress. The cpl1-2 mutation in a host repressor CPL1 promotes stress responsible RD29a promoter expression. The efficacy of this system was tested using PAP1 (Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 transgene, a model transcription factor that regulates the anthocyanin pathway in Arabidopsis. While transgenic plants with only one or two of three components did not reproducibly accumulate anthocyanin pigments above the control level, transgenic cpl1 plants containing homozygous RD29a-PAP1 and RD29a-CBF3 transgenes produced 30-fold higher level of total anthocyanins than control plants upon cold treatment. Growth retardation and phytochemical production of transgenic plants were minimum under normal conditions. The flavonoid profile in cold-induced transgenic plants was determined by LC/MS/MS, which resembled that of previously reported pap1-D plants but enriched for kaempferol derivatives. These results establish the functionality of the inducible three-component gene expression system in plant metabolic engineering. Furthermore, we show that PAP1 and environmental signals synergistically regulate the flavonoid pathway to produce a unique flavonoid blend that has not been produced by PAP1 overexpression or cold treatment alone.

  13. Increasing the yield of middle silk gland expression system through transgenic knock-down of endogenous sericin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sanyuan; Xia, Xiaojuan; Li, Yufeng; Sun, Le; Liu, Yue; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaogang; Shi, Run; Chang, Jiasong; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2017-08-01

    Various genetically modified bioreactor systems have been developed to meet the increasing demands of recombinant proteins. Silk gland of Bombyx mori holds great potential to be a cost-effective bioreactor for commercial-scale production of recombinant proteins. However, the actual yields of proteins obtained from the current silk gland expression systems are too low for the proteins to be dissolved and purified in a large scale. Here, we proposed a strategy that reducing endogenous sericin proteins would increase the expression yield of foreign proteins. Using transgenic RNA interference, we successfully reduced the expression of BmSer1 to 50%. A total 26 transgenic lines expressing Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed) in the middle silk gland (MSG) under the control of BmSer1 promoter were established to analyze the expression of recombinant. qRT-PCR and western blotting showed that in BmSer1 knock-down lines, the expression of DsRed had significantly increased both at mRNA and protein levels. We did an additional analysis of DsRed/BmSer1 distribution in cocoon and effect of DsRed protein accumulation on the silk fiber formation process. This study describes not only a novel method to enhance recombinant protein expression in MSG bioreactor, but also a strategy to optimize other bioreactor systems.

  14. Conditional and inducible transgene expression in endothelial and hematopoietic cells using Cre/loxP and tetracycline-off systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju; Deutsch, Urban; Fung, Iris; Lobe, Corrinne G

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the tetracycline-off and Cre/ loxP systems were combined to gain temporal and spatial control of transgene expression. Mice were generated that carried three transgenes: Tie2-tTA, tet-O-Cre and either the ZEG or ZAP reporter. Tie2-tTA directs expression of tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) in endothelial and hematopoietic cells under the control of the Tie2 promoter. Tet-O-Cre produces Cre recombinase from a minimal promoter containing the tet-operator (tetO). ZEG or ZAP contains a strong promoter and a loxP -flanked stop sequence, followed by an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) or human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPLAP) reporter. In the presence of tetracycline, the tTA transactivator produced by Tie-2-tTA is disabled and Cre is not expressed. In the absence of tetracycline, the tTA binds tet-O-Cre to drive the expression of Cre, which recombines the loxP sites of the ZEG or ZAP transgene and results in reporter gene expression. In the present study, the expression of the ZEG or ZAP reporter genes in embryos and adult animals with and without tetracycline treatment was examined. In the presence of tetracycline, no reporter gene expression was observed. When tetracycline was withdrawn, Cre excision was activated and the reporter genes were detected in endothelial and hematopoietic cells. These results demonstrate that this system may be used to bypass embryonic lethality and access adult phenotypes.

  15. Promoter Sequences for Defining Transgene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The design of reverse genetic experiments that utilize transgenic approaches often requires transgenes to be expressed in a predefined pattern and there is limited information regarding the gene expression profile for specific promoters. It is important that expression patterns are predetermined in the specific genotype targeted for transformation because the same promoter-transgene construct can produce different expression patterns in different host species. This chapter compares constitutive, targeted, or inducible promoters that have been characterized in specific cereal species.

  16. Tailored transgene expression to specific cell types in the central nervous system after peripheral injection with AAV9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dashkoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of certain adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors to cross the blood–brain barrier after intravenous delivery offers a unique opportunity for noninvasive brain delivery. However, without a well-tailored system, the use of a peripheral route injection may lead to undesirable transgene expression in nontarget cells or organs. To refine this approach, the present study characterizes the transduction profiles of new self-complementary AAV9 (scAAV9 expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP either under an astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic (GFA protein or neuronal (Synapsin (Syn promoter, after intravenous injection of adult mice (2 × 1013 vg/kg. ScAAV9-GFA-GFP and scAAV9-Syn-GFP robustly transduce astrocytes (11% and neurons (17%, respectively, without aberrant expression leakage. Interestingly, while the percentages of GFP-positive astrocytes with scAAV9-GFA-GFP are similar to the performances observed with scAAV9-CBA-GFP (broadly active promoter, significant higher percentages of neurons express GFP with scAAV9-Syn-GFP. GFP-positive excitatory as well as inhibitory neurons are observed, as well as motor neurons in the spinal cord. Additionally, both activated (GFAP-positive and resting astrocytes (GFAP-negative express the reporter gene after scAAV9-GFA-GFP injection. These data thoroughly characterize the gene expression specificity of AAVs fitted with neuronal and astrocyte-selective promoters after intravenous delivery, which will prove useful for central nervous system (CNS gene therapy approaches in which peripheral expression of transgene is a concern.

  17. Positron emission tomography : measurement of transgene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vaalburg, W

    Noninvasive and repetitive imaging of transgene expression can play a pivotal role in the development of gene therapy strategies, as it offers investigators a means to determine the effectiveness of their gene transfection protocols. In the last decade, imaging of transgene expression using positron

  18. Central nervous system gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tortosa Raül

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene expression analysis has proven to be a very useful tool to gain knowledge of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, particularly in the initial or preclinical stages. With the aim of finding new data on the events occurring in the Central Nervous System in animals affected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, a comprehensive genome wide gene expression study was conducted at different time points of the disease on mice genetically modified to model the bovine species brain in terms of cellular prion protein. An accurate analysis of the information generated by microarray technique was the key point to assess the biological relevance of the data obtained in terms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy pathogenesis. Validation of the microarray technique was achieved by RT-PCR confirming the RNA change and immunohistochemistry techniques that verified that expression changes were translated into variable levels of protein for selected genes. Our study reveals changes in the expression of genes, some of them not previously associated with prion diseases, at early stages of the disease previous to the detection of the pathological prion protein, that might have a role in neuronal degeneration and several transcriptional changes showing an important imbalance in the Central Nervous System homeostasis in advanced stages of the disease. Genes whose expression is altered at early stages of the disease should be considered as possible therapeutic targets and potential disease markers in preclinical diagnostic tool development. Genes non-previously related to prion diseases should be taken into consideration for further investigations.

  19. Receptor-mediated oral delivery of a bioencapsulated green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic chloroplasts into the mouse circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Arati; Koya, Vijay; Samsam, Mohtashem; Daniell, Henry

    2006-05-01

    Oral delivery of biopharmaceutical proteins expressed in plant cells should reduce their cost of production, purification, processing, cold storage, transportation, and delivery. However, poor intestinal absorption of intact proteins is a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, we investigate here the concept of receptor-mediated oral delivery of chloroplast-expressed foreign proteins. Therefore, the transmucosal carrier cholera toxin B-subunit and green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP), separated by a furin cleavage site, was expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed site-specific transgene integration and homoplasmy. Immunoblot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of monomeric and pentameric forms of CTB-GFP, up to 21.3% of total soluble proteins. An in vitro furin cleavage assay confirmed integrity of the engineered furin cleavage site, and a GM1 binding assay confirmed the functionality of CTB-GFP pentamers. Following oral administration of CTB-GFP expressing leaf material to mice, GFP was observed in the mice intestinal mucosa, liver, and spleen in fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies, while CTB remained in the intestinal cell. This report of receptor-mediated oral delivery of a foreign protein into the circulatory system opens the door for low-cost production and delivery of human therapeutic proteins.

  20. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  1. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch plants indicated that the ...

  2. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch.

  3. The stability of transgene expression and effect of DNA methylation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... transformation system (Zhan et al., 2003). Stable expression of foreign gene is important for commercial use of genetic transformation in long-lived tree species as well as for ecological risk-assessment studies. However, analysis of the instable/stable transgene expression in tree is more problematic than in ...

  4. Characterization of Growth and Reproduction Performance, Transgene Integration, Expression, and Transmission Patterns in Transgenic Pigs Produced by piggyBac Transposition-Mediated Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Zicong; Cai, Gengyuan; Gao, Wenchao; Jiang, Gelong; Liu, Dewu; Urschitz, Johann; Moisyadi, Stefan; Wu, Zhenfang

    2016-10-01

    Previously we successfully produced a group of EGFP-expressing founder transgenic pigs by a newly developed efficient and simple pig transgenesis method based on cytoplasmic injection of piggyBac plasmids. In this study, we investigated the growth and reproduction performance and characterized the transgene insertion, transmission, and expression patterns in transgenic pigs generated by piggyBac transposition. Results showed that transgene has no injurious effect on the growth and reproduction of transgenic pigs. Multiple copies of monogenic EGFP transgene were inserted at noncoding sequences of host genome, and passed from founder transgenic pigs to their transgenic offspring in segregation or linkage manner. The EGFP transgene was ubiquitously expressed in transgenic pigs, and its expression intensity was associated with transgene copy number but not related to its promoter DNA methylation level. To the best of our knowledge, this is first study that fully described the growth and reproduction performance, transgene insertion, expression, and transmission profiles in transgenic pigs produced by piggyBac system. It not only demonstrates that piggyBac transposition-mediated gene transfer is an effective and favorable approach for pig transgenesis, but also provides scientific information for understanding the transgene insertion, expression and transmission patterns in transgenic animals produced by piggyBac transposition.

  5. Destabilizing domains mediate reversible transgene expression in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Tai

    Full Text Available Regulating transgene expression in vivo by delivering oral drugs has been a long-time goal for the gene therapy field. A novel gene regulating system based on targeted proteasomal degradation has been recently developed. The system is based on a destabilizing domain (DD of the Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR that directs fused proteins to proteasomal destruction. Creating YFP proteins fused to destabilizing domains enabled TMP based induction of YFP expression in the brain, whereas omission of TMP resulted in loss of YFP expression. Moreover, induction of YFP expression was dose dependent and at higher TMP dosages, induced YFP reached levels comparable to expression of unregulated transgene., Transgene expression could be reversibly regulated using the DD system. Importantly, no adverse effects of TMP treatment or expression of DD-fusion proteins in the brain were observed. To show proof of concept that destabilizing domains derived from DHFR could be used with a biologically active molecule, DD were fused to GDNF, which is a potent neurotrophic factor of dopamine neurons. N-terminal placement of the DD resulted in TMP-regulated release of biologically active GDNF. Our findings suggest that TMP-regulated destabilizing domains can afford transgene regulation in the brain. The fact that GDNF could be regulated is very promising for developing future gene therapies (e.g. for Parkinson's disease and should be further investigated.

  6. Regulation of endothelial-specific transgene expression by the LacI repressor protein in vivo.

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    Susan K Morton

    Full Text Available Genetically modified mice have played an important part in elucidating gene function in vivo. However, conclusions from transgenic studies may be compromised by complications arising from the site of transgene integration into the genome and, in inducible systems, the non-innocuous nature of inducer molecules. The aim of the present study was to use the vascular system to validate a technique based on the bacterial lac operon system, in which transgene expression can be repressed and de-repressed by an innocuous lactose analogue, IPTG. We have modified an endothelium specific promoter (TIE2 with synthetic LacO sequences and made transgenic mouse lines with this modified promoter driving expression of mutant forms of connexin40 and an independently translated reporter, EGFP. We show that tissue specificity of this modified promoter is retained in the vasculature of transgenic mice in spite of the presence of LacO sequences, and that transgene expression is uniform throughout the endothelium of a range of adult systemic and cerebral arteries and arterioles. Moreover, transgene expression can be consistently down-regulated by crossing the transgenic mice with mice expressing an inhibitor protein LacI(R, and in one transgenic line, transgene expression could be de-repressed rapidly by the innocuous inducer, IPTG. We conclude that the modified bacterial lac operon system can be used successfully to validate transgenic phenotypes through a simple breeding schedule with mice homozygous for the LacI(R protein.

  7. The production of viral vectors designed to express large and difficult to express transgenes within neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holehonnur, Roopashri; Lella, Srihari K; Ho, Anthony; Luong, Jonathan A; Ploski, Jonathan E

    2015-02-24

    Viral vectors are frequently used to deliver and direct expression of transgenes in a spatially and temporally restricted manner within the nervous system of numerous model organisms. Despite the common use of viral vectors to direct ectopic expression of transgenes within the nervous system, creating high titer viral vectors that are capable of expressing very large transgenes or difficult to express transgenes imposes unique challenges. Here we describe the development of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) and lentiviruses designed to express the large and difficult to express GluN2A or GluN2B subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptor, specifically within neurons. We created a number of custom designed AAV and lentiviral vectors that were optimized for large transgenes, by minimizing DNA sequences that were not essential, utilizing short promoter sequences of 8 widely used promoters (RSV, EFS, TRE3G, 0.4αCaMKII, 1.3αCaMKII, 0.5Synapsin, 1.1Synapsin and CMV) and utilizing a very short (~75 bps) 3' untranslated sequence. Not surprisingly these promoters differed in their ability to express the GluN2 subunits, however surprisingly we found that the neuron specific synapsin and αCaMKII, promoters were incapable of conferring detectable expression of full length GluN2 subunits and detectable expression could only be achieved from these promoters if the transgene included an intron or if the GluN2 subunit transgenes were truncated to only include the coding regions of the GluN2 transmembrane domains. We determined that viral packaging limit, transgene promoter and the presence of an intron within the transgene were all important factors that contributed to being able to successfully develop viral vectors designed to deliver and express GluN2 transgenes in a neuron specific manner. Because these vectors have been optimized to accommodate large open reading frames and in some cases contain an intron to facilitate expression of difficult to express

  8. Mutations in the pqe-1 Gene Enhance Transgene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Tsuchiya, Jun-ichi; Iino, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Although various genetic tools have been developed and used as transgenes, the expression of the transgenes often is hampered by negative regulators. Disrupting such negative regulators of gene expression is potentially a way to overcome the common problem of low expression of transgenes. To find such regulators whose mutations enhance transgene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans, we took advantage of a newly developed reporter transgene, lin-11pAΔ::venus. This transgene induces expression of a fluorescent protein, Venus, in specific neurons including AIZ, where the expression was stochastic. The frequency of reporter expression in AIZ seemed to be correlated with the strength of transgene expression. By using this system, in which a moderate increase of expression was converted to all-or-none expression states, we describe here a forward genetic screen for mutations that enhance the expression of transgenes. Through the screen, we found that mutations in the pqe-1 gene, which encodes a Q/P-rich nuclear protein with an exonuclease domain, increase the chance of reporter expression in AIZ. The fluorescence intensity in RIC, in which all lin-11pAΔ::venus animals show reporter expression, was increased in pqe-1 mutants, suggesting that pqe-1 reduces the expression level of the transgene. Expression of transgenes with other promoters, 3′UTR, or reporter genes was also enhanced by the pqe-1 mutation, suggesting that the effect was not specific to a particular type of transgenes, whereas the effect did not seem to extend to endogenous genes. We propose that pqe-1 mutants can be used to increase the expression of various useful transgenes. PMID:22870397

  9. Ubiquitous expression of the rtTA2S-M2 inducible system in transgenic mice driven by the human hnRNPA2B1/CBX3 CpG island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniou Michael

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sensitive, ubiquitously expressed tetracycline inducible system would be a valuable tool in mouse transgenesis. However, this has been difficult to obtain due to position effects observed at different chromosomal sites of transgene integration, which negatively affect expression in many tissues. The aim of this study was to test the utility of a mammalian methylation-free CpG island to drive ubiquitous expression of the sensitive doxycycline (Dox inducible rtTA2S-M2 Tet-transactivator in transgenic mice. Results An 8 kb genomic fragment from the methylation-free CpG island of the human hnRNPA2B1-CBX3 housekeeping gene locus was tested. In a number of transgenic mouse lines obtained, rtTA2S-M2 expression was detected in many tissues examined. Characterisation of the highest expressing rtTA2S-M2 transgenic mouse line demonstrated Dox-inducible GFP transgene expression in many tissues. Using this line we also show highly sensitive quantitative induction with low doses of Dox of an assayable plasma protein transgene under the control of a Tet Responsive Element (TRE. The utility of this rtTA2S-M2 line for inducible expression in mouse embryos was also demonstrated using a GATA-6 Tet-inducible transgene to show specific phenotypes in the embryonic lung, as well as broader effects resulting from the inducible widespread overexpression of the transgene. Conclusion The ubiquitously expressing rtTA2S-M2 transgenic mouse line described here provides a very useful tool for studying the effects of the widespread, inducible overexpression of genes during embryonic development and in adult mice.

  10. Regulated expression of transgenes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorberbaum, David S; Gottlieb, David

    2011-02-01

    Discovery and characterization of gene promoters, enhancers and repressor binding elements is an important research area in neuroscience. Here, the suitability of embryonic stem cells and their neural derivatives as a model system for this research is investigated. Three neural transgenic constructs (from the Mnx1, Fabp7, and tuba1a genes) that have been validated in transgenic mice were inserted into embryonic stem cells as stable transgenes. These transgenic embryonic stem cells were differentiated into neural cultures and the pattern of transgene expression across a series of inducing conditions determined. The pattern of expression matched that predicted from transgenic mouse experiments for each of the three transgenes. The results show that embryonic stem cells and their neural derivatives comprise a promising model for investigating the mechanisms that control cell- and temporal-specific neural gene transcription. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Contribution of Epigenetic Modifications to the Decline in Transgene Expression from Plasmid DNA in Mouse Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Short-term expression of transgenes is one of the problems frequently associated with non-viral in vivo gene transfer. To obtain experimental evidence for the design of sustainable transgene expression systems, the contribution of epigenetic modifications to the decline in transgene expression needs to be investigated. Bisulfite sequencing and reactivation by hydrodynamic injection of isotonic solution were employed to investigate methylation statues of CpG in transiently expressing plasmid, pCMV-Luc, in mouse liver after hydrodynamic delivery. The cytosines of CpGs in the promoter region of pCMV-Luc were methylated in mouse liver, but the methylation was much later than the decline in the expression. The expression from pre-methylated pCMV-Luc was insensitive to reactivation. Neither an inhibitor of DNA methylation nor an inhibitor of histone deacetylation had significant effects on transgene expression after hydrodynamic injection of pCMV-Luc. Partial hepatectomy, which reduces the transgene expression from the non-integrated vector into the genome, significantly reduced the transgene expression of human interferon γ from a long-term expressing plasmid pCpG-Huγ, suggesting that the CpG-reduced plasmid was not significantly integrated into the genomic DNA. These results indicate that the CpG-reduced plasmids achieve prolonged transgene expression without integration into the host genome, although the methylation status of CpG sequences in plasmids will not be associated with the prolonged expression.

  12. Reduction-sensitive lipopolyamines as a novel nonviral gene delivery system for modulated release of DNA with improved transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, G; Wetzer, B; Frederic, M; Dubertret, C; Pitard, B; Jaslin, G; Scherman, D

    2000-11-16

    We have designed and synthesized original cationic lipids for modulated release of DNA from cationic lipid/DNA complexes. Our rationale was that modulated degradation of the lipids during or after penetration into the cell could improve the trafficking of DNA to the nucleus resulting in increased transgene expression. The new reduction-sensitive lipopolyamines (RSL) harbor a disulfide bridge within different positions in the backbone of the lipids as biosensitive function. A useful synthetic method was developed to obtain, with very good yields and reproducibility, unsymmetrical disulfide-bridged molecules, starting from symmetrical disulfides and thiols. The new lipopolyamines are good candidates as carriers of therapeutic genes for in vivo gene delivery. To optimize the transfection efficiency in these novel series, we have carried out structure-activity relationship studies by placing the disulfide bridge at different positions in the backbone of the cationic lipid and by systematic variation of lipid chain length. Results indicate that the transfection level can be modulated as a function of the location of the disulfide bridge in the molecule. We suggest that an early release of DNA during or after penetration into the cell, probably promoted by reduction of a disulfide bridge placed between the polyamine and the lipid, implies a total loss of transfection efficiency. On the other hand, proper modulation of DNA release by inserting the disulfide bridge between one lipid chain and the rest of the molecule brings about increased transfection efficiency as compared to previously described nondegradable lipopolyamine analogues. Finally, preliminary physicochemical characterization of the complexes demonstrates that DNA release from complexes can be modulated as a function of the surrounding reducing conditions of the complexes and of the localization of the disulfide bridge within the lipopolyamine. Our results suggest that RSL is a promising new approach for gene

  13. Expression of transgenes targeted to the Gt(ROSA26Sor locus is orientation dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Strathdee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeting transgenes to a chosen location in the genome has a number of advantages. A single copy of the DNA construct can be inserted by targeting into regions of chromatin that allow the desired developmental and tissue-specific expression of the transgene.In order to develop a reliable system for reproducibly expressing transgenes it was decided to insert constructs at the Gt(ROSA26Sor locus. A cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter was used to drive expression of the Tetracycline (tet transcriptional activator, rtTA2(s-M2, and test the effectiveness of using the ROSA26 locus to allow transgene expression. The tet operator construct was inserted into one allele of ROSA26 and a tet responder construct controlling expression of EGFP was inserted into the other allele.Expression of the targeted transgenes was shown to be affected by both the presence of selectable marker cassettes and by the orientation of the transgenes with respect to the endogenous ROSA26 promoter. These results suggest that transcriptional interference from the endogenous gene promoter or from promoters in the selectable marker cassettes may be affecting transgene expression at the locus. Additionally we have been able to determine the optimal orientation for transgene expression at the ROSA26 locus.

  14. Human HLA-Ev (147) Expression in Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, R; Maeda, A; Sakai, R; Eguchi, H; Lo, P-C; Hasuwa, H; Ikawa, M; Nakahata, K; Zenitani, M; Yamamichi, T; Umeda, S; Deguchi, K; Okuyama, H; Miyagawa, S

    2016-05-01

    In our previous study, we reported on the development of substituting S147C for HLA-E as a useful gene tool for xenotransplantation. In this study we exchanged the codon of HLA-Ev (147), checked its function, and established a line of transgenic mice. A new construct, a codon exchanging human HLA-Ev (147) + IRES + human beta 2-microgloblin, was established. The construct was subcloned into pCXN2 (the chick beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer) vector. Natural killer cell- and macrophage-mediated cytotoxicities were performed using the established the pig endothelial cell (PEC) line with the new gene. Transgenic mice with it were next produced using a micro-injection method. The expression of the molecule on PECs was confirmed by the transfection of the plasmid. The established molecules on PECs functioned well in regulating natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity and macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity. We have also successfully generated several lines of transgenic mice with this plasmid. The expression of HLA-Ev (147) in each mouse organ was confirmed by assessing the mRNA. The chick beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer resulted in a relatively broad expression of the gene in each organ, and a strong expression in the cases of the heart and lung. A synthetic HLA-Ev (147) gene with a codon usage optimized to a mammalian system represents a critical factor in the development of transgenic animals for xenotransplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel hepatitis B virus-derived cis-acting sequence that enhances expression of transgenes delivered by plasmid vectors in eukaryote cell culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung-Ae; Kim, Hong; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2017-08-26

    We tested the effectiveness of a novel 13-bp hepatitis B virus (HBV)-derived cis-acting element (CAE) (ACCTCGACAAGGC), called the DT2 CAE, in augmenting transgene expression delivered by plasmid vectors in eukaryotic cells. The addition of the DT2 CAE just upstream of the start codon of several different target proteins (luciferase, EGFP, LHB, HBsAg, and MIF) in DNA plasmid constructs enhanced their translation in a posttranscriptional manner, irrespective of cell type (cell lines or primary cells) or promoter (CMV or HBV preS1 promoters), suggesting its feasibility for enhanced protein production in eukaryotic cell systems. In conclusion, a novel HBV-derived DT2 CAE could be used effectively for enhanced protein production in eukaryotic cell culture systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology—animal welfare—has not been approached through systematic assessment...... and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals...... months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs...

  17. Matrix attachment region combinations increase transgene expression in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Peng Zhao; Xiao Guo; Si-Jia Chen; Chang-Zheng Li; Yun Yang; Jun-He Zhang; Shao-Nan Chen; Yan-Long Jia; Tian-Yun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are cis-acting DNA elements that can increase transgene expression levels in a CHO cell expression system. To investigate the effects of MAR combinations on transgene expression and the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we generated constructs in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene flanked by different combinations of human ?-interferon and ?-globin MAR (iMAR and gMAR, respectively), which was driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or simian ...

  18. Oral Exposure to Paraquat Triggers Earlier Expression of Phosphorylated α-Synuclein in the Enteric Nervous System of A53T Mutant Human α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudet, Nicolas; Antier, Emilie; Gaillard, Damien; Morignat, Eric; Lakhdar, Latifa; Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna

    2017-12-01

    The misfolded α-synuclein protein, phosphorylated at serine 129 (pSer129 α-syn), is the hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Detected also in the enteric nervous system (ENS), it supports the recent theory that PD could start in the gut, rather than the brain. In a previous study, using a transgenic mouse model of human synucleinopathies expressing the A53T mutant α-synuclein (TgM83), in which a neurodegenerative process associated with α-synuclein occurs spontaneously in the brain, we have shown earlier onset of pSer129 α-syn in the ENS. Here, we used this model to study the impact of paraquat (PQ) a neurotoxic herbicide incriminated in PD in agricultural workers) on the enteric pSer129 α-syn expression in young mice. Orally delivered in the drinking water at 10 mg/kg/day for 6-8 weeks, the impact of PQ was measured in a time-dependent manner on weight, locomotor abilities, pSer129 α-syn, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression levels in the ENS. Remarkably, pSer129 α-syn was detected in ENS earlier under PQ oral exposure and enteric GFAP expression was also increased. These findings bring additional support to the theory that neurotoxic agents such as PQ initiate idiopathic PD after oral delivery. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

  19. Characterization of mercury bioremediation by transgenic bacteria expressing metallothionein and polyphosphate kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Ruiz Gloriene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of transgenic bacteria has been proposed as a suitable alternative for mercury remediation. Ideally, mercury would be sequestered by metal-scavenging agents inside transgenic bacteria for subsequent retrieval. So far, this approach has produced limited protection and accumulation. We report here the development of a transgenic system that effectively expresses metallothionein (mt-1 and polyphosphate kinase (ppk genes in bacteria in order to provide high mercury resistance and accumulation. Results In this study, bacterial transformation with transcriptional and translational enhanced vectors designed for the expression of metallothionein and polyphosphate kinase provided high transgene transcript levels independent of the gene being expressed. Expression of polyphosphate kinase and metallothionein in transgenic bacteria provided high resistance to mercury, up to 80 μM and 120 μM, respectively. Here we show for the first time that metallothionein can be efficiently expressed in bacteria without being fused to a carrier protein to enhance mercury bioremediation. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry analyzes revealed that the mt-1 transgenic bacteria accumulated up to 100.2 ± 17.6 μM of mercury from media containing 120 μM Hg. The extent of mercury remediation was such that the contaminated media remediated by the mt-1 transgenic bacteria supported the growth of untransformed bacteria. Cell aggregation, precipitation and color changes were visually observed in mt-1 and ppk transgenic bacteria when these cells were grown in high mercury concentrations. Conclusion The transgenic bacterial system described in this study presents a viable technology for mercury bioremediation from liquid matrices because it provides high mercury resistance and accumulation while inhibiting elemental mercury volatilization. This is the first report that shows that metallothionein expression provides mercury resistance and

  20. Calcium electrotransfer for termination of transgene expression in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Spanggaard, Iben; Olsen, Caroline Holkman

    2011-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer is expanding in clinical use, thus we have searched for an emergency procedure to stop transgene expression in case of serious adverse events. Calcium is cytotoxic at high intracellular levels, so we tested effects of calcium electrotransfer on transgene expression in muscle....... A clinical grade calcium solution (20 µl, 168 mM) was injected into transfected mouse or rat tibialis cranialis muscle. Ca(2+) uptake was quantified using calcium 45 ((45)Ca), and voltage and time between injection and pulsation were varied. Extinction of transgene expression was investigated by using both...... voltage pulses of 1000 V/cm. Using these parameters, in vivo imaging showed that transgene expression significantly decreased 4 hr after Ca(2+) electrotransfer and was eliminated within 24 hr. Similarly, serum erythropoietin was reduced by 46% at 4 hr and to control levels at 2 days. Histological analyses...

  1. Comparison of nutritional value of transgenic peanut expressing bar and rcg3 genes with non-transgenic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robab, U.E.; )

    2014-01-01

    The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties. (author)

  2. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Reinhard C; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa; Lillico, Simon; Sandøe, Peter; Sørensen, Dorte B; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Olsson, I Anna S

    2012-08-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology--animal welfare--has not been approached through systematic assessment and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals along various stages of post natal development. The protocol used covered reproductory performance and behaviour in GFP and wildtype sows and general health and development, social behaviour, exploratory behaviour and emotionality in GFP and wildtype littermates from birth until an age of roughly 4 months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs expressing GFP as healthy. Although the results are not surprising in the light of previous experience, they give a more solid fundament to the evaluation of GFP expression as being relatively non-invasive in pigs. The present study may furthermore serve as starting point for researchers aiming at a systematic characterization of welfare relevant effects in the line of transgenic pigs they are working with.

  3. A recombinase-mediated transcriptional induction system in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, T; Schnorr, K M; Mundy, J

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and tested a Cre-loxP recombination-mediated vector system termed pCrox for use in transgenic plants. In this system, treatment of Arabidopsis under inducing conditions mediates an excision event that removes an intervening piece of DNA between a promoter and the gene to be expressed......-mediated GUS activation. Induction was shown to be possible at essentially any stage of plant growth. This single vector system circumvents the need for genetic crosses required by other, dual recombinase vector systems. The pCrox system may prove particularly useful in instances where transgene over...

  4. The Construction and Expression of Lysine-Rich Gene in the Mammary Gland of Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guangqi; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhongwei; Yin, Yupeng; Kong, Delong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEOr was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase–PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (ptransgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows. PMID:22577831

  5. Mushroom body miscellanea: transgenic Drosophila strains expressing anatomical and physiological sensor proteins in Kenyon cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Ulrike; Dipt, Shubham; Barth, Jonas; Singh, Priyanka; Jauch, Mandy; Thum, Andreas S.; Fiala, André; Riemensperger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. To target the expression of these transgenes selectively to specific neurons several sophisticated bi- or even multipartite transcription systems have been invented. However, the number of transgenes that can be combined in the genome of an individual fly is limited in practice. To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. Some of the transgenic animals compiled here have been published already, whereas others are novel and characterized here for the first time. Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. PMID:24065891

  6. Evaluation of the defense system in chloroplasts to photooxidative stress caused by paraquat using transgenic tobacco plants expressing catalase from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Y; Tamoi, M; Shigeoka, S

    2000-03-01

    We evaluated the defense system in chloroplasts to photooxidative stress imposed by paraquat treatment under illumination in transgenic tobacco plants with increased tolerance to drought stress at a high light intensity produced by catalase from Escherichia coli targeted to chloroplasts [Shikanai et al. (1998) FEBS Lett. 428: 47]. At 24 h after the paraquat application, Chl was destroyed in the wild-type plants, but not in transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activities monitored by CO2 fixation and Chl fluorescence were much less affected by the paraquat treatment in transgenic lines. The activities of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase (APX) isoenzymes decreased in parallel with the depletion of ascorbate (AsA) in leaves in both lines. Paraquat treatment had no effect on the transcript level of chloroplastic APX isoenzymes, while it significantly lowered the level of their proteins. These data suggest that the depletion of AsA in chloroplasts under severe stress conditions inactivates and degrades chloroplastic APX isoenzymes.

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing Rift Valley fever virus antigens: Mice exhibit systemic immune responses as the result of oral administration of the transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbina, Irina; Lagerqvist, Nina; Moiane, Bélisario; Ahlm, Clas; Andersson, Sören; Strid, Åke; Falk, Kerstin I

    2016-11-01

    The zoonotic Rift Valley fever virus affects livestock and humans in Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula. The economic impact of this pathogen due to livestock losses, as well as its relevance to public health, underscores the importance of developing effective and easily distributed vaccines. Vaccines that can be delivered orally are of particular interest. Here, we report the expression in transformed plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) of Rift Valley fever virus antigens. The antigens used in this study were the N protein and a deletion mutant of the Gn glycoprotein. Transformed lines were analysed for specific mRNA and protein content by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Furthermore, the plant-expressed antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicity in mice fed the transgenic plants. After oral intake of fresh transgenic plant material, a proportion of the mice elicited specific IgG antibody responses, as compared to the control animals that were fed wild-type plants and of which none sero-converted. Thus, we show that transgenic plants can be readily used to express and produce Rift Valley Fever virus proteins, and that the plants are immunogenic when given orally to mice. These are promising findings and provide a basis for further studies on edible plant vaccines against the Rift Valley fever virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RNAi combining Sleeping Beauty transposon system inhibits ex vivo expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus VP1 in transgenic sheep cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shoulong; Li, Guangdong; Yu, Kun; Tian, Xiuzhi; Wang, Feng; Li, Wenting; Jiang, Wuqi; Ji, Pengyun; Han, Hongbing; Fu, Juncai; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Liu, Yixun; Lian, Zhengxing; Liu, Guoshi

    2017-08-30

    Foot and mouth disease, which is induced by the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), takes its toll on the cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The VP1 gene in FMDV genome encodes the viral capsid, a vital element for FMDV replication. Sleeping Beauty (SB) is an active DNA-transposon system responsible for genetic transformation and insertional mutagenesis in vertebrates. In this study, a conserved VP1-shRNA which specifically targets the ovine FMDV-VP1 gene was constructed and combined with SB transposase and transposon. Then, they were microinjected into pronuclear embryos to breed transgenic sheep. Ninety-two lambs were born and the VP1-shRNA was positively integrated into eight of them. The rate of transgenic sheep production in SB transposon system was significantly higher than that in controls (13.04% vs. 3.57% and 7.14%, P sheep were successfully generated by the current new method. The ear fibroblasts from these transgenic sheep possess a great resistance to FMDV. The result indicated that RNAi technology combining the "Sleeping Beauty" transposon system is an efficient method to produce transgenic animals.

  9. AdEasy-based cloning system to generate tropism expanded replicating adenoviruses expressing transgenes late in the viral life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie-A-Ling, M.; Bakker, C. T.; Wesseling, J. G.; Bosma, P. J.

    2005-01-01

    Replicating adenoviral vectors (RAds) hold great promise for the treatment of cancer. Significant therapeutic effects of these vectors do not only rely on tumor targeting but also on efficient release of viral progeny from host cells. Cytotoxic genes expressed late in the adenoviral life cycle can

  10. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay D; Parnaik, Veena K

    2017-07-01

    Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans. Expression of zlamin A mutations Q291P and M368K in the heart was driven by the zebrafish cardiac troponin T2 promoter. Homozygous mutant embryos displayed nuclear abnormalities in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Expression analysis showed the upregulation of genes involved in heart regeneration in transgenic mutant embryos and a cell proliferation marker was increased in adult heart tissue. At the physiological level, there was deviation of up to 20% from normal heart rate in transgenic embryos expressing mutant lamins. Adult homozygous zebrafish were fertile and did not show signs of early mortality. Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. A transgenic rat with ubiquitous expression of firefly luciferase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamata, Yoji; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    In vivo imaging strategies provide cellular and molecular events in real time that helps us to understand biological processes in living animals. The development of molecular tags such as green fluorescent proteins and luciferase from the firefly Photinus pyralis has lead to a revolution in the visualization of complex biochemical processes. We developed a novel inbred transgenic rat strain containing firefly luciferase based on the transgenic (Tg) technique in rats. This Tg rat expressed the luciferase gene ubiquitously under control of the ROSA26 promoter. Cellular immune responsiveness against the luciferase protein was evaluated using conventional skin grafting and resulted in the long-term acceptance of Tg rat skin on wild-type rats. Strikingly, organ transplant with heart and small bowel demonstrated organ viability and graft survival, suggesting that cells from luciferase-Tg are transplantable to track their fate. Taking advantage of the less immunogenic luciferase, we also tested the role of hepatocyte-infusion in a liver injury model, and bone marrow-derived cells in a skin defect model. Employed in conjunction with modern advances in optical imaging, this luciferase-Tg rat system provides an innovative animal tool and a new means of facilitating biomedical research such as in the case of regeneration medicine.

  12. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2014-12-01

    Composite potato plants offer an extremely fast, effective and reliable system for studies on gene functions in roots using antisense or inverted-repeat but not sense constructs for gene inactivation. Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100%) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wild-type adventitious roots were formed at mock inoculation site. All strains of A. rhizogenes tested induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of β-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either the uidA sense or antisense transcripts, or inverted-repeat or hairpin uidA RNA. The three last mentioned constructs caused 2.5-4.0 fold reduction in the uidA mRNA expression. In contrast, over-expression of uidA resulted in over 3-fold increase in the uidA mRNA and GUS expression, indicating that sense-mediated silencing (co-suppression) was not functional in roots. The results suggest that composite plants offer a useful experimental system for potato research, which has gained little previous attention.

  13. MAR elements and transposons for improved transgene integration and expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Ley

    Full Text Available Reliable and long-term expression of transgenes remain significant challenges for gene therapy and biotechnology applications, especially when antibiotic selection procedures are not applicable. In this context, transposons represent attractive gene transfer vectors because of their ability to promote efficient genomic integration in a variety of mammalian cell types. However, expression from genome-integrating vectors may be inhibited by variable gene transcription and/or silencing events. In this study, we assessed whether inclusion of two epigenetic control elements, the human Matrix Attachment Region (MAR 1-68 and X-29, in a piggyBac transposon vector, may lead to more reliable and efficient expression in CHO cells. We found that addition of the MAR 1-68 at the center of the transposon did not interfere with transposition frequency, and transgene expressing cells could be readily detected from the total cell population without antibiotic selection. Inclusion of the MAR led to higher transgene expression per integrated copy, and reliable expression could be obtained from as few as 2-4 genomic copies of the MAR-containing transposon vector. The MAR X-29-containing transposons was found to mediate elevated expression of therapeutic proteins in polyclonal or monoclonal CHO cell populations using a transposable vector devoid of selection gene. Overall, we conclude that MAR and transposable vectors can be used to improve transgene expression from few genomic transposition events, which may be useful when expression from a low number of integrated transgene copies must be obtained and/or when antibiotic selection cannot be applied.

  14. Reduction of malaria transmission by transgenic mosquitoes expressing an antisporozoite antibody in their salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitani, M; Kasashima, K; Yamamoto, D S; Yagi, K; Yuda, M; Matsuoka, H; Yoshida, S

    2013-02-01

    We have previously developed a robust salivary gland-specific expression system in transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. To establish transgenic mosquito lines refractory to Plasmodium falciparum using this system, we generated a transgenic mosquito harbouring the gene encoding an anti-P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) single-chain antibody (scFv) fused to DsRed in a secretory form (mDsRed-2A10 scFv). Fluorescence microscopy showed that the mDsRed-2A10 scFv was localized in the secretory cavities and ducts of the salivary glands in a secreted form. To evaluate P. falciparum transmission-blocking in a rodent malaria model, a transgenic Plasmodium berghei line expressing PfCSP in place of PbCSP (PfCSP/Pb) was constructed. The PfCSP/Pb parasites were able to bind to the mDsRed-2A10 scFv in the salivary glands of the transgenic mosquitoes. Importantly, the infectivity of the transgenic mosquitoes to mice was strongly impaired, indicating that the parasites had been inactivated. These results suggest that salivary gland-specific expression of antisporozoite molecules could be a promising strategy for blocking malaria transmission to humans. © 2012 Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Identification of abnormal gene expression in bovine transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jongki; Kang, Sungkeun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the expression of three genes related to early embryonic development in bovine transgenic cloned embryos. To accomplish this, development of bovine transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was compared with non-transgenic embryos. Next, mRNA transcription of three specific genes (DNMT1, Hsp 70.1, and Mash2) related to early embryo development in transgenic SCNT embryos was compared between transgenic and non-transgenic SCNTs, parthenogene...

  16. Tetracycline-regulated transgene expression in hippocampal neurones following transfection with adenoviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, T C; Geddes, B J; Noel, J D; Murphy, D; Uney, J B

    1997-12-01

    A transfer system that enabled the efficient introduction of transgenes into neurones and the quantitative control of the expressed transgene would greatly facilitate studies into neuronal gene function. To develop such a system we incorporated the tetracycline (Tet)-responsive On/Off regulatory elements into type-5 adenoviral (Ad) vectors. Regulation of transgene expression following transfection was measured by placing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene upstream of the Tet regulatory element. The results showed that cultures of primary hippocampal cells could be transfected with very high efficiency (<70%) by the AdTet-On and AdTet-Off systems. Following transfection with the AdTet-On system no EGFP-fluorescent cells could be detected until doxycycline was added. The AdTet-Off system showed the reverse transcriptional regulation, in that the addition of Tet caused EGFP fluorescence to be abolished.

  17. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H

    2013-02-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes. © 2012 Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Lox-dependent gene expression in transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbak, N; Kishchenko, O; Sakhno, L; Komarnytsky, I; Kuchuk, M

    2013-01-01

    Lox sites of the Cre/lox recombination system from bacteriophage P1 were analyzed for their ability to affect on transgene expression when inserted upstream from a gene coding sequence adjacent to the right border (RB) of T-DNA. Wild and mutated types of lox sites were tested for their effect upon bar gene expression in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated and biolistic transformation methods. Lox-mediated expression of bar gene, recognized by resistance of transgenic plants to PPT, occurred only in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. RT-PCR analysis confirms that PPT-resistant phenotype of transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was caused by activation of bar gene. The plasmid with promoterless gus gene together with the lox site adjacent to the RB was constructed and transferred to Nicotiana tabacum as well. Transgenic plants exhibited GUS activity and expression of gus gene was detected in plant leaves. Expression of bar gene from the vectors containing lox site near RB allowed recovery of numerous PPT-resistant transformants of such important crops as Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, Lactuca sativa and Solanum tuberosum. Our results demonstrate that the lox site sequence adjacent to the RB can be used to control bar gene expression in transgenic plants.

  19. Transgenic expression of nonclassically secreted FGF suppresses kidney repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Kirov

    Full Text Available FGF1 is a signal peptide-less nonclassically released growth factor that is involved in angiogenesis, tissue repair, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. The effects of nonclassical FGF export in vivo are not sufficiently studied. We produced transgenic mice expressing FGF1 in endothelial cells (EC, which allowed the detection of FGF1 export to the vasculature, and studied the efficiency of postischemic kidney repair in these animals. Although FGF1 transgenic mice had a normal phenotype with unperturbed kidney structure, they showed a severely inhibited kidney repair after unilateral ischemia/reperfusion. This was manifested by a strong decrease of postischemic kidney size and weight, whereas the undamaged contralateral kidney exhibited an enhanced compensatory size increase. In addition, the postischemic kidneys of transgenic mice were characterized by hyperplasia of interstitial cells, paucity of epithelial tubular structures, increase of the areas occupied by connective tissue, and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. The continuous treatment of transgenic mice with the cell membrane stabilizer, taurine, inhibited nonclassical FGF1 export and significantly rescued postischemic kidney repair. It was also found that similar to EC, the transgenic expression of FGF1 in monocytes and macrophages suppresses kidney repair. We suggest that nonclassical export may be used as a target for the treatment of pathologies involving signal peptide-less FGFs.

  20. Calcium electrotransfer for termination of transgene expression in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Spanggaard, Iben; Olsen, Caroline Holkman

    2011-01-01

    . A clinical grade calcium solution (20 μl, 168 mM) was injected into transfected mouse or rat tibialis cranialis muscle. Ca(2+) uptake was quantified using calcium 45 ((45)Ca), and voltage and time between injection and pulsation were varied. Extinction of transgene expression was investigated by using both...

  1. Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants infected with recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus for development of a plant-derived vaccine against HCV. AK El Attar, AM Shamloul, AA Shalaby, BY Riad, A Saad, HM Mazyad, JM Keith ...

  2. Transgenic Expression of the Anti-parasitic Factor TEP1 in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volohonsky, Gloria; Hopp, Ann-Katrin; Saenger, Mélanie; Soichot, Julien; Scholze, Heidi; Boch, Jens; Blandin, Stéphanie A; Marois, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Mosquitoes genetically engineered to be resistant to Plasmodium parasites represent a promising novel approach in the fight against malaria. The insect immune system itself is a source of anti-parasitic genes potentially exploitable for transgenic designs. The Anopheles gambiae thioester containing protein 1 (TEP1) is a potent anti-parasitic protein. TEP1 is secreted and circulates in the mosquito hemolymph, where its activated cleaved form binds and eliminates malaria parasites. Here we investigated whether TEP1 can be used to create malaria resistant mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter transgene, we determined that the fat body is the main site of TEP1 expression. We generated transgenic mosquitoes that express TEP1r, a potent refractory allele of TEP1, in the fat body and examined the activity of the transgenic protein in wild-type or TEP1 mutant genetic backgrounds. Transgenic TEP1r rescued loss-of-function mutations, but did not increase parasite resistance in the presence of a wild-type susceptible allele. Consistent with previous reports, TEP1 protein expressed from the transgene in the fat body was taken up by hemocytes upon a challenge with injected bacteria. Furthermore, although maturation of transgenic TEP1 into the cleaved form was impaired in one of the TEP1 mutant lines, it was still sufficient to reduce parasite numbers and induce parasite melanization. We also report here the first use of Transcription Activator Like Effectors (TALEs) in Anopheles gambiae to stimulate expression of endogenous TEP1. We found that artificial elevation of TEP1 expression remains moderate in vivo and that enhancement of endogenous TEP1 expression did not result in increased resistance to Plasmodium. Taken together, our results reveal the difficulty of artificially influencing TEP1-mediated Plasmodium resistance, and contribute to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mosquito resistance to Plasmodium parasites.

  3. Transgenic Expression of the Anti-parasitic Factor TEP1 in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Volohonsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes genetically engineered to be resistant to Plasmodium parasites represent a promising novel approach in the fight against malaria. The insect immune system itself is a source of anti-parasitic genes potentially exploitable for transgenic designs. The Anopheles gambiae thioester containing protein 1 (TEP1 is a potent anti-parasitic protein. TEP1 is secreted and circulates in the mosquito hemolymph, where its activated cleaved form binds and eliminates malaria parasites. Here we investigated whether TEP1 can be used to create malaria resistant mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter transgene, we determined that the fat body is the main site of TEP1 expression. We generated transgenic mosquitoes that express TEP1r, a potent refractory allele of TEP1, in the fat body and examined the activity of the transgenic protein in wild-type or TEP1 mutant genetic backgrounds. Transgenic TEP1r rescued loss-of-function mutations, but did not increase parasite resistance in the presence of a wild-type susceptible allele. Consistent with previous reports, TEP1 protein expressed from the transgene in the fat body was taken up by hemocytes upon a challenge with injected bacteria. Furthermore, although maturation of transgenic TEP1 into the cleaved form was impaired in one of the TEP1 mutant lines, it was still sufficient to reduce parasite numbers and induce parasite melanization. We also report here the first use of Transcription Activator Like Effectors (TALEs in Anopheles gambiae to stimulate expression of endogenous TEP1. We found that artificial elevation of TEP1 expression remains moderate in vivo and that enhancement of endogenous TEP1 expression did not result in increased resistance to Plasmodium. Taken together, our results reveal the difficulty of artificially influencing TEP1-mediated Plasmodium resistance, and contribute to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mosquito resistance to Plasmodium parasites.

  4. Development of a versatile oncolytic virus platform for local intra-tumoural expression of therapeutic transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Nalini; Illingworth, Sam; Kodialbail, Prithvi; Patel, Ashvin; Calderon, Hugo; Lear, Rochelle; Fisher, Kerry D; Champion, Brian R; Brown, Alice C N

    2017-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses which infect and kill tumour cells can also be genetically modified to express therapeutic genes that augment their anti-cancer activities. Modifying oncolytic viruses to produce effective cancer therapies is challenging as encoding transgenes often attenuates virus activity or prevents systemic delivery in patients due to the risk of off-target expression of transgenes in healthy tissues. To overcome these issues we aimed to generate a readily modifiable virus platform using the oncolytic adenovirus, enadenotucirev. Enadenotucirev replicates in human tumour cells but not cells from healthy tissues and can be delivered intravenously because it is stable in human blood. Here, the enadenotucirev genome was used to generate plasmids into which synthesised transgene cassettes could be directly cloned in a single step reaction. The platform enabled generation of panels of reporter viruses to identify cloning sites and transgene cassette designs where transgene expression could be linked to the virus life cycle. It was demonstrated using these viruses that encoded transgene proteins could be successfully expressed in tumour cells in vitro and tumours in vivo. The expression of transgenes did not impact either the oncolytic activity or selective properties of the virus. The effectiveness of this approach as a drug delivery platform for complex therapeutics was demonstrated by inserting multiple genes in the virus genome to encode full length anti-VEGF antibodies. Functional antibody could be synthesised and secreted from infected tumour cells without impacting the activity of the virus particle in terms of oncolytic potency, manufacturing yields or selectivity for tumour cells. In vivo, viral particles could be efficaciously delivered intravenously to disseminated orthotopic tumours.

  5. Development of a versatile oncolytic virus platform for local intra-tumoural expression of therapeutic transgenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Marino

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses which infect and kill tumour cells can also be genetically modified to express therapeutic genes that augment their anti-cancer activities. Modifying oncolytic viruses to produce effective cancer therapies is challenging as encoding transgenes often attenuates virus activity or prevents systemic delivery in patients due to the risk of off-target expression of transgenes in healthy tissues. To overcome these issues we aimed to generate a readily modifiable virus platform using the oncolytic adenovirus, enadenotucirev. Enadenotucirev replicates in human tumour cells but not cells from healthy tissues and can be delivered intravenously because it is stable in human blood. Here, the enadenotucirev genome was used to generate plasmids into which synthesised transgene cassettes could be directly cloned in a single step reaction. The platform enabled generation of panels of reporter viruses to identify cloning sites and transgene cassette designs where transgene expression could be linked to the virus life cycle. It was demonstrated using these viruses that encoded transgene proteins could be successfully expressed in tumour cells in vitro and tumours in vivo. The expression of transgenes did not impact either the oncolytic activity or selective properties of the virus. The effectiveness of this approach as a drug delivery platform for complex therapeutics was demonstrated by inserting multiple genes in the virus genome to encode full length anti-VEGF antibodies. Functional antibody could be synthesised and secreted from infected tumour cells without impacting the activity of the virus particle in terms of oncolytic potency, manufacturing yields or selectivity for tumour cells. In vivo, viral particles could be efficaciously delivered intravenously to disseminated orthotopic tumours.

  6. Milk composition studies in transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase in the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Hernan; Hockley, Duncan K; Olaniyan, Benjamen; Brochu, Eric; Zhao, Xin; Mustafa, Arif; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2008-10-01

    The use of the mammary gland of transgenic goats as a bioreactor is a well established platform for the efficient production of recombinant proteins, especially for molecules that cannot be adequately produced in traditional systems using genetically engineered microorganisms and cells. However, the extraordinary demand placed on the secretory epithelium by the expression of large amounts of the recombinant protein, may result in a compromised mammary physiology. In this study, milk composition was compared between control and transgenic goats expressing high levels (1-5 g/l) of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase in the milk. Casein concentration, as evaluated by acid precipitation, was significantly reduced in the transgenic compared with the control goats throughout lactation (P Milk fatty acid composition for transgenic goats, as determined by gas chromatography, was found to have significantly fewer short chain fatty acids (P goats during the first several weeks of lactation. However, as lactation progressed, a significant increase in Na and serum albumin concentrations and a decrease in K(+) concentration were found in the milk of transgenic goats, while control animals remained unchanged (P milk secretion observed in these transgenic goats.

  7. The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian R Schreglmann

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS under the murine Thy1 (mThy1 promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction.Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex.The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.

  8. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti...

  9. Transgene expression in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen transformation shows potential as a fast and easy means of obtaining transformed plants carrying desirable transgenes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been suggested as the best natural plant genetic engineering system. Laboratory and screenhouse studies were undertaken to investigate the possibility of ...

  10. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in egg whites of transgenic hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainan Cao

    Full Text Available Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications.

  11. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in egg whites of transgenic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications.

  12. Transgene expression in microalgae – from tools to applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior eDoron

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae comprise a biodiverse group of photosynthetic organisms that reside in water sources and sediments. The green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was adopted as a useful model organism for studying various physiological systems. Its ability to grow under both photosynthetic and heterotrophic conditions allows efficient growth of non-photosynthetic mutants, making Chlamydomonas a useful genetic tool to study photosynthesis. In addition, this green alga can grow as haploid or diploid cells, similar to yeast, providing a powerful genetic system. As a result, easy and efficient transformation systems have been developed for Chlamydomonas, targeting both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Since microalgae comprise a rich repertoire of species that offer variable advantages for biotech and biomed industries, gene transfer technologies were further developed for many microalgae to allow for the expression of foreign proteins of interest. Expressing foreign genes in the chloroplast enables the targeting of foreign DNA to specific sites by homologous recombination. Chloroplast transformation also allows for the introduction of genes encoding several enzymes from a complex pathway, possibly as an operon. Expressing foreign proteins in the chloroplast can also be achieved by introducing the target gene into the nuclear genome, with the protein product bearing a targeting signal that directs import of the transgene-product into the chloroplast, like other endogenous chloroplast proteins. Integration of foreign genes into the nuclear genome is mostly random, resulting in large variability between different clones, such that extensive screening is required. The use of different selection modalities is also described, with special emphasis on the use of herbicides and metabolic markers which are considered to be friendly to the environment, as compared to drug-resistance genes that are commonly used. Finally, despite the development of a wide

  13. Selectivity and Efficiency of Late Transgene Expression by Transcriptionally Targeted Oncolytic Adenoviruses Are Dependent on the Transgene Insertion Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, Christina; Rohmer, Stanimira; Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Behr, Michael; Hesse, Andrea; Engelhardt, Sarah; Erbs, Philippe; Enk, Alexander H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Key challenges facing cancer therapy are the development of tumor-specific drugs and potent multimodal regimens. Oncolytic adenoviruses possess the potential to realize both aims by restricting virus replication to tumors and inserting therapeutic genes into the virus genome, respectively. A major effort in this regard is to express transgenes in a tumor-specific manner without affecting virus replication. Using both luciferase as a sensitive reporter and genetic prodrug activation, we show that promoter control of E1A facilitates highly selective expression of transgenes inserted into the late transcription unit. This, however, required multistep optimization of late transgene expression. Transgene insertion via internal ribosome entry site (IRES), splice acceptor (SA), or viral 2A sequences resulted in replication-dependent expression. Unexpectedly, analyses in appropriate substrates and with matching control viruses revealed that IRES and SA, but not 2A, facilitated indirect transgene targeting via tyrosinase promoter control of E1A. Transgene expression via SA was more selective (up to 1,500-fold) but less effective than via IRES. Notably, we also revealed transgene-dependent interference with splicing. Hence, the prodrug convertase FCU1 (a cytosine deaminase–uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion protein) was expressed only after optimizing the sequence surrounding the SA site and mutating a cryptic splice site within the transgene. The resulting tyrosinase promoter-regulated and FCU1-encoding adenovirus combined effective oncolysis with targeted prodrug activation therapy of melanoma. Thus, prodrug activation showed potent bystander killing and increased cytotoxicity of the virus up to 10-fold. We conclude that armed oncolytic viruses can be improved substantially by comparing and optimizing strategies for targeted transgene expression, thereby implementing selective and multimodal cancer therapies. PMID:20939692

  14. Optical modulation of transgene expression in retinal pigment epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, D.; Lavinsky, D.; Chalberg, T.; Mandel, Y.; Huie, P.; Dalal, R.; Marmor, M.

    2013-03-01

    Over a million people in US alone are visually impaired due to the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The current treatment is monthly intravitreal injections of a protein which inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, thereby slowing progression of the disease. The immense financial and logistical burden of millions of intravitreal injections signifies an urgent need to develop more long-lasting and cost-effective treatments for this and other retinal diseases. Viral transfection of ocular cells allows creation of a "biofactory" that secretes therapeutic proteins. This technique has been proven successful in non-human primates, and is now being evaluated in clinical trials for wet AMD. However, there is a critical need to down-regulate gene expression in the case of total resolution of retinal condition, or if patient has adverse reaction to the trans-gene products. The site for genetic therapy of AMD and many other retinal diseases is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We developed and tested in pigmented rabbits, an optical method to down-regulate transgene expression in RPE following vector delivery, without retinal damage. Microsecond exposures produced by a rapidly scanning laser vaporize melanosomes and destroy a predetermined fraction of the RPE cells selectively. RPE continuity is restored within days by migration and proliferation of adjacent RPE, but since the transgene is not integrated into the nucleus it is not replicated. Thus, the decrease in transgene expression can be precisely determined by the laser pattern density and further reduced by repeated treatment without affecting retinal structure and function.

  15. Development of Transgenic Minipigs with Expression of Antimorphic Human Cryptochrome 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxin; Bolund, Lars; Vajta, Gábor; Dou, Hongwei; Yang, Wenxian; Xu, Ying; Luan, Jing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Du, Yutao

    2013-01-01

    Minipigs have become important biomedical models for human ailments due to similarities in organ anatomy, physiology, and circadian rhythms relative to humans. The homeostasis of circadian rhythms in both central and peripheral tissues is pivotal for numerous biological processes. Hence, biological rhythm disorders may contribute to the onset of cancers and metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, amongst others. A tight regulation of circadian clock effectors ensures a rhythmic expression profile of output genes which, depending on cell type, constitute about 3–20% of the transcribed mammalian genome. Central to this system is the negative regulator protein Cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) of which the dysfunction or absence has been linked to the pathogenesis of rhythm disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic Bama-minipigs featuring expression of the Cys414-Ala antimorphic human Cryptochrome 1 mutant (hCRY1AP). Using transgenic donor fibroblasts as nuclear donors, the method of handmade cloning (HMC) was used to produce reconstructed embryos, subsequently transferred to surrogate sows. A total of 23 viable piglets were delivered. All were transgenic and seemingly healthy. However, two pigs with high transgene expression succumbed during the first two months. Molecular analyzes in epidermal fibroblasts demonstrated disturbances to the expression profile of core circadian clock genes and elevated expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, known to be risk factors in cancer and metabolic disorders. PMID:24146819

  16. Transgenic expression of lactoferrin imparts enhanced resistance to head blight of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jigang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Using the tools of plant genetic engineering, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial gene was tested for resistance against head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. that reduces both grain yield and quality. Results A construct containing a bovine lactoferrin cDNA was used to transform wheat using an Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer system to express this antimicrobial protein in transgenic wheat. Transformants were analyzed by Northern and Western blots to determine lactoferrin gene expression levels and were inoculated with the head blight disease fungus F. graminearum. Transgenic wheat showed a significant reduction of disease incidence caused by F. graminearum compared to control wheat plants. The level of resistance in the highly susceptible wheat cultivar Bobwhite was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to control Bobwhite and two untransformed commercial wheat cultivars, susceptible Wheaton and tolerant ND 2710. Quantification of the expressed lactoferrin protein by ELISA in transgenic wheat indicated a positive correlation between the lactoferrin gene expression levels and the levels of disease resistance. Conclusions Introgression of the lactoferrin gene into elite commercial wheat, barley and other susceptible cereals may enhance resistance to F. graminearum.

  17. Production of transgenic dairy goat expressing human α-lactalbumin by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiujing; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Huili; Meng, Chunhua; Li, Jingxin; Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yong; Su, Lei; He, Qiang; Zhang, Qingxiao

    2015-02-01

    Production of human α-lactalbumin (hα-LA) transgenic cloned dairy goats has great potential in improving the nutritional value and perhaps increasing the yield of dairy goat milk. Here, a mammary-specific expression vector 5A, harboring goat β-lactoglobulin (βLG) promoter, the hα-LA gene, neo(r) and EGFP dual markers, was constructed. Then, it was effectively transfected into goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and the expression of hα-LA was investigated. Both the hα-LA transcript and protein were detected in the transfected GMECs after the induction of hormonal signals. In addition, the 5A vector was introduced into dairy goat fetal fibroblasts (transfection efficiency ≈60-70%) to prepare competent transgenic donor cells. A total of 121 transgenic fibroblast clones were isolated by 96-well cell culture plates and screened with nested-PCR amplification and EGFP fluorescence. After being frozen for 8 months, the transgenic cells still showed high viabilities, verifying their ability as donor cells. Dairy goat cloned embryos were produced from these hα-LA transgenic donor cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the rates of fusion, cleavage, and the development to blastocyst stages were 81.8, 84.4, and 20.0%, respectively. A total of 726 reconstructed embryos derived from the transgenic cells were transferred to 74 recipients and pregnancy was confirmed at 90 days in 12 goats. Of six female kids born, two carried hα-LA and the hα-LA protein was detected in their milk. This study provides an effective system to prepare SCNT donor cells and transgenic animals for human recombinant proteins.

  18. Functional imaging of interleukin 1 beta expression in inflammatory process using bioluminescence imaging in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhihui

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β plays an important role in a number of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. To understand the role of IL-1β in disease processes and develop an in vivo screening system for anti-inflammatory drugs, a transgenic mouse line was generated which incorporated the transgene firefly luciferase gene driven by a 4.5-kb fragment of the human IL-1β gene promoter. Luciferase gene expression was monitored in live mice under anesthesia using bioluminescence imaging in a number of inflammatory disease models. Results In a LPS-induced sepsis model, dramatic increase in luciferase activity was observed in the mice. This transgene induction was time dependent and correlated with an increase of endogenous IL-1β mRNA and pro-IL-1β protein levels in the mice. In a zymosan-induced arthritis model and an oxazolone-induced skin hypersensitivity reaction model, luciferase expression was locally induced in the zymosan injected knee joint and in the ear with oxazolone application, respectively. Dexamethasone suppressed the expression of luciferase gene both in the acute sepsis model and in the acute arthritis model. Conclusion Our data suggest that the transgenic mice model could be used to study transcriptional regulation of the IL-1β gene expression in the inflammatory process and evaluation the effect of anti-inflammatory drug in vivo.

  19. Use of lentiviral vectors to deliver and express bicistronic transgenes in developing chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple-Rowland, Susan L; Berry, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    The abilities of lentiviral vectors to carry large transgenes (∼8kb) and to efficiently infect and integrate these genes into the genomes of both dividing and non-dividing cells make them ideal candidates for transport of genetic material into cells and tissues. Given the properties of these vectors, it is somewhat surprising that they have seen only limited use in studies of developing tissues and in particular of the developing nervous system. Over the past several years, we have taken advantage of the large capacity of these vectors to explore the expression characteristics of several dual promoter and 2A peptide bicistronic transgenes in developing chick neural retina, with the goal of identifying transgene designs that reliably express multiple proteins in infected cells. Here we summarize the activities of several of these transgenes in neural retina and provide detailed methodologies for packaging lentivirus and delivering the virus into the developing neural tubes of chicken embryos in ovo, procedures that have been optimized over the course of several years of use in our laboratory. Conditions to hatch injected embryos are also discussed. The chicken-specific techniques will be of highest interest to investigators using avian embryos, development and packaging of lentiviral vectors that reliably express multiple proteins in infected cells should be of interest to all investigators whose experiments demand manipulation and expression of multiple proteins in developing cells and tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A recombinase-mediated transcriptional induction system in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, T; Schnorr, K M; Mundy, J

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and tested a Cre-loxP recombination-mediated vector system termed pCrox for use in transgenic plants. In this system, treatment of Arabidopsis under inducing conditions mediates an excision event that removes an intervening piece of DNA between a promoter and the gene to be expressed....... The system developed here uses a heat-shock-inducible Cre to excise a DNA fragment flanked by lox sites, thereby generating a constitutive GUS reporter gene under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Heat-shock-mediated excision of several, independent lines resulted in varying degrees of recombination...

  1. Using inositol as a biocompatible ligand for efficient transgene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Bellis, Susan L; Fan, Yiwen; Wu, Yunkun

    2015-01-01

    Transgene transfection techniques using cationic polymers such as polyethylenimines (PEIs) and PEI derivatives as gene vectors have shown efficacy, although they also have shortcomings. PEIs have decent DNA-binding capability and good cell internalization performance, but they cannot deliver gene payloads very efficiently to cell nuclei. In this study, three hyperbranched polyglycerol-polyethylenimine (PG6-PEI) polymers conjugated with myo-inositol (INO) molecules were developed. The three resulting PG6-PEI-INO polymers have an increased number of INO ligands per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 1 had only 14 carboxymethyl INO (CMINO) units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 2 had approximately 130 CMINO units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 3 had as high as 415 CMINO units approximately. Mixing PG6-PEI-INO polymers with DNA produced compact nanocomposites. We then performed localization studies using fluorescent microscopy. As the number of conjugated inositol ligands increased in PG6-PEI-INO polymers, there was a corresponding increase in accumulation of the polymers within 293T cell nuclei. Transfection performed with spherical 293T cells yielded 82% of EGFP-positive cells when using PG6-PEI-INO 3 as the vehicle. Studies further revealed that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) can inhibit the transgene efficiency of PG6-PEI-INO polymers, as compared with PEI and PG6-PEI that were not conjugated with inositol. Our work unveiled the possibility of using inositol as an effective ligand for transgene expression. PMID:25926732

  2. Using inositol as a biocompatible ligand for efficient transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Bellis, Susan L; Fan, Yiwen; Wu, Yunkun

    2015-01-01

    Transgene transfection techniques using cationic polymers such as polyethylenimines (PEIs) and PEI derivatives as gene vectors have shown efficacy, although they also have shortcomings. PEIs have decent DNA-binding capability and good cell internalization performance, but they cannot deliver gene payloads very efficiently to cell nuclei. In this study, three hyperbranched polyglycerol-polyethylenimine (PG6-PEI) polymers conjugated with myo-inositol (INO) molecules were developed. The three resulting PG6-PEI-INO polymers have an increased number of INO ligands per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 1 had only 14 carboxymethyl INO (CMINO) units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 2 had approximately 130 CMINO units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 3 had as high as 415 CMINO units approximately. Mixing PG6-PEI-INO polymers with DNA produced compact nanocomposites. We then performed localization studies using fluorescent microscopy. As the number of conjugated inositol ligands increased in PG6-PEI-INO polymers, there was a corresponding increase in accumulation of the polymers within 293T cell nuclei. Transfection performed with spherical 293T cells yielded 82% of EGFP-positive cells when using PG6-PEI-INO 3 as the vehicle. Studies further revealed that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) can inhibit the transgene efficiency of PG6-PEI-INO polymers, as compared with PEI and PG6-PEI that were not conjugated with inositol. Our work unveiled the possibility of using inositol as an effective ligand for transgene expression.

  3. Lactation performance of transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyryl-cholinesterase in the milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Hernan; Hockley, Duncan K; Doré, Monique; Brochu, Eric; Hakier, Bernard; Zhao, Xin; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2008-02-01

    The production of recombinant proteins in the milk of transgenic animals has attracted significant interest in the last decade, as a valuable alternative for the production of recombinant proteins that cannot be or are inefficiently produced using conventional systems based on microorganisms or animal cells. Several recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical and biomedical interest have been successfully expressed in high quantities (g/l) in the milk of transgenic animals. However, this productivity may be associated with a compromised mammary physiology resulting, among other things, from the extraordinary demand placed on the mammary secretory cells. In this study we evaluated the lactation performance of a herd of 50 transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyryl-cholinesterase (rBChE) in the milk. Our findings indicate that high expression levels of rBChE (range 1-5 g/l) are produced in these animals at the expense of an impaired lactation performance. The key features characterizing these transgenic performances were the decreased milk production, the reduced milk fat content which was associated with an apparent disruption in the lipid secretory mechanism at the mammary epithelium level, and a highly increased presence of leukocytes in milk which is not associated with mammary infection. Despite of having a compromised lactation performance, the amount of rBChE produced per transgenic goat represents several orders of magnitude more than the amount of rBChE present in the blood of hundreds of human donors, the only other available source of rBChE for pharmaceutical and biodefense applications. As a result, this development constitutes another successful example in the application of transgenic animal technology.

  4. Tie-1-directed expression of Cre recombinase in endothelial cells of embryoid bodies and transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, E; Brakebusch, C; Hietanen, K

    2001-01-01

    germline chimeras. The in vivo efficiency and specificity of the transgenic Cre was analysed by intercrossing the tie-1-Cre line with the ROSA26R reporter mice. At initial stages of vascular formation (E8-9), LacZ staining was detected in almost all cells of the forming vasculature. Between E10 and birth......Tissue-specific gene inactivation using the Cre-loxP system has become an important tool to unravel functions of genes when the conventional null mutation is lethal. We report here the generation of a transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase in endothelial cells. In order to avoid...... the production and screening of multiple transgenic lines we used embryonic stem cell and embryoid body technology to identify recombinant embryonic stem cell clones with high, endothelial-specific Cre activity. One embryonic stem cell clone that showed high Cre activity in endothelial cells was used to generate...

  5. Tie-1-directed expression of Cre recombinase in endothelial cells of embryoid bodies and transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, E; Brakebusch, C; Hietanen, K

    2001-01-01

    Tissue-specific gene inactivation using the Cre-loxP system has become an important tool to unravel functions of genes when the conventional null mutation is lethal. We report here the generation of a transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase in endothelial cells. In order to avoid...... the production and screening of multiple transgenic lines we used embryonic stem cell and embryoid body technology to identify recombinant embryonic stem cell clones with high, endothelial-specific Cre activity. One embryonic stem cell clone that showed high Cre activity in endothelial cells was used to generate...... germline chimeras. The in vivo efficiency and specificity of the transgenic Cre was analysed by intercrossing the tie-1-Cre line with the ROSA26R reporter mice. At initial stages of vascular formation (E8-9), LacZ staining was detected in almost all cells of the forming vasculature. Between E10 and birth...

  6. GH/IGF-I Transgene Expression on Muscle Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose to test the hypothesis that the growth hormone/ insulin like growth factor-I axis through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms may provide long term muscle homeostasis under conditions of prolonged weightlessness. As a key alternative to hormone replacement therapy, ectopic production of hGH, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), and IGF-I will be studied for its potential on muscle mass impact in transgenic mice under simulated microgravity. Expression of either hGH or IGF-I would provide a chronic source of a growth-promoting protein whose biosynthesis or secretion is shut down in space. Muscle expression of the IGF-I transgene has demonstrated about a 20% increase in hind limb muscle mass over control nontransgenic litter mates. These recent experiments, also establish the utility of hind-limb suspension in mice as a workable model to study atrophy in weight bearing muscles. Thus, transgenic mice will be used in hind-limb suspension models to determine the role of GH/IGF-I on maintenance of muscle mass and whether concentric exercises might act in synergy with hormone treatment. As a means to engineer and ensure long-term protein production that would be workable in humans, gene therapy technology will be used by to monitor muscle mass preservation during hind-limb suspension, after direct intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered muscle-specific vector expressing GHRH. Effects of this gene-based therapy will be assessed in both fast twitch (medial gastrocnemius) and slow twitch muscle (soleus). End-points include muscle size, ultrastructure, fiber type, and contractile function, in normal animals, hind limb suspension, and reambutation.

  7. Expression of bacterial genes in transgenic tobacco: methods, applications and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms, because it is easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. Many bacterial proteins involved in the synthesis of commercial products are currently engineered for production in tobacco. Bacterial enzymes synthesized in tobacco can enhance protection against abiotic stresses and diseases, and provide a system to test appli...

  8. Generation of a transgenic cashmere goat using the piggyBac transposition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ding-Ping; Yang, Ming-Ming; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yu-Lin

    2017-04-15

    The development of transgenic technologies in the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) has the potential to improve the quality of the meat and wool. The piggyBac (PB) transposon system is highly efficient and can be used to transpose specific target genes into the genome. Here, we developed a PB transposon system to produce transgenic Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts (GFFs) with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). We then used the genetically modified GFFs as nuclear donors to generate transgenic embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The embryos (n = 40) were implanted into female goats (n = 20). One transgenic kid that expressed EGFP throughout the surface features of its body was born. This result demonstrated the usefulness of PB transposon system in generating transgenic Cashmere goats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficient genetic transformation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) and generation of insect-resistant transgenic plants expressing the cry1Ac gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, M; Deole, Satish G; Harkude, Satish; Shirale, Dattatray; Nanote, Asaram; Bihani, Pankaj; Parimi, Srinivas; Char, Bharat R; Zehr, Usha B

    2013-08-01

    Agrobacterium -mediated transformation system for okra using embryos was devised and the transgenic Bt plants showed resistance to the target pest, okra shoot, and fruit borer ( Earias vittella ). Okra is an important vegetable crop and progress in genetic improvement via genetic transformation has been impeded by its recalcitrant nature. In this paper, we describe a procedure using embryo explants for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and tissue culture-based plant regeneration for efficient genetic transformation of okra. Twenty-one transgenic okra lines expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis gene cry1Ac were generated from five transformation experiments. Molecular analysis (PCR and Southern) confirmed the presence of the transgene and double-antibody sandwich ELISA analysis revealed Cry1Ac protein expression in the transgenic plants. All 21 transgenic plants were phenotypically normal and fertile. T1 generation plants from these lines were used in segregation analysis of the transgene. Ten transgenic lines were selected randomly for Southern hybridization and the results confirmed the presence of transgene integration into the genome. Normal Mendelian inheritance (3:1) of cry1Ac gene was observed in 12 lines out of the 21 T0 lines. We selected 11 transgenic lines segregating in a 3:1 ratio for the presence of one transgene for insect bioassays using larvae of fruit and shoot borer (Earias vittella). Fruit from seven transgenic lines caused 100 % larval mortality. We demonstrate an efficient transformation system for okra which will accelerate the development of transgenic okra with novel agronomically useful traits.

  10. RNA interference is responsible for reduction of transgene expression after Sleeping Beauty transposase mediated somatic integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rauschhuber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integrating non-viral vectors based on transposable elements are widely used for genetically engineering mammalian cells in functional genomics and therapeutic gene transfer. For the Sleeping Beauty (SB transposase system it was demonstrated that convergent transcription driven by the SB transposase inverted repeats (IRs in eukaryotic cells occurs after somatic integration. This could lead to formation of double-stranded RNAs potentially presenting targets for the RNA interference (RNAi machinery and subsequently resulting into silencing of the transgene. Therefore, we aimed at investigating transgene expression upon transposition under RNA interference knockdown conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To establish RNAi knockdown cell lines we took advantage of the P19 protein, which is derived from the tomato bushy stunt virus. P19 binds and inhibits 21 nucleotides long, small-interfering RNAs and was shown to sufficiently suppress RNAi. We found that transgene expression upon SB mediated transposition was enhanced, resulting into a 3.2-fold increased amount of colony forming units (CFU after transposition. In contrast, if the transgene cassette is insulated from the influence of chromosomal position effects by the chicken-derived cHS4 insulating sequences or when applying the Forg Prince transposon system, that displays only negligible transcriptional activity, similar numbers of CFUs were obtained. CONCLUSION: In summary, we provide evidence for the first time that after somatic integration transposon derived transgene expression is regulated by the endogenous RNAi machinery. In the future this finding will help to further improve the molecular design of the SB transposase vector system.

  11. Morphological analysis of the early development of telencephalic and diencephalic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal systems in enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic medaka lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiko; Islam, M Sadiqul; Abe, Hideki; Okubo, Kataaki; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Kaneko, Takeshi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2016-03-01

    Teleosts possess two or three paralogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes: gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3. Some species have lost the gnrh1 and/or gnrh3 genes, whereas gnrh2 has been completely conserved in the teleost species analyzed to date. In most teleosts that possess gnrh1, GnRH1 peptide is the authentic GnRH that stimulates gonadotropin release, whereas GnRH2 and GnRH3, if present, are neuromodulatory. Progenitors of GnRH1 and GnRH3 neurons originate from olfactory placodes and migrate to their destination during early development. However, because of the relatively low affinity/specificity of generally available antibodies that recognize GnRH1 or GnRH3, labeling of these neurons has only been possible using genetic manipulation. We used a model teleost, medaka, which possesses all three paralogous gnrh genes, to analyze development of forebrain GnRH neurons composed of GnRH1 and GnRH3 neurons. Here, we newly generated transgenic medaka lines that express enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of promoters for gnrh1 or gnrh3, to detect GnRH neurons and facilitate immunohistochemical analysis of the neuronal morphology. We used a combination of immunohistochemistry and three-dimensional confocal microscopy image reconstructions to improve identification of neurites from GnRH1 or GnRH3 neuronal populations with greater precision. This led us to clearly identify the hypophysiotropic innervation of GnRH1 neurons residing in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA) from as early as 10 days post hatching. Furthermore, these analyses also revealed retinopetal projections of nonhypophysiotropic GnRH1 neurons in vPOA, prominent during early developmental stages, and multiple populations of GnRH3 neurons with different origins and migratory pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Expression of RNA-interference/antisense transgenes by the cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing strategy to study gene functions in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Dagang; Zhou, Hai; Li, Feng; Yang, Jiawei; Hong, Laifa; Fu, Xiao; Li, Zhibin; Liu, Zhenlan; Li, Jianming; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2011-03-03

    Antisense and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing systems are powerful reverse genetic methods for studying gene function. Most RNAi and antisense experiments used constitutive promoters to drive the expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes; however, several reports showed that constitutive promoters were not expressed in all cell types in cereal plants, suggesting that the constitutive promoter systems are not effective for silencing gene expression in certain tissues/organs. To develop an alternative method that complements the constitutive promoter systems, we constructed RNAi and/or antisense transgenes for four rice genes using a constitutive promoter or a cognate promoter of a selected rice target gene and generated many independent transgenic lines. Genetic, molecular, and phenotypic analyses of these RNAi/antisense transgenic rice plants, in comparison to previously-reported transgenic lines that silenced similar genes, revealed that expression of the cognate promoter-driven RNAi/antisense transgenes resulted in novel growth/developmental defects that were not observed in transgenic lines expressing constitutive promoter-driven gene-silencing transgenes of the same target genes. Our results strongly suggested that expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes by cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing approach to discovery gene function in rice.

  13. Cloning of transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells; an efficient method to analyse and reduce high natural heterogeneity of transgene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Lukas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic characterization of transgenic cell lines, frequently used in plant biology studies, is complicated because transgene expression in individual cells is often heterogeneous and unstable. To identify the sources and to reduce this heterogeneity, we transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. BY-2 cells with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then introduced a simple cloning procedure to generate cell lines derived from the individual transformed cells. Expression of the transgene was monitored by analysing GFP fluorescence in the cloned lines and also in lines obtained directly after transformation. Results The majority (~90% of suspension culture lines derived from calli that were obtained directly from transformation consisted of cells with various levels of GFP fluorescence. In contrast, nearly 50% of lines generated by cloning cells from the primary heterogeneous suspensions consisted of cells with homogenous GFP fluorescence. The rest of the lines exhibited "permanent heterogeneity" that could not be resolved by cloning. The extent of fluorescence heterogeneity often varied, even among genetically identical clones derived from the primary transformed lines. In contrast, the offspring of subsequent cloning of the cloned lines was uniform, showing GFP fluorescence intensity and heterogeneity that corresponded to the original clone. Conclusion The results demonstrate that, besides genetic heterogeneity detected in some lines, the primary lines often contained a mixture of epigenetically different cells that could be separated by cloning. This indicates that a single integration event frequently results in various heritable expression patterns, which are probably accidental and become stabilized in the offspring of the primary transformed cells early after the integration event. Because heterogeneity in transgene expression has proven to be a serious problem, it is

  14. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats induces differential expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and zinc transporters in the liver and the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly effective antiviral treatment can suppress HIV-1 infection, but the chronic effects of HIV-1-related viral proteins, including gp120 and Tat, on organs such as the lungs can be damaging. HIV-1 transgenic rodent models are useful for studying the systemic effects of these proteins independently of viral infection. We have previously shown that HIV-1 transgene expression (and therefore, HIV-1-related protein expression in rats decreases alveolar macrophage zinc levels and phagocytic capacity by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that HIV-1 transgene expression induces chronic inflammation and zinc sequestration within the liver and thereby decreases zinc bioavailability in the lung. We examined the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, the zinc storage protein, metallothionein (MT1, and the zinc exporter, ZNT1 in the livers and the lungs of wild type and HIV-1 transgenic rats ± dietary zinc supplementation. In addition, we measured zinc levels, the zinc importing protein ZIP1, and the phagocytic capacity in the alveolar macrophages. Results HIV-1 transgene expression increased the liver-specific expression of TNFα, suggesting a chronic inflammatory response within the liver in response to HIV-1-related protein expression. In parallel, HIV-1 transgene expression significantly increased MT1 and ZNT1 expression in the liver as compared to the lung, a pattern that is consistent with zinc sequestration in the liver as occurs during systemic inflammation. Further, HIV-1 transgene expression decreased intracellular zinc levels and increased expression of ZIP1 in the alveolar macrophages, a pattern consistent with zinc deficiency, and decreased their bacterial phagocytic capacity. Interestingly, dietary zinc supplementation in HIV-1 transgenic rats decreased gene expression of TNFα, MT1, and ZNT1 in the liver while simultaneously increasing their expression in the lung. In parallel

  15. Production of transgenic pigs over-expressing the antiviral gene Mx1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanmei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The myxovirus resistance gene (Mx1 has a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. It is therefore an interesting candidate gene to improve disease resistance in farm animals. In this study, we report the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT to produce transgenic pigs over-expressing the Mx1 gene. These transgenic pigs express approximately 15–25 times more Mx1 mRNA than non-transgenic pigs, and the protein level of Mx1 was also markedly enhanced. We challenged fibroblast cells isolated from the ear skin of transgenic and control pigs with influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus (CFSV. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA revealed a profound decrease of influenza A proliferation in Mx1 transgenic cells. Growth kinetics showed an approximately 10-fold reduction of viral copies in the transgenic cells compared to non-transgenic controls. Additionally, we found that the Mx1 transgenic cells were more resistant to CSFV infection in comparison to non-transgenic cells. These results demonstrate that the Mx1 transgene can protect against viral infection in cells of transgenic pigs and indicate that the Mx1 transgene can be harnessed to develop disease-resistant pigs.

  16. Transposon-mediated transgenesis, transgenic rescue, and tissue-specific gene expression in rodents and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katter, Katharina; Geurts, Aron M; Hoffmann, Orsolya; Mátés, Lajos; Landa, Vladimir; Hiripi, László; Moreno, Carol; Lazar, Jozef; Bashir, Sanum; Zidek, Vaclav; Popova, Elena; Jerchow, Boris; Becker, Katja; Devaraj, Anantharam; Walter, Ingrid; Grzybowksi, Michael; Corbett, Molly; Filho, Artur Rangel; Hodges, Matthew R; Bader, Michael; Ivics, Zoltán; Jacob, Howard J; Pravenec, Michal; Bosze, Zsuzsanna; Rülicke, Thomas; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2013-03-01

    Germline transgenesis is an important procedure for functional investigation of biological pathways, as well as for animal biotechnology. We have established a simple, nonviral protocol in three important biomedical model organisms frequently used in physiological studies. The protocol is based on the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system, SB100X, which reproducibly promoted generation of transgenic founders at frequencies of 50-64, 14-72, and 15% in mice, rats, and rabbits, respectively. The SB100X-mediated transgene integrations are less prone to genetic mosaicism and gene silencing as compared to either the classical pronuclear injection or to lentivirus-mediated transgenesis. The method was successfully applied to a variety of transgenes and animal models, and can be used to generate founders with single-copy integrations. The transposon vector also allows the generation of transgenic lines with tissue-specific expression patterns specified by promoter elements of choice, exemplified by a rat reporter strain useful for tracking serotonergic neurons. As a proof of principle, we rescued an inborn genetic defect in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat by SB100X transgenesis. A side-by-side comparison of the SB100X- and piggyBac-based protocols revealed that the two systems are complementary, offering new opportunities in genome manipulation.

  17. Expression of the Native Cholera Toxin B Subunit Gene and Assembly as Functional Oligomers in Transgenic Tobacco Chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Henry; Lee, Seung-Bum; Panchal, Tanvi; Wiebe, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    The B subunits of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (LTB) and cholera toxin of Vibrio cholerae (CTB) are candidate vaccine antigens. Integration of an unmodified CTB-coding sequence into chloroplast genomes (up to 10,000 copies per cell), resulted in the accumulation of up to 4.1% of total soluble tobacco leaf protein as functional oligomers (410-fold higher expression levels than that of the unmodified LTB gene expressed via the nuclear genome). However, expresssion levels reported are an underestimation of actual accumulation of CTB in transgenic chloroplasts, due to aggregation of the oligomeric forms in unboiled samples similar to the aggregation observed for purified bacterial antigen. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of the CTB gene into the chloroplast genome. Western blot analysis showed that the chloroplast-synthesized CTB assembled into oligomers and were antigenically identical with purified native CTB. Also, binding assays confirmed that chloroplast- synthesized CTB binds to the intestinal membrane GM1-ganglioside receptor, indicating correct folding and disulfide bond formation of CTB pentamers within transgenic chloroplasts. In contrast to stunted nuclear transgenic plants, chloroplast transgenic plants were morphologically indistinguishable from untransformed plants, when CTB was constitutively expressed in chloroplasts. Introduced genes were inherited stably in subsequent generations, as confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Increased production of an efficient transmucosal carrier molecule and delivery system, like CTB, in transgenic chloroplasts makes plant-based oral vaccines and fusion proteins with CTB needing oral administration commercially feasible. Successful expression of foreign genes in transgenic chromoplasts and availability of marker-free chloroplast transformation techniques augurs well for development of vaccines in edible parts of transgenic plants. Furthermore, since the quaternary structure of

  18. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of life and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g−1 of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples. PMID:22428884

  19. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of residential and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples.

  20. Functional expression of transgenic α1sDHPR channels in adult mammalian skeletal muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranco, Marino; Tran, Philip; Quiñonez, Marbella; Vergara, Julio L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the effects of the overexpression of two enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged α1sDHPR variants on Ca2+ currents (ICa), charge movements (Q) and SR Ca2+ release of muscle fibres isolated from adult mice. Flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles were transfected by in vivo electroporation with plasmids encoding for EGFP-α1sDHPR-wt and EGFP-α1sDHPR-T935Y (an isradipine-insensitive mutant). Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) was used to study the subcellular localization of transgenic proteins, while ICa, Q and Ca2+ release were studied electrophysiologically and optically under voltage-clamp conditions. TPLSM images demonstrated that most of the transgenic α1sDHPR was correctly targeted to the transverse tubular system (TTS). Immunoblotting analysis of crude extracts of transfected fibres demonstrated the synthesis of bona fide transgenic EGFP-α1sDHPR-wt in quantities comparable to that of native α1sDHPR. Though expression of both transgenic variants of the alpha subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (α1sDHPR) resulted in ∼50% increase in Q, they surprisingly had no effect on the maximal Ca2+ conductance (gCa) nor the SR Ca2+ release. Nonetheless, fibres expressing EGFP-α1sDHPR-T935Y exhibited up to 70% isradipine-insensitive ICa (ICa-ins) with a right-shifted voltage dependence compared to that in control fibres. Interestingly, Q and SR Ca2+ release also displayed right-shifted voltage dependence in fibres expressing EGFP-α1sDHPR-T935Y. In contrast, the midpoints of the voltage dependence of gCa, Q and Ca2+ release were not different from those in control fibres and in fibres expressing EGFP-α1sDHPR-wt. Overall, our results suggest that transgenic α1sDHPRs are correctly trafficked and inserted in the TTS membrane, and that a substantial fraction of them works as conductive Ca2+ channels capable of physiologically controlling the release of Ca2+ from the SR. A plausible corollary of this work is that the

  1. A short synthetic MAR positively affects transgene expression in rice and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van der A.H.M.; Welter, M.E.; Woosley, A.T.; Pareddy, D.R.; Pavelko, S.E.; Skokut, M.; Ainley, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix Attachment Regions (MARs) are DNA elements that are thought to influence gene expression by anchoring active chromatin domains to the nuclear matrix. When flanking a construct in transgenic plants, MARs could be useful for enhancing transgene expression. Naturally occurring MARs have a number

  2. A transgenic Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain that expresses GFP-luciferase throughout the parasite life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ashley M; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Camargo, Nelly; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Kennedy, Mark; Lindner, Scott E; Miller, Jessica L; Hume, Jen C C; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2012-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the pathogenic agent of the most lethal of human malarias. Transgenic P. falciparum parasites expressing luciferase have been created to study drug interventions of both asexual and sexual blood stages but luciferase-expressing mosquito stage and liver stage parasites have not been created which has prevented the easy quantification of mosquito stage development (e.g. for transmission blocking interventions) and liver stage development (for interventions that prevent infection). To overcome this obstacle, we have created a transgenic P. falciparum NF54 parasite that expresses a GFP-luciferase transgene throughout the life cycle. Luciferase expression is robust and measurable at all life cycle stages, including midgut oocyst, salivary gland sporozoites and liver stages, where in vivo development is easily measurable using humanized mouse infections in conjunction with an in vivo imaging system. This parasite reporter strain will accelerate testing of interventions against pre-erythrocytic life cycle stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aberrant phenotypes of transgenic mice expressing dimeric human erythropoietin

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    Yun Seong-Jo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dimeric human erythropoietin (dHuEPO peptides are reported to exhibit significantly higher biological activity than the monomeric form of recombinant EPO. The objective of this study was to produce transgenic (tg mice expressing dHuEPO and to investigate the characteristics of these mice. Methods A dHuEPO-expressing vector under the control of the goat beta-casein promoter, which produced a dimer of human EPO molecules linked by a 2-amino acid peptide linker (Asp-Ile, was constructed and injected into 1-cell fertilized embryos by microinjection. Mice were screened using genomic DNA samples obtained from tail biopsies. Blood samples were obtained by heart puncture using heparinized tubes, and hematologic parameters were assessed. Using the microarray analysis tool, we analyzed differences in gene expression in the spleens of tg and control mice. Results A high rate of spontaneous abortion or death of the offspring was observed in the recipients of dHuEPO embryos. We obtained 3 founder lines (#4, #11, and #47 of tg mice expressing the dHuEPO gene. However, only one founder line showed stable germline integration and transmission, subsequently establishing the only transgenic line (#11. We obtained 2 F1 mice and 3 F2 mice from line #11. The dHuEPO protein could not be obtained because of repeated spontaneous abortions in the tg mice. Tg mice exhibited symptoms such as short lifespan and abnormal blood composition. The red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and hematocrit levels in the tg mice were remarkably higher than those in the control mice. The spleens of the tg mice (F1 and F2 females were 11- and -21-fold larger than those of the control mice. Microarray analysis revealed 2,672 spleen-derived candidate genes; more genes were downregulated than upregulated (849/764. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were used for validating the results of the microarray

  4. Field performance of transgenic citrus trees: assessment of the long-term expression of uidA and nptII transgenes and its impact on relevant agronomic and phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Elsa; Peris, Josep E; Peña, Leandro

    2012-07-15

    The future of genetic transformation as a tool for the improvement of fruit trees depends on the development of proper systems for the assessment of unintended effects in field-grown GM lines. In this study, we used eight transgenic lines of two different citrus types (sweet orange and citrange) transformed with the marker genes β-glucuronidase (uidA) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) as model systems to study for the first time in citrus the long-term stability of transgene expression and whether transgene-derived pleiotropic effects occur with regard to the morphology, development and fruit quality of orchard-grown GM citrus trees. The stability of the integration and expression of the transgenes was confirmed in 7-year-old, orchard-grown transgenic lines by Southern blot analysis and enzymatic assays (GUS and ELISA NPTII), respectively. Little seasonal variation was detected in the expression levels between plants of the same transgenic line in different organs and over the 3 years of analysis, confirming the absence of rearrangements and/or silencing of the transgenes after transferring the plants to field conditions. Comparisons between the GM citrus lines with their non-GM counterparts across the study years showed that the expression of these transgenes did not cause alterations of the main phenotypic and agronomic plant and fruit characteristics. However, when comparisons were performed between diploid and tetraploid transgenic citrange trees and/or between juvenile and mature transgenic sweet orange trees, significant and consistent differences were detected, indicating that factors other than their transgenic nature induced a much higher phenotypic variability. Our results indicate that transgene expression in GM citrus remains stable during long-term agricultural cultivation, without causing unexpected effects on crop characteristics. This study also shows that the transgenic citrus trees expressing the selectable marker genes that are most

  5. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

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    Ana Isabel Garcia Diaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades.

  6. Strategies for long-term expression of transgenes in the respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Deborah R; Bazzani, Reto P; Hyde, Stephen C

    2010-08-01

    Lung gene therapy is being developed to treat acute and chronic airway diseases, and many viral and non-viral gene transfer vectors have been evaluated in the airway epithelium lining the nose and lung. Stem cells have not been clearly defined in the airways and, currently, it is only possible to target progenitor cells to proliferate and repair the epithelium after inducing epithelial damage. However, the majority of airway epithelial cells are slowly dividing or terminally differentiated, thus necessitating repeated administration of gene transfer vectors for life-long transgene expression. Many improvements to adeno-associated virus and lentivirus vectors have led to increased airway transduction efficiencies, although achieving consistent repeated administration remains problematic because of immune system activation. Non-viral vectors appear to be less efficient, but can be successfully re-administered. The modification of plasmid sequences also offers maximum flexibility in increasing and extending the duration of transgene expression in the airways. This review describes recent developments in achieving persistent transgene expression in the airways by specifically targeting the cells of the respiratory epithelium lining the nose and lung.

  7. Rapid transcriptional pulsing dynamics of high expressing retroviral transgenes in embryonic stem cells.

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    Mandy Y M Lo

    Full Text Available Single cell imaging studies suggest that transcription is not continuous and occurs as discrete pulses of gene activity. To study mechanisms by which retroviral transgenes can transcribe to high levels, we used the MS2 system to visualize transcriptional dynamics of high expressing proviral integration sites in embryonic stem (ES cells. We established two ES cell lines each bearing a single copy, self-inactivating retroviral vector with a strong ubiquitous human EF1α gene promoter directing expression of mRFP fused to an MS2-stem-loop array. Transfection of MS2-EGFP generated EGFP focal dots bound to the mRFP-MS2 stem loop mRNA. These transcription foci colocalized with the transgene integration site detected by immunoFISH. Live tracking of single cells for 20 minutes detected EGFP focal dots that displayed frequent and rapid fluctuations in transcription over periods as short as 25 seconds. Similarly rapid fluctuations were detected from focal doublet signals that colocalized with replicated proviral integration sites by immunoFISH, consistent with transcriptional pulses from sister chromatids. We concluded that retroviral transgenes experience rapid transcriptional pulses in clonal ES cell lines that exhibit high level expression. These events are directed by a constitutive housekeeping gene promoter and may provide precedence for rapid transcriptional pulsing at endogenous genes in mammalian stem cells.

  8. Rapid transcriptional pulsing dynamics of high expressing retroviral transgenes in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mandy Y M; Rival-Gervier, Sylvie; Pasceri, Peter; Ellis, James

    2012-01-01

    Single cell imaging studies suggest that transcription is not continuous and occurs as discrete pulses of gene activity. To study mechanisms by which retroviral transgenes can transcribe to high levels, we used the MS2 system to visualize transcriptional dynamics of high expressing proviral integration sites in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We established two ES cell lines each bearing a single copy, self-inactivating retroviral vector with a strong ubiquitous human EF1α gene promoter directing expression of mRFP fused to an MS2-stem-loop array. Transfection of MS2-EGFP generated EGFP focal dots bound to the mRFP-MS2 stem loop mRNA. These transcription foci colocalized with the transgene integration site detected by immunoFISH. Live tracking of single cells for 20 minutes detected EGFP focal dots that displayed frequent and rapid fluctuations in transcription over periods as short as 25 seconds. Similarly rapid fluctuations were detected from focal doublet signals that colocalized with replicated proviral integration sites by immunoFISH, consistent with transcriptional pulses from sister chromatids. We concluded that retroviral transgenes experience rapid transcriptional pulses in clonal ES cell lines that exhibit high level expression. These events are directed by a constitutive housekeeping gene promoter and may provide precedence for rapid transcriptional pulsing at endogenous genes in mammalian stem cells.

  9. Tissue-specific and neural activity-regulated expression of human BDNF gene in BAC transgenic mice

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    Palm Kaia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a small secreted protein that has important roles in the developing and adult nervous system. Altered expression or changes in the regulation of the BDNF gene have been implicated in a variety of human nervous system disorders. Although regulation of the rodent BDNF gene has been extensively investigated, in vivo studies regarding the human BDNF gene are largely limited to postmortem analysis. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mice harboring the human BDNF gene and its regulatory flanking sequences constitute a useful tool for studying human BDNF gene regulation and for identification of therapeutic compounds modulating BDNF expression. Results In this study we have generated and analyzed BAC transgenic mice carrying 168 kb of the human BDNF locus modified such that BDNF coding sequence was replaced with the sequence of a fusion protein consisting of N-terminal BDNF and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. The human BDNF-BAC construct containing all BDNF 5' exons preceded by different promoters recapitulated the expression of endogenous BDNF mRNA in the brain and several non-neural tissues of transgenic mice. All different 5' exon-specific BDNF-EGFP alternative transcripts were expressed from the transgenic human BDNF-BAC construct, resembling the expression of endogenous BDNF. Furthermore, BDNF-EGFP mRNA was induced upon treatment with kainic acid in a promotor-specific manner, similarly to that of the endogenous mouse BDNF mRNA. Conclusion Genomic region covering 67 kb of human BDNF gene, 84 kb of upstream and 17 kb of downstream sequences is sufficient to drive tissue-specific and kainic acid-induced expression of the reporter gene in transgenic mice. The pattern of expression of the transgene is highly similar to BDNF gene expression in mouse and human. This is the first study to show that human BDNF gene is regulated by neural activity.

  10. Validation of the use of an artificial mitochondrial reporter DNA vector containing a Cytomegalovirus promoter for mitochondrial transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuma; Ishikawa, Takuya; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondria have their own gene expression system that is independent of the nuclear system, and control cellular functions in cooperation with the nucleus. While a number of useful technologies for achieving nuclear transgene expression have been reported, only a few have focused on mitochondria. In this study, we validated the utility of an artificial mitochondrial DNA vector with a virus promoter on mitochondrial transgene expression. We designed and constructed pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) that contains a CMV promotor derived from Cytomegalovirus and an artificial mitochondrial genome with a NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase gene that records adjustments to the mitochondrial codon system. Nluc luciferase activity measurements showed that the pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) efficiently produced the Nluc luciferase protein in human HeLa cells. Moreover, we optimized the mitochondrial transfection of pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) using a MITO-Porter system, a liposome-based carrier for mitochondrial delivery via membrane fusion. As a result, we found that transfection of pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) by MITO-Porter modified with the KALA peptide (cationic amphipathic cell-penetrating peptide) showed a high mitochondrial transgene expression. The developed mitochondrial transgene expression system represents a potentially useful tool for the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology for controlling the intracellular microenvironment via the regulation of mitochondrial function and promises to open additional innovative research fields of study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of a pathogen-induced cysteine protease (AdCP) in tapetum results in male sterility in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pawan; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Vijayan, Sambasivam; Ahmed, Israr; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2014-06-01

    Usable male sterility systems have immense potential in developing hybrid varieties in crop plants, which can also be used as a biological safety containment to prevent horizontal transgene flow. Barnase-Barstar system developed earlier was the first approach to engineer male sterility in plants. In an analogous situation, we have evolved a system of inducing pollen abortion and male sterility in transgenic tobacco by expressing a plant gene coding for a protein with known developmental function in contrast to the Barnase-Barstar system, which deploys genes of prokaryotic origin, i.e., from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. We have used a plant pathogen-induced gene, cysteine protease for inducing male sterility. This gene was identified in the wild peanut, Arachis diogoi differentially expressed when it was challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Arachis diogoi cysteine protease (AdCP) was expressed under the strong tapetum-specific promoter (TA29) and tobacco transformants were generated. Morphological and histological analysis of AdCP transgenic plants showed ablated tapetum and complete pollen abortion in three transgenic lines. Furthermore, transcript analysis displayed the expression of cysteine protease in these male sterile lines and the expression of the protein was identified in western blot analysis using its polyclonal antibody raised in the rabbit system.

  12. Protein body formation in stable transgenic tobacco expressing elastin-like polypeptide and hydrophobin fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Sonia P; Saberianfar, Reza; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-05-10

    Plants are recognized as an efficient and inexpensive system to produce valuable recombinant proteins. Two different strategies have been commonly used for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants: transient expression mediated by Agrobacterium; or stable transformation of the plant genome. However, the use of plants as bioreactors still faces two main limitations: low accumulation levels of some recombinant proteins and lack of efficient purification methods. Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), hydrophobin I (HFBI) and Zera® are three fusion partners found to increase the accumulation levels of recombinant proteins and induce the formation of protein bodies (PBs) in leaves when targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in transient expression assays. In this study the effects of ELP and HFBI fusion tags on recombinant protein accumulation levels and PB formation was examined in stable transgenic Nicotiana tabacum. The accumulation of recombinant protein and PB formation was evaluated in two cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum transformed with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to ELP or HFBI, both targeted and retrieved to the ER. The ELP and HFBI tags increased the accumulation of the recombinant protein and induced the formation of PBs in leaves of stable transgenic plants from both cultivars. Furthermore, these tags induced the formation of PBs in a concentration-dependent manner, where a specific level of recombinant protein accumulation was required for PBs to appear. Moreover, agro-infiltration of plants accumulating low levels of recombinant protein with p19, a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), increased accumulation levels in four independent transgenic lines, suggesting that PTGS might have caused the low accumulation levels in these plants. The use of ELP and HFBI tags as fusion partners in stable transgenic plants of tobacco is feasible and promising. In a constitutive environment, these tags increase the accumulation levels

  13. Transgene-based, female-specific lethality system for genetic sexing of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Anjiang; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Guo, Qiuhong; Li, Zhiqian; Niu, Baolong; Meng, Zhiqi; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke; Huang, Yongping

    2013-04-23

    Transgene-based genetic sexing methods are being developed for insects of agricultural and public health importance. Male-only rearing has long been sought in sericulture because males show superior economic characteristics, such as better fitness, lower food consumption, and higher silk yield. Here we report the establishment of a transgene-based genetic sexing system for the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We developed a construct in which a positive feedback loop regulated by sex-specific alternative splicing leads to high-level expression of the tetracycline-repressible transactivator in females only. Transgenic animals show female-specific lethality during embryonic and early larval stages, leading to male-only cocoons. This transgene-based female-specific lethal system not only has wide application in sericulture, but also has great potential in lepidopteran pest control.

  14. Differential gene expression in ADAM10 and mutant ADAM10 transgenic mice

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    Postina Rolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD, cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP by the α-secretase ADAM10 prevented amyloid plaque formation, and alleviated cognitive deficits. Furthermore, ADAM10 overexpression increased the cortical synaptogenesis. These results suggest that upregulation of ADAM10 in the brain has beneficial effects on AD pathology. Results To assess the influence of ADAM10 on the gene expression profile in the brain, we performed a microarray analysis using RNA isolated from brains of five months old mice overexpressing either the α-secretase ADAM10, or a dominant-negative mutant (dn of this enzyme. As compared to non-transgenic wild-type mice, in ADAM10 transgenic mice 355 genes, and in dnADAM10 mice 143 genes were found to be differentially expressed. A higher number of genes was differentially regulated in double-transgenic mouse strains additionally expressing the human APP[V717I] mutant. Overexpression of proteolytically active ADAM10 affected several physiological pathways, such as cell communication, nervous system development, neuron projection as well as synaptic transmission. Although ADAM10 has been implicated in Notch and β-catenin signaling, no significant changes in the respective target genes were observed in adult ADAM10 transgenic mice. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed a downregulation of genes coding for the inflammation-associated proteins S100a8 and S100a9 induced by moderate ADAM10 overexpression. Overexpression of the dominant-negative form dnADAM10 led to a significant increase in the expression of the fatty acid-binding protein Fabp7, which also has been found in higher amounts in brains of Down syndrome patients. Conclusion In general, there was only a moderate alteration of gene expression in ADAM10 overexpressing mice. Genes coding for pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic proteins were not over-represented among differentially regulated genes. Even a decrease of

  15. Expression of thymosin alpha1 concatemer in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhui; Wang, Aoxue; Zhao, Lingxia; Shen, Guoan; Cui, Lijie; Tang, Kexuan

    2009-04-01

    Talpha1 (thymosin alpha1), an immune booster, plays an important role in the maturation, differentiation and function of T-cells. It can also activate the production of cytokines in dendritic cells. Talpha1 is one of two thymosin proteins that have potential future clinical applications. In order to express Talpha1 protein in plants, we designed and synthesized the Talpha1 gene according to the plant codon usage bias and created a novel 4 x Talpha1 concatemer (four copies of the Talpha1 gene arranged end-to-end in tandem, designated 4 x Talpha1). Subsequently, a plant binary expression vector, PG-pRD12-4 x Talpha1, was constructed and introduced into tomato via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Through selection, 54 regenerated tomato plants resistant to kanamycin were obtained, and four transgenic tomato plants were further confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis showed that the 4 x Talpha1 gene was transcribed specifically in tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum)] fruits. ELISA analysis showed that the content of the 4 x Talpha1 protein reached a maximum of 6.098 microg/g fresh weight in mature tomato fruit. Western-blot analysis further confirmed the expression of 4xTalpha1 protein in transgenic tomato fruits. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay showed the 4 x Talpha1 protein derived from transgenic tomatoes exhibited bioactivity that can stimulate the proliferation of mice splenic lymphocytes in vitro, and the specific activity of Talpha1 protein from the artificial system was higher than that from the synthetic Escherichia coli system. This study is the first to report successful expression of bioactive Talpha1 in plants, and also it will provide the basis for further development of the plant system to produce Talpha1.

  16. [Estradiol inducible and flower-specific expression of ARGOS and ARGOS-LIKE genes in transgenic tobacco plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Kniazev, A V; Nikonorov, Iu M; Cheremis, A V

    2014-08-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing Arabidopsis thaliana ARGOS and ARGOS-LIKE genes under the control of the chalcone synthase promoter of Petunia hybrid L., as well as the estradiol inducible XVE system, have been obtained. The part of transgenic plants with flower-specific expression of the target genes was characterized by increased flower size, caused by an increase in cell size and quantity in the case of the ARGOS gene and by a stimulation of cell growth via stretching in the case of the ARGOS-LIKE gene. An enhanced expression level of the NtEXPA1, NtEXPA4 genes encoding expansins, NtEXGT gene encoding endo-xyloglucan transferase, and the AINTEGUMENTA-like gene was detected in the flowers of transgenic tobacco plants. In the case of inducible expression of ARGOS and ARGOS-LIKE genes, an increase in leaf, stem and flower size was revealed in several lines of transgenic plants as compared to control. Expression of the ARGOS gene also affected cell number and size in this case, while the ARGOS-LIKE gene mainly influenced cell size via stretching. Inducible expression of the ARGOS gene in flowers mainly provided an enhanced containment of AINTEGUMENTA-like mRNA, while ARGOS-LIKE gene expression resulted in the activation of NtEXPA1 and NtEXGT genes.

  17. Lentiviral-Mediated Transgene Expression Can Potentiate Intestinal Mesenchymal-Epithelial Signaling

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    Dismuke Adria D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesenchymal-epithelial signaling is essential for the development of many organs and is often disrupted in disease. In this study, we demonstrate the use of lentiviral-mediated transgene delivery as an effective approach for ectopic transgene expression and an alternative to generation of transgenic animals. One benefit to this approach is that it can be used independently or in conjunction with established transgenic or knockout animals for studying modulation of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. To display the power of this approach, we explored ectopic expression of a Wnt ligand in the mouse intestinal mesenchyme and demonstrate its functional influence on the adjacent epithelium. Our findings highlight the efficient use of lentiviral-mediated transgene expression for modulating mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in vivo.

  18. Lentiviral-Mediated Transgene Expression Can Potentiate Intestinal Mesenchymal-Epithelial Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Aimee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesenchymal-epithelial signaling is essential for the development of many organs and is often disrupted in disease. In this study, we demonstrate the use of lentiviral-mediated transgene delivery as an effective approach for ectopic transgene expression and an alternative to generation of transgenic animals. One benefit to this approach is that it can be used independently or in conjunction with established transgenic or knockout animals for studying modulation of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. To display the power of this approach, we explored ectopic expression of a Wnt ligand in the mouse intestinal mesenchyme and demonstrate its functional influence on the adjacent epithelium. Our findings highlight the efficient use of lentiviral-mediated transgene expression for modulating mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in vivo.

  19. Transgenic overexpression of BAFF regulates the expression of immune-related genes in zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Xin; Xie, Ying; Su, Libo; Geng, Qi; Liu, Binghui; Liu, Shufeng

    2016-12-01

    The B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is a member of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily that specifically regulates B lymphocyte proliferation and survival. Excess BAFF leads to overproduction of antibodies for secretion, anti-dsDNA antibodies and a lupus-like syndrome in mice. To investigate whether transgenic overexpression of the zebrafish BAFF leads to immunoglobulin changes and/or early maturing of the immune system, a Tol2-GFP-2A-BAFF/His recombinant plasmid was constructed by inserting a 2A peptide between the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and BAFF sequences. Functional GFP and BAFF proteins were expressed separately and confirmed in HeLa cells. The relative expression of immune-related genes (IgLC-1, IgLC-2, IgLC-3, IgD, IgM and IL-4), early lymphoid markers (Ikaros, Rag-1 and TCRAC), and the protooncogene Bcl-2 were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in F0 founder of transgenic zebrafish juveniles and adults. Ectopic expression of BAFF in adults was confirmed using Western blots and was shown to upregulate IgLC-1, IgLC-2, IgD, IgM, IgZ/T, Ikaros, Rag-1, TCRAC, IL-4 and Bcl-2 expression in juveniles on day 21 and IgLC-1, IgLC-2, IgD, IgM,IgZ/T, Rag-1, TCRAC and Bcl-2 expression in zebrafish three months postfertilization. The relative titers of specific IgM against Edwardsiella tarda WED were assessed using modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the whole body homogenate of zebrafish and demonstrated a significant increase in BAFF-transgenic group. Therefore, our findings provided novel insight into further exploration of modulating adaptive immunity and studying autoimmune diseases caused by regulating BAFF.

  20. Transgenic pigeonpea events expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa exhibit resistance to Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Gourab; Ganguly, Shreeparna; Purohit, Arnab; Chaudhuri, Rituparna Kundu; Das, Sampa; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    Independent transgenic pigeonpea events were developed using two cry genes. Transgenic Cry2Aa-pigeonpea was established for the first time. Selected transgenic events demonstrated 100% mortality of Helicoverpa armigera in successive generations. Lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera is the major yield constraint of food legume pigeonpea. The present study was aimed to develop H. armigera-resistant transgenic pigeonpea, selected on the basis of transgene expression and phenotyping. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryonic axis explants of pigeonpea cv UPAS 120 was performed using two separate binary vectors carrying synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein genes, cry1Ac and cry2Aa. T 0 transformants were selected on the basis of PCR and protein expression profile. T 1 events were exclusively selected on the basis of expression and monogenic character for cry, validated through Western and Southern blot analyses, respectively. Independently transformed 12 Cry1Ac and 11 Cry2Aa single-copy events were developed. The level of Cry-protein expression in T 1 transgenic events was 0.140-0.175% of total soluble protein. Expressed Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa proteins in transgenic pigeonpea exhibited significant weight loss of second-fourth instar larvae of H. armigera and ultimately 80-100% mortality in detached leaf bioassay. Selected Cry-transgenic pigeonpea events, established at T 2 generation, inherited insect-resistant phenotype. Immunohistofluorescence localization in T 3 plants demonstrated constitutive accumulation of Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in leaf tissues of respective transgenic events. This study is the first report of transgenic pigeonpea development, where stable integration, effective expression and biological activity of two Cry proteins were demonstrated in subsequent three generations (T 0 , T 1, and T 2 ). These studies will contribute to biotechnological breeding programmes of pigeonpea for its genetic improvement.

  1. Co-expression of P173S Mutant RiceEPSPSandigrAGenes Results in Higher Glyphosate Tolerance in Transgenic Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartyal, Dhirendra; Agarwal, Aakrati; James, Donald; Borphukan, Bhabesh; Ram, Babu; Sheri, Vijay; Yadav, Renu; Manna, Mrinalini; Varakumar, Panditi; Achary, V Mohan M; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2018-01-01

    Weeds and their devastating effects have been a great threat since the start of agriculture. They compete with crop plants in the field and negatively influence the crop yield quality and quantity along with survival of the plants. Glyphosate is an important broad-spectrum systemic herbicide which has been widely used to combat various weed problems since last two decades. It is very effective even at low concentrations, and possesses low environmental toxicity and soil residual activity. However, the residual concentration of glyphosate inside the plant has been of major concern as it severely affects the important metabolic pathways, and results in poor plant growth and grain yield. In this study, we compared the glyphosate tolerance efficiency of two different transgenic groups over expressing proline/173/serine (P173S) rice EPSPS glyphosate tolerant mutant gene ( OsmEPSPS ) alone and in combination with the glyphosate detoxifying encoding igrA gene, recently characterized from Pseudomonas . The molecular analysis of all transgenic plant lines showed a stable integration of transgenes and their active expression in foliar tissues. The physiological analysis of glyphosate treated transgenic lines at seed germination and vegetative stages showed a significant difference in glyphosate tolerance between the two transgenic groups. The transgenic plants with OsmEPSPS and igrA genes, representing dual glyphosate tolerance mechanisms, showed an improved root-shoot growth, physiology, overall phenotype and higher level of glyphosate tolerance compared to the OsmEPSPS transgenic plants. This study highlights the advantage of igrA led detoxification mechanism as a crucial component of glyphosate tolerance strategy in combination with glyphosate tolerant OsmEPSPS gene, which offered a better option to tackle in vivo glyphosate accumulation and imparted more robust glyphosate tolerance in rice transgenic plants.

  2. Transgenic plants expressing GLK1 and CCA1 having increased nitrogen assimilation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, Gloria [New York, NY; Gutierrez, Rodrigo A [Santiago, CL; Nero, Damion C [Woodside, NY

    2012-04-10

    Provided herein are compositions and methods for producing transgenic plants. In specific embodiments, transgenic plants comprise a construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1, operably linked to a plant-specific promote, wherein the CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 is ectopically overexpressed in the transgenic plants, and wherein the promoter is optionally a constitutive or inducible promoter. In other embodiments, transgenic plants in which express a lower level of CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 are provided. Also provided herein are commercial products (e.g., pulp, paper, paper products, or lumber) derived from the transgenic plants (e.g., transgenic trees) produced using the methods provided herein.

  3. Preservation and faithful expression of transgene via artificial seeds in alfalfa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Liu

    Full Text Available Proper preservation of transgenes and transgenic materials is important for wider use of transgenic technology in plants. Here, we report stable preservation and faithful expression of a transgene via artificial seed technology in alfalfa. DNA constructs containing the uid reporter gene coding for β-glucuronidase (GUS driven by a 35S promoter or a tCUP promoter were introduced into alfalfa via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Somatic embryos were subsequently induced from transgenic alfalfa plants via in vitro technology. These embryos were treated with abscisic acid to induce desiccation tolerance and were subjected to a water loss process. After the desiccation procedure, the water content in dried embryos, or called artificial seeds, was about 12-15% which was equivalent to that in true seeds. Upon water rehydration, the dried somatic embryos showed high degrees of viability and exhibited normal germination. Full plants were subsequently developed and recovered in a greenhouse. The progeny plants developed from artificial seeds showed GUS enzyme activity and the GUS expression level was comparable to that of plants developed from somatic embryos without the desiccation process. Polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transgene was well retained in the plants and Southern blot analysis showed that the transgene was stably integrated in plant genome. The research showed that the transgene and the new trait can be well preserved in artificial seeds and the progeny developed. The research provides a new method for transgenic germplasm preservation in different plant species.

  4. Oviduct-Specific Expression of Human Neutrophil Defensin 4 in Lentivirally Generated Transgenic Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongxin; Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Li, Qingyuan; Zhang, Yaqiong; Li, Ning; Hu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    The expression of oviduct-specific recombinant proteins in transgenic chickens is a promising technology for the production of therapeutic biologics in eggs. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector encoding an expression cassette for human neutrophil defensin 4 (HNP4), a compound that displays high activity against Escherichia coli, and produced transgenic chickens that expressed the recombinant HNP4 protein in egg whites. After the antimicrobial activity of the recombinant HNP4 protein was tested at the cellular level, a 2.8-kb ovalbumin promoter was used to drive HNP4 expression specifically in oviduct tissues. From 669 injected eggs, 218 chickens were successfully hatched. Ten G0 roosters, with semens identified as positive for the transgene, were mated with wild-type hens to generate G1 chickens. From 1,274 total offspring, fifteen G1 transgenic chickens were positive for the transgene, which was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The results of the Southern blotting and genome walking indicated that a single copy of the HNP4 gene was integrated into chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 of the chickens. As expected, HNP4 expression was restricted to the oviduct tissues, and the levels of both transcriptional and translational HNP4 expression varied greatly in transgenic chickens with different transgene insertion sites. The amount of HNP4 protein expressed in the eggs of G1 and G2 heterozygous transgenic chickens ranged from 1.65 μg/ml to 10.18 μg/ml. These results indicated that the production of transgenic chickens that expressed HNP4 protein in egg whites was successful. PMID:26020529

  5. Transgenic fish systems and their application in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhyun; Green, Jon M; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-02-01

    The use of transgenics in fish is a relatively recent development for advancing understanding of genetic mechanisms and developmental processes, improving aquaculture, and for pharmaceutical discovery. Transgenic fish have also been applied in ecotoxicology where they have the potential to provide more advanced and integrated systems for assessing health impacts of chemicals. The zebrafish (Daniorerio) is the most popular fish for transgenic models, for reasons including their high fecundity, transparency of their embryos, rapid organogenesis and availability of extensive genetic resources. The most commonly used technique for producing transgenic zebrafish is via microinjection of transgenes into fertilized eggs. Transposon and meganuclease have become the most reliable methods for insertion of the genetic construct in the production of stable transgenic fish lines. The GAL4-UAS system, where GAL4 is placed under the control of a desired promoter and UAS is fused with a fluorescent marker, has greatly enhanced model development for studies in ecotoxicology. Transgenic fish have been developed to study for the effects of heavy metal toxicity (via heat-shock protein genes), oxidative stress (via an electrophile-responsive element), for various organic chemicals acting through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, thyroid and glucocorticoid response pathways, and estrogenicity. These models vary in their sensitivity with only very few able to detect responses for environmentally relevant exposures. Nevertheless, the potential of these systems for analyses of chemical effects in real time and across multiple targets in intact organisms is considerable. Here we illustrate the techniques used for generating transgenic zebrafish and assess progress in the development and application of transgenic fish (principally zebrafish) for studies in environmental toxicology. We further provide a viewpoint on future development opportunities.

  6. Two types of Tet-On transgenic lines for doxycycline-inducible gene expression in zebrafish rod photoreceptors and a gateway-based tet-on toolkit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah J Campbell

    Full Text Available The ability to control transgene expression within specific tissues is an important tool for studying the molecular and cellular mechanisms of development, physiology, and disease. We developed a Tet-On system for spatial and temporal control of transgene expression in zebrafish rod photoreceptors. We generated two transgenic lines using the Xenopus rhodopsin promoter to drive the reverse tetracycline-controlled transcriptional transactivator (rtTA, one with self-reporting GFP activity and one with an epitope tagged rtTA. The self-reporting line includes a tetracycline response element (TRE-driven GFP and, in the presence of doxycycline, expresses GFP in larval and adult rods. A time-course of doxycycline treatment demonstrates that maximal induction of GFP expression, as determined by the number of GFP-positive rods, is reached within approximately 24 hours of drug treatment. The epitope-tagged transgenic line eliminates the need for the self-reporting GFP activity by expressing a FLAG-tagged rtTA protein. Both lines demonstrate strong induction of TRE-driven transgenes from plasmids microinjected into one-cell embryos. These results show that spatial and temporal control of transgene expression can be achieved in rod photoreceptors. Additionally, system components are constructed in Gateway compatible vectors for the rapid cloning of doxycycline-inducible transgenes and use in other areas of zebrafish research.

  7. Identification of genomic regions regulating Pax6 expression in embryonic forebrain using YAC reporter transgenic mouse lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Mi

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Pax6 is a crucial regulator of eye and central nervous system development. Both the spatiotemporal patterns and the precise levels of Pax6 expression are subject to tight control, mediated by an extensive set of cis-regulatory elements. Previous studies have shown that a YAC reporter transgene containing 420 Kb of genomic DNA spanning the human PAX6 locus drives expression of a tau-tagged GFP reporter in mice in a pattern that closely resembles that of endogenous Pax6. Here we have closely compared the pattern of tau-GFP reporter expression at the cellular level in the forebrains and eyes of transgenic mice carrying either complete or truncated versions of the YAC reporter transgene with endogenous Pax6 expression and found several areas where expression of tau-GFP and Pax6 diverge. Some discrepancies are due to differences between the intracellular localization or perdurance of tau-GFP and Pax6 proteins, while others are likely to be a consequence of transcriptional differences. We show that cis-regulatory elements that lie outside the 420 kb fragment of PAX6 are required for correct expression around the pallial-subpallial boundary, in the amygdala and the prethalamus. Further, we found that the YAC reporter transgene effectively labels cells that contribute to the lateral cortical stream, including cells that arise from the pallium and subpallium, and therefore represents a useful tool for studying lateral cortical stream migration.

  8. Constitutive expression of a fungus-inducible carboxylesterase improves disease resistance in transgenic pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Moonkyung; Cho, Jung Hyun; Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Kang, Ha-Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Soh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Resistance against anthracnose fungi was enhanced in transgenic pepper plants that accumulated high levels of a carboxylesterase, PepEST in anthracnose-susceptible fruits, with a concurrent induction of antioxidant enzymes and SA-dependent PR proteins. A pepper esterase gene (PepEST) is highly expressed during the incompatible interaction between ripe fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and a hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). In this study, we found that exogenous application of recombinant PepEST protein on the surface of the unripe pepper fruits led to a potentiated state for disease resistance in the fruits, including generation of hydrogen peroxide and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes that encode mostly small proteins with antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the role of PepEST in plant defense, we further developed transgenic pepper plants overexpressing PepEST under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. Molecular analysis confirmed the establishment of three independent transgenic lines carrying single copy of transgenes. The level of PepEST protein was estimated to be approximately 0.002 % of total soluble protein in transgenic fruits. In response to the anthracnose fungus, the transgenic fruits displayed higher expression of PR genes, PR3, PR5, PR10, and PepThi, than non-transgenic control fruits did. Moreover, immunolocalization results showed concurrent localization of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and PR3 proteins, along with the PepEST protein, in the infected region of transgenic fruits. Disease rate analysis revealed significantly low occurrence of anthracnose disease in the transgenic fruits, approximately 30 % of that in non-transgenic fruits. Furthermore, the transgenic plants also exhibited resistance against C. acutatum and C. coccodes. Collectively, our results suggest that overexpression of PepEST in pepper confers enhanced resistance against the anthracnose fungi by activating the defense signaling

  9. Stability of transgene expression, field performance and recombination breeding of transformed barley lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, H.; Jensen, L.G.; Wong, O.T.

    2001-01-01

    Stable inheritance of the transgene, consistent expression and competitive agronomic properties of transgenic crops are important parameters for successful use of the latter. These properties have been analyzed with 18 homozygous transgenic barley lines of the cultivar Golden Promise. The lines...... in homozygous transgenic T-3 plants, and these remained constant over a 3-year period. In micro-malting experiments, the heat-stable enzyme reached levels of up to 1.4 mug.mg(-1) protein and survived kiln drying at levels of 70-100%. In the field trials of 1997 and 1998 the transgenic lines had a reduced 1000......, and ari-e. Two improvements were achieved: (1) F-3 lines homozygous for the expression of heat-stable (1,3-1,4)-beta -glucanase were found among lines that were homozygous for each of the four morphological phenotypes; (2) improved 1000-grainweights and yields with respect to those of the original...

  10. Improving expression of reporter transgene in stem cell by construction of different lentiviral vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Seong Ho; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Le, Uyenchi N.; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman [Singapore Bio-Imaging Imaging Consortium, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-07-01

    For stem cell trafficking applications, it is imperative to express transgenes at desired and stable levels. In recent years, lentivirus-mediated gene transfer was shown to be an efficient method to stably introduce genetic modifications in target cells, even if these are in proliferative or nonproliferative states. Moreover, transgene expression levels can be controlled by using different promoters. The present study was designed to compare the potency of various promoters regulating expression of imaging reporter genes in embryonic H9c2 cardiomyoblasts derived from rat heart. Lentiviral vector was produced by the transient transfection of plasmids carrying required genes and those encoding for virus coating proteins into 293T cells. Harvested viral constructs were incubated with Hela and H9c2 cells, respectively. Transgene expressions were detected by several imaging modalities and evaluated by enzymatic assays. Results - We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. Here we show that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer allows efficient and stable transgene expression in embryonic cardiomyoblasts in vitro and that transgene expression levels can be varied by using different well-characterized gene promoters. In vivo trials about gene expression will probably further determine the potential of long-term trafficking stem cells using lentivirus.

  11. Improving expression of reporter transgene in stem cell by construction of different lentiviral vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Seong Ho; Min, Jung Joon; Le, Uyenchi N.; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman

    2007-01-01

    For stem cell trafficking applications, it is imperative to express transgenes at desired and stable levels. In recent years, lentivirus-mediated gene transfer was shown to be an efficient method to stably introduce genetic modifications in target cells, even if these are in proliferative or nonproliferative states. Moreover, transgene expression levels can be controlled by using different promoters. The present study was designed to compare the potency of various promoters regulating expression of imaging reporter genes in embryonic H9c2 cardiomyoblasts derived from rat heart. Lentiviral vector was produced by the transient transfection of plasmids carrying required genes and those encoding for virus coating proteins into 293T cells. Harvested viral constructs were incubated with Hela and H9c2 cells, respectively. Transgene expressions were detected by several imaging modalities and evaluated by enzymatic assays. Results - We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. Here we show that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer allows efficient and stable transgene expression in embryonic cardiomyoblasts in vitro and that transgene expression levels can be varied by using different well-characterized gene promoters. In vivo trials about gene expression will probably further determine the potential of long-term trafficking stem cells using lentivirus

  12. A modified RMCE-compatible Rosa26 locus for the expression of transgenes from exogenous promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchorz, Jan S; Suply, Thomas; Ksiazek, Iwona; Giachino, Claudio; Cloëtta, Dimitri; Danzer, Claus-Peter; Doll, Thierry; Isken, Andrea; Lemaistre, Marianne; Taylor, Verdon; Bettler, Bernhard; Kinzel, Bernd; Mueller, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Generation of gain-of-function transgenic mice by targeting the Rosa26 locus has been established as an alternative to classical transgenic mice produced by pronuclear microinjection. However, targeting transgenes to the endogenous Rosa26 promoter results in moderate ubiquitous expression and is not suitable for high expression levels. Therefore, we now generated a modified Rosa26 (modRosa26) locus that combines efficient targeted transgenesis using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) by Flipase (Flp-RMCE) or Cre recombinase (Cre-RMCE) with transgene expression from exogenous promoters. We silenced the endogenous Rosa26 promoter and characterized several ubiquitous (pCAG, EF1α and CMV) and tissue-specific (VeCad, αSMA) promoters in the modRosa26 locus in vivo. We demonstrate that the ubiquitous pCAG promoter in the modRosa26 locus now offers high transgene expression. While tissue-specific promoters were all active in their cognate tissues they additionally led to rare ectopic expression. To achieve high expression levels in a tissue-specific manner, we therefore combined Flp-RMCE for rapid ES cell targeting, the pCAG promoter for high transgene levels and Cre/LoxP conditional transgene activation using well-characterized Cre lines. Using this approach we generated a Cre/LoxP-inducible reporter mouse line with high EGFP expression levels that enables cell tracing in live cells. A second reporter line expressing luciferase permits efficient monitoring of Cre activity in live animals. Thus, targeting the modRosa26 locus by RMCE minimizes the effort required to target ES cells and generates a tool for the use exogenous promoters in combination with single-copy transgenes for predictable expression in mice.

  13. From transgene expression to public acceptance of transgenic plants: a matter of predictability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, J.P.H.; Mlynárová, L.; Stiekema, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    A good strategy for acceptable legislation of transgenic plants can be thought to be composed of several stacked levels of decision-making. These levels range from global to individual to cellular to nuclear and beyond. Any decision will depend on decisions made on the level below. Various examples

  14. Transgenic Anopheles gambiae expressing an antimalarial peptide suffer no significant fitness cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Clare C; Meredith, Janet M; Eggleston, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases present some of the greatest health challenges faced by the world today. In many cases, existing control measures are compromised by insecticide resistance, pathogen tolerance to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines. In light of these difficulties, new genetic tools for disease control programmes, based on the deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes, are seen as having great promise. Transgenic strains may be used to control disease transmission either by suppressing vector populations or by replacing susceptible with refractory genotypes. In practice, the fitness of the transgenic strain relative to natural mosquitoes will be a critical determinant of success. We previously described a transgenic strain of Anopheles gambiae expressing the Vida3 peptide into the female midgut following a blood-meal, which exhibited significant protection against malaria parasites. Here, we investigated the fitness of this strain relative to non-transgenic controls through comparisons of various life history traits. Experiments were designed, as far as possible, to equalize genetic backgrounds and heterogeneity such that fitness comparisons focussed on the presence and expression of the transgene cassette. We also employed reciprocal crosses to identify any fitness disturbance associated with inheritance of the transgene from either the male or female parent. We found no evidence that the presence or expression of the effector transgene or associated fluorescence markers caused any significant fitness cost in relation to larval mortality, pupal sex ratio, fecundity, hatch rate or longevity of blood-fed females. In fact, fecundity was increased in transgenic strains. We did, however, observe some fitness disturbances associated with the route of inheritance of the transgene. Maternal inheritance delayed male pupation whilst paternal inheritance increased adult longevity for both males and unfed females. Overall, in comparison to controls, there was

  15. Transgenic Anopheles gambiae expressing an antimalarial peptide suffer no significant fitness cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare C McArthur

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases present some of the greatest health challenges faced by the world today. In many cases, existing control measures are compromised by insecticide resistance, pathogen tolerance to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines. In light of these difficulties, new genetic tools for disease control programmes, based on the deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes, are seen as having great promise. Transgenic strains may be used to control disease transmission either by suppressing vector populations or by replacing susceptible with refractory genotypes. In practice, the fitness of the transgenic strain relative to natural mosquitoes will be a critical determinant of success. We previously described a transgenic strain of Anopheles gambiae expressing the Vida3 peptide into the female midgut following a blood-meal, which exhibited significant protection against malaria parasites. Here, we investigated the fitness of this strain relative to non-transgenic controls through comparisons of various life history traits. Experiments were designed, as far as possible, to equalize genetic backgrounds and heterogeneity such that fitness comparisons focussed on the presence and expression of the transgene cassette. We also employed reciprocal crosses to identify any fitness disturbance associated with inheritance of the transgene from either the male or female parent. We found no evidence that the presence or expression of the effector transgene or associated fluorescence markers caused any significant fitness cost in relation to larval mortality, pupal sex ratio, fecundity, hatch rate or longevity of blood-fed females. In fact, fecundity was increased in transgenic strains. We did, however, observe some fitness disturbances associated with the route of inheritance of the transgene. Maternal inheritance delayed male pupation whilst paternal inheritance increased adult longevity for both males and unfed females. Overall, in comparison to

  16. Recurrent selection for transgene expression levels in maize results in proxy selection for a native gene with the same promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    High expression levels of a transgene can be very useful, making a transgene easier to evaluate for safety and efficacy. High expression levels can also increase the economic benefit of the production of high value proteins in transgenic plants. The goal of this research is to determine if recurre...

  17. Differential leaf resistance to insects of transgenic sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) expressing tobacco anionic peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, P F; Lagrimini, L M; Herms, D A

    1998-07-01

    Leaves of transgenic sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees that expressed tobacco anionic peroxidase were compared with leaves of L. styraciflua trees that did not express the tobacco enzyme. Leaves of the transgenic trees were generally more resistant to feeding by caterpillars and beetles than wild-type leaves. However, as for past studies with transgenic tobacco and tomato expressing the tobacco anionic peroxidase, the degree of relative resistance depended on the size of insect used and the maturity of the leaf. Decreased growth of gypsy moth larvae appeared mainly due to decreased consumption, and not changes in the nutritional quality of the foliage. Transgenic leaves were more susceptible to feeding by the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea. Thus, it appears the tobacco anionic peroxidase can contribute to insect resistance, but its effects are more predictable when it is expressed in plant species more closely related to the original gene source.

  18. Spatio Temporal Expression Pattern of an Insecticidal Gene (cry2A in Transgenic Cotton Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah BAKHSH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of transgenic plants with stable, high-level transgene expression is important for the success of crop improvement programs based on genetic engineering. The present study was conducted to evaluate genomic integration and spatio temporal expression of an insecticidal gene (cry2A in pre-existing transgenic lines of cotton. Genomic integration of cry2A was evaluated using various molecular approaches. The expression levels of cry2A were determined at vegetative and reproductive stages of cotton at regular intervals. These lines showed a stable integration of insecticidal gene in advance lines of transgenic cotton whereas gene expression was found variable with at various growth stages as well as in different plant parts throughout the season. The leaves of transgenic cotton were found to have maximum expression of cry2A gene followed by squares, bolls, anthers and petals. The protein level in fruiting part was less as compared to other parts showing inconsistency in gene expression. It was concluded that for culturing of transgenic crops, strategies should be developed to ensure the foreign genes expression efficient, consistent and in a predictable manner.

  19. Identification of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii endogenous genic flanking sequences for improved transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Paz, Cristina; Liu, Dianyi; Geng, Sa; Umen, James G

    2017-12-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga that has attracted interest due to its potential biotechnological applications, and as a model for algal biofuel and energy metabolism. Despite all the advantages that this unicellular alga offers, poor and inconsistent expression of nuclear transgenes remains an obstacle for basic and applied research. We used a data-mining strategy to identify highly expressed genes in Chlamydomonas whose flanking sequences were tested for the ability to drive heterologous nuclear transgene expression. Candidates identified in this search included two ribosomal protein genes, RPL35a and RPL23, and ferredoxin, FDX1, whose flanking regions including promoters, terminators and untranslated sequences could drive stable luciferase transgene expression to significantly higher levels than the commonly used Hsp70A-RBCS2 (AR) hybrid promoter/terminator sequences. The RPL23 flanking sequences were further tested using the zeocin resistance gene sh-ble as a reporter in monocistronic and dicistronic constructs, and consistently yielded higher numbers of zeocin-resistant transformants and higher levels of resistance than AR- or PSAD-based vectors. Chlamydomonas RPL23 sequences also enabled transgene expression in Volvox carteri. Our study provides an additional benchmark for strong constitutive expression of transgenes in Chlamydomonas, and develops a general approach for identifying flanking sequences that can be used to drive transgene expression for any organism where transcriptome data are available. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Selectivity and Efficiency of Late Transgene Expression by Transcriptionally Targeted Oncolytic Adenoviruses Are Dependent on the Transgene Insertion Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Quirin, Christina; Rohmer, Stanimira; Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Behr, Michael; Hesse, Andrea; Engelhardt, Sarah; Erbs, Philippe; Enk, Alexander H.; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.

    2010-01-01

    Key challenges facing cancer therapy are the development of tumor-specific drugs and potent multimodal regimens. Oncolytic adenoviruses possess the potential to realize both aims by restricting virus replication to tumors and inserting therapeutic genes into the virus genome, respectively. A major effort in this regard is to express transgenes in a tumor-specific manner without affecting virus replication. Using both luciferase as a sensitive reporter and genetic prodrug activation, we show t...

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana cold-regulated 47 gene 5'-untranslated region enables stable high-level expression of transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Sanada, Yuji; Imase, Ryoji; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Ueno, Daishin; Demura, Taku; Kato, Ko

    2018-01-01

    Transgene expression is regulated through several steps, this study focuses on the mRNA translation step. The expression level of transgenes can be increased by 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) sequences in certain genes which act as translational enhancers. On the other hand, translation in most mRNA species is repressed by growth, development, and stress events. There is a possibility that transgene mRNA is also repressed in these conditions, despite the use of a translational enhancer. Therefore, a consistently efficient translational enhancer is needed to develop a reliable transgene expression system. Herein we searched for mRNAs translated stably under different growth, development and environmental conditions using data sets of polysome fraction assays and microarray analysis. Correct 5'UTR sequences of candidate genes were determined by cap analysis of gene expression and we tested translational ability of the candidate 5'UTRs by reporter assays. We found the 5'UTR of cold-regulated 47 gene to be an effective translational enhancer, contributing to stable high-level expression under various conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of the murine wild-type tyrosinase gene in transgenic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, B; Besenfelder, U; Seregi, J; Frenyo, L V; Sahin-Toth, T; Brem, G

    1996-11-01

    The tyrosinase gene is known to be essential for melanization and has been shown to rescue pigmentation in albino mice. Previously we have described the strict copy-number-dependent expression of a murine wild-type tyrosinase gene construct over several generations in transgenic mice. In this study, we analysed the same gene construct as a marker gene for the transmission and expression of transgenes in rabbits. Using an albino hybrid strain, we produced transgenic rabbits expressing the murine tyrosinase gene. Strict correlation between integration and expression of the transgene and stable germline transmission of the integrated gene construct according to the Mendelian pattern of inheritance was observed. Thus, breeding control was facilitated by simple phenotypic examination of the transgenic animals. In contrast to mice transgenic for the same gene construct, tyrosinase-transgenic rabbits showed a greater variety in hue, intensity and extent of coat pigmentation, which is caused by the diversity in the loci affecting the melanization. Benefits and limitations of tyrosinase as a marker gene for the detection of homozygous individuals in the albino hybrid strain used are discussed.

  3. Expression of human protamine P1 in sperm of transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Keith, C.; Stilwell, J.; Lowe, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Anderson, G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Transgenic mice were produced by pronuclear injection with DNA constructs containing human protamine P1 cDNA recombined with a murine protamine P1 promoter, and were identified by PCR. Expression of human P1 was investigated using huplm, a monoclonal antibody specific for human P1, applied to murine testicular cells, smears of epididymal sperm, and smears of detergent-isolated sperm nuclei. Various antibodies and nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. Two male founders (T3 and T7) sired more than five generations of transgenic offspring each with continued expression of human P1 in their sperm. Transgenic animals appear of normal fertility with sperm of typical nuclear morphology. The human P1 transgene was expressed postmeioticly in both lines, as expected. Nearly 100% of sperm of T3 and T7 hemizygotes labeled with huplm, consistent with complete diffusion of human P1 protein through the intercellular bridge of spermatogenic cells. Human P1 labeling of sperm nuclei was not visibly affected by sonication or by treatment with the detergent MATAB or the reducing agent DTT. A third founder female (T5) showed a transmission pattern consistent with insertion of the transgene into an X chromosome; her transgenic offspring expressed human P1 in only a small fraction of sperm. Human P1 transgenes may serve as efficient targets for germinal mutations and transgenicmice may provide promising models for investigating the DNA complexes.

  4. Expression of an osmotin-like protein from Solanum nigrum confers drought tolerance in transgenic soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ricardo Luís Mayer; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Bredemeier, Christian; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; de Brito, Giovani Greigh; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Bertagnolli, Paulo Fernando; de Sá, Maria Eugênia Lisei; Campos, Magnólia de Araújo; de Amorim, Regina Maria Santos; Beneventi, Magda Aparecida; Margis, Rogério; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2014-12-10

    Drought is by far the most important environmental factor contributing to yield losses in crops, including soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. To address this problem, a gene that encodes an osmotin-like protein isolated from Solanum nigrum var. americanum (SnOLP) driven by the UBQ3 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana was transferred into the soybean genome by particle bombardment. Two independently transformed soybean lines expressing SnOLP were produced. Segregation analyses indicated single-locus insertions for both lines. qPCR analysis suggested a single insertion of SnOLP in the genomes of both transgenic lines, but one copy of the hpt gene was inserted in the first line and two in the second line. Transgenic plants exhibited no remarkable phenotypic alterations in the seven analyzed generations. When subjected to water deficit, transgenic plants performed better than the control ones. Leaf physiological measurements revealed that transgenic soybean plants maintained higher leaf water potential at predawn, higher net CO2 assimilation rate, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration rate than non-transgenic plants. Grain production and 100-grain weight were affected by water supply. Decrease in grain productivity and 100-grain weight were observed for both transgenic and non-transgenic plants under water deficit; however, it was more pronounced for non-transgenic plants. Moreover, transgenic lines showed significantly higher 100-grain weight than non-transgenic plants under water shortage. This is the first report showing that expression of SnOLP in transgenic soybeans improved physiological responses and yield components of plants when subjected to water deficit, highlighting the potential of this gene for biotechnological applications.

  5. Expression profiling of microRNAs in optineurin (E50K) mutant transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Jiang, B O; Lei, Dawei; Zhou, Xinrong; Yuan, Huiping

    2016-02-01

    An E50K substitution in the transcription factor optineurin (OPTN) induces primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). To explore the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in E50K OPTN-induced POAG, miRNA expression profiling was performed on retinal samples from OPTN (E50K) transgenic and wild-type mice. The retinas were collected from 30 transgenic and 30 wild-type mice, and miRNA expression was evaluated using a genome-wide miRNA microarray. miRNAs that were differentially expressed in retinal samples from OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice were identified and validated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Additional gene ontology and signaling pathway analyses were performed using bioinformatics tools. A total of 48 miRNAs exhibited increased or decreased expression in the retinas from OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice when compared with the expression in the retinas from wild-type mice. A total of 5 miRNAs with increased expression in OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice could be grouped into one cluster as they belong to the miR-8 family and may act as regulators in the development of POAG in OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice. RT-qPCR results confirmed significantly increased expression of miR-141 in the retinas of OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice as compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, these results show that certain miRNAs are differentially expressed in the retinas of OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice and may play roles in the pathogenesis of POAG induced by OPTN (E50K).

  6. Correlation between transgen expression and plasmid DNA loss in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Ryohei; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgene expression from plasmid DNA is dependent on the expression efficiency per plasmid and the amount of intranuclear plasmid. In the present study, intranuclear dispositions of two types of plasmid DNAs (i.e. the pCpGfree and pLIVE plasmids) that maintain transgene expression in mouse liver were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between transgene expression and plasmid stability in the nucleus was examined. First, the pCpGfree and pLIVE plasmid DNAs, bearing the mouse secreted alkaline phosphatase (Seap) gene, were administered into mouse liver by the hydrodynamics-based method. Next, various Seap-plasmid DNAs containing different promoters, upstream and downstream sequences, and backbones were injected into mice, and both SEAP expression and plasmid DNA amounts were monitored for 28 days. At the 14- and 28-day time points, the amount of the pCpGfree plasmid DNA was one order of magnitude less than that of the pLIVE plasmid. Meanwhile, the expression efficiency per plasmid was one order of magnitude more efficient for the pCpGfree plasmid DNA. Moreover, the administration of various Seap-plasmid DNAs revealed that negative correlations exist between plasmid stability and SEAP expression level. The results obtained suggest that the pCpGfree plasmid is unstable from the viewpoint of quantity and maintains transgene expression by its high expression efficiency and also that transgene expression negatively affects the stability of plasmid DNA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Remote sensing of gene expression in Planta: transgenic plants as monitors of exogenous stress perception in extraterrestrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manak, Michael S.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Sehnke, Paul C.; Ferl, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were developed as biological sensors for monitoring physiological responses to unique environments. Plants were monitored in vivo during exposure to hypoxia, high salt, cold, and abcissic acid in experiments designed to characterize the utility and responses of the Adh/GFP biosensors. Plants in the presence of environmental stimuli that induced the Adh promoter responded by expressing GFP, which in turn generated a detectable fluorescent signal. The GFP signal degraded when the inducing stimulus was removed. Digital imaging of the Adh/GFP plants exposed to each of the exogenous stresses demonstrated that the stress-induced gene expression could be followed in real time. The experimental results established the feasibility of using a digital monitoring system for collecting gene expression data in real time from Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) biosensor plants during space exploration experiments.

  8. Fitness of transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes expressing the SM1 peptide under the control of a vitellogenin promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoyang; Marrelli, Mauro T; Yan, Guiyun; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Three transgenic Anopheles stephensi lines were established that strongly inhibit transmission of the mouse malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Fitness of the transgenic mosquitoes was assessed based on life table analysis and competition experiments between transgenic and wild-type mosquitoes. Life table analysis indicated low fitness load for the 2 single-insertion transgenic mosquito lines VD35 and VD26 and no load for the double-insertion transgenic mosquito line VD9. However, in cage experiments, where each of the 3 homozygous transgenic mosquitoes was mixed with nontransgenic mosquitoes, transgene frequency of all 3 lines decreased with time. Further experiments suggested that reduction of transgene frequency is a consequence of reduced mating success, reduced reproductive capacity, and/or insertional mutagenesis, rather than expression of the transgene itself. Thus, for transgenic mosquitoes released in the field to be effective in reducing malaria transmission, a driving mechanism will be required.

  9. Hydrogel Macroporosity and the Prolongation of Transgene Expression and the Enhancement of Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Virani, Farrukh R.; Goodman, Ashley G.; Gossett, Timothy D.; Shin, Seungjin; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2012-01-01

    The utility of hydrogels for regenerative medicine can be improved through localized gene delivery to enhance their bioactivity. However, current systems typically lead to low-level transgene expression located in host tissue surrounding the implant. Herein, we investigated the inclusion of macropores into hydrogels to facilitate cell ingrowth and enhance gene delivery within the macropores in vivo. Macropores were created within PEG hydrogels by gelation around gelatin microspheres, with gelatin subsequently dissolved by incubation at 37°C. The macropores were interconnected, as evidenced by homogeneous cell seeding in vitro and complete cell infiltration in vivo. Lentivirus loaded within hydrogels following gelation retained its activity relative to the unencapsulated control virus. In vivo, macroporous PEG demonstrated sustained, elevated levels of transgene expression for 6 weeks, while hydrogels without macropores had transient expression. Transduced cells were located throughout the macroporous structure, while non-macroporous PEG hydrogels had transduction only in the adjacent host tissue. Delivery of lentivirus encoding for VEGF increased vascularization relative to the control, with vessels throughout the macropores of the hydrogel. The inclusion of macropores within the hydrogel to enhance cell infiltration enhances transduction and influences tissue development, which has implications for multiple regenerative medicine applications. PMID:22800542

  10. Tightly regulated and homogeneous transgene expression in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells by lentivirus with tet-off system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Moriyama

    Full Text Available Genetic modification of human adipose tissue-derived multilineage progenitor cells (hADMPCs is highly valuable for their exploitation in therapeutic applications. Here, we have developed a novel single tet-off lentiviral vector platform. This vector combines (1 a modified tetracycline (tet-response element composite promoter, (2 a multi-cistronic strategy to express an improved version of the tet-controlled transactivator and the blasticidin resistance gene under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, and (3 acceptor sites for easy recombination cloning of the gene of interest. In the present study, we used the cytomegalovirus (CMV or the elongation factor 1 α (EF-1α promoter as the ubiquitous promoter, and EGFP was introduced as the gene of interest. hADMPCs transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying either the CMV promoter or the EF-1α promoter were effectively selected by blasticidin without affecting their stem cell properties, and EGFP expression was strictly regulated by doxycycline (Dox treatment in these cells. However, the single tet-off lentiviral vector carrying the EF-1α promoter provided more homogenous expression of EGFP in hADMPCs. Intriguingly, differentiated cells from these Dox-responsive cell lines constitutively expressed EGFP only in the absence of Dox. This single tet-off lentiviral vector thus provides an important tool for applied research on hADMPCs.

  11. Regulating the expression of therapeutic transgenes by controlled intake of dietary essential amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveroux, Cédric; Bruhat, Alain; Carraro, Valérie; Jousse, Céline; Averous, Julien; Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Parry, Laurent; Mesclon, Florent; Muranishi, Yuki; Cordelier, Pierre; Meulle, Aline; Baril, Patrick; Do Thi, Anh; Ravassard, Philippe; Mallet, Jacques; Fafournoux, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Widespread application of gene therapy will depend on the development of simple methods to regulate the expression of therapeutic genes. Here we harness an endogenous signaling pathway to regulate therapeutic gene expression through diet. The GCN2-eIF2α signaling pathway is specifically activated by deficiencies in any essential amino acid (EAA); EAA deficiency leads to rapid expression of genes regulated by ATF4-binding cis elements. We found that therapeutic genes under the control of optimized amino acid response elements (AAREs) had low basal expression and high induced expression. We applied our system to regulate the expression of TNFSF10 (TRAIL) in the context of glioma therapy and found that intermittent activation of this gene by EEA-deficient meals retained its therapeutic efficacy while abrogating its toxic effects on normal tissue. The GCN2-eIF2α pathway is expressed in many tissues, including the brain, and is highly specific to EAA deficiency. Our system may be particularly well suited for intermittent regulation of therapeutic transgenes over short or long time periods.

  12. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzoma eIhemere

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe(III chelate reductase activity and gene expression levels consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in FEA1 transgenic plants. We also show that genes involved in iron homeostasis in cassava have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in transgenic plants. Steady state transcript levels of the metal-chelate transporter MeYSL1, and the iron storage proteins, MeFER2 and MeFER6, were elevated in various tissues of FEA1 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. These results suggest that these gene products play a role in iron translocation and homeostasis in FEA1 transgenic cassava plants. These results are discussed in terms of enhanced strategies for the iron biofortification of plants.

  13. Skeletal Phenotype of Transgenic Mice Expressing the Beta1 Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail In Osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, R. K.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Damsky, D.; Kim, J.-B.; Amblard, D.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Almeida, E.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Wronski, T. J.; hide

    2002-01-01

    tibia and humerus mass were less obvious in TG than in WT mice. Since hindlimb unloading caused skeletal changes in both loaded and unloaded bones, systemic changes may contribute to bone responses observed using this animal model. In conclusion, transgene expression resulted in marked metabolic changes during growth and in the aged female. Our results demonstrate that expression of the Beta1 integrin cytoplasmic tail in vivo causes gender- and age-specific changes in select morphometric parameters, bone length, and bone mass.

  14. Ectopic Expression of JcWRKY Confers Enhanced Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Parinita; Patel, Khantika; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2018-04-01

    Plants possess an innate immune system comprising of a complex network of closely regulated defense responses involving differential gene expression mediated by transcription factors (TFs). The WRKYs comprise of an important plant-specific TF family, which is involved in regulation of biotic and abiotic defenses. The overexpression of JcWRKY resulted in improved resistance in transgenic tobacco against Macrophomina phaseolina. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its detoxification through antioxidative system in the transgenics facilitates defense against Macrophomina. The enhanced catalase activity on Macrophomina infection limits the spread of infection. The transcript expression of antioxidative enzymes gene (CAT and SOD) and salicylic acid (SA) biosynthetic gene ICS1 showed upregulation during Macrophomina infection and combinatorial stress. The enhanced transcript of pathogenesis-related genes PR-1 indicates the accumulation of SA during different stresses. The PR-2 and PR-5 highlight the activation of defense responses comprising of activation of hydrolytic cleavage of glucanases and thaumatin-like proteins causing disruption of fungal cells. The ROS homeostasis in coordination with signaling molecules regulate the defense responses and inhibit fungal growth.

  15. Generation of transgene-free mouse induced pluripotent stem cells using an excisable lentiviral system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, E; Nemes, C; Davis, R P; Ujhelly, O; Klincumhom, N; Polgar, Z; Muenthaisong, S; Pirity, M K; Dinnyes, A

    2014-04-01

    One goal of research using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) is to generate patient-specific cells which can be used to obtain multiple types of differentiated cells as disease models. Minimally or non-integrating methods to deliver the reprogramming genes are considered to be the best but they may be inefficient. Lentiviral delivery is currently among the most efficient methods but it integrates transgenes into the genome, which may affect the behavior of the iPSC if integration occurs into an important locus. Here we designed a polycistronic lentiviral construct containing four pluripotency genes with an EGFP selection marker. The cassette was excisable with the Cre-loxP system making possible the removal of the integrated transgenes from the genome. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts were reprogrammed using this viral system, rapidly resulting in large number of iPSC colonies. Based on the lowest EGFP expression level, one parental line was chosen for excision. Introduction of the Cre recombinase resulted in transgene-free iPSC subclones. The effect of the transgenes was assessed by comparing the parental iPSC with two of its transgene-free subclones. Both excised and non-excised iPSCs expressed standard pluripotency markers. The subclones obtained after Cre recombination were capable of differentiation in vitro, in contrast to the parental, non-excised cells and formed germ-line competent chimeras in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PITT: pronuclear injection-based targeted transgenesis, a reliable transgene expression method in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Masato; Miura, Hiromi; Sato, Masahiro; Kimura, Minoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic (Tg) mice have been extensively used as valuable tools for analyses of gene function and have also served as models for many human diseases. Typically, a transgenic mouse is created by microinjection of DNA into pronuclei in which the DNA gets integrated at random locations in the genome. Frequently however, the random integration of multiple copies of a transgene results in transgene silencing, probably because of a positional effect and/or repeat-induced gene silencing. The transgene silencing issue has been overcome by single-copy transgene integration into a predetermined locus through ES cell-mediated transgenesis, despite it being expensive and more time-consuming compared with pronuclear injection (PI)-mediated transgenesis. Recently, several groups have reported novel approaches that employ PI for targeted transgenesis. They are based on site-specific recombination catalyzed by a recombinase or an integrase or homologous recombination enhanced by a zinc-finger nuclease via PI. These next-generation transgenesis methods, which we termed as PI-based Targeted Transgenesis (PITT), are more convenient and faster than ES cell-based transgenesis. Furthermore, the Tg mice generated by these newer methods contain a single-copy transgene and exhibit reliable expression of the transgene. The objective of this review is to present the recent progress in mouse targeted transgenesis.

  17. The stability of transgene expression and effect of DNA methylation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we selected transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk) plants, which included nonsilencing plants, transcriptional silence plants including TP96, TP74, TP73 and the post-transcriptional silence ones (TP67 and TP72). The transcription of the bgt gene in different tissues and organs were significantly different.

  18. Transgene expression of lilies grown in the greenhouse and outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants were transformed with either the bar-uidA fusion gene or the npt II and uidA genes and grown for two seasons in the greenhouse and outdoors in containers. All transgenes were under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. During the first year there was no differ...

  19. Transgenic overexpression of BAFF regulates the expression of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cent of certain human autoimmune disorders. Recent evi- dence has demonstrated that constitutive ..... showed traits of prematurity with a distinct tail and a yolk extension elongating away from the yolk (figure 2A, ... RNAs were isolated from three tails of 3 mpf (month post- fertilization) F0 transgenic zebrafish g1, g2 and g7, ...

  20. Transgenic expression of Dspp partially rescued the long bone defects of Dmp1-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Priyam H; Gibson, Monica P; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaofang; Lu, Yongbo; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) belong to the Small Integrin-Binding Ligand N-linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) family. In addition to the features common to all SIBLING members, DMP1 and DSPP share several unique similarities in chemical structure, proteolytic activation and tissue localization. Mutations in, or deletion of DMP1, cause autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets along with dental defects; DSPP mutations or its ablation are associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta. While the roles and functional mechanisms of DMP1 in osteogenesis have been extensively studied, those of DSPP in long bones have been studied only to a limited extent. Previous studies by our group revealed that transgenic expression of Dspp completely rescued the dentin defects of Dmp1-null (Dmp1(-/-)) mice. In this investigation, we assessed the effects of transgenic Dspp on osteogenesis by analyzing the formation and mineralization of the long bones in Dmp1(-/-) mice that expresses a transgene encoding full-length DSPP driven by a 3.6-kb rat Col1a1 promoter (referred as "Dmp1(-/-);Dspp-Tg mice"). We characterized the long bones of the Dmp1(-/-);Dspp-Tg mice at different ages and compared them with those from Dmp1(-/-) and Dmp1(+/-) (normal control) mice. Our analyses showed that the long bones of Dmp1(-/-);Dspp-Tg mice had a significant increase in cortical bone thickness, bone volume and mineral density along with a remarkable restoration of trabecular thickness compared to those of the Dmp1(-/-) mice. The long bones of Dmp1(-/-);Dspp-Tg mice underwent a dramatic reduction in the amount of osteoid, significant improvement of the collagen fibrillar network, and better organization of the lacunocanalicular system, compared to the Dmp1(-/-) mice. The elevated levels of biglycan, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in Dmp1(-/-) mice were also noticeably corrected by the transgenic expression of Dspp. These findings suggest that DSPP and DMP1 may function

  1. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  2. Effect of antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) on root colonization with Glomus intraradices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Fathi; Noorian, Mojgan Sharifi; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi have always been a major problem in agriculture. One of the effective methods for controlling pathogen fungi to date is the introduction of resistance genes into the genome of crops. It is interesting to find out whether the induced resistance in crops will have a negative effect on non-target organisms such as root colonization with the AM fungi.   The objective of the present research was to study the influence of producing antifungal molecules by four transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines expressing PGIP gene from raspberry, VST-stilbene synthase from vine, a hybrid of PGIP/VST and bacterial Chitinase gene (Chit30) from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis respectively on the colonization potential of Glomus intraradices. Four different experiments were done in greenhouse and climate chamber, colonization was observed in all replications. The following parameters were used for evaluation: frequency of mycorrhization, the intensity of mycorrhization, the average presence of arbuscules within the colonized areas and the presence of arbuscules in the whole root system which showed insignificant difference between transgenic and non-transgenic plants. The root/shoot ratio exhibited different values according to the experiment condition. Compared with negative non-transgenic control all transgenic lines showed the ability to establish symbiosis and the different growth parameters had insignificant effect due to mycorrhization. The results of the present study proved that the introduced pathogen resistance genes did not affect the mycorrhization allocations in pea.

  3. Foamy virus vectors expressing anti-HIV transgenes efficiently block HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jason A; Vojtech, Lucia; Bahner, Ingrid; Kohn, Donald B; Laer, Dorothee Von; Russell, David W; Richard, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy has the potential to control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients who do not respond to traditional antiviral therapy. In this study, we tested foamy virus (FV) vectors expressing three anti-HIV transgenes, both individually and in a combination vector. The transgenes tested in this study are RevM10, a dominant negative version of the viral rev protein, Sh1, a short hairpin RNA directed against a conserved overlapping sequence of tat and rev, and membrane-associated C46 (maC46), a membrane-attached peptide that blocks HIV cell entry. FV vectors efficiently transduce hematopoietic stem cells and, unlike lentivirus (LV) vectors, do not share viral proteins with HIV. The titers of the FV vectors described in this study were not affected by anti-HIV transgenes. On a direct comparison of FV vectors expressing the individual transgenes, entry inhibition using the maC46 transgene was found to be the most effective at blocking HIV replication. A clinically relevant FV vector expressing three anti-HIV transgenes effectively blocked HIV infection in primary macrophages derived from transduced, peripheral blood CD34-selected cells and in a cell line used for propagating HIV, CEMx174. These results suggest that there are potential benefits of using FV vectors in HIV gene therapy.

  4. Transgenic labeling of parvalbumin-expressing neurons with tdTomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tobias; Ting, Jonathan T.; Monteiro, Patrícia; Feng, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Summary Parvalbumin (PVALB)-expressing fast-spiking interneurons subserve important roles in many brain regions by modulating circuit function and dysfunction of these neurons is strongly implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. To facilitate the study of PVALB neuron function we need to be able to identify PVALB neurons in vivo. We have generated a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse line expressing the red fluorophore tdTomato under the control of endogenous regulatory elements of the Pvalb gene locus (JAX # 027395). We show that the tdTomato transgene is faithfully expressed relative to endogenous PVALB expression throughout the brain. Furthermore, targeted patch clamp recordings confirm that the labeled populations in neocortex, striatum, and hippocampus are fast-spiking interneurons based on intrinsic properties. This new transgenic mouse line provides a useful tool to study PVALB neuron function in the normal brain as well as in mouse models of psychiatric disease. PMID:26318335

  5. Transgenic tomato plants expressing the antigen gene PfCP-2.9 of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Kantor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain transgenic tomato plants expressing the PfCP-2.9 protein (a chimera of the antigens MSP1 and AMA1 of Plasmodium falciparum. Cotyledons of seven-day-old tomatoes, cultivar Summers, were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgenic expression in the T0 plants was verified in the DNA extracted from fruits. PCR analysis was used to test the presence of the gene of interest in the T1 generation. Reverse transcriptase PCR provided evidence of gene expression at the RNA level, and Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of the protein of interest in the T1 plants. This is the first report of successful transformation with the expression of a malaria antigen (PfCP-2.9 in transgenic tomato plants from the T0 and T1 generations.

  6. Development of all-in-one multicistronic Tet-On lentiviral vectors for inducible co-expression of two transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yide; Zhen, Ruonan; Jiang, Meiqin; Yang, Jie; Yang, Yun; Huang, Zhen; Lin, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Inducible co-expression of multiple genes is often needed in research. Here we describe a single-vector-based Tet-On inducible system for co-expression of two transgenes. The two transgenes (DsRed1 and eGFP as model genes) and reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator were separated by internal ribosomal entry sites and 2A sequences, and their transcription was controlled by the same tetracycline responsive element. Two novel vectors with different internal ribosomal entry sites and 2A positions on the vectors were constructed. The DsRed1 and eGFP in cells transduced with both vectors are undetectable in the absence of doxycycline and can be efficiently induced in the presence of doxycycline in vitro and in vivo. These two vectors can be useful tools when regulated co-expression of two ecotopic genes is needed. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Expressing the sweet potato orange gene in transgenic potato improves drought tolerance and marketable tuber production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Han, Eun-Heui; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Hong, Su-Young; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is generally considered to be sensitive to drought stress. Even short periods of water shortage can result in reduced tuber production and quality. We previously reported that transgenic potato plants expressing the sweet potato orange gene (IbOr) under the control of the stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SOR plants) showed increased tolerance to methyl viologen-mediated oxidative stress and high salinity, along with increased carotenoid contents. In this study, in an effort to improve the productivity and environmental stress tolerance of potato, we subjected transgenic potato plants expressing IbOr to water-deficient conditions in the greenhouse. The SOR plants exhibited increased tolerance to drought stress under greenhouse conditions. IbOr expression was associated with slightly negative phenotypes, including reduced tuber production. Controlling IbOr expression imparted the same degree of drought tolerance while ameliorating these negative phenotypic effects, leading to levels of tuber production similar to or better than those of wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. In particular, under drought stress, drought tolerance and the production of marketable tubers (over 80g) were improved in transgenic plants compared with non-transgenic plants. These results suggest that expressing the IbOr transgene can lead to significant gains in drought tolerance and tuber production in potato, thereby improving these agronomically important traits. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Transgenic organisms expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis to combat insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Arieh; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Borovsky, Dov; Boussiba, Sammy; Einav, Monica; Gindin, Galina; Horowitz, A Rami; Kolot, Mikhail; Melnikov, Olga; Mendel, Zvi; Yagil, Ezra

    2010-01-01

    Various subspecies (ssp.) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are considered the best agents known so far to control insects, being highly specific and safe, easily mass produced and with long shelf life.1 The para-crystalline body that is produced during sporulation in the exosporium includes polypeptides named δ-endotoxins, each killing a specific set of insects. The different entomopathogenic toxins of various Bt ssp. can be manipulated genetically in an educated way to construct more efficient transgenic bacteria or plants that express combinations of toxin genes to control pests.2 Joint research projects in our respective laboratories during the last decade demonstrate what can be done by implementing certain ideas using molecular biology with Bt ssp. israelensis (Bti) as a model system. Here, we describe our progress achieved with Gram-negative bacterial species, including cyanobacteria, and some preliminary experiments to form transgenic plants, mainly to control mosquitoes (Diptera), but also a particular Lepidopteran and Coleopteran pest species. In addition, a system is described by which environment-damaging genes can be removed from the recombinants thus alleviating procedures for obtaining permits to release them in nature. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  9. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47 mg/larvae/day and 12.46 mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Breeding of transgenic cattle for human coagulation factor IX by a combination of lentiviral system and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, P S; Sangalli, J R; De Bem, T H C; Bressan, F F; Fantinato-Neto, P; Pimentel, J R V; Birgel-Junior, E H; Fontes, A M; Covas, D T; Meirelles, F V

    2013-02-28

    Recombinant coagulation factor IX must be produced in mammalian cells because FIX synthesis involves translational modifications. Human cell culture-based expression of human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) is expensive, and large-scale production capacity is limited. Transgenic animals may greatly increase the yield of therapeutic proteins and reduce costs. In this study, we used a lentiviral system to obtain transgenic cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic animals. Lentiviral vectors carrying hFIX driven by 3 bovine β-casein promoters were constructed. Bovine epithelial mammary cells were transduced by lentivirus, selected with blasticidin, plated on extracellular matrix, and induced by lactogenic hormones; promoter activity was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Transcriptional activity of the 5.335-kb promoter was 6-fold higher than the 3.392- and 4.279-kb promoters, which did not significantly differ. Transgenic bovine fibroblasts were transduced with lentivirus carrying the 5.335-kb promoter and used as donor cells for SCNT. Cloned transgenic embryo production yielded development rates of 28.4%, similar to previous reports on cloned non-transgenic embryos. The embryos were transferred to recipient cows (N = 21) and 2 births of cloned transgenic cattle were obtained. These results suggest combination of the lentiviral system and cloning may be a good strategy for production of transgenic cattle.

  11. Increased threshold of short-latency motor evoked potentials in transgenic mice expressing Channelrhodopsin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xiong, Wenhui; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Lifang; Fang, Jianqiao; Shields, Christopher; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Jin, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 or its variants provide a powerful tool for optogenetic study of the nervous system. Previous studies have established that introducing such exogenous genes usually does not alter anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral properties of neurons in these mice. However, in a line of Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice (line 9, Jackson lab), we found that short-latency motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation had a longer latency and much lower amplitude than that of wild type mice. MEPs evoked by transcranial electrical stimulation also had a much higher threshold in ChR2 mice, although similar amplitudes could be evoked in both wild and ChR2 mice at maximal stimulation. In contrast, long-latency MEPs evoked by electrically stimulating the motor cortex were similar in amplitude and latency between wild type and ChR2 mice. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from layer V pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex in ChR2 mice revealed no significant differences in intrinsic membrane properties and action potential firing in response to current injection. These data suggest that corticospinal tract is not accountable for the observed abnormality. Motor behavioral assessments including BMS score, rotarod, and grid-walking test showed no significant differences between the two groups. Because short-latency MEPs are known to involve brainstem reticulospinal tract, while long-latency MEPs mainly involve primary motor cortex and dorsal corticospinal tract, we conclude that this line of ChR2 transgenic mice has normal function of motor cortex and dorsal corticospinal tract, but reduced excitability and responsiveness of reticulospinal tracts. This abnormality needs to be taken into account when using these mice for related optogenetic study.

  12. Digital Microfluidic Approach for Efficient Electroporation with High Productivity: Transgene Expression of Microalgae without Cell Wall Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Do Jin; Jeong, Su-Nam; Yoo, Byeong Sun; Kim, Bolam; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Jeong, Won-Joong; Kang, In Seok

    2015-07-07

    A unique digital microfluidic electroporation (EP) system successfully demonstrates higher transgene expression than that of conventional techniques, in addition to reliable productivity and feasible integrated processes. By systematic investigations into the effects of the droplet EP conditions for a wild-type microalgae, 1 order of magnitude higher transgene expression is accomplished without cell wall removal over the conventional bulk EP system. In addition, the newly proposed droplet EP method by a droplet contact charging phenomena shows a great potential for the integration of EP processes and on-chip cell culture providing easy controllability of each process. Finally, the implications of the accomplishments and future directions for development of the proposed technology are discussed.

  13. DHN10 dehydrin is not expressed in transgenic Solanum species plants when the Dhn10 gene is fused to a glucosyl transferase promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, Izabela; Grygorowicz, Wojciech J; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2004-01-01

    A gene fusion system was used to study the expression pattern of the Dhn10 gene, encoding the DHN10 dehydrin protein in transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants carrying a combined GT-Dhn10 transgen in which the glucosyl transferase (GT) promoter region was fused to the coding sequence of the Dhn10 gene. Expression of the native Dhn10 gene and the GT-Dhn10 constructs was analysed in regenerated S. tuberosum transgenic plants, both at the transcript accumulation and protein levels. We showed that the expression of both the GT-Dhn10 transgen and the Dhn10 gene was regulated in the regenerated plants at the transcriptional level in an independent way, but only the protein product of the native Dhn10 expression was detected. The transcription product of the GT-Dhn10 transgen did not affect the expression of the Dhn10 gene either at the transcription level or at the protein level. The GT-Dhn10 plants did not show changes in freezing capacity compared to the control, non-transgenic ones.

  14. mpeg1 promoter transgenes direct macrophage-lineage expression in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Felix; Pase, Luke; Hayman, John W; Andrianopoulos, Alex; Lieschke, Graham J

    2011-01-27

    Macrophages and neutrophils play important roles during the innate immune response, phagocytosing invading microbes and delivering antimicrobial compounds to the site of injury. Functional analyses of the cellular innate immune response in zebrafish infection/inflammation models have been aided by transgenic lines with fluorophore-marked neutrophils. However, it has not been possible to study macrophage behaviors and neutrophil/macrophage interactions in vivo directly because there has been no macrophage-only reporter line. To remove this roadblock, a macrophage-specific marker was identified (mpeg1) and its promoter used in mpeg1-driven transgenes. mpeg1-driven transgenes are expressed in macrophage-lineage cells that do not express neutrophil-marking transgenes. Using these lines, the different dynamic behaviors of neutrophils and macrophages after wounding were compared side-by-side in compound transgenics. Macrophage/neutrophil interactions, such as phagocytosis of senescent neutrophils, were readily observed in real time. These zebrafish transgenes provide a new resource that will contribute to the fields of inflammation, infection, and leukocyte biology.

  15. Enhanced water stress tolerance of transgenic maize plants over-expressing LEA Rab28 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Imen; Capellades, Montserrat; Ludevid, M Dolors; Pagès, Montserrat; Goday, Adela

    2013-06-15

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins participate in plant stress responses and contribute to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. In this report Rab28 LEA gene has been over-expressed in maize plants under a constitutive maize promoter. The expression of Rab28 transcripts led to the accumulation and stability of Rab28 protein in the transgenic plants. Native Rab28 protein is localized to nucleoli in wild type maize embryo cells; here we find by whole-mount immunocytochemistry that in root cells of Rab28 transgenic and wild-type plants the protein is also associated to nucleolar structures. Transgenic plants were tested for stress tolerance and resulted in sustained growth under polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-mediated dehydration compared to wild-type controls. Under osmotic stress transgenic seedlings showed increased leaf and root areas, higher relative water content (RWC), reduced chlorophyll loss and lower Malondialdehyde (MDA) production in relation to wild-type plants. Moreover, transgenic seeds exhibited higher germination rates than wild-type seeds under water deficit. Overall, our results highlight the presence of transgenic Rab28 protein in nucleolar structures and point to the potential of group 5 LEA Rab28 gene as candidate to enhance stress tolerance in maize plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly phosphorylated functionalized rice starch produced by transgenic rice expressing the potato GWD1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaling; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Starch phosphorylation occurs naturally during starch metabolism in the plant and is catalysed by glucan water dikinases (GWD1) and phosphoglucan water dikinase/glucan water dikinase 3 (PWD/GWD3). We generated six stable individual transgenic lines by over-expressing the potato GWD1 in rice....... Transgenic rice grain starch had 9-fold higher 6-phospho (6-P) monoesters and double amounts of 3-phospho (3-P) monoesters, respectively, compared to control grain. The shape and topography of the transgenic starch granules were moderately altered including surface pores and less well defined edges...... content was positively correlated with short chains of DP6-12. The starch pasting temperature, peak viscosity and the breakdown were lower but the setback was higher for transgenic rice flour. The 6-P content was negatively correlated with texture adhesiveness but positively correlated...

  17. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin βE subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    Activins, TGF-β superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin β subunit genes, βC and βE, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin βE subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells

  18. LiPS-A3S, a human genomic site for robust expression of inserted transgenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriana G Kotini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs can enable and empower a variety of studies in stem cell research, including lineage tracing and functional genetics studies. While in recent years much progress has been made in the development of tools for gene targeting, little attention has been given to the identification of sites in the human genome where transgenes can be inserted and reliably expressed. In order to find human genomic sites capable of supporting long-term and high-level transgene expression in hPSCs, we performed a lentiviral screen in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. We isolated 40 iPSC clones each harboring a single vector copy and characterized the level of transgene expression afforded by each unique integration site. We selected one clone, LiPS-A3 with an integration site in chromosome 15 maintaining robust expression without silencing and demonstrate that different transgenes can be inserted therein rapidly and efficiently through recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE. The LiPS-A3 line can greatly facilitate the insertion of reporter and other genes in hPSCs. Targeting transgenes in the LiPS-A3S genomic locus can find broad applications in stem cell research and possibly cell and gene therapy.

  19. Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihemere, Uzoma E.; Narayanan, Narayanan N.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants. PMID:22993514

  20. Enhanced tolerance and remediation of anthracene by transgenic tobacco plants expressing a fungal glutathione transferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Sherkhane, Pramod D.; Kale, Sharad P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Eapen, Susan, E-mail: eapenhome@yahoo.com [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Transgenic plants expressing a TvGST gene were tested for tolerance, uptake and degradation of anthracene. {yields} Transgenic plants were more tolerant to anthracene and take up more anthracene from soil and solutions compared to control plants. {yields} Using in vitro T{sub 1} seedlings, we showed that anthracene-a three fused benzene ring compound was phytodegraded to naphthalene derivatives, having two benzene rings. {yields} This is the first time that a transgenic plant was shown to have the potential to phytodegrade anthracene. - Abstract: Plants can be used for remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to be a major concern for human health. Metabolism of xenobiotic compounds in plants occurs in three phases and glutathione transferases (GST) mediate phase II of xenobiotic transformation. Plants, although have GSTs, they are not very efficient for degradation of exogenous recalcitrant xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Hence, heterologous expression of efficient GSTs in plants may improve their remediation and degradation potential of xenobiotics. In the present study, we investigated the potential of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST for tolerance, remediation and degradation of anthracene-a recalcitrant polyaromatic hydrocarbon. Transgenic plants with fungal GST showed enhanced tolerance to anthracene compared to control plants. Remediation of {sup 14}C uniformly labeled anthracene from solutions and soil by transgenic tobacco plants was higher compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants (T{sub 0} and T{sub 1}) degraded anthracene to naphthalene derivatives, while no such degradation was observed in wild-type plants. The present work has shown that in planta expression of a fungal GST in tobacco imparted enhanced tolerance as well as higher remediation potential of anthracene compared to wild-type plants.

  1. Enhanced tolerance and remediation of anthracene by transgenic tobacco plants expressing a fungal glutathione transferase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Sherkhane, Pramod D.; Kale, Sharad P.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Transgenic plants expressing a TvGST gene were tested for tolerance, uptake and degradation of anthracene. → Transgenic plants were more tolerant to anthracene and take up more anthracene from soil and solutions compared to control plants. → Using in vitro T 1 seedlings, we showed that anthracene-a three fused benzene ring compound was phytodegraded to naphthalene derivatives, having two benzene rings. → This is the first time that a transgenic plant was shown to have the potential to phytodegrade anthracene. - Abstract: Plants can be used for remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to be a major concern for human health. Metabolism of xenobiotic compounds in plants occurs in three phases and glutathione transferases (GST) mediate phase II of xenobiotic transformation. Plants, although have GSTs, they are not very efficient for degradation of exogenous recalcitrant xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Hence, heterologous expression of efficient GSTs in plants may improve their remediation and degradation potential of xenobiotics. In the present study, we investigated the potential of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST for tolerance, remediation and degradation of anthracene-a recalcitrant polyaromatic hydrocarbon. Transgenic plants with fungal GST showed enhanced tolerance to anthracene compared to control plants. Remediation of 14 C uniformly labeled anthracene from solutions and soil by transgenic tobacco plants was higher compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants (T 0 and T 1 ) degraded anthracene to naphthalene derivatives, while no such degradation was observed in wild-type plants. The present work has shown that in planta expression of a fungal GST in tobacco imparted enhanced tolerance as well as higher remediation potential of anthracene compared to wild-type plants.

  2. Transgenic maize plants expressing the Totivirus antifungal protein, KP4, are highly resistant to corn smut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Aron; Islamovic, Emir; Kaur, Jagdeep; Gold, Scott; Shah, Dilip; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-10-01

    The corn smut fungus, Ustilago maydis, is a global pathogen responsible for extensive agricultural losses. Control of corn smut using traditional breeding has met with limited success because natural resistance to U. maydis is organ specific and involves numerous maize genes. Here, we present a transgenic approach by constitutively expressing the Totivirus antifungal protein KP4, in maize. Transgenic maize plants expressed high levels of KP4 with no apparent negative impact on plant development and displayed robust resistance to U. maydis challenges to both the stem and ear tissues in the greenhouse. More broadly, these results demonstrate that a high level of organ independent fungal resistance can be afforded by transgenic expression of this family of antifungal proteins. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Ubiquitin fusion expression and tissue-dependent targeting of hG-CSF in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is an important human cytokine which has been widely used in oncology and infection protection. To satisfy clinical needs, expression of recombinant hG-CSF has been studied in several organisms, including rice cell suspension culture and transient expression in tobacco leaves, but there was no published report on its expression in stably transformed plants which can serve as a more economical expression platform with potential industrial application. Results In this study, hG-CSF expression was investigated in transgenic tobacco leaves and seeds in which the accumulation of hG-CSF could be enhanced through fusion with ubiquitin by up to 7 fold in leaves and 2 fold in seeds, leading to an accumulation level of 2.5 mg/g total soluble protein (TSP) in leaves and 1.3 mg/g TSP in seeds, relative to hG-CSF expressed without a fusion partner. Immunoblot analysis showed that ubiquitin was processed from the final protein product, and ubiquitination was up-regulated in all transgenic plants analyzed. Driven by CaMV 35S promoter and phaseolin signal peptide, hG-CSF was observed to be secreted into apoplast in leaves but deposited in protein storage vacuole (PSV) in seeds, indicating that targeting of the hG-CSF was tissue-dependent in transgenic tobacco. Bioactivity assay showed that hG-CSF expressed in both seeds and leaves was bioactive to support the proliferation of NFS-60 cells. Conclusions In this study, the expression of bioactive hG-CSF in transgenic plants was improved through ubiquitin fusion strategy, demonstrating that protein expression can be enhanced in both plant leaves and seeds through fusion with ubiquitin and providing a typical case of tissue-dependent expression of recombinant protein in transgenic plants. PMID:21985646

  4. Effect of 5'-flanking sequence deletions on expression of the human insulin gene in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromont-Racine, M; Bucchini, D; Madsen, O

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the human insulin gene was examined in transgenic mouse lines carrying the gene with various lengths of DNA sequences 5' to the transcription start site (+1). Expression of the transgene was demonstrated by 1) the presence of human C-peptide in urine, 2) the presence of specific......, and -168 allowed correct initiation of the transcripts and cell specificity of expression, while quantitative expression gradually decreased. Deletion to -58 completely abolished the expression of the gene. The amount of human product that in mice harboring the longest fragment contributes up to 50......% of the total insulin does not alter the normal proportion of mice insulins I and II. These results suggest that expression of the human insulin gene in vivo results from the cooperation of several cis-regulatory elements present in the various deleted fragments. With none of the deletions used, expression...

  5. Development of virus resistant transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Júnior, Manoel T.; Nickel, Osmar; Gonsalves, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficien...

  6. Simultaneous tracking of movement and gene expression in multiple Drosophila melanogaster flies using GFP and DsRED fluorescent reporter transgenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavaré Simon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescent proteins such as GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein and DsRED (Discosoma sp.Red Fluorescent Protein are often used as reporter molecules for transgene expression in Drosophila and other species. We have recently reported methods that allow simultaneous tracking of animal movement and GFP expression in real time, however the assay was limited to single animals and a single transgene. Numerous studies would be facilitated by methods that allow for assay of multiple animals and multiple transgenes. Findings Here we report an improved fly video tracking system that allows multiple transgenic flies to be tracked simultaneously using visible light, GFP fluorescence and DsRED fluorescence. The movement of multiple flies could be accurately tracked at real time rates, while simultaneously assaying the expression level of two different transgenes marked with GFP and DsRED. The individual flies could be accurately tracked and distinguished even during periods when transgene fluorescence was undetected. For example, characteristic patterns of hsp70 and hsp22 transgene induction could be simultaneously quantified and correlated with animal movement in aging flies, and as groups of flies died due to dessication/starvation. Conclusion The improved methods allow for more efficient assay of the correlation between gene expression, behavior, aging and mortality: multiple animals can be assayed with simultaneous quantification of multiple transgenes using GFP and DsRED fluorescence. These methods should allow for increased flexibility in experimental designs. For example, in the future it should be possible to use gene expression levels to predict remaining life span more accurately, and to quantify gene expression changes caused by interactions between animals in real time.

  7. EXPRESSION OF CHITINASE GENE IN TRANSGENIC RAPE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Longdou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypocotyl and cotyledon of Brassica napus L. H165 and Brassica juncea DB3 were transformed with chitinase gene and herbicide-resistance gene by co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefacients LBA4404, and rape plants were obtained which could grow on the medium containing herbicide. The PCR result showed that exotic genes were integrated in the genome of the rape. Further study was performed to determine the impact of temperature on the transgenic rate and the differentiation of explants.

  8. Immunoglobulin gene expression and regulation of rearrangement in kappa transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Transgenic mice were produced by microinjection of the functionally rearranged immunoglobulin kappa gene from the myeloma MOPC-21 into the male pronucleus of fertilized mouse eggs, and implantation of the microinjected embryos into foster mothers. Mice that integrated the injected gene were detected by hybridizing tail DNA dots with radioactively labelled pBR322 plasmid DNA, which detects pBR322 sequences left as a tag on the microinjected DNA. Mice that integrated the injected gene (six males) were mated and the DNA, RNA and serum kappa chains of their offspring were analyzed. A rabbit anti-mouse kappa chain antiserum was also produced for use in detection of mouse kappa chains on protein blots. Hybridomas were produced from the spleen cells of these kappa transgenic mice to immortalize representative B cells and to investigate expression of the transgenic kappa gene, its effect on allelic exclusion, and its effect on the control of light chain gene rearrangement and expression. The results show that the microinjected DNA is integrated as concatamers in unique single or, rarely, two separate sites in the genome. The concatamers are composed of several copies (16 to 64) of injected DNA arranged in a head to tail fashion. The transgene is expressed into protein normally and in a tissue specific fashion. For the first time in these transgenic mice, all tissues contain a functionally rearranged and potentially expressible immunoglobulin gene. The transgene is expressed only in B cells and not in hepatocytes, for example. This indicates that rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes is necessary but not sufficient for the tissue specific expression of these genes by B cells

  9. Nuclear Expression of a Mitochondrial DNA Gene: Mitochondrial Targeting of Allotopically Expressed Mutant ATP6 in Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Dunn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear encoding of mitochondrial DNA transgenes followed by mitochondrial targeting of the expressed proteins (allotopic expression; AE represents a potentially powerful strategy for creating animal models of mtDNA disease. Mice were created that allotopically express either a mutant (A6M or wildtype (A6W mt-Atp6 transgene. Compared to non-transgenic controls, A6M mice displayed neuromuscular and motor deficiencies (wire hang, pole, and balance beam analyses; P0.05. This study illustrates a mouse model capable of circumventing in vivo mitochondrial mutations. Moreover, it provides evidence supporting AE as a tool for mtDNA disease research with implications in development of DNA-based therapeutics.

  10. Nuclear expression of a mitochondrial DNA gene: mitochondrial targeting of allotopically expressed mutant ATP6 in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, David A; Pinkert, Carl A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear encoding of mitochondrial DNA transgenes followed by mitochondrial targeting of the expressed proteins (allotopic expression; AE) represents a potentially powerful strategy for creating animal models of mtDNA disease. Mice were created that allotopically express either a mutant (A6M) or wildtype (A6W) mt-Atp6 transgene. Compared to non-transgenic controls, A6M mice displayed neuromuscular and motor deficiencies (wire hang, pole, and balance beam analyses; P 0.05). This study illustrates a mouse model capable of circumventing in vivo mitochondrial mutations. Moreover, it provides evidence supporting AE as a tool for mtDNA disease research with implications in development of DNA-based therapeutics.

  11. Ecdysone Receptor-based Singular Gene Switches for Regulated Transgene Expression in Cells and Adult Rodent Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoghyun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled gene expression is an indispensable technique in biomedical research. Here, we report a convenient, straightforward, and reliable way to induce expression of a gene of interest with negligible background expression compared to the most widely used tetracycline (Tet-regulated system. Exploiting a Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR-based gene regulatory system, we generated nonviral and adenoviral singular vectors designated as pEUI(+ and pENTR-EUI, respectively, which contain all the required elements to guarantee regulated transgene expression (GAL4-miniVP16-EcR, termed GvEcR hereafter, and 10 tandem repeats of an upstream activation sequence promoter followed by a multiple cloning site. Through the transient and stable transfection of mammalian cell lines with reporter genes, we validated that tebufenozide, an ecdysone agonist, reversibly induced gene expression, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with negligible background expression. In addition, we created an adenovirus derived from the pENTR-EUI vector that readily infected not only cultured cells but also rodent tissues and was sensitive to tebufenozide treatment for regulated transgene expression. These results suggest that EcR-based singular gene regulatory switches would be convenient tools for the induction of gene expression in cells and tissues in a tightly controlled fashion.

  12. Transgenic rice plants expressing a Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene are resistant to diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H J; Lee, S B; Chung, J S; Han, S U; Han, O; Guh, J O; Jeon, J S; An, G; Back, K

    2000-06-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox), the penultimate step enzyme of the branch point for the biosynthetic pathway of Chl and hemes, is the target site of action of diphenyl ether (DPE) herbicides. However, Bacillus subtilis Protox is known to be resistant to the herbicides. In order to develop the herbicide-resistant plants, the transgenic rice plants were generated via expression of B. subtilis Protox gene under ubiquitin promoter targeted to the cytoplasm or to the plastid using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. The integration and expression of the transgene were investigated at T0 generation by DNA and RNA blots. Most transgenic rice plants revealed one copy transgene insertion into the rice genome, but some with 3 copies. The expression levels of B. subtilis Protox mRNA appeared to correlate with the copy number. Furthermore, the plastidal transgenic lines exhibited much higher expression of the Protox mRNA than the cytoplasmic transgenic lines. The transgenic plants expressing the B. subtilis Protox gene at T0 generation were found to be resistant to oxyfluorfen when judged by cellular damage with respect to cellular leakage, Chl loss, and lipid peroxidation. The transgenic rice plants targeted to the plastid exhibited higher resistance to the herbicide than the transgenic plants targeted to the cytoplasm. In addition, possible resistance mechanisms in the transgenic plants to DPE herbicides are discussed.

  13. Novel recombinant adeno-associated viruses for Cre activated and inactivated transgene expression in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpiar eSaunders

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the organization of the nervous system requires methods for dissecting the contributions of each component cell type to circuit function. One widely used approach combines genetic targeting of Cre recombinase to specific cell populations with infection of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs whose transgene expression is activated by Cre (Cre-On. Distinguishing how the Cre-expressing neurons differ functionally from neighboring Cre-negative neurons requires rAAVs that are inactivated by Cre (Cre-Off and can be used in tandem with Cre-On viruses. Here we introduce two rAAV vectors that are inactivated by Cre and carry different fluorophore and optogenetic constructs. We demonstrate single and dual rAAV systems to achieve Cre-On and Cre-Off expression in spatially-intermingled cell populations of the striatum. Using these systems, we uncovered cryptic genomic interactions that occur between multiple Cre-sensitive rAAVs or between Cre-sensitive rAAVs and somatic Cre-conditional alleles and devised methods to avoid these interactions. Our data highlight both important experimental caveats associated with Cre-dependent rAAV use as well as opportunities for the development of improved rAAVs for gene delivery.

  14. Novel recombinant adeno-associated viruses for Cre activated and inactivated transgene expression in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Arpiar; Johnson, Caroline A.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the organization of the nervous system requires methods for dissecting the contributions of each component cell type to circuit function. One widely used approach combines genetic targeting of Cre recombinase to specific cell populations with infection of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) whose transgene expression is activated by Cre (“Cre-On”). Distinguishing how the Cre-expressing neurons differ functionally from neighboring Cre-negative neurons requires rAAVs that are inactivated by Cre (“Cre-Off”) and can be used in tandem with Cre-On viruses. Here we introduce two rAAV vectors that are inactivated by Cre and carry different fluorophore and optogenetic constructs. We demonstrate single and dual rAAV systems to achieve Cre-On and Cre-Off expression in spatially-intermingled cell populations of the striatum. Using these systems, we uncovered cryptic genomic interactions that occur between multiple Cre-sensitive rAAVs or between Cre-sensitive rAAVs and somatic Cre-conditional alleles and devised methods to avoid these interactions. Our data highlight both important experimental caveats associated with Cre-dependent rAAV use as well as opportunities for the development of improved rAAVs for gene delivery. PMID:22866029

  15. Characterization of bioactive recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of cloned transgenic cattle.

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    Bin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale.

  16. Characterization of bioactive recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of cloned transgenic cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Jianwu; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yufang; Guo, Chengdong; Yang, Penghua; Yu, Tian; Li, Rong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2011-03-16

    There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences. Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale.

  17. BAC-Dkk3-EGFP Transgenic Mouse: An In Vivo Analytical Tool for Dkk3 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Muranishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dickkopf (DKK family proteins are secreted modulators of the Wnt signaling pathway and are capable of regulating the development of many organs and tissues. We previously identified Dkk3 to be a molecule predominantly expressed in the mouse embryonic retina. However, which cell expresses Dkk3 in the developing and mature mouse retina remains to be elucidated. To examine the precise expression of the Dkk3 protein, we generated BAC-Dkk3-EGFP transgenic mice that express EGFP integrated into the Dkk3 gene in a BAC plasmid. Expression analysis using the BAC-Dkk3-EGFP transgenic mice revealed that Dkk3 is expressed in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs at embryonic stages and in Müller glial cells in the adult retina. Since Müller glial cells may play a potential role in retinal regeneration, BAC-Dkk3-EGFP mice could be useful for retinal regeneration studies.

  18. Transgenic expression of the human growth hormone minigene promotes pancreatic β-cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, Mieke; Kibbe, Carly R.; Bushkofsky, Justin R.; Harris, Ted W.; Sherman, Dawn S.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models are designed to study the role of specific proteins. To increase transgene expression the human growth hormone (hGH) minigene, including introns, has been included in many transgenic constructs. Until recently, it was thought that the hGH gene was not spliced, transcribed, and translated to produce functional hGH protein. We generated a transgenic mouse with the transcription factor Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) followed by the hGH minigene, under control of the mouse insulin promoter (MIP) to target expression specifically in the pancreatic β-cell. Expression of FoxM1 in isolated pancreatic islets in vitro stimulates β-cell proliferation. We aimed to investigate the effect of FoxM1 on β-cell mass in a mouse model for diabetes mellitus. However, we found inadvertent coexpression of hGH protein from a spliced, bicistronic mRNA. MIP-FoxM1-hGH mice had lower blood glucose and higher pancreatic insulin content, due to increased β-cell proliferation. hGH signals through the murine prolactin receptor, and expression of its downstream targets tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph1), tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), and cytokine-inducible SH2 containing protein (Cish) was increased. Conversely, transcriptional targets of FoxM1 were not upregulated. Our data suggest that the phenotype of MIP-FoxM1-hGH mice is due primarily to hGH activity and that the FoxM1 protein remains largely inactive. Over the past decades, multiple transgenic mouse strains were generated that make use of the hGH minigene to increase transgene expression. Our work suggests that each will need to be carefully screened for inadvertent hGH production and critically evaluated for the use of proper controls. PMID:26202070

  19. Elevated production of melatonin in transgenic rice seeds expressing rice tryptophan decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Yeong; Park, Sangkyu; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Kim, Young-Soon; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-04-01

    A major goal of plant biotechnology is to improve the nutritional qualities of crop plants through metabolic engineering. Melatonin is a well-known bioactive molecule with an array of health-promoting properties, including potent antioxidant capability. To generate melatonin-rich rice plants, we first independently overexpressed three tryptophan decarboxylase isogenes in the rice genome. Melatonin levels were altered in the transgenic lines through overexpression of TDC1, TDC2, and TDC3; TDC3 transgenic seed (TDC3-1) had melatonin concentrations 31-fold higher than those of wild-type seeds. In TDC3 transgenic seedlings, however, only a doubling of melatonin content occurred over wild-type levels. Thus, a seed-specific accumulation of melatonin appears to occur in TDC3 transgenic lines. In addition to increased melatonin content, TDC3 transgenic lines also had enhanced levels of melatonin intermediates including 5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptamine, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin. In contrast, expression levels of melatonin biosynthetic mRNA did not increase in TDC3 transgenic lines, indicating that increases in melatonin and its intermediates in these lines are attributable exclusively to overexpression of the TDC3 gene. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Intracerebral transplants of primary muscle cells: a potential 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S.; Schultz, E.; Wolff, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    After the transplantation of rat primary muscle cells into the caudate or cortex of recipient rats, the muscle cells were able to persist for at least 6 months. Muscle cells transfected with expression plasmids prior to transplantation were able to express reporter genes in the brains for at least 2 months. These results suggest that muscle cells might be a useful 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain.

  1. The antioxidative defense system is involved in the premature senescence in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum NC89

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    Yu Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: α-Farnesene is a volatile sesquiterpene synthesized by the plant mevalonate (MVA pathway through the action of α-farnesene synthase. The α-farnesene synthase 1 (MdAFS1 gene was isolated from apple peel (var. white winterpearmain, and transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum NC89. The transgenic plants had faster stem elongation during vegetative growth and earlier flowering than wild type (WT. Our studies focused on the transgenic tobacco phenotype. RESULTS: The levels of chlorophyll and soluble protein decreased and a lower seed biomass and reduced net photosynthetic rate (Pn in transgenic plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radicals (O2._ had higher levels in transgenics compared to controls. Transgenic plants also had enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress. The transcriptome of 8-week-old plants was studied to detect molecular changes. Differentially expressed unigene analysis showed that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, cell growth, and death unigenes were upregulated. Unigenes related to photosynthesis, antioxidant activity, and nitrogen metabolism were downregulated. Combined with the expression analysis of senescence marker genes, these results indicate that senescence started in the leaves of the transgenic plants at the vegetative growth stage. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidative defense system was compromised and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS played an important role in the premature aging of transgenic plants.

  2. Paraquat resistance of transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the Ochrobactrum anthropi pqrA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jinki; Won, Sung-Hye; Son, Daeyoung; Lee, Byung-Hyun

    2004-09-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the Ochrobactrum anthropi pqrA gene, which encodes a membrane transporter mediating resistance to paraquat, were generated. Transgenic plants displayed higher resistance against paraquat than wild-type plants, as estimated by plant viability, ion leakage and chlorophyll loss, but no resistance against other active oxygen generators, such as H2O2 and menadione. Moreover, lower levels of paraquat accumulated in transgenic plants, compared to wild-type plants, indicating that the PqrA protein detoxifies paraquat either via increased efflux or decreased uptake of the herbicide, but not by removing active oxygen species. The results collectively demonstrate that the bacterial paraquat resistance gene, pqrA, can be functionally expressed in plant cells, and utilized for the development of paraquat-resistant crop plants.

  3. Nestin Reporter Transgene Labels Multiple Central Nervous System Precursor Cells

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    Avery S. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic neuroepithelia and adult subventricular zone (SVZ stem and progenitor cells express nestin. We characterized a transgenic line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP specified to neural tissue by the second intronic enhancer of the nestin promoter that had several novel features. During embryogenesis, the dorsal telencephalon contained many and the ventral telencephalon few eGFP+ cells. eGFP+ cells were found in postnatal and adult neurogenic regions. eGFP+ cells in the SVZ expressed multiple phenotype markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein, Dlx, and neuroblast-specific molecules suggesting the transgene is expressed through the lineage. eGFP+ cell numbers increased in the SVZ after cortical injury, suggesting this line will be useful in probing postinjury neurogenesis. In non-neurogenic regions, eGFP was strongly expressed in oligodendrocyte progenitors, but not in astrocytes, even when they were reactive. This eGFP+ mouse will facilitate studies of proliferative neuroepithelia and adult neurogenesis, as well as of parenchymal oligodendrocytes.

  4. Dispersal of Transgenes through Maize Seed Systems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, George A.; Serratos-Hernández, J. Antonio; Perales, Hugo R.; Gepts, Paul; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Chávez, Angeles; Salinas-Arreortua, Noé; Yúnez-Naude, Antonio; Taylor, J. Edward; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Current models of transgene dispersal focus on gene flow via pollen while neglecting seed, a vital vehicle for gene flow in centers of crop origin and diversity. We analyze the dispersal of maize transgenes via seeds in Mexico, the crop's cradle. Methods We use immunoassays (ELISA) to screen for the activity of recombinant proteins in a nationwide sample of farmer seed stocks. We estimate critical parameters of seed population dynamics using household survey data and combine these estimates with analytical results to examine presumed sources and mechanisms of dispersal. Results Recombinant proteins Cry1Ab/Ac and CP4/EPSPS were found in 3.1% and 1.8% of samples, respectively. They are most abundant in southeast Mexico but also present in the west-central region. Diffusion of seed and grain imported from the United States might explain the frequency and distribution of transgenes in west-central Mexico but not in the southeast. Conclusions Understanding the potential for transgene survival and dispersal should help design methods to regulate the diffusion of germplasm into local seed stocks. Further research is needed on the interactions between formal and informal seed systems and grain markets in centers of crop origin and diversification. PMID:19503610

  5. Co-expression of NCED and ALO improves vitamin C level and tolerance to drought and chilling in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Gegen; Zhuo, Chunliu; Qian, Chunmei; Xiao, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant adaptive responses to various environmental stresses, while L-ascorbic acid (AsA) that is also named vitamin C is an important antioxidant and involves in plant stress tolerance and the immune system in domestic animals. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and stylo [Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet) Swartz], a forage legume, plants co-expressing stylo 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SgNCED1) and yeast D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (ALO) genes were generated in this study, and tolerance to drought and chilling was analysed in comparison with transgenic tobacco overexpressing SgNCED1 or ALO and the wild-type plants. Compared to the SgNCED1 or ALO transgenic plants, in which only ABA or AsA levels were increased, both ABA and AsA levels were increased in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants co-expressing SgNCED1 and ALO genes. Compared to the wild type, an enhanced drought tolerance was observed in SgNCED1 transgenic tobacco plants with induced expression of drought-responsive genes, but not in ALO plants, while an enhanced chilling tolerance was observed in ALO transgenic tobaccos with induced expression of cold-responsive genes, but not in SgNCED1 plants. Co-expression of SgNCED1 and ALO genes resulted in elevated tolerance to both drought and chilling in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants with induced expression of both drought and cold-responsive genes. Our result suggests that co-expression of SgNCED1 and ALO genes is an effective way for use in forage plant improvement for increased tolerance to drought and chilling and nutrition quality. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Expression of the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene in transgenic potato plants confers resistance to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Xue; Yan, Haolu; Liang, Lina; Zhou, Xiangyan; Yang, Jiangwei; Si, Huaijun; Zhang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Aphids, the largest group of sap-sucking pests, cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide every year. The massive use of pesticides to combat this pest causes severe damage to the environment, putting in risk the human health. In this study, transgenic potato plants expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene were developed using CaMV 35S and ST-LS1 promoters generating six transgenic lines (35S1-35S3 and ST1-ST3 corresponding to the first and second promoter, respectively). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the GNA gene was expressed in leaves, stems and roots of transgenic plants under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, while it was only expressed in leaves and stems under the control of the ST-LS1 promoter. The levels of aphid mortality after 5 days of the inoculation in the assessed transgenic lines ranged from 20 to 53.3%. The range of the aphid population in transgenic plants 15 days after inoculation was between 17.0±1.43 (ST2) and 36.6±0.99 (35S3) aphids per plant, which corresponds to 24.9-53.5% of the aphid population in non-transformed plants. The results of our study suggest that GNA expressed in transgenic potato plants confers a potential tolerance to aphid attack, which appears to be an alternative against the use of pesticides in the future. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel Strategy to Control Transgene Expression Mediated by a Sendai Virus-Based Vector Using a Nonstructural C Protein and Endogenous MicroRNAs.

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    Masayuki Sano

    Full Text Available Tissue-specific control of gene expression is an invaluable tool for studying various biological processes and medical applications. Efficient regulatory systems have been utilized to control transgene expression in various types of DNA viral or integrating viral vectors. However, existing regulatory systems are difficult to transfer into negative-strand RNA virus vector platforms because of significant differences in their transcriptional machineries. In this study, we developed a novel strategy for regulating transgene expression mediated by a cytoplasmic RNA vector based on a replication-defective and persistent Sendai virus (SeVdp. Because of the capacity of Sendai virus (SeV nonstructural C proteins to specifically inhibit viral RNA synthesis, overexpression of C protein significantly reduced transgene expression mediated by SeVdp vectors. We found that SeV C overexpression concomitantly reduced SeVdp mRNA levels and genomic RNA synthesis. To control C expression, target sequences for an endogenous microRNA were incorporated into the 3' untranslated region of the C genes. Incorporation of target sequences for miR-21 into the SeVdp vector restored transgene expression in HeLa cells by decreasing C expression. Furthermore, the SeVdp vector containing target sequences for let-7a enabled cell-specific control of transgene expression in human fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cells. Our findings demonstrate that SeV C can be used as an effective regulator for controlling transgene expression. This strategy will contribute to efficient and less toxic SeVdp-mediated gene transfer in various biological applications.

  8. Phenotypic characterization of transgenic Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) that express a red fluorescent protein in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Law, J Mac; Hinton, David E; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic organisms that express fluorescent proteins are used frequently for in vivo visualization of proteins and cells. The phenotype of a transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain that expresses a red fluorescent protein (RFP) in hepatocytes was characterized using light and fluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Expression of RFP was first detected by confocal fluorescence microscopy in the location of the liver bud of live medaka embryos at 60 hr postfertilization (developmental stage 27). Subsequently, RFP signal was observed exclusively in hepatocytes throughout life using fluorescence microscopy in live fish and immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver sections. As the fish aged, prominent intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions immunoreactive for RFP were observed by light microscopy and were correlated with membrane-bound electron dense inclusions on TEM. These results define the onset and location of RFP expression in the Tg(zf.L-fabp:DsRed) medaka and characterize a histologic phenotype that results from RFP expression in hepatocytes.

  9. Fitness aspects of transgenic Aedes fluviatilis mosquitoes expressing a Plasmodium-blocking molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maíra N; Nogueira, Paula M; Dias, Fernando B S; Valle, Denise; Moreira, Luciano A

    2010-12-01

    Vector-born diseases cause millions of deaths every year globally. Alternatives for the control of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever are urgently needed and the use of transgenic mosquitoes that block parasite/virus is a sound strategy to be used within control programs. However, prior to use transgenic mosquitoes as control tools, it is important to study their fitness since different biological aspects might influence their ability to disseminate and compete with wild populations. We previously reported the construction of four transgenic Aedes fluviatilis mosquito lines expressing a Plasmodium- blocking molecule (mutated bee venom phospholipase A(2)-mPLA(2)). Presently we studied two aspects of their fitness: body size, that has been used as a fitness-related status, and the expression of major enzymes classes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, including insecticides. Body size analysis (recorded by geometric wing morphometrics) indicated that both male and female mosquitoes were larger than the non-transgenic counterparts, suggesting that this characteristic might have an impact on their overall fitness. By contrast, no significant difference in the activity of enzymes related to metabolic insecticide resistance was detected in transgenic mosquitoes. The implication on fitness advantage of these features, towards the implementation of this strategy, is further discussed.

  10. Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants expressing a fungal copper transporter gene show enhanced acquisition of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Korripally, Premsagar; Vancheeswaran, Ramachandran; Eapen, Susan

    2011-10-01

    The diets of two-thirds of the world's population are deficient in one or more essential elements and one of the approaches to enhance the levels of mineral elements in food crops is by developing plants with ability to accumulate them in edible parts. Besides conventional methods, transgenic technology can be used for enhancing metal acquisition in plants. Copper is an essential element, which is often deficient in human diet. With the objective of developing plants with improved copper acquisition, a high-affinity copper transporter gene (tcu-1) was cloned from fungus Neurospora crassa and introduced into a model plant (Nicotiana tabacum). Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. Transgenic tobacco plants (T(0) and T(1)) expressing tcu-1, when grown in hydroponic medium spiked with different concentrations of copper, showed higher acquisition of copper (up to 3.1 times) compared with control plants. Transgenic plants grown in soil spiked with copper could also take up more copper compared with wild-type plants. Supplementation of other divalent cations such as Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) did not alter uptake of Cu by transgenic plants. The present study has shown that expression of a heterologous copper transporter in tobacco could enhance acquisition of copper.

  11. Transgenic Expression of ZBP1 in Neurons Suppresses Cocaine-Associated Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Kyle A. B.; Nwokafor, Chiso; Scott, Daniel; Baroni, Timothy E.; Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Hiroi, Noboru; Singer, Robert H.; Czaplinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    To directly address whether regulating mRNA localization can influence animal behavior, we created transgenic mice that conditionally express Zipcode Binding Protein 1 (ZBP1) in a subset of neurons in the brain. ZBP1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the localization, as well as translation and stability of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. We…

  12. Increased liver pathology in hepatitis C virus transgenic mice expressing the hepatitis B virus X protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keasler, Victor V.; Lerat, Herve; Madden, Charles R.; Finegold, Milton J.; McGarvey, Michael J.; Mohammed, Essam M.A.; Forbes, Stuart J.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Hadsell, Darryl L.; Grona, Shala J.; Hollinger, F. Blaine; Slagle, Betty L.

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the full-length HCV coding sequence were crossed with mice that express the HBV X gene-encoded regulatory protein HBx (ATX mice) to test the hypothesis that HBx expression accelerates HCV-induced liver pathogenesis. At 16 months (mo) of age, hepatocellular carcinoma was identified in 21% of HCV/ATX mice, but in none of the single transgenic animals. Analysis of 8-mo animals revealed that, relative to HCV/WT mice, HCV/ATX mice had more severe steatosis, greater liver-to-body weight ratios, and a significant increase in the percentage of hepatocytes staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Furthermore, primary hepatocytes from HCV, ATX, and HCV/ATX transgenic mice were more resistant to fas-mediated apoptosis than hepatocytes from nontransgenic littermates. These results indicate that HBx expression contributes to increased liver pathogenesis in HCV transgenic mice by a mechanism that involves an imbalance in hepatocyte death and regeneration within the context of severe steatosis

  13. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica oleracea var. acephala show enhanced tolerance to water stress ... Plant Biotechnology Research Center, Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R & D Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, ...

  14. Targeted expression of nuclear transgenes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a versatile, modular vector toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauersen, Kyle J; Kruse, Olaf; Mussgnug, Jan H

    2015-04-01

    We present a versatile vector toolkit for nuclear transgene expression in the model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The vector was designed in a modular fashion which allows quick replacement of regulatory elements and genes of interest. The current toolkit comprises two antibiotic resistance markers (paromomycin and hygromycin B), five codon-optimized light emission reporters, including the Gaussia princeps luciferase, as well as bright cyan, green, yellow, and red fluorescent protein variants. The system has demonstrated robust functional flexibility with signal options to target the protein of interest to the cytoplasm, the nucleus, cellular microbodies, the chloroplast, mitochondria, or via the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus secretory pathway into the culture medium. Successful fluorescent reporter protein fusion to C. reinhardtii Rubisco small subunit 1 was accomplished with this system. Localization of the fluorescently tagged protein was observed in the chloroplast pyrenoid via live cell fluorescence microscopy, the first report of heterologous protein localization to this cellular structure. The functionalities of the vector toolkit, the individual modular elements, as well as several combinations thereof are demonstrated in this manuscript. Due to its strategic design, this vector system can quickly be adapted to individual tasks and should therefore be of great use to address specific scientific questions requiring nuclear recombinant protein expression in C. reinhardtii.

  15. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic soybean expressing the Arabidopsis ferric chelate reductase gene, FRO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marta; Eckert, Helene; Arahana, Venancio; Graef, George; Grusak, Michael A; Clemente, Tom

    2006-10-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) production is reduced under iron-limiting calcareous soils throughout the upper Midwest regions of the US. Like other dicotyledonous plants, soybean responds to iron-limiting environments by induction of an active proton pump, a ferric iron reductase and an iron transporter. Here we demonstrate that heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana ferric chelate reductase gene, FRO2, in transgenic soybean significantly enhances Fe(+3) reduction in roots and leaves. Root ferric reductase activity was up to tenfold higher in transgenic plants and was not subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. In leaves, reductase activity was threefold higher in the transgenic plants when compared to control. The enhanced ferric reductase activity led to reduced chlorosis, increased chlorophyll concentration and a lessening in biomass loss in the transgenic events between Fe treatments as compared to control plants grown under hydroponics that mimicked Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soil environments. However, the data indicate that constitutive FRO2 expression under non-iron stress conditions may lead to a decrease in plant productivity as reflected by reduced biomass accumulation in the transgenic events under non-iron stress conditions. When grown at Fe(III)-EDDHA levels greater than 10 microM, iron concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly higher than control. The same observation was found in the roots in plants grown at iron levels higher than 32 microM Fe(III)-EDDHA. These results suggest that heterologous expression of an iron chelate reductase in soybean can provide a route to alleviate iron deficiency chlorosis.

  16. Transgene expression patterns indicate that spaceflight affects stress signal perception and transduction in arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A. L.; Daugherty, C. J.; Bihn, E. A.; Chapman, D. K.; Norwood, K. L.; Ferl, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    The use of plants as integral components of life support systems remains a cornerstone of strategies for long-term human habitation of space and extraterrestrial colonization. Spaceflight experiments over the past few decades have refined the hardware required to grow plants in low-earth orbit and have illuminated fundamental issues regarding spaceflight effects on plant growth and development. Potential incipient hypoxia, resulting from the lack of convection-driven gas movement, has emerged as a possible major impact of microgravity. We developed transgenic Arabidopsis containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces the plant hypoxia response and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. The staining patterns resulting from a 5-d mission on the orbiter Columbia during mission STS-93 indicate that the Adh/GUS reporter gene was activated in roots during the flight. However, the patterns of expression were not identical to terrestrial control inductions. Moreover, although terrestrial hypoxia induces Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex, no apex staining was observed in the spaceflight plants. This indicates that either the normal hypoxia response signaling is impaired in spaceflight or that spaceflight inappropriately induces Adh/GUS activity for reasons other than hypoxia.

  17. Transgenic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) causes premature aging phenotypes in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingxiao; Field, Kevin; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Shim, Minsub

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostanoids, lipid signaling molecules that regulate various physiological processes. COX2, one of the isoforms of COX, is highly inducible in response to a wide variety of cellular and environmental stresses. Increased COX2 expression is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. COX2 expression is also reported to be increased in the tissues of aged humans and mice, which suggests the involvement of COX2 in the aging process. However, it is not clear whether the increased COX2 expression is causal to or a result of aging. We have now addressed this question by creating an inducible COX2 transgenic mouse model. Here we show that post-natal expression of COX2 led to a panel of aging-related phenotypes. The expression of p16, p53, and phospho-H2AX was increased in the tissues of COX2 transgenic mice. Additionally, adult mouse lung fibroblasts from COX2 transgenic mice exhibited increased expression of the senescence-associated β-galactosidase. Our study reveals that the increased COX2 expression has an impact on the aging process and suggests that modulation of COX2 and its downstream signaling may be an approach for intervention of age-related disorders. PMID:27750221

  18. Beta-cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing a hybrid insulin gene-oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efrat, S; Linde, S; Kofod, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Three pancreatic beta-cell lines have been established from insulinomas derived from transgenic mice carrying a hybrid insulin-promoted simian virus 40 tumor antigen gene. The beta tumor cell (beta TC) lines maintain the features of differentiated beta cells for about 50 passages in culture...... by glucose, although with a lower threshold for maximal stimulation than that for normal beta cells. beta TC lines can be repeatedly derived from primary beta-cell tumors that heritably arise in the transgenic mice. Thus, targeted expression of an oncogene with a cell-specific regulatory element can be used...

  19. ChR2 transgenic animals in peripheral sensory system: Sensing light as various sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Since the introduction of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to neuroscience, optogenetics technology was developed, making it possible to activate specific neurons or circuits with spatial and temporal precision. Various ChR2 transgenic animal models have been generated and are playing important roles in revealing the mechanisms of neural activities, mapping neural circuits, controlling the behaviors of animals as well as exploring new strategy for treating the neurological diseases in both central and peripheral nervous system. An animal including humans senses environments through Aristotle's five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch). Usually, each sense is associated with a kind of sensory organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Is it possible that one could hear light, smell light, taste light and touch light? When ChR2 is targeted to different peripheral sensory neurons by viral vectors or generating ChR2 transgenic animals, the animals can sense the light as various sensations such as hearing, touch, pain, smell and taste. In this review, we focus on ChR2 transgenic animals in the peripheral nervous system. Firstly the working principle of ChR2 as an optogenetic actuator is simply described. Then the current transgenic animal lines where ChR2 was expressed in peripheral sensory neurons are presented and the findings obtained by these animal models are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optogenetic in vivo cell manipulation in KillerRed-expressing zebrafish transgenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidlovsky Konstantin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KillerRed (KR is a novel photosensitizer that efficiently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS in KR-expressing cells upon intense green or white light illumination in vitro, resulting in damage to their plasma membrane and cell death. Results We report an in vivo modification of this technique using a fluorescent microscope and membrane-tagged KR (mem-KR-expressing transgenic zebrafish. We generated several stable zebrafish Tol2 transposon-mediated enhancer-trap (ET transgenic lines expressing mem-KR (SqKR series, and mapped the transposon insertion sites. As mem-KR accumulates on the cell membrane and/or Golgi, it highlights cell bodies and extensions, and reveals details of cellular morphology. The photodynamic property of KR made it possible to damage cells expressing this protein in a dose-dependent manner. As a proof-of-principle, two zebrafish transgenic lines were used to affect cell viability and function: SqKR2 expresses mem-KR in the hindbrain rhombomeres 3 and 5, and elsewhere; SqKR15 expresses mem-KR in the heart and elsewhere. Photobleaching of KR by intense light in the heart of SqKR15 embryos at lower levels caused a reduction in pumping efficiency of the heart and pericardial edema and at higher levels - in cell death in the hindbrain of SqKR2 and in the heart of SqKR15 embryos. Conclusions An intense illumination of tissues expressing mem-KR affects cell viability and function in living zebrafish embryos. Hence, the zebrafish transgenics expressing mem-KR in a tissue-specific manner are useful tools for studying the biological effects of ROS.

  1. Green fluorescent protein transgene driven by Kit regulatory sequences is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cerisoli, Francesco; Cassinelli, Letizia; Lamorte, Giuseppe; Citterio, Stefania; Bertolotti, Francesca; Magli, Maria Cristina; Ottolenghi, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The expression of Kit in multiple types of stem cells suggests that common transcriptional programs might regulate this gene in different stem cells. In this work, the authors used mouse lines expressing transgenic green fluorescent protein under the control of Kit promoter/first intron regulatory elements. This study provides the basis for the elucidation of DNA sequences regulating a stem cell gene in multiple types of stem cells.

  2. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    OpenAIRE

    Uzoma eIhemere; Narayanan eNarayanan; Richard eSayre

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in l...

  3. Characterization of Bioactive Recombinant Human Lysozyme Expressed in Milk of Cloned Transgenic Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Jianwu; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yufang; Guo, Chengdong; Yang, Penghua; Yu, Tian; Li, Rong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study,...

  4. The constitutive expression of a two transgene construct enhances the abiotic stress tolerance of chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; An, Juan; Guan, Zhiyong; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Lou, Wanghuai; Fang, Weimin; Liu, Zhaolei; Chen, Sumei

    2014-07-01

    Various abiotic stresses downgrade the quality and productivity of chrysanthemum. A construct carrying both CcSOS1 (from Chrysanthemum crassum) and CdICE1 (from Chrysanthemum dichrum) was constitutively expressed in the chrysanthemum variety 'Jinba'. The transgenic plants were superior to the wild type (WT) ones with respect to their sensitivity to low temperature, drought and salinity, as measured by visible damage and plant survival. Salinity stressed transgenic plants accumulated more proline, and their level of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity was higher than in WT plants. At the physiological level, they suffered less loss of viable leaf area, maintained a lower leaf electrolyte conductivity and retained more chlorophyll (a+b). The ratio between the K(+) and Na(+) content was higher in the root, stem and median leaves of salinity stressed transgenic plants than in those of WT plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Mouse Interleukin-4 and -6 from Transgenic Rice Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yang, Lijun; Takaiwa, Fumio; Sekikawa, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic rice seed can be utilized as a bioreactor to produce high-value recombinant proteins. Mouse interleukin 4 (mIL-4) and mIL-6 were specifically expressed as secretory proteins in rice endosperm by ligating the N-terminal glutelin B-1 (GluB-1) signal peptide and the C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal under control of the endosperm-specific GluB-1 promoter. In the transgenic rice seed, mIL-4 and mIL-6 accumulated in levels up to 0.43 mg/g grain and 0.16 mg/g grain, respectively. The reducing agents and detergents required for extraction from the transgenic rice seeds differed between the two proteins, indicating differences in their intracellular localization within the endosperm cell. Purified mIL-4 and mIL-6 exhibited high activity and very low endotoxin contamination.

  6. The Q-System: A Versatile Expression System for Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabinina, Olena; Potter, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Binary expression systems are flexible and versatile genetic tools in Drosophila. The Q-system is a recently developed repressible binary expression system that offers new possibilities for transgene expression and genetic manipulations. In this review chapter, we focus on current state-of-the-art Q-system tools and reagents. We also discuss in vivo applications of the Q-system, together with GAL4/UAS and LexA/LexAop systems, for simultaneous expression of multiple effectors, intersectional labeling, and clonal analysis.

  7. Transgenic overexpression of BAFF regulates the expression of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GFP-2A-BAFF/His recombinant plasmid was constructed by inserting a 2A peptide between the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and BAFF sequences. Functional GFP and BAFF proteins were expressed separately and confirmed in HeLa cells.

  8. Expression of human coagulation Factor IX in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Lingxia; Chen, Yuhui; Cui, Lijie; Ren, Weiwei; Tang, Kexuan

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, a plant binary expression vector PG-pRD12-hFIX (where PG is polygalacturonase) harbouring the hFIX (human coagulation Factor IX) gene was constructed and introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After kanamycin selection, 32 putative independent transgenic tomato plants were regenerated. PCR and Southern-blot analyses confirmed the transgenic status of some plants. RT (reverse transcription)-PCR analysis for the expression of the introduced gene (hFIX) demonstrated that the hFIX gene was expressed specifically in fruits of the tomato. Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of a 56 kDa band specific to hFIX in the transformed tomatoes. ELISA results showed that the expression of hFIX protein reached a maximum of 15.84 ng/g fresh weight in mature fruit. A blood-clotting assay demonstrated the clotting activity of the expressed hFIX protein in transgenic tomato fruits. This is the first report on the expression of hFIX in plants, and our research provides potentially valuable knowledge for further development of the plant-derived therapeutic proteins.

  9. Transgenic mice with increased astrocyte expression of CCL2 show altered behavioral effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jennifer G; Roberts, Amanda J; Gruol, Donna L

    2017-06-23

    Emerging research provides strong evidence that activation of CNS glial cells occurs in neurological diseases and brain injury and results in elevated production of neuroimmune factors. These factors can contribute to pathophysiological processes that lead to altered CNS function. Recently, studies have also shown that both acute and chronic alcohol consumption can produce activation of CNS glial cells and the production of neuroimmune factors, particularly the chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). The consequences of alcohol-induced increases in CCL2 levels in the CNS have yet to be fully elucidated. Our studies focus on the hypothesis that increased levels of CCL2 in the CNS produce neuroadaptive changes that modify the actions of alcohol on the CNS. We utilized behavioral testing in transgenic mice that express elevated levels of CCL2 to test this hypothesis. The increased level of CCL2 in the transgenic mice involves increased astrocyte expression. Transgenic mice and their non-transgenic littermate controls were subjected to one of two alcohol exposure paradigms, a two-bottle choice alcohol drinking procedure that does not produce alcohol dependence or a chronic intermittent alcohol procedure that produces alcohol dependence. Several behavioral tests were carried out including the Barnes maze, Y-maze, cued and contextual conditioned fear test, light-dark transfer, and forced swim test. Comparisons between alcohol naïve, non-dependent, and alcohol-dependent CCL2 transgenic and non-transgenic mice show that elevated levels of CCL2 in the CNS interact with alcohol in tests for alcohol drinking, spatial learning, and associative learning. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stability and inheritance of endosperm-specific expression of two transgenes in progeny from crossing independently transformed barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hae-Woon; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Lemaux, Peggy G; Cho, Myeong-Je

    2009-08-01

    To study stability and inheritance of two different transgenes in barley, we crossed a homozygous T(8) plant, having uidA (or gus) driven by the barley endosperm-specific B(1)-hordein promoter (localized in the near centromeric region of chromosome 7H) with a second homozygous T(4) plant, having sgfp(S65T) driven by the barley endosperm-specific D-hordein promoter (localized on the subtelomeric region of chromosome 2H). Both lines stably expressed the two transgenes in the generations prior to the cross. Three independently crossed F(1) progeny were analyzed by PCR for both uidA and sgfp(S65T) in each plant and functional expression of GUS and GFP in F(2) seeds followed a 3:1 Mendelian segregation ratio and transgenes were localized by FISH to the same location as in the parental plants. FISH was used to screen F(2) plants for homozygosity of both transgenes; four homozygous plants were identified from the two crossed lines tested. FISH results showing presence of transgenes were consistent with segregation ratios of expression of both transgenes, indicating that the two transgenes were expressed without transgene silencing in homozygous progeny advanced to the F(3) and F(4) generations. Thus, even after crossing independently transformed, homozygous parental plants containing a single, stably expressed transgene, progeny were obtained that continued to express multiple transgenes through generation advance. Such stability of transgenes, following outcrossing, is an important attribute for trait modification and for gene flow studies.

  11. Tissue-specific posttranscriptional downregulation of expression of the S100A4(mts1) gene in transgenic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambartsumian, N; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grigorian, M

    1998-01-01

    and constitutive 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) gene promoter. In transgenic animals the expression of the transgene RNA was detected in all organs, but only some of the organs showed elevated levels of the protein. Expression of the S100A4(Mts1) protein was downregulated in the organs...... that normally do not express the gene in the wild-type animal. The transgene RNA is detected in the polysomes indicating that it could be translated into the S100A4(Mts1) protein. The specificity of the S100A4(Mts1) protein expression is determined by a complex mechanism including regulation of translation and...

  12. Expression of kenaf mitochondrial chimeric genes HM184 causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhong; Liao, Xiaofang; Huang, Zhipeng; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Bujin; Liu, Dongmei; Kong, Xiangjun; Zhou, Ruiyang

    2015-08-01

    Chimeric genes resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome were generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). In the study, earlier we reported that identifying a 47 bp deletion at 3'- flanking of atp9 that was linked to male sterile cytoplasm in kenaf. The truncated fragment was fused with atp9, a mitochondrial transit signal (MTS) and/or GFP, comprised two chimeric genes MTS-HM184-GFP and MTS-HM184. The plant expression vector pBI121 containing chimeric genes were then introduced to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transformation. The result showed that certain transgenic plants were male sterility or semi-sterility, while some were not. The expression analysis further demonstrated that higher level of expression were showed in the sterility plants, while no expression or less expression in fertility plants, the levels of expression of semi-sterility were in between. And the sterile plant (containing MTS-HM184-GFP) had abnormal anther produced malformed/shriveled pollen grains stained negative that failed to germinate (0%), the corresponding fruits was shrunken, the semi-sterile plants having normal anther shape produced about 10-50% normal pollen grains, the corresponding fruits were not full, and the germination rate was 58%. Meanwhile these transgenic plants which altered on fertility were further analyzed in phenotype. As a result, the metamorphosis leaves were observed in the seedling stage, the plant height of transgenic plants was shorter than wild type. The growth duration of transgenic tobacco was delayed 30-45 days compared to the wild type. The copy numbers of target genes of transgenic tobacco were analyzed using the real-time quantitative method. The results showed that these transgenic plants targeting-expression in mitochondrial containing MTS-HM184-GFP had 1 copy and 2 copies, the other two plants containing MTS-HM184 both had 3 copies, but 0 copy in wild type. In

  13. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana benthamiana L.) have been transformed with a T-DNA vector construct carrying the cDNA pBH6-301, encoding the major pathogen induced leaf peroxidase (Prx8) of barley, under control of an enhanced CaMV 35S promoter. Progeny from three independent transformants were analyzed...... genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...

  14. Transcription activator-like effector hybrids for conditional control and rewiring of chromosomal transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Moore, Richard; Guinn, Michael; Bleris, Leonidas

    2012-01-01

    The ability to conditionally rewire pathways in human cells holds great therapeutic potential. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of naturally occurring specific DNA binding proteins that can be used to introduce targeted genome modifications or control gene expression. Here we present TALE hybrids engineered to respond to endogenous signals and capable of controlling transgenes by applying a predetermined and tunable action at the single-cell level. Specifically, we first demonstrate that combinations of TALEs can be used to modulate the expression of stably integrated genes in kidney cells. We then introduce a general purpose two-hybrid approach that can be customized to regulate the function of any TALE either using effector molecules or a heterodimerization reaction. Finally, we demonstrate the successful interface of TALEs to specific endogenous signals, namely hypoxia signaling and microRNAs, essentially closing the loop between cellular information and chromosomal transgene expression.

  15. Expression of the human growth hormone variant gene in cultured fibroblasts and transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selden, R.F.; Wagner, T.E.; Blethen, S.; Yun, J.S.; Rowe, M.E.; Goodman, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the human growth hormone variant gene, one of the five members of the growth hormone gene family, predicts that it encodes a growth hormone-like protein. As a first step in determining whether this gene is functional in humans, the authors have expressed a mouse methallothionein I/human growth hormone variant fusion gene in mouse L cells and in transgenic mice. The growth hormone variant protein expressed in transiently transfected L cells is distinct from growth hormone itself with respect to reactivity with anti-growth hormone monoclonal antibodies, behavior during column chromatography, and isoelectric point. Transgenic mice expressing the growth hormone variant protein are 1.4- to 1.9-fold larger than nontransgenic controls, suggesting that the protein has growth-promoting properties

  16. Increased adenovirus Type 5 mediated transgene expression due to RhoB down-regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomira Majhen

    Full Text Available Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 is a non-enveloped DNA virus frequently used as a gene transfer vector. Efficient Ad5 cell entry depends on the availability of its primary receptor, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor, which is responsible for attachment, and integrins, secondary receptors responsible for adenovirus internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, efficacious adenovirus-mediated transgene expression also depends on successful trafficking of Ad5 particles to the nucleus of the target cell. It has been shown that changes occurring in tumor cells during development of resistance to anticancer drugs can be beneficial for adenovirus mediated transgene expression. In this study, using an in vitro model consisting of a parental cell line, human laryngeal carcinoma HEp2 cells, and a cisplatin-resistant clone CK2, we investigated the cause of increased Ad5-mediated transgene expression in CK2 as compared to HEp2 cells. We show that the primary cause of increased Ad5-mediated transgene expression in CK2 cells is not modulation of receptors on the cell surface or change in Ad5wt attachment and/or internalization, but is rather the consequence of decreased RhoB expression. We propose that RhoB plays an important role in Ad5 post-internalization events and more particularly in Ad5 intracellular trafficking. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing changed Ad5 trafficking pattern between cells expressing different amount of RhoB, indicating the role of RhoB in Ad5 intracellular trafficking.

  17. High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (Araneus ventricosus dragline silk protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Kuwana

    Full Text Available Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4-2.4 mol% native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms.

  18. Does pea lectin expressed transgenically in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) influence honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrman, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is important both for pollination and for honey production. Pollen is the major protein source for bees, which exposes them directly to changes in pollen quality e.g. through genetic engineering. In order to create a worst case scenario regarding pea lectin (PSL) expressed transgenically in oilseed rape anthers and pollen, the maximum amount of dried pollen that could be mixed in an artificial diet without negatively affecting larval performance (1.5% w/w) was fed to bee larvae. Pollen from two transgenic plant lines expressing PSL up to 1.2% of total soluble protein and pollen from one non-transgenic line was added to the same diet and used as a pollen control. When these three pollen diets and the control diet (without added pollen) were compared, no negative effect from the pollen of the transgenic plants could be detected on larval mortality, weight, or development time. An increased weight and a reduced developmental time were recorded for larvae on all diets containing pollen when compared to the diet without pollen.

  19. The ZmRCP-1 promoter of maize provides root tip specific expression of transgenes in plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Stephen O; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Jaindra N; Collins, Richard; Atkinson, Howard J; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-12-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) provide 25 % of the food energy requirements for more than 100 million people in Africa. Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe losses to the crop due to lack of control options. The sterile nature of Musa spp. hampers conventional breeding but makes the crop suitable for genetic engineering. A constitutively expressed synthetic peptide in transgenic plantain has provided resistance against nematodes. Previous work with the peptide in potato plants indicates that targeting expression to the root tip improves the efficacy of the defence mechanism. However, a promoter that will provide root tip specific expression of transgenes in a monocot plant, such as plantain, is not currently available. Here, we report the cloning and evaluation of the maize root cap-specific protein-1 (ZmRCP-1) promoter for root tip targeted expression of transgenes that provide a defence against plant parasitic nematodes in transgenic plantain. Our findings indicate that the maize ZmRCP-1 promoter delivers expression of β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene in roots but not in leaves of transgenic plantains. In mature old roots, expression of gusA gene driven by ZmRCP-1 becomes limited to the root cap. Invasion by the nematode Radopholus similis does not modify Root Cap-specific Protein-1 promoter activity. Root cap-specific protein-1 promoter from maize can provide targeted expression of transgene for nematode resistance in transgenic plantain.

  20. Differential transgene expression in brain cells in vivo and in vitro from AAV-2 vectors with small transcriptional control units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuegler, S.; Lingor, P.; Schoell, U.; Zolotukhin, S.; Baehr, M.

    2003-01-01

    Adeno-associated- (AAV) based vectors are promising tools for gene therapy applications in several organs, including the brain, but are limited by their small genome size. Two short promoters, the human synapsin 1 gene promoter (hSYN) and the murine cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (mCMV), were evaluated in bicistronic AAV-2 vectors for their expression profiles in cultured primary brain cells and in the rat brain. Whereas transgene expression from the hSYN promoter was exclusively neuronal, the murine CMV promoter targeted expression mainly to astrocytes in vitro and showed weak transgene expression in vivo in retinal and cortical neurons, but strong expression in thalamic neurons. We propose that neuron specific transgene expression in combination with enhanced transgene capacity will further substantially improve AAV based vector technology

  1. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based do......We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon...... transfer. PFV cells supported Flp mediated cassette exchange for transgene substitution of eGFP with dsRED, and the dsRED transgenic PFV cells generated blastocysts with transgene expression. Hence, the PFV cell line constitutes a valuable pig equivalent to transformed cell lines from other mammalian...

  2. Progress on researches of transgenic alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huiqin; Wang Mi; Ren Weibo; Xu Zhu; Chen Libo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the progress on the researches of transgenic alfalfa in the past two decades had been reviewed in the aspects of regeneration system, transformation, improvement of the important traits and so on. Moreover, such problems as variation of transgene expression and safety of transgenic plant had also been discussed and propose had been given for the future research work. (authors)

  3. Functional Coexpression of HSV-1 Thymidine Kinase and Green Fluorescent Protein: Implications for Noninvasive Imaging of Transgene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Andreas; Dubrovin, Michael; Hewett, Jeff; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Tan, Cui-Wen; Slack, Mark; Sadelain, Michele; Breakefield, Xandra O; Tjuvajev, Juri G

    1999-01-01

    Current gene therapy technology is limited by the paucity of methodology for determining the location and magnitude of therapeutic transgene expression in vivo. We describe and validate a paradigm for monitoring therapeutic transgene expression by noninvasive imaging of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1-tk) marker gene expression. To test proportional coexpression of therapeutic and marker genes, a model fusion gene comprising green fluorescent protein (gfp) and HSV-1-tk...

  4. Virus-derived transgenes expressing hairpin RNA give immunity to Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce RNA silencing by expressing virus-derived dsRNA in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses. Results Inverted repeats of the partial Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV movement protein (MP gene and the partial Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV replication protein (Rep gene were introduced into the plant expression vector and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out and three transgenic tobacco lines (MP16-17-3, MP16-17-29 and MP16-17-58 immune to TMV infection and three transgenic tobacco lines (Rep15-1-1, Rep15-1-7 and Rep15-1-32 immune to CMV infection were obtained. Virus inoculation assays showed that the resistance of these transgenic plants could inherit and keep stable in T4 progeny. The low temperature (15℃ did not influence the resistance of transgenic plants. There was no significant correlation between the resistance and the copy number of the transgene. CMV infection could not break the resistance to TMV in the transgenic tobacco plants expressing TMV hairpin MP RNA. Conclusions We have demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants expressed partial TMV movement gene and partial CMV replicase gene in the form of an intermolecular intron-hairpin RNA exhibited complete resistance to TMV or CMV infection.

  5. A comparative expression analysis of gene transcripts in brain tissue of non-transgenic and GH-transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio using a DDRT-PCR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A. Alves-Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of higher level of exogenous growth hormone (GH in transgenic animals could lead to several physiological alterations. A GH transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio line was compared to nontransgenic (NT samples of the species through a DDRT-PCR approach, with the goal of identifying candidate differentially expressed transcripts in brain tissues that could be involved in GH overexpression. Densitometric analyses of two selected amplification products, p300 and ADCY2, pointed to a significant lower gene expression in the transgenic zebrafish (104.02 ± 57.71; 224.10 ± 91.73 when compared to NT samples (249.75 ± 30.08; 342.95 ± 65.19. The present data indicate that p300 and ADCY2 are involved in a regulation system for GH when high circulating levels of this hormone are found in zebrafishes.A presença de níveis mais elevados do hormônio de crescimento (GH em animais transgênicos poderia levar a várias alterações fisiológicas. Uma linhagem transgênica de paulistinha (Danio rerio para o GH foi comparada com amostras não transgênicas (NT desta espécie, através de uma abordagem de DDRT-PCR, com o objetivo de identificar transcritos candidatos diferencialmente expressos em tecido cerebral que poderiam estar envolvidos na superexpressão de GH. Análises densitométricas de dois produtos de amplificação selecionados, p300 e ADCY2, apontaram uma expressão gênica significativamente menor nas amostras transgênicas de paulistinha (104.02 ± 57.71; 224.10 ± 91.73, quando comparadas com as amostras NT (249.75 ± 30.08; 342.95±65.19. Os presentes dados indicam que p300 e ADCY2 estão envolvidos em um sistema de regulação do GH, quando altos níveis circulantes desse hormônio são encontrados em paulistinha.

  6. Transgenic poplar expressing Arabidopsis NDPK2 enhances growth as well as oxidative stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Myoung Duck; Choi, Young Im; Park, Sung-Chul; Yun, Dae-Jin; Noh, Eun Woon; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2011-04-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) is known to regulate the expression of antioxidant genes in plants. Previously, we reported that overexpression of Arabidopsis NDPK2 (AtNDPK2) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter in transgenic potato and sweetpotato plants enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In this study, transgenic poplar (Populus alba × Poplus glandulosa) expressing the AtNDPK2 gene under the control of a SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SN) was generated to develop plants with enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. The level of AtNDPK2 expression and NDPK activity in SN plants following methyl viologen (MV) treatment was positively correlated with the plant's tolerance to MV-mediated oxidative stress. We also observed that antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase were increased in MV-treated leaf discs of SN plants. The growth of SN plants was substantially increased under field conditions including increased branch number and stem diameter. SN plants exhibited higher transcript levels of the auxin-response genes IAA2 and IAA5. These results suggest that enhanced AtNDPK2 expression affects oxidative stress tolerance leading to improved plant growth in transgenic poplar. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Over-expression of hydroxynitrile lyase in transgenic cassava roots accelerates cyanogenesis and food detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Arias-Garzon, Diana; White, Wanda; Sayre, Richard T

    2004-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) roots are the primary source of calories for more than 500 million people, the majority of whom live in the developing countries of Africa. Cassava leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides. Consumption of residual cyanogens (linamarin or acetone cyanohydrin) in incompletely processed cassava roots can cause cyanide poisoning. Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL), which catalyses the conversion of acetone cyanohydrin to cyanide, is expressed predominantly in the cell walls and laticifers of leaves. In contrast, roots have very low levels of HNL expression. We have over-expressed HNL in transgenic cassava plants under the control of a double 35S CaMV promoter. We show that HNL activity increased more than twofold in leaves and 13-fold in roots of transgenic plants relative to wild-type plants. Elevated HNL levels were correlated with substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin levels and increased cyanide volatilization in processed or homogenized roots. Unlike acyanogenic cassava, transgenic plants over-expressing HNL in roots retain the herbivore deterrence of cyanogens while providing a safer food product.

  8. Controlling transgene expression in subcutaneous implants using a skin lotion containing the apple metabolite phloretin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitzinger, Marc; Kemmer, Christian; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2009-06-30

    Adjustable control of therapeutic transgenes in engineered cell implants after transdermal and topical delivery of nontoxic trigger molecules would increase convenience, patient compliance, and elimination of hepatic first-pass effect in future therapies. Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E has evolved the flavonoid-triggered TtgR operon, which controls expression of a multisubstrate-specific efflux pump (TtgABC) to resist plant-derived defense metabolites in its rhizosphere habitat. Taking advantage of the TtgR operon, we have engineered a hybrid P. putida-mammalian genetic unit responsive to phloretin. This flavonoid is contained in apples, and, as such, or as dietary supplement, regularly consumed by humans. The engineered mammalian phloretin-adjustable control element (PEACE) enabled adjustable and reversible transgene expression in different mammalian cell lines and primary cells. Due to the short half-life of phloretin in culture, PEACE could also be used to program expression of difficult-to-produce protein therapeutics during standard bioreactor operation. When formulated in skin lotions and applied to the skin of mice harboring transgenic cell implants, phloretin was able to fine-tune target genes and adjust heterologous protein levels in the bloodstream of treated mice. PEACE-controlled target gene expression could foster advances in biopharmaceutical manufacturing as well as gene- and cell-based therapies.

  9. Transgenic mosquitoes expressing a phospholipase A(2 gene have a fitness advantage when fed Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Smith

    Full Text Available Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development.We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2 into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development of human malaria parasites. In addition, when fed on malaria-infected blood, mosquitoes from both transgenic lines are more fecund than non-transgenic mosquitoes. Consistent with these observations, cage experiments with mixed populations of transgenic and non-transgenic mosquitoes show that the percentage of transgenic mosquitoes increases when maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood.Our results suggest that the expression of an anti-Plasmodium effector gene gives transgenic mosquitoes a fitness advantage when fed malaria-infected blood. These findings have important implications for future applications of transgenic mosquito technology in malaria control.

  10. Transgenic mosquitoes expressing a phospholipase A(2) gene have a fitness advantage when fed Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Kizito, Christopher; Rasgon, Jason L; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development. We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2) into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development of human malaria parasites. In addition, when fed on malaria-infected blood, mosquitoes from both transgenic lines are more fecund than non-transgenic mosquitoes. Consistent with these observations, cage experiments with mixed populations of transgenic and non-transgenic mosquitoes show that the percentage of transgenic mosquitoes increases when maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood. Our results suggest that the expression of an anti-Plasmodium effector gene gives transgenic mosquitoes a fitness advantage when fed malaria-infected blood. These findings have important implications for future applications of transgenic mosquito technology in malaria control.

  11. Adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1 and 5 targeted to the neonatal rat and pig striatum induce widespread transgene expression in the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Stott, Simon R W; Mattsson, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has emerged as a powerful means to target transgene expression in the central nervous system. Here we characterized the efficacy of serotypes 1 and 5 recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) after stereotaxic...

  12. A bovine oxytocin transgene in mice: expression in the female reproductive organs and regulation during pregnancy, parturition and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M Y; Murphy, D

    1997-12-31

    Transgene bovine oxytocin 3.5 (bOT3.5) consists of the bovine oxytocin structural gene flanked by 0.6 kbp of upstream and 1.9 kbp of downstream sequences. We have examined the expression of bOT3.5 in the female reproductive organs, and we show tissue-specific and physiological regulation dependent on the stage of pregnancy and lactation. In the ovary, no transgene expression could be detected during the estrus cycle, or during pregnancy. However, high levels of transgene RNA were found at day 1 of lactation. Expression dropped 10-fold by day 2 of lactation, and was undetectable thereafter. Interestingly, the expression of bOT3.5 in the mouse ovary at the beginning of lactation mimics that of the endogenous OT gene in the bovine ovary. Expression of the bOT3.5 transgene correlates with a parturition defect that results in considerable maternal mortality.

  13. Delay of Disease Development in Transgenic Plants that Express the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell Abel, Patricia; Nelson, Richard S.; de, Barun; Hoffmann, Nancy; Rogers, Stephen G.; Fraley, Robert T.; Beachy, Roger N.

    1986-05-01

    A chimeric gene containing a cloned cDNA of the coat protein (CP) gene of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was introduced into tobacco cells on a Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from which tumor inducing genes had been removed. Plants regenerated from transformed cells expressed TMV mRNA and CP as a nuclear trait. Seedlings from self-fertilized transgenic plants were inoculated with TMV and observed for development of disease symptoms. The seedlings that expressed the CP gene were delayed in symptom development and 10 to 60 percent of the transgenic plants failed to develop symptoms for the duration of the experiments. Increasing the concentration of TMV in the inoculum shortened the delay in appearance of symptoms. The results of these experiments indicate that plants can be genetically transformed for resistance to virus disease development.

  14. Efficient expression of nuclear transgenes in the green alga Chlamydomonas: synthesis of an HIV antigen and development of a new selectable marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahimipour, Rouhollah; Neupert, Juliane; Bock, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has become an invaluable model system in plant biology. There is also considerable interest in developing this microalga into an efficient production platform for biofuels, pharmaceuticals, green chemicals and industrial enzymes. However, the production of foreign proteins in the nucleocytosolic compartment of Chlamydomonas is greatly hampered by the inefficiency of transgene expression from the nuclear genome. We have recently addressed this limitation by isolating mutant algal strains that permit high-level transgene expression and by determining the contributions of GC content and codon usage to gene expression efficiency. Here we have applied these new tools and explored the potential of Chlamydomonas to produce a recombinant biopharmaceutical, the HIV antigen P24. We show that a codon-optimized P24 gene variant introduced into our algal expression strains give rise to recombinant protein accumulation levels of up to 0.25% of the total cellular protein. Moreover, in combination with an expression strain, a resynthesized nptII gene becomes a highly efficient selectable marker gene that facilitates the selection of transgenic algal clones at high frequency. By establishing simple principles of successful transgene expression, our data open up new possibilities for biotechnological research in Chlamydomonas.

  15. Highly visible expression of an oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 fusion gene in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary of transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Akiko; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Onaka, Tatsushi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Hideaki; Ueta, Yoichi

    2011-07-01

    We have generated rats bearing an oxytocin (OXT)-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion transgene. The mRFP1 fluorescence was highly visible in ventral part of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the posterior pituitary in a whole mount. mRFP1 fluorescence in hypothalamic sections was also observed in the SON, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the internal layer of the median eminence. Salt loading for 5 d caused a marked increase in mRFP1 fluorescence in the SON, the PVN, the median eminence, and the posterior pituitary. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that the expression of the mRNA encoding the OXT-mRFP1 fusion gene was observed in the SON and the PVN of euhydrated rats and increased dramatically after chronic salt loading. The expression of the endogenous OXT and the arginine vasopressin (AVP) genes were significantly increased in the SON and the PVN after chronic salt loading in both nontransgenic and transgenic rats. These responses were not different between male and female rats. Compared with nontransgenic rats, euhydrated and salt-loaded male and female transgenic rats showed no significant differences in plasma osmolality, sodium concentration, OXT, and AVP levels. Finally, we succeeded in generating a double-transgenic rat that expresses both the OXT-mRFP1 fusion gene and the AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion gene. Our new transgenic rats are valuable new tools to study the physiology of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

  16. A promoter derived from taro bacilliform badnavirus drives strong expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I C; Iommarini, J P; Becker, D K; Hafner, G J; Dale, J L; Harding, R M

    2003-08-01

    Taro bacilliform virus (TaBV) is a pararetrovirus of the genus Badnavirus which infects the monocotyledonous plant, taro ( Colocasia esculenta). A region of the TaBV genome spanning nucleotides 6,281 to 12 (T1200), including the 3' end of open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) and the intergenic region to the end of the tRNA(met)-binding site, was tested for promoter activity along with four different 5' deletion fragments (T600, T500, T250 and T100). In transient assays, only the T1200, T600, T500 fragments were shown to have promoter activity in taro leaf, banana suspension cells and tobacco callus. When these three promoters were evaluated in stably transformed, in vitro-grown transgenic banana and tobacco plants, all were found to drive near-constitutive expression of either the green fluorescent protein or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in the stem (or pseudostem), leaves and roots, with strongest expression observed in the vascular tissue. In transgenic banana leaves, the T600 promoter directed four-fold greater GUS activity than that of the T1200, T500 and the maize polyubiquitin-1 promoters. In transgenic tobacco leaves, the levels of GUS expression directed by the three promoters was between four- and ten-fold lower than that of the double Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. These results indicate that the TaBV-derived promoters may be useful for the high-level constitutive expression of transgenes in either monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous species.

  17. Transgenic mice expressing constitutive active MAPKAPK5 display gender-dependent differences in exploration and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moens Ugo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs for short, constitute cascades of signalling pathways involved in the regulation of several cellular processes that include cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. They also intervene in neurological processes like fear conditioning and memory. Since little remains known about the MAPK-Activated Protein Kinase, MAPKAPK5, we constructed the first MAPKAPK knockin mouse model, using a constitutive active variant of MAPKAPK5 and analyzed the resulting mice for changes in anxiety-related behaviour. Methods We performed primary SHIRPA observations during background breeding into the C57BL/6 background and assessed the behaviour of the background-bred animals on the elevated plus maze and in the light-dark test. Our results were analyzed using Chi-square tests and homo- and heteroscedatic T-tests. Results Female transgenic mice displayed increased amounts of head dips and open arm time on the maze, compared to littermate controls. In addition, they also explored further into the open arm on the elevated plus maze and were less active in the closed arm compared to littermate controls. Male transgenic mice displayed no differences in anxiety, but their locomotor activity increased compared to non-transgenic littermates. Conclusion Our results revealed anxiety-related traits and locomotor differences between transgenic mice expressing constitutive active MAPKAPK5 and control littermates.

  18. Improved and high throughput quantitative measurements of weak GFP expression in transgenic plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Jing; Liu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2011-07-01

    Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) are widely used in tracing transgene expression and have been known as convenient and efficient markers for plant transformation. However, sometimes researchers are still puzzled by the weak fluorescence since it makes the observation of GFP signals and confirmation of transgenic plants difficult. In this investigation, we explored the possibility of enhancing the weak signals by changing the pH environment of detection and took microplate reader as a more effective instrument compared to traditional fluorescent microscope to detect the weak signals. It was found that the fluorescence intensity of enhanced GFP (EGFP) in transgenic plants can be increased 2-6 folds by altering the environmental pH, and the concentration of EGFP at a large scale (ranged from 20 ng/ml to 20 μg/ml) can be detected and quantified. It can exclude the influence of degradation fragment and hence facilitate later analysis; these advantages were further verified by comparing with western blotting and confocal microscopy. It was reliable and effective for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of transgenic plants and was more suitable for the detection of very weak fluorescent signals.

  19. Expression of stabilized β-catenin in differentiated neurons of transgenic mice does not result in tumor formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, John E; Stearns, Duncan; Huso, David L; Slunt, Hilda H; Price, Donald L; Borchelt, David R; Eberhart, Charles G

    2002-01-01

    Medulloblastomas, embryonal tumors arising in the cerebellum, commonly contain mutations that activate Wnt signaling. To determine whether increased Wnt signaling in the adult CNS is sufficient to induce tumor formation, we created transgenic mice expressing either wild-type or activated β-catenin in the brain. Wild-type and mutant human β-catenin transgenes were expressed under the control of a murine PrP promoter fragment that drives high level postnatal expression in the CNS. Mutant β-catenin was stabilized by a serine to phenylalanine alteration in codon 37. Expression of the mutant transgene resulted in an approximately two-fold increase in β-catenin protein levels in the cortex and cerebellum of adult animals. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed nuclear β-catenin in hippocampal, cortical and cerebellar neurons of transgenic animals but not in non-transgenic controls. Tail kinking was observed in some transgenic animals, but no CNS malformations or tumors were detected. No tumors or morphologic alterations were detected in the brains of transgenic mice expressing stabilized β-catenin, suggesting that postnatal Wnt signaling in differentiated neurons may not be sufficient to induce CNS tumorigenesis

  20. Transgenic rice plants expressing synthetic cry2AX1 gene exhibits resistance to rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, R; Balakrishnan, N; Sudhakar, D; Udayasuriyan, V

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a major source of insecticidal genes imparting insect resistance in transgenic plants. Level of expression of transgenes in transgenic plants is important to achieve desirable level of resistance against target insects. In order to achieve desirable level of expression, rice chloroplast transit peptide sequence was fused with synthetic cry2AX1 gene to target its protein in chloroplasts. Sixteen PCR positive lines of rice were generated by Agrobacterium mediated transformation using immature embryos. Southern blot hybridization analysis of T 0 transgenic plants confirmed the integration of cry2AX1 gene in two to five locations of rice genome and ELISA demonstrated its expression. Concentration of Cry2AX1 in transgenic rice events ranged 5.0-120 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue. Insect bioassay of T 0 transgenic rice plants against neonate larvae of rice leaffolder showed larval mortality ranging between 20 and 80 % in comparison to control plant. Stable inheritance and expression of cry2AX1 gene was demonstrated in T 1 progenies through Southern and ELISA. In T 1 progenies, the highest concentration of Cry2AX1 and mortality of rice leaffolder larvae were recorded as 150 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue and 80 %, respectively. The Cry2AX1 expression even at a very low concentration (120-150 ng/g) in transgenic rice plants was found effective against rice leaffolder larvae.

  1. Expression of GA733-Fc Fusion Protein as a Vaccine Candidate for Colorectal Cancer in Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor-associated antigen GA733 is a cell-surface glycoprotein highly expressed in colorectal carcinomas. In this study, 3 recombinant genes were constructed as follows: GA733 tagged to the ER retention sequence KDEL (GA733K, GA733 fused to the immunoglobulin Fc fragment (GA733-Fc, and GA733-Fc fused to the ER retention sequence (GA733-FcK. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was used to generate transgenic plants expressing recombinant genes. The presence of transgenes was confirmed by genomic PCR. Western blot, confocal immunofluorescence, and sandwich ELISA showed the expression of recombinant proteins. The stability, flexibility, and bioactivity of recombinant proteins were analyzed and demonstrated through N-glycosylation analysis, animal trials, and sera ELISA. Our results suggest that the KDEL retained proteins in ER with oligomannose glycan structure and enhanced protein accumulation level. The sera of mice immunized with GA733-FcK purified from plants contained immunoglobulins which were at least as efficient as the mammalian-derived GA733-Fc at recognizing human colorectal cancer cell lines. Thus, a plant system can be used to express the KDEL fusion protein with oligomannose glycosylation, and this protein induces an immune response which is comparable to non-KDEL-tagged, mammalian-derived proteins.

  2. Expression of GA733-Fc fusion protein as a vaccine candidate for colorectal cancer in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhe; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Shao, Yingxue; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; So, Yangkang; Choo, Young-Kug; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Hwang, Kyung-A; Oh, Seung Han; Han, Yeon Soo; Ko, Kisung

    2012-01-01

    The tumor-associated antigen GA733 is a cell-surface glycoprotein highly expressed in colorectal carcinomas. In this study, 3 recombinant genes were constructed as follows: GA733 tagged to the ER retention sequence KDEL (GA733K), GA733 fused to the immunoglobulin Fc fragment (GA733-Fc), and GA733-Fc fused to the ER retention sequence (GA733-FcK). Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was used to generate transgenic plants expressing recombinant genes. The presence of transgenes was confirmed by genomic PCR. Western blot, confocal immunofluorescence, and sandwich ELISA showed the expression of recombinant proteins. The stability, flexibility, and bioactivity of recombinant proteins were analyzed and demonstrated through N-glycosylation analysis, animal trials, and sera ELISA. Our results suggest that the KDEL retained proteins in ER with oligomannose glycan structure and enhanced protein accumulation level. The sera of mice immunized with GA733-FcK purified from plants contained immunoglobulins which were at least as efficient as the mammalian-derived GA733-Fc at recognizing human colorectal cancer cell lines. Thus, a plant system can be used to express the KDEL fusion protein with oligomannose glycosylation, and this protein induces an immune response which is comparable to non-KDEL-tagged, mammalian-derived proteins.

  3. Mice orally immunized with a transgenic plant expressing the glycoprotein of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Salmanian, A H; Chinikar, S

    2011-01-01

    glycoprotein when expressed in the root and leaf of transgenic plants via hairy roots and stable transformation of tobacco plants, respectively. After confirmatory analyses of transgenic plant lines and quantification of the expressed glycoprotein, mice were either fed with the transgenic leaves or roots, fed...... the transgenic plant material and injected subcutaneously with the plant-made CCHFV glycoprotein (fed/boosted), vaccinated with an attenuated CCHF vaccine (positive control), or received no treatment (negative control). All immunized groups had a consistent rise in anti-glycoprotein IgG and IgA antibodies...... in their serum and feces, respectively. The mice in the fed/boosted group showed a significant rise in specific IgG antibodies after a single boost. Our results imply that oral immunization of animals with edible materials from transgenic plants is feasible, and further assessments are under way. In addition...

  4. Cosmetics-triggered percutaneous remote control of transgene expression in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies. PMID:25943548

  5. Transgenic mice can express mutant human coagulation factor IX with higher level of clotting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing-Bin; Wang, Shu; Huang, Wen-Ying; Xiao, Yan-Ping; Ren, Zhao-Rui; Huang, Shu-Zheng; Zeng, Yi-Tao

    2006-10-01

    To improve the available values of transgenic animals, we produced a mutant human coagulation factor IX minigene (including cDNA and intron I) with arginine at 338 changed to alanine (R338A-hFIX) by using a direct mutation technique. The R338A-hFIX minigene was then cloned into a plasmid carrying the goat beta-casein promoter to get a mammary gland-specific expression vector. The clotting activity in the supernatant of the transfected HC-11 cells increased to approximately three times more than that of wild-type hFIX. Nine transgenic mice (three females and six males) were produced, and the copy number of the foreign gene was very different, ranging from 1 to 43 in different lines. ELISA, Western blot, and clotting assay experiments showed that the transgenic mice could express R338A-hFIX, showing higher average levels of clotting activity than wild-type hFIX in the milk (103.76% vs. 49.95%). The highest concentration and clotting activity of hFIX reached 26 mug/mL and 1287% in one founder (F(0)-7), which was over 10 times higher than that in human plasma. Furthermore, RT-PCR, APTT assay, and histological analysis indicated that hFIX was expressed specifically in the mammary gland without affecting the intrinsic coagulation pathway and physiologic performance of the local tissue.

  6. Induction of basal cell carcinoma features in transgenic human skin expressing Sonic Hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H; Oro, A E; Scott, M P; Khavari, P A

    1997-07-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling proteins mediate inductive events during animal development. Mutation of the only known HH receptor gene, Patched (PTC), has recently been implicated in inherited and sporadic forms of the most common human cancer, basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In Drosophila, HH acts by inactivating PTC function, raising the possibility that overexpression of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) in human epidermis might have a tumorigenic effect equivalent to loss of PTC function. We used retroviral transduction of normal human keratinocytes to constitutively express SHH. SHH-expressing cells demonstrated increased expression of both the known HH target, BMP-2B, as well as bcl-2, a protein prominently expressed by keratinocytes in BCCs. These keratinocytes were then used to regenerate human skin transgenic for long terminal repeat-driven SHH (LTR-SHH) on immune-deficient mice. LTR-SHH human skin consistently displays the abnormal specific histologic features seen in BCCs, including downgrowth of epithelial buds into the dermis, basal cell palisading and separation of epidermis from the underlying dermis. In addition, LTR-SHH skin displays the gene expression abnormalities previously described for human BCCs, including decreased BP180/BPAG2 and laminin 5 adhesion proteins and expression of basal epidermal keratins. These data indicate that expression of SHH in human skin recapitulates features of human BCC in vivo, suggest that activation of this conserved signaling pathway contributes to the development of epithelial neoplasia and describe a new transgenic human tissue model of neoplasia.

  7. Analysis of two novel midgut-specific promoters driving transgene expression in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Nolan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-specific promoters controlling the expression of transgenes in Anopheles mosquitoes represent a valuable tool both for studying the interaction between these malaria vectors and the Plasmodium parasites they transmit and for novel malaria control strategies based on developing Plasmodium-refractory mosquitoes by expressing anti-parasitic genes. With this aim we have studied the promoter regions of two genes from the most important malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, whose expression is strongly induced upon blood feeding.We analysed the A. gambiae Antryp1 and G12 genes, which we have shown to be midgut-specific and maximally expressed at 24 hours post-bloodmeal (PBM. Antryp1, required for bloodmeal digestion, encodes one member of a family of 7 trypsin genes. The G12 gene, of unknown function, was previously identified in our laboratory in a screen for genes induced in response to a bloodmeal. We fused 1.1 kb of the upstream regions containing the putative promoter of these genes to reporter genes and transformed these into the Indian malaria vector A. stephensi to see if we could recapitulate the expression pattern of the endogenous genes. Both the Antryp1 and G12 upstream regions were able to drive female-predominant, midgut-specific expression in transgenic mosquitoes. Expression of the Antryp1-driven reporter in transgenic A. stephensi lines was low, undetectable by northern blot analysis, and failed to fully match the induction kinetics of the endogenous Antryp1 gene in A. gambiae. This incomplete conservation of expression suggests either subtle differences in the transcriptional machinery between A. stephensi and A. gambiae or that the upstream region chosen lacked all the control elements. In contrast, the G12 upstream region was able to faithfully reproduce the expression profile of the endogenous A. gambiae gene, showing female midgut specificity in the adult mosquito and massive induction PBM, peaking at 24 hours.Our studies on

  8. Analysis of two novel midgut-specific promoters driving transgene expression in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Tony; Petris, Elisa; Müller, Hans-Michael; Cronin, Ann; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Crisanti, Andrea

    2011-02-04

    Tissue-specific promoters controlling the expression of transgenes in Anopheles mosquitoes represent a valuable tool both for studying the interaction between these malaria vectors and the Plasmodium parasites they transmit and for novel malaria control strategies based on developing Plasmodium-refractory mosquitoes by expressing anti-parasitic genes. With this aim we have studied the promoter regions of two genes from the most important malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, whose expression is strongly induced upon blood feeding. We analysed the A. gambiae Antryp1 and G12 genes, which we have shown to be midgut-specific and maximally expressed at 24 hours post-bloodmeal (PBM). Antryp1, required for bloodmeal digestion, encodes one member of a family of 7 trypsin genes. The G12 gene, of unknown function, was previously identified in our laboratory in a screen for genes induced in response to a bloodmeal. We fused 1.1 kb of the upstream regions containing the putative promoter of these genes to reporter genes and transformed these into the Indian malaria vector A. stephensi to see if we could recapitulate the expression pattern of the endogenous genes. Both the Antryp1 and G12 upstream regions were able to drive female-predominant, midgut-specific expression in transgenic mosquitoes. Expression of the Antryp1-driven reporter in transgenic A. stephensi lines was low, undetectable by northern blot analysis, and failed to fully match the induction kinetics of the endogenous Antryp1 gene in A. gambiae. This incomplete conservation of expression suggests either subtle differences in the transcriptional machinery between A. stephensi and A. gambiae or that the upstream region chosen lacked all the control elements. In contrast, the G12 upstream region was able to faithfully reproduce the expression profile of the endogenous A. gambiae gene, showing female midgut specificity in the adult mosquito and massive induction PBM, peaking at 24 hours. Our studies on two putative

  9. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Barbara A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier function was assessed by determining lung liquid clearance in vivo and alveolar epithelial monolayer permeability in vitro. Oxidant stress in the alveolar space was determined by measuring the glutathione redox couple by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression and membrane localization of key tight junction proteins were assessed. Finally, the direct effects of the HIV-related proteins gp120 and Tat on alveolar epithelial barrier formation and tight junction protein expression were determined. Results HIV-1 transgene expression caused oxidant stress within the alveolar space and impaired epithelial barrier function even though there was no evidence of overt inflammation within the airways. The expression and membrane localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin were decreased in alveolar epithelial cells from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Further, treating alveolar epithelial monolayers from wild type rats in vitro with recombinant gp120 or Tat for 24 hours reproduced many of the effects on zonula occludens-1 and occludin expression and membrane localization. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-related proteins cause oxidant stress and alter the expression of critical tight junction proteins in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in barrier dysfunction.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Transgenic Nude Mice Expressing Ubiquitous Green Fluorescent Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Srikanth; Arindkar, Shailendra; Mishra, Alaknanda; Manglani, Kapil; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Majumdar, Subeer S; Upadhyay, Pramod; Nagarajan, Perumal

    2015-08-01

    Researchers had developed and characterized transgenic green/red fluorescent protein (GFP/RFP) nude mouse with ubiquitous RFP or GFP expression, but none has evaluated the level of immune cells and expression levels of GFP in this model. The nude GFP mice were evaluated by imaging, hematological indices, and flow cytometry to compare the proportion of immune T cells. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was done for evaluating the relative expression of GFP transcripts in few organs of the nude GFP mice. The hematological and immune cells of nude GFP were within the range of nude mice. However, the gene expression levels were relatively less in various tissues compared with B6 GFP mice. These findings suggest that nude GFP is an ideal model resembling normal nude mice; however, GFP expression in various tissues by fluorescence should be considered, as the expression of GFP differs in various organs.

  11. Tricistronic hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon expressing double transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Gao, Xiang-Cui; Wang, Jun-Ping; Yang, Xin-Ying; Wang, Yan; Li, Bao-Sheng; Kang, Fu-Biao; Li, Hai-Jun; Nan, Yue-Min; Sun, Dian-Xing

    2014-12-28

    To construct a tricistronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon with double internal ribosome entry sites (IRESes) of only 22 nucleotides for each, substituting the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) IRESes, which are most often used as the translation initiation element to form HCV replicons. The alternative 22-nucleotide IRES, RNA-binding motif protein 3 IRES (Rbm3 IRES), was used to form a tricistronic HCV replicon, to facilitate constructing HCV-harboring stable cell lines and successive antiviral screening using a luciferase marker. Briefly, two sequential Rbm3 IRESes were inserted into bicistronic pUC19-HCV plasmid, consequently forming a tricistronic HCV replicon (pHCV-rep-NeoR-hRluc), initiating the translation of humanized Renilla luciferase and HCV non-structural gene, along with HCV authentic IRES initiating the translation of neomycin resistance gene. The sH7 cell lines, in which the novel replicon RNA stably replicated, were constructed by neomycin and luciferase activity screening. The intracellular HCV replicon RNA, expression of inserted foreign genes and HCV non-structural gene, as well as response to anti-HCV agents, were measured in sH7 cells and cells transiently transfected with tricistronic replicon RNA. The intracellular HCV replicon RNA and expression of inserted foreign genes and HCV non-structural gene in sH7 cells and cells transiently transfected with tricistronic replicon RNA were comparable to those in cells stably or transiently transfected with traditional bicistronic HCV replicons. The average relative light unit in pHCV-rep-NeoR-hRluc group was approximately 2-fold of those in the pUC19-HCV-hRLuc and Tri-JFH1 groups (1.049 × 10(8) ± 2.747 × 10(7) vs 5.368 × 10(7) ± 1.016 × 10(7), P < 0.05; 1.049 × 10(8) ± 2.747 × 10(7) vs 5.243 × 10(7) ± 1.194 × 10(7), P < 0.05), suggesting that the translation initiation efficiency of the first Rbm3 IRES in the two sequential IRESes was stronger than the HCV authentic IRES and EMCV IRES

  12. Use of a simple semiquantitative method for an appraisal of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression in transgenic tobacco plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hraška, M.; Rakouský, S.; Kocábek, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2005), s. 313-316 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA MZe QE1123 Keywords : gene expression * transgenic tobacco Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  13. Expression of a transgene encoding mutant p193/CUL7 preserves cardiac function and limits infarct expansion after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, R. J.; Nakajima, H.; Nakajima, H. O.; Doevendans, P. A.; Field, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Transgenic mice expressing the dominant interfering p193 protein in cardiomyocytes (MHC-1152stop mice) exhibit an induction of cell cycle activity and altered remodelling after experimental myocardial infarction (MI). Objective: To determine whether the altered remodelling results in

  14. Induction of Immunity to a Breast Cancer Associated Mucin in Transgenic Mice Expressing the Human Antigen - A Preclinical Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Edward

    1997-01-01

    .... Two approach 5 are being evaluated to augment the immunity to PEM. The studies are being carried out in transgenic mice that express human mucin as "self," mimicking as closely as possible the disease in humans...

  15. Expression of Recombinant Human Alpha-Lactalbumin in the Milk of Transgenic Goats Using a Hybrid Pomoter/Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Guo Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve nutrient content of goat milk, we describe the construction of a vector (pBLAC containing a hybrid goat β-lactoglobulin (BLG promoter/cytomegalovirus (CMV enhancer. We also describe the generation of transgenic goats expressing rhLA by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Of 334 one-cell stage embryos derived from three transgenic cell lines and 99 embryos derived from non-transgenic (NT cells surgically transferred to the oviducts of 37 recipients, two recipients delivered two kids (2% from the non-transfected line and five recipients delivered six kids (1.8% from transgenic cell lines, three of which died within 2 days. Compared to the NT donor cells, transfection of donor cells does not negatively affect the development of nuclear transfer embryos into viable transgenic offspring. However, the clone efficiency in cell line number 1 was lower than that in numbers 2 and 3, and in the NT lines (0.9% versus 1.9% 2.4% and 2%; P<0.05. Two transgenic cloned goats expressed rhLA in the milk at 0.1–0.9 mg/mL. The mammary gland-specific expression vector pBLAC with hybrid BLG/CMV can drive the hLA gene to express in vitro and in vivo. These data establish the basis for use of a hybrid promoter/enhancer strategy to produce rhLA transgenic goats.

  16. A non-specific effect associated with conditional transgene expression based on Cre-loxP strategy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghua Qiu

    Full Text Available Transgenes flanked by loxP sites have been widely used to generate transgenic mice where the transgene expression can be controlled spatially and temporally by Cre recombinase. Data from this approach has led to important conclusions in cancer, neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration. Using this approach to conditionally express micro RNAs (miRNAs in mice, we found that Cre-mediated recombination in neural progenitor cells caused microcephaly in five of our ten independent transgenic lines. This effect was not associated with the types or the quantity of miRNAs being expressed, nor was it associated with specific target knockdown. Rather, it was correlated with the presence of multiple tandem transgene copies and inverted (head-to-head or tail-to-tail transgene repeats. The presence of these inverted repeats caused a high level of cell death in the ventricular zone of the embryonic brain, where Cre was expressed. Therefore, results from this Cre-loxP approach to generate inducible transgenic alleles must be interpreted with caution and conclusions drawn in previous reports may need reexamination.

  17. Assessment of long-term transgene expression in barley: Ds-mediated delivery of bar results in robust, stable, and heritable expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of transgenic plants for both experimental and practical agronomic purposes is highly dependent on stable, predictable, and heritable expression of the introduced genes. This requirement is frequently unfulfilled, and transgenes are frequently subject to silencing. Studies of the charact...

  18. 3' self-inactivating long terminal repeat inserts for the modulation of transgene expression from lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manic, Gwenola; Maurin-Marlin, Aurélie; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Subra, Frédéric; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Bury-Moné, Stéphanie

    2012-04-01

    Gene transfer for research or gene therapy requires the design of vectors that allow for adequate and safe transgene expression. Current methods to modulate the safety and expression profile of retroviral vectors can involve the insertion of insulators or scaffold/matrix-attachment regions in self-inactivating long terminal repeats (SIN-LTRs). Here, we generated a set of lentiviral vectors (with internal CMV or PGK promoter) in which we inserted (at the level of SIN-LTRs) sequences of avian (i.e., chicken hypersensitive site-4, cHS4), human (i.e., putative insulator and desert sequence), or bacterial origin. We characterized them with respect to viral titer, integration, transduction efficiency and transgene expression levels, in both integrase-proficient and -deficient contexts. We found that the cHS4 insulator enhanced transgene expression by a factor of 1.5 only when cloned in the antisense orientation. On the other hand, cHS4 in the sense orientation as well as all other inserts decreased transgene expression. This attenuation phenomenon persisted over long periods of time and did not correspond to extinction or variegation. Decreased transgene expression was associated with lower mRNA levels, yet RNA stability was not affected. Insertions within the SIN-LTRs may negatively affect transgene transcription in a direct fashion through topological rearrangements. The lentiviral vectors that we generated constitute valuable genetic tools for manipulating the level of transgene expression. Moreover, this study demonstrates that SIN-LTR inserts can decrease transgene expression, a phenomenon that might be overcome by modifying insert orientation, thereby highlighting the importance of careful vector design for gene therapy.

  19. AAVPG: A vigilant vector where transgene expression is induced by p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajgelman, Marcio C.; Medrano, Ruan F.V.; Carvalho, Anna Carolina P.V.; Strauss, Bryan E., E-mail: bstrauss@usp.br

    2013-12-15

    Using p53 to drive transgene expression from viral vectors may provide on demand expression in response to physiologic stress, such as hypoxia or DNA damage. Here we introduce AAVPG, an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector where a p53-responsive promoter, termed PG, is used to control transgene expression. In vitro assays show that expression from the AAVPG-luc vector was induced specifically in the presence of functional p53 (1038±202 fold increase, p<0.001). The AAVPG-luc vector was an effective biosensor of p53 activation in response to hypoxia (4.48±0.6 fold increase in the presence of 250 µM CoCl{sub 2}, p<0.001) and biomechanical stress (2.53±0.4 fold increase with stretching, p<0.05). In vivo, the vigilant nature of the AAVPG-luc vector was revealed after treatment of tumor-bearing mice with doxorubicin (pre-treatment, 3.4×10{sup 5}±0.43×10{sup 5} photons/s; post-treatment, 6.6×10{sup 5}±2.1×10{sup 5} photons/s, p<0.05). These results indicate that the AAVPG vector is an interesting option for detecting p53 activity both in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • AAV vector where transgene expression is controlled by the tumor suppressor p53. • The new vector, AAVPG, shown to function as a biosensor of p53 activity, in vitro and in vivo. • The p53 activity monitored by the AAVPG vector is relevant to cancer and other diseases. • AAVPG reporter gene expression was activated upon DNA damage, hypoxia and mechanical stress.

  20. A transgenic mouse line for collecting ribosome-bound mRNA using the tetracycline transactivator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel eDrane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring the gene expression profiles of specific neuronal cell-types is important for understanding their molecular identities. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of genetically defined cell-types can be acquired by collecting and sequencing mRNA that is bound to epitope-tagged ribosomes (TRAP; Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification. Here, we introduce a transgenic mouse model that combines the TRAP technique with the tetracycline transactivator (tTA system by expressing EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a (EGFP-L10a under control of the tetracycline response element (tetO-TRAP. This allows both spatial control of EGFP-L10a expression through cell-type specific tTA expression, as well as temporal regulation by inhibiting transgene expression through the administration of doxycycline. We show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic mice expressing tTA under the Camk2a promoter (Camk2a-tTA results in offspring with cell-type specific expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that EGFP-L10a integrates into a functional ribosomal complex. In addition, collection of ribosome-bound mRNA from the hippocampus yielded the expected enrichment of genes expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as a depletion of genes expressed in other hippocampal cell-types. Finally, we show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic Fos-tTA mice enables the expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons that are activated during a fear conditioning trial. The tetO-TRAP mouse can be combined with other tTA mouse lines to enable gene expression profiling of a variety of different cell-types.

  1. Production of multiple transgenic Yucatan miniature pigs expressing human complement regulatory factors, human CD55, CD59, and H-transferase genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hee Jeong

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to generate transgenic pigs coexpressing human CD55, CD59, and H-transferase (HT using an IRES-mediated polycistronic vector. The study focused on hyperacute rejection (HAR when considering clinical xenotransplantation as an alternative source for human organ transplants. In total, 35 transgenic cloned piglets were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT and were confirmed for genomic integration of the transgenes from umbilical cord samples by PCR analysis. Eighteen swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVEC were isolated from umbilical cord veins freshly obtained from the piglets. We observed a higher expression of transgenes in the transgenic SUVEC (Tg SUVEC compared with the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Among these genes, HT and hCD59 were expressed at a higher level in the tested Tg organs compared with non-Tg control organs, but there was no difference in hCD55 expression between them. The transgenes in various organs of the Tg clones revealed organ-specific and spatial expression patterns. Using from 0 to 50% human serum solutions, we performed human complement-mediated cytolysis assays. The results showed that, overall, the Tg SUVEC tested had greater survival rates than did the non-Tg SUVEC, and the Tg SUVEC with higher HT expression levels tended to have more down-regulated α-Gal epitope expression, resulting in greater protection against cytotoxicity. By contrast, several Tg SUVEC with low CD55 expression exhibited a decreased resistance response to cytolysis. These results indicated that the levels of HT expression were inversely correlated with the levels of α-Gal epitope expression and that the combined expression of hCD55, hCD59, and HT proteins in SUVECs markedly enhances a protective response to human serum-mediated cytolysis. Taken together, these results suggest that combining a polycistronic vector system with SCNT methods provides a fast and efficient alternative

  2. Duration and level of transgene expression after gene electrotransfer to skin in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, A; Eriksen, Jens Ole; Hojman, P

    2010-01-01

    In development of novel vaccines, attention is drawn to DNA vaccinations. They are heat stable and can be easily produced. Gene electrotransfer is a simple and nonviral means of transferring DNA to cells and tissues and is attracting increasing interest. One very interesting perspective with gene....... Level and duration of transgene expression after gene electrotransfer to skin is essential and here we present data from two independent quantitative studies. Using in vivo bioimaging of a far-red fluorescent molecule, Katushka, allowing for continuous monitoring of local gene expression, compared...

  3. Enhanced motivation to alcohol in transgenic mice expressing human α-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotermund, Carola; Reolon, Gustavo K; Leixner, Sarah; Boden, Cindy; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Kahle, Philipp J

    2017-11-01

    α-Synuclein (αSYN) is the neuropathological hallmark protein of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related neurodegenerative disorders. Moreover, the gene encoding αSYN (SNCA) is a major genetic contributor to PD. Interestingly, independent genome-wide association studies also identified SNCA as the most important candidate gene for alcoholism. Furthermore, single-nucleotide-polymorphisms have been associated with alcohol-craving behavior and alcohol-craving patients showed augmented αSYN expression in blood. To investigate the effect of αSYN on the addictive properties of chronic alcohol use, we examined consumption, motivation, and seeking responses induced by environmental stimuli and relapse behavior in transgenic mice expressing the human mutant [A30P]αSYN throughout the brain. The primary reinforcing effects of alcohol under operant self-administration conditions were increased, while consumption and the alcohol deprivation effect were not altered in the transgenic mice. The same mice were subjected to immunohistochemical measurements of immediate-early gene inductions in brain regions involved in addiction-related behaviors. Acute ethanol injection enhanced immunostaining for the phosphorylated form of cAMP response element binding protein in both amygdala and nucleus accumbens of αSYN transgenic mice, while in wild-type mice no effect was visible. However, at the same time, levels of cFos remain unchanged in both genotypes. These results provide experimental confirmation of SNCA as a candidate gene for alcoholism in addition to its known link to PD. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. A multiplexed miRNA and transgene expression platform for simultaneous repression and expression of protein coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Attila A

    2016-01-01

    Knockdown of single or multiple gene targets by RNA interference (RNAi) is necessary to overcome escape mutants or isoform redundancy. It is also necessary to use multiple RNAi reagents to knockdown multiple targets. It is also desirable to express a transgene or positive regulatory elements and inhibit a target gene in a coordinated fashion. This study reports a flexible multiplexed RNAi and transgene platform using endogenous intronic primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) as a scaffold located in the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model for any functional transgene. The multiplexed intronic miRNA - GFP transgene platform was designed to co-express multiple small RNAs within the polycistronic cluster from a Pol II promoter at more moderate levels to reduce potential vector toxicity. The native intronic miRNAs are co-transcribed with a precursor GFP mRNA as a single transcript and presumably cleaved out of the precursor-(pre) mRNA by the RNA splicing machinery, spliceosome. The spliced intron with miRNA hairpins will be further processed into mature miRNAs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) capable of triggering RNAi effects, while the ligated exons become a mature messenger RNA for the translation of the functional GFP protein. Data show that this approach led to robust RNAi-mediated silencing of multiple Renilla Luciferase (R-Luc)-tagged target genes and coordinated expression of functional GFP from a single transcript in transiently transfected HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that this design facilitates the coordinated expression of all mature miRNAs either as individual miRNAs or as multiple miRNAs and the associated protein. The data suggest that, it is possible to simultaneously deliver multiple negative (miRNA or shRNA) and positive (transgene) regulatory elements. Because many cellular processes require simultaneous repression and activation of downstream pathways, this approach offers a platform technology to achieve that dual manipulation efficiently

  5. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Permyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L. genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  6. The Development of a Remote Sensor System and Decision Support Systems Architecture to Monitor Resistance Development in Transgenic Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacas, Joseph; Glaser, John; Copenhaver, Kenneth; May, George; Stephens, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that "significant benefits accrue to growers, the public, and the environment" from the use of transgenic pesticidal crops due to reductions in pesticide usage for crop pest management. Large increases in the global use of transgenic pesticidal crops has reduced the amounts of broad spectrum pesticides used to manage pest populations, improved yield and reduced the environmental impact of crop management. A significant threat to the continued use of this technology is the evolution of resistance in insect pest populations to the insecticidal Bt toxins expressed by the plants. Management of transgenic pesticidal crops with an emphasis on conservation of Bt toxicity in field populations of insect pests is important to the future of sustainable agriculture. A vital component of this transgenic pesticidal crop management is establishing the proof of concept basic understanding, situational awareness, and monitoring and decision support system tools for more than 133650 square kilometers (33 million acres) of bio-engineered corn and cotton for development of insect resistance . Early and recent joint NASA, US EPA and ITD remote imagery flights and ground based field experiments have provided very promising research results that will potentially address future requirements for crop management capabilities.

  7. Transgenic expression of BRCA1 disturbs hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells quiescence and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Lin; Shi, Guiying; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Lianfeng, E-mail: zhanglf@cnilas.org

    2013-10-15

    The balance between quiescence and proliferation of HSCs is an important regulator of hematopoiesis. Loss of quiescence frequently results in HSCs exhaustion, which underscores the importance of tight regulation of proliferation in these cells. Studies have indicated that cyclin-dependent kinases are involved in the regulation of quiescence in HSCs. BRCA1 plays an important role in the repair of DNA double-stranded breaks, cell cycle, apoptosis and transcription. BRCA1 is expressed in the bone marrow. However, the function of BRCA1 in HSCs is unknown. In our study, we generated BRCA1 transgenic mice to investigate the effects of BRCA1 on the mechanisms of quiescence and differentiation in HSCs. The results demonstrate that over-expression of BRCA1 in the bone marrow impairs the development of B lymphocytes. Furthermore, BRCA1 induced an increase in the number of LSKs, LT-HSCs, ST-HSCs and MPPs. A competitive transplantation assay found that BRCA1 transgenic mice failed to reconstitute hematopoiesis. Moreover, BRCA1 regulates the expression of p21{sup waf1}/cip1 and p57{sup kip2}, which results in a loss of quiescence in LSKs. Together, over-expression of BRCA1 in bone marrow disrupted the quiescent of LSKs, induced excessive accumulation of LSKs, and disrupted differentiation of the HSCs, which acts through the down-regulated of p21{sup waf1}/cip1 and p57{sup kip2}. - Highlights: • Over-expression of BRCA1 results in impaired B lymphocyte development. • BRCA1 transgenic mice disrupted the quiescent of LSKs, induced excessive accumulation of LSKs. • BRCA1 impairs the function of HSCs through the down-regulated of p21{sup waf1/cip1} and p57{sup kip2}.

  8. Transgenic expression of BRCA1 disturbs hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells quiescence and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Lin; Shi, Guiying; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2013-01-01

    The balance between quiescence and proliferation of HSCs is an important regulator of hematopoiesis. Loss of quiescence frequently results in HSCs exhaustion, which underscores the importance of tight regulation of proliferation in these cells. Studies have indicated that cyclin-dependent kinases are involved in the regulation of quiescence in HSCs. BRCA1 plays an important role in the repair of DNA double-stranded breaks, cell cycle, apoptosis and transcription. BRCA1 is expressed in the bone marrow. However, the function of BRCA1 in HSCs is unknown. In our study, we generated BRCA1 transgenic mice to investigate the effects of BRCA1 on the mechanisms of quiescence and differentiation in HSCs. The results demonstrate that over-expression of BRCA1 in the bone marrow impairs the development of B lymphocytes. Furthermore, BRCA1 induced an increase in the number of LSKs, LT-HSCs, ST-HSCs and MPPs. A competitive transplantation assay found that BRCA1 transgenic mice failed to reconstitute hematopoiesis. Moreover, BRCA1 regulates the expression of p21 waf1 /cip1 and p57 kip2 , which results in a loss of quiescence in LSKs. Together, over-expression of BRCA1 in bone marrow disrupted the quiescent of LSKs, induced excessive accumulation of LSKs, and disrupted differentiation of the HSCs, which acts through the down-regulated of p21 waf1 /cip1 and p57 kip2 . - Highlights: • Over-expression of BRCA1 results in impaired B lymphocyte development. • BRCA1 transgenic mice disrupted the quiescent of LSKs, induced excessive accumulation of LSKs. • BRCA1 impairs the function of HSCs through the down-regulated of p21 waf1/cip1 and p57 kip2

  9. Targeted transgenic expression of beta(2)-adrenergic receptors to type II cells increases alveolar fluid clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, D W; Fukuda, N; James, P F; Forbes, S L; Woo, A L; Lingrel, J B; Witte, D P; Matthay, M A; Liggett, S B

    2001-10-01

    Clearance of edema fluid from the alveolar space can be enhanced by endogenous and exogenous beta-agonists. To selectively delineate the effects of alveolar type II (ATII) cell beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (beta(2)-ARs) on alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), we generated transgenic (TG) mice that overexpressed the human beta(2)-AR under control of the rat surfactant protein C promoter. In situ hybridization showed that transgene expression was consistent with the distribution of ATII cells. TG mice expressed 4.8-fold greater beta(2)-ARs than nontransgenic (NTG) mice (939 +/- 113 vs. 194 +/- 18 fmol/mg protein; P < 0.001). Basal AFC in TG mice was approximately 40% greater than that in untreated NTG mice (15 +/- 1.4 vs. 10.9 +/- 0.6%; P < 0.005) and approached that of NTG mice treated with the beta-agonist formoterol (19.8 +/- 2.2%; P = not significant). Adrenalectomy decreased basal AFC in TG mice to 9.7 +/- 0.5% but had no effect on NTG mice (11.5 +/- 1.0%). Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)-isoform expression was unchanged, whereas alpha(2)-isoform expression was approximately 80% greater in the TG mice. These findings show that beta(2)-AR overexpression can be an effective means to increase AFC in the absence of exogenous agonists and that AFC can be stimulated by activation of beta(2)-ARs specifically expressed on ATII cells.

  10. Neural Crest Cells Isolated from the Bone Marrow of Transgenic Mice Express JCV T-Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gordon

    Full Text Available JC virus (JCV, a common human polyomavirus, is the etiological agent of the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. In addition to its role in PML, studies have demonstrated the transforming ability of the JCV early protein, T-antigen, and its association with some human cancers. JCV infection occurs in childhood and latent virus is thought to be maintained within the bone marrow, which harbors cells of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages. Here we show that non-hematopoietic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs isolated from the bone marrow of JCV T-antigen transgenic mice give rise to JCV T-antigen positive cells when cultured under neural conditions. JCV T-antigen positive cells exhibited neural crest characteristics and demonstrated p75, SOX-10 and nestin positivity. When cultured in conditions typical for mesenchymal cells, a population of T-antigen negative cells, which did not express neural crest markers arose from the MSCs. JCV T-antigen positive cells could be cultured long-term while maintaining their neural crest characteristics. When these cells were induced to differentiate into neural crest derivatives, JCV T-antigen was downregulated in cells differentiating into bone and maintained in glial cells expressing GFAP and S100. We conclude that JCV T-antigen can be stably expressed within a fraction of bone marrow cells differentiating along the neural crest/glial lineage when cultured in vitro. These findings identify a cell population within the bone marrow permissible for JCV early gene expression suggesting the possibility that these cells could support persistent viral infection and thus provide clues toward understanding the role of the bone marrow in JCV latency and reactivation. Further, our data provides an excellent experimental model system for studying the cell-type specificity of JCV T-antigen expression, the role of bone marrow-derived stem cells in the pathogenesis of JCV-related diseases

  11. Increased platelet activation and thrombosis in transgenic mice expressing constitutively active P2Y12 receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, J.; Hu, L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, S.H.; Li, Y.; Kunapuli, S.P.; Ding, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background In our previous in vitro study we reported a constitutively active chimeric P2Y12 receptor (cP2Y12) and found AR-C78511 is a potent inverse agonist at this receptor. The role of this cP2Y12 receptor in platelet activation and thrombosis is not clear. Objectives To investigate the physiological implications of the constitutively active P2Y12 receptor in platelet activation, thrombus formulation and evaluate the antiplatelet activity of AR-C78511 as an inverse agonist. Methods and Results We generated transgenic mice conditionally and platelet-specifically expressing cP2Y12. High expression of cP2Y12 receptor in platelets increased platelet reactivity as evidenced by increased platelet aggregation in response to multiple platelet agonists. Moreover, transgenic mice displayed shortened bleeding time, more rapid and stable thrombus formation in mesenteric artery injured with FeCl3. The constitutive activity of cP2Y12 in platelets was confirmed by decreased platelet cAMP levels and constitutive Akt phosphorylation in the absence of agonists. AR-C78511 reversed the cAMP decrease in transgenic mouse platelets, and exhibited superior antiplatelet effect over AR-C69931MX in transgenic mice. Conclusions These findings further emphasize the importance of P2Y12 in platelet activation, hemostasis and thrombosis, as well as the prothrombotic role of constitutive activity of P2Y12. Our data also validates the in vivo inverse agonist activity of AR-C78511 and confirms its superior antiplatelet activity over neutral antagonist. PMID:22906019

  12. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing peanut BTF3 exhibit increased growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi, V; Rama, N; Parvathi, M S; Nataraja, K N

    2017-05-01

    Abiotic stresses limit crop growth and productivity worldwide. Cellular tolerance, an important abiotic stress adaptive trait, involves coordinated activities of multiple proteins linked to signalling cascades, transcriptional regulation and other diverse processes. Basal transcriptional machinery is considered to be critical for maintaining transcription under stressful conditions. From this context, discovery of novel basal transcription regulators from stress adapted crops like peanut would be useful for improving tolerance of sensitive plant types. In this study, we prospected a basal transcription factor, BTF3 from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) and studied its relevance in stress acclimation by over expression in tobacco. AhBTF3 was induced under PEG-, NaCl-, and methyl viologen-induced stresses in peanut. The constitutive expression of AhBTF3 in tobacco increased plant growth under non stress condition. The transgenic plants exhibited superior phenotype compared to wild type under mannitol- and NaCl-induced stresses at seedling level. The enhanced cellular tolerance of transgenic plants was evidenced by higher cell membrane stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, seedling survival and vigour than wild type. The transgenic lines showed better in vitro regeneration capacity on growth media supplemented with NaCl than wild type. Superior phenotype of transgenic plants under osmotic and salinity stresses seems to be due to constitutive activation of genes of multiple pathways linked to growth and stress adaptation. The study demonstrated that AhBTF3 is a positive regulator of growth and stress acclimation and hence can be considered as a potential candidate gene for crop improvement towards stress adaptation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tomatoes by constitutive expression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Pranjal; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2011-04-01

    Recent findings have implicated the role of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in stress tolerance. Therefore, the present work was carried out with the goal of generating transgenic tomato plants with human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (samdc) gene, a key gene involved in biosynthesis of polyamines, viz. spermidine and spermine and evaluating the transgenic plants for tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Several putative transgenic tomato plants with normal phenotype were obtained, and the transgene integration and expression was validated by PCR, Southern blot analysis and RT-PCR analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants exhibited high levels of polyamines as compared to the untransformed control plants. They also showed increased resistance against two important fungal pathogens of tomato, the wilt causing Fusarium oxysporum and the early blight causing Alternaria solani and tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, cold and high temperature. These results suggest that engineering polyamine accumulation can confer tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  14. Defining POMC neurons using transgenic reagents: impact of transient Pomc expression in diverse immature neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Stephanie L; Reef, Daniel; Zeltser, Lori M

    2012-03-01

    Melanocortin signaling plays a central role in the regulation of phenotypes related to body weight and energy homeostasis. To specifically target and study the function of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, Pomc promoter elements have been utilized to generate reporter and Cre recombinase transgenic reagents. Across gestation, we find that Pomc is dynamically expressed in many sites in the developing mouse forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, spinal cord, and retina. Although Pomc expression in most embryonic brain regions is transient, it is sufficient to direct Cre-mediated recombination of floxed alleles. We visualize the populations affected by this transgene by crossing Pomc-Cre mice to ROSA reporter strains and identify 62 sites of recombination throughout the adult brain, including several nuclei implicated in energy homeostasis regulation. To compare the relationship between acute Pomc promoter activity and Pomc-Cre-mediated recombination at the single cell level, we crossed Pomc-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and Pomc-Cre;ROSA-tdTomato lines. We detect the highest concentration of Pomc-eGFP+ cells in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and dentate gyrus but also observe smaller populations of labeled cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract, periventricular zone of the third ventricle, and cerebellum. Consistent with the dynamic nature of Pomc expression in the embryo, the vast majority of neurons marked with the tdTomato reporter do not express eGFP in the adult. Thus, recombination in off-target sites could contribute to physiological phenotypes using Pomc-Cre transgenics. For example, we find that approximately 83% of the cells in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus immunoreactive for leptin-induced phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 are marked with Pomc-Cre;ROSA-tdTomato; only 13% of these are eGFP+ POMC neurons.

  15. Transgenic mice for a tamoxifen-induced, conditional expression of the Cre recombinase in osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Arantzazu Sanchez-Fernandez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, have remained limited due to the lack of transgenic mice allowing the conditional knockout of genes in osteoclasts at any time during development or adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We report here on the generation of transgenic mice which specifically express a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase in osteoclasts. These mice, generated on C57BL/6 and FVB background, express a fusion Cre recombinase-ERT2 protein whose expression is driven by the promoter of cathepsin K (CtsK, a gene highly expressed in osteoclasts. We tested the cellular specificity of Cre activity in CtsKCreERT2 strains by breeding with Rosa26LacZ reporter mice. PCR and histological analyses of the CtsKCreERT2LacZ positive adult mice and E17.5 embryos show that Cre activity is restricted largely to bone tissue. In vitro, primary osteoclasts derived from the bone marrow of CtsKCreERT2+/-LacZ+/- adult mice show a Cre-dependent β-galactosidase activity after tamoxifen stimulation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have generated transgenic lines that enable the tamoxifen-induced, conditional deletion of loxP-flanked genes in osteoclasts, thus circumventing embryonic and postnatal gene lethality and avoiding gene deletion in other cell types. Such CtsKCreERT2 mice provide a convenient tool to study in vivo the different facets of osteoclast function in bone physiology during different developmental stages and adulthood of mice.

  16. Inducible expression of a fusion gene encoding two proteinase inhibitors leads to insect and pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilis, Jordi; López-García, Belén; Meynard, Donaldo; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; San Segundo, Blanca

    2014-04-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are considered as candidates for increased insect resistance in transgenic plants. Insect adaptation to PI ingestion might, however, compromise the benefits received by transgenic expression of PIs. In this study, the maize proteinase inhibitor (MPI), an inhibitor of insect serine proteinases, and the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) were fused into a single open reading frame and introduced into rice plants. The two PIs were linked using either the processing site of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1B precursor protein or the 2A sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Expression of each fusion gene was driven by the wound- and pathogen-inducible mpi promoter. The mpi-pci fusion gene was stably inherited for at least three generations with no penalty on plant phenotype. An important reduction in larval weight of Chilo suppressalis fed on mpi-pci rice, compared with larvae fed on wild-type plants, was observed. Expression of the mpi-pci fusion gene confers resistance to C. suppressalis (striped stem borer), one of the most important insect pest of rice. The mpi-pci expression systems described may represent a suitable strategy for insect pest control, better than strategies based on the use of single PI genes, by preventing insect adaptive responses. The rice plants expressing the mpi-pci fusion gene also showed enhanced resistance to infection by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the rice blast disease. Our results illustrate the usefulness of the inducible expression of the mpi-pci fusion gene for dual resistance against insects and pathogens in rice plants. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Expression of TaWRKY44, a wheat WRKY gene, in transgenic tobacco confers multiple abiotic stress tolerances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiatian eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors have been reported to be involved in various plant physiological and biochemical processes. In this study, we successfully assembled ten unigenes from expressed sequence tags (ESTs of wheat and designated them as TaWRKY44–TaWRKY53, respectively. Among these genes, a subgroup I gene, TaWRKY44, was found to be upregulated by treatments with PEG6000, NaCl, 4°C, abscisic acid (ABA, H2O2 and gibberellin (GA. The TaWRKY44-GFP fusion protein was localized to the nucleus of onion epidermal cells, and TaWRKY44 was able to bind to the core DNA sequences of TTGACC and TTAACC in yeast. The N-terminal of TaWRKY44 showed transcriptional activation activity. Expression of TaWRKY44 in tobacco plants conferred drought and salt tolerance and transgenic tobacco exhibited a higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC, soluble sugar, proline and superoxide dismutase (SOD content, as well as higher activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD, but less ion leakage (IL, lower contents of malondialdehyde (MDA, and H2O2. In addition, expression of TaWRKY44 also increased the seed germination rate in the transgenic lines under osmotic stress conditions while exhibiting a lower H2O2 content and higher SOD, CAT and POD activities. Expression of TaWRKY44 upregulated the expression of some reactive oxygen species (ROS-related genes and stress-responsive genes in tobacco under osmotic stresses. These data demonstrate that TaWRKY44 may act as a positive regulator in drought/salt/osmotic stress responses by either efficient ROS elimination through direct or indirect activation of the cellular antioxidant systems or activation of stress-associated gene expression.

  18. Skin electroporation: effects on transgene expression, DNA persistence and local tissue environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Fredrik; Timmons, James A

    2009-01-01

    and electroporation induced a significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes. In vivo imaging of luciferase activity after electrovaccination demonstrated a rapid onset (minutes) and a long duration (months) of transgene expression. However, when the more immunogenic prostate specific antigen (PSA) was co....... METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigates intradermal DNA electrovaccination in detail and describes the effects on expression of the vaccine antigen, plasmid persistence and the local tissue environment. Gene profiling of the vaccination site showed that the combination of DNA......-administered, PSA-specific T cells were induced and concurrently the luciferase expression became undetectable. Electroporation did not affect the long-term persistence of the PSA-expressing plasmid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides important insights to how DNA delivery by intradermal...

  19. Expression of multiple transgenes from a single construct using viral 2A peptides in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Richard W; Rossano, Adam J; Macleod, Gregory T; Ganetzky, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Expression of multiple reporter or effector transgenes in the same cell from a single construct is increasingly necessary in various experimental paradigms. The discovery of short, virus-derived peptide sequences that mediate a ribosome-skipping event enables generation of multiple separate peptide products from one mRNA. Here we describe methods and vectors to facilitate easy production of polycistronic-like sequences utilizing these 2A peptides tailored for expression in Drosophila both in vitro and in vivo. We tested the separation efficiency of different viral 2A peptides in cultured Drosophila cells and in vivo and found that the 2A peptides from porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A) and Thosea asigna virus (T2A) worked best. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we used the P2A peptide to co-express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato and the genetically-encoded calcium indicator GCaMP5G in larval motorneurons. This technique enabled ratiometric calcium imaging with motion correction allowing us to record synaptic activity at the neuromuscular junction in an intact larval preparation through the cuticle. The tools presented here should greatly facilitate the generation of 2A peptide-mediated expression of multiple transgenes in Drosophila.

  20. Cytokeratin 19 promoter directs the expression of Cre recombinase in various epithelia of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Jia-Jie; Wu, Ji-Cheng; He, Hao-Yu; Ding, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Xue-Wen; Huang, Ke-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Jie; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

    2017-03-14

    Cytokeratin 19 (K19) is expressed in various differentiated cells, including gastric, intestinal and bronchial epithelial cells, and liver duct cells. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line, K19-Cre, in which the expression of Cre recombinase was controlled by the promoter of K19. To test the tissue distribution and excision activity of Cre recombinase, K19-Cre transgenic mice were bred with Rosa26 reporter strain and a mouse strain that carries PTEN conditional alleles (PTENLoxp/Loxp). At mRNA level, Cre was strongly expressed in the stomach, lung and intestine, while in stomach, lung, and liver at protein level. The immunoreactivity to Cre was strongly observed the cytoplasm of gastric, bronchial and intestinal epithelial cells. Cre activity was detectable in gastric, bronchial and intestinal epithelial cells, according to LacZ staining. In K19-Cre/PTEN Loxp/Loxp mice, PTEN was abrogated in stomach, intestine, lung, liver and breast, the former two of which were verified by in situ PCR. There appeared breast cancer with PTEN loss. These data suggest that K19 promoter may be a useful tool to study the pathophysiological functions of cytokeratin 19-positive cells, especially gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Cell specificity of neoplasia is not completely attributable to the cell-specific expression of oncogenes and cell-specific loss of tumor suppressor genes.

  1. Identification of the MUC2 Promoter as a Strong Promoter for Intestinal Gene Expression through Generation of Transgenic Quail Expressing GFP in Gut Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfint, Rachel M; Chen, Paula R; Ahn, Jinsoo; Suh, Yeunsu; Hwang, Seongsoo; Lee, Sang Suk; Lee, Kichoon

    2017-01-19

    Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 ( MUC2 ) expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis. An analysis of cis -acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2.9 kb proximal promoter region, for transcription factors such as caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4A), and transcription factor 4 (TCF4) that are important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis and functional integrity. By generating transgenic quail, we demonstrated that the 2.9 kb chicken MUC2 promoter could drive green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter expression exclusively in the small intestine, large intestine, and ceca. Fluorescence image analysis further revealed GFP expression in intestine epithelial cells. The GFP expression was barely detectable in the embryonic intestine, but increased during post-hatch development. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the reporter gene confirmed that the 2.9 kb MUC2 promoter could retain the regulatory element to drive expression of target genes in intestinal tissues after hatching. This new transgene expression system, using the MUC2 promoter, will provide a new method of overexpressing target genes to study gene function in the avian intestine.

  2. Identification of the MUC2 Promoter as a Strong Promoter for Intestinal Gene Expression through Generation of Transgenic Quail Expressing GFP in Gut Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Woodfint

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 (MUC2 expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR analysis. An analysis of cis-acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2.9 kb proximal promoter region, for transcription factors such as caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2, GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4A, and transcription factor 4 (TCF4 that are important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis and functional integrity. By generating transgenic quail, we demonstrated that the 2.9 kb chicken MUC2 promoter could drive green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter expression exclusively in the small intestine, large intestine, and ceca. Fluorescence image analysis further revealed GFP expression in intestine epithelial cells. The GFP expression was barely detectable in the embryonic intestine, but increased during post-hatch development. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the reporter gene confirmed that the 2.9 kb MUC2 promoter could retain the regulatory element to drive expression of target genes in intestinal tissues after hatching. This new transgene expression system, using the MUC2 promoter, will provide a new method of overexpressing target genes to study gene function in the avian intestine.

  3. Consumption of milk from transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme in the mammary gland results in the modulation of intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, Elizabeth A; Walker, Richard L; Anderson, Gary B; Murray, James D

    2006-08-01

    Lysozyme is a key antimicrobial component of human milk that has several health-promoting functions including the development of a healthy intestinal tract. However, levels of lysozyme in the milk of dairy animals are negligible. We have generated transgenic dairy goats that express human lysozyme (HLZ) in their milk in an attempt to deliver the benefits of human milk in a continual fashion. To test the feasibility of this transgenic approach to achieve a biological impact at the level of the intestine, feeding trials were conducted in two animal models. Pasteurized milk from HLZ transgenic animals was fed to both kid goats (ruminant model) and young pigs (human model), and the numbers of total coliforms and Escherichia coli present in the small intestine were determined. Data from this proof-of-principle study demonstrate that milk from transgenic animals was capable of modulating the bacterial population of the gut in both animal models. Pigs that consumed pasteurized milk from HLZ transgenic goats had fewer numbers of coliforms and E. coli in their intestine than did those receiving milk from non-transgenic control animals. The opposite effect was seen in goats. Milk from these transgenic animals not only represent one of the first transgenic food products with the potential of benefiting human health, but are also a unique model to study the development and role of intestinal microflora on health, well-being and resistance to disease.

  4. Production of transgenic mice expressing tumor virus A under ovarian‑specific promoter 1 control using testis‑mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinhua; Zhang, Zujuan; Chang, Xiaohong; Niu, Yidong; Cui, Heng

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to produce transgenic mice expressing tumor virus A (TVA) in the ovary under ovarian specific promoter 1 (OSP1) control. A transgenic mouse model was established in which TVA, an avian retroviral receptor gene driven by OSP1, was selectively expressed in the ovary. A recombinant plasmid containing TVA cDNA and an OSP1 promoter was constructed. The DNA fragment was repeatedly injected into male mouse testes at multiple sites. At 4‑7, 7‑10 and 10‑13 weeks following the final injection, two DNA‑injected male mice were mated with four wild‑type female mice to produce transgenic mice. The transgenic positive rate in mouse F1 offspring was 39.69%. When the positive F1 individuals were mated with wild‑type Imprinting Control Region mice (PxW) or with positive F1 individuals (PxP), the F2 individuals had a transgenic rate of 12.44%. The transgenic rates in the F1 offspring, produced following mating at the three time intervals, were 55.71 (39/70), 30.77 (4/13) and 18.75% (9/48), respectively. The transgenic rates of the F2 offspring decreased with the age of the F1 offspring, from 26.67% when PxP were mated at 6‑8 weeks of age to 6.52% when PxW were mated at 5‑6 months of age. The results indicate a high efficiency of gene transfer to F1 offspring using testis‑mediated gene transfer (TMGT). The transgenic rate in the F2 offspring was lower than that in the F1 offspring. The results reveal that TMGT is suitable for creating transgenic animals among F1 offspring. Semi‑quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed that TVA was expressed in the mice ovaries. The results demonstrate the importance of using the replication‑competent avian sarcoma‑leukosis virus long terminal repeat with a splice acceptor‑TVA system in ovarian tumorigenesis research.

  5. Production of human growth hormone in transgenic rice seeds: co-introduction of RNA interference cassette for suppressing the gene expression of endogenous storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Takanari; Ozaki, Shinji; Saito, Yuhi; Kuroda, Masaharu; Morita, Shigeto; Satoh, Shigeru; Masumura, Takehiro

    2012-03-01

    Rice seeds are potentially useful hosts for the production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, low yields of recombinant proteins have been observed in many cases because recombinant proteins compete with endogenous storage proteins. Therefore, we attempt to suppress endogenous seed storage proteins by RNA interference (RNAi) to develop rice seeds as a more efficient protein expression system. In this study, human growth hormone (hGH) was expressed in transgenic rice seeds using an endosperm-specific promoter from a 10 kDa rice prolamin gene. In addition, an RNAi cassette for reduction of endogenous storage protein expressions was inserted into the hGH expression construct. Using this system, the expression levels of 13 kDa prolamin and glutelin were effectively suppressed and hGH polypeptides accumulated to 470 μg/g dry weight at the maximum level in transgenic rice seeds. These results suggest that the suppression of endogenous protein gene expression by RNAi could be of great utility for increasing transgene products.

  6. Effect of HIV-1-related protein expression on cardiac and skeletal muscles from transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and the consequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has protean manifestations, including muscle wasting and cardiomyopathy, which contribute to its high morbidity. The pathogenesis of these myopathies remains partially understood, and may include nutritional deficiencies, biochemical abnormalities, inflammation, and other mechanisms due to viral infection and replication. Growing evidence has suggested that HIV-1-related proteins expressed by the host in response to viral infection, including Tat and gp120, may also be involved in the pathophysiology of AIDS, particularly in cells or tissues that are not directly infected with HIV-1. To explore the potentially independent effects of HIV-1-related proteins on heart and skeletal muscles, we used a transgenic rat model that expresses several HIV-1-related proteins (e.g., Tat, gp120, and Nef. Outcome measures included basic heart and skeletal muscle morphology, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress, and gene expressions of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGFβ1, three factors associated with muscle catabolism. Results Consistent with HIV-1 associated myopathies in humans, HIV-1 transgenic rats had increased relative heart masses, decreased relative masses of soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles, and decreased total and myosin heavy chain type-specific plantaris muscle fiber areas. In both tissues, the levels of cystine (Cyss, the oxidized form of the anti-oxidant cysteine (Cys, and Cyss:Cys ratios were significantly elevated, and cardiac tissue from HIV-1 transgenic rats had altered glutathione metabolism, all reflective of significant oxidative stress. In HIV-1 transgenic rat hearts, MuRF-1 gene expression was increased. Further, HIV-1-related protein expression also increased atrogin-1 (~14- and ~3-fold and TGFβ1 (~5-fold and ~3-fold in heart and

  7. Enhanced whitefly resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing double stranded RNA of v-ATPase A gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Thakur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi, thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops.

  8. Enhanced whitefly resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing double stranded RNA of v-ATPase A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Nidhi; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Pradhyumna K

    2014-01-01

    Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA) designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi), thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA) coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops.

  9. Transgenic quail as a model for research in the avian nervous system: a comparative study of the auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Armin H; Sanchez, Jason Tait; Schecterson, Leslayann; Tabor, Kathryn M; Wang, Yuan; Kashima, Daniel T; Poynter, Greg; Huss, David; Fraser, Scott E; Lansford, Rusty; Rubel, Edwin W

    2013-01-01

    Research performed on transgenic animals has led to numerous advances in biological research. However, using traditional retroviral methods to generate transgenic avian research models has proved problematic. As a result, experiments aimed at genetic manipulations on birds have remained difficult for this popular research tool. Recently, lentiviral methods have allowed the production of transgenic birds, including a transgenic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) line showing neuronal specificity and stable expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) across generations (termed here GFP quail). To test whether the GFP quail may serve as a viable alternative to the popular chicken model system, with the additional benefit of genetic manipulation, we compared the development, organization, structure, and function of a specific neuronal circuit in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) with that of the GFP quail. This study focuses on a well-defined avian brain region, the principal nuclei of the sound localization circuit in the auditory brainstem, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), and nucleus laminaris (NL). Our results demonstrate that structural and functional properties of NM and NL neurons in the GFP quail, as well as their dynamic properties in response to changes in the environment, are nearly identical to those in chickens. These similarities demonstrate that the GFP quail, as well as other transgenic quail lines, can serve as an attractive avian model system, with the advantage of being able to build on the wealth of information already available from the chicken. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Correlation among nuclear localization of NuMA-RARα, deregulation of gene expression and leukemic phenotype of hCG-NuMA-RARα transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhai, Mahadeo A; Thomas, Mariam; Hamadanizadeh, Soheila A; Xuan, Yali; Wells, Richard A; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a model system of aberrant transcription in cancer. We sought to elucidate the mechanism of action of the variant fusion NuMA-RARα in APL, using the hCG-NuMA-RARα transgenic model. We report that subcellular localization of NuMA-RARα in transgenic mice is dependent upon its protein expression and transgene dosage. Subcellular localization of the fusion is inversely correlated with extent of gene deregulation at the mRNA level for Cebpα, Cebpɛ and Pu.1. Finally, we report that phenotype onset is correlated with NuMA-RARα copy number; mice with higher copy number developing disease later than those with lower copy number. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants.

  12. Production of transgenic cattle highly expressing human serum albumin in milk by phiC31 integrase-mediated gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Lan, Hui; Shao, Minghao; Yu, Yuan; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic cattle expressing high levels of recombinant human serum albumin (HSA) in their milk may as an alternative source for commercial production. Our objective was to produce transgenic cattle highly expressing HSA in milk by using phiC31 integrase system and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The mammary-specific expression plasmid pIACH(-), containing the attB recognition site for phiC31 integrase, were co-transfected with integrase expression plasmid pCMVInt into bovine fetal fibroblast cells (BFFs). PhiC31 integrase-mediated integrations in genome of BFFs were screened by nested inverse PCR. After analysis of sequence of the PCR products, 46.0% (23/50) of the both attB-genome junction sites (attL and attR) were confirmed, and four pseudo attP sites were identified. The integration rates in BF3, BF11, BF19 and BF4 sites were 4.0% (2/50), 6.0% (3/50), 16.0% (8/50) and 20.0% (10/50), respectively. BF3 is located in the bovine chromosome 3 collagen alpha-3 (VI) chain isomer 2 gene, while the other three sites are located in the non-coding region. The transgenic cell lines from BF11, BF19 and BF4 sites were used as donors for SCNT. Two calves from transgenic cells BF19 were born, one died within a few hours after birth, and another calf survived healthy. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed integration of the transgene in the genome of cloned calves. The nested reverse PCR confirmed that the integration site in cloned calves was identical to the donor cells. The western blotting assessment indicated that recombinant HSA was expressed in the milk of transgenic cattle and the expression level was about 4-8 mg/mL. The present study demonstrated that phiC31 integrase system was an efficient and safety gene delivery tool for producing HSA transgenic cattle. The production of recombinant HSA in the milk of cattle may provide a large-scale and cost-effective resource.

  13. [Effect of constitutive expression of ARGOS-LIKE gene on dimensions of cells and organs of transgenic tobacco plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Khiazev, A V; Safiullina, M G; Cemeris, A V

    2013-05-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress the ARGOS-LIKE (ARL) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana have been developed. The transgenic plants possessed increased dimensions of leaves and stem, whereas the magnitude of flowers was modified to a lesser degree. The increase in the organ dimensions was a result of stimulation of cell expansion; the cell quantity in the organ was even decreased. Ectopic expression of the ARL gene was promoted in order to increase in the level of mRNA of tobacco expansine NtEXPA5. It has been shown that the ARL gene of A. thaliana can be used to obtain transgenic plants with increased sizes of the leaves and stem.

  14. Regulation of Expression of the prb-1b / ACC Deaminase gene by UV-B in Transgenic tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamot, B.K.; Pauls, K.P.; Glick, R.

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase gene from Enterobacter cloacae UWA4 under the control of a pathogenesis-related promoter (prb-1b) from tobacco were challenged by abiotic stresses to determine the expression patterns of the transgene. No ACC deaminase RNA or protein was detected bu RT-PCR and in western blots prepared from leaf proteins of transgenic plants after wounding or treatment with alpha-amino butyric acid, xylanase, ethephon, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid , ethylene, or ethylene plus jasmonic acid. However, expression of the ACC deaminase transgene was observed in leaves and roots of transformed tomato lines exposed to UV light. The UV response required a minimum of 48 h of exposure and was specific to UV-B light

  15. Development of Transgenic Cloned Pig Models of Skin Inflammation by DNA Transposon-Directed Ectopic Expression of Human β1 and α2 Integrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Madsen, Johannes; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Li, Juan; Liu, Ying; Kragh, Peter M.; Li, Rong; Schmidt, Mette; Purup, Stig; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Svensson, Lars; Petersen, Thomas K.; Callesen, Henrik; Bolund, Lars; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2012-01-01

    Integrins constitute a superfamily of transmembrane signaling receptors that play pivotal roles in cutaneous homeostasis by modulating cell growth and differentiation as well as inflammatory responses in the skin. Subrabasal expression of integrins α2 and/or β1 entails hyperproliferation and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes and leads to dermal and epidermal influx of activated T-cells. The anatomical and physiological similarities between porcine and human skin make the pig a suitable model for human skin diseases. In efforts to generate a porcine model of cutaneous inflammation, we employed the Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon system for production of transgenic cloned Göttingen minipigs expressing human β1 or α2 integrin under the control of a promoter specific for subrabasal keratinocytes. Using pools of transgenic donor fibroblasts, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer was utilized to produce reconstructed embryos that were subsequently transferred to surrogate sows. The resulting pigs were all transgenic and harbored from one to six transgene integrants. Molecular analyses on skin biopsies and cultured keratinocytes showed ectopic expression of the human integrins and localization within the keratinocyte plasma membrane. Markers of perturbed skin homeostasis, including activation of the MAPK pathway, increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1α, and enhanced expression of the transcription factor c-Fos, were identified in keratinocytes from β1 and α2 integrin-transgenic minipigs, suggesting the induction of a chronic inflammatory phenotype in the skin. Notably, cellular dysregulation obtained by overexpression of either β1 or α2 integrin occurred through different cellular signaling pathways. Our findings mark the creation of the first cloned pig models with molecular markers of skin inflammation. Despite the absence of an overt psoriatic phenotype, these animals may possess increased susceptibility to severe skin damage

  16. A new β-estradiol-inducible vector set that facilitates easy construction and efficient expression of transgenes reveals CBL3-dependent cytoplasm to tonoplast translocation of CIPK5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlücking, Kathrin; Edel, Kai H; Köster, Philipp; Drerup, Maria M; Eckert, Christian; Steinhorst, Leonie; Waadt, Rainer; Batistic, Oliver; Kudla, Jörg

    2013-11-01

    Transient and stable expression of transgenes is central to many investigations in plant biology research. Chemical regulation of expression can circumvent problems of plant lethality caused by constitutive overexpression or allow inducible knock (out/down) approaches. Several chemically inducible or repressible systems have been described and successfully applied. However, cloning and application-specific modification of most available inducible expression systems have been limited and remained complicated due to restricted cloning options. Here we describe a new set of 57 vectors that enable transgene expression in transiently or stably transformed cells. All vectors harbor a synthetically optimized XVE expression cassette, allowing β-estradiol mediated protein expression. Plasmids are equipped with the reporter genes GUS, GFP, mCherry, or with HA and StrepII epitope tags and harbor an optimized multiple cloning site for flexible and simple cloning strategies. Moreover, the vector design allows simple substitution of the driving promoter to achieve tissue-specificity or to modulate expression ranges of inducible transgene expression. We report details of the kinetics and dose-dependence of expression induction in Arabidopsis leaf mesophyll protoplasts, transiently transformed Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, and stably transformed Arabidopsis plants. Using these vectors, we investigated the influence of CBL (Calcineurin B-like) protein expression on the subcellular localization of CIPKs (Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases). These analyses uncovered that induced co-expression of CBL3 is fully sufficient for dynamic translocation of CIPK5 from the cytoplasm to the tonoplast. Thus, the vector system presented here facilitates a broad range of research applications.

  17. Transgenically enhanced expression of indole-3-acetic Acid confers hypervirulence to plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barry A; Amsellem, Ziva; Maor, Rudy; Sharon, Amir; Gressel, Jonathan

    2002-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum and F. arthrosporioides, pathogenic on Orobanche aegyptiaca, were transformed with two genes of the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway leading to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to attempt to enhance virulence. Transgenic F. oxysporum lines containing both the tryptophan-2-monooxyngenase (iaaM) and indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH) genes produced significantly more IAA than the wild type. IAM accumulated in culture extracts of F. oxysporum containing iaaM alone. F. arthrosporioides containing only iaaM accumulated IAM and an unidentified indole. Some transformants of F. oxysporum expressing only the iaaM gene also produced more IAA than the wild type. Sub-threshold levels (that barely infect Orobanche) of transgenic F. oxysporum expressing both genes and of F. arthrosporioides expressing iaaM were more effective in suppressing the number and size of Orobanche shoots than the wild type on tomato plants grown in soil mixed with Orobanche seed. Stimulating an auxin imbalance enhanced pathogen virulence by affecting the host in a manner similar to low doses of auxin herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid.

  18. Comparisons of Ribosomal Protein Gene Promoters Indicate Superiority of Heterologous Regulatory Sequences for Expressing Transgenes in Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Andreeva, Kalina; Khachatoorian, Careen; Judelson, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetics approaches in Phytophthora research can be hampered by the limited number of known constitutive promoters for expressing transgenes and the instability of transgene activity. We have therefore characterized genes encoding the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Phytophthora and studied their suitability for expressing transgenes in P. infestans. Phytophthora spp. encode a standard complement of 79 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Several genes are duplicated, and two appear to be pseudogenes. Half of the genes are expressed at similar levels during all stages of asexual development, and we discovered that the majority share a novel promoter motif named the PhRiboBox. This sequence is enriched in genes associated with transcription, translation, and DNA replication, including tRNA and rRNA biogenesis. Promoters from the three P. infestans genes encoding ribosomal proteins S9, L10, and L23 and their orthologs from P. capsici were tested for their ability to drive transgenes in stable transformants of P. infestans. Five of the six promoters yielded strong expression of a GUS reporter, but the stability of expression was higher using the P. capsici promoters. With the RPS9 and RPL10 promoters of P. infestans, about half of transformants stopped making GUS over two years of culture, while their P. capsici orthologs conferred stable expression. Since cross-talk between native and transgene loci may trigger gene silencing, we encourage the use of heterologous promoters in transformation studies.

  19. Protein profile and alpha-lactalbumin concentration in the milk of standard and transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, H; Schirm, M; Deslauriers, J; Turcotte, C; Bordignon, V

    2009-08-01

    The expression of recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical interest in the milk of transgenic farm animals can result in phenotypes exhibiting compromised lactation performance, as a result of the extraordinary demand placed on the mammary gland. In this study, we investigated differences in the protein composition of milk from control and transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase. In Experiment 1, the milk was characterized by gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to identify protein bands that were uniquely visible in the transgenic milk and/or at differing band densities compared with controls. Differences in protein content were additionally evaluated by computer assisted band densitometry. Proteins identified in the transgenic milk only included serum proteins (i.e. complement component 3b, ceruloplasmin), a cytoskeleton protein (i.e. actin) and a stress-induced protein (94 kDA glucose-regulated protein). Proteins exhibiting evident differences in band density between the transgenic and control groups included immunoglobulins, serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin. These results were found to be indicative of compromised epithelial tight junctions, premature mammary cell death, and protein synthesis stress resulting from transgene expression. In Experiment 2, the concentration of alpha-lactalbumin was determined using the IDRing assay and was found to be significantly reduced on day 1 of lactation in transgenic goats (4.33 +/- 0.97 vs. 2.24 +/- 0.25 mg/ml, P 0.05). We concluded that a decreased/delayed expression of the alpha-lactalbumin gene may be the cause for the delayed start of milk production observed in this herd of transgenic goats.

  20. Differential Analysis of Protein Expression in RNA-Binding-Protein Transgenic and Parental Rice Seeds Cultivated under Salt Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Rika; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Adachi, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Yamada, Akiyo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic plants tolerant to various environmental stresses are being developed to ensure a consistent food supply. We used a transgenic rice cultivar with high saline tolerance by introducing an RNA-binding protein (RBP) from the ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum); differences in salt-soluble protein expression between nontransgenic (NT) and RBP rice seeds were analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), a gel-based proteomic method. To identify RBP-related changes in pr...

  1. A BAC transgenic Hes1-EGFP reporter reveals novel expression domains in mouse embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinck, Rasmus; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Ahnfelt-Rønne, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Expression of the basic helix-loop-helix factor Hairy and Enhancer of Split-1 (Hes1) is required for normal development of a number of tissues during embryonic development. Depending on context, Hes1 may act as a Notch signalling effector which promotes the undifferentiated and proliferative state...... of progenitor cells, but increasing evidence also points to Notch independent regulation of Hes1 expression. Here we use high resolution confocal scanning of EGFP in a novel BAC transgenic mouse reporter line, Tg(Hes1-EGFP)(1Hri), to analyse Hes1 expression from embryonic day 7.0 (e7.0). Our data recapitulates...... the role of Hes1 in a number of different research areas including organ specification, development and regeneration....

  2. Duration and level of transgene expression after gene electrotransfer to skin in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, A; Eriksen, Jens Ole; Hojman, P

    2010-01-01

    In development of novel vaccines, attention is drawn to DNA vaccinations. They are heat stable and can be easily produced. Gene electrotransfer is a simple and nonviral means of transferring DNA to cells and tissues and is attracting increasing interest. One very interesting perspective with gene...... is a suitable time frame for vaccinations and is applicable, for example, in gene therapy for wound healing or treatment of cancer.......In development of novel vaccines, attention is drawn to DNA vaccinations. They are heat stable and can be easily produced. Gene electrotransfer is a simple and nonviral means of transferring DNA to cells and tissues and is attracting increasing interest. One very interesting perspective with gene...... electrotransfer is that choice of tissue can determine the duration of transgene expression. With gene electrotransfer to muscle, long-term expression, that is beyond 1 year, can be obtained, whereas gene electrotransfer to skin gives short-term expression, which is desirable in, for example, DNA vaccinations...

  3. Increased oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 fluorescent intensity with urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system of aged transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Fujiki, Nobuhiro; Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Motojima, Yasuhito; Saito, Reiko; Ueno, Hiromichi; Sonoda, Satomi; Ohno, Motoko; Umezu, Yuichi; Hamamura, Akinori; Saeki, Satoru; Ueta, Yoichi

    2018-03-01

    To visualize oxytocin in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, we generated a transgenic rat that expresses the oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene. In the present study, we examined the age-related changes of oxytocin-mRFP1 fluorescent intensity in the posterior pituitary (PP), the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of transgenic rats. The mRFP1 fluorescent intensities were significantly increased in the PP, the SON and the PVN of 12-, 18- and 24-month-old transgenic rats in comparison with 3-month-old transgenic rats. Immunohistochemical staining for urocortin, which belongs to the family of corticotropin-releasing factor family, revealed that the numbers of urocortin-like immunoreactive (LI) cells in the SON and the PVN were significantly increased in 12-, 18- and 24-month-old transgenic rats in comparison with 3-month-old transgenic rats. Almost all of urocortin-LI cells co-exist mRFP1-expressing cells in the SON and the PVN of aged transgenic rats. These results suggest that oxytocin content of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system may be modulated by age-related regulation. The physiological role of the co-existence of oxytocin and urocortin in the SON and PVN of aged rats remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  4. A soluble form of Siglec-9 provides an antitumor benefit against mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomioka, Yukiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Yamamoto, Sayo; Suyama, Haruka; Ozaki, Kinuyo; Ito, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tumor-associated antigen MUC1 binds to Siglec-9. • Soluble Siglec-9 reduced proliferation of MUC1-positive tumor in transgenic mice. • Soluble Siglec-9 and MUC1 on tumor cells were colocalized in transgenic mice. • MUC1 expression on tumor cells were reduced in soluble Siglec-9 transgenic mice. - Abstract: Tumor-associated MUC1 binds to Siglec-9, which is expected to mediate tumor cell growth and negative immunomodulation. We hypothesized that a soluble form of Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9) competitively inhibits a binding of MUC1 to its receptor molecules like human Siglec-9, leading to provide antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor, and generated transgenic mouse lines expressing sSiglec-9 (sSiglec-9 Tg). When mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 were intraperitoneally transplanted into sSiglec-9 Tg, tumor proliferation was slower with the lower histological malignancy as compared with non-transgenic mice. The sSiglec-9 was detected in the ascites caused by the tumor in the sSiglec-9 Tg, and sSiglec-9 and MUC1 were often colocalized on surfaces of the tumor cells. PCNA immunohistochemistry also revealed the reduced proliferation of the tumor cells in sSiglec-9 Tg. In sSiglec-9 Tg with remarkable suppression of tumor proliferation, MUC1 expressions were tend to be reduced. In the ascites of sSiglec-9 Tg bearing the tumor, T cells were uniformly infiltrated, whereas aggregations of degenerative T cells were often observed in the non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that sSiglec-9 has an antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor in the transgenic mice, which may avoid the negative immunomodulation and/or suppress tumor-associated MUC1 downstream signal transduction, and subsequent tumor proliferation

  5. A soluble form of Siglec-9 provides an antitumor benefit against mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, Yukiko, E-mail: ytomi@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Division of Disease Model Innovation, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0815 (Japan); Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Morimatsu, Masami, E-mail: mmorimat@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Disease Model Innovation, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0815 (Japan); Laboratory of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Nishijima, Ken-ichi, E-mail: nishijma@nubio.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Usui, Tatsufumi, E-mail: usutatsu@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Yamamoto, Sayo, E-mail: ysayo@anim.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center of Biomedical Research, Research Center for Human Disease Modeling, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Suyama, Haruka, E-mail: sharuka@anim.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center of Biomedical Research, Research Center for Human Disease Modeling, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ozaki, Kinuyo, E-mail: k-ozaki@anim.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center of Biomedical Research, Research Center for Human Disease Modeling, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ito, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshiito@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Tumor-associated antigen MUC1 binds to Siglec-9. • Soluble Siglec-9 reduced proliferation of MUC1-positive tumor in transgenic mice. • Soluble Siglec-9 and MUC1 on tumor cells were colocalized in transgenic mice. • MUC1 expression on tumor cells were reduced in soluble Siglec-9 transgenic mice. - Abstract: Tumor-associated MUC1 binds to Siglec-9, which is expected to mediate tumor cell growth and negative immunomodulation. We hypothesized that a soluble form of Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9) competitively inhibits a binding of MUC1 to its receptor molecules like human Siglec-9, leading to provide antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor, and generated transgenic mouse lines expressing sSiglec-9 (sSiglec-9 Tg). When mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 were intraperitoneally transplanted into sSiglec-9 Tg, tumor proliferation was slower with the lower histological malignancy as compared with non-transgenic mice. The sSiglec-9 was detected in the ascites caused by the tumor in the sSiglec-9 Tg, and sSiglec-9 and MUC1 were often colocalized on surfaces of the tumor cells. PCNA immunohistochemistry also revealed the reduced proliferation of the tumor cells in sSiglec-9 Tg. In sSiglec-9 Tg with remarkable suppression of tumor proliferation, MUC1 expressions were tend to be reduced. In the ascites of sSiglec-9 Tg bearing the tumor, T cells were uniformly infiltrated, whereas aggregations of degenerative T cells were often observed in the non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that sSiglec-9 has an antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor in the transgenic mice, which may avoid the negative immunomodulation and/or suppress tumor-associated MUC1 downstream signal transduction, and subsequent tumor proliferation.

  6. Expression of recombinant human alpha-lactalbumin in the milk of transgenic goats using a hybrid pomoter/enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu-Guo; An, Liyou; Yu, Baoli; Song, Shaozheng; Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Liqing; Gu, Yinyin; Yu, Minghui; Cheng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    To improve nutrient content of goat milk, we describe the construction of a vector (pBLAC) containing a hybrid goat β -lactoglobulin (BLG) promoter/cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer. We also describe the generation of transgenic goats expressing rhLA by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Of 334 one-cell stage embryos derived from three transgenic cell lines and 99 embryos derived from non-transgenic (NT) cells surgically transferred to the oviducts of 37 recipients, two recipients delivered two kids (2%) from the non-transfected line and five recipients delivered six kids (1.8%) from transgenic cell lines, three of which died within 2 days. Compared to the NT donor cells, transfection of donor cells does not negatively affect the development of nuclear transfer embryos into viable transgenic offspring. However, the clone efficiency in cell line number 1 was lower than that in numbers 2 and 3, and in the NT lines (0.9% versus 1.9% 2.4% and 2%; P milk at 0.1-0.9 mg/mL. The mammary gland-specific expression vector pBLAC with hybrid BLG/CMV can drive the hLA gene to express in vitro and in vivo. These data establish the basis for use of a hybrid promoter/enhancer strategy to produce rhLA transgenic goats.

  7. Variable expression of Cre recombinase transgenes precludes reliable prediction of tissue-specific gene disruption by tail-biopsy genotyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Schulz

    Full Text Available The Cre/loxP-system has become the system of choice for the generation of conditional so-called knockout mouse strains, i.e. the tissue-specific disruption of expression of a certain target gene. We here report the loss of expression of Cre recombinase in a transgenic mouse strain with increasing number of generations. This eventually led to the complete abrogation of gene expression of the inserted Cre cDNA while still being detectable at the genomic level. Conversely, loss of Cre expression caused an incomplete or even complete lack of disruption for the protein under investigation. As Cre expression in the tissue of interest in most cases cannot be addressed in vivo during the course of a study, our findings implicate the possibility that individual tail-biopsy genotypes may not necessarily indicate the presence or absence of gene disruption. This indicates that sustained post hoc analyses in regards to efficacy of disruption for every single study group member may be required.

  8. CCL2-ethanol interactions and hippocampal synaptic protein expression in a transgenic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna eGruol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to ethanol produces a number of detrimental effects on behavior. Neuroadaptive changes in brain structure or function underlie these behavioral changes and may be transient or persistent in nature. Central to the functional changes are alterations in the biology of neuronal and glial cells of the brain. Recent data show that ethanol induces glial cells of the brain to produce elevated levels of neuroimmune factors including CCL2, a key innate immune chemokine. Depending on the conditions of ethanol exposure, the upregulated levels of CCL2 can be transient or persistent and outlast the period of ethanol exposure. Importantly, results indicate that the upregulated levels of CCL2 may lead to CCL2-ethanol interactions that mediate or regulate the effects of ethanol on the brain. Glial cells are in close association with neurons and regulate many neuronal functions. Therefore, effects of ethanol on glial cells may underlie some of the effects of ethanol on neurons. To investigate this possibility, we are studying the effects of chronic ethanol on hippocampal synaptic function in a transgenic mouse model that expresses elevated levels of CCL2 in the brain through enhanced glial expression, a situation know to occur in alcoholics. Both CCL2 and ethanol have been reported to alter synaptic function in the hippocampus. In the current study, we determined if interactions are evident between CCL2 and ethanol at level of hippocampal synaptic proteins. Two ethanol exposure paradigms were used; the first involved ethanol exposure by drinking and the second involved ethanol exposure in a paradigm that combines drinking plus ethanol vapor. The first paradigm does not produce dependence on ethanol, whereas the second paradigm is commonly used to produce ethanol dependence. Results show modest effects of both ethanol exposure paradigms on the level of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of CCL2 transgenic mice compared with their non-transgenic

  9. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  11. Transgenic Amorphophallus konjac expressing synthesized acyl-homoserine lactonase (aiiA) gene exhibit enhanced resistance to soft rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Huifang; Chai, Xinli; Lin, Yongjun; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Yi; Zou, Yulan; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2009-12-01

    Amorphophallus konjac is an important economic crop widely used in health products and biomaterials. However, this monocotyledonous plant's production is seriously restricted by soft rot disease. Some Bacillus thuringiensis strains generate an endocellular acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA), which has inhibitory effect on soft rot pathogen through disrupting the signal molecules (N-acylhomoserine lactones, AHL) of their Quorum Sensing system. The aim of our study is to obtain transgenic A. konjac expressing AiiA protein and exhibiting resistance to soft rot. But till now, there is not any report about exogenous gene transformation in A. konjac. In this research, an Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was constructed. An aiiA gene was synthesized according to the codon usage in A. konjac. Embryogenic callus was infected with the A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pU1301 plus synthesized aiiA gene. After antibiotics screening, 34 plants were obtained. PCR analysis showed that positive amplified fragments were present in 21 out of these 34 lines. Southern blot analysis indicated that aiiA gene had integrated into the genome of A. konjac. Western blotting demonstrated that the target protein of interest was reactive with the antibody against AiiA. Further disease resistance detection revealed that all of the tested transgenic A. konjac lines exhibited high resistance to soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Ecc) SCG1. The protocol is useful for the quality improvement of A. konjac through genetic transformation.

  12. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  13. Development of a Plasmodium berghei transgenic parasite expressing the full-length Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite VK247 protein for testing vaccine efficacy in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Masanori; Fukumoto, Shinya; Soubeiga, Adam Patrice; Soga, Akira; Iyori, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Shigeto

    2016-04-30

    The approach of using transgenic rodent malaria parasites to assess the immune system's response to antigenic targets from a human malaria parasite has been shown to be useful for preclinical evaluation of new vaccine formulations. The transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite line [PvCSP(VK210)/Pb] generated previously expresses the full-length circumsporozoite protein (CSP) VK210 from Plasmodium vivax. The transgenic parasite expresses one of the two most common alleles of CSP, defined by nine amino acids at the central repeat region of this protein. In the present study, a transgenic P. berghei parasite line [PvCSP(VK247)/Pb] expressing the full-length PvCSP(VK247), which is the alternative common allele, was generated and characterized. The P. berghei expressing full-length PvCSP(VK247) was generated and examined its applicability to CSP-based vaccine research by examining its biological characteristics in mosquitoes and mice. Similar to PvCSP(VK210)/Pb, PvCSP(VK247)/Pb developed normally in mosquitoes and produced infectious sporozoites equipped to generate patent infections in mice. Invasion of HepG2 cells by PvCSP(VK247)/Pb sporozoites was inhibited by an anti-PvCSP(VK247) repeat monoclonal antibody (mAb), but not by an anti-PvCSP(VK210) repeat mAb. These two transgenic parasites thus far can be used to evaluate the potential efficacy of PvCSP-based vaccine candidates encompassing the two major genetic variants in preclinical trials.

  14. Specific expression of an oxytocin-enhanced cyan fluorescent protein fusion transgene in the rat hypothalamus and posterior pituitary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Akiko; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Onaka, Tatsushi; Young, W. Scott; Dayanithi, Govindan; Yamasaki, Yuka; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Otsubo, Hiroki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Murphy, David; Ueta, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    We have generated rats bearing an oxytocin (OXT)-enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (eCFP) fusion transgene designed from a murine construct previously shown to be faithfully expressed in transgenic mice. In situ hybridisation histochemistry revealed that the OXT-eCFP fusion gene was expressed in the supraoptic (SON) and the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in these rats. The fluorescence emanating from eCFP was observed only in the SON, the PVN, the internal layer of the median eminence (ME) and the posterior pituitary (PP). In in vitro preparations, freshly dissociated cells from the SON and axon terminals showed clear eCFP fluorescence. Immunohistochemistry for OXT and arginine vasopressin (AVP) revealed that the eCFP fluorescence co-localises with OXT-immunofluorescence, but not with AVP-immunofluorescence in the SON and the PVN. Although the expression levels of the OXT-eCFP fusion gene in the SON and the PVN showed a wide range of variation in transgenic rats, eCFP fluorescence was markedly increased in the SON and the PVN, but decreased in the PP after chronic salt loading. The expression of the OXT gene was significantly increased in the SON and the PVN after chronic salt loading in both non-transgenic and transgenic rats. Compared to wild-type animals, euhydrated and salt-loaded male and female transgenic rats showed no significant differences in plasma osmolality, sodium concentration, OXT and AVP levels, suggesting that the fusion gene expression did not disturb any physiological processes. These results suggest that our new transgenic rat is a valuable new tool to identify OXT-producing neurones and their terminals. PMID:20026620

  15. Molecular Analyses of Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Arines, Felichi Mae; Oliva, Norman; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges in plant molecular biology is to generate transgenic plants that express transgenes stably over generations. Here, we describe some routine methods to study transgene locus structure and to analyze transgene expression in plants: Southern hybridization using DIG chemiluminescent technology for characterization of transgenic locus, SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR to measure transgene transcript level, and protein immunoblot analysis to evaluate accumulation and stability of transgenic protein product in the target tissue.

  16. Constructions of expression vectors of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) and transient expression of transgenes in immature oil palm embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Norazrin; Abdullah, Ruslan; Rashdan Muad, Mohd; Lourdes, Juanita; Emran, Nurul Ain; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Ismail, Ismanizan; Fadzil, Mohd Fazli Mohd; Ling, Kong Lih; Siddiqui, Yasmeen; Amir, Anna Aryani; Berahim, Zulkarami; Husni Omar, Mohd

    2011-09-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) bioplastic group with thermoplastic properties is thus high in quality and can be degradable. PHBV can be produced by bacteria, but the process is not economically competitive with polymers produced from petrochemicals. To overcome this problem, research on transgenic plants has been carried out as one of the solutions to produce PHBV in economically sound alternative manner. Four different genes encoded with the enzymes necessary to catalyze PHBV are bktB, phaB, phaC and tdcB. All the genes came with modified CaMV 35S promoters (except for the tdcB gene, which was promoted by the native CaMV 35S promoter), nos terminator sequences and plastid sequences in order to target the genes into the plastids. Subcloning resulted in the generation of two different orientations of the tdcB, pLMIN (left) and pRMIN (right), both 17.557 and 19.967 kb in sizes. Both plasmids were transformed in immature embryos (IE) of oil palm via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Assays of GUS were performed on one-week-old calli and 90% of the calli turned completely blue. This preliminary test showed positive results of integration. Six-months-old calli were harvested and RNA of the calli were isolated. RT-PCR was used to confirm the transient expression of PHBV transgenes in the calli. The bands were 258, 260, 315 and 200 bp in size for bktB, phaB, phaC and tdcB transgenes respectively. The data obtained showed that the bktB, phaB, phaC and tdcB genes were successfully integrated and expressed in the oil palm genome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lysozyme transgenic goats' milk positively impacts intestinal cytokine expression and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Brundige, Dottie R; Reh, Wade A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2011-12-01

    In addition to its well-recognized antimicrobial properties, lysozyme can also modulate the inflammatory response. This ability may be particularly important in the gastrointestinal tract where inappropriate inflammatory reactions can damage the intestinal epithelium, leading to significant health problems. The consumption of milk from transgenic goats producing human lysozyme (hLZ) in their milk therefore has the potential to positively impact intestinal health. In order to investigate the effect of hLZ-containing milk on the inflammatory response, young pigs were fed pasteurized milk from hLZ or non-transgenic control goats and quantitative real-time PCR was performed to assess local expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and TGF-β1 in the small intestine. Histological changes were also investigated, specifically looking at villi width, length, crypt depth, and lamina propria thickness along with cell counts for intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells. Significantly higher expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 was seen in the ileum of pigs fed pasteurized milk containing hLZ (P = 0.0478), along with an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes (P = 0.0255), and decrease in lamina propria thickness in the duodenum (P = 0.0001). Based on these results we conclude that consuming pasteurized milk containing hLZ does not induce an inflammatory response and improves the health of the small intestine in pigs.

  18. Expression of a coriander desaturase results in petroselinic acid production in transgenic tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Ohlrogge, J.B. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Little is known about the metabolic origin of petroselinic acid (18:1[Delta][sup 6cis]), the principal fatty acid of the seed oil of most Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, and Garryaceae species. To examine the possibility that petroselinic acid is the product of an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase, Western blots of coriander and other Umbelliferae seed extracts were probed with antibodies against the [Delta][sup 9]-stearoyl-ACP desaturase of avocado. In these extracts, proteins of 39 and 36 kDa were detected. Of these, only the 36-kDa peptide was specific to tissues which synthesize petroselinic acid. A cDNA encoding the 36-kDa peptide was isolated from a coriander endosperm cDNA library, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Expression of this cDNA in transgenic tobacco callus was accompanied by the accumulation of petroselinic acid and [Delta][sup 4]-hexadecenoic acid, both of which were absent from control callus. These results demonstrate the involvement of a 36-kDa putative acyl-ACP desaturase in the biosynthetic pathway of petroselinic acid and the ability to produce fatty acids of unusual structure in transgenic plants by the expression of the gene for this desaturase. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Resistance to chronic wasting disease in transgenic mice expressing a naturally occurring allelic variant of deer prion protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meade-White, K.; Race, B.; Trifilo, M.; Bossers, A.; Favara, C.; Lacasse, R.; Miller, M.; Williams, E.; Oldstone, M.; Race, R.; Chesebro, B.

    2007-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is a required factor for susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion diseases. In transgenic mice, expression of prion protein (PrP) from another species often confers susceptibility to prion disease from that donor species. For example, expression of deer

  20. Transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and human CYP2E1 show enhanced resistance to mixed contaminates of heavy metals and organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic alfalfa plants simultaneously expressing human CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were generated from hypocotyl segments by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system for the phytoremediation of the mixed contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. The transgenic alfalfa plants were screened by a combination of kanamycin resistance, PCR, GST and CYP2E1 activity and Western blot analysis. The capabilities of mixed contaminants (heavy metals-organic compounds) resistance of pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants became markedly increased compared with the transgenic alfalfa plants expressing single gene (GST or CYP2E1) and the non-transgenic control plants. The pKHCG alfalfa plants exhibited strong resistance towards the mixtures of cadmium (Cd) and trichloroethylene (TCE) that were metabolized by the introduced GST and CYP2E1 in combination. Our results show that the pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants have good potential for phytoremediation because they have cross-tolerance towards the complex contaminants of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Therefore, these transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing GST and human P450 CDNAs may have a great potential for phytoremediation of mixed environmental contaminants.

  1. Transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and human CYP2E1 show enhanced resistance to mixed contaminates of heavy metals and organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan [Department of Pharmaceutics, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, P.O. Box 70, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liu, Junhong, E-mail: liujh@qust.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, P.O. Box 70, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Transgenic alfalfa plants simultaneously expressing human CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were generated from hypocotyl segments by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system for the phytoremediation of the mixed contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. The transgenic alfalfa plants were screened by a combination of kanamycin resistance, PCR, GST and CYP2E1 activity and Western blot analysis. The capabilities of mixed contaminants (heavy metals-organic compounds) resistance of pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants became markedly increased compared with the transgenic alfalfa plants expressing single gene (GST or CYP2E1) and the non-transgenic control plants. The pKHCG alfalfa plants exhibited strong resistance towards the mixtures of cadmium (Cd) and trichloroethylene (TCE) that were metabolized by the introduced GST and CYP2E1 in combination. Our results show that the pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants have good potential for phytoremediation because they have cross-tolerance towards the complex contaminants of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Therefore, these transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing GST and human P450 CDNAs may have a great potential for phytoremediation of mixed environmental contaminants.

  2. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.

    2000-03-01

    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  3. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants via salicylic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Meng-Meng; Yang, Dong-Yue; Zhu, Shao-Bo; Ma, Na-Na; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of SA, which resulted in significant physiological and gene expression changes in transgenic tobacco plants, leading to the decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco. NAC family, the largest transcription factors in plants, responses to different environmental stimuli. Here, we isolated a typical NAC transcription factor (SlJA2) from tomato and got transgenic tobacco with SlJA2 over-expression. Expression of SlJA2 was induced by heat stress (42 °C), chilling stress (4 °C), drought stress, osmotic stress, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of salicylic acid by regulating expression of salicylic acid degradation gene under heat stress. Compared to WT plants, stomatal apertures and water loss increased in transgenic plants, and the damage of photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll breakdown were more serious in transgenic plants under heat stress. Meanwhile, more H 2 O 2 and O 2 ·- were accumulated transgenic plants and proline synthesis was restricted, which resulted in more serious oxidative damage compared to WT. qRT-PCR analysis showed that over-expression of SlJA2 could down-regulate genes involved in reactive oxygen species scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and response to heat stress. All the above results indicated that SlJA2 may be a negative regulator responded to plant's heat tolerance. Thus, this study provides new insight into roles of NAC family member in plant response to abiotic stress.

  4. Expression of mutant TDP-43 induces neuronal dysfunction in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Dennis W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal distribution, modification and aggregation of transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 are the hallmarks of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Researchers have identified 44 mutations in the TARDBP gene that encode TDP-43 as causative for cases of sporadic and familial ALS http://www.molgen.ua.ac.be/FTDMutations/. Certain mutant forms of TDP-43, such as M337V, are associated with increased low molecular weight (LMW fragments compared to wild-type (WT TDP-43 and cause neuronal apoptosis and developmental delay in chick embryos. Such findings support a direct link between altered TDP-43 function and neurodegeneration. Results To explore the pathogenic properties of the M337V mutation, we generated and characterized two mouse lines expressing human TDP-43 (hTDP-43M337V carrying this mutation. hTDP-43M337V was expressed primarily in the nuclei of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and intranuclear and cytoplasmic phosphorylated TDP-43 aggregates were frequently detected. The levels of TDP-43 LMW products of ~25 kDa and ~35 kDa species were also increased in the transgenic mice. Moreover, overexpression of hTDP-43M337V dramatically down regulated the levels of mouse TDP-43 (mTDP-43 protein and RNA, indicating TDP-43 levels are tightly controlled in mammalian systems. TDP-43M337V mice displayed reactive gliosis, widespread ubiquitination, chromatolysis, gait abnormalities, and early lethality. Abnormal cytoplasmic mitochondrial aggregates and abnormal phosphorylated tau were also detected in the mice. Conclusion Our novel TDP-43M337V mouse model indicates that overexpression of hTDP-43M337V alone is toxic in vivo. Because overexpression of hTDP-43 in wild-type TDP-43 and TDP-43M337V mouse models produces similar phenotypes, the mechanisms causing pathogenesis in the mutant

  5. Focal glomerulosclerosis in proviral and c-fms transgenic mice links Vpr expression to HIV-associated nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, Peter; Roberts, Amanda; Uwiera, Richard; Witmer, Jennifer; Sharma, Kirti; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and morphologic features of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), such as proteinuria, sclerosing glomerulopathy, tubular degeneration, and interstitial disease, have been modeled in mice bearing an HIV proviral transgene rendered noninfectious through a deletion in gag/pol. Exploring the genetic basis of HIVAN, HIV transgenic mice bearing mutations in either or both of the accessory genes nef and vpr were created. Proteinuria and focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) only developed in mice with an intact vpr gene. Transgenic mice bearing a simplified proviral DNA (encoding only Tat and Vpr) developed renal disease characterized by FGS in which Vpr protein was localized to glomerular and tubular epithelia by immunohistochemistry. The dual transgenic progeny of HIV[Tat/Vpr] mice bred to HIV[ΔVpr] proviral transgenic mice displayed a more severe nephropathy with no apparent increase in Vpr expression, implying that multiple viral genes contribute to HIVAN. However, the unique contribution of macrophage-specific Vpr expression in the development of glomerular disease was underscored by the induction of FGS in multiple murine lines bearing a c-fms/vpr transgene

  6. Transgenic expression in citrus of single-chain antibody fragments specific to Citrus tristeza virus confers virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Magdalena; Esteban, Olga; Gil, Maite; Gorris, M Teresa; Martínez, M Carmen; Peña, Leandro; Cambra, Mariano

    2010-12-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two different scFv constructs, separately and simultaneously, were generated. These constructs derived from the well-referenced monoclonal antibodies 3DF1 and 3CA5, specific against CTV p25 major coat protein, whose mixture is able to detect all CTV isolates characterized so far. ScFv accumulation levels were low and could be readily detected just in four transgenic lines. Twelve homogeneous and vigorous lines were propagated and CTV-challenged by graft inoculation with an aggressive CTV strain. A clear protective effect was observed in most transgenic lines, which showed resistance in up to 40-60% of propagations. Besides, both a delay in symptom appearance and attenuation of symptom intensity were observed in infected transgenic plants compared with control plants. This effect was more evident in lines carrying the 3DF1scFv transgene, being probably related to the biological functions of the epitope recognized by this antibody. This is the first report describing successful protection against a pathogen in woody transgenic plants by ectopic expression of scFv recombinant antibodies.

  7. Extensive phenotypic characterization of a new transgenic mouse reveals pleiotropic perturbations in physiology due to mesenchymal hGH minigene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklamanos, Aimilios; Rozman, Jan; Roulis, Manolis; Karagianni, Niki; Armaka, Maria; Wu, Moya; Brachthäuser, Laura; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Horsch, Marion; Beckers, Johannes; Rathkolb, Birgit; Adler, Thure; Neff, Frauke; Wolf, Eckhard; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Kollias, George

    2017-05-25

    The human growth hormone (hGH) minigene used for transgene stabilization in mice has been recently identified to be locally expressed in the tissues where transgenes are active and associated with phenotypic alterations. Here we extend these findings by analyzing the effect of the hGH minigene in TgC6hp55 transgenic mice which express the human TNFR1 under the control of the mesenchymal cell-specific CollagenVI promoter. These mice displayed a fully penetrant phenotype characterized by growth enhancement accompanied by perturbations in metabolic, skeletal, histological and other physiological parameters. Notably, this phenotype was independent of TNF-TNFR1 signaling since the genetic ablation of either Tnf or Tradd did not rescue the phenotype. Further analyses showed that the hGH minigene was expressed in several tissues, also leading to increased hGH protein levels in the serum. Pharmacological blockade of GH signaling prevented the development of the phenotype. Our results indicate that the unplanned expression of the hGH minigene in CollagenVI expressing mesenchymal cells can lead through local and/or systemic mechanisms to enhanced somatic growth followed by a plethora of primary and/or secondary effects such as hyperphagia, hypermetabolism, disturbed glucose homeostasis, altered hematological parameters, increased bone formation and lipid accumulation in metabolically critical tissues.

  8. Expression of Plant Sweet Protein Brazzein in the Milk of Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sen; Song, Hong; Pang, Daxin; Zou, Qingjian; Li, Li; Yan, Quanmei; Fan, Nana; Zhao, Xiangjie; Yu, Hao; Li, Zhanjun; Wang, Haijun; Gao, Fei; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-01-01

    Sugar, the most popular sweetener, is essential in daily food. However, excessive sugar intake has been associated with several lifestyle-related diseases. Finding healthier and more economical alternatives to sugars and artificial sweeteners has received increasing attention to fulfill the growing demand. Brazzein, which comes from the pulp of the edible fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill, is a protein that is 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose by weight. Here we report the production of transgenic mice that carry the optimized brazzein gene driven by the goat Beta-casein promoter, which specifically directs gene expression in the mammary glands. Using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that brazzein could be efficiently expressed in mammalian milk, while retaining its sweetness. This study presents the possibility of producing plant protein–sweetened milk from large animals such as cattle and goats. PMID:24155905

  9. Expression of plant sweet protein brazzein in the milk of transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yan

    Full Text Available Sugar, the most popular sweetener, is essential in daily food. However, excessive sugar intake has been associated with several lifestyle-related diseases. Finding healthier and more economical alternatives to sugars and artificial sweeteners has received increasing attention to fulfill the growing demand. Brazzein, which comes from the pulp of the edible fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill, is a protein that is 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose by weight. Here we report the production of transgenic mice that carry the optimized brazzein gene driven by the goat Beta-casein promoter, which specifically directs gene expression in the mammary glands. Using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that brazzein could be efficiently expressed in mammalian milk, while retaining its sweetness. This study presents the possibility of producing plant protein-sweetened milk from large animals such as cattle and goats.

  10. [Induced expression of Serratia marcescens ribonuclease III gene in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. SR1 tobacco plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirnov, I V; Trifonova, E A; Romanova, A V; Filipenko, E A; Sapotsky, M V; Malinovsky, V I; Kochetov, A V; Shumny, V K

    2016-11-01

    Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. SR1 plants, characterized by an increase in the level of dsRNA-specific hydrolytic activity after induction by wounding, were obtained. The Solanum lycopersicum anionic peroxidase gene promoter (new for plant genetic engineering) was for the first time used for the induced expression of the target Serratia marcescens RNase III gene. Upon infection with the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the transgenic plants of the obtained lines did not differ significantly from the control group in the level of TMV capsid protein accumulation. In general, no delay in the development of the infection symptoms was observed in transgenic plants as compared with the control group. The obtained transgenic plants represent a new model for the study of the biological role of endoribonucleases from the RNase III family, including in molecular mechanisms of resistance to pathogens.

  11. Transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) expressing polygalacturonase inhibiting protein from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and stilbene synthase from grape (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A; Jacobsen, H-J; de Kathen, A; de Lorenzo, G; Briviba, K; Hain, R; Ramsay, G; Kiesecker, H

    2006-11-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties Baroness (United Kingdome) and Baccara (France) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer with pGPTV binary vectors containing the bar gene in combination with two different antifungal genes coding for polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) driven by a double 35S promoter, or the stilbene synthase (Vst1) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) driven by its own elicitor-inducible promoter. Transgenic lines were established and transgenes combined via conventional crossing. Resveratrol, produced by Vst1 transgenic plants, was detected using HPLC and the PGIP expression was determined in functional inhibition assays against fungal polygalacturonases. Stable inheritance of the antifungal genes in the transgenic plants was demonstrated.

  12. Expression levels of antimicrobial peptide tachyplesin I in transgenic Ornithogalum lines affect the resistance to Pectobacterium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Alexander; Joshi, Janak Raj; Carmi, Nir; Yedidia, Iris

    2016-11-20

    The genus Ornithogalum includes several ornamental species that suffer substantial losses from bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacteria. The absence of effective control measures for use against soft rot bacteria led to the initiation of a project in which a small antimicrobial peptide from an Asian horseshoe crab, tachyplesin (tpnI), was introduced into two commercial cultivars: O. dubium and O. thyrsoides. Disease severity and bacterial colonization were examined in transgenic lines expressing this peptide. Disease resistance was evaluated in six lines of each species by measuring bacterial proliferation in the plant tissue. Three transgenic lines of each species were subjected to further analysis in which the expression level of the transgene was evaluated using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. The development of disease symptoms and bacterial colonization of the plant tissue were also examined using GFP-expressing strain of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Pcb3. Confocal-microscopy imaging revealed significantly reduced quantities of bacterial cells in the transgenic plant lines that had been challenged with the bacterium. The results clearly demonstrate that tpnI expression reduces bacterial proliferation, colonization and disease symptom (reduced by 95-100%) in the transgenic plant tissues. The quantity of tpnI transcripts, as measured by qRT-PCR, was negatively correlated with the protection afforded to the plants, as measured by the reduced severity of disease symptoms in the tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppression of GPI-induced arthritis by oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing altered peptide ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Asashima, Hiromitsu; Ohta, Masaru; Wakasa, Yuhya; Matsumoto, Isao; Takaiwa, Fumio; Sumida, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanisms of transgenic rice seeds expressing the altered peptide ligand (APL) of human glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase (hGPI 325-339 ) in mice model of GPI induced arthritis (GIA). We generated transgenic rice expressing APL12 which was analog peptide of hGPI 325-339 . The transgenic rice seeds were orally administered prophylactically before the induction of GIA. The severity of arthritis and titers of serum anti-GPI antibodies were evaluated. We examined IL-17 production from splenocytes and inguinal lymph node (iLN) and mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN) cells and analyzed the expression levels of functional molecules from splenocytes and iLN cells. Prophylactic treatment of GIA mice with APL12 transgenic rice seeds (APL12-TG) significantly improved the severity of arthritis, histopathological arthritis scores, and decreased titers of serum anti-GPI antibodies, BAFF mRNA in iLN cells, IL-17 production in splenocytes and iLN cells compared with non-transgenic rice-treated mice. APL12-TG-treated GIA mice showed upregulation of Foxp3 and GITR protein in CD4 + CD25 + cells in the spleen. APL12-TG improved the severity of GIA through a decrease in production of IL-17 and anti-GPI antibodies via upregulation of Foxp3 and GITR expression on regulatory T cells in spleen.

  14. Enhanced salt stress tolerance in transgenic potato plants expressing IbMYB1, a sweet potato transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Jie; Kim, Myoung-Duck; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-01

    IbMYB1, a transcription factor (TF) for R2R3-type MYB TFs, is a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis during storage of sweet potatoes. Anthocyanins provide important antioxidants of nutritional value to humans, and also protect plants from oxidative stress. This study aimed to increase transgenic potatoes' (Solanum tuberosum cv. LongShu No.3) tolerance to environmental stress and enhance their nutritional value. Transgenic potato plants expressing IbMYB1 genes under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter (referred to as SM plants) were successfully generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two representative transgenic SM5 and SM12 lines were evaluated for enhanced tolerance to salinity, UV-B rays, and drought conditions. Following treatment of 100 mM NaCl, seedlings of SM5 and SM12 lines showed less root damage and more shoot growth than control lines expressing only an empty vector. Transgenic potato plants in pots treated with 400 mM NaCl showed high amounts of secondary metabolites, including phenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, compared with control plants. After treatment of 400 mM NaCl, transgenic potato plants also showed high DDPH radical scavenging activity and high PS II photochemical efficiency compared with the control line. Furthermore, following treatment of NaCl, UV-B, and drought stress, the expression levels of IbMYB1 and several structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis such as CHS, DFR, and ANS in transgenic plants were found to be correlated with plant phenotype. The results suggest that enhanced IbMYB1 expression affects secondary metabolism, which leads to improved tolerance ability in transgenic potatoes.

  15. Human Treg responses allow sustained recombinant adeno-associated virus–mediated transgene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian; Chulay, Jeffrey D.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Humphries, Margaret; Carey, Brenna; Sandhaus, Robert A.; McElvaney, Noel G.; Messina, Louis; Tang, Qiushi; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Fu, Ann Dongtao; Yachnis, Anthony; Knop, David R.; Ye, Guo-jie; Brantly, Mark; Calcedo, Roberto; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Richman, Lee P.; Vonderheide, Robert H.; Hulme, Maigan A.; Brusko, Todd M.; Wilson, James M.; Flotte, Terence R.

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have shown promise for the treatment of several diseases; however, immune-mediated elimination of transduced cells has been suggested to limit and account for a loss of efficacy. To determine whether rAAV vector expression can persist long term, we administered rAAV vectors expressing normal, M-type α-1 antitrypsin (M-AAT) to AAT-deficient subjects at various doses by multiple i.m. injections. M-specific AAT expression was observed in all subjects in a dose-dependent manner and was sustained for more than 1 year in the absence of immune suppression. Muscle biopsies at 1 year had sustained AAT expression and a reduction of inflammatory cells compared with 3 month biopsies. Deep sequencing of the TCR Vβ region from muscle biopsies demonstrated a limited number of T cell clones that emerged at 3 months after vector administration and persisted for 1 year. In situ immunophenotyping revealed a substantial Treg population in muscle biopsy samples containing AAT-expressing myofibers. Approximately 10% of all T cells in muscle were natural Tregs, which were activated in response to AAV capsid. These results suggest that i.m. delivery of rAAV type 1–AAT (rAAV1-AAT) induces a T regulatory response that allows ongoing transgene expression and indicates that immunomodulatory treatments may not be necessary for rAAV-mediated gene therapy. PMID:24231351

  16. Human Treg responses allow sustained recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Trapnell, Bruce C; Humphries, Margaret; Carey, Brenna; Sandhaus, Robert A; McElvaney, Noel G; Messina, Louis; Tang, Qiushi; Rouhani, Farshid N; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Fu, Ann Dongtao; Yachnis, Anthony; Knop, David R; Ye, Guo-Jie; Brantly, Mark; Calcedo, Roberto; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Richman, Lee P; Vonderheide, Robert H; Hulme, Maigan A; Brusko, Todd M; Wilson, James M; Flotte, Terence R

    2013-12-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have shown promise for the treatment of several diseases; however, immune-mediated elimination of transduced cells has been suggested to limit and account for a loss of efficacy. To determine whether rAAV vector expression can persist long term, we administered rAAV vectors expressing normal, M-type α-1 antitrypsin (M-AAT) to AAT-deficient subjects at various doses by multiple i.m. injections. M-specific AAT expression was observed in all subjects in a dose-dependent manner and was sustained for more than 1 year in the absence of immune suppression. Muscle biopsies at 1 year had sustained AAT expression and a reduction of inflammatory cells compared with 3 month biopsies. Deep sequencing of the TCR Vβ region from muscle biopsies demonstrated a limited number of T cell clones that emerged at 3 months after vector administration and persisted for 1 year. In situ immunophenotyping revealed a substantial Treg population in muscle biopsy samples containing AAT-expressing myofibers. Approximately 10% of all T cells in muscle were natural Tregs, which were activated in response to AAV capsid. These results suggest that i.m. delivery of rAAV type 1-AAT (rAAV1-AAT) induces a T regulatory response that allows ongoing transgene expression and indicates that immunomodulatory treatments may not be necessary for rAAV-mediated gene therapy.

  17. Transgenic Expression of Constitutively Active RAC1 Disrupts Mouse Rod Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongman; Bush, Ronald A.; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Fariss, Robert N.; Kjellstrom, Sten; Sieving, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Dominant-active RAC1 rescues photoreceptor structure in Drosophila rhodopsin-null mutants, indicating an important role in morphogenesis. This report assesses the morphogenetic effect of activated RAC1 during mammalian rod photoreceptor development using transgenic mice that express constitutively active (CA) RAC1. Methods. Transgenic mice were generated by expressing CA RAC1 under control of the Rhodopsin promoter, and morphological features of the photoreceptors were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Function was evaluated by electroretinography. Potential protein partners of CA RAC1 were identified by co-immunoprecipitation of retinal extracts. Results. Constitutively active RAC1 expression in differentiating rods disrupted outer retinal lamination as early as postnatal day (P)6, and many photoreceptor cell nuclei were displaced apically into the presumptive subretinal space. These photoreceptors did not develop normal inner and outer segments and had abnormal placement of synaptic elements. Some photoreceptor nuclei were also mislocalized into the inner nuclear layer. Extensive photoreceptor degeneration was subsequently observed in the adult animal. Constitutively active RAC1 formed a complex with the polarity protein PAR6 and with microtubule motor dynein in mouse retina. The normal localization of the PAR6 complex was disrupted in CA RAC1-expressing rod photoreceptors. Conclusions. Constitutively active RAC1 had a profound negative effect on mouse rod cell viability and development. Rod photoreceptors in the CA RAC1 retina exhibited a defect in polarity and migration. Constitutively active RAC1 disrupted rod morphogenesis and gave a phenotype resembling that found in the Crumbs mutant. PAR6 and dynein are two potential downstream effectors that may be involved in CA RAC1-mediated defective mouse photoreceptor morphogenesis. PMID:24651551

  18. Broader expression of the mouse platelet factor 4-cre transgene beyond the megakaryocyte lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuy, F; Aguilar, A; Strassel, C; Eckly, A; Freund, J-N; Duluc, I; Gachet, C; Lanza, F; Léon, C

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing cre recombinase under the control of the platelet factor 4 (Pf4) promoter, in the context of a 100-kb bacterial artificial chromosome, have become a valuable tool with which to study genetic modifications in the platelet lineage. However, the specificity of cre expression has recently been questioned, and the time of its onset during megakaryopoiesis remains unknown. To characterize the expression of this transgene, we used double-fluorescent cre reporter mice. In the bone marrow, Pf4-cre-mediated recombination had occurred in all CD42-positive megakaryocytes as early as stage I of maturation, and in rare CD42-negative cells. In circulating blood, all platelets had recombined, along with only a minor fraction of CD45-positive cells. However, we found that all tissues contained recombined cells of monocyte/macrophage origin. When recombined, these cells might potentially modify the function of the tissues under particular conditions, especially inflammatory conditions, which further increase recombination in immune cells. Unexpectedly, a subset of epithelial cells from the distal colon showed signs of recombination resulting from endogenous Pf4-cre expression. This is probably the basis of the unexplained colon tumors developed by Apc(flox/flox) ;Pf4-cre mice, generated in a separate study on the role of Apc in platelet formation. Altogether, our results indicate early recombination with full penetrance in megakaryopoiesis, and confirm the value of Pf4-cre mice for the genetic engineering of megakaryocytes and platelets. However, care must be taken when investigating the role of platelets in processes outside hemostasis, especially when immune cells might be involved. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. [The creation of transgenic tobacco plants expressing fragments of the ARGOS and NtEXPA4 genes in antisense orientation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Kniazev, A V; Postrigan', B N; Chemeris, A V

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the fragments of the ARGOS and NtEXPA4 genes in antisense orientation have been created. Eleven lines of transgenic plants were investigated and five of them were characterized by a decrease in the sizes of the leaves and flowers as compared to control. Stalk sizes decreased when only the NtEXPA4 gene fragment was used. The organ size of the experimental plants decreased because of a reduction in the level of both cell division and cell expansion. Two lines of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the part of the ARGOS gene in antisense orientation were characterized by a reduction in the level of the NtEXPA1 and NtEXPA4 gene expression.

  20. Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ling Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stresstolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcriptionfactors (Hsfs. In this study, we generated transgenic riceover-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphologicalobservation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plantsexhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salttreatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviativeappearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leafelectrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content of transgenicplants were lower than those of wild type plants. Meanwhile,transgenic rice seedlings restored normal growth but wild typeplants could not be rescued after drought and re-wateringtreatment. These findings indicate that over-expression ofOsHsfA7 gene can increase tolerance to salt and drought stressesin rice seedlings. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 31-36

  1. Enhanced virus resistance in transgenic maize expressing a dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease gene from E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiuling; Lu, Yingui; Di, Dianping; Zhang, Zhiyan; Liu, He; Tian, Lanzhi; Zhang, Aihong; Zhang, Yanjing; Shi, Lindan; Guo, Bihong; Xu, Jin; Duan, Xifei; Wang, Xianbing; Han, Chenggui; Miao, Hongqin; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2013-01-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD), caused by several Fijiviruses in the family Reoviridae, is a global disease that is responsible for substantial yield losses in maize. Although some maize germplasm have low levels of polygenic resistance to MRDD, highly resistant cultivated varieties are not available for agronomic field production in China. In this work, we have generated transgenic maize lines that constitutively express rnc70, a mutant E. coli dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease gene. Transgenic lines were propagated and screened under field conditions for 12 generations. During three years of evaluations, two transgenic lines and their progeny were challenged with Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), the causal agent of MRDD in China, and these plants exhibited reduced levels of disease severity. In two normal years of MRDD abundance, both lines were more resistant than non-transgenic plants. Even in the most serious MRDD year, six out of seven progeny from one line were resistant, whereas non-transgenic plants were highly susceptible. Molecular approaches in the T12 generation revealed that the rnc70 transgene was integrated and expressed stably in transgenic lines. Under artificial conditions permitting heavy virus inoculation, the T12 progeny of two highly resistant lines had a reduced incidence of MRDD and accumulation of RBSDV in infected plants. In addition, we confirmed that the RNC70 protein could bind directly to RBSDV dsRNA in vitro. Overall, our data show that RNC70-mediated resistance in transgenic maize can provide efficient protection against dsRNA virus infection.

  2. Enhanced virus resistance in transgenic maize expressing a dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease gene from E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Cao

    Full Text Available Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD, caused by several Fijiviruses in the family Reoviridae, is a global disease that is responsible for substantial yield losses in maize. Although some maize germplasm have low levels of polygenic resistance to MRDD, highly resistant cultivated varieties are not available for agronomic field production in China. In this work, we have generated transgenic maize lines that constitutively express rnc70, a mutant E. coli dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease gene. Transgenic lines were propagated and screened under field conditions for 12 generations. During three years of evaluations, two transgenic lines and their progeny were challenged with Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, the causal agent of MRDD in China, and these plants exhibited reduced levels of disease severity. In two normal years of MRDD abundance, both lines were more resistant than non-transgenic plants. Even in the most serious MRDD year, six out of seven progeny from one line were resistant, whereas non-transgenic plants were highly susceptible. Molecular approaches in the T12 generation revealed that the rnc70 transgene was integrated and expressed stably in transgenic lines. Under artificial conditions permitting heavy virus inoculation, the T12 progeny of two highly resistant lines had a reduced incidence of MRDD and accumulation of RBSDV in infected plants. In addition, we confirmed that the RNC70 protein could bind directly to RBSDV dsRNA in vitro. Overall, our data show that RNC70-mediated resistance in transgenic maize can provide efficient protection against dsRNA virus infection.

  3. Increased Expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 Isoform Enhances Sperm Motility in Transgenic Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Tamara; Sanchez, Gladis; McDermott, Jeffrey P.; Nguyen, Anh-Nguyet; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Blanco, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase alpha4 (ATP1A4) isoform is specifically expressed in male germ cells and is highly prevalent in spermatozoa. Although selective inhibition of alpha4 activity with ouabain has been shown to affect sperm motility, a more direct analysis of the role of this isoform in sperm movement has not yet been demonstrated. To establish this, we engineered transgenic mice that express the rat alpha4 isoform fused to green fluorescent protein in male germ cells, under the control of the mouse protamine 1 promoter. We showed that the rat Atp1a4 transgene is expressed in mouse spermatozoa and that it is localized to the sperm flagellum. In agreement with increased expression of the alpha4 isoform, sperm from transgenic mice displayed higher alpha4-specific Na,K-ATPase activity and binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain than wild-type mice. In contrast, expression and activity of ATP1A1 (alpha1), the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, remained unchanged. Similar to wild-type mice, mice expressing the alpha4 transgene exhibited normal testis and sperm morphology and no differences in fertility. However, compared to wild-type mice, sperm from transgenic mice displayed plasma membrane hyperpolarization and higher total and progressive motility. Other parameters of motility also increased, including straight-line, curvilinear, and average path velocities and amplitude of lateral head displacement. In addition, sperm from the transgenic mice showed enhanced sperm hyperactive motility, but no changes in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for the role of the ATP1A4 isoform in sperm motility, under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions. PMID:20826726

  4. Telomeric transgenes are silenced in adult mouse tissues and embryo fibroblasts but are expressed in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; Reynolds, Gloria E; Innes, Lindsay; Pedram, Mehrdad; Jones, Ella; Junabi, Mustafa; Gao, Dong-wei; Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Van Brocklin, Henry; Franc, Benjamin L; Murnane, John P

    2007-12-01

    In addition to their role in protecting the ends of chromosomes, telomeres also influence the expression of adjacent genes, a process called telomere-position effect. We previously reported that the neo and HSV-tk transgenes located adjacent to telomeres in mouse embryonic stem cells are initially expressed at low levels and then become gradually silenced upon passage in culture through a process involving DNA methylation. We also reported extensive DNA methylation in these telomeric transgenes in three different tissues isolated from mice generated from one of these embryonic stem cell clones. In the present study, we demonstrate that embryo fibroblasts isolated from two different mouse strains show extensive DNA methylation and silencing of the telomeric transgenes. Consistent with this observation, we also demonstrate little or no detectable expression of the HSV-tk telomeric transgene in somatic tissues using whole body imaging. In contrast, both telomeric transgenes are expressed at low levels and have little DNA methylation in embryonic stem cell lines isolated from these same mouse strains. Our results demonstrate that telomere-position effect in mammalian cells can be observed either as a low level of expression in embryonic stem cells in the preimplantation embryo or as complete silencing and DNA methylation in differentiated cells and somatic tissues. This pattern of expression of the telomeric transgenes demonstrates that subtelomeric regions, like much of the genome, are epigenetically reprogrammed in the preimplantation embryo, a process that has been proposed to be important in early embryonic development. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  5. Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hsu-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Ai; Hu, Ji-Wei; Ouyang, Pin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB +/− mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity

  6. Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hsu-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Yuan [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Ai; Hu, Ji-Wei [Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Ouyang, Pin, E-mail: ouyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB{sup +/−} mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity.

  7. [Morphological features of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the AINTEGUMENTA gene of rape under control of the Dahlia mosaic virus promoter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Kniazev, A V; Cheremis, A V; Vakhitov, V A

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the AINTEGUMENTA gene of rape under control of the 35S promoter and the promoter of dahlia mosaic virus were obtained. The transgenic plants were characterized by increase in the length of the leaves, flower sizes, stem height, and weight of seeds; at the same time, the degree of increase was greater in the case of use of the dahlia mosaic virus promoter as a regulator of transcription. Ectopic expression of the AINTEGUMENTA gene promoted prolongation of leaf growth, while sizes of epidermal cells of the leaves remained unchanged.

  8. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Transgenic Poplar Dwarf Mutant Reveals Numerous Differentially Expressed Genes Involved in Energy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research, the Tamarix androssowii LEA gene (Tamarix androssowii late embryogenesis abundant protein Mrna, GenBank ID: DQ663481 was transferred into Populus simonii × Populus nigra. Among the eleven transgenic lines, one exhibited a dwarf phenotype compared to the wild type and other transgenic lines, named dwf1. To uncover the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, digital gene expression libraries were produced from dwf1, wild-type, and other normal transgenic lines, XL-5 and XL-6. Gene expression profile analysis indicated that dwf1 had a unique gene expression pattern in comparison to the other two transgenic lines. Finally, a total of 1246 dwf1-unique differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes were further subjected to gene ontology and pathway analysis. Results indicated that photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism related genes were significantly affected. In addition, many transcription factors genes were also differentially expressed in dwf1. These various differentially expressed genes may be critical for dwarf mutant formation; thus, the findings presented here might provide insight for our understanding of the mechanisms of tree growth and development.

  9. Muscle-directed gene therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU): Development of transgenic mice with muscle-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, C.O.; Messing, A.; Wolff, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an attractive target for gene therapy because of shortcomings in current therapy including lifelong commitment to a difficult and expensive diet, persistent mild cognitive deficits in some children despite adequate dietary therapy, and maternal PKU syndrome. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is normally expressed only in liver, but we propose to treat PKU by introducing the gene for PAH into muscle. In order to evaluate both the safety and efficacy of this approach, we have a developed a trangenic mouse which expresses PAH in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. The transgene includes promoter and enhancer sequences from the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene fused to the mouse liver PAH cDNA. Mice which have inherited the transgene are healthy, active, and do not exhibit any signs of muscle weakness or wasting. Ectopic PAH expression in muscle is not detrimental to the health, neurologic function, or reproduction of the mice. Pah{sup enu2} hyperphenylalaninemic mice, a model of human PAH deficiency, bred to carry the transgene have substantial PAH expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle but none in liver. Muscle PAH expression alone does not complement the hyperphenylalaninemic phenotype of Pah{sup enu2} mice. However, administration of reduced tetrahydrobiopterin to transgenic Pah{sup enu2} mice is associated with a 25% mean decrease in serum phenylalanine levels. We predict that ectopic expression of PAH in muscle along with adequate muscle supplies of reduced biopterin cofactor will decrease hyperphenylalaninemia in PKU.

  10. Single-cell real-time imaging of transgene expression upon lipofection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiume, Giuseppe [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Di Rienzo, Carmine [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127, Pisa (Italy); Marchetti, Laura [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Pozzi, Daniela; Caracciolo, Giulio [Department of Molecular Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161, Rome (Italy); Cardarelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.cardarelli@iit.it [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-05-20

    Here we address the process of lipofection by quantifying the expression of a genetically-encoded fluorescent reporter at the single-cell level, and in real-time, by confocal imaging in live cells. The Lipofectamine gold-standard formulation is compared to the alternative promising DC-Chol/DOPE formulation. In both cases, we report that only dividing cells are able to produce a detectable amount of the fluorescent reporter protein. Notably, by measuring fluorescence over time in each pair of daughter cells, we find that Lipofectamine-based transfection statistically yields a remarkably higher degree of “symmetry” in protein expression between daughter cells as compared to DC-Chol/DOPE. A model is envisioned in which the degree of symmetry of protein expression is linked to the number of bioavailable DNA copies within the cell before nuclear breakdown. Reported results open new perspectives for the understanding of the lipofection mechanism and define a new experimental platform for the quantitative comparison of transfection reagents. -- Highlights: •The process of lipofection is followed by quantifying the transgene expression in real time. •The Lipofectamine gold-standard is compared to the promising DC-Chol/DOPE formulation. •We report that only dividing cells are able to produce the fluorescent reporter protein. •The degree of symmetry of protein expression in daughter cells is linked to DNA bioavailability. •A new experimental platform for the quantitative comparison of transfection reagents is proposed.

  11. Single-cell real-time imaging of transgene expression upon lipofection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiume, Giuseppe; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Marchetti, Laura; Pozzi, Daniela; Caracciolo, Giulio; Cardarelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Here we address the process of lipofection by quantifying the expression of a genetically-encoded fluorescent reporter at the single-cell level, and in real-time, by confocal imaging in live cells. The Lipofectamine gold-standard formulation is compared to the alternative promising DC-Chol/DOPE formulation. In both cases, we report that only dividing cells are able to produce a detectable amount of the fluorescent reporter protein. Notably, by measuring fluorescence over time in each pair of daughter cells, we find that Lipofectamine-based transfection statistically yields a remarkably higher degree of “symmetry” in protein expression between daughter cells as compared to DC-Chol/DOPE. A model is envisioned in which the degree of symmetry of protein expression is linked to the number of bioavailable DNA copies within the cell before nuclear breakdown. Reported results open new perspectives for the understanding of the lipofection mechanism and define a new experimental platform for the quantitative comparison of transfection reagents. -- Highlights: •The process of lipofection is followed by quantifying the transgene expression in real time. •The Lipofectamine gold-standard is compared to the promising DC-Chol/DOPE formulation. •We report that only dividing cells are able to produce the fluorescent reporter protein. •The degree of symmetry of protein expression in daughter cells is linked to DNA bioavailability. •A new experimental platform for the quantitative comparison of transfection reagents is proposed.

  12. Generation of transgenic cattle expressing human β-defensin 3 as an approach to reducing susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Guanghui; Ru, Kun; Liu, Xin; Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Wu, Yongyan; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis results from infection with Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis family. Worldwide, M. bovis infections result in economic losses in the livestock industry; cattle production is especially hard-hit by this disease. Generating M. bovis-resistant cattle may potentially mitigate the impact of this disease by reducing M. bovis infections. In this study, we used transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate cattle expressing the gene encoding human β-defensin 3 (HBD3), which confers resistance to mycobacteria in vitro. We first generated alveolar epithelial cells expressing HBD3 under the control of the bovine MUC1 promoter, and confirmed that these cells secreted HBD3 and possessed anti-mycobacterial capacity. We then generated and identified transgenic cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of genetically modified embryos provided evidence that monoclonal transgenic bovine fetal fibroblast cells have an integral reprogramming ability that is similar to that of normal cells. Five genetically modified cows were generated, and their anti-mycobacterial capacities were evaluated. Alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages from these cattle expressed higher levels of HBD3 protein compared with non-transgenic cells and possessed effective anti-mycobacterial capacity. These results suggest that the overall risk of M. bovis infection in transgenic cattle is efficiently reduced, and support the development of genetically modified animals as an effective tool to reduce M. bovis infection. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T 0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2 -ΔΔCt analyses revealed that T 0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T 0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g -1 fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T 0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T 1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g -1 fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Regulated expression of human A γ-, β-, and hybrid γ β-globin genes in transgenic mice: manipulation of the developmental expression patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kollias (George); N. Wrighton; J. Hurst; F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractWe have introduced the human fetal gamma- and adult beta-globin genes into the germ line of mice. Analysis of the resulting transgenic mice shows that the human gamma-globin gene is expressed like an embryonic mouse globin gene; the human beta-globin gene is expressed (as previously

  15. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing Tomato Glutathione S-Transferase Showed Enhanced Resistance to Salt and Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Xing, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Xue, Yong; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Although glutathione S-transferases (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) are involved in response to abiotic stress, limited information is available regarding gene function in tomato. In this study, a GST gene from tomato, designated LeGSTU2, was cloned and functionally characterized. Expression profile analysis results showed that it was expressed in roots and flowers, and the transcription was induced by salt, osmotic, and heat stress. The gene was then introduced to Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were normal in terms of growth and maturity compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic plants also showed an enhanced resistance to salt and osmotic stress induced by NaCl and mannitol. The increased tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the changes in proline, malondialdehyde and antioxidative emzymes activities. Our results indicated that the gene from tomato plays a positive role in improving tolerance to salinity and drought stresses in Arabidopsis.

  16. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing Tomato Glutathione S-Transferase Showed Enhanced Resistance to Salt and Drought Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available Although glutathione S-transferases (GST, EC 2.5.1.18 are involved in response to abiotic stress, limited information is available regarding gene function in tomato. In this study, a GST gene from tomato, designated LeGSTU2, was cloned and functionally characterized. Expression profile analysis results showed that it was expressed in roots and flowers, and the transcription was induced by salt, osmotic, and heat stress. The gene was then introduced to Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were normal in terms of growth and maturity compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic plants also showed an enhanced resistance to salt and osmotic stress induced by NaCl and mannitol. The increased tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the changes in proline, malondialdehyde and antioxidative emzymes activities. Our results indicated that the gene from tomato plays a positive role in improving tolerance to salinity and drought stresses in Arabidopsis.

  17. Over-expression of the cucumber expansin gene (Cs-EXPA1) in transgenic maize seed for cellulose deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sangwoong; Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Choi, Seo-eun; Bray, Jeff; Love, Robert; Lane, Jeffrey; Drees, Carol; Howard, John H; Hood, Elizabeth E

    2016-04-01

    Plant cell wall degradation into fermentable sugars by cellulases is one of the greatest barriers to biofuel production. Expansin protein loosens the plant cell wall by opening up the complex of cellulose microfibrils and polysaccharide matrix components thereby increasing its accessibility to cellulases. We over-expressed cucumber expansin in maize kernels to produce enough protein to assess its potential to serve as an industrial enzyme for applications particularly in biomass conversion. We used the globulin-1 embryo-preferred promoter to express the cucumber expansin gene in maize seed. Expansin protein was targeted to one of three sub-cellular locations: the cell wall, the vacuole, or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To assess the level of expansin accumulation in seeds of transgenic kernels, a high throughput expansin assay was developed. The highest expressing plants were chosen and enriched crude expansin extract from those plants was tested for synergistic effects with cellulase on several lignocellulosic substrates. Activity of recombinant cucumber expansin from transgenic kernels was confirmed on these pretreated substrates. The best transgenic lines (ER-targeted) can now be used for breeding to increase expansin expression for use in the biomass conversion industry. Results of these experiments show the success of expansin over-expression and accumulation in transgenic maize seed without negative impact on growth and development and confirm its synergistic effect with cellulase on deconstruction of complex cell wall substrates.

  18. Tissue-specific posttranscriptional downregulation of expression of the S100A4(mts1) gene in transgenic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambartsumian, N; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grigorian, M

    1998-01-01

    The S100A4(mts1) is a gene associated with generation of metastatic disease. In order to analyze the consequences of alteration of the pattern of expression of the S100A4(mts1) gene we obtained strains of transgenic mice bearing the S100A4(mts1) gene under the control of a ubiquitous...... that normally do not express the gene in the wild-type animal. The transgene RNA is detected in the polysomes indicating that it could be translated into the S100A4(Mts1) protein. The specificity of the S100A4(Mts1) protein expression is determined by a complex mechanism including regulation of translation and/or...... and constitutive 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) gene promoter. In transgenic animals the expression of the transgene RNA was detected in all organs, but only some of the organs showed elevated levels of the protein. Expression of the S100A4(Mts1) protein was downregulated in the organs...

  19. Overexpression of miR-155 in the Liver of Transgenic Mice Alters the Expression Profiling of Hepatic Genes Associated with Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wei, Jieqiong; Lin, Xia; Zeng, Hui; Yao, Longping; Chen, Xuebing; Zhuang, Jingshen; Weng, Jie; Liu, Yu; Lin, Jihong; Wu, Qinghong; Wang, Wanshan; Yao, Kaitai; Xu, Kang; Xiao, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic expression profiling has revealed miRNA changes in liver diseases, while hepatic miR-155 expression was increased in murine non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, suggesting that miR-155 might regulate the biological process of lipid metabolism. To illustrate the effects of miR-155 gain of function in transgenic mouse liver on lipid metabolism, transgenic mice (i.e., Rm155LG mice) for the conditional overexpression of mouse miR-155 transgene mediated by Cre/lox P system were firstly generated around the world in this study. Rm155LG mice were further crossed to Alb-Cre mice to realize the liver-specific overexpression of miR-155 transgene in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre double transgenic mice which showed the unaltered body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat pad weight and gross morphology and appearance of liver. Furthermore, liver-specific overexpression of miR-155 transgene resulted in significantly reduced levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), as well as remarkably decreased contents of hepatic lipid, TG, HDL and free fatty acid in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre transgenic mice. More importantly, microarray data revealed a general downward trend in the expression profile of hepatic genes with functions typically associated with fatty acid, cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism, which is likely at least partially responsible for serum cholesterol and triglyceride lowering observed in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre mice. In this study, we demonstrated that hepatic overexpression of miR-155 alleviated nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet. Additionally, carboxylesterase 3/triacylglycerol hydrolase (Ces3/TGH) was identified as a direct miR-155 target gene that is potentially responsible for the partial liver phenotypes observed in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre mice. Taken together, these data from miR-155 gain of function study suggest, for what we believe is the first time, the altered lipid metabolism and provide new insights into the metabolic

  20. Reduction of GIGANTEA expression in transgenic Brassica rapa enhances salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin A; Jung, Ha-Eun; Hong, Joon Ki; Hermand, Victor; Robertson McClung, C; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Joo Yeol; Lee, Soo In; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Jungsun; Yun, DaeJin; Kim, WeoYeon

    2016-09-01

    Here we report the enhancement of tolerance to salt stress in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) through the RNAi-mediated reduction of GIGANTEA ( GI ) expression. Circadian clocks integrate environmental signals with internal cues to coordinate diverse physiological outputs. The GIGANTEA (GI) gene was first discovered due to its important contribution to photoperiodic flowering and has since been shown to be a critical component of the plant circadian clock and to contribute to multiple environmental stress responses. We show that the GI gene in Brassica rapa (BrGI) is similar to Arabidopsis GI in terms of both expression pattern and function. BrGI functionally rescued the late-flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis gi-201 loss-of-function mutant. RNAi-mediated suppression of GI expression in Arabidopsis Col-0 and in the Chinese cabbage, B. rapa DH03, increased tolerance to salt stress. Our results demonstrate that the molecular functions of GI described in Arabidopsis are conserved in B. rapa and suggest that manipulation of gene expression through RNAi and transgenic overexpression could enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses and thus improve agricultural crop production.

  1. Gene expression profile of cervical and skin tissues from human papillomavirus type 16 E6 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Villanueva, D; Diaz-Chavez, J; Uribe-Figueroa, L; Rangel-Escareão, C; Hidalgo-Miranda, A; March-Mifsut, S; Jimenez-Sanchez, G; Lambert, PF; Gariglio, P

    2008-01-01

    Although K14E6 transgenic mice develop spontaneous tumors of the skin epithelium, no spontaneous reproductive tract malignancies arise, unless the transgenic mice were treated chronically with 17β-estradiol. These findings suggest that E6 performs critical functions in normal adult cervix and skin, highlighting the need to define E6-controlled transcriptional programs in these tissues. We evaluated the expression profile of 14,000 genes in skin or cervix from young K14E6 transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic. To identify differentially expressed genes a linear model was implemented using R and the LIMMA package. Two criteria were used to select the set of relevant genes. First a set of genes with a Log-odds ≥ 3 were selected. Then, a hierarchical search of genes was based on Log Fold Changes. Microarray analysis identified a total of 676 and 1154 genes that were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively, in skin from K14E6 transgenic mice. On the other hand, in the cervix from K14E6 transgenic mice we found that only 97 and 252 genes were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively. One of the most affected processes in the skin from K14E6 transgenic mice was the cell cycle. We also found that skin from transgenic mice showed down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and genes related to the immune response. In the cervix of K14E6 transgenic mice, we could not find affected any gene related to the cell cycle and apoptosis pathways but did observe alterations in the expression of immune response genes. Pathways such as angiogenesis, cell junction and epidermis development, also were altered in their gene expression profiles in both tissues. Expression of the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein in our model alters expression of genes that fell into several functional groups providing insights into pathways by which E6 deregulate cell cycle progression, apoptosis, the host resistance to infection and immune function, providing new opportunities for early

  2. Gene expression profile of cervical and skin tissues from human papillomavirus type 16 E6 transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert PF

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although K14E6 transgenic mice develop spontaneous tumors of the skin epithelium, no spontaneous reproductive tract malignancies arise, unless the transgenic mice were treated chronically with 17β-estradiol. These findings suggest that E6 performs critical functions in normal adult cervix and skin, highlighting the need to define E6-controlled transcriptional programs in these tissues. Methods We evaluated the expression profile of 14,000 genes in skin or cervix from young K14E6 transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic. To identify differentially expressed genes a linear model was implemented using R and the LIMMA package. Two criteria were used to select the set of relevant genes. First a set of genes with a Log-odds ≥ 3 were selected. Then, a hierarchical search of genes was based on Log Fold Changes. Results Microarray analysis identified a total of 676 and 1154 genes that were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively, in skin from K14E6 transgenic mice. On the other hand, in the cervix from K14E6 transgenic mice we found that only 97 and 252 genes were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively. One of the most affected processes in the skin from K14E6 transgenic mice was the cell cycle. We also found that skin from transgenic mice showed down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and genes related to the immune response. In the cervix of K14E6 transgenic mice, we could not find affected any gene related to the cell cycle and apoptosis pathways but did observe alterations in the expression of immune response genes. Pathways such as angiogenesis, cell junction and epidermis development, also were altered in their gene expression profiles in both tissues. Conclusion Expression of the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein in our model alters expression of genes that fell into several functional groups providing insights into pathways by which E6 deregulate cell cycle progression, apoptosis, the host resistance to infection

  3. Expression of a mutated phospholipase A2 in transgenic Aedes fluviatilis mosquitoes impacts Plasmodium gallinaceum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, F G; Santos, M N; de Carvalho, T X T; Rocha, B C; Riehle, M A; Pimenta, P F P; Abraham, E G; Jacobs-Lorena, M; Alves de Brito, C F; Moreira, L A

    2008-04-01

    The genetic manipulation of mosquito vectors is an alternative strategy in the fight against malaria. It was previously shown that bee venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibits ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut although mosquito fitness was reduced. To maintain the PLA2 blocking ability without compromising mosquito biology, we mutated the protein-coding sequence to inactivate the enzyme while maintaining the protein's structure. DNA encoding the mutated PLA2 (mPLA2) was placed downstream of a mosquito midgut-specific promoter (Anopheles gambiae peritrophin protein 1 promoter, AgPer1) and this construct used to transform Aedes fluviatilis mosquitoes. Four different transgenic lines were obtained and characterized and all lines significantly inhibited Plasmodium gallinaceum oocyst development (up to 68% fewer oocysts). No fitness cost was observed when this mosquito species expressed the mPLA2.

  4. [Changes of ocular biological parameters and Lumican expression in the monocularly deprivation myopic model of mutant Lumican transgenic mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M S; Song, Y Z; Zhang, F J; Tao, J; Liu, Y B

    2016-11-11

    Objective: To investigate ocular changes in the monocularly deprivation myopic model of mutant Lumican transgenic mice. Comparing influences on biological parameters and sclera development between Lumican transgenic and form deprivation mice, and to prepare for further study of pathogenesis of pathological myopia (PM). Methods: Experimental research. Lumican transgenic mice and wild mice were monocularly lid-sutured at ten days after birth. All eyes were divided into 6 groups, group A(32 eyes): control eyes in transgenic mice; group B(34 eyes): sutured eyes in transgenic mice; group C(34 eyes): fellow eyes in transgenic mice; group D(28 eyes): control eyes in wild mice; group E(32 eyes): sutured eyes in wild mice; group F(32 eyes): fellow eyes in wild mice. Refraction was measured by streak retinoscopye and axial length was measured by vernier caliper at 8 weeks (56 days) after birth. Lumican expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR in all groups. Results: The refraction in group B and group E were (-0.38±1.10) D and (0.14±1.26)D respectively, which were significantly different compared with contralateral groups and normal control groups ( F= 9.525, 10.067; Ptransgenic mice causes myopic changes in deprived eyes. The gene expression level of Lumican in sclera of transgenic mice is significantly increased compared with contralateral eyes or that of wild group. Lumican mutation may effect the development of PM, and the interaction of genetic and environmental factors may lead to development of PM. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 850-855) .

  5. The Effects of Nucleosome Positioning and Chromatin Architecture on Transgene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Colton E.

    Eukaryotes use proteins to carefully package and compact their genomes to fit into the nuclei of their individual cells. Nucleosomes are the primary level of compaction. Nucleosomes are formed when DNA wraps around an octamer of histone proteins and a nucleosome's position can limit access to genetic regulatory elements. Therefore, nucleosomes represent a basic level of gene regulation. DNA and its associated proteins, called chromatin, is usually classified as euchromatin or heterochromatin. Euchromatin is transcriptionally active with loosely packed nucleosomes while heterochromatin is condensed with tightly packed nucleosomes and is transcriptionally silent. In order to become active, heterochromatin must first be remodeled. We have studied the effects of nucleosome positioning on transgene expression in vivo using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. We show that both location and polarity of the DNA sequence can influence transgene expression. We also discuss some considerations for working with CRISPR/Cas9. A major reason for doing in vitro nucleosome reconstitutions is to determine the effects of DNA sequence on nucleosome formation and position. It has previously been implied that nucleosome reconstitutions are stochastic and not very reproducible. We show that nucleosome reconstitutions are highly reproducible under our reaction conditions. Our results also indicate that a minimum depth of 35X sequencing coverage be maintained for maximal gains in Pearson's correlation coefficients. Communicating science with others is an important skill for any researcher. The rising generation of scientists need mentors who can teach them how to be independent thinkers who can carry out scientific experiments and communicate their finding to others. With this goal in mind, we have devised a scaffolding pedagogical method to help transform undergraduates into confident independent thinkers and researchers.

  6. Transgenic Rabbits Expressing Ovine PrP Are Susceptible to Scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sarradin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting a wide range of mammalian species. They are caused by prions, a proteinaceous pathogen essentially composed of PrPSc, an abnormal isoform of the host encoded cellular prion protein PrPC. Constrained steric interactions between PrPSc and PrPC are thought to provide prions with species specificity, and to control cross-species transmission into other host populations, including humans. Transgenetic expression of foreign PrP genes has been successfully and widely used to overcome the recognized resistance of mouse to foreign TSE sources. Rabbit is one of the species that exhibit a pronounced resistance to TSEs. Most attempts to infect experimentally rabbit have failed, except after inoculation with cell-free generated rabbit prions. To gain insights on the molecular determinants of the relative resistance of rabbits to prions, we generated transgenic rabbits expressing the susceptible V136R154Q171 allele of the ovine PRNP gene on a rabbit wild type PRNP New Zealand background and assessed their experimental susceptibility to scrapie prions. All transgenic animals developed a typical TSE 6-8 months after intracerebral inoculation, whereas wild type rabbits remained healthy more than 700 days after inoculation. Despite the endogenous presence of rabbit PrPC, only ovine PrPSc was detectable in the brains of diseased animals. Collectively these data indicate that the low susceptibility of rabbits to prion infection is not enciphered within their non-PrP genetic background.

  7. Memory-enhancing and brain protein expression-stimulating effects of novel calcium antagonist in Alzheimer's disease transgenic female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansone, Baiba; Kadish, Inga; van Groen, Thomas; Beitnere, Ulrika; Plotniece, Aiva; Pajuste, Karlis; Klusa, Vija

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is higher in females than in males, and causes more severe cognitive, memory and behavioral impairments. Previously, in male transgenic (Tg) APPSweDI mice, we reported that the novel lipophilic 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) derivative AP-12 crossed the blood-brain barrier, blocked neuronal and vascular calcium channels, changed brain protein expression and improved behavior. In this study, we used female Tg APPSweDI mice to assess the effects of AP-12 on behavior, and brain protein expression, with a particular focus on those of the GABAergic system. The results showed that in female Tg mice, similar to male Tg mice, AP-12 improved spatial learning/memory performance in the water maze test and demonstrated anxiolytic effect in the elevated zero maze (after single administration of AP-12) and elevated plus maze (after chronic injections of AP-12). In addition, we demonstrated upregulated expression of glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the cingulate cortex and hippocampus, pointing to the role of the GABAergic system as one of the neural networks dysregulated in AD. In both female and male mice, AP-12 did not change the expression of hippocampal Homer-1, a protein which is involved in synaptic plasticity. However, in cingulate cortex, the staining density of Homer-1 was significantly increased in female mice. Further, female mice (similar to male mice) did not show changes in brain AChE expression and in the amyloid beta load in the hippocampus and cingulate cortex. In conclusion, the memory enhancing, anxiolytic and protein expression effects of AP-12 did not show sex specificity in APPSweDI mice. Considering the ability of AP-12 to block brain calcium channels and improve memory by enhancing the GABAergic and synaptic plasticity processes, AP-12 is a promising compound which merits further pre-clinical studies to investigate its usefulness in the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2016

  8. Transgenic expression of antimicrobial peptide D2A21 confers resistance to diseases incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Xanthomonas citri, but not Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Hao

    Full Text Available Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las and citrus canker disease incited by Xanthomonas citri are the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide. To control citrus HLB and canker disease, we previously screened over forty antimicrobial peptides (AMPs in vitro for their potential application in genetic engineering. D2A21 was one of the most active AMPs against X. citri, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti with low hemolysis activity. Therefore, we conducted this work to assess transgenic expression of D2A21 peptide to achieve citrus resistant to canker and HLB. We generated a construct expressing D2A21 and initially transformed tobacco as a model plant. Transgenic tobacco expressing D2A21 was obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and D2A21 expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. We evaluated disease development incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in transgenic tobacco. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing D2A21 showed remarkable disease resistance compared to control plants. Therefore, we performed citrus transformations with the same construct and obtained transgenic Carrizo citrange. Gene integration and gene expression in transgenic plants were determined by PCR and RT-qPCR. Transgenic Carrizo expressing D2A21 showed significant canker resistance while the control plants showed clear canker symptoms following both leaf infiltration and spray inoculation with X. citri 3213. Transgenic Carrizo plants were challenged for HLB evaluation by grafting with Las infected rough lemon buds. Las titer was determined by qPCR in the leaves and roots of transgenic and control plants. However, our results showed that transgenic plants expressing D2A21 did not significantly reduce Las titer compared to control plants. We demonstrated that transgenic expression of D2A21 conferred resistance to diseases incited by P. syringae pv. tabaci and X. citri

  9. Generation of an ABCG2GFPn-puro transgenic line - A tool to study ABCG2 expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orford, Michael; Mean, Richard; Lapathitis, George; Genethliou, Nicholas; Panayiotou, Elena; Panayi, Helen; Malas, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter 2 (ABCG2) is expressed by stem cells in many organs and in stem cells of solid tumors. These cells are isolated based on the side population (SP) phenotype, a Hoechst 3342 dye efflux property believed to be conferred by ABCG2. Because of the limitations of this approach we generated transgenic mice that express Nuclear GFP (GFPn) coupled to the Puromycin-resistance gene, under the control of ABCG2 promoter/enhancer sequences. We show that ABCG2 is expressed in neural progenitors of the developing forebrain and spinal cord and in embryonic and adult endothelial cells of the brain. Using the neurosphere assay, we isolated tripotent ABCG2-expressing neural stem cells from embryonic mouse brain. This transgenic line is a powerful tool for studying the expression of ABCG2 in many tissues and for performing functional studies in different experimental settings.

  10. Generation of an ABCG2{sup GFPn-puro} transgenic line - A tool to study ABCG2 expression in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orford, Michael; Mean, Richard; Lapathitis, George; Genethliou, Nicholas; Panayiotou, Elena; Panayi, Helen [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios 2370, Nicosia (Cyprus); Malas, Stavros, E-mail: smalas@cing.ac.cy [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios 2370, Nicosia (Cyprus); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2009-06-26

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter 2 (ABCG2) is expressed by stem cells in many organs and in stem cells of solid tumors. These cells are isolated based on the side population (SP) phenotype, a Hoechst 3342 dye efflux property believed to be conferred by ABCG2. Because of the limitations of this approach we generated transgenic mice that express Nuclear GFP (GFPn) coupled to the Puromycin-resistance gene, under the control of ABCG2 promoter/enhancer sequences. We show that ABCG2 is expressed in neural progenitors of the developing forebrain and spinal cord and in embryonic and adult endothelial cells of the brain. Using the neurosphere assay, we isolated tripotent ABCG2-expressing neural stem cells from embryonic mouse brain. This transgenic line is a powerful tool for studying the expression of ABCG2 in many tissues and for performing functional studies in different experimental settings.

  11. Light-evoked somatosensory perception of transgenic rats that express channelrhodopsin-2 in dorsal root ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Ji

    Full Text Available In vertebrate somatosensory systems, each mode of touch-pressure, temperature or pain is sensed by sensory endings of different dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons, which conducted to the specific cortical loci as nerve impulses. Therefore, direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve endings causes an erroneous sensation to be conducted by the nerve. We have recently generated several transgenic lines of rat in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 transgene is driven by the Thy-1.2 promoter. In one of them, W-TChR2V4, some neurons were endowed with photosensitivity by the introduction of the ChR2 gene, coding an algal photoreceptor molecule. The DRG neurons expressing ChR2 were immunohistochemically identified using specific antibodies to the markers of mechanoreceptive or nociceptive neurons. Their peripheral nerve endings in the plantar skin as well as the central endings in the spinal cord were also examined. We identified that ChR2 is expressed in a certain population of large neurons in the DRG of W-TChR2V4. On the basis of their morphology and molecular markers, these neurons were classified as mechanoreceptive but not nociceptive. ChR2 was also distributed in their peripheral sensory nerve endings, some of which were closely associated with CK20-positive cells to form Merkel cell-neurite complexes or with S-100-positive cells to form structures like Meissner's corpuscles. These nerve endings are thus suggested to be involved in the sensing of touch. Each W-TChR2V4 rat showed a sensory-evoked behavior in response to blue LED flashes on the plantar skin. It is thus suggested that each rat acquired an unusual sensory modality of sensing blue light through the skin as touch-pressure. This light-evoked somatosensory perception should facilitate study of how the complex tactile sense emerges in the brain.

  12. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Background Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. Methodology/Major Findings We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996–2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010–2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab—event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2—event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. Conclusions/Significance After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt

  13. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P; Venugopal, P Dilip; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996-2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010-2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab-event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2-event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt sweet corn provide strong evidence of field-evolved resistance in H

  14. Construction of Marker-Free Transgenic Strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Using a Cre/loxP-Mediated Recombinase System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kasai

    Full Text Available The Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 encodes a site-specific recombinase called Cre and two 34-bp target sites of Cre recombinase called loxP. The Cre/loxP system has been used to achieve targeted insertion and precise deletion in many animal and plant genomes. The Cre/loxP system has particularly been used for the removal of selectable marker genes to create marker-free transgenic organisms. For the first time, we applied the Cre/loxP-mediated site-specific recombination system to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to construct marker-free transgenic strains. Specifically, C. reinhardtii strains cc4350 and cc124 carrying an aphVIII expression cassette flanked by two direct repeats of loxP were constructed. Separately, a synthetic Cre recombinase gene (CrCRE, the codons of which were optimized for expression in C. reinhardtii, was synthesized, and a CrCRE expression cassette was introduced into strain cc4350 carrying a single copy of the loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette. Among 46 transformants carrying the CrCRE expression cassette stably, the excision of aphVIII by CrCre recombinase was observed only in one transformant. We then constructed an expression cassette of an in-frame fusion of ble to CrCRE via a short linker peptide. The product of ble (Ble is a bleomycin-binding protein that confers resistance to bleomycin-related antibiotics such as Zeocin and localizes in the nucleus. Therefore, the ble-(linker-CrCRE fusion protein is expected to localize in the nucleus. When the ble-(linker-CrCRE expression cassette was integrated into the genome of strain cc4350 carrying a single copy of the loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette, CrCre recombinase-mediated excision of the aphVIII expression cassette was observed at a frequency higher than that in stable transformants of the CrCRE expression cassette. Similarly, from strain cc124 carrying a single loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette, the aphVIII expression cassette was successfully

  15. Construction of Marker-Free Transgenic Strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Using a Cre/loxP-Mediated Recombinase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Yuki; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 encodes a site-specific recombinase called Cre and two 34-bp target sites of Cre recombinase called loxP. The Cre/loxP system has been used to achieve targeted insertion and precise deletion in many animal and plant genomes. The Cre/loxP system has particularly been used for the removal of selectable marker genes to create marker-free transgenic organisms. For the first time, we applied the Cre/loxP-mediated site-specific recombination system to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to construct marker-free transgenic strains. Specifically, C. reinhardtii strains cc4350 and cc124 carrying an aphVIII expression cassette flanked by two direct repeats of loxP were constructed. Separately, a synthetic Cre recombinase gene (CrCRE), the codons of which were optimized for expression in C. reinhardtii, was synthesized, and a CrCRE expression cassette was introduced into strain cc4350 carrying a single copy of the loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette. Among 46 transformants carrying the CrCRE expression cassette stably, the excision of aphVIII by CrCre recombinase was observed only in one transformant. We then constructed an expression cassette of an in-frame fusion of ble to CrCRE via a short linker peptide. The product of ble (Ble) is a bleomycin-binding protein that confers resistance to bleomycin-related antibiotics such as Zeocin and localizes in the nucleus. Therefore, the ble-(linker)-CrCRE fusion protein is expected to localize in the nucleus. When the ble-(linker)-CrCRE expression cassette was integrated into the genome of strain cc4350 carrying a single copy of the loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette, CrCre recombinase-mediated excision of the aphVIII expression cassette was observed at a frequency higher than that in stable transformants of the CrCRE expression cassette. Similarly, from strain cc124 carrying a single loxP-flanked aphVIII expression cassette, the aphVIII expression cassette was successfully excised after

  16. Enhanced pest resistance and increased phenolic production in maize callus transgenically expressing a maize chalcone isomerase -3 like gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant losses in maize production are due to damage by insects and ear rot fungi. A gene designated as chalcone-isomerase-like, located in a quantitative trait locus for resistance to Fusarium ear rot fungi, was cloned from a Fusarium ear rot resistant inbred and transgenically expressed in mai...

  17. Suppression of inflammation by dexamethasone prolongs adenoviral vector-mediated transgene expression in the facial nucleus of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, W.T.J.M.C.; Verhaagen, J

    1998-01-01

    Adenoviral vector directed gene transfer to rat facial motoneurons occurs efficiently following intra-parenchymal injection of relatively high dosages (> or =10(7) pfu per injection) of a prototype first generation adenoviral vector. However, high level of transgene expression, as observed during

  18. Inherited transgene expression of the uidA and bar genes in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Science.gov (United States)

    The expression of two transgenes, bar and uidA, was studied in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants. ‘Nellie White’ had been transformed using the gene gun to bombard with pDM327 that contains the bar-uidA fusion gene under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. PCR analysis confirmed that eight ...

  19. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing the HaHR3 Gene Conferred Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Improved Cotton Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang; Wang, Zhenzhen; He, Yunxin; Xiong, Yehui; Lv, Shun; Li, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-08-30

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as an efficient technology. RNAi insect-resistant transgenic plants expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is ingested into insects to silence target genes can affect the viability of these pests or even lead to their death. HaHR3 , a molt-regulating transcription factor gene, was previously selected as a target expressed in bacteria and tobacco plants to control Helicoverpa armigera by RNAi technology. In this work, we selected the dsRNA- HaHR3 fragment to silence HaHR3 in cotton bollworm for plant mediated-RNAi research. A total of 19 transgenic cotton lines expressing HaHR3 were successfully cultivated, and seven generated lines were used to perform feeding bioassays. Transgenic cotton plants expressing ds HaHR3 were shown to induce high larval mortality and deformities of pupation and adult eclosion when used to feed the newly hatched larvae, and 3rd and 5th instar larvae of H. armigera . Moreover, HaHR3 transgenic cotton also demonstrated an improved cotton yield when compared with controls.

  20. Expression of a cucumber class III chitinase and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia class I glucanase genes in transgenic potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravcikova, J.; Matusikova, I.; Libantova, J.; Bauer, M.; Mlynarova, L.

    2004-01-01

    The genes encoding for a cucumber class III chitinase and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia class I glucanase were co-introduced into Slovak potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding line 116/86 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. For both transgenes the number of integrated copies and level of RNA expression

  1. Neonatal Death and Heart Failure in Mouse with Transgenic HSP60 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial heat shock proteins, such as HSP60, are chaperones responsible for the folding, transport, and quality control of mitochondrial matrix proteins and are essential for maintaining life. Both prosurvival and proapoptotic roles have been proposed for HSP60, and HSP60 is reportedly involved in the initiation of autoimmune, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases. The role of HSP60 in pathogenesis of these diseases remains unclear, partly because of the lack of mouse models expressing HSP60. In this study we generated HSP60 conditional transgenic mice suitable for investigating in vivo outcomes by expressing HSP60 at the targeted organ in disease models. Ubiquitous HSP60 induction in the embryonic stage caused neonatal death in mice at postnatal day 1. A high incidence of atrial septal defects was observed in HSP60-expressing mice, with increased apoptosis and myocyte degeneration that possibly contributed to massive hemorrhage and sponge-like cardiac muscles. Our results showed that neonatal heart failure through HSP60 induction likely involves developmental defects and excessive apoptosis. The conditional HSP60 mouse model is useful for studying crucial biological questions concerning HSP60.

  2. Resistance to organophosphorus agent toxicity in transgenic mice expressing the G117H mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxia; Ticu Boeck, Andreea; Duysen, Ellen G.; Van Keuren, Margaret; Saunders, Thomas L.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2004-01-01

    Organophosphorus toxicants (OP) include chemical nerve agents and pesticides. The goal of this work was to find out whether an animal could be made resistant to OP toxicity by genetic engineering. The human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutant G117H was chosen for study because it has the unusual ability to hydrolyze OP as well as acetylcholine, and it is resistant to inhibition by OP. Human G117H BChE, under the control of the ROSA26 promoter, was expressed in all tissues of transgenic mice. A stable transgenic mouse line expressed 0.5 μg/ml of human G117H BChE in plasma as well as 2 μg/ml of wild-type mouse BChE. Intestine, kidneys, stomach, lungs, heart, spleen, liver, brain, and muscle expressed 0.6-0.15 μg/g of G117H BChE. Transgenic mice were normal in behavior and fertility. The LD50 dose of echothiophate for wild-type mice was 0.1 mg/kg sc. This dose caused severe cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality in wild-type mice, but caused no deaths and only mild toxicity in transgenic animals. The mechanism of protection was investigated by measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BChE activity. It was found that AChE and endogenous BChE were inhibited to the same extent in echothiophate-treated wild type and transgenic mice. This led to the hypothesis that protection against echothiophate toxicity was not explained by hydrolysis of echothiophate. In conclusion, the transgenic G117H BChE mouse demonstrates the factors required to achieve protection from OP toxicity in a vertebrate animal

  3. Development of "Purple Endosperm Rice" by Engineering Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in the Endosperm with a High-Efficiency Transgene Stacking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinlong; Yu, Suize; Zeng, Dongchang; Liu, Hongmei; Wang, Huicong; Yang, Zhongfang; Xie, Xianrong; Shen, Rongxin; Tan, Jiantao; Li, Heying; Zhao, Xiucai; Zhang, Qunyu; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxing; Chen, Letian; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-07-05

    Anthocyanins have high antioxidant activities, and engineering of anthocyanin biosynthesis in staple crops, such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), could provide health-promoting foods for improving human health. However, engineering metabolic pathways for biofortification remains difficult, and previous attempts to engineer anthocyanin production in rice endosperm failed because of the sophisticated genetic regulatory network of its biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we developed a high-efficiency vector system for transgene stacking and used it to engineer anthocyanin biosynthesis in rice endosperm. We made a construct containing eight anthocyanin-related genes (two regulatory genes from maize and six structural genes from Coleus) driven by the endosperm-specific promoters,plus a selectable marker and a gene for marker excision. Transformation of rice with this construct generated a novel biofortified germplasm "Purple Endosperm Rice" (called "Zijingmi" in Chinese), which has high anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity in the endosperm. This anthocyanin production results from expression of the transgenes and the resulting activation (or enhancement) of expression of 13 endogenous anthocyanin biosynthesis genes that are silenced or expressed at low levels in wild-type rice endosperm. This study provides an efficient, versatile toolkit for transgene stacking and demonstrates its use for successful engineering of a sophisticated biological pathway, suggesting the potential utility of this toolkit for synthetic biology and improvement of agronomic traits in plants. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression cloning and production of Human Heavy Chain Only antibodies from murine transgenic plasma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Drabek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies have been developed to isolate human antibodies against different target antigens as a source of potential therapeutics, including hybridoma technology, phage and yeast display systems. For conventional antibodies this involves either random pairing of VH and VL domains in combinatorial display libraries, or isolation of cognate pairs of VH and VL domains from human B cells or from transgenic mice carrying human immunoglobulin loci followed by single cell sorting, single cell RT-PCR and bulk cloning of isolated natural VH-VL pairs. Heavy chain only antibodies (HCAbs that naturally occur in camelids require only heavy immunoglobulin chain cloning. Here, we present an automatable novel, high-throughput technology, for rapid direct cloning and production of fully human HCAbs from sorted population of transgenic mouse plasma cells carrying a human HCAb locus. Utility of the technique is demonstrated by isolation of diverse sets of sequence unique, soluble, high affinity influenza A strain X-31 hemagglutinin (HA specific HCAbs

  5. Adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1 and 5 targeted to the neonatal rat and pig striatum induce widespread transgene expression in the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Stott, Simon R W; Mattsson, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has emerged as a powerful means to target transgene expression in the central nervous system. Here we characterized the efficacy of serotypes 1 and 5 recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) after stereotaxic....... Our results show that striatal delivery of rAAV5 vectors in the neonatal brain represents a useful tool to express genes of interest both in the basal ganglia and the neocortex. Furthermore, we apply, for the first time, viral vector-mediated gene transfer to the pig brain providing the opportunity...

  6. Milk from transgenic goat expressing human lysozyme for recovery and treatment of gastrointestinal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Igor de Sá; Menezes, José Nilson Rodrigues de; Maia, Julyana Almeida; Miranda, André Marrocos; Oliveira, Victor Bruno Soares de; Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A; Bertolini, Marcelo; Bertolini, Luciana Relly

    2018-01-15

    Lysozyme is an important non-specific immune protein in human milk, modulating the immune response against bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the milk of a transgenic goat expressing a recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) in the milk, also testing the in vitro antibacterial activity of the rhLZ milk against pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract. Milk samples collected from Tg and non-transgenic goats (nTg) from the 3rd to the 11th week of lactation were submitted to physicochemical analyses, rhLZ semi-quantification, and to rhLZ antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Shiguella sonnei and Enterococcus faecalis. Viability and cell migration were studied in ileum epithelial cells (IEC-18) in absence or presence of E. faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (EPEC) and S. sonnei. The expression of ZO-1 and IL-6 genes was evaluated in IEC-18 to evaluate the effect of rhLZ milk on intestinal barrier function and intestinal inflammation. Physicochemical parameters between goat Tg and nTg milk were similar and within normal values for human consumption, with hLZ concentrations being similar between Tg (224μg/mL) and human (226μg/mL) milk. The Tg milk had bactericidal activity against M. luteus, no bactericidal effect on S. sonnei, and relative to discrete sensitivity against E. feacalis than controls. Better migrating parameters were observed in cells in culture with nTg and Tg than controls. In the presence of pathogens, the Tg milk promoted improved migrating parameters than controls, except for S. sonnei, with lower cell numbers in the presence of nTg samples and E. faecalis and S. sonnei. No differences in ZO-1 relative expression patterns were observed in cultured cells, with increased expression in IL-6 in cells exposed to nTg milk than controls, with the Tg group being similar to all groups. In conclusion, goat milk containing rhLZ demonstrated valid evidence for its potential use as a nutraceutical for improvement

  7. Induction of Body Weight Loss through RNAi-Knockdown of APOBEC1 Gene Expression in Transgenic Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Geneviève; Braud, Sandrine; DaSilva, Bruno; Passet, Bruno; Harscoët, Erwana; Viglietta, Céline; Gautier, Thomas; Lagrost, Laurent; Daniel-Carlier, Nathalie; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Harosh, Itzik

    2014-01-01

    In the search of new strategies to fight against obesity, we targeted a gene pathway involved in energy uptake. We have thus investigated the APOB mRNA editing protein (APOBEC1) gene pathway that is involved in fat absorption in the intestine. The APOB gene encodes two proteins, APOB100 and APOB48, via the editing of a single nucleotide in the APOB mRNA by the APOBEC1 enzyme. The APOB48 protein is mandatory for the synthesis of chylomicrons by intestinal cells to transport dietary lipids and cholesterol. We produced transgenic rabbits expressing permanently and ubiquitously a small hairpin RNA targeting the rabbit APOBEC1 mRNA. These rabbits exhibited a moderately but significantly reduced level of APOBEC1 gene expression in the intestine, a reduced level of editing of the APOB mRNA, a reduced level of synthesis of chylomicrons after a food challenge, a reduced total mass of body lipids and finally presented a sustained lean phenotype without any obvious physiological disorder. Interestingly, no compensatory mechanism opposed to the phenotype. These lean transgenic rabbits were crossed with transgenic rabbits expressing in the intestine the human APOBEC1 gene. Double transgenic animals did not present any lean phenotype, thus proving that the intestinal expression of the human APOBEC1 transgene was able to counterbalance the reduction of the rabbit APOBEC1 gene expression. Thus, a moderate reduction of the APOBEC1 dependent editing induces a lean phenotype at least in the rabbit species. This suggests that the APOBEC1 gene might be a novel target for obesity treatment. PMID:25216115

  8. Induction of body weight loss through RNAi-knockdown of APOBEC1 gene expression in transgenic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Geneviève; Braud, Sandrine; DaSilva, Bruno; Passet, Bruno; Harscoët, Erwana; Viglietta, Céline; Gautier, Thomas; Lagrost, Laurent; Daniel-Carlier, Nathalie; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Harosh, Itzik

    2014-01-01

    In the search of new strategies to fight against obesity, we targeted a gene pathway involved in energy uptake. We have thus investigated the APOB mRNA editing protein (APOBEC1) gene pathway that is involved in fat absorption in the intestine. The APOB gene encodes two proteins, APOB100 and APOB48, via the editing of a single nucleotide in the APOB mRNA by the APOBEC1 enzyme. The APOB48 protein is mandatory for the synthesis of chylomicrons by intestinal cells to transport dietary lipids and cholesterol. We produced transgenic rabbits expressing permanently and ubiquitously a small hairpin RNA targeting the rabbit APOBEC1 mRNA. These rabbits exhibited a moderately but significantly reduced level of APOBEC1 gene expression in the intestine, a reduced level of editing of the APOB mRNA, a reduced level of synthesis of chylomicrons after a food challenge, a reduced total mass of body lipids and finally presented a sustained lean phenotype without any obvious physiological disorder. Interestingly, no compensatory mechanism opposed to the phenotype. These lean transgenic rabbits were crossed with transgenic rabbits expressing in the intestine the human APOBEC1 gene. Double transgenic animals did not present any lean phenotype, thus proving that the intestinal expression of the human APOBEC1 transgene was able to counterbalance the reduction of the rabbit APOBEC1 gene expression. Thus, a moderate reduction of the APOBEC1 dependent editing induces a lean phenotype at least in the rabbit species. This suggests that the APOBEC1 gene might be a novel target for obesity treatment.

  9. Enhanced quantitative resistance against fungal disease by combinatorial expression of different barley antifungal proteins in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jach, G; Görnhardt, B; Mundy, J

    1995-01-01

    cytosolic form or fused to a plant secretion peptide (spRIP). Fungal infection assays revealed that expression of the individual genes in each case resulted in an increased protection against the soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, which infects a range of plant species including tobacco....... Transgenic tobacco lines were generated with tandemly arranged genes coding for RIP and CHI as well as GLU and CHI. The performance of tobacco plants co-expressing the barley transgenes GLU/CHI or CHI/RIP in a Rhizoctonia solani infection assay revealed significantly enhanced protection against fungal attack......cDNAs encoding three proteins from barley (Hordeum vulgare), a class-II chitinase (CHI), a class-II beta-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and a Type-I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) were expressed in tobacco plants under the control of the CaMV 35S-promoter. High-level expression of the transferred genes...

  10. Good manufacturing practices production of a purification-free oral cholera vaccine expressed in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Koji; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Suzuki, Yuji; Minakawa, Satomi; Takeyama, Natsumi; Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Masaharu; Tamura, Minoru; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    The first Good Manufacturing Practices production of a purification-free rice-based oral cholera vaccine (MucoRice-CTB) from transgenic plants in a closed cultivation system yielded a product meeting regulatory requirements. Despite our knowledge of their advantages, plant-based vaccines remain unavailable for human use in both developing and industrialized countries. A leading, practical obstacle to their widespread use is producing plant-based vaccines that meet governmental regulatory requirements. Here, we report the first production according to current Good Manufacturing Practices of a rice-based vaccine, the cholera vaccine MucoRice-CTB, at an academic institution. To this end, we established specifications and methods for the master seed bank (MSB) of MucoRice-CTB, which was previously generated as a selection-marker-free line, evaluated its propagation, and given that the stored seeds must be renewed periodically. The production of MucoRice-CTB incorporated a closed hydroponic system for cultivating the transgenic plants, to minimize variations in expression and quality during vaccine manufacture. This type of molecular farming factory can be operated year-round, generating three harvests annually, and is cost- and production-effective. Rice was polished to a ratio of 95 % and then powdered to produce the MucoRice-CTB drug substance, and the identity, potency, and safety of the MucoRice-CTB product met pre-established release requirements. The formulation of MucoRice-CTB made by fine-powdering of drug substance and packaged in an aluminum pouch is being evaluated in a physician-initiated phase I study.

  11. Transgenic Expression of Osteoactivin/gpnmb Enhances Bone Formation In Vivo and Osteoprogenitor Differentiation Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frara, Nagat; Abdelmagid, Samir M; Sondag, Gregory R; Moussa, Fouad M; Yingling, Vanessa R; Owen, Thomas A; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-01-01

    Initial identification of osteoactivin (OA)/glycoprotein non-melanoma clone B (gpnmb) was demonstrated in an osteopetrotic rat model, where OA expression was increased threefold in mutant bones, compared to normal. OA mRNA and protein expression increase during active bone regeneration post-fracture, and primary rat osteoblasts show increased OA expression during differentiation in vitro. To further examine OA/gpnmb as an osteoinductive agent, we characterized the skeletal phenotype of transgenic mouse overexpressing OA/gpnmb under the CMV-promoter (OA-Tg). Western blot analysis showed increased OA/gpnmb in OA-Tg osteoblasts, compared to wild-type (WT). In OA-Tg mouse femurs versus WT littermates, micro-CT analysis showed increased trabecular bone volume and thickness, and cortical bone thickness; histomorphometry showed increased osteoblast numbers, bone formation and mineral apposition rates in OA-Tg mice; and biomechanical testing showed higher peak moment and stiffness. Given that OA/gpnmb is also over-expressed in osteoclasts in OA-Tg mice, we evaluated bone resorption by ELISA and histomorphometry, and observed decreased serum CTX-1 and RANK-L, and decreased osteoclast numbers in OA-Tg, compared to WT mice, indicating decreased bone remodeling in OA-Tg mice. The proliferation rate of OA-Tg osteoblasts in vitro was higher, compared to WT, as was alkaline phosphatase staining and activity, the latter indicating enhanced differentiation of OA-Tg osteoprogenitors. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed increased TGF-β1 and TGF-β receptors I and II expression in OA-Tg osteoblasts, compared to WT. Together, these data suggest that OA overexpression has an osteoinductive effect on bone mass in vivo and stimulates osteoprogenitor differentiation ex vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Claviceps purpurea expressing polygalacturonases escaping PGIP inhibition fully infects PvPGIP2 wheat transgenic plants but its infection is delayed in wheat transgenic plants with increased level of pectin methyl esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara; Raiola, Alessandro; Janni, Michela; Gordon, Anna; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic fungal pathogen of grasses causing the ergot disease. The infection process of C. purpurea on rye flowers is accompanied by pectin degradation and polygalacturonase (PG) activity represents a pathogenicity factor. Wheat is also infected by C. purpurea and we tested whether the presence of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) can affect pathogen infection and ergot disease development. Wheat transgenic plants expressing the bean PvPGIP2 did not show a clear reduction of disease symptoms when infected with C. purpurea. To ascertain the possible cause underlying this lack of improved resistance of PvPGIP2 plants, we expressed both polygalacturonases present in the C. purpurea genome, cppg1 and cppg2 in Pichia pastoris. In vitro assays using the heterologous expressed PGs and PvPGIP2 showed that neither PG is inhibited by this inhibitor. To further investigate the role of PG in the C. purpurea/wheat system, we demonstrated that the activity of both PGs of C. purpurea is reduced on highly methyl esterified pectin. Finally, we showed that this reduction in PG activity is relevant in planta, by inoculating with C. purpurea transgenic wheat plants overexpressing a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI) and showing a high degree of pectin methyl esterification. We observed reduced disease symptoms in the transgenic line compared with null controls. Together, these results highlight the importance of pectin degradation for ergot disease development in wheat and sustain the notion that inhibition of pectin degradation may represent a possible route to control of ergot in cereals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Expressing Transgenes That Exceed the Packaging Capacity of Adeno-Associated Virus Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Kyle; Riyad, Jalish Mahmud; Weber, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV) are being explored as gene delivery vehicles for the treatment of various inherited and acquired disorders. rAAVs are attractive vectors for several reasons: wild-type AAVs are nonpathogenic, and rAAVs can trigger long-term transgene expression even in the absence of genome integration-at least in postmitotic tissues. Moreover, rAAVs have a low immunogenic profile, and the various AAV serotypes and variants display broad but distinct tropisms. One limitation of rAAVs is that their genome-packaging capacity is only ∼5 kb. For most applications this is not of major concern because the median human protein size is 375 amino acids. Excluding the ITRs, for a protein of typical length, this allows the incorporation of ∼3.5 kb of DNA for the promoter, polyadenylation sequence, and other regulatory elements into a single AAV vector. Nonetheless, for certain diseases the packaging limit of AAV does not allow the delivery of a full-length therapeutic protein by a single AAV vector. Hence, approaches to overcome this limitation have become an important area of research for AAV gene therapy. Among the most promising approaches to overcome the limitation imposed by the packaging capacity of AAV is the use of dual-vector approaches, whereby a transgene is split across two separate AAV vectors. Coinfection of a cell with these two rAAVs will then-through a variety of mechanisms-result in the transcription of an assembled mRNA that could not be encoded by a single AAV vector because of the DNA packaging limits of AAV. The main purpose of this review is to assess the current literature with respect to dual-AAV-vector design, to highlight the effectiveness of the different methodologies and to briefly discuss future areas of research to improve the efficiency of dual-AAV-vector transduction.

  14. Studies on the Expression of Sesquiterpene Synthases Using Promoter-?-Glucuronidase Fusions in Transgenic Artemisia annua L

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongzhen; Han, Junli; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter sequences were 923, 1182 and 1510 bp for β-caryophyllene (CPS), epi-cedrol (ECS) and β-farnesene (FS) synthase, respectively. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements showed that the promoters are involved in complex regulation of expressio...

  15. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Disease resistance conferred by the expression of a gene encoding a synthetic peptide in transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Cary, Jeffrey W; Jaynes, Jesse M; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2005-11-01

    Fertile, transgenic cotton plants expressing the synthetic antimicrobial peptide, D4E1, were produced through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR products and Southern blots confirmed integration of the D4E1 gene, while RT-PCR of cotton RNA confirmed the presence of D4E1 transcripts. In vitro assays with crude leaf protein extracts from T0 and T1 plants confirmed that D4E1 was expressed at sufficient levels to inhibit the growth of Fusarium verticillioides and Verticillium dahliae compared to extracts from negative control plants transformed with pBI-d35S(Omega)-uidA-nos (CGUS). Although in vitro assays did not show control of pre-germinated spores of Aspergillus flavus, bioassays with cotton seeds in situ or in planta, inoculated with a GFP-expressing A. flavus, indicated that the transgenic cotton seeds inhibited extensive colonization and spread by the fungus in cotyledons and seed coats. In planta assays with the fungal pathogen, Thielaviopsis basicola, which causes black root rot in cotton, showed typical symptoms such as black discoloration and constriction on hypocotyls, reduced branching of roots in CGUS negative control T1 seedlings, while transgenic T1 seedlings showed a significant reduction in disease symptoms and increased seedling fresh weight, demonstrating tolerance to the fungal pathogen. Significant advantages of synthetic peptides in developing transgenic crop plants that are resistant to diseases and mycotoxin-causing fungal pathogens are highlighted in this report.

  17. High throughput generation of promoter reporter (GFP transgenic lines of low expressing genes in Arabidopsis and analysis of their expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yong-Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the complete genome sequence and annotation of Arabidopsis were released at the end of year 2000, it is still a great challenge to understand the function of each gene in the Arabidopsis genome. One way to understand the function of genes on a genome-wide scale is expression profiling by microarrays. However, the expression level of many genes in Arabidopsis genome cannot be detected by microarray experiments. In addition, there are many more novel genes that have been discovered by experiments or predicted by new gene prediction programs. Another way to understand the function of individual genes is to investigate their in vivo expression patterns by reporter constructs in transgenic plants which can provide basic information on the patterns of gene expression. Results A high throughput pipeline was developed to generate promoter-reporter (GFP transgenic lines for Arabidopsis genes expressed at very low levels and to examine their expression patterns in vivo. The promoter region from a total of 627 non- or low-expressed genes in Arabidopsis based on Arabidopsis annotation release 5 were amplified and cloned into a Gateway vector. A total of 353 promoter-reporter (GFP constructs were successfully transferred into Agrobacterium (GV3101 by triparental mating and subsequently used for Arabidopsis transformation. Kanamycin-resistant transgenic lines were obtained from 266 constructs and among them positive GFP expression was detected from 150 constructs. Of these 150 constructs, multiple transgenic lines exhibiting consistent expression patterns were obtained for 112 constructs. A total 81 different regions of expression were discovered during our screening of positive transgenic plants and assigned Plant Ontology (PO codes. Conclusions Many of the genes tested for which expression data were lacking previously are indeed expressed in Arabidopsis during the developmental stages screened. More importantly, our study

  18. Novel oxytocin gene expression in the hindbrain is induced by alcohol exposure: transgenic zebrafish enable visualization of sensitive neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitrín M Coffey

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD are a collection of disorders resulting from fetal ethanol exposure, which causes a wide range of physical, neurological and behavioral deficits including heightened susceptibility for alcoholism and addictive disorders. While a number of mechanisms have been proposed for how ethanol exposure disrupts brain development, with selective groups of neurons undergoing reduced proliferation, dysfunction and death, the induction of a new neurotransmitter phenotype by ethanol exposure has not yet been reported.The effects of embryonic and larval ethanol exposure on brain development were visually monitored using transgenic zebrafish expressing cell-specific green fluorescent protein (GFP marker genes. Specific subsets of GFP-expressing neurons were highly sensitive to ethanol exposure, but only during defined developmental windows. In the med12 mutant, which affects the Mediator co-activator complex component Med12, exposure to lower concentrations of ethanol was sufficient to reduce GFP expression in transgenic embryos. In transgenic embryos and larva containing GFP driven by an oxytocin-like (oxtl promoter, ethanol exposure dramatically up-regulated GFP expression in a small group of hindbrain neurons, while having no effect on expression in the neuroendocrine preoptic area.Alcohol exposure during limited embryonic periods impedes the development of specific, identifiable groups of neurons, and the med12 mutation sensitizes these neurons to the deleterious effects of ethanol. In contrast, ethanol exposure induces oxtl expression in the hindbrain, a finding with profound implications for understanding alcoholism and other addictive disorders.

  19. Constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred enhanced growth and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are not only important components of cell membranes, but participate in diverse processes in higher plants. In this study, we generated Capsicum annuum phospholipiase A1 (CaPLA1) overexpressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The T4 CaPLA1-overexpressing rice plants (Ubi:CaPLA1) had a higher root:shoot mass ratio than the wild-type plants in the vegetative stage. Leaf epidermal cells from transgenic plants had more cells than wild-type plants. Genes that code for cyclin and lipid metabolic enzymes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. When grown under typical paddy field conditions, the transgenic plants produced more tillers, longer panicles and more branches per panicle than the wild-type plants, all of which resulted in greater grain yield. Microarray analysis suggests that gene expressions that are related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, and redox state were widely altered in CaPLA1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Ubi:CaPLA1 plants had a reduced membrane peroxidation state, as determined by malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels and higher peroxidase activity than wild-type rice plants. Furthermore, three isoprenoid synthetic genes encoding terpenoid synthase, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase were up-regulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. We suggest that constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred increased grain yield with enhanced growth in transgenic rice plants by alteration of gene activities related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, membrane peroxidation state and isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  20. DNMT 1 maintains hypermethylation of CAG promoter specific region and prevents expression of exogenous gene in fat-1 transgenic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunrong; Shang, Xueying; Cheng, Lei; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xuefei; Bai, Chunling; Wei, Zhuying; Hua, Jinlian; Li, Guangpeng

    2017-01-01

    Methylation is an important issue in gene expression regulation and also in the fields of genetics and reproduction. In this study, we created fat-1 transgenic sheep, investigated the fine-mapping and the modulatory mechanisms of promoter methylation. Sheep fetal fibroblasts were transfected by pCAG-fat1-IRES-EGFP. Monoclonal cell line was screened as nuclear donor and carried out nuclear transfer (441 transgenic cloned embryos, 52 synchronism recipient sheep). Six offsprings were obtained. Expressions of exogenous genes fat-1 and EGFP were detectable in 10 examined tissues and upregulated omega-3 fatty acid content. Interestingly, more or less EGFP negative cells were detectable in the positive transgenic fetal skin cells. EGFP negative and positive cells were sorted by flow cytometry, and their methylation status in the whole promoter region (1701 nt) were investigated by bisulphate sequencing. The fine-mapping of methylation in CAG promoter were proposed. The results suggested that exogenous gene expression was determined by the methylation status from 721-1346 nt and modulated by methylation levels at 101, 108 and 115 nt sites in CAG promoter. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of methylation, examination of four DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) demonstrated that hypermethylation of CAG promoter is mainly maintained by DNMT 1 in EGFP negative cells. Furthermore, investigation of the cell surface antigen CD34, CD45 and CD166 indicated that EGFP positive and negative cells belong to different types. The present study systematically clarified methylation status of CAG promoter in transgenic sheep and regulatory mechanism, which will provide research strategies for gene expression regulation in transgenic animals.

  1. DNMT 1 maintains hypermethylation of CAG promoter specific region and prevents expression of exogenous gene in fat-1 transgenic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Yang

    Full Text Available Methylation is an important issue in gene expression regulation and also in the fields of genetics and reproduction. In this study, we created fat-1 transgenic sheep, investigated the fine-mapping and the modulatory mechanisms of promoter methylation. Sheep fetal fibroblasts were transfected by pCAG-fat1-IRES-EGFP. Monoclonal cell line was screened as nuclear donor and carried out nuclear transfer (441 transgenic cloned embryos, 52 synchronism recipient sheep. Six offsprings were obtained. Expressions of exogenous genes fat-1 and EGFP were detectable in 10 examined tissues and upregulated omega-3 fatty acid content. Interestingly, more or less EGFP negative cells were detectable in the positive transgenic fetal skin cells. EGFP negative and positive cells were sorted by flow cytometry, and their methylation status in the whole promoter region (1701 nt were investigated by bisulphate sequencing. The fine-mapping of methylation in CAG promoter were proposed. The results suggested that exogenous gene expression was determined by the methylation status from 721-1346 nt and modulated by methylation levels at 101, 108 and 115 nt sites in CAG promoter. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of methylation, examination of four DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs demonstrated that hypermethylation of CAG promoter is mainly maintained by DNMT 1 in EGFP negative cells. Furthermore, investigation of the cell surface antigen CD34, CD45 and CD166 indicated that EGFP positive and negative cells belong to different types. The present study systematically clarified methylation status of CAG promoter in transgenic sheep and regulatory mechanism, which will provide research strategies for gene expression regulation in transgenic animals.

  2. Heterologous expression of two GPATs from Jatropha curcas alters seed oil levels in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aparna; Khan, Kasim; Niranjan, Abhishek; Kumar, Vinod; Sane, Vidhu A

    2017-10-01

    Oils and fats are stored in endosperm during seed development in the form of triacylglycerols. Three acyltransferases: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) are involved in the storage lipid biosynthesis and catalyze the stepwise acylation of glycerol backbone. In this study two members of GPAT gene family (JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2) from Jatropha seeds were identified and characterized. Sequence analysis suggested that JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 are homologous to Arabidopsis acyltransferase-1 (ATS1) and AtGPAT9 respectively. The sub-cellular localization studies of these two GPATs showed that JcGPAT1 localizes into plastid whereas JcGPAT2 localizes in to endoplasmic reticulum. JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 expressed throughout the seed development with higher expression in fully matured seed compared to immature seed. The transcript levels of JcGPAT2 were higher in comparison to JcGPAT1 in different developmental stages of seed. Over-expression of JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 under constitutive and seed specific promoters in Arabidopsis thaliana increased total oil content. Transgenic seeds of JcGPAT2-OE lines accumulated 43-60% more oil than control seeds whereas seeds of Arabidopsis lines over-expressing plastidial GPAT lead to only 13-20% increase in oil content. Functional characterization of GPAT homologues of Jatropha in Arabidopsis suggested that these are involved in oil biosynthesis but might have specific roles in Jatropha. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of hCMV, mEF1a and mAct promoters on driving of foreign gene expression in transgenic zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Alimuddin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA have long been recognized for its beneficial effect for human health and development.   The D6 fatty acid desaturase is generally considered to be the rate-limiting factor in HUFA biosynthesis.  Here, as the first step of study, we conducted experiment to select an appropriate construct that allows higher expression levels of masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou D6-desaturase gene in zebrafish (Danio rerio in order to increase its activity for synthesizing EPA/DHA.  Salmon D6-desaturase cDNA (sD6 was separately ligated with human cytomegalovirus (hCMV, medaka elongation factor 1a (mEF1a and medaka b-actin (mAct promoters.  The resulted construct was designated as hCMV-sD6, mEF1a-sD6 and mAct-sD6, respectively.  Each of the constructs in circular DNA form was microinjected into 1-cell stage embryos at a concentration of 30mg/ml. Transgenic individuals were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and their expression levels were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR.  The first (F1 and second (F2 generation was produced by crossing the transgenic founder F0 and F1, respectively, with wild-type fish.  The results showed that the highest transient gene expression level was obtained from the mAct-D6 construct, followed respectively by EF1a-D6 and hCMV-D6 construct. The transmission rate of transgene into F1 generation was 4.2%-44.1%, and into F2 was followed the Mendellian segregation pattern.   Expression of transgene in F2 generation was varied between strains regarding as the mosaics of F0 fish.  Now, a transgenic system to study the modification of fatty acid biosynthesis pathways in fish was established.  Further investigations are to produce fish containing higher levels of EPA and DHA. Keywords: desaturase, nutraceutical fatty acid, transgenic, zebrafish, masu salmon   Abstrak Promoter merupakan regulator yang menentukan

  4. Transgenically-expressed secretoglobin 3A2 accelerates resolution of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Tomita, Takeshi; Kurotani, Reiko; Okamoto, Minoru; Kido, Taketomo; Abe, Hiroyuki; Mitzner, Wayne; Guha, Arjun; Kimura, Shioko

    2015-07-16

    Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, a cytokine-like secretory protein of small molecular weight, is predominantly expressed in airway epithelial cells. While SCGB3A2 is known to have anti-inflammatory, growth factor, and anti-fibrotic activities, whether SCGB3A2 has any other roles, particularly in lung homeostasis and disease has not been demonstrated in vivo. The aim of this study was to address these questions in mice. A transgenic mouse line that expresses SCGB3A2 in the lung using the human surfactant protein-C promoter was established. Detailed histological, immunohistochemical, physiological, and molecular characterization of the Scgb3a2-transgenic mouse lungs were carried out. Scgb3a2-transgenic and wild-type mice were subjected to bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model, and their lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were collected at various time points during 9 weeks post-bleomycin treatment for further analysis. Adult Scgb3a2-transgenic mouse lungs expressed approximately five-fold higher levels of SCGB3A2 protein in comparison to wild-type mice as determined by western blotting of lung tissues. Immunohistochemistry showed that expression was localized to alveolar type II cells in addition to airway epithelial cells, thus accurately reflecting the site of surfactant protein-C expression. Scgb3a2-transgenic mice showed normal lung development and histology, and no overt gross phenotypes. However, when subjected to a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model, they initially exhibited exacerbated fibrosis at 3 weeks post-bleomycin administration that was more rapidly resolved by 6 weeks as compared with wild-type mice, as determined by lung histology, Masson Trichrome staining and hydroxyproline content, inflammatory cell numbers, expression of collagen genes, and proinflammatory cytokine levels. The decrease of fibrosis coincided with the increased expression of SCGB3A2 in Scgb3a2-transgenic lungs. These results demonstrate that SCGB3A2 is an anti

  5. Transformation of Althaea officinalis L. by Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of transgenic roots expressing the anti-HIV microbicide cyanovirin-N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Pascal M W; de Moraes Madeira, Luisa; Szeto, Tim H; Ma, Julian K-C

    2013-12-01

    The marshmallow plant (Althaea officinalis L.) has been used for centuries in medicine and other applications. Valuable secondary metabolites have previously been identified in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-generated transgenic 'hairy' roots in this species. In the present study, transgenic roots were produced in A. officinalis using A. rhizogenes. In addition to wild-type lines, roots expressing the anti-human immunodeficiency virus microbicide candidate, cyanovirin-N (CV-N), were generated. Wild-type and CV-N root lines were transferred to liquid culture and increased in mass by 49 and 19 % respectively over a 7 day culture period. In the latter, the concentration of CV-N present in the root tissue was 2.4 μg/g fresh weight, with an average secretion rate into the growth medium of 0.02 μg/ml/24 h. A. officinalis transgenic roots may therefore in the future be used not only as a source of therapeutic secondary metabolites, but also as an expression system for the production of recombinant pharmaceuticals.

  6. Regulation of COL1A1 expression in type I collagen producing tissues: identification of a 49 base pair region which is required for transgene expression in bone of transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedalov, A.; Salvatori, R.; Dodig, M.; Kronenberg, M. S.; Kapural, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Kream, B. E.; Woody, C. O.; Clark, S. H.; Mack, K.; hide

    1995-01-01

    Previous deletion studies using a series of COL1A1-CAT fusion genes have indicated that the 625 bp region of the COL1A1 upstream promoter between -2295 and -1670 bp is required for high levels of expression in bone, tendon, and skin of transgenic mice. To further define the important sequences within this region, a new series of deletion constructs extending to -1997, -1794, -1763, and -1719 bp has been analyzed in transgenic mice. Transgene activity, determined by measuring CAT activity in tissue extracts of 6- to 8-day-old transgenic mouse calvariae, remains high for all the new deletion constructs and drops to undetectable levels in calvariae containing the -1670 bp construct. These results indicate that the 49 bp region of the COL1A1 promoter between -1719 and -1670 bp is required for high COL1A1 expression in bone. Although deletion of the same region caused a substantial reduction of promoter activity in tail tendon, the construct extending to -1670 bp is still expressed in this tissue. However, further deletion of the promoter to -944 bp abolished activity in tendon. Gel mobility shift studies identified a protein in calvarial nuclear extracts that is not found in tendon nuclear extracts, which binds within this 49 bp region. Our study has delineated sequences in the COL1A1 promoter required for expression of the COL1A1 gene in high type I collagen-producing tissues, and suggests that different cis elements control expression of the COL1A1 gene in bone and tendon.

  7. Studies on the expression of sesquiterpene synthases using promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions in transgenic Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhen Wang

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter sequences were 923, 1182 and 1510 bp for β-caryophyllene (CPS, epi-cedrol (ECS and β-farnesene (FS synthase, respectively. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements showed that the promoters are involved in complex regulation of expression. Transgenic A. annua plants carrying promoter-GUS fusions were studied to elucidate the expression pattern of the three sesquiterpene synthases and compared to the previously studied promoter of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS, a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis. The CPS and ECS promoters were active in T-shaped trichomes of leaves and stems, basal bracts of flower buds and also in some florets cells but not in glandular secretory trichome while FS promoter activity was only observed in leaf cells and trichomes of transgenic shoots. ADS, CPS, ECS and FS transcripts were induced by wounding in a time depended manner. The four sesquiterpene synthases may be involved in responsiveness of A. annua to herbivory. Methyl jasmonate treatment triggered activation of the promoters of all four sesquiterpene synthases in a time depended manner. Southern blot result showed that the GUS gene was inserted into genomic DNA of transgenic lines as a single copy or two copies. The relative amounts of CPS and ECS as well as germacrene A synthase (GAS transcripts are much lower than that of ADS transcript. Consequently, down-regulation of the expression of the CPS, ECS or GAS gene may not improve artemsinin yield. However, blocking the expression of FS may have effects on artemisinin production.

  8. Studies on the expression of sesquiterpene synthases using promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions in transgenic Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Han, Junli; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter sequences were 923, 1182 and 1510 bp for β-caryophyllene (CPS), epi-cedrol (ECS) and β-farnesene (FS) synthase, respectively. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements showed that the promoters are involved in complex regulation of expression. Transgenic A. annua plants carrying promoter-GUS fusions were studied to elucidate the expression pattern of the three sesquiterpene synthases and compared to the previously studied promoter of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis. The CPS and ECS promoters were active in T-shaped trichomes of leaves and stems, basal bracts of flower buds and also in some florets cells but not in glandular secretory trichome while FS promoter activity was only observed in leaf cells and trichomes of transgenic shoots. ADS, CPS, ECS and FS transcripts were induced by wounding in a time depended manner. The four sesquiterpene synthases may be involved in responsiveness of A. annua to herbivory. Methyl jasmonate treatment triggered activation of the promoters of all four sesquiterpene synthases in a time depended manner. Southern blot result showed that the GUS gene was inserted into genomic DNA of transgenic lines as a single copy or two copies. The relative amounts of CPS and ECS as well as germacrene A synthase (GAS) transcripts are much lower than that of ADS transcript. Consequently, down-regulation of the expression of the CPS, ECS or GAS gene may not improve artemsinin yield. However, blocking the expression of FS may have effects on artemisinin production.

  9. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  10. Effects of PSAG12-IPT gene expression on development and senescence in transgenic Lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCabe, M.S.; Garratt, L.C.; Schepers, F.; Jordi, W.J.R.M.; Stoopen, G.M.; Davelaar, E.; Rhijn, van J.H.A.; Power, J.B.; Davey, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    An ipt gene under control of the senescence-specific SAG12 promoter from Arabidopsis (PSAG12-IPT) significantly delayed developmental and postharvest leaf senescence in mature heads of transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Evola) homozygous for the transgene. Apart from retardation of leaf

  11. Disease resistance conferred by expression of a gene encoding H2O2-generating glucose oxidase in transgenic potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G; Shortt, B J; Lawrence, E B; Levine, E B; Fitzsimmons, K C; Shah, D M

    1995-09-01

    Plant defense responses to pathogen infection involve the production of active oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We obtained transgenic potato plants expressing a fungal gene encoding glucose oxidase, which generates H2O2 when glucose is oxidized. H2O2 levels were elevated in both leaf and tuber tissues of these plants. Transgenic potato tubers exhibited strong resistance to a bacterial soft rot disease caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp carotovora, and disease resistance was sustained under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions of bacterial infection. This resistance to soft rot was apparently mediated by elevated levels of H2O2, because the resistance could be counteracted by exogenously added H2O2-degrading catalase. The transgenic plants with increased levels of H2O2 also exhibited enhanced resistance to potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans. The development of lesions resulting from infection by P. infestans was significantly delayed in leaves of these plants. Thus, the expression of an active oxygen species-generating enzyme in transgenic plants represents a novel approach for engineering broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants.

  12. Antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) do not affect root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Jagroop Gill; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg; Cahill, James F; Hall, Linda M

    2017-10-01

    Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established. Transgene insertion, as single gene or stacked genes, did not alter root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) or root nodulation by rhizobium inoculation in the field. We found no effect of transgenes on the plant growth and performance although, having a dual inoculant with both AMF and rhizobium yielded higher fresh weight shoot-to-root ratio in all the lines tested. This initial risk assessment of transgenic peas expressing antifungal genes showed no deleterious effect on non-target organisms.

  13. Site-specific integration and expression of an anti-malarial gene in transgenic Anopheles gambiae significantly reduces Plasmodium infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes have a devastating impact on global health and this is worsening due to difficulties with existing control measures and climate change. Genetically modified mosquitoes that are refractory to disease transmission are seen as having great potential in the delivery of novel control strategies. Historically the genetic modification of insects has relied upon transposable elements which have many limitations despite their successful use. To circumvent these limitations the Streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase system has been successfully adapted for site-specific transgene integration in insects. Here, we present the first site-specific transformation of Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria. Mosquitoes were initially engineered to incorporate the phiC31 targeting site at a defined genomic location. A second phase of genetic modification then achieved site-specific integration of Vida3, a synthetic anti-malarial gene. Expression of Vida3, specifically in the midgut of bloodfed females, offered consistent and significant protection against Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, reducing average parasite intensity by 85%. Similar protection was observed against Plasmodium falciparum in some experiments, although protection was inconsistent. In the fight against malaria, it is imperative to establish a broad repertoire of both anti-malarial effector genes and tissue-specific promoters for their expression, enabling those offering maximum effect with minimum fitness cost to be identified. In the future, this technology will allow effective comparisons and informed choices to be made, potentially leading to complete transmission blockade.

  14. Establishment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and synovium of transgenic rats expressing dual reporter genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine because they can be harvested in a relatively less invasive manner, easily isolated, and expanded with multipotentiality. Bone marrow seems to be the most commonly used tissue as a source for MSCs at present. However, there are emerging reports to describe that MSCs exist in most mesenchymal tissues. We have recently compared in vivo chondrogenic potential in MSCs derived from various mesenchymal tissues and demonstrated that synovium-MSCs and bone marrow-MSCs possessed greater chondrogenic ability than other mesenchymal tissue-derived MSCs. This indicates that those MSCs are promising cellular sources for cartilage regeneration. As the fate of synovium-MSCs is unclear after transplantation, we herein established MSCs using double transgenic rats expressing either Luciferase/GFP or Luciferase/LacZ. The cellular fate of MSCs could be traced by an in vivo luciferase-based luminescent imaging system, and also followed histologically by green fluorescence and by X-gal staining, respectively. Thus, both synovium-MSCs and bone marrow-MSCs expressing Luciferase/GFP or Luciferase/LacZ provide powerful tools not only for cell tracking in vivo but also for histological analysis, leading to a compelling experimental model of cartilage regeneration with cell therapy.

  15. Expression of Autoactivated Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Glands of Transgenic Mice Leads to a Reactive Stroma During Early Development

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    Thomasset, N.; Lochter, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Lund, L.R.; Williams, D.R.; Behrendtsen, O.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-04-24

    Extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinases play a key role in interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme during mammary gland development and disease. In patients with breast cancer, the mammary mesenchyme undergoes a stromal reaction, the etiology of which is unknown. We previously showed that targeting of an autoactivating mutant of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 to mammary epithelia of transgenic mice resulted in reduced mammary function during pregnancy and development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Here we examine the cascade of alterations before breast tumor formation in the mammary gland stroma once the expression of the stromelysin-1 transgene commences. Beginning in postpubertal virgin animals, low levels of transgene expression in mammary epithelia led to increased expression of endogenous stromelysin-1 in stromal fibroblasts and up-regulation of other matrix metalloproteinases, without basement membrane disruption. These changes were accompanied by the progressive development of a compensatory reactive stroma, characterized by increased collagen content and vascularization in glands from virgin mice. This remodeling of the gland affected epithelial-mesenchymal communication as indicated by inappropriate expression of tenascin-C starting by day 6 of pregnancy. This, together with increased transgene expression, led to basement membrane disruption starting by day 15 of pregnancy. We propose that the highly reactive stroma provides a prelude to breast epithelial tumors observed in these animals. Epithelial development depends on an exquisite series of inductive and instructive interactions between the differentiating epithelium and the mesenchymal (stromal) compartment. The epithelium, which consists of luminal and myoepithelial cells, is separated from the stroma by a basement membrane (BM), which plays a central role in mammary gland homeostasis and gene expression. In vivo, stromal

  16. Transgenic expression of Telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) improves cell proliferation of primary cells and enhances reprogramming efficiency into the induced pluripotent stem cell.

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    Hidema, Shizu; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Date, Shiori; Tokitake, Yuko; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2016-10-01

    The enzymatic activity of telomerase is important for the extension of the telomere repeat sequence and overcoming cellular senescence. We generated a conditional transgenic mouse line, carrying the telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) expression cassette, controlled by the Cre-loxP-mediated recombination. In our study, Cre recombinase expression efficiently activated Tert expression, resulting in its increased enzymatic activity, which extended the period of cellular proliferation until the keratinocytes entered senescence. This suggests that transgenic Tert expression is effective in enhancing primary cell proliferation. Notably, Tert expression increased colony formation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells after the introduction of four reprogramming factors, Oct-4, klf4, SOX-2, and c-Myc into the transgenic fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the transgenic Tert expression enhances reprogramming efficiency of iPS cells, which indicates a critical role for Tert in the reprogramming process.

  17. Increased IKKα expression in the basal layer of the epidermis of transgenic mice enhances the malignant potential of skin tumors.

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    Josefa P Alameda

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in humans. In this study we demonstrate that elevated IKKα expression in murine epidermis increases the malignancy potential of skin tumors. We describe the generation of transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the basal, proliferative layer of the epidermis and in the outer root sheath of hair follicles. The epidermis of K5-IKKα transgenic animals shows several alterations such as hyperproliferation, mislocalized expression of integrin-α6 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor maspin. Treatment of the back skin of mice with the mitogenic agent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate causes in transgenic mice the appearance of different preneoplastic changes such as epidermal atypia with loss of cell polarity and altered epidermal tissue architecture, while in wild type littermates this treatment only leads to the development of benign epidermal hyperplasia. Moreover, in skin carcinogenesis assays, transgenic mice carrying active Ha-ras (K5-IKKα-Tg.AC mice develop invasive tumors, instead of the benign papillomas arising in wild type-Tg-AC mice also bearing an active Ha-ras. Therefore we provide evidence for a tumor promoter role of IKKα in skin cancer, similarly to what occurs in other neoplasias, including hepatocarcinomas and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer.