Application of differential transformation method for solving dengue transmission mathematical model
Ndii, Meksianis Z.; Anggriani, Nursanti; Supriatna, Asep K.
2018-03-01
The differential transformation method (DTM) is a semi-analytical numerical technique which depends on Taylor series and has application in many areas including Biomathematics. The aim of this paper is to employ the differential transformation method (DTM) to solve system of non-linear differential equations for dengue transmission mathematical model. Analytical and numerical solutions are determined and the results are compared to that of Runge-Kutta method. We found a good agreement between DTM and Runge-Kutta method.
Solution of the Bagley Torvik equation by fractional DTM
Arora, Geeta; Pratiksha
2017-07-01
In this paper, fractional differential transform method(DTM) is implemented on the Bagley Torvik equation. This equation models the viscoelastic behavior of geological strata, metals, glasses etc. It explains the motion of a rigid plate immersed in a Newtonian fluid. DTM is a simple, reliable and efficient method that gives a series solution. Caputo fractional derivative is considered throughout this work. Two examples are given to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the method and comparison is made with the existing results.
Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Volterra Integral Equations by RDTM and Comparison with DTM
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Reza Abazari
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The two-dimensional Volterra integral equations are solved using more recent semianalytic method, the reduced differential transform method (the so-called RDTM, and compared with the differential transform method (DTM. The concepts of DTM and RDTM are briefly explained, and their application to the two-dimensional Volterra integral equations is studied. The results obtained by DTM and RDTM together are compared with exact solution. As an important result, it is depicted that the RDTM results are more accurate in comparison with those obtained by DTM applied to the same Volterra integral equations. The numerical results reveal that the RDTM is very effective, convenient, and quite accurate compared to the other kind of nonlinear integral equations. It is predicted that the RDTM can be found widely applicable in engineering sciences.
On Solving the Lorenz System by Differential Transformation Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Sawalha, M. Mossa; Noorani, M. S. M.
2008-01-01
The differential transformation method (DTM) is employed to solve a nonlinear differential equation, namely the Lorenz system. Numerical results are compared to those obtained by the Runge–Kutta method to illustrate the preciseness and effectiveness of the proposed method. In particular, we examine the accuracy of the (DTM) as the Lorenz system changes from a non-chaotic system to a chaotic one. It is shown that the (DTM) is robust, accurate and easy to apply
State-of-the-Art: DTM Generation Using Airborne LIDAR Data
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Ziyue Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Digital terrain model (DTM generation is the fundamental application of airborne Lidar data. In past decades, a large body of studies has been conducted to present and experiment a variety of DTM generation methods. Although great progress has been made, DTM generation, especially DTM generation in specific terrain situations, remains challenging. This research introduces the general principles of DTM generation and reviews diverse mainstream DTM generation methods. In accordance with the filtering strategy, these methods are classified into six categories: surface-based adjustment; morphology-based filtering, triangulated irregular network (TIN-based refinement, segmentation and classification, statistical analysis and multi-scale comparison. Typical methods for each category are briefly introduced and the merits and limitations of each category are discussed accordingly. Despite different categories of filtering strategies, these DTM generation methods present similar difficulties when implemented in sharply changing terrain, areas with dense non-ground features and complicated landscapes. This paper suggests that the fusion of multi-sources and integration of different methods can be effective ways for improving the performance of DTM generation.
State-of-the-Art: DTM Generation Using Airborne LIDAR Data
Chen, Ziyue; Gao, Bingbo; Devereux, Bernard
2017-01-01
Digital terrain model (DTM) generation is the fundamental application of airborne Lidar data. In past decades, a large body of studies has been conducted to present and experiment a variety of DTM generation methods. Although great progress has been made, DTM generation, especially DTM generation in specific terrain situations, remains challenging. This research introduces the general principles of DTM generation and reviews diverse mainstream DTM generation methods. In accordance with the filtering strategy, these methods are classified into six categories: surface-based adjustment; morphology-based filtering, triangulated irregular network (TIN)-based refinement, segmentation and classification, statistical analysis and multi-scale comparison. Typical methods for each category are briefly introduced and the merits and limitations of each category are discussed accordingly. Despite different categories of filtering strategies, these DTM generation methods present similar difficulties when implemented in sharply changing terrain, areas with dense non-ground features and complicated landscapes. This paper suggests that the fusion of multi-sources and integration of different methods can be effective ways for improving the performance of DTM generation. PMID:28098810
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Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to approximate the stream function and temperature distribution of the MHD flow in a laminar liquid film from a horizontal stretching surface. In this paper DTM-Padé method was used which is a combination of differential transform method (DTM and Padé approximant. The DTM solutions are only valid for small values of independent variables. Comparison between the solutions obtained by the DTM and the DTM-Padé with numerical solution (fourth-order Runge–Kutta revealed that the DTM-Padé method is an excellent method for solving MHD boundary-layer equations.
Study of Nonlinear MHD Tribological Squeeze Film at Generalized Magnetic Reynolds Numbers Using DTM.
Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi; Freidoonimehr, Navid; Momoniat, Ebrahim; Rostami, Behnam
2015-01-01
In the current article, a combination of the differential transform method (DTM) and Padé approximation method are implemented to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations modelling the flow of a Newtonian magnetic lubricant squeeze film with magnetic induction effects incorporated. Solutions for the transformed radial and tangential momentum as well as solutions for the radial and tangential induced magnetic field conservation equations are determined. The DTM-Padé combined method is observed to demonstrate excellent convergence, stability and versatility in simulating the magnetic squeeze film problem. The effects of involved parameters, i.e. squeeze Reynolds number (N1), dimensionless axial magnetic force strength parameter (N2), dimensionless tangential magnetic force strength parameter (N3), and magnetic Reynolds number (Rem) are illustrated graphically and discussed in detail. Applications of the study include automotive magneto-rheological shock absorbers, novel aircraft landing gear systems and biological prosthetics.
Study of Nonlinear MHD Tribological Squeeze Film at Generalized Magnetic Reynolds Numbers Using DTM.
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Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi
Full Text Available In the current article, a combination of the differential transform method (DTM and Padé approximation method are implemented to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations modelling the flow of a Newtonian magnetic lubricant squeeze film with magnetic induction effects incorporated. Solutions for the transformed radial and tangential momentum as well as solutions for the radial and tangential induced magnetic field conservation equations are determined. The DTM-Padé combined method is observed to demonstrate excellent convergence, stability and versatility in simulating the magnetic squeeze film problem. The effects of involved parameters, i.e. squeeze Reynolds number (N1, dimensionless axial magnetic force strength parameter (N2, dimensionless tangential magnetic force strength parameter (N3, and magnetic Reynolds number (Rem are illustrated graphically and discussed in detail. Applications of the study include automotive magneto-rheological shock absorbers, novel aircraft landing gear systems and biological prosthetics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Halim Hassan, I.H.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we will compare the differential transformation method DTM and Adomian decomposition method ADM to solve partial differential equations (PDEs). The definition and operations of differential transform method was introduced by Zhou [Zhou JK. Differential transformation and its application for electrical circuits. Wuuhahn, China: Huarjung University Press; 1986 [in Chinese
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2010-01-01
. In current research the authors utilized the Differential Transformation Method (DTM) for solving the nonlinear problem and compared the analytical results with those ones obtained by the 4th order Runge-Kutta Method (RK4) as a numerical method. Further illustration embedded in this paper shows the ability...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ganji, S.; Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2012-01-01
. In current research the authors utilized the Differential Transformation Method (DTM) for solving the nonlinear problem and compared the analytical results with those ones obtained by the 4th order Runge-Kutta Method (RK4) as a numerical method. Further illustration embedded in this paper shows the ability...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Young Jae; Hwang, Ki Sup; Yun, Jong Hak
2006-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to apply Differential Transformation Method(DTM) and Generalized Differential Quadrature Method(GDQM) to vibration analysis of Euler-Bernoulli beam with open cracks on elastic foundation. In this paper the concepts of DTM and GDQM were briefly introduced. The governing equation of motion of the beam with open cracks on elastic foundation is derived. The cracks are modeled by massless substitute spring. The effects of the crack location, size and the foundation constants, on the natural frequencies of the beam, are investigated. Numerical calculations are carried out and compared with previous published results
Solution of fractional differential equations by using differential transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arikoglu, Aytac; Ozkol, Ibrahim
2007-01-01
In this study, we implement a well known transformation technique, Differential Transform Method (DTM), to the area of fractional differential equations. Theorems that never existed before are introduced with their proofs. Also numerical examples are carried out for various types of problems, including the Bagley-Torvik, Ricatti and composite fractional oscillation equations for the application of the method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the technique introduced here is robust, accurate and easy to apply
Solution of fractional differential equations by using differential transform method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arikoglu, Aytac [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Maslak, TR-34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Ozkol, Ibrahim [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Maslak, TR-34469 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozkol@itu.edu.tr
2007-12-15
In this study, we implement a well known transformation technique, Differential Transform Method (DTM), to the area of fractional differential equations. Theorems that never existed before are introduced with their proofs. Also numerical examples are carried out for various types of problems, including the Bagley-Torvik, Ricatti and composite fractional oscillation equations for the application of the method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the technique introduced here is robust, accurate and easy to apply.
Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector
2016-01-01
This work presents an analytical solution of some nonlinear delay differential equations (DDEs) with variable delays. Such DDEs are difficult to treat numerically and cannot be solved by existing general purpose codes. A new method of steps combined with the differential transform method (DTM) is proposed as a powerful tool to solve these DDEs. This method reduces the DDEs to ordinary differential equations that are then solved by the DTM. Furthermore, we show that the solutions can be improved by Laplace-Padé resummation method. Two examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique. The main advantage of this technique is that it possesses a simple procedure based on a few straight forward steps and can be combined with any analytical method, other than the DTM, like the homotopy perturbation method.
Modified Differential Transform Method for Two Singular Boundary Values Problems
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Yinwei Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the two singular boundary values problems of second order. Two singular points are both boundary values points of the differential equation. The numerical solutions are developed by modified differential transform method (DTM for expanded point. Linear and nonlinear models are solved by this method to get more reliable and efficient numerical results. It can also solve ordinary differential equations where the traditional one fails. Besides, we give the convergence of this new method.
DTM GENERATION WITH UAV BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUD
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N. Polat
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.
DTM Generation with Uav Based Photogrammetric Point Cloud
Polat, N.; Uysal, M.
2017-11-01
Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.
CREATION OF A MULTIRESOLUTION AND MULTIACCURACY DTM: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS FOR HELI-DEM CASE STUDY
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L. Biagi
2014-01-01
a horizontal resolution of 20 meters; in addition a LiDAR DTM with a horizontal resolution of 1 meter, which covers only the main hydrographic basins, is also available. The two DTMs have been transformed into the same reference frame. The cross-validation of the two datasets has been performed comparing the low resolution DTM with the local high resolution DTM. Then, where significant differences are present, GPS survey have been used as external validation. The results are presented. Moreover, a possible strategy for the future fusion of the data, is shortly summarized at the end of the paper.
Standardization of figures and assessment procedures for DTM verticalaccuracy
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Vittorio Casella
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Digital Terrain Models (DTMs are widely used in many sectors. They play a key role in hydrological risk prevention, risk mitigation and numeric simulations. This paper deals with two questions: (i when it is stated that a DTM has a given vertical accuracy, is this assertion univocal? (ii when DTM vertical accuracy is assessed by means of checkpoints, does their location influence results? First, the paper illustrates that two vertical accuracy definitions are conceivable: Vertical Accuracy at the Nodes (VAN, the average vertical distance between the model and the terrain, evaluated at the DTM's nodes and Vertical Accuracy at the interpolated Points (VAP, in which the vertical distance is evaluated at the generic points. These two quantities are not coincident and, when they are calculated for the same DTM, different numeric values are reached. Unfortunately, the two quantities are often interchanged, but this is misleading. Second, the paper shows a simulated example of a DTM vertical accuracy assessment, highlighting that the checkpoints’ location plays a key role: when checkpoints coincide with the DTM nodes, VAN is estimated; when checkpoints are randomly located, VAP is estimated, instead. Third, an in-depth, theoretical characterization of the two considered quantities is performed, based on symbolic computation, and suitable standardization coefficients are proposed. Finally, our discussion has a well-defined frame: it doesn't deal with all the items of the DTM vertical accuracy budget, which would require a much longer essay, but only with one, usually called fundamental vertical accuracy.
ACCELERATION OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAP PRODUCTION USING SEMI-AUTOMATIC DTM FROM DSM RADAR DATA
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A. Rizaldy
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG is government institution in Indonesia which is responsible to provide Topographic Map at several map scale. For medium map scale, e.g. 1:25.000 or 1:50.000, DSM from Radar data is very good solution since Radar is able to penetrate cloud that usually covering tropical area in Indonesia. DSM Radar is produced using Radargrammetry and Interferrometry technique. The conventional method of DTM production is using “stereo-mate”, the stereo image created from DSM Radar and ORRI (Ortho Rectified Radar Image, and human operator will digitizing masspoint and breakline manually using digital stereoplotter workstation. This technique is accurate but very costly and time consuming, also needs large resource of human operator. Since DSMs are already generated, it is possible to filter DSM to DTM using several techniques. This paper will study the possibility of DSM to DTM filtering using technique that usually used in point cloud LIDAR filtering. Accuracy of this method will also be calculated using enough numbers of check points. If the accuracy meets the requirement, this method is very potential to accelerate the production of Topographic Map in Indonesia.
A numeric-analytic method for approximating the chaotic Chen system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mossa Al-sawalha, M.; Noorani, M.S.M.
2009-01-01
The epitome of this paper centers on the application of the differential transformation method (DTM) the renowned Chen system which is described as a three-dimensional system of ODEs with quadratic nonlinearities. Numerical comparisons are made between the DTM and the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (RK4). Our work showcases the precision of the DTM as the Chen system transforms from a non-chaotic system to a chaotic one. Since the Lyapunov exponent for this system is much higher compared to other chaotic systems, we shall highlight the difficulties of the simulations with respect to its accuracy. We wrap up our investigations to reveal that this direct symbolic-numeric scheme is effective and accurate.
Athanassas, C. D.; Vaiopoulos, A.; Kolokoussis, P.; Argialas, D.
2018-03-01
This study integrates two different computer vision approaches, namely the circular Hough transform (CHT) and the determinant of Hessian (DoH), to detect automatically the largest number possible of craters of any size on the digital terrain model (DTM) generated by the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Specifically, application of the standard version of CHT to the DTM captured a great number of craters with diameter smaller than 50 km only, failing to capture larger craters. On the other hand, DoH was successful in detecting craters that were undetected by CHT, but its performance was deterred by the irregularity of the topographic surface encompassed: strongly undulated and inclined (trended) topographies hindered crater detection. When run on a de-trended DTM (and keeping the topology unaltered) DoH scored higher. Current results, although not optimal, encourage combined use of CHT and DoH for routine crater detection undertakings.
Kakuro Amasaka
2011-01-01
Recently, the author has touched on the development of the principle of New JIT and its validity. In this paper, the author presents TDS-DTM (Toyota Development System-Design Technical Methods) as a methodology of New JIT, which contributes to strategic product development. The excellence profile design of LEXUS has achieved by TDS-DTM.
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Ali Keyvanfar
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Transportation is the major contributor of ever-increasing CO2 and Greenhouse Gas emissions in cities. The ever-increasing hazardous emissions of transportation and energy consumption have persuaded transportation and urban planners to motivate people to non-motorized mode of travel, especially walking. Currently, there are several urban walkability assessment models; however, coping with a limited range of walkability assessment variables make these models not fully able to promote inclusive walkable urban neighborhoods. In this regard, this study develops the path walkability assessment (PWA index model which evaluates and analyzes path walkability in association with the pedestrian’s decision-tree-making (DTM. The model converts the pedestrian’s DTM qualitative data to quantifiable values. This model involves ninety-two (92 physical and environmental walkability assessment variables clustered into three layers of DTM (Layer 1: features; Layer 2: Criteria; and Layer 3: Sub-Criteria, and scoped to shopping and retail type of walking. The PWA model as a global decision support tool can be applied in any neighborhood in the world, and this study implements it at Taman Universiti neighborhood in Skudai, Malaysia. The PWA model has established the walkability score index which determines the grading rate of walkability accomplishment for each walkability variable of the under-survey neighborhood. Using the PWA grading index enables urban designers to manage properly the financial resource allocation for inspiring walkability in the targeted neighborhood.
NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Digital Surface and Terrain Models (DSM,DTM) dataset current as of 2007. The DTM associated with the Base Mapping Program consists of mass points and breaklines used...
Salleh, M. R. M.; Ismail, Z.; Rahman, M. Z. A.
2015-10-01
Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has been widely used recent years especially in generating high accuracy of Digital Terrain Model (DTM). High density and good quality of airborne LiDAR data promises a high quality of DTM. This study focussing on the analysing the error associated with the density of vegetation cover (canopy cover) and terrain slope in a LiDAR derived-DTM value in a tropical forest environment in Bentong, State of Pahang, Malaysia. Airborne LiDAR data were collected can be consider as low density captured by Reigl system mounted on an aircraft. The ground filtering procedure use adaptive triangulation irregular network (ATIN) algorithm technique in producing ground points. Next, the ground control points (GCPs) used in generating the reference DTM and these DTM was used for slope classification and the point clouds belong to non-ground are then used in determining the relative percentage of canopy cover. The results show that terrain slope has high correlation for both study area (0.993 and 0.870) with the RMSE of the LiDAR-derived DTM. This is similar to canopy cover where high value of correlation (0.989 and 0.924) obtained. This indicates that the accuracy of airborne LiDAR-derived DTM is significantly affected by terrain slope and canopy caver of study area.
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M. R. M. Salleh
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology has been widely used recent years especially in generating high accuracy of Digital Terrain Model (DTM. High density and good quality of airborne LiDAR data promises a high quality of DTM. This study focussing on the analysing the error associated with the density of vegetation cover (canopy cover and terrain slope in a LiDAR derived-DTM value in a tropical forest environment in Bentong, State of Pahang, Malaysia. Airborne LiDAR data were collected can be consider as low density captured by Reigl system mounted on an aircraft. The ground filtering procedure use adaptive triangulation irregular network (ATIN algorithm technique in producing ground points. Next, the ground control points (GCPs used in generating the reference DTM and these DTM was used for slope classification and the point clouds belong to non-ground are then used in determining the relative percentage of canopy cover. The results show that terrain slope has high correlation for both study area (0.993 and 0.870 with the RMSE of the LiDAR-derived DTM. This is similar to canopy cover where high value of correlation (0.989 and 0.924 obtained. This indicates that the accuracy of airborne LiDAR-derived DTM is significantly affected by terrain slope and canopy caver of study area.
VOLUME BASED DTM GENERATION FROM VERY HIGH RESOLUTION PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DSMS
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B. Piltz
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new algorithm for digital terrain (DTM model reconstruction from very high spatial resolution digital surface models (DSMs. It represents a combination of multi-directional filtering with a new metric which we call normalized volume above ground to create an above-ground mask containing buildings and elevated vegetation. This mask can be used to interpolate a ground-only DTM. The presented algorithm works fully automatically, requiring only the processing parameters minimum height and maximum width in metric units. Since slope and breaklines are not decisive criteria, low and smooth and even very extensive flat objects are recognized and masked. The algorithm was developed with the goal to generate the normalized DSM for automatic 3D building reconstruction and works reliably also in environments with distinct hillsides or terrace-shaped terrain where conventional methods would fail. A quantitative comparison with the ISPRS data sets Potsdam and Vaihingen show that 98-99% of all building data points are identified and can be removed, while enough ground data points (~66% are kept to be able to reconstruct the ground surface. Additionally, we discuss the concept of size dependent height thresholds and present an efficient scheme for pyramidal processing of data sets reducing time complexity to linear to the number of pixels, O(WH.
Massive stereo-based DTM production for Mars on cloud computers
Tao, Y.; Muller, J.-P.; Sidiropoulos, P.; Xiong, Si-Ting; Putri, A. R. D.; Walter, S. H. G.; Veitch-Michaelis, J.; Yershov, V.
2018-05-01
Digital Terrain Model (DTM) creation is essential to improving our understanding of the formation processes of the Martian surface. Although there have been previous demonstrations of open-source or commercial planetary 3D reconstruction software, planetary scientists are still struggling with creating good quality DTMs that meet their science needs, especially when there is a requirement to produce a large number of high quality DTMs using "free" software. In this paper, we describe a new open source system to overcome many of these obstacles by demonstrating results in the context of issues found from experience with several planetary DTM pipelines. We introduce a new fully automated multi-resolution DTM processing chain for NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) stereo processing, called the Co-registration Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) Gotcha Optimised (CASP-GO), based on the open source NASA ASP. CASP-GO employs tie-point based multi-resolution image co-registration, and Gotcha sub-pixel refinement and densification. CASP-GO pipeline is used to produce planet-wide CTX and HiRISE DTMs that guarantee global geo-referencing compliance with respect to High Resolution Stereo Colour imaging (HRSC), and thence to the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA); providing refined stereo matching completeness and accuracy. All software and good quality products introduced in this paper are being made open-source to the planetary science community through collaboration with NASA Ames, United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) Planetary Data System (PDS) Pipeline Service (APPS-PDS4), as well as browseable and visualisable through the iMars web based Geographic Information System (webGIS) system.
LiDAR and DTM Data from Tapajos National Forest in Para, Brazil, 2008
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides LiDAR point clouds and digital terrain models (DTM) from surveys over the Tapajos National Forest in Belterra municipality, Para, Brazil...
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Çilingir Süngü İnci
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study is to examine the steady two dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a continuous surface. In this study DTM-Padé method is used to solve which is a combination of differential transform method (DTM and Padé approximant. Comparisons between the solutions obtained by DTM and DTM-Padé and are shown that DTM-Padé is the completely powerful method then DTM for solving the problems in which boundary conditions at infinity. Also in this study the effect of Magnetic and Radiation parameters, Prandtl number and Eckert number for velocity and temperature distributions are investigated.
Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods
D.D. Ganji; M. Gorji; M. Hatami; A. Hasanpour; N. Khademzadeh
2013-01-01
In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and least square method (LSM) were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a paramet...
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Alexandra Magalhães Silveira
2007-08-01
Full Text Available A interação entre disfunção temporomandibular e otalgia é, mesmo nos dias atuais, motivo para especulações e hipóteses. Vários pesquisadores sugerem causas, conseqüências e supostos tratamentos. OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de pacientes portadores de DTM em um serviço de otorrinolaringologia. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Este é um estudo epidemiológico do tipo descritivo com amostra transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 221 pacientes do Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital da Cidade, em Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, durante um período de dois meses. Para captação e interpretação dos dados, bem como verificação da disfunção temporomandibular, foi utilizado um questionário auto-aplicado previamente validado. RESULTADO: Após coleta e interpretação dos dados de 221 pacientes, os resultados obtidos foram: 48 pacientes (21.72% considerados como necessitando de tratamento para DTM (índice de DTM moderada e severa, dos quais 35 pertenciam ao gênero feminino (72.9% e 13 ao masculino (21.1%. Apenas 15 indivíduos do total (7.24% estavam totalmente livres de sintomas de DTM. Quanto aos demais, apresentaram: dor de cabeça (33,5%, dor no pescoço e ombro (28,5%, dor na região do ouvido (29% e ruídos articulares (25%. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de DTM foi de 21.72% sendo significantemente maior no gênero feminino (p: 0.0001; e as prevalências, em relação aos índices, foram: DTM ausente 37.56%; DTM leve 40.72%; DTM moderada 19%, e DTM severa 2.72%.The interaction between Temporomandibular disorders (TMD and otalgia is, even nowadays, a reason for speculation and hypotheses raising. Several researchers suggest causes, consequences and alleged treatments. STUDY DESIGN: This is an epidemiological, sectional cohort study of prevalence. AIM: The study demonstrates the prevalence of patients harboring TMDs in an otorhinolaryngology department. MATERIAL AND METHODOS: During a two-month period, 221 patients from the
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H. Topan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Pléiades 1A and 1B are twin optical satellites of Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation (ORFEO program jointly running by France and Italy. They are the first satellites of Europe with sub-meter resolution. Airbus DS (formerly Astrium Geo runs a MyGIC (formerly Pléiades Users Group program to validate Pléiades images worldwide for various application purposes. The authors conduct three projects, one is within this program, the second is supported by BEU Scientific Research Project Program, and the third is supported by TÜBİTAK. Assessment of georeferencing accuracy, image quality, pansharpening performance and Digital Surface Model/Digital Terrain Model (DSM/DTM quality subjects are investigated in these projects. For these purposes, triplet panchromatic (50 cm Ground Sampling Distance (GSD and VNIR (2 m GSD Pléiades 1A images were investigated over Zonguldak test site (Turkey which is urbanised, mountainous and covered by dense forest. The georeferencing accuracy was estimated with a standard deviation in X and Y (SX, SY in the range of 0.45m by bias corrected Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC orientation, using ~170 Ground Control Points (GCPs. 3D standard deviation of ±0.44m in X, ±0.51m in Y, and ±1.82m in Z directions have been reached in spite of the very narrow angle of convergence by bias corrected RPC orientation. The image quality was also investigated with respect to effective resolution, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and blur coefficient. The effective resolution was estimated with factor slightly below 1.0, meaning that the image quality corresponds to the nominal resolution of 50cm. The blur coefficients were achieved between 0.39-0.46 for triplet panchromatic images, indicating a satisfying image quality. SNR is in the range of other comparable space borne images which may be caused by de-noising of Pléiades images. The pansharpened images were generated by various methods, and are validated by most common
A DTM MULTI-RESOLUTION COMPRESSED MODEL FOR EFFICIENT DATA STORAGE AND NETWORK TRANSFER
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L. Biagi
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In recent years the technological evolution of terrestrial, aerial and satellite surveying, has considerably increased the measurement accuracy and, consequently, the quality of the derived information. At the same time, the smaller and smaller limitations on data storage devices, in terms of capacity and cost, has allowed the storage and the elaboration of a bigger number of instrumental observations. A significant example is the terrain height surveyed by LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging technology where several height measurements for each square meter of land can be obtained. The availability of such a large quantity of observations is an essential requisite for an in-depth knowledge of the phenomena under study. But, at the same time, the most common Geographical Information Systems (GISs show latency in visualizing and analyzing these kind of data. This problem becomes more evident in case of Internet GIS. These systems are based on the very frequent flow of geographical information over the internet and, for this reason, the band-width of the network and the size of the data to be transmitted are two fundamental factors to be considered in order to guarantee the actual usability of these technologies. In this paper we focus our attention on digital terrain models (DTM's and we briefly analyse the problems about the definition of the minimal necessary information to store and transmit DTM's over network, with a fixed tolerance, starting from a huge number of observations. Then we propose an innovative compression approach for sparse observations by means of multi-resolution spline functions approximation. The method is able to provide metrical accuracy at least comparable to that provided by the most common deterministic interpolation algorithms (inverse distance weighting, local polynomial, radial basis functions. At the same time it dramatically reduces the number of information required for storing or for transmitting and rebuilding a
Filtering Photogrammetric Point Clouds Using Standard LIDAR Filters Towards DTM Generation
Zhang, Z.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.; Yang, M. Y.
2018-05-01
Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) can be generated from point clouds acquired by laser scanning or photogrammetric dense matching. During the last two decades, much effort has been paid to developing robust filtering algorithms for the airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. With the point cloud quality from dense image matching (DIM) getting better and better, the research question that arises is whether those standard Lidar filters can be used to filter photogrammetric point clouds as well. Experiments are implemented to filter two dense matching point clouds with different noise levels. Results show that the standard Lidar filter is robust to random noise. However, artefacts and blunders in the DIM points often appear due to low contrast or poor texture in the images. Filtering will be erroneous in these locations. Filtering the DIM points pre-processed by a ranking filter will bring higher Type II error (i.e. non-ground points actually labelled as ground points) but much lower Type I error (i.e. bare ground points labelled as non-ground points). Finally, the potential DTM accuracy that can be achieved by DIM points is evaluated. Two DIM point clouds derived by Pix4Dmapper and SURE are compared. On grassland dense matching generates points higher than the true terrain surface, which will result in incorrectly elevated DTMs. The application of the ranking filter leads to a reduced bias in the DTM height, but a slightly increased noise level.
Effects of DTM resolution on slope steepness and soil loss prediction on hillslope profiles
Eder Paulo Moreira; William J. Elliot; Andrew T. Hudak
2011-01-01
Topographic attributes play a critical role in predicting erosion in models such as the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). The effects of four different high resolution hillslope profiles were studied using four different DTM resolutions: 1-m, 3-m, 5-m and 10-m. The WEPP model used a common scenario encountered in the forest environment and the selected hillslope...
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Prasad K.V.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The effect of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation on a combined free and forced convective flow in a vertical channel is investigated for a fully developed flow regime. Boussinesq and Roseseland approximations are considered in the modeling of the conduction radiation heat transfer with thermal boundary conditions (isothermal-thermal, isoflux-thermal, and isothermal-flux. The coupled nonlinear governing equations are also solved analytically using the Differential Transform Method (DTM and regular perturbation method (PM. The results are analyzed graphically for various governing parameters such as the mixed convection parameter, radiation parameter, Brinkman number and perturbation parameter for equal and different wall temperatures. It is found that the viscous dissipation enhances the flow reversal in the case of a downward flow while it counters the flow in the case of an upward flow. A comparison of the Differential Transform Method (DTM and regular perturbation method (PM methods shows the versatility of the Differential Transform Method (DTM. The skin friction and the wall temperature gradient are presented for different values of the physical parameters and the salient features are analyzed.
Discrete fourier transform (DFT) analysis for applications using iterative transform methods
Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
According to various embodiments, a method is provided for determining aberration data for an optical system. The method comprises collecting a data signal, and generating a pre-transformation algorithm. The data is pre-transformed by multiplying the data with the pre-transformation algorithm. A discrete Fourier transform of the pre-transformed data is performed in an iterative loop. The method further comprises back-transforming the data to generate aberration data.
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Jovana de Moura Milanesi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a atividade elétrica e a dor à palpação dos músculos cervicais, a amplitude de movimento (ADM da coluna cervical e a relação entre atividade elétrica e ADM cervical em indivíduos com e sem desordem temporomandibular (DTM. Participaram do estudo 53 voluntários, sendo 24 com DTM e 29 sem, de ambos os gêneros, com 18 a 32 anos de idade. A DTM foi diagnosticada pelo critério de diagnóstico em pesquisa para DTM (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. A eletromiografia dos músculos esternocleidomastoídeo (ECOM e trapézio superior foi realizada bilateralmente, na situação de repouso, com frequência de 2 KHz e filtro passa-faixa de 10-1000 Hz. As medidas de ADM de flexão, extensão, lateroflexão e rotação foram realizadas com um flexímetro e a comparação entre os grupos contou com o teste de Mann Whitney. O teste de Spearman foi aplicado para a correlação entre as variáveis, com nível de significância de 5%. Não foi verificada nenhuma diferença na ADM cervical entre os grupos. A atividade elétrica demonstrou-se significativamente maior nos músculos ECOM direito (p=0,0130, trapézio superior direito (p=0,0334 e esquerdo (p=0,0335 no grupo DTM em relação ao grupo controle. Não houve correlação significante entre atividade elétrica e ADM cervical. A dor nos músculos cervicais apresentou-se significativamente maior apenas no músculo ECOM direito (p=0,0055. Conclui-se que os grupos estudados registraram diferença na atividade elétrica dos músculos cervicais, sendo esta maior em indivíduos com DTM.The aim of the research was to evaluate the electrical activity and pain on palpation of the cervical muscles, the cervical range of motion (ROM and the relationship between electrical activity and ROM in individuals with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD. Fifty three volunteers took part in the study, being 24 with TMD and 29 without, both genders
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Daniela Aparecida Biasotto-Gonzalez
2012-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar dois ângulos cervicais com as classificações oclusais em crianças de 6 a 10 anos com e sem Disfunção Temporomandibular (DTM,identificar se há prevalência de DTM quanto ao gênero, e se há influencia da oclusão sobre os ângulos estudados. MÉTODO: realizou-se um estudo observacional transversal com 91 crianças de ambos os gêneros de uma Instituição de Ensino privado, dispostas em Grupo A (sem DTM e Grupo B (com DTM. Todas as crianças foram avaliadas seguindo uma ficha cadastral constituída de dados referentes a sexo, idade, peso, altura e exame clínico intra-oral para classificação oclusal de Angle. O diagnóstico e a severidade da DTM, foram verificados pelo questionário proposto por Fonseca. Para avaliação dos ângulos cervicais (A1 e A2 foi utilizada a fotogrametria e o Software Alcimagem®. RESULTADOS: entre as crianças avaliadas, 52 (57,14% apresentaram maloclusão, sendo 29 com DTM e 23 sem DTM, 39 (42,85% apresentaram normoclusão, sendo 18 sem DTM e 21 com DTM. Quando comparados os ângulos (A1 e A2 a classe oclusal, foi encontrada diferença significante entre as crianças normoclusivas e maloclusivas com o ângulo A1 (p=0,04. CONCLUSÃO: esse estudo demonstrou que o ângulo A1 (C7, ATM e Ápice do Mento foi estatisticamente significante quando associado com a condição oclusal. Não foi encontrado associação, na população estudada, entre ângulo cervical e DTM. Além disso, também foi possível observar que, a prevalência de crianças do gênero feminino com DTM é significantemente maior que a do gênero masculino. Esse estudo demonstrou que a maloclusão pode alterar somente o ângulo A1 e que a DTM não interfere nos ângulos cervicais estudados.PURPOSE: to compare two cervical angles with occlusal classifications in children between 6 and 10 years old with and without Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD, to identify if there is a prevalence of TMD according to gender, and if there is
ANALYSIS OF THE PIT REMOVAL METHODS IN DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS OF VARIOUS RESOLUTIONS
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S. Šamanović
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Digital terrain model (DTM is the base for calculation of the surface runoff under the influence of the gravity (gravity flow in hydrological analysis. It is important to produce hydrologically corrected DTM with the removed natural and artificial depressions to avoid numerical problems in algorithms of the gravity flow. The pit removal procedure changes geomorphometry of the DTM. GIS software packages use pit removal algorithm independently of geomorphmetric features of the analyzed area. In need of minimally modified DTM after the pit removal areas, the carving method (deepen drainage routes and the filling method (fill sink were analyzed on three different geomorphometric areas (bare mountain range, hilly wooded area and the plain area intersected with the network of the drainage canals. The recommendation is given for the choice of geomorphometric least changing DTM algorithm. The input data are raster data of elevation points created by stereoscopic photogrammetry method in 5x5 and 25x25 meter resolution. Differences have been noticed during the process of creating raster data. The recommendation is given for the choice of the most acceptable method for each type of area on the basis of comparison of the original elevation points with the elevation points in created DTM.
Homotopy perturbation method for free vibration analysis of beams on elastic foundation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozturk, Baki; Coskun, Safa Bozkurt; Koc, Mehmet Zahid; Atay, Mehmet Tarik
2010-01-01
In this study, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is applied for free vibration analysis of beam on elastic foundation. This numerical method is applied on a previously available case study. Analytical solutions and frequency factors are evaluated for different ratios of axial load N acting on the beam to Euler buckling load, N r . The application of HPM for the particular problem in this study gives results which are in excellent agreement with both analytical solutions and the variational iteration method (VIM) solutions for the case considered in this study and the differential transform method (DTM) results available in the literature.
Milano, G.; Passaro, S.; Marsella, E.
2009-04-01
The Tyrrhenian Sea is the small extensional back-arc basin in the Central Mediterranean Sea characterized by a peculiar volcanic activity due to the presence of two sub-basin: Vavilov and Marsili. The central sector of the Marsili sub-basin, younger than the Valilov, is occupied by the Marsili Volcano. On November 2007, a geophysical survey was carried out by IAMC-CNR research institute (Naples, Italy) in the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea within the "Aeolian_2007" cruise onboard the Urania oceanographic vessel. During the second Leg of the survey, detailed multibeam data acquisition was carried out in order to obtain high resolution DTM of the major Seamounts of the southeast Tyrrhenian Sea. Here, we report a new, very high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the summit area of the Marsili Seamount. Multibeam data acquisition was carried out with the use of the Reson Seabat 8160 multibeam sonar system, which properly works in the 50-3500 m depth range. The system, interfaced with a Differential Global Positioning System, is mounted on keel of the R/V Urania and is composed of a ping source of 50 KHz, 150° degree for the whole opening of the transmitted pulse and a 126 beams-receiver. The whole dataset has been processed with the use of the PDS2000 swath editor tool, in accordance with the International Hydrographic Organization standard, and subsequently reorganized in an MXN matrix (Digital Terrain Model, DTM) of 25X25 m of grid cell size. The total amount of area coverage consists in more than 500 squared Km of multibeam sonar data. The Marsili volcano shows a global sigmoidal trend extending for about 55 km in the N10°E direction. Both the eastern and the western sides shows equal average slopes. Throughout the framework, crater-like morphologies are not clearly visible. The western side of the seamount reveals furrowed channels showing peculiar rounded sections. The northern sector morphologically differs from the rest of the seamount and seems separated
Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study
Aten, J.J.; Oudega, M.L.; van Exel, E.; Stek, M.L.; van Waarde, J.A.
2015-01-01
In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment
Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study.
Aten, Jan Jaap; Oudega, Mardien; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Max L; van Waarde, Jeroen A
2015-06-01
In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment characteristics, clinical outcome, and cognitive functioning after ECT. Thirty-nine unipolar depressed patients dosed using repeated DTM and 40 matched patients treated with ABM were compared. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the index course, as well as the total number of ECT sessions. Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, psychotic features, mean baseline MADRS, and median baseline MMSE. At the end of the index course, the two methods showed equal outcome (mean end MADRS, 11.6 ± 8.3 in DTM and 9.5 ± 7.6 in ABM (P = 0.26); median end MMSE, 28 (25-29) and 28 (25-29.8), respectively (P = 0.81). However, the median number of all ECT sessions differed 16 (11-22) in DTM versus 12 (10-14.8) in ABM; P = 0.02]. Using regression analysis, dosing method and age were independently associated with the total number of ECT sessions, with less sessions needed in ABM (P = 0.02) and in older patients (P = 0.001). In this comparative cohort study, ABM and DTM showed equal outcome for depression and cognition. However, the median ECT course duration in repeated DTM appeared longer. Additionally, higher age was associated with shorter ECT courses regardless of the dosing method. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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J. R. Santillan
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated how survey configuration and the type of interpolation method can affect the accuracy of river flow simulations that utilize LIDAR DTM integrated with interpolated river bed as its main source of topographic information. Aside from determining the accuracy of the individually-generated river bed topographies, we also assessed the overall accuracy of the river flow simulations in terms of maximum flood depth and extent. Four survey configurations consisting of river bed elevation data points arranged as cross-section (XS, zig-zag (ZZ, river banks-centerline (RBCL, and river banks-centerline-zig-zag (RBCLZZ, and two interpolation methods (Inverse Distance-Weighted and Ordinary Kriging were considered. Major results show that the choice of survey configuration, rather than the interpolation method, has significant effect on the accuracy of interpolated river bed surfaces, and subsequently on the accuracy of river flow simulations. The RMSEs of the interpolated surfaces and the model results vary from one configuration to another, and depends on how each configuration evenly collects river bed elevation data points. The large RMSEs for the RBCL configuration and the low RMSEs for the XS configuration confirm that as the data points become evenly spaced and cover more portions of the river, the resulting interpolated surface and the river flow simulation where it was used also become more accurate. The XS configuration with Ordinary Kriging (OK as interpolation method provided the best river bed interpolation and river flow simulation results. The RBCL configuration, regardless of the interpolation algorithm used, resulted to least accurate river bed surfaces and simulation results. Based on the accuracy analysis, the use of XS configuration to collect river bed data points and applying the OK method to interpolate the river bed topography are the best methods to use to produce satisfactory river flow simulation outputs
Methods for genetic transformation of filamentous fungi.
Li, Dandan; Tang, Yu; Lin, Jun; Cai, Weiwen
2017-10-03
Filamentous fungi have been of great interest because of their excellent ability as cell factories to manufacture useful products for human beings. The development of genetic transformation techniques is a precondition that enables scientists to target and modify genes efficiently and may reveal the function of target genes. The method to deliver foreign nucleic acid into cells is the sticking point for fungal genome modification. Up to date, there are some general methods of genetic transformation for fungi, including protoplast-mediated transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, electroporation, biolistic method and shock-wave-mediated transformation. This article reviews basic protocols and principles of these transformation methods, as well as their advantages and disadvantages.
Knevels, Raphael; Leopold, Philip; Petschko, Helene
2017-04-01
With high-resolution airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data more commonly available, many studies have been performed to facilitate the detailed information on the earth surface and to analyse its limitation. Specifically in the field of natural hazards, digital terrain models (DTM) have been used to map hazardous processes such as landslides mainly by visual interpretation of LiDAR DTM derivatives. However, new approaches are striving towards automatic detection of landslides to speed up the process of generating landslide inventories. These studies usually use a combination of optical imagery and terrain data, and are designed in commercial software packages such as ESRI ArcGIS, Definiens eCognition, or MathWorks MATLAB. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of open-source software for automatic landslide detection based only on high-resolution LiDAR DTM derivatives in a study area within the federal state of Burgenland, Austria. The study area is very prone to landslides which have been mapped with different methodologies in recent years. The free development environment R was used to integrate open-source geographic information system (GIS) software, such as SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses), GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System), or TauDEM (Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models). The implemented geographic-object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) consisted of (1) derivation of land surface parameters, such as slope, surface roughness, curvature, or flow direction, (2) finding optimal scale parameter by the use of an objective function, (3) multi-scale segmentation, (4) classification of landslide parts (main scarp, body, flanks) by k-mean thresholding, (5) assessment of the classification performance using a pre-existing landslide inventory, and (6) post-processing analysis for the further use in landslide inventories. The results of the developed open-source approach demonstrated good
Cruz, C. B. M.; Barros, R. S.; Rabaco, L. M. L.
2012-07-01
It's noticed a significant increase in the development of orbital and airborne sensors that enable the extraction of three-dimensional data. Consequently, it's important the increment of studies about the quality of altimetric values derived from these sensors to verify if the improvements implemented in the acquisition of data may influence the results. In this context, as part of a larger project that aims to evaluate the accuracy of various sensors, this work aims to analysis the planialtimetric accuracy of DSM and DTM generated from an aerial survey with LIDAR, using as reference for the planimetric analysis of the orthophotos obtained. The project was developed for an area of São Sebastião city, located in the basin of the North Coast of São Paulo state. The area's relief is very steep, with a predominance of dense forest vegetation, typical of the Atlantic Forest. All points have been established in the field, with the use of GNSS of one frequency (L1) through static relative positioning, acquiring a minimum of 1,500 epochs, for a distance less than 20 km to the base. In this work it's considered the Brazilian standard specifications for classification of cartographic bases (PEC). The Brazilian company responsible for the aerial survey (LACTEC) gave the following products for analysis: point clouds in raw format (x, y, z) using orthometric heights; point clouds (first and last pulse) for each range of flight to verify systematic errors; DTM uniformly spaced, filtering small natural obstacles, buildings and vegetation, in Geotiff format; DSM also uniformly spaced, in Geotiff format; and the mosaic of georeferenced digital images. The analysis realized on products from the LIDAR indicated their adoption to the scales 1:2,000 (Class A for the orthophotos and Class B for the DTM) and 1:5,000 (class C for the DSM). There were no indications of trends in the results. The average error was 0.01 m. It's important that new areas with different topographic
General method for designing wave shape transformers.
Ma, Hua; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo; Wang, Jiafu
2008-12-22
An effective method for designing wave shape transformers (WSTs) is investigated by adopting the coordinate transformation theory. Following this method, the devices employed to transform electromagnetic (EM) wave fronts from one style with arbitrary shape and size to another style, can be designed. To verify this method, three examples in 2D spaces are also presented. Compared with the methods proposed in other literatures, this method offers the general procedure in designing WSTs, and thus is of great importance for the potential and practical applications possessed by such kinds of devices.
Zenón Técotl, Laura Georgina; Quiroz Barrios, Julio César; Sánchez Ramos, Francisco
2012-01-01
El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la magnitud de las variaciones horizontales, verticales y transversales en la relación céntrica (RC) en pacientes con disfunción temporomandibular (DTM) y síntomas otológicos (SO) comparando con pacientes que no presenten DTM ni SO, mediante el uso del articulador MG2, fueron valorados en la División de Estomatología-Ortodoncia del Hospital General (HGMGG). En un periodo comprendido del 2005 al 2006, con rango de edad entre 20 a 60 años. Para la realizació...
Comparing transformation methods for DNA microarray data
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Zwinderman Aeilko H
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background When DNA microarray data are used for gene clustering, genotype/phenotype correlation studies, or tissue classification the signal intensities are usually transformed and normalized in several steps in order to improve comparability and signal/noise ratio. These steps may include subtraction of an estimated background signal, subtracting the reference signal, smoothing (to account for nonlinear measurement effects, and more. Different authors use different approaches, and it is generally not clear to users which method they should prefer. Results We used the ratio between biological variance and measurement variance (which is an F-like statistic as a quality measure for transformation methods, and we demonstrate a method for maximizing that variance ratio on real data. We explore a number of transformations issues, including Box-Cox transformation, baseline shift, partial subtraction of the log-reference signal and smoothing. It appears that the optimal choice of parameters for the transformation methods depends on the data. Further, the behavior of the variance ratio, under the null hypothesis of zero biological variance, appears to depend on the choice of parameters. Conclusions The use of replicates in microarray experiments is important. Adjustment for the null-hypothesis behavior of the variance ratio is critical to the selection of transformation method.
ORTHO IMAGE AND DTM GENERATION WITH INTELLIGENT METHODS
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H. Bagheri
2013-10-01
Finally the artificial intelligence methods, like genetic algorithms as well as neural networks, were examined on sample data for optimizing interpolation and for generating Digital Terrain Models. The results then were compared with existing conventional methods and it appeared that these methods have a high capacity in heights interpolation and that using these networks for interpolating and optimizing the weighting methods based on inverse distance leads to a high accurate estimation of heights.
Subgroup conflicts? Try the psychodramatic "double triad method".
Verhofstadt-Denève, Leni M F
2012-04-01
The present article suggests the application of a psychodramatic action method for tackling subgroup conflicts in which the direct dialogue between representatives of two opposing subgroups is prepared step by step through an indirect dialogue strategy within two triads, a strategy known as the Double Triad Method (DTM). In order to achieve integration in the group as a whole, it is important that all the members of both subgroups participate actively during the entire process. The first part of the article briefly explores the theoretical background, with a special emphasis on the Phenomenological-Dialectical Personality Model (Phe-Di PModel). In the second part, the DTM procedure is systematically described through its five action stages, each accompanied with 1) a spatial representation of the consecutive actions, 2) some illustrative statements for each stage, and 3) a theoretical interpretation of the dialectically involved personality dimensions in both protagonists. The article concludes with a discussion and suggestions for more extensive applications of the DTM method, including the question of its relationships to Agazarian's functional subgrouping, psychodrama, and sociodrama.
Ortho Image and DTM Generation with Intelligent Methods
Bagheri, H.; Sadeghian, S.
2013-10-01
Nowadays the artificial intelligent algorithms has considered in GIS and remote sensing. Genetic algorithm and artificial neural network are two intelligent methods that are used for optimizing of image processing programs such as edge extraction and etc. these algorithms are very useful for solving of complex program. In this paper, the ability and application of genetic algorithm and artificial neural network in geospatial production process like geometric modelling of satellite images for ortho photo generation and height interpolation in raster Digital Terrain Model production process is discussed. In first, the geometric potential of Ikonos-2 and Worldview-2 with rational functions, 2D & 3D polynomials were tested. Also comprehensive experiments have been carried out to evaluate the viability of the genetic algorithm for optimization of rational function, 2D & 3D polynomials. Considering the quality of Ground Control Points, the accuracy (RMSE) with genetic algorithm and 3D polynomials method for Ikonos-2 Geo image was 0.508 pixel sizes and the accuracy (RMSE) with GA algorithm and rational function method for Worldview-2 image was 0.930 pixel sizes. For more another optimization artificial intelligent methods, neural networks were used. With the use of perceptron network in Worldview-2 image, a result of 0.84 pixel sizes with 4 neurons in middle layer was gained. The final conclusion was that with artificial intelligent algorithms it is possible to optimize the existing models and have better results than usual ones. Finally the artificial intelligence methods, like genetic algorithms as well as neural networks, were examined on sample data for optimizing interpolation and for generating Digital Terrain Models. The results then were compared with existing conventional methods and it appeared that these methods have a high capacity in heights interpolation and that using these networks for interpolating and optimizing the weighting methods based on inverse
Generalized differential transform method to differential-difference equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou Li; Wang Zhen; Zong Zhi
2009-01-01
In this Letter, we generalize the differential transform method to solve differential-difference equation for the first time. Two simple but typical examples are applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the generalized differential transform method in solving differential-difference equation. A Pade technique is also introduced and combined with GDTM in aim of extending the convergence area of presented series solutions. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. Then we apply the differential transform method to the discrete KdV equation and the discrete mKdV equation, and successfully obtain solitary wave solutions. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple. We should point out that generalized differential transform method is also easy to be applied to other nonlinear differential-difference equation.
Maximum-likelihood method for numerical inversion of Mellin transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, M.
1997-01-01
A method is described for inverting the Mellin transform which uses an expansion in Laguerre polynomials and converts the Mellin transform to Laplace transform, then the maximum-likelihood regularization method is used to recover the original function of the Mellin transform. The performance of the method is illustrated by the inversion of the test functions available in the literature (J. Inst. Math. Appl., 20 (1977) 73; Math. Comput., 53 (1989) 589). Effectiveness of the method is shown by results obtained through demonstration by means of tables and diagrams
Modeling Accumulated Volume of Landslides Using Remote Sensing and DTM Data
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Zhengchao Chen
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Landslides, like other natural hazards, such as avalanches, floods, and debris flows, may result in a lot of property damage and human casualties. The volume of landslide deposits is a key parameter for landslide studies and disaster relief. Using remote sensing and digital terrain model (DTM data, this paper analyzes errors that can occur in calculating landslide volumes using conventional models. To improve existing models, the mechanisms and laws governing the material deposited by landslides are studied and then the mass balance principle and mass balance line are defined. Based on these ideas, a novel and improved model (Mass Balance Model, MBM is proposed. By using a parameter called the “height adaptor”, MBM translates the volume calculation into an automatic search for the mass balance line within the scope of the landslide. Due to the use of mass balance constraints and the height adaptor, MBM is much more effective and reliable. A test of MBM was carried out for the case of a typical landslide, triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake of 12 May 2008.
Numerical approximation for HIV infection of CD4+ T cells mathematical model
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Vineet K. Srivastava
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A dynamical model of HIV infection of CD4+ T cells is solved numerically using an approximate analytical method so-called the differential transform method (DTM. The solution obtained by the method is an infinite power series for appropriate initial condition, without any discretization, transformation, perturbation, or restrictive conditions. A comparative study between the present method, the classical Euler’s and Runge–Kutta fourth order (RK4 methods is also carried out.
Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.D. Ganji
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM, homotopy perturbation method (HPM and least square method (LSM were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a parametric study is performed here which includes the effect of exhaust velocity (Ce, burn rate (BR of fuel and diameter of cylindrical rocket (d on the motion of a sample rocket, and contours for showing the sensitivity of these parameters are plotted. The main results indicate that the rocket velocity and altitude are increased with increasing the Ce and BR and decreased with increasing the rocket diameter and drag coefficient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gray John C
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral dip method of transformation by immersion of inflorescences in a suspension of Agrobacterium is the method of choice for Arabidopsis transformation. The presence of a marker, usually antibiotic- or herbicide-resistance, allows identification of transformed seedlings from untransformed seedlings. Seedling selection is a lengthy process which does not always lead to easily identifiable transformants. Selection for kanamycin-, phosphinothricin- and hygromycin B-resistance commonly takes 7–10 d and high seedling density and fungal contamination may result in failure to recover transformants. Results A method for identifying transformed seedlings in as little as 3.25 d has been developed. Arabidopsis T1 seeds obtained after floral dip transformation are plated on 1% agar containing MS medium and kanamycin, phosphinothricin or hygromycin B, as appropriate. After a 2-d stratification period, seeds are subjected to a regime of 4–6 h light, 48 h dark and 24 h light (3.25 d. Kanamycin-resistant and phosphinothricin-resistant seedlings are easily distinguished from non-resistant seedlings by green expanded cotyledons whereas non-resistant seedlings have pale unexpanded cotyledons. Seedlings grown on hygromycin B differ from those grown on kanamycin and phosphinothricin as both resistant and non-resistant seedlings are green. However, hygromycin B-resistant seedlings are easily identified as they have long hypocotyls (0.8–1.0 cm whereas non-resistant seedlings have short hypocotyls (0.2–0.4 cm. Conclusion The method presented here is an improvement on current selection methods as it allows quicker identification of transformed seedlings: transformed seedlings are easily discernable from non-transformants in as little as 3.25 d in comparison to the 7–10 d required for selection using current protocols.
Transformation Matrix for Time Discretization Based on Tustin’s Method
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Yiming Jiang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies rules in transformation of transfer function through time discretization. A method of using transformation matrix to realize bilinear transform (also known as Tustin’s method is presented. This method can be described as the conversion between the coefficients of transfer functions, which are expressed as transform by certain matrix. For a polynomial of degree n, the corresponding transformation matrix of order n exists and is unique. Furthermore, the transformation matrix can be decomposed into an upper triangular matrix multiplied with another lower triangular matrix. And both have obvious regularity. The proposed method can achieve rapid bilinear transform used in automatic design of digital filter. The result of numerical simulation verifies the correctness of the theoretical results. Moreover, it also can be extended to other similar problems. Example in the last throws light on this point.
A highly efficient method for Agrobacterium mediated transformation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An Agrobacterium mediated transformation method was developed for the Thai rice variety, Pathumthani 1 (PT1), and the Indian rice variety, Pokkali (PKL). Various aspects of the transformation method, including callus induction, callus age, Agrobacterium concentration and co-cultivation period were examined, in order to ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcus Schmidt
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Background An examination of the distribution of ancient charcoal kiln sites in the forest landscape seems to be worthwhile, since general trends in the selection of suitable kiln site locations in the past might become obvious. In this way forest landscape elements with a more intense usage by charcoal burning can be identified. By doing this, we can expect to gain information on the former condition and tree species composition of woodland. Investigations on the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in relation to landscape attributes are sparse, however, probably due to the high on-site mapping effort. The outstanding suitability of LiDAR-derived digital terrain models (DTMs for the detection of charcoal kiln sites has been recently proved. Hence, DTM-based surveys of charcoal kiln sites represent a promising attempt to fill this research gap. Methods Based on DTM-based surveys, we analyzed the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in two forest landscapes in the German federal state of Hesse: Reinhardswald and Kellerwald-Edersee National Park. In doing so, we considered the landscape attibutes "tree species composition", “water supply status”, “nutrient supply status”, “soil complex classes”, “altitude”, “exposition”, and “inclination”. Results We found that charcoal kiln sites were established preferably on hillside locations that provided optimal growing and regeneration conditions for European beech (Fagus sylvatica due to their acidic brown soils and sufficient water supply. These results are in line with instructions for the selection of appropriate kiln site locations, found in literature from the 18th to the 19th century. Conclusions We conclude that there were well-stocked, beech-dominated deciduous forest stands in northern Hesse before 1800, particularly at poorly accessible hillside locations. These large stocks of beech wood were utilized by the governments of the different Hessian territories
Methods of evaluating market transformation programmes: experience in Sweden
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neij, L.
2001-01-01
The evaluation of market transformation programmes requires the development of new methods, relative to methods used for the evaluation of traditional energy efficiency programmes. In this paper, a model for the evaluation of market transformation programmes is proposed, based in part on evaluation methods discussed in the literature. The proposed model entails an extensive evaluation process, including the evaluation of market transformation effects, the impact of these effects, and the evaluation of the outline of the programme. Furthermore, evaluations of Swedish market transformation programmes have been analysed in relation to the proposed model. The analysis shows that not all of the evaluations have been focused on market transformation, and those that have, are only partly consistent with the evaluation model proposed here. It is concluded that future evaluations of Swedish market transformation programmes should be extended and improved in accordance with the proposed model. (author)
A simple transformation independent method for outlier definition.
Johansen, Martin Berg; Christensen, Peter Astrup
2018-04-10
Definition and elimination of outliers is a key element for medical laboratories establishing or verifying reference intervals (RIs). Especially as inclusion of just a few outlying observations may seriously affect the determination of the reference limits. Many methods have been developed for definition of outliers. Several of these methods are developed for the normal distribution and often data require transformation before outlier elimination. We have developed a non-parametric transformation independent outlier definition. The new method relies on drawing reproducible histograms. This is done by using defined bin sizes above and below the median. The method is compared to the method recommended by CLSI/IFCC, which uses Box-Cox transformation (BCT) and Tukey's fences for outlier definition. The comparison is done on eight simulated distributions and an indirect clinical datasets. The comparison on simulated distributions shows that without outliers added the recommended method in general defines fewer outliers. However, when outliers are added on one side the proposed method often produces better results. With outliers on both sides the methods are equally good. Furthermore, it is found that the presence of outliers affects the BCT, and subsequently affects the determined limits of current recommended methods. This is especially seen in skewed distributions. The proposed outlier definition reproduced current RI limits on clinical data containing outliers. We find our simple transformation independent outlier detection method as good as or better than the currently recommended methods.
Application of the DTM to Nonlinear Cases Arising in Fluid Flows with Variable Viscosity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barari, Amin; Rahimi, M; Hosseini, M.J
2012-01-01
This paper employs the differential transformation method to investigate two nonlinear ordinary differential systems for plane coquette flow having variable viscosity and thermal conductivity. The concept of differential transformation is briefly introduced, and then differential transformation m...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikulović Jovan Č.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A methodology for calculation of overvoltages in transformer windings, based on a numerical method of inverse Laplace transform, is presented. Mathematical model of transformer windings is described by partial differential equations corresponding to distributed parameters electrical circuits. The procedure of calculating overvoltages is applied to windings having either isolated neutral point, or grounded neutral point, or neutral point grounded through impedance. A comparative analysis of the calculation results obtained by the proposed numerical method and by analytical method of calculation of overvoltages in transformer windings is presented. The results computed by the proposed method and measured voltage distributions, when a voltage surge is applied to a three-phase 30 kVA power transformer, are compared. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33037 i br. TR-33020
Comparison of mobility extraction methods based on field-effect measurements for graphene
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Hua Zhong
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Carrier mobility extraction methods for graphene based on field-effect measurements are explored and compared according to theoretical analysis and experimental results. A group of graphene devices with different channel lengths were fabricated and measured, and carrier mobility is extracted from those electrical transfer curves using three different methods. Accuracy and applicability of those methods were compared. Transfer length method (TLM can obtain accurate density dependent mobility and contact resistance at relative high carrier density based on data from a group of devices, and then can act as a standard method to verify other methods. As two of the most popular methods, direct transconductance method (DTM and fitting method (FTM can extract mobility easily based on transfer curve of a sole graphene device. DTM offers an underestimated mobility at any carrier density owing to the neglect of contact resistances, and the accuracy can be improved through fabricating field-effect transistors with long channel and good contacts. FTM assumes a constant mobility independent on carrier density, and then can obtain mobility, contact resistance and residual density stimulations through fitting a transfer curve. However, FTM tends to obtain a mobility value near Dirac point and then overestimates carrier mobility of graphene. Comparing with the DTM and FTM, TLM could offer a much more accurate and carrier density dependent mobility, that reflects the complete properties of graphene carrier mobility.
Method of studying polymorphic transformations in melts of metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magomedov, A.M.
1986-01-01
This paper presents a method used to study the dynamics of the change in the electrical properties of specimens during melting and crystallization and to quite accurately determine the phase transformation temperatures in melts. A block diagram of the unit for measuring the magnetoresistive effect in melts of metals is shown. The authors found that the strength of the magnetic field affects the magnitude of the jumps associated with the anomalies rather than the temperature range of the polymorphic transformations. The method described accurately determines the transformation temperatures for first- and second-order phase transformations; it does not require the use of complicated and expensive equipment. The measurement time is much shorter and the amount of material needed for studies is much smaller than with the use of any other method. The proposed method can be used to study melts of metals and construct phase deagrams of alloys
FFT-enhanced IHS transform method for fusing high-resolution satellite images
Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.
2007-01-01
Existing image fusion techniques such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transform and principal components analysis (PCA) methods may not be optimal for fusing the new generation commercial high-resolution satellite images such as Ikonos and QuickBird. One problem is color distortion in the fused image, which causes visual changes as well as spectral differences between the original and fused images. In this paper, a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-enhanced IHS method is developed for fusing new generation high-resolution satellite images. This method combines a standard IHS transform with FFT filtering of both the panchromatic image and the intensity component of the original multispectral image. Ikonos and QuickBird data are used to assess the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method. Experimental results indicate that the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method may improve upon the standard IHS transform and the PCA methods in preserving spectral and spatial information. ?? 2006 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).
Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans
Canales, Genevieve
2013-01-01
This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lina Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To reduce the computation complexity of wavelet transform, this paper presents a novel approach to be implemented. It consists of two key techniques: (1 fast number theoretic transform(FNTT In the FNTT, linear convolution is replaced by the circular one. It can speed up the computation of 2D discrete wavelet transform. (2 In two-dimensional overlap-save method directly calculating the FNTT to the whole input sequence may meet two difficulties; namely, a big modulo obstructs the effective implementation of the FNTT and a long input sequence slows the computation of the FNTT down. To fight with such deficiencies, a new technique which is referred to as 2D overlap-save method is developed. Experiments have been conducted. The fast number theoretic transform and 2D overlap-method have been used to implement the dyadic wavelet transform and applied to contour extraction in pattern recognition.
Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vukadin, Z.
1999-01-01
The exact method of solving radioactive transformations is presented. Nonsingular Bateman coefficients, which can be computed using recurrence formulas, greatly reduce computational time and eliminate singularities that often arise in problems involving nuclide transmutations. Depletion function power series expansion enables high accuracy of the performed calculations, specially in a case of a decay constants with closely spaced values. Generality and simplicity of the method make the method useful for many practical applications. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zwingelstein, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-07-01
A simple method is described for identifying the transfer function of a linear retard-less system, based on the inversion of the Z transformation of the transmittance using a computer. It is assumed in this study that the signals at the entrance and at the exit of the circuit considered are of the deterministic type. The study includes: the theoretical principle of the inversion of the Z transformation, details about programming simulation, and identification of filters whose degrees vary from the first to the fifth order. (authors) [French] On decrit une methode simple d'identification de fonction de transfert d'un systeme lineaire sans retard, qui repose sur l'inversion de la transformee en Z de la transmittance a l'aide d'un calculateur. On suppose dans cette etude, que les signaux a l'entree et a la sortie du circuit considere sont de type deterministe. L'etude comporte: le principe theorique de l'inversion de la transformation en Z, les details de la programmation, la simulation et l'identification de filtres dont le degre varie du premier au cinquieme ordre. (auteurs)
Tzanou, E. A.; Vergos, G. S.
2012-04-01
The combined use of Geographic Information Systems and recent high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from Remote Sensing imagery offers a unique opportunity to study the hydrological properties of basin and catchment dynamics and derive the hydrological features of specific regions of various spatial scales. Until recently, the availability of global DEMs was restricted to low-resolution and accuracy models, e.g., ETOPO5, ETOPO2 and GTOPO30, compared to local Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from photogrammetric methods and offered usually in the form of topographic maps of various scales. The advent of the SRTM and ASTER missions, offer some new tools and opportunities in order to use their data within a GIS to study the hydrological properties of basins and consequently validate their performance both amongst each other, as well as in terms of the results derived from a local DTM. The present work focuses on the use of the recent SRTM v2 90 m and ASTER v2 30 m DEMs along with the national 500 m DTM generated by the Hellenic Military Geographic Service (HMGS), within a GIS in order to assess their performance in determining the hydrological properties of basins. To this respect, the ArcHydro extension tool of ArcGIS v9.3 and HEC-GeoRAS v4.3 have been exploited to determine the hydrographic data of the basins under study which are located in Northern Greece. The hydrological characteristics refer to stream geometry, curve number, flooding areas, etc. as well as the topographic characteristics of the basin itself, such as aspect, hillshade, slope e.t.c..
A Review of Frequency Response Analysis Methods for Power Transformer Diagnostics
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Saleh Alsuhaibani
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Power transformers play a critical role in electric power networks. Such transformers can suffer failures due to multiple stresses and aging. Thus, assessment of condition and diagnostic techniques are of great importance for improving power network reliability and service continuity. Several techniques are available to diagnose the faults within the power transformer. Frequency response analysis (FRA method is a powerful technique for diagnosing transformer winding deformation and several other types of problems that are caused during manufacture, transportation, installation and/or service life. This paper provides a comprehensive review on FRA methods and their applications in diagnostics and fault identification for power transformers. The paper discusses theory and applications of FRA methods as well as various issues and challenges faced in the application of this method.
The gridding method for image reconstruction by Fourier transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomberg, H.; Timmer, J.
1995-01-01
This paper explores a computational method for reconstructing an n-dimensional signal f from a sampled version of its Fourier transform f. The method involves a window function w and proceeds in three steps. First, the convolution g = w * f is computed numerically on a Cartesian grid, using the available samples of f. Then, g = wf is computed via the inverse discrete Fourier transform, and finally f is obtained as g/w. Due to the smoothing effect of the convolution, evaluating w * f is much less error prone than merely interpolating f. The method was originally devised for image reconstruction in radio astronomy, but is actually applicable to a broad range of reconstructive imaging methods, including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In particular, it provides a fast and accurate alternative to the filtered backprojection. The basic method has several variants with other applications, such as the equidistant resampling of arbitrarily sampled signals or the fast computation of the Radon (Hough) transform
Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vudakin, Z.
1999-01-01
Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations is presented in this paper. High accuracy series expansion of the depletion function and nonsingular Bateman coefficients are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Generality and simplicity of the method are found to be useful in evaluating nuclide chains with one hundred or more nuclides in the chain. Method enables evaluation of complete chain, without elimination of short-lives nuclides. It is efficient and accurate
Grimm, C. A.
This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…
Gézero, L.; Antunes, C.
2017-05-01
The digital terrain models (DTM) assume an essential role in all types of road maintenance, water supply and sanitation projects. The demand of such information is more significant in developing countries, where the lack of infrastructures is higher. In recent years, the use of Mobile LiDAR Systems (MLS) proved to be a very efficient technique in the acquisition of precise and dense point clouds. These point clouds can be a solution to obtain the data for the production of DTM in remote areas, due mainly to the safety, precision, speed of acquisition and the detail of the information gathered. However, the point clouds filtering and algorithms to separate "terrain points" from "no terrain points", quickly and consistently, remain a challenge that has caught the interest of researchers. This work presents a method to create the DTM from point clouds collected by MLS. The method is based in two interactive steps. The first step of the process allows reducing the cloud point to a set of points that represent the terrain's shape, being the distance between points inversely proportional to the terrain variation. The second step is based on the Delaunay triangulation of the points resulting from the first step. The achieved results encourage a wider use of this technology as a solution for large scale DTM production in remote areas.
Phase difference estimation method based on data extension and Hilbert transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Yan-lin; Tu, Ya-qing; Chen, Lin-jun; Shen, Ting-ao
2015-01-01
To improve the precision and anti-interference performance of phase difference estimation for non-integer periods of sampling signals, a phase difference estimation method based on data extension and Hilbert transform is proposed. Estimated phase difference is obtained by means of data extension, Hilbert transform, cross-correlation, auto-correlation, and weighted phase average. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed method suppresses the end effects of Hilbert transform effectively. The results of simulations and field experiments demonstrate that the proposed method improves the anti-interference performance of phase difference estimation and has better performance of phase difference estimation than the correlation, Hilbert transform, and data extension-based correlation methods, which contribute to improving the measurement precision of the Coriolis mass flowmeter. (paper)
Integral transform method for solving time fractional systems and fractional heat equation
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Arman Aghili
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, time fractional partial differential equation is considered, where the fractional derivative is defined in the Caputo sense. Laplace transform method has been applied to obtain an exact solution. The authors solved certain homogeneous and nonhomogeneous time fractional heat equations using integral transform. Transform method is a powerful tool for solving fractional singular Integro - differential equations and PDEs. The result reveals that the transform method is very convenient and effective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarunya Kanjanawattana
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Image classification plays a vital role in many areas of study, such as data mining and image processing; however, serious problems collectively referred to as the course of dimensionality have been encountered in previous studies as factors that reduce system performance. Furthermore, we also confront the problem of different graph characteristics even if graphs belong to same types. In this study, we propose a novel method of graph-type classification. Using our approach, we open up a new solution of high-dimensional images and address problems of different characteristics by converting graph images to one dimension with a discrete Fourier transformation and creating numeric datasets using wavelet and Hough transformations. Moreover, we introduce a new classifier, which is a combination between artificial neuron networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVMs, which we call ANNSVM, to enhance accuracy. The objectives of our study are to propose an effective graph-type classification method that includes finding a new data representative used for classification instead of two-dimensional images and to investigate what features make our data separable. To evaluate the method of our study, we conducted five experiments with different methods and datasets. The input dataset we focused on was a numeric dataset containing wavelet coefficients and outputs of a Hough transformation. From our experimental results, we observed that the highest accuracy was provided using our method with Coiflet 1, which achieved a 0.91 accuracy.
In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids
Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko
2014-03-01
Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro∷PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1α2 pro∷GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.
A New Method of Improving Transformer Restricted Earth Fault Protection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KRSTIVOJEVIC, J. P.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available A new method of avoiding malfunctioning of the transformer restricted earth fault (REF protection is presented. Application of the proposed method would eliminate unnecessary operation of REF protection in the cases of faults outside protected zone of a transformer or a magnetizing inrush accompanied by current transformer (CT saturation. On the basis of laboratory measurements and simulations the paper presents a detailed performance assessment of the proposed method which is based on digital phase comparator. The obtained results show that the new method was stable and precise for all tested faults and that its application would allow making a clear and precise difference between an internal fault and: (i external fault or (ii magnetizing inrush. The proposed method would improve performance of REF protection and reduce probability of maloperation due to CT saturation. The new method is robust and characterized by high speed of operation and high reliability and security.
Tail modeling in a stretched magnetosphere 1. Methods and transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stern, D.P.
1987-01-01
A new method is developed for representing the magnetospheric field B as a distorted dipole field. Because delxB = 0 must be maintained,such a distortion may be viewed as a transformation of the vector potential A. The simplest form is a one-dimensional ''stretch transformation'' along the x axis, a generalization of a method introduced by Voigt. The transformation is concisely represented by the ''stretch function'' f(x), which is also a convenient tool for representing features of the substorm cycle. Onedimensional stretch transformations are extended to spherical, cylindrical, and parabolic coordinates and then to arbitrary coordinates. It is next shown that distortion transformations can be viewed as mappings of field lines from one pattern to another: Euler potentials are used in the derivation, but the final result only requires knowledge of the field and not of the potentials. General transformations in Cartesian and arbitrary coordinates are then derived,and applications to field modeling, field line motion, MHD modeling, and incompressible fluid dynamics are considered. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987
A new method of converter transformer protection without commutation failure
Zhang, Jiayu; Kong, Bo; Liu, Mingchang; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Jianhong; Jing, Xu
2018-01-01
With the development of AC / DC hybrid transmission technology, converter transformer as nodes of AC and DC conversion of HVDC transmission technology, its reliable safe and stable operation plays an important role in the DC transmission. As a common problem of DC transmission, commutation failure poses a serious threat to the safe and stable operation of power grid. According to the commutation relation between the AC bus voltage of converter station and the output DC voltage of converter, the generalized transformation ratio is defined, and a new method of converter transformer protection based on generalized transformation ratio is put forward. The method uses generalized ratio to realize the on-line monitoring of the fault or abnormal commutation components, and the use of valve side of converter transformer bushing CT current characteristics of converter transformer fault accurately, and is not influenced by the presence of commutation failure. Through the fault analysis and EMTDC/PSCAD simulation, the protection can be operated correctly under the condition of various faults of the converter.
Method for Calculation of Steam-Compression Heat Transformers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. V. Zditovetckaya
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers a method for joint numerical analysis of cycle parameters and heatex-change equipment of steam-compression heat transformer contour that takes into account a non-stationary operational mode and irreversible losses in devices and pipeline contour. The method has been realized in the form of the software package and can be used while making design or selection of a heat transformer with due account of a coolant and actual equipment being included in its structure.The paper presents investigation results revealing influence of pressure loss in an evaporator and a condenser from the side of the coolant caused by a friction and local resistance on power efficiency of the heat transformer which is operating in the mode of refrigerating and heating installation and a thermal pump. Actually obtained operational parameters of the thermal pump in the nominal and off-design operatinal modes depend on the structure of the concrete contour equipment.
Improving the local wavenumber method by automatic DEXP transformation
Abbas, Mahmoud Ahmed; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni
2014-12-01
In this paper we present a new method for source parameter estimation, based on the local wavenumber function. We make use of the stable properties of the Depth from EXtreme Points (DEXP) method, in which the depth to the source is determined at the extreme points of the field scaled with a power-law of the altitude. Thus the method results particularly suited to deal with local wavenumber of high-order, as it is able to overcome its known instability caused by the use of high-order derivatives. The DEXP transformation enjoys a relevant feature when applied to the local wavenumber function: the scaling-law is in fact independent of the structural index. So, differently from the DEXP transformation applied directly to potential fields, the Local Wavenumber DEXP transformation is fully automatic and may be implemented as a very fast imaging method, mapping every kind of source at the correct depth. Also the simultaneous presence of sources with different homogeneity degree can be easily and correctly treated. The method was applied to synthetic and real examples from Bulgaria and Italy and the results agree well with known information about the causative sources.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verena Kise Capellini
2006-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is greatly prevalent in the population and can be associated with bruxism. This disorder produces several signs and symptoms. Among them, pain is one of the most important because it reduces life quality and productivity of people who have such disorder. The aim of this research was to study if massage causes pain relief and/or electromyographic (EMG changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were chosen by a questionnaire and divided into 2 different groups. Their ages varied from 19 to 22 years. The experimental group consisted of 6 TMD patients, who were submitted to the massage treatment and 4 EMG-sessions (the 1st EMG-session occurred before the treatment and the others in the 1st, 15th and 30th days after the treatment. The control group consisted of 6 TMD patients, who were submitted to the same 4 EMG-sessions. While EMG activity was recorded, subjects were asked to keep mandibular rest position (MRP and to perform maximal voluntary clenching (MVC. The treatment consisted of 15 massage-sessions on face and neck and in application of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for measuring pain level. The massage sessions had 30 minutes of duration and were performed daily. The EMG data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Square (RMS, which were normalized by MVC. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that (1 RMS-MRP of the right masseter in experimental group at the 1st EMG-session was higher than at the 2nd EMG-session and (2 statistically significant reduction was found for VAS values after massage session. CONCLUSION: Unfortunately the sample is insufficient to draw any conclusions, therefore, more studies regarding the use of massage in the management of myogenic TMD are necessary.INTRODUÇÃO: A disfunção temporomandibular (DTM tem grande prevalência na população e pode ser associada com bruxismo. Esta desordem produz vários sinais e sintomas. Entre eles, a dor é um do mais importantes porque
Krenek, Pavel; Samajova, Olga; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef
2015-11-01
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used as a versatile tool for development of stably transformed model plants and crops. However, the development of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation methods attracted substantial attention in recent years. Transient transformation methods offer several applications advancing stable transformations such as rapid and scalable recombinant protein production and in planta functional genomics studies. Herein, we highlight Agrobacterium and plant genetics factors affecting transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium into the plant cell nucleus and subsequent transient transgene expression. We also review recent methods concerning Agrobacterium mediated transient transformation of model plants and crops and outline key physical, physiological and genetic factors leading to their successful establishment. Of interest are especially Agrobacterium based reverse genetics studies in economically important crops relying on use of RNA interference (RNAi) or virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The applications of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation technology in biotech industry are presented in thorough detail. These involve production of recombinant proteins (plantibodies, vaccines and therapeutics) and effectoromics-assisted breeding of late blight resistance in potato. In addition, we also discuss biotechnological potential of recombinant GFP technology and present own examples of successful Agrobacterium mediated transient plant transformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Fourier transform method for infinite medium resonance absorption problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menon, S.V.G.; Sahni, D.C.
1978-01-01
A new method, using Fourier transforms, is developed for solving the integral equation of slowing down of neutrons in the resonance region. The transformations replace the slowing down equation with a discontinuous kernel by an integral equation with a continuous kernel over the interval (-infinity, infinity). Further the Doppler broadened line shape functions have simple analytical representations in the transform variable. In the limit of zero temperature, the integral equation reduces to a second order differential equation. Accurate expressions for the zero temperature resonance integrals are derived, using the WKB method. In general, the integral equation is seen to be amenable to solution by Ganss-Hermite quadrature formule. Doppler coefficients of 238 U resonances are given and compared with Monte Carlo calculations. The method is extended to include the effect of interference between neighbouring resonances of an absorber. For the case of two interfering resonances the slowing down equation is transformed to the coupled integral equations that are amenable to solution by methods indicated earlier. Numerical results presented for the low lying thorium-232 doublet show that the Doppler coefficients of the resonances are reduced considerably because of the overlap between them. (author)
Transforming han: a correlational method for psychology and religion.
Oh, Whachul
2015-06-01
Han is a destructive feeling in Korea. Although Korea accomplished significant exterior growth, Korean society is still experiencing the dark aspects of transforming han as evidenced by having the highest suicide rate in Asia. Some reasons for this may be the fragmentation between North and South Korea. If we can transform han then it can become constructive. I was challenged to think of possibilities for transforming han internally; this brings me to the correlational method through psychological and religious interpretation. This study is to challenge and encourage many han-ridden people in Korean society. Through the psychological and religious understanding of han, people suffering can positively transform their han. They can relate to han more subjectively, and this means the han-ridden psyche has an innate sacredness of potential to transform.
Rebenda, Josef; Šmarda, Zdeněk
2017-07-01
In the paper, we propose a correct and efficient semi-analytical approach to solve initial value problem for systems of functional differential equations with delay. The idea is to combine the method of steps and differential transformation method (DTM). In the latter, formulas for proportional arguments and nonlinear terms are used. An example of using this technique for a system with constant and proportional delays is presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mi-Kyeong Kim
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Landslides are one of the critical natural hazards that cause human, infrastructure, and economic losses. Risk of catastrophic losses due to landslides is significant given sprawled urban development near steep slopes and the increasing proximity of large populations to hilly areas. For reducing these losses, a high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM is an essential piece of data for a qualitative or a quantitative investigation of slopes that may lead to landslides. Data acquired by a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, called a point cloud, has been widely used to generate a DTM, since a TLS is appropriate for detecting small- to large-scale ground features on steep slopes. For an accurate DTM, TLS data should be filtered to remove non-ground points, but most current algorithms for extracting ground points from a point cloud have been developed for airborne laser scanning (ALS data and not TLS data. Moreover, it is a challenging task to generate an accurate DTM from a steep-slope area by using existing algorithms. For these reasons, we developed an algorithm to automatically extract only ground points from the point clouds of steep terrains. Our methodology is focused on TLS datasets and utilizes the adaptive principal component analysis–triangular irregular network (PCA-TIN approach. Our method was applied to two test areas and the results showed that the algorithm can cope well with steep slopes, giving an accurate surface model compared to conventional algorithms. Total accuracy values of the generated DTMs in the form of root mean squared errors are 1.84 cm and 2.13 cm over the areas of 5252 m2 and 1378 m2, respectively. The slope-based adaptive PCA-TIN method demonstrates great potential for TLS-derived DTM construction in steep-slope landscapes.
Optimization of an Efficient Non-Tissue Culture Transformation Method for Brassica Juncea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naeem, I.; Munir, I.; Iqbal, A.; Ullah, F.
2016-01-01
The major hurdles in successful in vitro transformation of Brassica juncea through standard tissue culture (STC) method are: culture contamination, somaclonal variations, and lack of expertise. Moreover, the current STC method is time consuming and needs continuous electricity. In the present study, the in planta transformation method through floral dip with or without vacuum infiltration was optimized for successful transformation of B. juncea. The B. juncea CV RAYA Anmol was used for transformation through Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 harboring the binary vector plasmid pBinGlyBar4-EADcT. Based on the resistance reaction to the herbicide Basta, 20 and 40 resistant seedlings were obtained from 2000 seed germinated from the plants transformed through floral dip and vacuum infiltration methods, respectively. The PCR analyses further confirmed the presence of transgene in 3 floral dipped plants without vacuum infiltration and 17 floral dipped plants with vacuum infiltration, giving the transformation frequencies of 1.5*10/sup -3/ and 8.5*10/sup -3/, respectively. This method, which avoids tissue culture, will reduce the somaclonal variation accompanying prolonged culture of cells in a dedifferentiated state, will facilitate functional genomics and improvement of Brassica juncea with novel desirable traits while reducing time and expense. (author)
Methods of Weyl representation of the phase space and canonical transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budanov, V.G.
1986-01-01
The author studies nonlinear canonical transformations realized in the space of Weyl symbols of quantum operators. The kernels of the transformations, the symbol of the intertwining operator of the group of inhomogeneous point transformations, an the group characters are constructed. The group of PL transformations, which is the free produce of the group of point, p, and linear, L, transformations is considered. The simplest PL complexes relating problems with different potentials, in particular, containing a general Darboux transformation of the factorization method, are constructed. The kernel of an arbitrary element of the group PL is found
Symmetrized neutron transport equation and the fast Fourier transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinh, N.Q.; Kisynski, J.; Mika, J.
1978-01-01
The differential equation obtained from the neutron transport equation by the application of the source iteration method in two-dimensional rectangular geometry is transformed into a symmetrized form with respect to one of the angular variables. The discretization of the symmetrized equation leads to finite difference equations based on the five-point scheme and solved by use of the fast Fourier transform method. Possible advantages of the approach are shown on test calculations
Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography
Shapiro, Robert
1978-01-01
The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)
Escherichia coli can be transformed by a liposome-mediated lipofection method.
Kawata, Yoshikazu; Yano, Shin-ichi; Kojima, Hiroyuki
2003-05-01
Transformation of Escherichia coli is a basic technique for genetic engineering. We used a liposome-mediated lipofection method to transform electrocompetent E. coli cells which has little natural competence of foreign DNA without electroporation treatment, and got transformants with simple and quick treatment by a plasmid or a transposon and transposase complex.
Glass bead transformation method for gram-positive bacteria
Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat
2009-01-01
A simple, inexpensive and reproducible transformation method was developed for Gram-positive bacteria. It was based on agitation of bacterial protoplasts with glass beads in the presence of DNA and polyethylene glycol. By using this method, introduction of pGK12 into protoplasts of several strains of Gram-positive bacteria was achieved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, C-W; Zouhdi, Said
2009-01-01
Based on the concept of the cloak generating function, we propose an implicit transformation-independent method for the required parameters of spherical cloaks without knowing the needed coordinate transformation beforehand. A non-ideal discrete model is used to calculate and optimize the total scattering cross-sections of different profiles of the generating function. A bell-shaped quadratic spherical cloak is found to be the best candidate, which is further optimized by controlling the design parameters involved. Such improved invisibility is steady even when the model is highly discretized.
A New Method Presentation for Fault Location in Power Transformers
Hossein Mohammadpour; Rahman Dashti
2011-01-01
Power transformers are among the most important and expensive equipments in the electric power systems. Consequently the transformer protection is an essential part of the system protection. This paper presents a new method for locating transformer winding faults such as turn-to-turn, turn-to-core, turn-totransformer body, turn-to-earth, and high voltage winding to low voltage winding. In this study the current and voltage signals of input and output terminals of the tran...
Alberto, R. T.; Hernando, P. J. C.; Tagaca, R. C.; Celestino, A. B.; Palado, G. C.; Camaso, E. E.; Damian, G. B.
2017-09-01
Climate change has wide-ranging effects on the environment and socio-economic and related sectors which includes water resources, agriculture and food security, human health, terrestrial ecosystems, coastal zones and biodiversity. Farmers are under pressure to the changing weather and increasing unpredictable water supply. Because of rainfall deficiencies, artificial application of water has been made through irrigation. Irrigation is a basic determinant of agriculture because its inadequacies are the most powerful constraints on the increase of agricultural production. Irrigation networks are permanent and temporary conduits that supply water to agricultural areas from an irrigation source. Detection of irrigation networks using LiDAR DTM, and flood susceptible assessment of irrigation networks could give baseline information on the development and management of sustainable agriculture. Map Gully Depth (MGD) in Whitebox GAT was used to generate the potential irrigation networks. The extracted MGD was overlaid in ArcGIS as guide in the digitization of potential irrigation networks. A flood hazard map was also used to identify the flood susceptible irrigation networks in the study area. The study was assessed through field validation of points which were generated using random sampling method. Results of the study showed that most of the detected irrigation networks have low to moderate susceptibility to flooding while the rest have high susceptibility to flooding which is due to shifting weather. These irrigation networks may cause flood when it overflows that could also bring huge damage to rice and other agricultural areas.
A New Shape Description Method Using Angular Radial Transform
Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Whoi-Yul
Shape is one of the primary low-level image features in content-based image retrieval. In this paper we propose a new shape description method that consists of a rotationally invariant angular radial transform descriptor (IARTD). The IARTD is a feature vector that combines the magnitude and aligned phases of the angular radial transform (ART) coefficients. A phase correction scheme is employed to produce the aligned phase so that the IARTD is invariant to rotation. The distance between two IARTDs is defined by combining differences in the magnitudes and aligned phases. In an experiment using the MPEG-7 shape dataset, the proposed method outperforms existing methods; the average BEP of the proposed method is 57.69%, while the average BEPs of the invariant Zernike moments descriptor and the traditional ART are 41.64% and 36.51%, respectively.
A Combined Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformer in Big Data Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The fault diagnosis method based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA is of great significance to detect the potential faults of the transformer and improve the security of the power system. The DGA data of transformer in smart grid have the characteristics of large quantity, multiple types, and low value density. In view of DGA big data’s characteristics, the paper first proposes a new combined fault diagnosis method for transformer, in which a variety of fault diagnosis models are used to make a preliminary diagnosis, and then the support vector machine is used to make the second diagnosis. The method adopts the intelligent complementary and blending thought, which overcomes the shortcomings of single diagnosis model in transformer fault diagnosis, and improves the diagnostic accuracy and the scope of application of the model. Then, the training and deployment strategy of the combined diagnosis model is designed based on Storm and Spark platform, which provides a solution for the transformer fault diagnosis in big data environment.
Process identification method based on the Z transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwingelstein, G.
1968-01-01
A simple method is described for identifying the transfer function of a linear retard-less system, based on the inversion of the Z transformation of the transmittance using a computer. It is assumed in this study that the signals at the entrance and at the exit of the circuit considered are of the deterministic type. The study includes: the theoretical principle of the inversion of the Z transformation, details about programming simulation, and identification of filters whose degrees vary from the first to the fifth order. (authors) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, X.; Chen, Y.M.
1989-01-01
The boundary element method (BEM) is developed from the boundary integral equation method and the discretization techniques. Compared with other numerical method, BEM has been shown to be a versatile and efficient method for a wide variety of engineering problems, including the wave propagation in elastic media. The first formulation and solution of the transient elastodynamic problem by combining BEM and Laplace transform is due to Cruse. Further improvement was achieved by introducing Durbin's method instead of Papoulis method of numerical Laplace inverse transform. However, a great deal of computer time is still needed for the inverse transformation. The alternative integral transform approach is BEM combining with Fourier transform. The numerical Fourier inverse transformation is also computer time consuming, even if the fast Fourier transform is used. In the present paper, the authors use BEM combining with Fourier transform and Fourier eigen transform (FET). The new approach is very attractive in saving on computer time. This paper illustrates the application of FET to BEM of 2-dimensional transient elastodynamic problem. The example of a half plane subjected to a discontinuous boundary load is solved on ELXSI 6400 computer. The CPU time is less than one minute. If Laplace or Fourier transform is adopted, the CPU time will be more than 10 minutes
A new Laplace transformation method for dynamic testing of solar collectors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kong, Weiqiang; Perers, Bengt; Fan, Jianhua
2015-01-01
A new dynamic method for solar collector testing is developed. It is characterized by using the Laplace transformation technique to solve the differential governing equation. The new method was inspired by the so called New Dynamic Method (NDM) (Amer E. et al (1999) [1]) but totally different....... By integration of the Laplace transformation technique with the Quasi Dynamic Test (QDT) model (Fischer S. et al (2004) [2]), the Laplace – QDT (L-QDT) model is derived. Two experimental methods are then introduced. One is the shielding method which needs to shield and un-shield solar collector continuously...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vetter, M.
2013-01-01
point cloud. Because of the interaction of the laser signal at a specific wavelength and the water surface, the capability to identify areas containing water is very high. These water surface areas are used for land cover classification or generating proper geometry data for hydrodynamic-numerical models. The extent of the water surface is used to replace the water surface with river bed geometry or for hydraulic friction parameter allocation. Based on the water surface extent a river bed modeling method is presented in the next chapter. By combining the existing water surface with terrestrially measured cross section data, a river bed model is created, which is finally integrated into the existing DTM. The main aim of this chapter is to create a DTM of the watercourse, including the river bed model, which can be used as basis for hydrodynamic-numerical modeling and for change detection between two major flood events. The advantage of the DTM with an integrated river bed is that the relevant elevation data of the flood plains are used from the dense and accurate original DTM and the river bed is an interpolated DTM from cross sections. If the distance between the cross sections is large, the river bed model is of poor quality, because of the linear interpolation of the cross sections. In the final methodological part a point cloud based method for estimating hydraulic roughness coefficients is presented. Based on the geometry of the 3D point cloud, vertical structures of the vegetation are analyzed and classified into different land cover classes, which are transformed to Manning's n values. The advantages of the presented method are that the data analysis is fully automatic, reproducible and fast. Finally, the geometry used as elevation input for a 2D hydrodynamic-numerical model and the roughness parameters are measured at one single point in time and calculated from the same data source. Therefore, it is possible to create a hydrodynamic-numerical model exactly
Efficiency analysis of straight fin with variable heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadri, Somayyeh; Raveshi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Shayan
2012-01-01
In this study, one type of applicable analytical method, differential transformation method (DTM), is used to evaluate the efficiency and behavior of a straight fin with variable thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient. Fins are widely used to enhance heat transfer between primary surface and the environment in many industrial applications. The performance of such a surface is significantly affected by variable thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient, particularly for large temperature differences. General heat transfer equation related to the fin is derived and dimensionalized. The concept of differential transformation is briefly introduced, and then this method is employed to derive solutions of nonlinear equations. Results are evaluated for several cases such as: laminar film boiling or condensation, forced convection, laminar natural convection, turbulent natural convection, nucleate boiling, and radiation. The obtained results from DTM are compared with the numerical solution to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The effects of design parameters on temperature and efficiency are evaluated by some figures. The major aim of the present study, which is exclusive for this article, is to find the effect of the modes of heat transfer on fin efficiency. It has been shown that for radiation heat transfer, thermal efficiency reaches its maximum value
Nonuniform fast Fourier transform method for numerical diffraction simulation on tilted planes.
Xiao, Yu; Tang, Xiahui; Qin, Yingxiong; Peng, Hao; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Lijing
2016-10-01
The method, based on the rotation of the angular spectrum in the frequency domain, is generally used for the diffraction simulation between the tilted planes. Due to the rotation of the angular spectrum, the interval between the sampling points in the Fourier domain is not even. For the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based methods, a spectrum interpolation is needed to get the approximate sampling value on the equidistant sampling points. However, due to the numerical error caused by the spectrum interpolation, the calculation accuracy degrades very quickly as the rotation angle increases. Here, the diffraction propagation between the tilted planes is transformed into a problem about the discrete Fourier transform on the uneven sampling points, which can be evaluated effectively and precisely through the nonuniform fast Fourier transform method (NUFFT). The most important advantage of this method is that the conventional spectrum interpolation is avoided and the high calculation accuracy can be guaranteed for different rotation angles, even when the rotation angle is close to π/2. Also, its calculation efficiency is comparable with that of the conventional FFT-based methods. Numerical examples as well as a discussion about the calculation accuracy and the sampling method are presented.
Advantages of Analytical Transformations in Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKinley, M S; Brooks III, E D; Daffin, F
2004-01-01
Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport typically attempt to solve an integral by directly sampling analog or weighted particles, which are treated as physical entities. Improvements to the methods involve better sampling, probability games or physical intuition about the problem. We show that significant improvements can be achieved by recasting the equations with an analytical transform to solve for new, non-physical entities or fields. This paper looks at one such transform, the difference formulation for thermal photon transport, showing a significant advantage for Monte Carlo solution of the equations for time dependent transport. Other related areas are discussed that may also realize significant benefits from similar analytical transformations
A Design Method for Graded Insulation of Transformers by Transient Electric Field Intensity Analysis
Yamashita, Hideo; Cingoski, Vlatko; Namera, Akihiro; Nakamae, Eihachiro; Kitamura, Hideo
2000-01-01
In this paper, a calculation method for transient electric field distribution inside a transformer impressed with voltage is proposed: The concentrated electric network for the transformer is constructed by dividing transformer windings into several blocks, and the transient voltage and electric field intensity distributions inside the transformer are calculated by using the axisymmetrical finite element method. Moreover, an animated display of the distributions is realized: The visualization...
M. Rasoulpoor; M. Banejad; A. Ahmadyfard
2011-01-01
This paper presents a novel technique for transformer differential protection to prevent incorrect operation due to inrush current. The proposed method in this paper is based on time-frequency transform known as the Wavelet transform. The discrete Wavelet transform is used for analysis the differential current signals in time and frequency domains. The investigation on the energy distribution of the signal on the discrete Wavelet transform components shows the difference distribution between ...
Solution of (3+1-Dimensional Nonlinear Cubic Schrodinger Equation by Differential Transform Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan A. Zedan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Four-dimensional differential transform method has been introduced and fundamental theorems have been defined for the first time. Moreover, as an application of four-dimensional differential transform, exact solutions of nonlinear system of partial differential equations have been investigated. The results of the present method are compared very well with analytical solution of the system. Differential transform method can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and reduces the size of computational work. With this method, exact solutions may be obtained without any need of cumbersome work, and it is a useful tool for analytical and numerical solutions.
A Systematic Hardware Sharing Method for Unified Architecture Design of H.264 Transforms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Po-Hung Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Multitransform techniques have been widely used in modern video coding and have better compression efficiency than the single transform technique that is used conventionally. However, every transform needs a corresponding hardware implementation, which results in a high hardware cost for multiple transforms. A novel method that includes a five-step operation sharing synthesis and architecture-unification techniques is proposed to systematically share the hardware and reduce the cost of multitransform coding. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, a unified architecture is designed using the method for all of the six transforms involved in the H.264 video codec: 2D 4 × 4 forward and inverse integer transforms, 2D 4 × 4 and 2 × 2 Hadamard transforms, and 1D 8 × 8 forward and inverse integer transforms. Firstly, the six H.264 transform architectures are designed at a low cost using the proposed five-step operation sharing synthesis technique. Secondly, the proposed architecture-unification technique further unifies these six transform architectures into a low cost hardware-unified architecture. The unified architecture requires only 28 adders, 16 subtractors, 40 shifters, and a proposed mux-based routing network, and the gate count is only 16308. The unified architecture processes 8 pixels/clock-cycle, up to 275 MHz, which is equal to 707 Full-HD 1080 p frames/second.
The OptD-multi method in LiDAR processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Błaszczak-Bąk, Wioleta; Sobieraj-Żłobińska, Anna; Kowalik, Michał
2017-01-01
New and constantly developing technology for acquiring spatial data, such as LiDAR (light detection and ranging), is a source for large volume of data. However, such amount of data is not always needed for developing the most popular LiDAR products: digital terrain model (DTM) or digital surface model. Therefore, in many cases, the number of contained points are reduced in the pre-processing stage. The degree of reduction is determined by the algorithm used, which should enable the user to obtain a dataset appropriate and optimal for the planned purpose. The aim of this article is to propose a new Optimum Dataset method (OptD method) in the processing of LiDAR point clouds. The OptD method can reduce the number of points in a dataset for the specified optimization criteria concerning the characteristics of generated DTM. The OptD method can be used in two variants: OptD-single (one criterion for optimization) and OptD-multi (two or more optimization criteria). The OptD-single method has been thoroughly tested and presented by Błaszczak-Bąk (2016 Acta Geodyn. Geomater . 13/4 379–86). In this paper the authors discussed the OptD-multi method. (paper)
Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library
Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie
2015-06-02
The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moradi Amir
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, the simultaneous convection-radiation heat transfer of a moving fin of variable thermal conductivity is studied. The differential transformation method (DTM is applied for an analytic solution for heat transfer in fin with two different profiles. Fin profiles are rectangular and exponential. The accuracy of analytic solution is validated by comparing it with the numerical solution that is obtained by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The analytical and numerical results are shown for different values of the embedding parameters. DTM results show that series converge rapidly with high accuracy. The results indicate that the fin tip temperature increases when ambient temperature increases. Conversely, the fin tip temperature decreases with an increase in the Peclet number, convection-conduction and radiation-conduction parameters. It is shown that the fin tip temperature of the exponential profile is higher than the rectangular one. The results indicate that the numerical data and analytical method are in a good agreement with each other.
Extraction of thalweg networks from DTMs: application to badlands
Thommeret , N.; Bailly , Jean-Stéphane; Puech , C.
2010-01-01
To study gully spatial patterns in the badlands using a continuous thalweg vector network, this paper presents methods to extract the badlands' thalweg network from a regular grid digital terrain model (DTM) by combining terrain morphology indices with a drainage algorithm. This method will delineate a thalweg only where the DTM denotes a significant curvature with respect to DTM accuracy and relies on three major steps. First, discontinuous concave areas were detected from the DTM using morp...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ülker Bekir
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Agrobacterium vacuum (Bechtold et al 1993 and floral-dip (Clough and Bent 1998 are very efficient methods for generating transgenic Arabidopsis plants. These methods allow plant transformation without the need for tissue culture. Large volumes of bacterial cultures grown in liquid media are necessary for both of these transformation methods. This limits the number of transformations that can be done at a given time due to the need for expensive large shakers and limited space on them. Additionally, the bacterial colonies derived from solid media necessary for starting these liquid cultures often fail to grow in such large volumes. Therefore the optimum stage of plant material for transformation is often missed and new plant material needs to be grown. Results To avoid problems associated with large bacterial liquid cultures, we investigated whether bacteria grown on plates are also suitable for plant transformation. We demonstrate here that bacteria grown on plates can be used with similar efficiency for transforming plants even after one week of storage at 4°C. This makes it much easier to synchronize Agrobacterium and plants for transformation. DNA gel blot analysis was carried out on the T1 plants surviving the herbicide selection and demonstrated that the surviving plants are indeed transgenic. Conclusion The simplified method works as efficiently as the previously reported protocols and significantly reduces the workload, cost and time. Additionally, the protocol reduces the risk of large scale contaminations involving GMOs. Most importantly, many more independent transformations per day can be performed using this modified protocol.
Discrete linear canonical transform computation by adaptive method.
Zhang, Feng; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue
2013-07-29
The linear canonical transform (LCT) describes the effect of quadratic phase systems on a wavefield and generalizes many optical transforms. In this paper, the computation method for the discrete LCT using the adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm is presented. The computation approaches of the block-based discrete LCT and the stream-based discrete LCT using the LMS algorithm are derived, and the implementation structures of these approaches by the adaptive filter system are considered. The proposed computation approaches have the inherent parallel structures which make them suitable for efficient VLSI implementations, and are robust to the propagation of possible errors in the computation process.
Mechanic-electrical transformations in the Kelvin method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zharkikh, Yu. S., E-mail: yurzhar@gmail.com [Faculty of Radio Physics, Electronics and Computer Systems, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 4G, Ave. Academician Glushkov, 03127, Kyiv (Ukraine); Lysochenko, S.V., E-mail: lys@univ.kiev.ua [Institute of High Technologies, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 4G, Ave. Academician Glushkov, 03127, Kyiv (Ukraine)
2017-04-01
Highlights: • Used in Kelvin method dynamic capacitor is a mechanic-electrical transformer. • The oscillations of its plate are source of extraneous forces which cause the appearance of an electric current. • The signal is caused not by the contact potential difference, but by oscillation in the screening conditions of charge in the dynamic capacitor gap. • Combining the Kelvin method with electron emission methods to determine the work function may lead to incorrectness. - Abstract: To explain the initiation mechanism of alternating current in an electric circuit containing the dynamic capacitor a model of mechanic- electrical transformation is suggested to use. In such a model, electric charges disposed between the capacitor plates serve as a cause of measured signal in contrast to the contact potential difference, which is considered as the main base in the Kelvin’s model. If one of the plates moves periodically, then the conditions of the charges screening are changed and thereby the capacitor recharging current is arise. The measuring is based on compensation of the recharging current by current, which generated by a source of electromotive force (EMF). The compensation voltage depends on both the distribution of ions or dipoles over the studied surface and the charges creating the surface potential barrier. This voltage is independent on the bulk electro-physical characteristics of a solid.
Different methods for modeling absorption heat transformer powered by solar pond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sencan, Arzu; Kizilkan, Onder; Bezir, Nalan C.; Kalogirou, Soteris A.
2007-01-01
Solar ponds are a type of solar collector used for storing solar energy at temperature below 90 o C. Absorption heat transformers (AHTs) are devices used to increase the temperature of moderately warm fluid to a more useful temperature level. In this study, a theoretical modelling of an absorption heat transformer for the temperature range obtained from an experimental solar pond with dimensions 3.5 x 3.5 x 2 m is presented. The working fluid pair in the absorption heat transformer is aqueous ternary hydroxide fluid consisting of sodium, potassium and caesium hydroxides in the proportions 40:36:24 (NaOH:KOH:CsOH). Different methods such as linear regression (LR), pace regression (PR), sequential minimal optimization (SMO), M5 model tree, M5' rules, decision table and back propagation neural network (BPNN) are used for modelling the absorption heat transformer. The best results were obtained by the back propagation neural network model. A new formulation based on the BPNN is presented to determine the flow ratio (FR) and the coefficient of performance (COP) of the absorption heat transformer. The BPNN procedure is more accurate and requires significantly less computation time than the other methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hatami
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, deflection prediction of a cantilever beam subjected to static co-planar loading is investigated using the Differential Transformation Method (DTM and the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM. An axial compressive force, FA, and a transverse force, QA, are applied to the beam. It is considered that these forces are follower forces, i.e., they will rotate with the end section of the beam during the deformation, and they will remain tangential and perpendicular at all times, respectively. Comparison between DTM and HPM through numerical results demonstrates that DTM can be an exact and highly efficient procedure for solving these kind of problems. Also the influence of the effect of some parameters appeared in mathematical formulations such as area moment of inertia (I, Young’s modulus (E, transverse force (QA and compressive force (FA on slope variation are investigated in the present study. The results show that slope parameter as well as compressive force increases. By increasing the QA, slope parameter is increased significantly. By increasing the E, due to stiffness of the material, slope variation is decreased. It is evident that when the size of the beam section increases, the area moment of inertia (I will be increased and so the slope variation will be decreased.
Transformation-cost time-series method for analyzing irregularly sampled data.
Ozken, Ibrahim; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Marwan, Norbert; Bagci, G Baris; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-06-01
Irregular sampling of data sets is one of the challenges often encountered in time-series analysis, since traditional methods cannot be applied and the frequently used interpolation approach can corrupt the data and bias the subsequence analysis. Here we present the TrAnsformation-Cost Time-Series (TACTS) method, which allows us to analyze irregularly sampled data sets without degenerating the quality of the data set. Instead of using interpolation we consider time-series segments and determine how close they are to each other by determining the cost needed to transform one segment into the following one. Using a limited set of operations-with associated costs-to transform the time series segments, we determine a new time series, that is our transformation-cost time series. This cost time series is regularly sampled and can be analyzed using standard methods. While our main interest is the analysis of paleoclimate data, we develop our method using numerical examples like the logistic map and the Rössler oscillator. The numerical data allows us to test the stability of our method against noise and for different irregular samplings. In addition we provide guidance on how to choose the associated costs based on the time series at hand. The usefulness of the TACTS method is demonstrated using speleothem data from the Secret Cave in Borneo that is a good proxy for paleoclimatic variability in the monsoon activity around the maritime continent.
Transformation-cost time-series method for analyzing irregularly sampled data
Ozken, Ibrahim; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Marwan, Norbert; Bagci, G. Baris; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-06-01
Irregular sampling of data sets is one of the challenges often encountered in time-series analysis, since traditional methods cannot be applied and the frequently used interpolation approach can corrupt the data and bias the subsequence analysis. Here we present the TrAnsformation-Cost Time-Series (TACTS) method, which allows us to analyze irregularly sampled data sets without degenerating the quality of the data set. Instead of using interpolation we consider time-series segments and determine how close they are to each other by determining the cost needed to transform one segment into the following one. Using a limited set of operations—with associated costs—to transform the time series segments, we determine a new time series, that is our transformation-cost time series. This cost time series is regularly sampled and can be analyzed using standard methods. While our main interest is the analysis of paleoclimate data, we develop our method using numerical examples like the logistic map and the Rössler oscillator. The numerical data allows us to test the stability of our method against noise and for different irregular samplings. In addition we provide guidance on how to choose the associated costs based on the time series at hand. The usefulness of the TACTS method is demonstrated using speleothem data from the Secret Cave in Borneo that is a good proxy for paleoclimatic variability in the monsoon activity around the maritime continent.
Power Transformer Operating State Prediction Method Based on an LSTM Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Song
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The state of transformer equipment is usually manifested through a variety of information. The characteristic information will change with different types of equipment defects/faults, location, severity, and other factors. For transformer operating state prediction and fault warning, the key influencing factors of the transformer panorama information are analyzed. The degree of relative deterioration is used to characterize the deterioration of the transformer state. The membership relationship between the relative deterioration degree of each indicator and the transformer state is obtained through fuzzy processing. Through the long short-term memory (LSTM network, the evolution of the transformer status is extracted, and a data-driven state prediction model is constructed to realize preliminary warning of a potential fault of the equipment. Through the LSTM network, the quantitative index and qualitative index are organically combined in order to perceive the corresponding relationship between the characteristic parameters and the operating state of the transformer. The results of different time-scale prediction cases show that the proposed method can effectively predict the operation status of power transformers and accurately reflect their status.
Improved Real-time Denoising Method Based on Lifting Wavelet Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Zhaohua
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Signal denoising can not only enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR but also reduce the effect of noise. In order to satisfy the requirements of real-time signal denoising, an improved semisoft shrinkage real-time denoising method based on lifting wavelet transform was proposed. The moving data window technology realizes the real-time wavelet denoising, which employs wavelet transform based on lifting scheme to reduce computational complexity. Also hyperbolic threshold function and recursive threshold computing can ensure the dynamic characteristics of the system, in addition, it can improve the real-time calculating efficiency as well. The simulation results show that the semisoft shrinkage real-time denoising method has quite a good performance in comparison to the traditional methods, namely soft-thresholding and hard-thresholding. Therefore, this method can solve more practical engineering problems.
On Solution of a Fractional Diffusion Equation by Homotopy Transform Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salah, A.; Hassan, S.S.A.
2012-01-01
The homotopy analysis transform method (HATM) is applied in this work in order to find the analytical solution of fractional diffusion equations (FDE). These equations are obtained from standard diffusion equations by replacing a second-order space derivative by a fractional derivative of order α and a first order time derivative by a fractional derivative. Furthermore, some examples are given. Numerical results show that the homotopy analysis transform method is easy to implement and accurate when applied to a fractional diffusion equations.
Jiang, Hongzhen; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yong; Li, Dong; Chen, Zhu; Zheng, Fanglan; Yu, Deqiang
2017-10-01
An effective approach for reconstructing on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital hologram by using the screen division method is proposed. Firstly, the on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram is divided into sub-holograms. Then the reconstruction result of every sub-hologram is obtained according to the position of corresponding sub-hologram in the hologram reconstruction plane with Fourier transform operation. Finally, the reconstruction image of on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram can be acquired by the superposition of the reconstruction result of sub-holograms. Compared with the traditional reconstruction method with the phase shifting technology, in which multiple digital holograms are required to record for obtaining the reconstruction image, this method can obtain the reconstruction image with only one digital hologram and therefore greatly simplify the recording and reconstruction process of on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital holography. The effectiveness of the proposed method is well proved with the experimental results and it will have potential application foreground in the holographic measurement and display field.
A dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method for power transformers.
Gao, Wensheng; Bai, Cuifen; Liu, Tong
2015-01-01
In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified.
A Dynamic Integrated Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformers
Gao, Wensheng; Liu, Tong
2015-01-01
In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified. PMID:25685841
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bailing Liu
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration.
Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia
2016-01-01
Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203
Transform and filtration methods in fluctuation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saxe, R.F.
1976-01-01
Digitized fluctuation signals from an ex-core ion-chamber of a PWR were analysed to produce a Power Spectral Density, (PSD), curve by two means: (1) by digital filter techniques and (2) by a Fast Fourier Transform program. For both these methods, the effects of the precision of the input data were investigated and it is shown that reasonably good PSD curves may be obtained using very poor input precision. (author)
Han, Guomin; Shao, Qian; Li, Cuiping; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Li; Fan, Jun; Jiang, Haiyang; Tao, Fang
2018-05-01
Aspergillus flavus often invade many important corps and produce harmful aflatoxins both in preharvest and during storage stages. The regulation mechanism of aflatoxin biosynthesis in this fungus has not been well explored mainly due to the lack of an efficient transformation method for constructing a genome-wide gene mutant library. This challenge was resolved in this study, where a reliable and efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for A. flavus NRRL 3357 was established. The results showed that removal of multinucleate conidia, to collect a homogenous sample of uninucleate conidia for use as the transformation material, is the key step in this procedure. A. tumefaciens strain AGL-1 harboring the ble gene for zeocin resistance under the control of the gpdA promoter from A. nidulans is suitable for genetic transformation of this fungus. We successfully generated A. flavus transformants with an efficiency of ∼ 60 positive transformants per 10 6 conidia using our protocol. A small-scale insertional mutant library (∼ 1,000 mutants) was constructed using this method and the resulting several mutants lacked both production of conidia and aflatoxin biosynthesis capacity. Southern blotting analysis demonstrated that the majority of the transformants contained a single T-DNA insert on the genome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic transformation of A. flavus via ATMT and our protocol provides an effective tool for construction of genome-wide gene mutant libraries for functional analysis of important genes in A. flavus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Wang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Based on fractal geometry, fractal medium of coalbed methane mathematical model is established by Langmuir isotherm adsorption formula, Fick's diffusion law, Laplace transform formula, considering the well bore storage effect and skin effect. The Laplace transform finite difference method is used to solve the mathematical model. With Stehfest numerical inversion, the distribution of dimensionless well bore flowing pressure and its derivative was obtained in real space. According to compare with the results from the analytical method, the result from Laplace transform finite difference method turns out to be accurate. The influence factors are analyzed, including fractal dimension, fractal index, skin factor, well bore storage coefficient, energy storage ratio, interporosity flow coefficient and the adsorption factor. The calculating error of Laplace transform difference method is small. Laplace transform difference method has advantages in well-test application since any moment simulation does not rely on other moment results and space grid.
Receptor binding kinetics equations: Derivation using the Laplace transform method.
Hoare, Sam R J
Measuring unlabeled ligand receptor binding kinetics is valuable in optimizing and understanding drug action. Unfortunately, deriving equations for estimating kinetic parameters is challenging because it involves calculus; integration can be a frustrating barrier to the pharmacologist seeking to measure simple rate parameters. Here, a well-known tool for simplifying the derivation, the Laplace transform, is applied to models of receptor-ligand interaction. The method transforms differential equations to a form in which simple algebra can be applied to solve for the variable of interest, for example the concentration of ligand-bound receptor. The goal is to provide instruction using familiar examples, to enable investigators familiar with handling equilibrium binding equations to derive kinetic equations for receptor-ligand interaction. First, the Laplace transform is used to derive the equations for association and dissociation of labeled ligand binding. Next, its use for unlabeled ligand kinetic equations is exemplified by a full derivation of the kinetics of competitive binding equation. Finally, new unlabeled ligand equations are derived using the Laplace transform. These equations incorporate a pre-incubation step with unlabeled or labeled ligand. Four equations for measuring unlabeled ligand kinetics were compared and the two new equations verified by comparison with numerical solution. Importantly, the equations have not been verified with experimental data because no such experiments are evident in the literature. Equations were formatted for use in the curve-fitting program GraphPad Prism 6.0 and fitted to simulated data. This description of the Laplace transform method will enable pharmacologists to derive kinetic equations for their model or experimental paradigm under study. Application of the transform will expand the set of equations available for the pharmacologist to measure unlabeled ligand binding kinetics, and for other time
Xie, Qing; Tao, Junhan; Wang, Yongqiang; Geng, Jianghai; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng
2014-08-01
Fast and accurate positioning of partial discharge (PD) sources in transformer oil is very important for the safe, stable operation of power systems because it allows timely elimination of insulation faults. There is usually more than one PD source once an insulation fault occurs in the transformer oil. This study, which has both theoretical and practical significance, proposes a method of identifying multiple PD sources in the transformer oil. The method combines the two-sided correlation transformation algorithm in the broadband signal focusing and the modified Gerschgorin disk estimator. The method of classification of multiple signals is used to determine the directions of arrival of signals from multiple PD sources. The ultrasonic array positioning method is based on the multi-platform direction finding and the global optimization searching. Both the 4 × 4 square planar ultrasonic sensor array and the ultrasonic array detection platform are built to test the method of identifying and positioning multiple PD sources. The obtained results verify the validity and the engineering practicability of this method.
Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka
2014-01-01
The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sora Kim
Full Text Available Genetic engineering in microalgae is gaining attraction but nuclear transformation methods available so far are either inefficient or require special equipment. In this study, we employ positively charged nanoparticles, 3-aminopropyl-functionalized magnesium phyllosilicate (aminoclay, approximate unit cell composition of [H2N(CH23]8Si8Mg6O12(OH4, for nuclear transformation into eukaryotic microalgae. TEM and EDX analysis of the process of transformation reveals that aminoclay coats negatively-charged DNA biomolecules and forms a self-assembled hybrid nanostructure. Subsequently, when this nanostructure is mixed with microalgal cells and plated onto selective agar plates with high friction force, cell wall is disrupted facilitating delivery of plasmid DNA into the cell and ultimately to the nucleus. This method is not only simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic to cells but also provides efficient transformation (5.03×10(2 transformants/µg DNA, second only to electroporation which needs advanced instrumentation. We present optimized parameters for efficient transformation including pre-treatment, friction force, concentration of foreign DNA/aminoclay, and plasticity of agar plates. It is also confirmed the successful integration and stable expression of foreign gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through molecular methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramin, Pedram; Valverde Pérez, Borja; Polesel, Fabio
2017-01-01
This study presents a novel statistical approach for identifying sequenced chemical transformation pathways in combination with reaction kinetics models. The proposed method relies on sound uncertainty propagation by considering parameter ranges and associated probability distribution obtained...... at any given transformation pathway levels as priors for parameter estimation at any subsequent transformation levels. The method was applied to calibrate a model predicting the transformation in untreated wastewater of six biomarkers, excreted following human metabolism of heroin and codeine. The method....... Results obtained suggest that the method developed has the potential to outperform conventional approaches in terms of prediction accuracy, transformation pathway identification and parameter identifiability. This method can be used in conjunction with optimal experimental designs to effectively identify...
Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei
2014-01-01
Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Orsag
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new method of identification of both the magnetization characteristic and the instantaneous parameters G(t and K(t of a single-phase transformer under a sinusoidal supply voltage is proposed. The instantaneous conductance G(t and inverse inductance K(t of the transformer cross section are determined by the scalar product of time functions. The magnetization characteristic is derived by means of the inverse inductance K(t. The method is practically applied to an isolating transformer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karel Octavianus Bachri
2017-07-01
Full Text Available A3S(Arwin-Adang-Aciek-Sembiring is a method of information fusion at a single observation and OMA3S(Observation Multi-time A3S is a method of information fusion for time-series data. This paper proposes OMA3S-based Cognitive Artificial-Intelligence method for interpreting Transformer Condition, which is calculated based on maintenance data from Indonesia National Electric Company (PLN. First, the proposed method is tested using the previously published data, and then followed by implementation on maintenance data. Maintenance data are fused to obtain part condition, and part conditions are fused to obtain transformer condition. Result shows proposed method is valid for DGA fault identification with the average accuracy of 91.1%. The proposed method not only can interpret the major fault, it can also identify the minor fault occurring along with the major fault, allowing early warning feature. Result also shows part conditions can be interpreted using information fusion on maintenance data, and the transformer condition can be interpreted using information fusion on part conditions. The future works on this research is to gather more data, to elaborate more factors to be fused, and to design a cognitive processor that can be used to implement this concept of intelligent instrumentation.
A gravitational wave burst search method based on the S transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clapson, Andre-Claude; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelberg, Stephane; Varvella, Monica
2005-01-01
The detection of burst-type events in the output of ground gravitational wave observatories is particularly challenging due to the expected variety of astrophysical waveforms and the issue of discriminating them from instrumental noise. Robust methods, that achieve reasonable detection performances over a wide range of signals, would be most useful. We present a burst-detection pipeline based on a time-frequency transform, the S transform. This transform offers good time-frequency localization of energy without requiring prior knowledge of the event structure. We set a simple (and robust) event extraction chain. Results are provided for a variety of signals injected in simulated Gaussian statistics data (from the LIGO-Virgo joint working group). Indications are that detection is robust with respect to event type and that efficiency compares reasonably with reference methods. The time-frequency representation is shown to be affected by spectral features such as resonant lines. This emphasizes the role of pre-processing
A gravitational wave burst search method based on the S transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clapson, Andre-Claude; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelberg, Stephane; Varvella, Monica [Groupe Virgo, LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 208, BP 34, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France)
2005-09-21
The detection of burst-type events in the output of ground gravitational wave observatories is particularly challenging due to the expected variety of astrophysical waveforms and the issue of discriminating them from instrumental noise. Robust methods, that achieve reasonable detection performances over a wide range of signals, would be most useful. We present a burst-detection pipeline based on a time-frequency transform, the S transform. This transform offers good time-frequency localization of energy without requiring prior knowledge of the event structure. We set a simple (and robust) event extraction chain. Results are provided for a variety of signals injected in simulated Gaussian statistics data (from the LIGO-Virgo joint working group). Indications are that detection is robust with respect to event type and that efficiency compares reasonably with reference methods. The time-frequency representation is shown to be affected by spectral features such as resonant lines. This emphasizes the role of pre-processing.
Hybrid SN Laplace Transform Method For Slab Lattice Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segatto, Cynthia F.; Vilhena, Marco T.; Zani, Jose H.; Barros, Ricardo C.
2008-01-01
In typical lattice cells where a highly absorbing, small fuel element is embedded in the moderator, a large weakly absorbing medium, high-order transport methods become unnecessary. In this paper we describe a hybrid discrete ordinates (S N ) method for slab lattice calculations. This hybrid S N method combines the convenience of a low-order S N method in the moderator with a high-order S N method in the fuel. We use special fuel-moderator interface conditions based on an approximate angular flux interpolation analytical method and the Laplace transform (LTS N ) numerical method to calculate the neutron flux distribution and the thermal disadvantage factor. We present numerical results for a range of typical model problems. (authors)
A Novel Interference Detection Method of STAP Based on Simplified TT Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Training samples contaminated by target-like signals is one of the major reasons for inhomogeneous clutter environment. In such environment, clutter covariance matrix in STAP (space-time adaptive processing is estimated inaccurately, which finally leads to detection performance reduction. In terms of this problem, a STAP interference detection method based on simplified TT (time-time transform is proposed in this letter. Considering the sparse physical property of clutter in the space-time plane, data on each range cell is first converted into a discrete slow time series. Then, the expression of simplified TT transform about sample data is derived step by step. Thirdly, the energy of each training sample is focalized and extracted by simplified TT transform from energy-variant difference between the unpolluted and polluted stage, and the physical significance of discarding the contaminated samples is analyzed. Lastly, the contaminated samples are picked out in light of the simplified TT transform-spectrum difference. The result on Monte Carlo simulation indicates that when training samples are contaminated by large power target-like signals, the proposed method is more effective in getting rid of the contaminated samples, reduces the computational complexity significantly, and promotes the target detection performance compared with the method of GIP (generalized inner product.
Norzagaray-Valenzuela, Claudia D; Germán-Báez, Lourdes J; Valdez-Flores, Marco A; Hernández-Verdugo, Sergio; Shelton, Luke M; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel
2018-05-16
Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms widely used for the production of highly valued compounds, and recently they have been shown to be promising as a system for the heterologous expression of proteins. Several transformation methods have been successfully developed, from which the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method remains the most promising. However, microalgae transformation efficiency by A. tumefaciens is shown to vary depending on several transformation conditions. The present study aimed to establish an efficient genetic transformation system in the green microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta using the A. tumefaciens method. The parameters assessed were the infection medium, the concentration of the A. tumefaciens and co-culture time. As a preliminary screening, the expression of the gusA gene and the viability of transformed cells were evaluated and used to calculate a novel parameter called Transformation Efficiency Index (TEI). The statistical analysis of TEI values showed five treatments with the highest gusA gene expression. To ensure stable transformation, transformed colonies were cultured on selective medium using hygromycin B and the DNA of resistant colonies were extracted after five subcultures and molecularly analyzed by PCR. Results revealed that treatments which use solid infection medium, A. tumefaciens OD 600 = 0.5 and co-culture times of 72 h exhibited the highest percentage of stable gusA expression. Overall, this study established an efficient, optimized A. tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of D. tertiolecta, which represents a relatively easy procedure with no expensive equipment required. This simple and efficient protocol opens the possibility for further genetic manipulation of this commercially-important microalgae for biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Onychomycosis: Clinical findings, etiological agents and evaluation of laboratory methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dubljanin Eleonora
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the etiological agents in patients with suspected onychomycosis, and to carry out comparative testing of individual or combinations of tests: direct microscopy with KOH and Blankophor (BP, culturing on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA, diluted Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (D-SDA and dermatophyte test medium (DTM. From 70 nail samples (65 toenails, 5 fingernails, 46 (60.5% had at least one of five positive tests. Isolation was possible in 41, while in 5 samples the presence of fungi was observed by KOH and/or BP. Dermatophytes were most frequently isolated (80.5% where Trichophyton rubrum was predominant. Candida spp. was isolated in 9.8%, Aspergillus spp. 4.9%, Alternaria spp. 2.4% and Fusarium spp. 2.4%. Application of BP as an individual test was the most sensitive method. The combination of BP with DTM or D-SDA provides the best sensitivity and allows the identification of fungi to the species/genus level.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Wenxiu; Lee, J.-H.
2009-01-01
A direct approach to exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations is proposed, by using rational function transformations. The new method provides a more systematical and convenient handling of the solution process of nonlinear equations, unifying the tanh-function type methods, the homogeneous balance method, the exp-function method, the mapping method, and the F-expansion type methods. Its key point is to search for rational solutions to variable-coefficient ordinary differential equations transformed from given partial differential equations. As an application, the construction problem of exact solutions to the 3+1 dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation is treated, together with a Baecklund transformation.
Description of the electron-hydrogen collision by the Coulomb Fourier transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, S.B.
2005-01-01
A recently developed Coulomb Fourier Transform method is applied to the system containing one heavy ion and two electrons. The transformed Hamiltonian is described with a controlled accuracy in an effective finite basis set as a finite dimensional operator matrix. The kernels of interaction are formulated in terms of the so called Nordsieck integrals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raquel Stumpf Branco
2008-04-01
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: as disfunções temporomandibulares (DTM podem ser definidas como um conjunto de condições dolorosas e/ou disfuncionais, que envolvem os músculos da mastigação e/ou as articulações temporomandibulares (ATM. Um dos meios usados para o diagnóstico é o "Critério Diagnóstico para Pesquisa em Disfunções Temporomandibulares" (RDC/TMD. Hábitos parafuncionais são aqueles não relacionados à execução das funções normais do sistema estomatognático. O bruxismo é caracterizado por atividade parafuncional noturna involuntária dos músculos mastigatórios, enquanto o apertamento dentário é considerado uma parafunção diurna envolvendo esta musculatura, embora possa ocorrer também à noite. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a freqüência do relato de parafunções orais diurna e/ou noturna em pacientes com DTM nos diferentes subgrupos diagnósticos do RDC/TMD. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados dados provenientes de 217 pacientes que procuraram tratamento na Clínica de DTM e Dor Orofacial da Faculdade de Medicina de Petrópolis, sendo avaliados através do questionário e exame físico que compõem o RDC/TMD. RESULTADOS: dos 182 pacientes com DTM estudados, 76,9% relataram algum tipo de parafunção, podendo ser diurna, noturna ou a associação de ambas. A parafunção diurna foi a mais freqüentemente relatada entre os subgrupos de DTM, sendo encontrada em 64,8% dos casos contra 55,5% dos casos com relato de bruxismo. O relato de ambas as parafunções foi constatado em 43,4% dos pacientes com DTM. CONCLUSÕES: considerando cada subgrupo diagnóstico, os relatos de parafunções diurna e noturna foram mais freqüentes nos pacientes com dor miofascial.INTRODUCTION: temporomandibular disorders (TMD can be defined as a group of painful and/or dysfunctional conditions that involve masticatory muscles and/or the temporomandibular joints (TMJ. One of the methods used to the diagnostic is the "Research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Hosein Rezaei
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Transformers perform many functions such as voltage transformation, isolation and noise decoupling. They are indispensable components in electric power distribution system. However, at low frequencies (50 Hz, they are one of the heaviest and the most expensive equipment in an electrical distribution system. Nowadays, electronic power transformers are used instead of conventional power transformers that do voltage transformation and power delivery in power system by power electronic converter. In this paper, the structure of distribution electronic power transformer (DEPT are analized and then paid attention on the design of a linear-quadratic-regulator (LQR with integral action to improve dynamic performance of DEPT with voltage unbalance, voltage sags, voltage harmonics and voltage ﬂicker. The presentation control strategy is simulated by MATLAB/SIMULINK. In addition, the results that are in terms of dc-link reference voltage, input and output voltages clearly show that a better dynamic performance can be achieved by using the LQR method when compared to other techniques.
Methods for genetic transformation in Dendrobium.
da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Chandler, Stephen F; Zeng, Songjun
2016-03-01
The genetic transformation of Dendrobium orchids will allow for the introduction of novel colours, altered architecture and valuable traits such as abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. The orchid genus Dendrobium contains species that have both ornamental value and medicinal importance. There is thus interest in producing cultivars that have increased resistance to pests, novel horticultural characteristics such as novel flower colours, improved productivity, longer flower spikes, or longer post-harvest shelf-life. Tissue culture is used to establish clonal plants while in vitro flowering allows for the production of flowers or floral parts within a sterile environment, expanding the selection of explants that can be used for tissue culture or genetic transformation. The latter is potentially the most effective, rapid and practical way to introduce new agronomic traits into Dendrobium. Most (69.4 %) Dendrobium genetic transformation studies have used particle bombardment (biolistics) while 64 % have employed some form of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A singe study has explored ovary injection, but no studies exist on floral dip transformation. While most of these studies have involved the use of selector or reporter genes, there are now a handful of studies that have introduced genes for horticulturally important traits.
Hamata, Marcelo Matida [UNESP
2006-01-01
A posição de relação central (RC) para a confecção de placas oclusais é muito discutível. Dessa forma, quando existe estabilidade oclusal, a máxima intercuspidação (MI) poderia ser utilizada como ponto de referência, eliminando a necessidade de registro interoclusal. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo comparar a efetividade de placas oclusais confeccionadas a partir de modelos articulados nessas duas posições. Para isso, 20 pacientes com desordens temporomandibulares (DTM) e dor de origem m...
Zhao, Yun-wei; Zhu, Zi-qiang; Lu, Guang-yin; Han, Bo
2018-03-01
The sine and cosine transforms implemented with digital filters have been used in the Transient electromagnetic methods for a few decades. Kong (2007) proposed a method of obtaining filter coefficients, which are computed in the sample domain by Hankel transform pair. However, the curve shape of Hankel transform pair changes with a parameter, which usually is set to be 1 or 3 in the process of obtaining the digital filter coefficients of sine and cosine transforms. First, this study investigates the influence of the parameter on the digital filter algorithm of sine and cosine transforms based on the digital filter algorithm of Hankel transform and the relationship between the sine, cosine function and the ±1/2 order Bessel function of the first kind. The results show that the selection of the parameter highly influences the precision of digital filter algorithm. Second, upon the optimal selection of the parameter, it is found that an optimal sampling interval s also exists to achieve the best precision of digital filter algorithm. Finally, this study proposes four groups of sine and cosine transform digital filter coefficients with different length, which may help to develop the digital filter algorithm of sine and cosine transforms, and promote its application.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schenk, A.; Germond, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Boss, P.; Lorin, P. [ABB Secheron SA, Geneve (Switzerland)
2000-07-01
The article describes a new method for the continuous surveillance of power transformers based on the application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. An experimental pilot project on a specially equipped, strategically important power transformer is described. Traditional surveillance methods and the use of mathematical models for the prediction of faults are described. The article describes the monitoring equipment used in the pilot project and the AI principles such as self-organising maps that are applied. The results obtained from the pilot project and methods for their graphical representation are discussed.
Tikhonov regularization method for the numerical inversion of Mellin transforms using splines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, M.
2005-01-01
Mellin transform is an ill-posed problem. These problems arise in many branches of science and engineering. In the typical situation one is interested in recovering the original function, given a finite number of noisy measurements of data. In this paper, we shall convert Mellin transform to Laplace transform and then an integral equation of the first kind of convolution type. We solve the integral equation using Tikhonov regularization with splines as basis function. The method is applied to various test examples in the literature and results are shown in the table
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi, Zhipeng; Li, Xiu; Lu, Xushan; Zhang, Yingying; Yao, Weihua
2015-01-01
We introduce a new and potentially useful method for wave field inverse transformation and its application in transient electromagnetic method (TEM) 3D interpretation. The diffusive EM field is known to have a unique integral representation in terms of a fictitious wave field that satisfies a wave equation. The continuous imaging of TEM can be accomplished using the imaging methods in seismic interpretation after the diffusion equation is transformed into a fictitious wave equation. The interpretation method based on the imaging of a fictitious wave field could be used as a fast 3D inversion method. Moreover, the fictitious wave field possesses some wave field features making it possible for the application of a wave field interpretation method in TEM to improve the prospecting resolution.Wave field transformation is a key issue in the migration imaging of a fictitious wave field. The equation in the wave field transformation belongs to the first class Fredholm integration equation, which is a typical ill-posed equation. Additionally, TEM has a large dynamic time range, which also facilitates the weakness of this ill-posed problem. The wave field transformation is implemented by using pre-conditioned regularized conjugate gradient method. The continuous imaging of a fictitious wave field is implemented by using Kirchhoff integration. A synthetic aperture and deconvolution algorithm is also introduced to improve the interpretation resolution. We interpreted field data by the method proposed in this paper, and obtained a satisfying interpretation result. (paper)
Analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in transformer oil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shin, S.K. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea); Kim, H.J.; Chung, D.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, Y.H.; Chung, I.R.
2004-09-15
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a chlorinated biphenyl compound with the general formula C{sub 12}H{sub 10-n}/Cl{sub n}. PCBs generally occur as mixtures, where n can vary from 1 to 10. The 10 sites available for possible chlorine substitution result in 209 possible PCB congeners. There is now considerable concern regarding; the presence of PCB congeners in insulating oils used within large-scale electrical supply systems. Due to its outstanding chemical and thermal stabilities and electrical insulation properties, the commercial and industrial products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors, Kaneclors, Clophens, Phenaclors etc., had been widely used as thermal oil and transformer oil from 1930s until the 1970s. PCBs from a group of persistent organic pollutants of the environment, especially dangerous to living organisms due to high toxicity, persistency, and bio-concentration in adipose tissue. Despite of this fact, PCB-contaminated oils are still commonly encountered partly because PCBs used as dielectric liquids in transformer and condenser. The source of PCBs in environments can range from used transformer oils or dielectric liquids to liquid wastes, and some PCBs contamination is occurred due to the re-use of incompletely reconditioned oil. The current action plan of Republic of Korea dictates that organizations with electrical equipment contaminated with more than 2 mg/L PCBs will need to treat as PCBs-containing wastes, and 50mg/L of PCBs or PCBs equivalent to be treated as a pure PCB preparation. In this study, transformer oils analyzed based on guideline for PCBs analytical method of transformer oil in Korea.
A method for decoding the neurophysiological spike-response transform.
Stern, Estee; García-Crescioni, Keyla; Miller, Mark W; Peskin, Charles S; Brezina, Vladimir
2009-11-15
Many physiological responses elicited by neuronal spikes-intracellular calcium transients, synaptic potentials, muscle contractions-are built up of discrete, elementary responses to each spike. However, the spikes occur in trains of arbitrary temporal complexity, and each elementary response not only sums with previous ones, but can itself be modified by the previous history of the activity. A basic goal in system identification is to characterize the spike-response transform in terms of a small number of functions-the elementary response kernel and additional kernels or functions that describe the dependence on previous history-that will predict the response to any arbitrary spike train. Here we do this by developing further and generalizing the "synaptic decoding" approach of Sen et al. (1996). Given the spike times in a train and the observed overall response, we use least-squares minimization to construct the best estimated response and at the same time best estimates of the elementary response kernel and the other functions that characterize the spike-response transform. We avoid the need for any specific initial assumptions about these functions by using techniques of mathematical analysis and linear algebra that allow us to solve simultaneously for all of the numerical function values treated as independent parameters. The functions are such that they may be interpreted mechanistically. We examine the performance of the method as applied to synthetic data. We then use the method to decode real synaptic and muscle contraction transforms.
A method of reducing background fluctuation in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy
Yang, Rendi; Dong, Xiaozhou; Bi, Yunfeng; Lv, Tieliang
2018-03-01
Optical interference fringe is the main factor that leads to background fluctuation in gas concentration detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The interference fringes are generated by multiple reflections or scatterings upon optical surfaces in optical path and make the background signal present an approximated sinusoidal oscillation. To reduce the fluctuation of the background, a method that combines dual tone modulation (DTM) with vibration reflector (VR) is proposed in this paper. The combination of DTM and VR can make the unwanted periodic interference fringes to be averaged out and the effectiveness of the method in reducing background fluctuation has been verified by simulation and real experiments in this paper. In the detection system based on the proposed method, the standard deviation (STD) value of the background signal is decreased to 0.0924 parts per million (ppm), which is reduced by a factor of 16 compared with that of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The STD value of 0.0924 ppm corresponds to the absorption of 4 . 328 × 10-6Hz - 1 / 2 (with effective optical path length of 4 m and integral time of 0.1 s). Moreover, the proposed method presents a better stable performance in reducing background fluctuation in long time experiments.
Li, Caifeng; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Xiurong; Liao, Hong
2014-11-01
Both in vitro and in vivo hairy root transformation systems could not replace whole plant transformation for promoter analysis of root-specific and low-P induced genes in soybean. An efficient genetic transformation system is crucial for promoter analysis in plants. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most popular method to produce transgenic hairy roots or plants. In the present study, first, we compared the two different Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation methods using either constitutive CaMV35S or the promoters of root-preferential genes, GmEXPB2 and GmPAP21, in soybean, and found the efficiency of in vitro hairy root transformation was significantly higher than that of in vivo transformation. We compared Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated whole plant transformation systems. The results showed that low-phosphorous (P) inducible GmEXPB2 and GmPAP21 promoters could not induce the increased expression of the GUS reporter gene under low P stress in both in vivo and in vitro transgenic hairy roots. Conversely, GUS activity of GmPAP21 promoter was significantly higher at low P than high P in whole plant transformation. Therefore, both in vitro and in vivo hairy root transformation systems could not replace whole plant transformation for promoter analysis of root-specific and low-P induced genes in soybean.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoto Yoshida
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Escherichia coli as a plasmid recipient cell was dispersed in a chrysotile colloidal solution, containing chrysotile adsorbed to plasmid DNA (chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture. Following this, the chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture was dropped onto the surface of an elastic body, such as agarose, and treated physically by sliding a polystyrene streak bar over the elastic body to create friction. Plasmid DNA was easily incorporated into E. coli, and antibiotic resistance was conferred by transformation. The transformation efficiency of E. coli cultured in solid medium was greater than that of E. coli cultured in broth. To obtain greater transformation efficiency, we attempted to determine optimal transformation conditions. The following conditions resulted in the greatest transformation efficiency: the recipient cell concentration within the chrysotileplasmid cell mixture had an optical density greater than or equal to 2 at 550 nm, the vertical reaction force applied to the streak bar was greater than or equal to 40 g, and the rotation speed of the elastic body was greater than or equal to 34 rpm. Under these conditions, we observed a transformation efficiency of 107 per μg plasmid DNA. The advantage of achieving bacterial transformation using the elastic body exposure method is that competent cell preparation of the recipient cell is not required. In addition to E. coli, other Gram negative bacteria are able to acquire plasmid DNA using the elastic body exposure method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehrdad Moosazadeh Moghaddam
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Some of bacterial species are able to uptake DNA molecule from environment, the yield of this process depends on some conditions such as plasmid size and host type. In the case of Bacillus subtilis, DNA uptake has low efficacy. Using Spizizen minimal medium is common method in plasmid transformation into B. subtilis, but rate of this process is not suitable and noteworthy. The aim of this study was investigation of novel method for improvement of DNA transformation into B. subtilis based on CM11 cationic peptide as a membrane permeable agent.Materials and methods: In this study, for optimization of pWB980 plasmid transformation into B. subtilis, the CM11 cationic peptide was used. For this purpose, B. subtilis competent cell preparation in the present of different concentration of peptide was implemented by two methods. In the first method, after treatment of bacteria with different amount of peptide for 14h, plasmid was added. In the second method, several concentration of peptide with plasmid was exposed to bacteria simultaneously. Bacteria that uptake DNA were screened on LB agar medium containing kanamycin. The total transformed bacteria per microgram of DNA was calculated and compared with the control.Results: Plasmid transformation in best conditions was 6.5 folds higher than the control. This result was statistically significant (P value <0.001.Discussion and conclusion: This study showed that CM11 cationic peptide as a membrane permeable agent was able to increase plasmid transformation rate into B. subtilis. This property was useful for resolution of low transformation efficacy.
Jim Gray on eScience: A Transformed Scientific Method
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 8. Jim Gray on eScience: A Transformed Scientific Method. Classics Volume 21 Issue 8 August 2016 pp 749-763. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/08/0749-0763. Abstract ...
Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Yunpeng; Ren, Hongrui; Zhang, Yimin
2015-03-01
Reliability allocation of computerized numerical controlled(CNC) lathes is very important in industry. Traditional allocation methods only focus on high-failure rate components rather than moderate failure rate components, which is not applicable in some conditions. Aiming at solving the problem of CNC lathes reliability allocating, a comprehensive reliability allocation method based on cubic transformed functions of failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is presented. Firstly, conventional reliability allocation methods are introduced. Then the limitations of direct combination of comprehensive allocation method with the exponential transformed FMEA method are investigated. Subsequently, a cubic transformed function is established in order to overcome these limitations. Properties of the new transformed functions are discussed by considering the failure severity and the failure occurrence. Designers can choose appropriate transform amplitudes according to their requirements. Finally, a CNC lathe and a spindle system are used as an example to verify the new allocation method. Seven criteria are considered to compare the results of the new method with traditional methods. The allocation results indicate that the new method is more flexible than traditional methods. By employing the new cubic transformed function, the method covers a wider range of problems in CNC reliability allocation without losing the advantages of traditional methods.
Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki
2013-03-01
A missing texture reconstruction method based on an error reduction (ER) algorithm, including a novel estimation scheme of Fourier transform magnitudes is presented in this brief. In our method, Fourier transform magnitude is estimated for a target patch including missing areas, and the missing intensities are estimated by retrieving its phase based on the ER algorithm. Specifically, by monitoring errors converged in the ER algorithm, known patches whose Fourier transform magnitudes are similar to that of the target patch are selected from the target image. In the second approach, the Fourier transform magnitude of the target patch is estimated from those of the selected known patches and their corresponding errors. Consequently, by using the ER algorithm, we can estimate both the Fourier transform magnitudes and phases to reconstruct the missing areas.
Verification of Transformer Restricted Earth Fault Protection by using the Monte Carlo Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KRSTIVOJEVIC, J. P.
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The results of a comprehensive investigation of the influence of current transformer (CT saturation on restricted earth fault (REF protection during power transformer magnetization inrush are presented. Since the inrush current during switch-on of unloaded power transformer is stochastic, its values are obtained by: (i laboratory measurements and (ii calculations based on the input data obtained by the Monte Carlo (MC simulation. To make a detailed assessment of the current transformer performance the uncertain input data for the CT model were obtained by applying the MC method. In this way, different levels of remanent flux in CT core are taken into consideration. By the generated CT secondary currents, the algorithm for REF protection based on phase comparison in time domain is tested. On the basis of the obtained results, a method of adjustment of the triggering threshold in order to ensure safe operation during transients, and thereby improve the algorithm security, has been proposed. The obtained results indicate that power transformer REF protection would be enhanced by using the proposed adjustment of triggering threshold in the algorithm which is based on phase comparison in time domain.
Canonical transformations method in the potential scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, Yu.G.
1984-01-01
Canonical formalism of the first order is used in the present paper to solve the problem of scattering and other problems of quantum mechanics. The theory of canonical transformations (CT) being the basis of hamiltonian approach permits to develop several methods of integration being beyond the scope of the standard theory of perturbations. In this case it is essential for numerical counting that the theory permits to obtain algorithm for plotting highest approximations
Moment-based method for computing the two-dimensional discrete Hartley transform
Dong, Zhifang; Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong
2009-10-01
In this paper, we present a fast algorithm for computing the two-dimensional (2-D) discrete Hartley transform (DHT). By using kernel transform and Taylor expansion, the 2-D DHT is approximated by a linear sum of 2-D geometric moments. This enables us to use the fast algorithms developed for computing the 2-D moments to efficiently calculate the 2-D DHT. The proposed method achieves a simple computational structure and is suitable to deal with any sequence lengths.
HEART ABNORMALITY CLASSIFICATIONS USING FOURIER TRANSFORMS METHOD AND NEURAL NETWORKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Endah Purwanti
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Health problems with cardiovascular system disorder are still ranked high globally. One way to detect abnormalities in the cardiovascular system especially in the heart is through the electrocardiogram (ECG reading. However, reading ECG recording needs experience and expertise, software-based neural networks has designed to help identify any abnormalities ofthe heart through electrocardiogram digital image. This image is processed using image processing methods to obtain ordinate chart which representing the heart’s electrical potential. Feature extraction using Fourier transforms which are divided into several numbers of coefficients. As the software input, Fourier transforms coefficient have been normalized. Output of this software is divided into three classes, namely heart with atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease and normal. Maximum accuracy rate ofthis software is 95.45%, with the distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/8 and number of nodes 5, while minimum accuracy rate of this software at least 68.18% by distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/32 and the number of nodes 32. Overall result accuracy rate of this software has an average of86.05% and standard deviation of7.82.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunday O. Edeki
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, approximate solutions of a system of time-fractional coupled Burger equations were obtained by means of a local fractional operator (LFO in the sense of the Caputo derivative. The LFO technique was built on the basis of the standard differential transform method (DTM. Illustrative examples used in demonstrating the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method show that the solution method is very efficient and reliable as – unlike the variational iteration method – it does not depend on any process of identifying Lagrange multipliers, even while still maintaining accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdalla Ahmed Abdel-Ghaly
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper suggests the use of the conditional probability integral transformation (CPIT method as a goodness of fit (GOF technique in the field of accelerated life testing (ALT, specifically for validating the underlying distributional assumption in accelerated failure time (AFT model. The method is based on transforming the data into independent and identically distributed (i.i.d Uniform (0, 1 random variables and then applying the modified Watson statistic to test the uniformity of the transformed random variables. This technique is used to validate each of the exponential, Weibull and lognormal distributions' assumptions in AFT model under constant stress and complete sampling. The performance of the CPIT method is investigated via a simulation study. It is concluded that this method performs well in case of exponential and lognormal distributions. Finally, a real life example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed procedure.
A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Hua-Gen
2014-01-01
A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO, and compared to previous calculations
A kinetic Monte Carlo method for the simulation of massive phase transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bos, C.; Sommer, F.; Mittemeijer, E.J.
2004-01-01
A multi-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method has been developed for the atomistic simulation of massive phase transformations. Beside sites on the crystal lattices of the parent and product phase, randomly placed sites are incorporated as possible positions. These random sites allow the atoms to take favourable intermediate positions, essential for a realistic description of transformation interfaces. The transformation from fcc to bcc starting from a flat interface with the fcc(1 1 1)//bcc(1 1 0) and fcc[1 1 1-bar]//bcc[0 0 1-bar] orientation in a single component system has been simulated. Growth occurs in two different modes depending on the chosen values of the bond energies. For larger fcc-bcc energy differences, continuous growth is observed with a rough transformation front. For smaller energy differences, plane-by-plane growth is observed. In this growth mode two-dimensional nucleation is required in the next fcc plane after completion of the transformation of the previous fcc plane
An improved yeast transformation method for the generation of very large human antibody libraries.
Benatuil, Lorenzo; Perez, Jennifer M; Belk, Jonathan; Hsieh, Chung-Ming
2010-04-01
Antibody library selection by yeast display technology is an efficient and highly sensitive method to identify binders to target antigens. This powerful selection tool, however, is often hampered by the typically modest size of yeast libraries (approximately 10(7)) due to the limited yeast transformation efficiency, and the full potential of the yeast display technology for antibody discovery and engineering can only be realized if it can be coupled with a mean to generate very large yeast libraries. We describe here a yeast transformation method by electroporation that allows for the efficient generation of large antibody libraries up to 10(10) in size. Multiple components and conditions including CaCl(2), MgCl(2), sucrose, sorbitol, lithium acetate, dithiothreitol, electroporation voltage, DNA input and cell volume have been tested to identify the best combination. By applying this developed protocol, we have constructed a 1.4 x 10(10) human spleen antibody library essentially in 1 day with a transformation efficiency of 1-1.5 x 10(8) transformants/microg vector DNA. Taken together, we have developed a highly efficient yeast transformation method that enables the generation of very large and productive human antibody libraries for antibody discovery, and we are now routinely making 10(9) libraries in a day for antibody engineering purposes.
Hough transform methods used for object detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qussay A Salih; Abdul Rahman Ramli; Md Mahmud Hassan Prakash
2001-01-01
The Hough transform (HT) is a robust parameter estimator of multi-dimensional features in images. The HT is an established technique which evidences a shape by mapping image edge points into a parameter space. The HT is technique which is used to isolate curves of a give shape in an image. The classical HT requires that the curve be specified in some parametric from and, hence is most commonly used in the detection of regular curves. The HT has been generalized so that it is capable of detecting arbitrary curved shapes. The main advantage of this transform technique is that it is very tolerant of gaps in the actual object boundaries the classical HT for the detection of line , we will indicate how it can be applied to the detection of arbitrary shapes. Sometimes the straight line HT is efficient enough to detect features such as artificial curves. The HT is an established technique for extracting geometric shapes based on the duality definition of the points on a curve and their parameters. This technique has been developed for extracting simple geometric shapes such as lines, circles and ellipses as well as arbitrary shapes. The HT provides robustness against discontinuous or missing features, points or edges are mapped into a partitioned parameter of Hough space as individual votes where peaks denote the feature of interest represented in a non-analytically tabular form. The main drawback of the HT technique is the computational requirement which has an exponential growth of memory space and processing time as the number of parameters used to represent a primitive increases. For this reason most of the research on the HT has focused on reducing the computational burden for extracting of arbitrary shapes under more general transformations include a overview of describing the methods for the detection image processing programs are frequently required to detect and particle classification in an industrial setting, a standard algorithms for this detection lines
Zhang, Jin jing; Shi, Liang; Chen, Hui; Sun, Yun qi; Zhao, Ming wen; Ren, Ang; Chen, Ming jie; Wang, Hong; Feng, Zhi yong
2014-01-01
Hypsizygus marmoreus is one of the major edible mushrooms in East Asia. As no efficient transformation method, the molecular and genetics studies were hindered. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene of H. marmoreus was isolated and its promoter was used to drive the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in H. marmoreus. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was successfully applied in H. marmoreus. The transformation parameters were optimized, and it was found that co-cultivation of bacteria with protoplast at a ratio of 1000:1 at a temperature of 26 °C in medium containing 0.3 mM acetosyringone resulted in the highest transformation efficiency for Agrobacterium strain. Besides, three plasmids, each carrying a different promoter (from H. marmoreus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinula edodes) driving the expression of an antibiotic resistance marker, were also tested. The construct carrying the H. marmoreus gpd promoter produced more transformants than other constructs. Our analysis showed that over 85% of the transformants tested remained mitotically stable even after five successive rounds of subculturing. Putative transformants were analyzed for the presence of hph gene by PCR and Southern blot. Meanwhile, the expression of EGFP in H. marmoreus transformants was detected by fluorescence imaging. This ATMT system increases the transformation efficiency of H. marmoreus and may represent a useful tool for molecular genetic studies in this mushroom species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delaine Rodrigues
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMD are characterized by several signs and symptoms, such as pain and changes in the electrical activity of masticatory muscles. Considering that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a resource indicated to promote analgesia, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TENS on pain and electromyographic (EMG activity of the jaw elevator muscles in TMD patients. This study evaluated 35 female volunteers: 19 TMD patients (mean age = 23.04 ± 3.5 and 16 normal subjects (mean age = 23.3 ± 3.0. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (conventional mode, 150 Hz was applied once to each group for 45 minutes. Surface electromyography (gain of 100 times and 1 kHz sampling frequency and the visual analogue scale (VAS were applied before and immediately after TENS application. Both VAS data and root mean square (RMS values were analyzed using Student's t-test. The TMD group, compared to the control group, showed higher EMG activity of the jaw elevator muscles at rest. No difference was observed between the groups regarding maximum voluntary clenching (MVC. In TMD patients, TENS reduced both pain and EMG activity of the anterior portion of the temporal muscle, increasing the activity of the masseter muscles during MVC. It is possible to conclude that a single TENS application is effective in pain reduction. However, it does not act homogeneously on the features of the electric activity of the muscles evaluated.A desordem temporomandibular (DTM é caracterizada por diversos sinais e sintomas, como dor e alteração do sinal eletromiográfico dos músculos da mastigação. Considerando que a estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea (TENS é um recurso indicado para promover analgesia, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da TENS na dor e na atividade eletromiográfica (EMG dos músculos elevadores da mandíbula em indivíduos com DTM. Foram selecionados 35 voluntários do sexo
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset current as of 2000. The county-wide DEM is published with a 20-foot grid size, though we have a more detailed DEM/DTM for some...
Methods of compression of digital holograms, based on 1-level wavelet transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurbatova, E A; Cheremkhin, P A; Evtikhiev, N N
2016-01-01
To reduce the size of memory required for storing information about 3D-scenes and to decrease the rate of hologram transmission, digital hologram compression can be used. Compression of digital holograms by wavelet transforms is among most powerful methods. In the paper the most popular wavelet transforms are considered and applied to the digital hologram compression. Obtained values of reconstruction quality and hologram's diffraction efficiencies are compared. (paper)
Direct fourier method reconstruction based on unequally spaced fast fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Xiaofeng; Zhao Ming; Liu Li
2003-01-01
First, We give an Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT) method, which is more exact and theoretically more comprehensible than its former counterpart. Then, with an interesting interpolation scheme, we discusse how to apply USFFT to Direct Fourier Method (DFM) reconstruction of parallel projection data. At last, an emulation experiment result is given. (authors)
Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Lee, Shin-Jye; He, Kangjian
2018-01-01
In order to promote the performance of infrared and visual image fusion and provide better visual effects, this paper proposes a hybrid fusion method for infrared and visual image by the combination of discrete stationary wavelet transform (DSWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and local spatial frequency (LSF). The proposed method has three key processing steps. Firstly, DSWT is employed to decompose the important features of the source image into a series of sub-images with different levels and spatial frequencies. Secondly, DCT is used to separate the significant details of the sub-images according to the energy of different frequencies. Thirdly, LSF is applied to enhance the regional features of DCT coefficients, and it can be helpful and useful for image feature extraction. Some frequently-used image fusion methods and evaluation metrics are employed to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. The experiments indicate that the proposed method can achieve good fusion effect, and it is more efficient than other conventional image fusion methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murat Osmanoglu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We have considered linear partial differential algebraic equations (LPDAEs of the form , which has at least one singular matrix of . We have first introduced a uniform differential time index and a differential space index. The initial conditions and boundary conditions of the given system cannot be prescribed for all components of the solution vector here. To overcome this, we introduced these indexes. Furthermore, differential transform method has been given to solve LPDAEs. We have applied this method to a test problem, and numerical solution of the problem has been compared with analytical solution.
Fan, Hong-yi; Hu, Li-yun
2012-06-01
By virtue of the new technique of performing integration over Dirac's ket-bra operators, we explore quantum optical version of classical optical transformations such as optical Fresnel transform, Hankel transform, fractional Fourier transform, Wigner transform, wavelet transform and Fresnel-Hadmard combinatorial transform etc. In this way one may gain benefit for developing classical optics theory from the research in quantum optics, or vice-versa. We cannot only find some new quantum mechanical unitary operators which correspond to the known optical transformations, deriving a new theorem for calculating quantum tomogram of density operators, but also can reveal some new classical optical transformations. For examples, we find the generalized Fresnel operator (GFO) to correspond to the generalized Fresnel transform (GFT) in classical optics. We derive GFO's normal product form and its canonical coherent state representation and find that GFO is the loyal representation of symplectic group multiplication rule. We show that GFT is just the transformation matrix element of GFO in the coordinate representation such that two successive GFTs is still a GFT. The ABCD rule of the Gaussian beam propagation is directly demonstrated in the context of quantum optics. Especially, the introduction of quantum mechanical entangled state representations opens up a new area in finding new classical optical transformations. The complex wavelet transform and the condition of mother wavelet are studied in the context of quantum optics too. Throughout our discussions, the coherent state, the entangled state representation of the two-mode squeezing operators and the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators are fully used. All these have confirmed Dirac's assertion: "...for a quantum dynamic system that has a classical analogue, unitary transformation in the quantum theory is the analogue of contact transformation in the classical theory".
Extraction of thalweg networks from DTMs: application to badlands
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Thommeret
2010-08-01
Full Text Available To study gully spatial patterns in the badlands using a continuous thalweg vector network, this paper presents methods to extract the badlands' thalweg network from a regular grid digital terrain model (DTM by combining terrain morphology indices with a drainage algorithm. This method will delineate a thalweg only where the DTM denotes a significant curvature with respect to DTM accuracy and relies on three major steps. First, discontinuous concave areas were detected from the DTM using morphological criteria, either the plan curvature or the convergence index. Second, the concave areas were connected using a drainage algorithm, which provides a continuous, thick, tree-structured scheme. We assumed that these areas were physically significant and corresponded to a gully floor. Finally, the thick path was reduced to its main course and vectorised to obtain a thalweg network. The methods were applied to both virtual and actual DTM cases. The actual case was a LiDAR DTM of the Draix badlands in the French Alps. The obtained networks were quantitatively compared, both with a network obtained using the usual drainage area criteria and with a reference network mapped in the field. The CI-based network showed the great potential for thalweg network extraction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Jing
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To assist physicians to quickly find the required 3D model from the mass medical model, we propose a novel retrieval method, called DRFVT, which combines the characteristics of dimensionality reduction (DR and feature vector transformation (FVT method. The DR method reduces the dimensionality of feature vector; only the top M low frequency Discrete Fourier Transform coefficients are retained. The FVT method does the transformation of the original feature vector and generates a new feature vector to solve the problem of noise sensitivity. The experiment results demonstrate that the DRFVT method achieves more effective and efficient retrieval results than other proposed methods.
Vaibhav, V.K.
2017-01-01
This paper considers the non-Hermitian Zakharov-Shabat (ZS) scattering problem which forms the basis for defining the SU(2) nonlinear Fourier transformation (NFT). The theoretical underpinnings of this generalization of the conventional Fourier transformation are quite well established in the
Transformative Mixed Methods Research
Mertens, Donna M.
2010-01-01
Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…
The Method of Measured Electrical Resistivity in Studying Phase Transformations in Zr1Nb Alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gritsina, V.M.; Klimenko, S.P.; Chernyaeva, T.P.
2006-01-01
The paper systematically arranges and analyzes the data on the methods of research into α ↔ β transformation process in zirconium alloys, as well as capabilities and information provided by each method. A special emphasis is put on the method of measured electrical resistivity. The authors also present the results of their own research into α ↔ β transformation process in Zr1Nb alloy (in the material of Zr+1% Nb tubing produced in Ukraine from calciothermal zirconium). The ρ →T curve was used to define the maximum and minimum values for transformation temperatures. Combined processing of the phase data on Zr+1% Nb found in literature and obtained from measured resistivity suggests that transformation process happens in several stages. The maximum value on the ρ → T curve corresponds to the beginning of stage 3, whereas the minimum - to its completion; as suggested by the pooled data, accounts for over 95% of the total volume of the material
Numerical proceessing of radioimmunoassay results using logit-log transformation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Textoris, R.
1983-01-01
The mathematical model and algorithm are described of the numerical processing of the results of a radioimmunoassay by the logit-log transformation method and by linear regression with weight factors. The limiting value of the curve for zero concentration is optimized with regard to the residual sum by the iterative method by multiple repeats of the linear regression. Typical examples are presented of the approximation of calibration curves. The method proved suitable for all hitherto used RIA sets and is well suited for small computers with internal memory of min. 8 Kbyte. (author)
Analytical method of CIM to PIM transformation in Model Driven Architecture (MDA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Kardos
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Information system’s models on higher level of abstraction have become a daily routine in many software companies. The concept of Model Driven Architecture (MDA published by standardization body OMG1 since 2001 has become a concept for creation of software applications and information systems. MDA specifies four levels of abstraction: top three levels are created as graphical models and the last one as implementation code model. Many research works of MDA are focusing on the lower levels and transformations between each other. The top level of abstraction, called Computation Independent Model (CIM and its transformation to the lower level called Platform Independent Model (PIM is not so extensive research topic. Considering to a great importance and usability of this level in practice of IS2Keywords: transformation, MDA, CIM, PIM, UML, DFD. development now our research activity is focused to this highest level of abstraction – CIM and its possible transformation to the lower PIM level. In this article we are presenting a possible solution of CIM modeling and its analytic method of transformation to PIM.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. I. Bartsev
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A possible method for experimental determination of parameters of the previously proposed continual mathematical model of soil organic matter transformation is theoretically considered in this paper. The previously proposed by the authors continual model of soil organic matter transformation, based on using the rate of matter transformation as a continual scale of its recalcitrance, describes the transformation process phenomenologically without going into detail of microbiological mechanisms of transformation. Thereby simplicity of the model is achieved. The model is represented in form of one differential equation in firstorder partial derivatives, which has an analytical solution in elementary functions. The model equation contains a small number of empirical parameters which generally characterize environmental conditions where the matter transformation process occurs and initial properties of the plant litter. Given the values of these parameters, it is possible to calculate dynamics of soil organic matter stocks and its distribution over transformation rate. In the present study, possible approaches for determination of the model parameters are considered and a simple method of their experimental measurement is proposed. An experiment of an incubation of chemically homogeneous samples in soil and multiple sequential measurement of the sample mass loss with time is proposed. An equation of time dynamics of mass loss of incubated homogeneous sample is derived from the basic assumption of the presented soil organic matter transformation model. Thus, fitting by the least squares method the parameters of sample mass loss curve calculated according the proposed mass loss dynamics equation allows to determine the parameters of the general equation of soil organic transformation model.
Application of laplace transform method in heavy ion reaction research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jinchuan; Xi Hongfei; Guo Zhongyan; Zhan Wenlong; Zhu Yongtai; Zhou Jianqun; Liu Guanhua
1993-01-01
Laplace transform method (LTM) is applied to investigate the effects of different spectroscopy amplifiers parameters on identification of the light charged particles (LCP) emitted from 12 C(46,7 MeV/u) + 58 Ni reaction. The significance of application of LTM in heavy ion experimental nuclear physics is also discussed
W-transform method for feature-oriented multiresolution image retrieval
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwong, M.K.; Lin, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.
1995-07-01
Image database management is important in the development of multimedia technology. Since an enormous amount of digital images is likely to be generated within the next few decades in order to integrate computers, television, VCR, cables, telephone and various imaging devices. Effective image indexing and retrieval systems are urgently needed so that images can be easily organized, searched, transmitted, and presented. Here, the authors present a local-feature-oriented image indexing and retrieval method based on Kwong, and Tang`s W-transform. Multiresolution histogram comparison is an effective method for content-based image indexing and retrieval. However, most recent approaches perform multiresolution analysis for whole images but do not exploit the local features present in the images. Since W-transform is featured by its ability to handle images of arbitrary size, with no periodicity assumptions, it provides a natural tool for analyzing local image features and building indexing systems based on such features. In this approach, the histograms of the local features of images are used in the indexing, system. The system not only can retrieve images that are similar or identical to the query images but also can retrieve images that contain features specified in the query images, even if the retrieved images as a whole might be very different from the query images. The local-feature-oriented method also provides a speed advantage over the global multiresolution histogram comparison method. The feature-oriented approach is expected to be applicable in managing large-scale image systems such as video databases and medical image databases.
Method of local pointed function reduction of original shape in Fourier transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dosch, H.; Slavyanov, S.Yu.
2002-01-01
The method for analytical reduction of the original shape in the one-dimensional Fourier transformation by the fourier image modulus is proposed. The basic concept of the method consists in the presentation of the model shape in the form of the local peak functions sum. The eigenfunctions, generated by the linear differential equations with the polynomial coefficients, are selected as the latter ones. This provides for the possibility of managing the Fourier transformation without numerical integration. This reduces the reverse task to the nonlinear regression with a small number of the evaluated parameters and to the numerical or asymptotic study on the model peak functions - the eigenfunctions of the differential tasks and their fourier images [ru
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Chun-Feng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A reconstructive scheme for variational iteration method using the Yang-Laplace transform is proposed and developed with the Yang-Laplace transform. The identification of fractal Lagrange multiplier is investigated by the Yang-Laplace transform. The method is exemplified by a fractal heat conduction equation with local fractional derivative. The results developed are valid for a compact solution domain with high accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milić Saša D.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the SFRA (Sweep Frequency Response Analysis-SFRA method for analyzing frequency response of transformer windings in order to identify potential defects in the geometry of the core and winding. The most frequent problems (recognized by SFRA are: core shift, shorted or open winding, unwanted contact between core and mass, etc. Comparative analysis of this method with conventional methods is carried out in situ transformer in real hard industrial conditions. Benefits of SFRA method are great reliability and repeatability of the measurements. This method belongs to the non-invasive category. Due to the high reliability and repeatability of the measurements it is very suitable for detection of changes in the geometry of the coil and the core during prophylactic field testing, or after transporting the transformer.
R Peak Detection Method Using Wavelet Transform and Modified Shannon Energy Envelope.
Park, Jeong-Seon; Lee, Sang-Woong; Park, Unsang
2017-01-01
Rapid automatic detection of the fiducial points-namely, the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave-is necessary for early detection of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this paper, we present an R peak detection method using the wavelet transform (WT) and a modified Shannon energy envelope (SEE) for rapid ECG analysis. The proposed WTSEE algorithm performs a wavelet transform to reduce the size and noise of ECG signals and creates SEE after first-order differentiation and amplitude normalization. Subsequently, the peak energy envelope (PEE) is extracted from the SEE. Then, R peaks are estimated from the PEE, and the estimated peaks are adjusted from the input ECG. Finally, the algorithm generates the final R features by validating R-R intervals and updating the extracted R peaks. The proposed R peak detection method was validated using 48 first-channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database with a sensitivity of 99.93%, positive predictability of 99.91%, detection error rate of 0.16%, and accuracy of 99.84%. Considering the high detection accuracy and fast processing speed due to the wavelet transform applied before calculating SEE, the proposed method is highly effective for real-time applications in early detection of CVDs.
Dekkers, A L M; Slob, W
2012-10-01
In dietary exposure assessment, statistical methods exist for estimating the usual intake distribution from daily intake data. These methods transform the dietary intake data to normal observations, eliminate the within-person variance, and then back-transform the data to the original scale. We propose Gaussian Quadrature (GQ), a numerical integration method, as an efficient way of back-transformation. We compare GQ with six published methods. One method uses a log-transformation, while the other methods, including GQ, use a Box-Cox transformation. This study shows that, for various parameter choices, the methods with a Box-Cox transformation estimate the theoretical usual intake distributions quite well, although one method, a Taylor approximation, is less accurate. Two applications--on folate intake and fruit consumption--confirmed these results. In one extreme case, some methods, including GQ, could not be applied for low percentiles. We solved this problem by modifying GQ. One method is based on the assumption that the daily intakes are log-normally distributed. Even if this condition is not fulfilled, the log-transformation performs well as long as the within-individual variance is small compared to the mean. We conclude that the modified GQ is an efficient, fast and accurate method for estimating the usual intake distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Multi-band Image Registration Method Based on Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
庹红娅; 刘允才
2004-01-01
This paper presented a registration method based on Fourier transform for multi-band images which is involved in translation and small rotation. Although different band images differ a lot in the intensity and features,they contain certain common information which we can exploit. A model was given that the multi-band images have linear correlations under the least-square sense. It is proved that the coefficients have no effect on the registration progress if two images have linear correlations. Finally, the steps of the registration method were proposed. The experiments show that the model is reasonable and the results are satisfying.
Higher-order schemes for the Laplace transformation method for parabolic problems
Douglas, C.; Kim, I.; Lee, H.; Sheen, D.
2011-01-01
In this paper we solve linear parabolic problems using the three stage noble algorithms. First, the time discretization is approximated using the Laplace transformation method, which is both parallel in time (and can be in space, too) and extremely
Zhang, Jingxia; Guo, Yinghai; Shen, Yulin; Zhao, Difei; Li, Mi
2018-06-01
The use of geophysical logging data to identify lithology is an important groundwork in logging interpretation. Inevitably, noise is mixed in during data collection due to the equipment and other external factors and this will affect the further lithological identification and other logging interpretation. Therefore, to get a more accurate lithological identification it is necessary to adopt de-noising methods. In this study, a new de-noising method, namely improved complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN)-wavelet transform, is proposed, which integrates the superiorities of improved CEEMDAN and wavelet transform. Improved CEEMDAN, an effective self-adaptive multi-scale analysis method, is used to decompose non-stationary signals as the logging data to obtain the intrinsic mode function (IMF) of N different scales and one residual. Moreover, one self-adaptive scale selection method is used to determine the reconstruction scale k. Simultaneously, given the possible frequency aliasing problem between adjacent IMFs, a wavelet transform threshold de-noising method is used to reduce the noise of the (k-1)th IMF. Subsequently, the de-noised logging data are reconstructed by the de-noised (k-1)th IMF and the remaining low-frequency IMFs and the residual. Finally, empirical mode decomposition, improved CEEMDAN, wavelet transform and the proposed method are applied for analysis of the simulation and the actual data. Results show diverse performance of these de-noising methods with regard to accuracy for lithological identification. Compared with the other methods, the proposed method has the best self-adaptability and accuracy in lithological identification.
Some application with LIDAR data for Fermecatu Islet (Călărasi county, Romania
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MIERLĂ Marian
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some possibilities of applications of the LIDAR data. As a case study is used an islet on the Danube River closed to Calarasi town, Fermecatu islet. In the first part it is presented a way to handle the LIDAR transformed data and the creation of a digital terrain model (DTM. Later on there are presented some useful and facile application of using DTM. The data that were used in present paper derive from a big project named: “The Danube River, Lower Floodplain, ecological and economical resizing”, financedby the Ministry of Environment.
A method based on IHS cylindrical transform model for quality assessment of image fusion
Zhu, Xiaokun; Jia, Yonghong
2005-10-01
Image fusion technique has been widely applied to remote sensing image analysis and processing, and methods for quality assessment of image fusion in remote sensing have also become the research issues at home and abroad. Traditional assessment methods combine calculation of quantitative indexes and visual interpretation to compare fused images quantificationally and qualitatively. However, in the existing assessment methods, there are two defects: on one hand, most imdexes lack the theoretic support to compare different fusion methods. On the hand, there is not a uniform preference for most of the quantitative assessment indexes when they are applied to estimate the fusion effects. That is, the spatial resolution and spectral feature could not be analyzed synchronously by these indexes and there is not a general method to unify the spatial and spectral feature assessment. So in this paper, on the basis of the approximate general model of four traditional fusion methods, including Intensity Hue Saturation(IHS) triangle transform fusion, High Pass Filter(HPF) fusion, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) fusion, Wavelet Transform(WT) fusion, a correlation coefficient assessment method based on IHS cylindrical transform is proposed. By experiments, this method can not only get the evaluation results of spatial and spectral features on the basis of uniform preference, but also can acquire the comparison between fusion image sources and fused images, and acquire differences among fusion methods. Compared with the traditional assessment methods, the new methods is more intuitionistic, and in accord with subjective estimation.
High-capacity method for hiding data in the discrete cosine transform domain
Qazanfari, Kazem; Safabakhsh, Reza
2013-10-01
Steganography is the art and science of hiding data in different media such as texts, audios, images, and videos. Data hiding techniques are generally divided into two groups: spatial and frequency domain techniques. Spatial domain methods generally have low security and, as a result, are less attractive to researchers. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is the most common transform domain used in steganography and JPEG compression. Since a large number of the DCT coefficients of JPEG images are zero, the capacity of DCT domain-based steganography methods is not very high. We present a high-capacity method for hiding messages in the DCT domain. We describe the method in two classes where the receiver has and where the receiver does not have the cover image. In each class, we consider three cases for each coefficient. By considering n coefficients, there are 3n different situations. The method embeds ⌊log2 3n⌋ bits in these n coefficients. We show that the maximum reachable capacity by our method is 58% higher than the other general steganography methods. Experimental results show that the histogram-based steganalysis methods cannot detect the stego images produced by the proposed method while the capacity is increased significantly.
Identification Method of Mud Shale Fractures Base on Wavelet Transform
Xia, Weixu; Lai, Fuqiang; Luo, Han
2018-01-01
In recent years, inspired by seismic analysis technology, a new method for analysing mud shale fractures oil and gas reservoirs by logging properties has emerged. By extracting the high frequency attribute of the wavelet transform in the logging attribute, the formation information hidden in the logging signal is extracted, identified the fractures that are not recognized by conventional logging and in the identified fracture segment to show the “cycle jump”, “high value”, “spike” and other response effect is more obvious. Finally formed a complete wavelet denoising method and wavelet high frequency identification fracture method.
The Telegraph Equation and Its Solution by Reduced Differential Transform Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vineet K. Srivastava
2013-01-01
Full Text Available One-dimensional second-order hyperbolic telegraph equation was formulated using Ohm’s law and solved by a recent and reliable semianalytic method, namely, the reduced differential transform method (RDTM. Using this method, it is possible to find the exact solution or a closed approximate solution of a differential equation. Three numerical examples have been carried out in order to check the effectiveness, the accuracy, and convergence of the method. The RDTM is a powerful mathematical technique for solving wide range of problems arising in science and engineering fields.
Chen, Chenglong; Ni, Jiangqun; Shen, Zhaoyi; Shi, Yun Qing
2017-06-01
Geometric transformations, such as resizing and rotation, are almost always needed when two or more images are spliced together to create convincing image forgeries. In recent years, researchers have developed many digital forensic techniques to identify these operations. Most previous works in this area focus on the analysis of images that have undergone single geometric transformations, e.g., resizing or rotation. In several recent works, researchers have addressed yet another practical and realistic situation: successive geometric transformations, e.g., repeated resizing, resizing-rotation, rotation-resizing, and repeated rotation. We will also concentrate on this topic in this paper. Specifically, we present an in-depth analysis in the frequency domain of the second-order statistics of the geometrically transformed images. We give an exact formulation of how the parameters of the first and second geometric transformations influence the appearance of periodic artifacts. The expected positions of characteristic resampling peaks are analytically derived. The theory developed here helps to address the gap left by previous works on this topic and is useful for image security and authentication, in particular, the forensics of geometric transformations in digital images. As an application of the developed theory, we present an effective method that allows one to distinguish between the aforementioned four different processing chains. The proposed method can further estimate all the geometric transformation parameters. This may provide useful clues for image forgery detection.
Back-transformation of treatment differences - an approximate method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab
2014-01-01
Background/Objectives:Transformation of outcomes is frequently used in the analysis of studies in clinical nutrition. However, back-transformation of estimated treatment means and differences is complicated by the nonlinear nature of the transformations. It is not straightforward to obtain an est...... publication, 11 December 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.259....
A method for energy and exergy analyses of product transformation processes in industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abou Khalil, B.
2008-12-01
After a literature survey enabling the determination of the advantages and drawbacks of existing methods of assessment of the potential energy gains of an industrial site, this research report presents a newly developed method, named Energy and Exergy Analysis of Transformation Processes (or AEEP for Analyse energetique et exergetique des procedes de transformation), while dealing with actual industrial operations, in order to demonstrate the systematic character of this method. The different steps of the method are presented and detailed, one of them, the process analysis, being critical for the application of the developed method. This particular step is then applied to several industrial unitary operations in order to be a base for future energy audits in the concerned industry sectors, as well as to demonstrate its generic and systematic character. The method is the then applied in a global manner to a cheese manufacturing plant, all the different steps of the AEEP being applied. The author demonstrates that AEEP is a systematic method and can be applied to all energy audit levels, moreover to the lowest levels which have a relatively low cost
Method to eliminate flux linkage DC component in load transformer for static transfer switch.
He, Yu; Mao, Chengxiong; Lu, Jiming; Wang, Dan; Tian, Bing
2014-01-01
Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2 ~ 30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cinicioglu Esma Nur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Dempster−Shafer belief function theory can address a wider class of uncertainty than the standard probability theory does, and this fact appeals the researchers in operations research society for potential application areas. However, the lack of a decision theory of belief functions gives rise to the need to use the probability transformation methods for decision making. For representation of statistical evidence, the class of consonant belief functions is used which is not closed under Dempster’s rule of combination but is closed under Walley’s rule of combination. In this research, it is shown that the outcomes obtained using both Dempster’s and Walley’s rules do result in different probability distributions when pignistic transformation is used. However, when plausibility transformation is used, they do result in the same probability distribution. This result shows that the choice of the combination rule and probability transformation method may have a significant effect on decision making since it may change the choice of the decision alternative selected. This result is illustrated via an example of missile type identification.
Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evânia Galvão Mendonça
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for this purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1 and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2. To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun, to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS, for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes. The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.
Ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring method on instrument transformers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kartalović Nenad
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Sonic and ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring have been applied since the early days of these phenomena monitoring. Modern measurement and partial discharge acoustic (ultrasonic and sonic monitoring method has been rapidly evolving as a result of new electronic component design, information technology and updated software solutions as well as the development of knowledge in the partial discharge diagnosis. Electrical discharges in the insulation system generate voltage-current pulses in the network and ultrasonic waves that propagate through the insulation system and structure. Amplitude-phase-frequency analysis of these signals reveals information about the intensity, type and location of partial discharges. The paper discusses the possibility of ultrasonic method selectivity improvement and the increase of diagnosis reliability in the field. Measurements were performed in the laboratory and in the field while a number of transformers were analysed for dissolved gases in the oil. A comparative review of methods for the partial discharge detection is also presented in this paper.
Uniqueness theorems for variational problems by the method of transformation groups
Reichel, Wolfgang
2004-01-01
A classical problem in the calculus of variations is the investigation of critical points of functionals {\\cal L} on normed spaces V. The present work addresses the question: Under what conditions on the functional {\\cal L} and the underlying space V does {\\cal L} have at most one critical point? A sufficient condition for uniqueness is given: the presence of a "variational sub-symmetry", i.e., a one-parameter group G of transformations of V, which strictly reduces the values of {\\cal L}. The "method of transformation groups" is applied to second-order elliptic boundary value problems on Riemannian manifolds. Further applications include problems of geometric analysis and elasticity.
Detection of inter-turn faults in transformer winding using the capacitor discharge method
Michna, Michał; Wilk, Andrzej; Ziółko, Michał; Wołoszyk, Marek; Swędrowski, Leon; Szwangruber, Piotr
2017-12-01
The paper presents results of an analysis of inter-turn fault effects on the voltage and current waveforms of a capacitor discharge through transformer windings. The research was conducted in the frame of the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research project which goal is to build a new international accelerator facility that utilizes superconducting magnets. For the sake of electrical quality assurance of the superconducting magnet circuits, a measurement and diagnostic system is currently under development at Gdansk University of Technology (GUT). Appropriate measurements and simulations of the special transformer system were performed to verify the proposed diagnostic method. In order to take into account the nonlinearity and hysteresis of the magnetic yoke, a novel mathematical model of the transformer was developed. A special test bench was constructed to emulate the inter-turn faults within transformer windings.
Detection of inter-turn faults in transformer winding using the capacitor discharge method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michna Michał
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents results of an analysis of inter-turn fault effects on the voltage and current waveforms of a capacitor discharge through transformer windings. The research was conducted in the frame of the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research project which goal is to build a new international accelerator facility that utilizes superconducting magnets. For the sake of electrical quality assurance of the superconducting magnet circuits, a measurement and diagnostic system is currently under development at Gdansk University of Technology (GUT. Appropriate measurements and simulations of the special transformer system were performed to verify the proposed diagnostic method. In order to take into account the nonlinearity and hysteresis of the magnetic yoke, a novel mathematical model of the transformer was developed. A special test bench was constructed to emulate the inter-turn faults within transformer windings.
Approximating the Analytic Fourier Transform with the Discrete Fourier Transform
Axelrod, Jeremy
2015-01-01
The Fourier transform is approximated over a finite domain using a Riemann sum. This Riemann sum is then expressed in terms of the discrete Fourier transform, which allows the sum to be computed with a fast Fourier transform algorithm more rapidly than via a direct matrix multiplication. Advantages and limitations of using this method to approximate the Fourier transform are discussed, and prototypical MATLAB codes implementing the method are presented.
An Improved Split-Step Wavelet Transform Method for Anomalous Radio Wave Propagation Modelling
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A. Iqbal
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Anomalous tropospheric propagation caused by ducting phenomenon is a major problem in wireless communication. Thus, it is important to study the behavior of radio wave propagation in tropospheric ducts. The Parabolic Wave Equation (PWE method is considered most reliable to model anomalous radio wave propagation. In this work, an improved Split Step Wavelet transform Method (SSWM is presented to solve PWE for the modeling of tropospheric propagation over finite and infinite conductive surfaces. A large number of numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Developed algorithm is compared with previously published techniques; Wavelet Galerkin Method (WGM and Split-Step Fourier transform Method (SSFM. A very good agreement is found between SSWM and published techniques. It is also observed that the proposed algorithm is about 18 times faster than WGM and provide more details of propagation effects as compared to SSFM.
Pipkins, Daniel Scott
Two diverse topics of relevance in modern computational mechanics are treated. The first involves the modeling of linear and non-linear wave propagation in flexible, lattice structures. The technique used combines the Laplace Transform with the Finite Element Method (FEM). The procedure is to transform the governing differential equations and boundary conditions into the transform domain where the FEM formulation is carried out. For linear problems, the transformed differential equations can be solved exactly, hence the method is exact. As a result, each member of the lattice structure is modeled using only one element. In the non-linear problem, the method is no longer exact. The approximation introduced is a spatial discretization of the transformed non-linear terms. The non-linear terms are represented in the transform domain by making use of the complex convolution theorem. A weak formulation of the resulting transformed non-linear equations yields a set of element level matrix equations. The trial and test functions used in the weak formulation correspond to the exact solution of the linear part of the transformed governing differential equation. Numerical results are presented for both linear and non-linear systems. The linear systems modeled are longitudinal and torsional rods and Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko beams. For non-linear systems, a viscoelastic rod and Von Karman type beam are modeled. The second topic is the analysis of plates and shallow shells under-going finite deflections by the Field/Boundary Element Method. Numerical results are presented for two plate problems. The first is the bifurcation problem associated with a square plate having free boundaries which is loaded by four, self equilibrating corner forces. The results are compared to two existing numerical solutions of the problem which differ substantially.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, K.
1995-01-01
A simple formulation to derive second order differential equations of the spherical harmonics method is described, and it is shown that there is difficulty in deriving finite difference equations for these differential equations at material interfaces, because the second order differential terms of higher order moments must be expressed by the values in a mesh box. On the other hand, it is shown that there is no such difficulty, if the author uses the finite Fourier transformation method, since the differential equations are transformed into integral equations and the differentiation corresponds simply to a multiplication by the transformation parameter. Solution can be obtained in the form of Fourier series without making use of the inversion integral
Fractional Complex Transform and exp-Function Methods for Fractional Differential Equations
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Ahmet Bekir
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The exp-function method is presented for finding the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional equations. New solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. We apply the exp-function method to both the nonlinear time and space fractional differential equations. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bulbul AHMED
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.
A fresh method of DNA transformation to the seeds irradiated by Co ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Jane
2011-06-29
Jun 29, 2011 ... To find out a simpler method that can directly transfer the aim gene into plant ... Key words: DNA transformation, irradiated seeds, purple medic, salt screening. ..... characterization of a maize mitochondrial plasmid-like DNA.
Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Suresh, T.
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an important tool required for signal processing in defence applications. This paper reports an improved method for generating bit reversed numbers needed in calculating FFT using radix-2. The refined algorithm takes...
A Laplace transform method for energy multigroup hybrid discrete ordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segatto, C.F.; Vilhena, M.T.; Barros, R.C.
2010-01-01
In typical lattice cells where a highly absorbing, small fuel element is embedded in the moderator, a large weakly absorbing medium, high-order transport methods become unnecessary. In this work we describe a hybrid discrete ordinates (S N) method for energy multigroup slab lattice calculations. This hybrid S N method combines the convenience of a low-order S N method in the moderator with a high-order S N method in the fuel. The idea is based on the fact that in weakly absorbing media whose physical size is several neutron mean free paths in extent, even the S 2 method (P 1 approximation), leads to an accurate result. We use special fuel-moderator interface conditions and the Laplace transform (LTS N ) analytical numerical method to calculate the two-energy group neutron flux distributions and the thermal disadvantage factor. We present numerical results for a range of typical model problems.
Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao
2015-01-01
Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3 MJ and a 6.3 MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers.
Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao
2015-01-01
Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3MJ and a 6.3MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers. PMID:26230392
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.
1992-07-01
The disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic grout-forming solid blends. Checking the quality of each blend component and its mix ratio will ensure processibility of the blend and the long-term performance of the resulting waste grout. In earlier work at Hanford laboratories, Fourier transform infrared-transmission method (FTIR-TR) using KBr pellet was applied successfully in the analysis of blends consisting of cement, fly ash, and clays. This method involves time-consuming sample preparation resulting in slow turnaround for repetitive sampling. Because reflection methods do not require elaborate sample preparation, they have the potential to reduce turnaround analysis time. Neat samples may be examined making these methods attractive for quality control. This study investigates the capability of Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method (FTIR-ATR) to analyze pozzolanic blends
A New Method for Multisensor Data Fusion Based on Wavelet Transform in a Chemical Plant
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Karim Salahshoor
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new multi-sensor data fusion method based on the combination of wavelet transform (WT and extended Kalman filter (EKF. Input data are first filtered by a wavelet transform via Daubechies wavelet “db4” functions and the filtered data are then fused based on variance weights in terms of minimum mean square error. The fused data are finally treated by extended Kalman filter for the final state estimation. The recent data are recursively utilized to apply wavelet transform and extract the variance of the updated data, which makes it suitable to be applied to both static and dynamic systems corrupted by noisy environments. The method has suitable performance in state estimation in comparison with the other alternative algorithms. A three-tank benchmark system has been adopted to comparatively demonstrate the performance merits of the method compared to a known algorithm in terms of efficiently satisfying signal-tonoise (SNR and minimum square error (MSE criteria.
One-dimensional treatment of polyatomic crystals by the Laplace transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.; Santana, P.H.A.
1976-01-01
The one dimensional periodic potential problem is solved using the Laplace transform method and a condensed expression for the relation E x k and effective mass for one electron in a polyatomic structure is determined. Applications related to the effect of the asymmetry of the potential upon the one dimensional band structure are discussed [pt
An Image Matching Method Based on Fourier and LOG-Polar Transform
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Zhijia Zhang
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This Traditional template matching methods are not appropriate for the situation of large angle rotation between two images in the online detection for industrial production. Aiming at this problem, Fourier transform algorithm was introduced to correct image rotation angle based on its rotatary invariance in time-frequency domain, orienting image under test in the same direction with reference image, and then match these images using matching algorithm based on log-polar transform. Compared with the current matching algorithms, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only match two images with rotation of arbitrary angle, but also possess a high matching accuracy and applicability. In addition, the validity and reliability of algorithm was verified by simulated matching experiment targeting circular images.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraus, H.G.
1991-01-01
This paper discusses methods for calculating Fraunhofer intensity fields resulting from diffraction through one- and two-dimensional apertures are presented. These methods are based on the geometric concept of finite elements and on Fourier and Abbe transforms. The geometry of the two-dimensional diffracting aperture(s) is based on biquadratic isoparametric elements, which are used to define aperture(s) of complex geometry. These elements are also used to build complex amplitude and phase functions across the aperture(s) which may be of continuous or discontinuous form. The transform integrals are accurately and efficiently integrated numerically using Gaussian quadrature. The power of these methods is most evident in two dimensions, where several examples are presented which include secondary obstructions, straight and curved secondary spider supports, multiple-mirror arrays, synthetic aperture arrays, segmented mirrors, apertures covered by screens, apodization, and phase plates. Typically, the finite element Abbe transform method results in significant gains in computational efficiency over the finite element Fourier transform method, but is also subject to some loss in generality
The transformation of urban industrial land use: A quantitative method
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Rongxu Qiu
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A large number of cities around the world today owe their land use growth to the rapid development of industrial areas. The spatial structure of industrial distribution in cities shape urban spatial morphology linking with land use, transportation, economic activities, and housing. Meanwhile, growth and expansion of city population and land use reconfigure the spatial structure of industrial distribution. Research into urban industrial spatial distribution and its transformation process may help urban planners and decision makers understand the land use and population dynamics of a city. Genetic algorithms are believed to be one kind of the promising methods to simulate this dynamic process. In this paper, we propose a novel method to simulate urban industrial spatial distribution and its transformation process in Shanghai, China. The results show that along with increasing urban land price over time, industries are going to move outward from the city center. However, the maximum profit of a firm tends to decrease, which could lead industrial factories to move beyond city boundary. The analysis of the current industrial spatial distribution in Shanghai indicates that, when land price in a city rises above a specific threshold, new government policies and other competitive advantages need to be enacted if the city wants to retain industrial firms within the city boundary.
High-speed fan-beam reconstruction using direct two-dimensional Fourier transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niki, Noboru; Mizutani, Toshio; Takahashi, Yoshizo; Inouye, Tamon.
1984-01-01
Since the first development of X-ray computer tomography (CT), various efforts have been made to obtain high quality of high-speed image. However, the development of high resolution CT and the ultra-high speed CT to be applied to hearts is still desired. The X-ray beam scanning method was already changed from the parallel beam system to the fan-beam system in order to greatly shorten the scanning time. Also, the filtered back projection (DFBP) method has been employed to directly processing fan-beam projection data as reconstruction method. Although the two-dimensional Fourier transform (TFT) method significantly faster than FBP method was proposed, it has not been sufficiently examined for fan-beam projection data. Thus, the ITFT method was investigated, which first executes rebinning algorithm to convert the fan-beam projection data to the parallel beam projection data, thereafter, uses two-dimensional Fourier transform. By this method, although high speed is expected, the reconstructed images might be degraded due to the adoption of rebinning algorithm. Therefore, the effect of the interpolation error of rebinning algorithm on the reconstructed images has been analyzed theoretically, and finally, the result of the employment of spline interpolation which allows the acquisition of high quality images with less errors has been shown by the numerical and visual evaluation based on simulation and actual data. Computation time was reduced to 1/15 for the image matrix of 512 and to 1/30 for doubled matrix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Hui; Tong, Dan; Dong Bao, Xu; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis
2015-01-01
Purpose: In digital x-ray radiography, an antiscatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the antiscatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods: The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller subimages using a multiscale 2D discrete wavelet transform. The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these subimages using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected subimages to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform. Results: The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1D Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time
A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Hui, E-mail: corinna@seu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Network and Information Integration (Southeast University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210000 (China); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale sino-français, Laboratoire International Associé, Inserm, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35000 (France); Southeast University, Nanjing 210000 (China); Tong, Dan; Dong Bao, Xu [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Dillenseger, Jean-Louis [INSERM, U1099, Rennes F-35000 (France); Université de Rennes 1, LTSI, Rennes F-35000 (France); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale sino-français, Laboratoire International Associé, Inserm, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35000 (France); Southeast University, Nanjing 210000 (China)
2015-04-15
Purpose: In digital x-ray radiography, an antiscatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the antiscatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods: The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller subimages using a multiscale 2D discrete wavelet transform. The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these subimages using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected subimages to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform. Results: The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1D Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time.
Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miha Amon
Full Text Available Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping, thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB. As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3 classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The
Geomorphometric analysis of selected Martian craters using polar coordinate transformation
Magyar, Zoltán; Koma, Zsófia; Székely, Balázs
2016-04-01
Centrally symmetric landform elements are very common features on the surface of the planet Mars. The most conspicuous ones of them are the impact craters of various size. However, a closer look on these features reveals that they show often asymmetric patterns as well. These are partially related to the geometry of the trajectory of the impacting body, but sometimes it is a result of surface processes (e.g., freeze/thaw cycles, mass movements). Geomorphometric studies have already been carried out to reveal these pecularities. Our approach, the application of polar coordinate transformation (PCT) very sensitively enhances the non-radial and non-circular shapes. We used digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from the ESA Mars Express HRSC imagery. The original DTM or its derivatives (e.g. slope angle or aspect) are PCT transformed. We analyzed the craters inter alia with scattergrams in polar coordinates. The resulting point cloud can be used directly for the analysis, but in some cases an interpolation should be applied to enhance certain non-circular features (especially in case of smaller craters). Visual inspection of the crater slopes, coloured by the aspect, reveals smaller features. Some of them are processing artefacts, but many of them are related to local undulations in the topography or indications of mass movements. In many cases the undulations of the crater rim are due to erosional processes. The drawbacks of the technology are related to the uneven resolution of the projected image: features in the crater centre should be left out from the analysis because PCT has a low resolution around the projection center. Furthermore, the success of the PCT depends on the correct definition of the projection centre: erroneously centered images are not suitable for analysis. The PCT transformed images are also suitable for radial averaging and calculation of standard deviations, resulting in typical, comparable craters shapes. These studies may lead to a deeper
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hasan Bulut
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce the rudiments of fractional calculus and the consequent applications of the Sumudu transform on fractional derivatives. Once this connection is firmly established in the general setting, we turn to the application of the Sumudu transform method (STM to some interesting nonhomogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations (FODEs. Finally, we use the solutions to form two-dimensional (2D graphs, by using the symbolic algebra package Mathematica Program 7.
Sandiego, Christine M.; Weinzimmer, David; Carson, Richard E.
2012-01-01
An important step in PET brain kinetic analysis is the registration of functional data to an anatomical MR image. Typically, PET-MR registrations in nonhuman primate neuroreceptor studies used PET images acquired early post-injection, (e.g., 0–10 min) to closely resemble the subject’s MR image. However, a substantial fraction of these registrations (~25%) fail due to the differences in kinetics and distribution for various radiotracer studies and conditions (e.g., blocking studies). The Multi-Transform Method (MTM) was developed to improve the success of registrations between PET and MR images. Two algorithms were evaluated, MTM-I and MTM-II. The approach involves creating multiple transformations by registering PET images of different time intervals, from a dynamic study, to a single reference (i.e., MR image) (MTM-I) or to multiple reference images (i.e., MR and PET images pre-registered to the MR) (MTM-II). Normalized mutual information was used to compute similarity between the transformed PET images and the reference image(s) to choose the optimal transformation. This final transformation is used to map the dynamic dataset into the animal’s anatomical MR space, required for kinetic analysis. The chosen transformed from MTM-I and MTM-II were evaluated using visual rating scores to assess the quality of spatial alignment between the resliced PET and reference. One hundred twenty PET datasets involving eleven different tracers from 3 different scanners were used to evaluate the MTM algorithms. Studies were performed with baboons and rhesus monkeys on the HR+, HRRT, and Focus-220. Successful transformations increased from 77.5%, 85.8%, to 96.7% using the 0–10 min method, MTM-I, and MTM-II, respectively, based on visual rating scores. The Multi-Transform Methods proved to be a robust technique for PET-MR registrations for a wide range of PET studies. PMID:22926293
Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu
2014-01-01
The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroaki Mano
Full Text Available The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium. We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP. Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max and pea (Pisum sativum. The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements.
Higher-order schemes for the Laplace transformation method for parabolic problems
Douglas, C.
2011-01-01
In this paper we solve linear parabolic problems using the three stage noble algorithms. First, the time discretization is approximated using the Laplace transformation method, which is both parallel in time (and can be in space, too) and extremely high order convergent. Second, higher-order compact schemes of order four and six are used for the the spatial discretization. Finally, the discretized linear algebraic systems are solved using multigrid to show the actual convergence rate for numerical examples, which are compared to other numerical solution methods. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Fedorenko, Sergei V.
2011-01-01
A novel method for computation of the discrete Fourier transform over a finite field with reduced multiplicative complexity is described. If the number of multiplications is to be minimized, then the novel method for the finite field of even extension degree is the best known method of the discrete Fourier transform computation. A constructive method of constructing for a cyclic convolution over a finite field is introduced.
Non-contact radio frequency shielding and wave guiding by multi-folded transformation optics method.
Madni, Hamza Ahmad; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Yin, Wenyan; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng
2016-11-14
Compared with conventional radio frequency (RF) shielding methods in which the conductive coating material encloses the circuits design and the leakage problem occurs due to the gap in such conductive material, non-contact RF shielding at a distance is very promising but still impossible to achieve so far. In this paper, a multi-folded transformation optics method is proposed to design a non-contact device for RF shielding. This "open-shielded" device can shield any object at a distance from the electromagnetic waves at the operating frequency, while the object is still physically open to the outer space. Based on this, an open-carpet cloak is proposed and the functionality of the open-carpet cloak is demonstrated. Furthermore, we investigate a scheme of non-contact wave guiding to remotely control the propagation of surface waves over any obstacles. The flexibilities of such multi-folded transformation optics method demonstrate the powerfulness of the method in the design of novel remote devices with impressive new functionalities.
Applications of asynoptic space - Time Fourier transform methods to scanning satellite measurements
Lait, Leslie R.; Stanford, John L.
1988-01-01
A method proposed by Salby (1982) for computing the zonal space-time Fourier transform of asynoptically acquired satellite data is discussed. The method and its relationship to other techniques are briefly described, and possible problems in applying it to real data are outlined. Examples of results obtained using this technique are given which demonstrate its sensitivity to small-amplitude signals. A number of waves are found which have previously been observed as well as two not heretofore reported. A possible extension of the method which could increase temporal and longitudinal resolution is described.
Image encryption with chaotic map and Arnold transform in the gyrator transform domains
Sang, Jun; Luo, Hongling; Zhao, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.; Cai, Bin
2017-05-01
An image encryption method combing chaotic map and Arnold transform in the gyrator transform domains was proposed. Firstly, the original secret image is XOR-ed with a random binary sequence generated by a logistic map. Then, the gyrator transform is performed. Finally, the amplitude and phase of the gyrator transform are permutated by Arnold transform. The decryption procedure is the inverse operation of encryption. The secret keys used in the proposed method include the control parameter and the initial value of the logistic map, the rotation angle of the gyrator transform, and the transform number of the Arnold transform. Therefore, the key space is large, while the key data volume is small. The numerical simulation was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the security analysis was performed in terms of the histogram of the encrypted image, the sensitiveness to the secret keys, decryption upon ciphertext loss, and resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack.
Nanoscale displacement measurement by a digital nano-moire method with wavelet transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C-M; Chen, L-W; Wang, C-C
2006-01-01
A digital nano-moire method with wavelet transformation is explored to measure nanoscale in-plane displacement fields. By applying e-beam lithography, a periodic PMMA nanostructure array is fabricated directly on the specimen and used as the specimen grating. Moire patterns are generated by overlapping the images of the PMMA specimen grating obtained from AFM scanning and the virtual reference grating produced by a digital image generating process. Then, the overlapped images are filtered by the 2D wavelet transformation (WT) to capture the target moire patterns. Existing methods, by overlapping the monitor-generated scanning lines with the image of the specimen grating, cause a mismatch problem. Previously, the carrier moire method was explored with the aim of curing the mismatch problem. Unfortunately, the carrier moire method, in addition to suffering from increased complexity of mathematical calculations, is incapable of directly obtaining the displacement field. Thus, the mismatch problem will result in inconveniences and restrictions in the practical application. Instead of using monitor-generated scanning lines, the proposed method applies the virtual reference grating, and thus puts the mismatch problem to rest. Nevertheless, the resultant moire image suffers from low contrast which, if left untreated, might distort the measurement result. Therefore, the WT, known for its sharpened abilities of characteristic and edge detection, is used to capture the target moire patterns and improve the measurement accuracy. The proposed method has been carried out in the laboratory. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method is convenient and efficient for nanoscale displacement measurement
Application of the Analog Method to Modelling Heat Waves: A Case Study with Power Transformers
2017-04-21
UNCLASSIFIED Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory APPLICATION OF THE ANALOG METHOD TO MODELLING HEAT WAVES: A CASE STUDY WITH...18 2 Calibration and validation statistics with the use of five atmospheric vari- ables to construct analogue diagnostics for JJA of transformer T2...electrical grid as a series of nodes (transformers) and edges (transmission lines) so that basic mathematical anal- ysis can be performed. The mathematics
Transformer design principles with applications to core-form power transformers
Del Vecchio, Robert M; Feeney, Mary-Ellen F
2001-01-01
Transformer Design Principles presents the theory of transformer operation and the methods and techniques of designing them. It emphasizes the physical principles and mathematical tools for simulating transformer behavior, including modern computer techniques. The scope of the book includes types of construction, circuit analysis, mechanical aspects of design, high voltage insulation requirements, and cooling design. The authors also address test procedures and reliability methods to assure successful design and discuss the economic analysis of designs. Summarizing material currently scattered
Flow modeling in a porous cylinder with regressing walls using semi analytical approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Azimi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of the flow in a porous cylinder with a focus on applications to solid rocket motors is presented. As usual, the cylindrical propellant grain of a solid rocket motor is modeled as a long tube with one end closed at the headwall, while the other remains open. The cylindrical wall is assumed to be permeable so as to simulate the propellant burning and normal gas injection. At first, the problem description and formulation are considered. The Navier-Stokes equations for the viscous flow in a porous cylinder with regressing walls are reduced to a nonlinear ODE by using a similarity transformation in time and space. Application of Differential Transformation Method (DTM as an approximate analytical method has been successfully applied. Finally the results have been presented for various cases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravi Kanth, A.S.V.; Aruna, K.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose a reliable algorithm to develop exact and approximate solutions for the linear and nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The approach rest mainly on two-dimensional differential transform method which is one of the approximate methods. The method can easily be applied to many linear and nonlinear problems and is capable of reducing the size of computational work. Exact solutions can also be achieved by the known forms of the series solutions. Several illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method.
Box-Cox transformation for QTL mapping.
Yang, Runqing; Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong
2006-01-01
The maximum likelihood method of QTL mapping assumes that the phenotypic values of a quantitative trait follow a normal distribution. If the assumption is violated, some forms of transformation should be taken to make the assumption approximately true. The Box-Cox transformation is a general transformation method which can be applied to many different types of data. The flexibility of the Box-Cox transformation is due to a variable, called transformation factor, appearing in the Box-Cox formula. We developed a maximum likelihood method that treats the transformation factor as an unknown parameter, which is estimated from the data simultaneously along with the QTL parameters. The method makes an objective choice of data transformation and thus can be applied to QTL analysis for many different types of data. Simulation studies show that (1) Box-Cox transformation can substantially increase the power of QTL detection; (2) Box-Cox transformation can replace some specialized transformation methods that are commonly used in QTL mapping; and (3) applying the Box-Cox transformation to data already normally distributed does not harm the result.
Method of using of the Box-Cox transformation at the application of the xbar and s chart
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eftimie Nicolae
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The application of the most statistical process control techniques is based on the assumption that the distribution of the measurements is normal. However, there are many situations in practice when the process data distribution is not normal. In certain cases, the Box-Cox transformation can be used for converting the process data distribution into a normal distribution. Considering these aspects, the paper presents a method of application for the xbar and s chart that can be used in the case when the measurements distribution is not normal. The proposed method consists of the following stages: the testing of normality of the process data, the application of the Box-Cox transformation and the testing of normality of the transformed data. In the case when the distribution of the transformed data is normal, they are used at the application of the xbar and s control chart.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Wang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available In the image plane of GB-SAR, identification of deformation distribution is usually carried out by artificial interpretation. This method requires analysts to have adequate experience of radar imaging and target recognition, otherwise it can easily cause false recognition of deformation target or region. Therefore, it is very meaningful to connect two-dimensional (2D plane coordinate system with the common three-dimensional (3D terrain coordinate system. To improve the global accuracy and reliability of the transformation from 2D coordinates of GB-SAR images to local 3D coordinates, and overcome the limitation of traditional similarity transformation parameter estimation method, 3D laser scanning data is used to assist the transformation of GB-SAR image coordinates. A straight line fitting method for calculating horizontal angle was proposed in this paper. After projection into a consistent imaging plane, we can calculate horizontal rotation angle by using the linear characteristics of the structure in radar image and the 3D coordinate system. Aided by external elevation information by 3D laser scanning technology, we completed the matching of point clouds and pixels on the projection plane according to the geometric projection principle of GB-SAR imaging realizing the transformation calculation of GB-SAR image coordinates to local 3D coordinates. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by the GB-SAR deformation monitoring experiment on the high slope of Geheyan dam.
Wang, P.; Xing, C.
2018-04-01
In the image plane of GB-SAR, identification of deformation distribution is usually carried out by artificial interpretation. This method requires analysts to have adequate experience of radar imaging and target recognition, otherwise it can easily cause false recognition of deformation target or region. Therefore, it is very meaningful to connect two-dimensional (2D) plane coordinate system with the common three-dimensional (3D) terrain coordinate system. To improve the global accuracy and reliability of the transformation from 2D coordinates of GB-SAR images to local 3D coordinates, and overcome the limitation of traditional similarity transformation parameter estimation method, 3D laser scanning data is used to assist the transformation of GB-SAR image coordinates. A straight line fitting method for calculating horizontal angle was proposed in this paper. After projection into a consistent imaging plane, we can calculate horizontal rotation angle by using the linear characteristics of the structure in radar image and the 3D coordinate system. Aided by external elevation information by 3D laser scanning technology, we completed the matching of point clouds and pixels on the projection plane according to the geometric projection principle of GB-SAR imaging realizing the transformation calculation of GB-SAR image coordinates to local 3D coordinates. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by the GB-SAR deformation monitoring experiment on the high slope of Geheyan dam.
The general 2-D moments via integral transform method for acoustic radiation and scattering
Smith, Jerry R.; Mirotznik, Mark S.
2004-05-01
The moments via integral transform method (MITM) is a technique to analytically reduce the 2-D method of moments (MoM) impedance double integrals into single integrals. By using a special integral representation of the Green's function, the impedance integral can be analytically simplified to a single integral in terms of transformed shape and weight functions. The reduced expression requires fewer computations and reduces the fill times of the MoM impedance matrix. Furthermore, the resulting integral is analytic for nearly arbitrary shape and weight function sets. The MITM technique is developed for mixed boundary conditions and predictions with basic shape and weight function sets are presented. Comparisons of accuracy and speed between MITM and brute force are presented. [Work sponsored by ONR and NSWCCD ILIR Board.
SUPERPIXEL BASED FACTOR ANALYSIS AND TARGET TRANSFORMATION METHOD FOR MARTIAN MINERALS DETECTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Wu
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The Factor analysis and target transformation (FATT is an effective method to test for the presence of particular mineral on Martian surface. It has been used both in thermal infrared (Thermal Emission Spectrometer, TES and near-infrared (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, CRISM hyperspectral data. FATT derived a set of orthogonal eigenvectors from a mixed system and typically selected first 10 eigenvectors to least square fit the library mineral spectra. However, minerals present only in a limited pixels will be ignored because its weak spectral features compared with full image signatures. Here, we proposed a superpixel based FATT method to detect the mineral distributions on Mars. The simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC algorithm was used to partition the CRISM image into multiple connected image regions with spectral homogeneous to enhance the weak signatures by increasing their proportion in a mixed system. A least square fitting was used in target transformation and performed to each region iteratively. Finally, the distribution of the specific minerals in image was obtained, where fitting residual less than a threshold represent presence and otherwise absence. We validate our method by identifying carbonates in a well analysed CRISM image in Nili Fossae on Mars. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method work well both in simulated and real data sets.
Lei Wang; Hongjun Yin; Xiaoshuang Yang; Chuncheng Yang; Jing Fu
2015-01-01
Based on fractal geometry, fractal medium of coalbed methane mathematical model is established by Langmuir isotherm adsorption formula, Fick's diffusion law, Laplace transform formula, considering the well bore storage effect and skin effect. The Laplace transform finite difference method is used to solve the mathematical model. With Stehfest numerical inversion, the distribution of dimensionless well bore flowing pressure and its derivative was obtained in real space. According to compare wi...
Progress in planta transformation without tissue culture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Yunhong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei; Qin Guangyong; Huo Yuping; Yu Zengliang
2004-01-01
With the development of planta genetic engineering, more emphases have been laid on convenient and high efficient genetic transformation methods. And transformation without tissue culture is a prospective direction of it. In this paper, traditional transformation methods and the methods of non-tissue culture were summarized. With the exploration and application of Arabidopsis transformation mechanism, with the use of ion beam-mediated transformation invented by Chinese scientists and the development of other transformation methods, transformation methods without tissue culture and planta genetic engineering could be improved rapidly. (authors)
Zhonggang, Liang; Hong, Yan
2006-10-01
A new method of calculating fractal dimension of short-term heart rate variability signals is presented. The method is based on wavelet transform and filter banks. The implementation of the method is: First of all we pick-up the fractal component from HRV signals using wavelet transform. Next, we estimate the power spectrum distribution of fractal component using auto-regressive model, and we estimate parameter 7 using the least square method. Finally according to formula D = 2- (gamma-1)/2 estimate fractal dimension of HRV signal. To validate the stability and reliability of the proposed method, using fractional brown movement simulate 24 fractal signals that fractal value is 1.6 to validate, the result shows that the method has stability and reliability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Su
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Electric energy replacement is the umbrella term for the use of electric energy to replace oil (e.g., electric automobiles, coal (e.g., electric heating, and gas (e.g., electric cooking appliances, which increases the electrical load peak, causing greater valley/peak differences. On-load capacity regulating distribution transformers have been used to deal with loads with great valley/peak differences, so reasonably replacing conventional distribution transformers with on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers can effectively cope with load changes after electric energy replacement and reduce the no-load losses of distribution transformers. Before planning for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers, the nodal effective load considering uncertainties within the life cycle after electric energy replacement was obtained by a Monte Carlo method. Then, according to the loss relation between on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers and conventional distribution transformers, three characteristic indexes of annual continuous apparent power curve and replacement criteria for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers were put forward in this paper, and a set of distribution transformer replaceable points was obtained. Next, based on cost benefit analysis, a planning model of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers which consists of investment profitability index within the life cycle, investment cost recouping index and capacity regulating cost index was put forward. The branch and bound method was used to solve the planning model within replaceable point set to obtain upgrading and reconstruction scheme of distribution transformers under a certain investment. Finally, planning analysis of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers was carried out for electric energy replacement points in one urban distribution network under three scenes: certain load, uncertain load and nodal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khader, M. M.; Kumar, Sunil; Abbasbandy, S.
2013-01-01
We present a new reliable analytical study for solving the discontinued problems arising in nanotechnology. Such problems are presented as nonlinear differential—difference equations. The proposed method is based on the Laplace transform with the homotopy analysis method (HAM). This method is a powerful tool for solving a large amount of problems. This technique provides a series of functions which may converge to the exact solution of the problem. A good agreement between the obtained solution and some well-known results is obtained
Valence band structures of InAs/GaAs quantum rings using the Fourier transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia Boyong; Yu Zhongyuan; Liu Yumin
2009-01-01
The valence band structures of strained InAs/GaAs quantum rings are calculated, with the four-band k · p model, in the framework of effective-mass envelope function theory. When determining the Hamiltonian matrix elements, we develop the Fourier transform method instead of the widely used analytical integral method. Using Fourier transform, we have investigated the energy levels as functions of the geometrical parameters of the rings and compared our results with those obtained by the analytical integral method. The results show that the energy levels in the quantum rings change dramatically with the inner radius, outer radius, average radius, width, height of the ring and the distance between two adjacent rings. Our method can be adopted in low-dimensional structures with arbitrary shape. Our results are consistent with those in the literature and should be helpful for studying and fabricating optoelectronic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hallenga, K.
1991-01-01
This paper discusses the concept of Fourier transformation one of the many precious legacies of the French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, essential for understanding the link between continuous-wave (CW) and Fourier transform (FT) NMR. Although in modern FT NMR the methods used to obtain a frequency spectrum from the time-domain signal may vary greatly, from the efficient Cooley-Tukey algorithm to very elaborate iterative least-square methods based other maximum entropy method or on linear prediction, the principles for Fourier transformation are unchanged and give invaluable insight into the interconnection of many pairs of physical entities called Fourier pairs
Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data
Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent
2010-11-23
Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.
Method for hull-less barley transformation and manipulation of grain mixed-linkage beta-glucan.
Lim, Wai Li; Collins, Helen M; Singh, Rohan R; Kibble, Natalie A J; Yap, Kuok; Taylor, Jillian; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A
2018-05-01
Hull-less barley is increasingly offering scope for breeding grains with improved characteristics for human nutrition; however, recalcitrance of hull-less cultivars to transformation has limited the use of these varieties. To overcome this limitation, we sought to develop an effective transformation system for hull-less barley using the cultivar Torrens. Torrens yielded a transformation efficiency of 1.8%, using a modified Agrobacterium transformation method. This method was used to over-express genes encoding synthases for the important dietary fiber component, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan), primarily present in starchy endosperm cell walls. Over-expression of the HvCslF6 gene, driven by an endosperm-specific promoter, produced lines where mixed-linkage glucan content increased on average by 45%, peaking at 70% in some lines, with smaller increases in transgenic HvCslH1 grain. Transgenic HvCslF6 lines displayed alterations where grain had a darker color, were more easily crushed than wild type and were smaller. This was associated with an enlarged cavity in the central endosperm and changes in cell morphology, including aleurone and sub-aleurone cells. This work provides proof-of-concept evidence that mixed-linkage glucan content in hull-less barley grain can be increased by over-expression of the HvCslF6 gene, but also indicates that hull-less cultivars may be more sensitive to attempts to modify cell wall composition. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Knezevic, David; Patera, Anthony T.; Huynh, Dinh Bao Phuong
2010-01-01
We present a certified reduced basis (RB) method for the heat equation and wave equation. The critical ingredients are certified RB approximation of the Laplace transform; the inverse Laplace transform to develop the time-domain RB output approximation and rigorous error bound; a (Butterworth) filter in time to effect the necessary “modal” truncation; RB eigenfunction decomposition and contour integration for Offline–Online decomposition. We present numerical results to demonstrate the accura...
Nanato, N.; Kobayashi, Y.
AC high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils have been developed for transformers, motors and so on. Quench detection and protection system are essential for safety operations of the AC HTS facilities. The balance voltage method is universally used for the quench detection and protection, however especially for AC operations, the method has risks in terms of high voltage sparks. Because the method needs a voltage tap soldered to a midpoint of the coil winding and the AC HTS facilities generally operate at high voltages and therefore high voltage sparks may occur at the midpoint with no insulation. We have proposed the active power method for the quench detection and protection. The method requires no voltage tap on the midpoint of the coil winding and therefore it has in-built effectiveness for the AC HTS facilities. In this paper, we show that the method can detect the quench in an HTS transformer and moreover our proposed quench protection circuits which consist of thyristors are simple and useful for the AC HTS facilities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torabi, Mohsen; Zhang, Kaili
2014-01-01
This article investigates the classical entropy generation in cooled slabs. Two types of materials are assumed for the slab: homogeneous material and FGM (functionally graded material). For the homogeneous material, the thermal conductivity is assumed to be a linear function of temperature, while for the FGM slab the thermal conductivity is modeled to vary in accordance with the rule of mixtures. The boundary conditions are assumed to be convective and radiative concurrently, and the internal heat generation of the slab is a linear function of temperature. Using the DTM (differential transformation method) and resultant temperature fields from the DTM, the local and total entropy generation rates within slabs are derived. The effects of physically applicable parameters such as the thermal conductivity parameter for the homogenous slab, β, the thermal conductivity parameter for the FGM slab, γ, gradient index, j, internal heat generation parameter, Q, Biot number at the right side, Nc 2 , conduction–radiation parameter, Nr 2 , dimensionless convection sink temperature, δ, and dimensionless radiation sink temperature, η, on the local and total entropy generation rates are illustrated and explained. The results demonstrate that considering temperature- or coordinate-dependent thermal conductivity and radiation heat transfer at both sides of the slab have great effects on the entropy generation. - Highlights: • The paper investigates entropy generation in a slab due to heat generation and convective–radiative boundary conditions. • Both homogeneous material and FGM (functionally graded material) were considered. • The calculations are carried out using the differential transformation method which is a well-tested analytical technique
A new method to determinate phase transformation in shape memory alloys: infrared thermography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bubulinca, C.; Balandraud, X.; Grediac, M.; Plaiasu, G. A.; Abrudeanu, M.; Stanciu, S.
2013-01-01
In this article it is presented a shape memory alloy case, based on copper, namely Cu-Zn-Al, which is subjected to periodic mechanical traction. Traction is performed in conditions of normal temperature and pressure. The purpose of this article it is to study stress induced phase transformation. All tests are performed in same conditions. Transformation on which is based this effect occurs in two ways: by applying a stress or temperature variation. In this article it is studied stress induced phase transformation. The method to analyze the microstructure of an shape memory alloy (SMA) is relatively new and it is based on tracking the evolution of temperature. After thermal analysis we can decide in which state is one alloy without any other supplier measures (differential scanning calorimetric or electrical resistivity). If our specimen will producing thermal energy when specimen is tensile he is austenitic. If absorbing heat during the first deformation is in martensitic state. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura M. Pereira
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The unique challenges posed by the Anthropocene require creative ways of engaging with the future and bringing about transformative change. Envisioning positive futures is a first step in creating a shared understanding and commitment that enables radical transformations toward sustainability in a world defined by complexity, diversity, and uncertainty. However, to create a transformative space in which truly unknowable futures can be explored, new experimental approaches are needed that go beyond merely extrapolating from the present into archetypal scenarios of the future. Here, we present a process of creative visioning where participatory methods and tools from the field of futures studies were combined in a novel way to create and facilitate a transformative space, with the aim of generating positive narrative visions for southern Africa. We convened a diverse group of participants in a workshop designed to develop radically different scenarios of good Anthropocenes, based on existing "seeds" of the future in the present. These seeds are innovative initiatives, practices, and ideas that are present in the world today, but are not currently widespread or dominant. As a result of a carefully facilitated process that encouraged a multiplicity of perspectives, creative immersion, and grappling with deeply held assumptions, four radical visions for southern Africa were produced. Although these futures are highly innovative and exploratory, they still link back to current real-world initiatives and contexts. The key learning that arose from this experience was the importance of the imagination for transformative thinking, the need to capitalize on diversity to push boundaries, and finally, the importance of creating a space that enables participants to engage with emotions, beliefs, and complexity. This method of engagement with the future has the potential to create transformative spaces that inspire and empower people to act toward positive
The Threat of Unexamined Secondary Data: A Critical Race Transformative Convergent Mixed Methods
Garcia, Nichole M.; Mayorga, Oscar J.
2018-01-01
This article uses a critical race theory framework to conceptualize a Critical Race Transformative Convergent Mixed Methods (CRTCMM) in education. CRTCMM is a methodology that challenges normative educational research practices by acknowledging that racism permeates educational institutions and marginalizes Communities of Color. The focus of this…
Design parameter based method of partial discharge detection and location in power transformers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kumar Santosh Annadurai
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Insulation defect detection in time ensures higher operational reliability of power system assets. Power transformers are the most critical unit of power systems both from economical and operational front. Hence it becomes necessary to have knowledge of the actual insulation condition of transformer to increase dependability of the system. The performance and ageing of the transformer insulation is mainly affected by Partial discharges (PD. Proper diagnosis in terms of amplitude and location of partial discharge in a power transformer enables us to predict well in advance, with much confidence, the defect in insulation system, which avoids large catastrophic failures. In this work a 20kVA, 230/50kV single phase core type transformer is used for evaluation of the transfer function-based partial discharge detection and location using modeling of the winding, using design data. The simulation of capturing on-line PD pulses across the bushing tap capacitor is done for various tap positions. Standard PD source model is used to inject PD pulse signal at 10 tap locations in the winding and corresponding response signatures are captured at the bushing tap end (across 1000pF. The equivalent high frequency model of the winding is derived from the design parameters using analytical calculations and simulations in packages such as MAGNET and ANSOFT. The test conditions are simulated using ORCAD-9 and the results are evaluated for location accuracy using design parameter based PD monitoring method. .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garratt, T.J.
1989-05-01
Compartment models for the transport of radionuclides in the biosphere are conventionally solved using a numerical time-stepping procedure. This report examines an alternative method based on the numerical inversion of Laplace transforms, which is potentially more efficient and accurate for some classes of problem. The central problem considered is the most efficient and robust technique for solving the Laplace-transformed rate equations. The conclusion is that Gaussian elimination is the most efficient and robust solution method. A general compartment model has been implemented on a personal computer and used to solve a realistic case including radionuclide decay chains. (author)
Research on Methods of Infrared and Color Image Fusion Based on Wavelet Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Rentao
2014-06-01
Full Text Available There is significant difference in the imaging features of infrared image and color image, but their fusion images also have very good complementary information. In this paper, based on the characteristics of infrared image and color image, first of all, wavelet transform is applied to the luminance component of the infrared image and color image. In multi resolution the relevant regional variance is regarded as the activity measure, relevant regional variance ratio as the matching measure, and the fusion image is enhanced in the process of integration, thus getting the fused images by final synthesis module and multi-resolution inverse transform. The experimental results show that the fusion image obtained by the method proposed in this paper is better than the other methods in keeping the useful information of the original infrared image and the color information of the original color image. In addition, the fusion image has stronger adaptability and better visual effect.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakuła Krzysztof
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The presented research concerns methods related to reduction of elevation data contained in digital terrain model (DTM from airborne laser scanning (ALS in hydraulic modelling. The reduction is necessary in the preparation of large datasets of geospatia l data describing terrain relief. Its course should not be associated with regular data filtering, which o ften occurs in practice. Such a method leads to a number of important forms important for hydraulic modeling being missed. One of the proposed solutions for the reduction of elevation data contained in DTM is to change the regular grid into the hybrid structure with regularly distributed points and irregularly located critical points. The purpose of this paper is to compare algorithms for extract ing these key points from DTM. They are used in hybrid model generation as a part of elevation data reduction process that retains DTM accuracy and reduces the size of output files. In experiments, the following algorithms were tested: Topographic Position Index (TPI, Very Important Points (VIP and Z - tolerance. Their effectiveness in reduction (maintaining the accuracy and reducing datasets was evaluated in respect to input DTM from ALS. The best results were obtained for the Z - tolerance algorithm, but t hey do not diminish the capabilities of the other two algorithms: VIP and TPI which can generalize DTM quite well. The results confirm the possibility of obtaining a high degr ee of reduction reaching only a few percent of the input data with a relatively l ow decrease of vertical DTM accuracy to a few centimetres. The presented paper was financed by the Foundation for Polish Science - research grant no. VENTURES/2012 - 9/1 from Innovative Economy program of the European Structural Funds.
Laplace transform homotopy perturbation method for the approximation of variational problems.
Filobello-Nino, U; Vazquez-Leal, H; Rashidi, M M; Sedighi, H M; Perez-Sesma, A; Sandoval-Hernandez, M; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Contreras-Hernandez, A D; Pereyra-Diaz, D; Hoyos-Reyes, C; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Huerta-Chua, J; Castro-Gonzalez, F; Laguna-Camacho, J R
2016-01-01
This article proposes the application of Laplace Transform-Homotopy Perturbation Method and some of its modifications in order to find analytical approximate solutions for the linear and nonlinear differential equations which arise from some variational problems. As case study we will solve four ordinary differential equations, and we will show that the proposed solutions have good accuracy, even we will obtain an exact solution. In the sequel, we will see that the square residual error for the approximate solutions, belongs to the interval [0.001918936920, 0.06334882582], which confirms the accuracy of the proposed methods, taking into account the complexity and difficulty of variational problems.
Improved sensitivity testing of explosives using transformed Up-Down methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Geoffrey W
2014-01-01
Sensitivity tests provide data that help establish guidelines for the safe handling of explosives. Any sensitivity test is based on assumptions to simplify the method or reduce the number of individual sample evaluations. Two common assumptions that are not typically checked after testing are 1) explosive response follows a normal distribution as a function of the applied stimulus levels and 2) the chosen test level spacing is close to the standard deviation of the explosive response function (for Bruceton Up-Down testing for example). These assumptions and other limitations of traditional explosive sensitivity testing can be addressed using Transformed Up-Down (TUD) test methods. TUD methods have been developed extensively for psychometric testing over the past 50 years and generally use multiple tests at a given level to determine how to adjust the applied stimulus. In the context of explosive sensitivity we can use TUD methods that concentrate testing around useful probability levels. Here, these methods are explained and compared to Bruceton Up-Down testing using computer simulation. The results show that the TUD methods are more useful for many cases but that they do require more tests as a consequence. For non-normal distributions, however, the TUD methods may be the only accurate assessment method.
Local non-similarity method through the Crocco's transformation in boundary layer problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardim, R.G.M.
1981-04-01
The coordinate transformation developed by L. Crocco to obtain the solution of the compressible fluid flows over isotermal flat plates is originally employed in the present work, with the purpose of adding its inherent advantage to the Non-Similarity Method idealized by E.M. Sparrow, in the solution of the incompressible non-similar boundary layers. The Crocco's transformation is applied to the conservation equation for forced convection, laminar, constant properties and two-dimensional flows over solids. Two non-similar problems arisen from freestream velocity distribution, the cylinder in crossflow and the Howarth's retarded flow, are solved with a view to illustrating the new procedure. In those solutions the effect of frictional heat is also considered. The results of hydrodynamic and thermal problems are compared with available published information and good agreement was observed. (Author) [pt
Scammon, Debra L; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Rachel L; Day, Julie; Kim, Jaewhan; Waitzman, Norman J; Farrell, Timothy W; Magill, Michael K
2013-12-01
To demonstrate the value of mixed methods in the study of practice transformation and illustrate procedures for connecting methods and for merging findings to enhance the meaning derived. An integrated network of university-owned, primary care practices at the University of Utah (Community Clinics or CCs). CC has adopted Care by Design, its version of the Patient Centered Medical Home. Convergent case study mixed methods design. Analysis of archival documents, internal operational reports, in-clinic observations, chart audits, surveys, semistructured interviews, focus groups, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services database, and the Utah All Payer Claims Database. Each data source enriched our understanding of the change process and understanding of reasons that certain changes were more difficult than others both in general and for particular clinics. Mixed methods enabled generation and testing of hypotheses about change and led to a comprehensive understanding of practice change. Mixed methods are useful in studying practice transformation. Challenges exist but can be overcome with careful planning and persistence. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Tripathi, Rajnee; Mishra, Hradyesh Kumar
2016-01-01
In this communication, we describe the Homotopy Perturbation Method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM), which is used to solve the Lane-Emden type differential equations. It's very difficult to solve numerically the Lane-Emden types of the differential equation. Here we implemented this method for two linear homogeneous, two linear nonhomogeneous, and four nonlinear homogeneous Lane-Emden type differential equations and use their appropriate comparisons with exact solutions. In the current study, some examples are better than other existing methods with their nearer results in the form of power series. The Laplace transform used to accelerate the convergence of power series and the results are shown in the tables and graphs which have good agreement with the other existing method in the literature. The results show that LT-HPM is very effective and easy to implement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, Jeppe
2014-01-01
A novel algorithm is introduced for the transformation of wave functions between the bases of Slater determinants (SD) and configuration state functions (CSF) in the genealogical coupling scheme. By modifying the expansion coefficients as each electron is spin-coupled, rather than performing a single many-electron transformation, the large transformation matrix that plagues previous approaches is avoided and the required number of operations is drastically reduced. As an example of the efficiency of the algorithm, the transformation for a configuration with 30 unpaired electrons and singlet spin is discussed. For this case, the 10 × 10 6 coefficients in the CSF basis is obtained from the 150 × 10 6 coefficients in the SD basis in 1 min, which should be compared with the seven years that the previously employed method is estimated to require
Fourier transforms principles and applications
Hansen, Eric W
2014-01-01
Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods. Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.
Scattering of the (p - 3H) system with the Lorentz integral transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchisio, M.A.; Leidemann, W.; Orlandini, G.; Barnea, N.
2003-01-01
It was shown how the Lorentz integral transform method (LIT), which in recent years has revealed to be a powerful tool in few-body calculations, can be applied to calculate the T matrix in (p- 3 H) scattering also for energies above the three-body breakup threshold. Refs. 7 (nevyjel)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaichian, M.; Kulish, P. P.
1978-04-01
Supersymmetric Liouville and sine-Gordon equations are studied. We write down for these models the system of linear equations for which the method of inverse scattering problem should be applicable. Expressions for an infinite set of conserved currents are explicitly given. Supersymmetric Baecklund transformations and generalized conservation laws are constructed. (author)
Clark, James E; Osborne, Jason W; Gallagher, Peter; Watson, Stuart
2016-07-01
Neuroendocrine data are typically positively skewed and rarely conform to the expectations of a Gaussian distribution. This can be a problem when attempting to analyse results within the framework of the general linear model, which relies on assumptions that residuals in the data are normally distributed. One frequently used method for handling violations of this assumption is to transform variables to bring residuals into closer alignment with assumptions (as residuals are not directly manipulated). This is often attempted through ad hoc traditional transformations such as square root, log and inverse. However, Box and Cox (Box & Cox, ) observed that these are all special cases of power transformations and proposed a more flexible method of transformation for researchers to optimise alignment with assumptions. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of the infinitely flexible Box-Cox transformation on neuroendocrine data using syntax in spss. When applied to positively skewed data typical of neuroendocrine data, the majority (~2/3) of cases were brought into strict alignment with Gaussian distribution (i.e. a non-significant Shapiro-Wilks test). Those unable to meet this challenge showed substantial improvement in distributional properties. The biggest challenge was distributions with a high ratio of kurtosis to skewness. We discuss how these cases might be handled, and we highlight some of the broader issues associated with transformation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Savoye, Philippe
2009-01-01
In recent years, I started covering difference equations and z transform methods in my introductory differential equations course. This allowed my students to extend the "classical" methods for (ordinary differential equation) ODE's to discrete time problems arising in many applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marek Danielewski
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of Kirkendall’s trajectories in finite, three- and one-dimensional ternary diffusion couples is studied. By means of the parabolic transformation method, we calculate the solute field, the Kirkendall marker velocity, and displacement fields. The velocity field is generally continuous and can be integrated to obtain a displacement field that is continuous everywhere. Special features observed experimentally and reported in the literature are also studied: (i multiple Kirkendall’s planes where markers placed on an initial compositional discontinuity of the diffusion couple evolve into two locations as a result of the initial distribution, (ii multiple Kirkendall’s planes where markers placed on an initial compositional discontinuity of the diffusion couple move into two locations due to composition dependent mobilities, and (iii a Kirkendall plane that coincides with the interphase interface. The details of the deformation (material trajectories in these special situations are given using both methods and are discussed in terms of the stress-free strain rate associated with the Kirkendall effect. Our nonlinear transform generalizes the diagonalization method by Krishtal, Mokrov, Akimov, and Zakharov, whose transform of diffusivities was linear.
Aune, Trond Erik Vee; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund
2010-02-01
Methods for transfer of exogenous DNA into cells are essential for genetics and molecular biology, and the lack of effective methods hampers research on many different species of bacteria which have shown to be particularly recalcitrant to transformation. This review presents the progress on the development of methods for artificial transformation of bacteria with emphasis on different methodologies and the range of bacteria that can be transformed. The methods' strengths and weaknesses are described.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christian, J.; Feser, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieuebertragung und Hochspannungstechnik; Leibfried, T. [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany). Geschaeftsgebiet Leistungstransformatoren; Jaeggi, F. [Aare-Tessin AG fuer Elektrizitaet, Olten (Switzerland)
1999-03-22
A short circuit test according to IEC 76-5 was performed on a 125 MVA, 245 kV/53 kV power transformer from the Siemens factory in Nuremberg at the Kema high power laboratory (Arnhem, Netherlands) in March 1997. Thereby, the transfer function method was examined as an additional method for evaluating the short-circuit test. The visual inspection of the transformer after returning to the Nuremberg factory carried out by engineers from Atel and Siemens and representatives of Kema showed no changes of the core and coil assembly. At the Flumenthal substation a second transformer of the same type was installed. Before commissioning, the transfer functions of both transformers have been measured. These measurements provide essential information concerning the comparability of measurements from different transformers and are the basis for measurements to be carried out in the future. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Maerz 1997 wurde ein 125-MVA-Leistungstranformator aus dem Siemens Transformatorenwerk Nuernberg im Hochleistungslabor der Kema, Arnheim einer Stosskurzschlusspruefung unterzogen. Dabei wurde die Analyse der Uebertragungsfunktion des Transformators als zusaetzliche Methode zur Beurteilung der Stosskurzschlusspruefung untersucht. Der Aktivteil wurde danach im Herstellerwerk begutachtet. Dabei ergaben sich keine Beanstandungen. Im Umspannwerk Flumenthal wurde ein zweiter baugleicher Transformator installiert. Vor der Inbetriebnahme wurden zusaetzliche Vergleichsmessungen an den zwei baugleichen Transformatoren durchgefuehrt. (orig.)
A coordinate transform method for one-speed neutron transport in composite slabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haidar, N.H.S.
1988-01-01
The optical path transformation is applied to reduce the one-speed neutron transport equation for a class of composite subcritical slabs to single-region problems. The class idealises, within the uncertainty of the one-speed model, a variety of practical situations such as U-D 2 O-C-Zr-Pb or Pu-U-Na-Fe symmetric reactor assemblies; which may possibly contain a symmetrically anisotropic neutron source. A closed form double series solution, which turns out to be quite convenient for design and optimisation purposes, has been obtained, in terms of discontinuous functions for the multi-regional angular flux by application of a double finite Legendre transform. Disadvantage factor evaluations for a U-C lattice cell resulting from a low-order P 0 P 1 approximation of this method are found to be in full agreement with hybrid diffusion-transport estimates. (author)
[A method for genetic transformation of maize for resistance to viral diseases].
Valdez, Marta; Madriz, Kenneth; Ramírez, Pilar
2004-09-01
A system for the genetic transformation of maize was developed for two Costa Rican varieties: CR-7 and Diamantes 8843, that can allow the subsequent transfer of viral-derived genes in order to confer resistance to the disease caused by maize rayado fino virus (MRFV). The method is based on particle bombardment of organogenic calli derived from shoot tips. On the other hand, the molecular construction pRFcp-bar, containing the coat protein gene of MRFV and the marker gene bar, was elaborated. For the visual selection of the transformed material was used also the plasmid pDM803 that contains the reporter gene uidA (GUS). The results indicate that devices evaluated: the PIG ("Particle Inflow Gun") and the Bio-Rad are both enough efficient to transfer foreign genes to the genome of the maize.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bang, Jeongho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seokwon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the 'genetic parameter vector' of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.
Duitman, Erwin H.; Wyczawski, Dobek; Boven, Ludolf G.; Venema, Gerard; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Hamoen, Leendert W.
Natural isolates of Bacillus subtilis are often difficult to transform due to their low genetic competence levels. Here we describe two methods that stimulate natural transformation. The first method uses plasmid pGSP12, which expresses the competence transcription factor ComK and stimulates
An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers
Ahmet Y. Arabul; Ibrahim Senol; Fatma Keskin Arabul; Mustafa G. Aydeniz; Yasemin Oner; Gokhan Kalkan
2016-01-01
In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which ar...
The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harbo, Anders La-Cour
2003-01-01
A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, symmetric transform, the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generating large sets...... of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torabi, Mohsen; Zhang, Kaili
2015-01-01
Highlights: • First and second laws of thermodynamics have been investigated in a composite wall. • Convective–radiative heat transfer is assumed on both surfaces. • Optimum interface location is calculated to minimize the total entropy generation rate. • Thermal conductivities ratio has great effects on the temperature and entropy generation. - Abstract: Composite geometries have numerous applications in industry and scientific researches. This work investigates the temperature distribution, and local and total entropy generation rates within two-layer composite walls using conjugate convection and radiation boundary conditions. Thermal conductivities of the materials of walls are assumed temperature-dependent. Temperature-dependent internal heat generations are also incorporated into the modeling. The differential transformation method (DTM) is used as an analytical technique to tackle the highly nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations. Thereafter, the local and total entropy generation rates are calculated using the DTM formulated temperature distribution. An exact analytical solution, for the temperature-independent model without radiation effect, is also derived. The correctness and accuracy of the DTM solution are checked against the exact solution. After verification, effects of thermophysical parameters such as location of the interface, convection–conduction parameters, radiation–conduction parameters, and internal heat generations, on the temperature distribution, and both local and total entropy generation rates are examined. To deliver the minimum total entropy generation rate, optimum values for some parameters are also found. Since composite walls are widely used in many fields, the abovementioned investigation is a beneficial tool for many engineering industries and scientific fields to minimize the entropy generation, which is the exergy destruction, of the system
Characterization of filter cartridges from the IEA-R1 reactor by radiochemical method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geraldo, Bianca; Vicente, Roberto; Ferreira, Robson J.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T.
2015-01-01
The filter cartridges used in water purification system of research nuclear reactor IEA-R1 are considered radioactive wastes after their useful life. The characterization of these wastes is one of the stages of management, which aims to identify and quantify the radionuclides present, including those known as 'difficult to measure' (DTM) radionuclides. Establish a radiochemical analysis methodology for this type of waste is a difficult job, not only by the application of these techniques, but also by the amount of radionuclides that should be analyzed. In the waste produced in a nuclear reactor, the most important radionuclides are fission products, activation products and transuranic elements. Since these radionuclides emit gamma radiation not measurable in its decay process and consequently are difficult to measure, their concentrations can be estimated by indirect methods such as scale factors. This method is used to evaluate the DTM concentration, which is represented by alpha and beta nuclides using the correlation between them and the radionuclide key, a gamma emitter. The objective of this work is to describe a radiochemical analysis methodology for gamma emitter nuclides, present in the filter cartridges, evaluating the activity and concentrations by destructive assays. At the same time, two studies have been performed by non-destructive assays, the first one based on dose rates and the point kernel method to correlate the results and the second one based on calibration efficiency with Monte Carlo method. These studies belong to the radioactive waste characterization program that has been conducted at the Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)
Characterization of filter cartridges from the IEA-R1 reactor by radiochemical method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geraldo, Bianca; Vicente, Roberto; Ferreira, Robson J.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: bgeraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2015-07-01
The filter cartridges used in water purification system of research nuclear reactor IEA-R1 are considered radioactive wastes after their useful life. The characterization of these wastes is one of the stages of management, which aims to identify and quantify the radionuclides present, including those known as 'difficult to measure' (DTM) radionuclides. Establish a radiochemical analysis methodology for this type of waste is a difficult job, not only by the application of these techniques, but also by the amount of radionuclides that should be analyzed. In the waste produced in a nuclear reactor, the most important radionuclides are fission products, activation products and transuranic elements. Since these radionuclides emit gamma radiation not measurable in its decay process and consequently are difficult to measure, their concentrations can be estimated by indirect methods such as scale factors. This method is used to evaluate the DTM concentration, which is represented by alpha and beta nuclides using the correlation between them and the radionuclide key, a gamma emitter. The objective of this work is to describe a radiochemical analysis methodology for gamma emitter nuclides, present in the filter cartridges, evaluating the activity and concentrations by destructive assays. At the same time, two studies have been performed by non-destructive assays, the first one based on dose rates and the point kernel method to correlate the results and the second one based on calibration efficiency with Monte Carlo method. These studies belong to the radioactive waste characterization program that has been conducted at the Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)
Zhang, B.; Sang, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.
2013-03-01
An image hiding method based on cascaded iterative Fourier transform and public-key encryption algorithm was proposed. Firstly, the original secret image was encrypted into two phase-only masks M1 and M2 via cascaded iterative Fourier transform (CIFT) algorithm. Then, the public-key encryption algorithm RSA was adopted to encrypt M2 into M2' . Finally, a host image was enlarged by extending one pixel into 2×2 pixels and each element in M1 and M2' was multiplied with a superimposition coefficient and added to or subtracted from two different elements in the 2×2 pixels of the enlarged host image. To recover the secret image from the stego-image, the two masks were extracted from the stego-image without the original host image. By applying public-key encryption algorithm, the key distribution was facilitated, and also compared with the image hiding method based on optical interference, the proposed method may reach higher robustness by employing the characteristics of the CIFT algorithm. Computer simulations show that this method has good robustness against image processing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clodualdo Aranas
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The double differentiation method overestimates the critical stress associated with the initiation of dynamic transformation (DT because significant amounts of the dynamic phase must be present in order for its effect on the work hardening rate to be detectable. In this work, an alternative method (referred to here as the free energy method is presented based on the thermodynamic condition that the driving force is equal to the total energy obstacle during the exact moment of transformation. The driving force is defined as the difference between the DT critical stress (measured in the single-phase austenite region and the yield stress of the fresh ferrite that takes its place. On the other hand, the energy obstacle consists of the free energy difference between austenite and ferrite, and the work of shear accommodation and dilatation associated with the phase transformation. Here, the DT critical stresses in a C-Mn steel were calculated using the free energy method at temperatures ranging from 870 °C to 1070 °C. The results show that the calculated critical stress using the present approach appears to be more accurate than the values measured by the double differentiation method.
Schröder, Markus; Meyer, Hans-Dieter
2017-08-01
We propose a Monte Carlo method, "Monte Carlo Potfit," for transforming high-dimensional potential energy surfaces evaluated on discrete grid points into a sum-of-products form, more precisely into a Tucker form. To this end we use a variational ansatz in which we replace numerically exact integrals with Monte Carlo integrals. This largely reduces the numerical cost by avoiding the evaluation of the potential on all grid points and allows a treatment of surfaces up to 15-18 degrees of freedom. We furthermore show that the error made with this ansatz can be controlled and vanishes in certain limits. We present calculations on the potential of HFCO to demonstrate the features of the algorithm. To demonstrate the power of the method, we transformed a 15D potential of the protonated water dimer (Zundel cation) in a sum-of-products form and calculated the ground and lowest 26 vibrationally excited states of the Zundel cation with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method.
Zhang, Yu-xin; Cheng, Zhi-feng; Xu, Zheng-ping; Bai, Jing
2015-01-01
In order to solve the problems such as complex operation, consumption for the carrier gas and long test period in traditional power transformer fault diagnosis approach based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA), this paper proposes a new method which is detecting 5 types of characteristic gas content in transformer oil such as CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6 and H2 based on photoacoustic Spectroscopy and C2H2/C2H4, CH4/H2, C2H4/C2H6 three-ratios data are calculated. The support vector machine model was constructed using cross validation method under five support vector machine functions and four kernel functions, heuristic algorithms were used in parameter optimization for penalty factor c and g, which to establish the best SVM model for the highest fault diagnosis accuracy and the fast computing speed. Particles swarm optimization and genetic algorithm two types of heuristic algorithms were comparative studied in this paper for accuracy and speed in optimization. The simulation result shows that SVM model composed of C-SVC, RBF kernel functions and genetic algorithm obtain 97. 5% accuracy in test sample set and 98. 333 3% accuracy in train sample set, and genetic algorithm was about two times faster than particles swarm optimization in computing speed. The methods described in this paper has many advantages such as simple operation, non-contact measurement, no consumption for the carrier gas, long test period, high stability and sensitivity, the result shows that the methods described in this paper can instead of the traditional transformer fault diagnosis by gas chromatography and meets the actual project needs in transformer fault diagnosis.
The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harbo, Anders La-Cour
2003-01-01
A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, and symmetric transform given as the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generatin...... large sets of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....
Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation
Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.
2009-07-01
Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Zhan; Li, Zhiguang; Jin, Long
2017-01-01
This paper proposes an ac resistance optimization method applicable for both inductor and transformer windings with full layers and partial layers. The proposed method treats the number of layers of the windings as a design variable instead of as a predefined parameter, compared to existing methods...
Barforoush, M. S. M.; Saedodin, S.
2018-01-01
This article investigates the thermal performance of convective-radiative annular fins with a step reduction in local cross section (SRC). The thermal conductivity of the fin's material is assumed to be a linear function of temperature, and heat transfer coefficient is assumed to be a power-law function of surface temperature. Moreover, nonzero convection and radiation sink temperatures are included in the mathematical model of the energy equation. The well-known differential transformation method (DTM) is used to derive the analytical solution. An exact analytical solution for a special case is derived to prove the validity of the obtained results from the DTM. The model provided here is a more realistic representation of SRC annular fins in actual engineering practices. Effects of many parameters such as conduction-convection parameters, conduction-radiation parameter and sink temperature, and also some parameters which deal with step fins such as thickness parameter and dimensionless parameter describing the position of junction in the fin on the temperature distribution of both thin and thick sections of the fin are investigated. It is believed that the obtained results will facilitate the design and performance evaluation of SRC annular fins.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Pia
2012-01-01
Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...
A time-dependent semiclassical wavepacket method using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauss, J.; Heller, E.J.
1991-01-01
A new semiclassical propagator based on a local expansion of the potential up to second order around the moving center of the wavepackt is proposed. Formulas for the propagator are derived and the implementation using grid and fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods is discussed. The semiclassical propagator can be improved up to the exact quantum mechanical limit by including anharmonic corrections using a split operator approach. Preliminary applications to the CH 3 I photodissociation problem show the applicability and accuracy of the proposed method. (orig.)D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, X.; Metz, C.E.
1995-01-01
A general approach that the authors proposed elsewhere reveals the intrinsic relationship among methods for inversion of the 2-D exponential Radon transform described by Bellini et al., by Tretiak and Metz, by Hawkins et al., and by Inouye et al. Moreover, the approach provides an infinite class of linear methods for inverting the 2-D exponential Radon transform. In the work reported here, they systematically investigated the noise characteristics of the methods in this class, obtaining analytical forms for the autocovariance and the variance of the images reconstructed by use of various methods. The noise properties of a new quasi-optimal method were then compared theoretically to those of other methods of the class. The analysis demonstrates that the quasi-optimal method achieves smaller global variance in the reconstructed images than do the other methods of the class. Extensive numerical simulation studies confirm this prediction
Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4
Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.
2015-01-01
This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..
3-D spherical harmonics code FFT3 by the finite Fourier transformation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, K.
1997-01-01
In the odd order spherical harmonics method, the rigorous boundary condition at the material interfaces is that the even moments of the angular flux and the normal components of the even order moments of current vectors must be continuous. However, it is difficult to derive spatial discretized equations by the finite difference or finite element methods, which satisfy this material interface condition. It is shown that using the finite Fourier transformation method, space discretized equations which satisfy this interface condition can be easily derived. The discrepancies of the flux distribution near void region between spherical harmonics method codes may be due to the difference of application of the material interface condition. (author)
Zhou, Yu; Wang, Tianyi; Dai, Bing; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Wei; You, Chengwu; Wang, Kejia; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Shenglie; Yang, Zhengang
2018-02-01
Inspired by the extensive application of terahertz (THz) imaging technologies in the field of aerospace, we exploit a THz frequency modulated continuous-wave imaging method with continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm to detect a multilayer heat shield made of special materials. This method uses the frequency modulation continuous-wave system to catch the reflected THz signal and then process the image data by the CWT with different basis functions. By calculating the sizes of the defects area in the final images and then comparing the results with real samples, a practical high-precision THz imaging method is demonstrated. Our method can be an effective tool for the THz nondestructive testing of composites, drugs, and some cultural heritages.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Schrod, Nikolas; Schaffer, Miroslava; Feng, Li Rebekah; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Lucic, Vladan
2014-01-01
Correlative microscopy allows imaging of the same feature over multiple length scales, combining light microscopy with high resolution information provided by electron microscopy. We demonstrate two procedures for coordinate transformation based correlative microscopy of vitrified biological samples applicable to different imaging modes. The first procedure aims at navigating cryo-electron tomography to cellular regions identified by fluorescent labels. The second procedure, allowing navigation of focused ion beam milling to fluorescently labeled molecules, is based on the introduction of an intermediate scanning electron microscopy imaging step to overcome the large difference between cryo-light microscopy and focused ion beam imaging modes. These methods make it possible to image fluorescently labeled macromolecular complexes in their natural environments by cryo-electron tomography, while minimizing exposure to the electron beam during the search for features of interest. - Highlights: • Correlative light microscopy and focused ion beam milling of vitrified samples. • Coordinate transformation based cryo-correlative method. • Improved correlative light microscopy and cryo-electron tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garratt, T.J.
1989-05-01
Safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal require efficient computer models for the important processes. The present paper is based on an efficient computational technique which can be used to solve a wide variety of safety assessment models. It involves the numerical inversion of analytical solutions to the Laplace-transformed differential equations using a method proposed by Talbot. This method has been implemented on a personal computer in a user-friendly manner. The steps required to implement a particular transform and run the program are outlined. Four examples are described which illustrate the flexibility, accuracy and efficiency of the program. The improvements in computational efficiency described in this paper have application to the probabilistic safety assessment codes ESCORT and MASCOT which are currently under development. Also, it is hoped that the present work will form the basis of software for personal computers which could be used to demonstrate safety assessment procedures to a wide audience. (author)
Optimal PMU placement using topology transformation method in power systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadia H.A. Rahman
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs placement involves the process of minimizing the number of PMUs needed while ensuring the entire power system completely observable. A power system is identified observable when the voltages of all buses in the power system are known. This paper proposes selection rules for topology transformation method that involves a merging process of zero-injection bus with one of its neighbors. The result from the merging process is influenced by the selection of bus selected to merge with the zero-injection bus. The proposed method will determine the best candidate bus to merge with zero-injection bus according to the three rules created in order to determine the minimum number of PMUs required for full observability of the power system. In addition, this paper also considered the case of power flow measurements. The problem is formulated as integer linear programming (ILP. The simulation for the proposed method is tested by using MATLAB for different IEEE bus systems. The explanation of the proposed method is demonstrated by using IEEE 14-bus system. The results obtained in this paper proved the effectiveness of the proposed method since the number of PMUs obtained is comparable with other available techniques.
Optimal PMU placement using topology transformation method in power systems.
Rahman, Nadia H A; Zobaa, Ahmed F
2016-09-01
Optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement involves the process of minimizing the number of PMUs needed while ensuring the entire power system completely observable. A power system is identified observable when the voltages of all buses in the power system are known. This paper proposes selection rules for topology transformation method that involves a merging process of zero-injection bus with one of its neighbors. The result from the merging process is influenced by the selection of bus selected to merge with the zero-injection bus. The proposed method will determine the best candidate bus to merge with zero-injection bus according to the three rules created in order to determine the minimum number of PMUs required for full observability of the power system. In addition, this paper also considered the case of power flow measurements. The problem is formulated as integer linear programming (ILP). The simulation for the proposed method is tested by using MATLAB for different IEEE bus systems. The explanation of the proposed method is demonstrated by using IEEE 14-bus system. The results obtained in this paper proved the effectiveness of the proposed method since the number of PMUs obtained is comparable with other available techniques.
[An automatic peak detection method for LIBS spectrum based on continuous wavelet transform].
Chen, Peng-Fei; Tian, Di; Qiao, Shu-Jun; Yang, Guang
2014-07-01
Spectrum peak detection in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an essential step, but the presence of background and noise seriously disturb the accuracy of peak position. The present paper proposed a method applied to automatic peak detection for LIBS spectrum in order to enhance the ability of overlapping peaks searching and adaptivity. We introduced the ridge peak detection method based on continuous wavelet transform to LIBS, and discussed the choice of the mother wavelet and optimized the scale factor and the shift factor. This method also improved the ridge peak detection method with a correcting ridge method. The experimental results show that compared with other peak detection methods (the direct comparison method, derivative method and ridge peak search method), our method had a significant advantage on the ability to distinguish overlapping peaks and the precision of peak detection, and could be be applied to data processing in LIBS.
Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van
1988-01-01
A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Helong; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a novel current measurement method with Silicon Steel Current Transformer (SSCT) for the characterization of fast switching power semiconductors. First, the existing current sensors for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors are experimentally evaluated...
Bekkouche, Toufik; Bouguezel, Saad
2018-03-01
We propose a real-to-real image encryption method. It is a double random amplitude encryption method based on the parametric discrete Fourier transform coupled with chaotic maps to perform the scrambling. The main idea behind this method is the introduction of a complex-to-real conversion by exploiting the inherent symmetry property of the transform in the case of real-valued sequences. This conversion allows the encrypted image to be real-valued instead of being a complex-valued image as in all existing double random phase encryption methods. The advantage is to store or transmit only one image instead of two images (real and imaginary parts). Computer simulation results and comparisons with the existing double random amplitude encryption methods are provided for peak signal-to-noise ratio, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis, and key sensitivity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pang Fubin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the origin problem of data synchronization is analyzed first, and then three common interpolation methods are introduced to solve the problem. Allowing for the most general situation, the paper divides the interpolation error into harmonic and transient interpolation error components, and the error expression of each method is derived and analyzed. Besides, the interpolation errors of linear, quadratic and cubic methods are computed at different sampling rates, harmonic orders and transient components. Further, the interpolation accuracy and calculation amount of each method are compared. The research results provide theoretical guidance for selecting the interpolation method in the data synchronization application of electronic transformer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spriet, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1966-06-01
The allotropic transformations in plutonium have been studied by different methods: metallography, dilatometry, thermal analysis, resistivity measurements, examination with a hot stage microscope. In order to study the importance of the purity, purification process such as zone-melting or electro-diffusion have been developed. The characteristics of the {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} transformation can be explained in terms of the influence of internal stresses on the transition temperature and on the transformation kinetics. Some particular characteristics of {delta} {yields} {gamma}, {gamma} {yields} {alpha}, {delta} {r_reversible} {epsilon}, {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} and {delta} {yields} {alpha} transformations are also given. (author) [French] Les transformations, allotropiques du plutonium ont ete etudiees a l'aide de differentes methodes: metallographie, dilatometrie, analyse thermique, mesure de resistivite, examen au microscope a platine chauffante. Pour preciser l'influence de la purete, des procedes de purification comme la fusion de zone ou l'electrodiffusion ont ete mis au point. Les caracteres de la transformation {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} s'expliquent par le role des contraintes internes sur la temperature de transition et la cinetique de transformation. Quelques particularites des transformations {delta} {yields} {gamma}, {gamma} {yields} {alpha}, {delta} {r_reversible} {epsilon}, {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} et {delta} {yields} {alpha} sont egalement presentees. (auteur)
Comparing transformation methods for DNA microarray data
Thygesen, Helene H.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.
2004-01-01
Background: When DNA microarray data are used for gene clustering, genotype/phenotype correlation studies, or tissue classification the signal intensities are usually transformed and normalized in several steps in order to improve comparability and signal/noise ratio. These steps may include
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Jafari
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The non-differentiable solution of the linear and non-linear partial differential equations on Cantor sets is implemented in this article. The reduced differential transform method is considered in the local fractional operator sense. The four illustrative examples are given to show the efficiency and accuracy features of the presented technique to solve local fractional partial differential equations.
Exact and approximate interior corner problem in neutron diffusion by integral transform methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bareiss, E.H.; Chang, K.S.J.; Constatinescu, D.A.
1976-09-01
The mathematical solution of the neutron diffusion equation exhibits singularities in its derivatives at material corners. A mathematical treatment of the nature of these singularities and its impact on coarse network approximation methods in computational work is presented. The mathematical behavior is deduced from Green's functions, based on a generalized theory for two space dimensions, and the resulting systems of integral equations, as well as from the Kontorovich--Lebedev Transform. The effect on numerical calculations is demonstrated for finite difference and finite element methods for a two-region corner problem
Butler, Brandon M.; Suh, Yonghee; Scott, Wendy
2015-01-01
In this article, the authors investigate the extent to which 9 elementary social studies methods textbooks present the purpose of teaching and learning social studies. Using Stanley's three perspectives of teaching social studies for knowledge transmission, method of intelligence, and social transformation; we analyze how these texts prepare…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin; Wang, Huaixi; Li, Chuanwei; Wu, Lifu; Liu, Zhanwei
2014-01-01
The geometric phase analysis (GPA) method based on the local high resolution discrete Fourier transform (LHR-DFT) for deformation measurement, defined as LHR-DFT GPA, is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy. In the general GPA method, the fundamental frequency of the image plays a crucial role. However, the fast Fourier transform, which is generally employed in the general GPA method, could make it difficult to locate the fundamental frequency accurately when the fundamental frequency is not located at an integer pixel position in the Fourier spectrum. This study focuses on this issue and presents a LHR-DFT algorithm that can locate the fundamental frequency with sub-pixel precision in a specific frequency region for the GPA method. An error analysis is offered and simulation is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method; both results show that the LHR-DFT algorithm can accurately locate the fundamental frequency and improve the measurement accuracy of the GPA method. Furthermore, typical tensile and bending tests are carried out and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. (paper)
Transformation of 3-chloroallyl alcohol in water-saturated subsoil studied with a column method
Beltman, W.H.J.; Leistra, M.; Matser, A.M.
1996-01-01
The performance of a newly developed column method for pesticide transformation rate measurements in the subsoil was tested using (Z)- and (E)-3-chloroallyl alcohol as model compounds. The subsoil columns were filled in situ. In the column experiment the half-life ranged from 0.5-5.2 d for
Method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography using the Anscombe transformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, Lucas R., E-mail: lucas.rodrigues.borges@usp.br; Oliveira, Helder C. R. de; Nunes, Polyana F.; Vieira, Marcelo A. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, 400 Trabalhador São-Carlense Avenue, São Carlos 13566-590 (Brazil); Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: This work proposes an accurate method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography starting from a clinical image acquired with a standard dose. Methods: The method developed in this work consists of scaling a mammogram acquired at the standard radiation dose and adding signal-dependent noise. The algorithm accounts for specific issues relevant in digital mammography images, such as anisotropic noise, spatial variations in pixel gain, and the effect of dose reduction on the detective quantum efficiency. The scaling process takes into account the linearity of the system and the offset of the detector elements. The inserted noise is obtained by acquiring images of a flat-field phantom at the standard radiation dose and at the simulated dose. Using the Anscombe transformation, a relationship is created between the calculated noise mask and the scaled image, resulting in a clinical mammogram with the same noise and gray level characteristics as an image acquired at the lower-radiation dose. Results: The performance of the proposed algorithm was validated using real images acquired with an anthropomorphic breast phantom at four different doses, with five exposures for each dose and 256 nonoverlapping ROIs extracted from each image and with uniform images. The authors simulated lower-dose images and compared these with the real images. The authors evaluated the similarity between the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and power spectrum (PS) of simulated images and real images acquired with the same dose. The maximum relative error was less than 2.5% for every ROI. The added noise was also evaluated by measuring the local variance in the real and simulated images. The relative average error for the local variance was smaller than 1%. Conclusions: A new method is proposed for simulating dose reduction in clinical mammograms. In this method, the dependency between image noise and image signal is addressed using a novel application of the Anscombe
Method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography using the Anscombe transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, Lucas R.; Oliveira, Helder C. R. de; Nunes, Polyana F.; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.
2016-01-01
Purpose: This work proposes an accurate method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography starting from a clinical image acquired with a standard dose. Methods: The method developed in this work consists of scaling a mammogram acquired at the standard radiation dose and adding signal-dependent noise. The algorithm accounts for specific issues relevant in digital mammography images, such as anisotropic noise, spatial variations in pixel gain, and the effect of dose reduction on the detective quantum efficiency. The scaling process takes into account the linearity of the system and the offset of the detector elements. The inserted noise is obtained by acquiring images of a flat-field phantom at the standard radiation dose and at the simulated dose. Using the Anscombe transformation, a relationship is created between the calculated noise mask and the scaled image, resulting in a clinical mammogram with the same noise and gray level characteristics as an image acquired at the lower-radiation dose. Results: The performance of the proposed algorithm was validated using real images acquired with an anthropomorphic breast phantom at four different doses, with five exposures for each dose and 256 nonoverlapping ROIs extracted from each image and with uniform images. The authors simulated lower-dose images and compared these with the real images. The authors evaluated the similarity between the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and power spectrum (PS) of simulated images and real images acquired with the same dose. The maximum relative error was less than 2.5% for every ROI. The added noise was also evaluated by measuring the local variance in the real and simulated images. The relative average error for the local variance was smaller than 1%. Conclusions: A new method is proposed for simulating dose reduction in clinical mammograms. In this method, the dependency between image noise and image signal is addressed using a novel application of the Anscombe
Quantized Bogoliubov transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geyer, H.B.
1984-01-01
The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination
Scaling factors for the activity determination of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.
2007-01-01
Specific information of the total activity and activity concentration of the radionuclides contained is required for conditioning, transporting and final disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the complexity associated to alpha and beta measurements for these emitters it is worldwide used, particularly in the case of heterogeneous radioactive waste, the Scaling Factor Method. As in other cases, inputs of the results of the analysis of waste samples taking from waste streams are necessary. The Scaling Factor Method is based on the determination of averaged correlations between the activity concentrations of Difficult to Measure (DTM) nuclides (i.e. alpha and beta emitters) and the activity concentration of easy to measure nuclides (i.e. strong gamma emitters) called Key Nuclides (KN). In the application of this method two phases may be identified: in the first one the degree of correlation between averaged activities of DTM and a given KN is verified, and specific Scaling Factors are derived for every DTM radionuclide. In the second stage the total activity and the activity concentration of the selected KN is determined in each waste item and, by applying the SFs obtained previously, the activities of DTM nuclides are calculated. It is concluded that this method is appropriate and cost-effective and it is stressed that it is only applicable while the Nuclear Power Reactor is in operation. (author)
Marotta, G. S.
2017-12-01
Currently, there are several methods to determine geoid models. They can be based on terrestrial gravity data, geopotential coefficients, astrogeodetic data or a combination of them. Among the techniques to compute a precise geoid model, the Remove Compute Restore (RCR) has been widely applied. It considers short, medium and long wavelengths derived from altitude data provided by Digital Terrain Models (DTM), terrestrial gravity data and Global Geopotential Model (GGM), respectively. In order to apply this technique, it is necessary to create procedures that compute gravity anomalies and geoid models, by the integration of different wavelengths, and adjust these models to one local vertical datum. This research presents the advances on the package called GRAVTool to compute geoid models path by the RCR, following Helmert's condensation method, and its application in a study area. The studied area comprehends the federal district of Brazil, with 6000 km², wavy relief, heights varying from 600 m to 1340 m, located between the coordinates 48.25ºW, 15.45ºS and 47.33ºW, 16.06ºS. The results of the numerical example on the studied area show a geoid model computed by the GRAVTool package, after analysis of the density, DTM and GGM values, more adequate to the reference values used on the study area. The accuracy of the computed model (σ = ± 0.058 m, RMS = 0.067 m, maximum = 0.124 m and minimum = -0.155 m), using density value of 2.702 g/cm³ ±0.024 g/cm³, DTM SRTM Void Filled 3 arc-second and GGM EIGEN-6C4 up to degree and order 250, matches the uncertainty (σ =± 0.073) of 26 points randomly spaced where the geoid was computed by geometrical leveling technique supported by positioning GNSS. The results were also better than those achieved by Brazilian official regional geoid model (σ = ± 0.076 m, RMS = 0.098 m, maximum = 0.320 m and minimum = -0.061 m).
Test-driven verification/validation of model transformations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
László LENGYEL; Hassan CHARAF
2015-01-01
Why is it important to verify/validate model transformations? The motivation is to improve the quality of the trans-formations, and therefore the quality of the generated software artifacts. Verified/validated model transformations make it possible to ensure certain properties of the generated software artifacts. In this way, verification/validation methods can guarantee different requirements stated by the actual domain against the generated/modified/optimized software products. For example, a verified/ validated model transformation can ensure the preservation of certain properties during the model-to-model transformation. This paper emphasizes the necessity of methods that make model transformation verified/validated, discusses the different scenarios of model transformation verification and validation, and introduces the principles of a novel test-driven method for verifying/ validating model transformations. We provide a solution that makes it possible to automatically generate test input models for model transformations. Furthermore, we collect and discuss the actual open issues in the field of verification/validation of model transformations.
Liao, Qinzhuo; Zhang, Dongxiao; Tchelepi, Hamdi
2017-06-01
In numerical modeling of subsurface flow and transport problems, formation properties may not be deterministically characterized, which leads to uncertainty in simulation results. In this study, we propose a sparse grid collocation method, which adopts nested quadrature rules with delay and transformation to quantify the uncertainty of model solutions. We show that the nested Kronrod-Patterson-Hermite quadrature is more efficient than the unnested Gauss-Hermite quadrature. We compare the convergence rates of various quadrature rules including the domain truncation and domain mapping approaches. To further improve accuracy and efficiency, we present a delayed process in selecting quadrature nodes and a transformed process for approximating unsmooth or discontinuous solutions. The proposed method is tested by an analytical function and in one-dimensional single-phase and two-phase flow problems with different spatial variances and correlation lengths. An additional example is given to demonstrate its applicability to three-dimensional black-oil models. It is found from these examples that the proposed method provides a promising approach for obtaining satisfactory estimation of the solution statistics and is much more efficient than the Monte-Carlo simulations.
Suppressing carrier removal error in the Fourier transform method for interferogram analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, Qi; Yang, Hongru; Li, Gaoping; Zhao, Jianlin
2010-01-01
A new carrier removal method for interferogram analysis using the Fourier transform is presented. The proposed method can be used to suppress the carrier removal error as well as the spectral leakage error. First, the carrier frequencies are estimated with the spectral centroid of the up sidelobe of the apodized interferogram, and then the up sidelobe can be shifted to the origin in the frequency domain by multiplying the original interferogram by a constructed plane reference wave. The influence of the carrier frequencies without an integer multiple of the frequency interval and the window function for apodization of the interferogram can be avoided in our work. The simulation and experimental results show that this method is effective for phase measurement with a high accuracy from a single interferogram
Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform
Huang, Norden E.
2005-05-31
This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.
Parallelizing the spectral transform method: A comparison of alternative parallel algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foster, I.; Worley, P.H.
1993-01-01
The spectral transform method is a standard numerical technique for solving partial differential equations on the sphere and is widely used in global climate modeling. In this paper, we outline different approaches to parallelizing the method and describe experiments that we are conducting to evaluate the efficiency of these approaches on parallel computers. The experiments are conducted using a testbed code that solves the nonlinear shallow water equations on a sphere, but are designed to permit evaluation in the context of a global model. They allow us to evaluate the relative merits of the approaches as a function of problem size and number of processors. The results of this study are guiding ongoing work on PCCM2, a parallel implementation of the Community Climate Model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research
Rachman, Noviadi Arief; Risdiyanto, Agus; Ramdan, Ade
2013-01-01
Charge Simulation Method is one of the field theory that can be used as an approach to calculate the electromagnetic distribution on the electrical conductor. This paper discussed electric field modeling around power transformator by using Matlab to find the safety distance. The safe distance threshold of the electric field to human health refers to WHO and SNI was 5 kV/m. The specification of the power transformator was three phases, 150/20 kV, and 100 MVA. The basic concept is to change the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisnianski, Anatoly; Frenkel, Ilia; Khvatskin, Lev
2015-01-01
This paper considers a reliability importance evaluation for components in an aging multi-state system. In practical reliability engineering a “curse of dimensionality” (the large number of states that should be analyzed for a multi-state system model) is a main obstacle for importance assessment. In order to challenge the problem, this paper proposes a new method that is based on an L Z -transform of the discrete-state continuous-time Markov process and on Ushakov's Universal Generating Operator. The paper shows that the proposed method can drastically reduce a computational burden. In order to illustrate the method, a solution of a real world problem is presented as a numerical example. - Highlights: • Aging multi-state system under minimal repair is studied. • A new method for Birnbaum importance assessment is developed. • The method is based on the L Z -transform. • The proposed method provides a drastic reduction of computation burden. • Numerical example is presented in order to illustrate the method
Biolistics Transformation of Wheat
Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.
We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).
Fan, Hong-Yi; Lu, Hai-Liang
Via the route of developing Dirac's symbolic method and following Dirac's assertion: "⋯ for a quantum dynamic system that has a classical analogue, unitary transformation in the quantum theory is the analogue of contact transformation in the classical theory", we find the generalized Fresnel operator (GFO) corresponding to the generalized Fresnel transform (GFT) in classical optics. We derive GFO's normal product form and its canonical coherent state representation and find that GFO is the loyal representation of symplectic group multiplication rule. We show that GFT is just the transformation matrix element of GFO in the coordinate representation such that two successive GFTs is still a GFT. The ABCD rule of the Gaussian beam propagation is directly demonstrated in quantum optics. With the aid of entangled state representation the entangled Fresnel transform is proposed; new eigenfunctions of the complex fractional Fourier transform and fractional Hankel transform are obtained; the two-variable Hermite eigenmodes of light propagation are used in studying the Talbot effect in quadratic-index media; the complex wavelet transform and the condition of mother wavelet are studied in the context of quantum optics too. Moreover, quantum optical version of classical z-transforms is obtained on the basis of the eigenvector of creation operator. Throughout our discussions, the coherent state, squeezing operators and the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators are fully used.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo Zheng-Hong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, the Sumudu transform series expansion method is used to handle the local fractional Laplace equation arising in the steady fractal heat-transfer problem via local fractional calculus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovan Putranda
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Water quality monitoring is prone to encounter error on its recording or measuring process. The monitoring on river water quality not only aims to recognize the water quality dynamic, but also to evaluate the data to create river management policy and water pollution in order to maintain the continuity of human health or sanitation requirement, and biodiversity preservation. Evaluation on water quality monitoring needs to be started by identifying the important water quality parameter. This research objected to identify the significant parameters by using two transformation or standardization methods on water quality data, which are the river Water Quality Index, WQI (Indeks Kualitas Air, Sungai, IKAs transformation or standardization method and transformation or standardization method with mean 0 and variance 1; so that the variability of water quality parameters could be aggregated with one another. Both of the methods were applied on the water quality monitoring data which its validity and reliability have been tested. The PCA, Principal Component Analysis (Analisa Komponen Utama, AKU, with the help of Scilab software, has been used to process the secondary data on water quality parameters of Gadjah Wong river in 2004-2013, with its validity and reliability has been tested. The Scilab result was cross examined with the result from the Excel-based Biplot Add In software. The research result showed that only 18 from total 35 water quality parameters that have passable data quality. The two transformation or standardization data methods gave different significant parameter type and amount result. On the transformation or standardization mean 0 variances 1, there were water quality significant parameter dynamic to mean concentration of each water quality parameters, which are TDS, SO4, EC, TSS, NO3N, COD, BOD5, Grease Oil and NH3N. On the river WQI transformation or standardization, the water quality significant parameter showed the level of
Du, Xiaofeng; Song, William; Munro, Malcolm
Web Services as a new distributed system technology has been widely adopted by industries in the areas, such as enterprise application integration (EAI), business process management (BPM), and virtual organisation (VO). However, lack of semantics in the current Web Service standards has been a major barrier in service discovery and composition. In this chapter, we propose an enhanced context-based semantic service description framework (CbSSDF+) that tackles the problem and improves the flexibility of service discovery and the correctness of generated composite services. We also provide an agile transformation method to demonstrate how the various formats of Web Service descriptions on the Web can be managed and renovated step by step into CbSSDF+ based service description without large amount of engineering work. At the end of the chapter, we evaluate the applicability of the transformation method and the effectiveness of CbSSDF+ through a series of experiments.
Entanglement-continuous unitary transformations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahin, Serkan; Orus, Roman [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)
2016-07-01
In this talk we present a new algorithm for quantum many-body systems using continuous unitary transformations (CUT) and tensor networks (TNs). With TNs we are able to approximate the solution to the flow equations that lie at the heart of continuous unitary transformations. We call this method Entanglement-Continuous Unitary Transformations (eCUT). It allows us to compute expectation values of local observables as well as tensor network representations of ground states and low-energy excited states. An implementation of the method is shown for 1d systems using matrix product operators. We show preliminary results for the 1d transverse-field Ising model to demonstrate the feasibility of the method.
Cotton transformation via pollen tube pathway.
Wang, Min; Zhang, Baohong; Wang, Qinglian
2013-01-01
Although many gene transfer methods have been employed for successfully obtaining transgenic cotton, the major constraint in cotton improvement is the limitation of genotype because the majority of transgenic methods require plant regeneration from a single transformed cell which is limited by cotton tissue culture. Comparing with other plant species, it is difficult to induce plant regeneration from cotton; currently, only a limited number of cotton cultivars can be cultured for obtaining regenerated plants. Thus, development of a simple and genotype-independent genetic transformation method is particularly important for cotton community. In this chapter, we present a simple, cost-efficient, and genotype-independent cotton transformation method-pollen tube pathway-mediated transformation. This method uses pollen tube pathway to deliver transgene into cotton embryo sacs and then insert foreign genes into cotton genome. There are three major steps for pollen tube pathway-mediated genetic transformation, which include injection of -foreign genes into pollen tube, integration of foreign genes into plant genome, and selection of transgenic plants.
Reduced-rank approximations to the far-field transform in the gridded fast multipole method
Hesford, Andrew J.; Waag, Robert C.
2011-05-01
The fast multipole method (FMM) has been shown to have a reduced computational dependence on the size of finest-level groups of elements when the elements are positioned on a regular grid and FFT convolution is used to represent neighboring interactions. However, transformations between plane-wave expansions used for FMM interactions and pressure distributions used for neighboring interactions remain significant contributors to the cost of FMM computations when finest-level groups are large. The transformation operators, which are forward and inverse Fourier transforms with the wave space confined to the unit sphere, are smooth and well approximated using reduced-rank decompositions that further reduce the computational dependence of the FMM on finest-level group size. The adaptive cross approximation (ACA) is selected to represent the forward and adjoint far-field transformation operators required by the FMM. However, the actual error of the ACA is found to be greater than that predicted using traditional estimates, and the ACA generally performs worse than the approximation resulting from a truncated singular-value decomposition (SVD). To overcome these issues while avoiding the cost of a full-scale SVD, the ACA is employed with more stringent accuracy demands and recompressed using a reduced, truncated SVD. The results show a greatly reduced approximation error that performs comparably to the full-scale truncated SVD without degrading the asymptotic computational efficiency associated with ACA matrix assembly.
Heat transfer comparison of nanofluid filled transformer and traditional oil-immersed transformer
Zhang, Yunpeng; Ho, Siu-lau; Fu, Weinong
2018-05-01
Dispersing nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity into transformer oil is an innovative approach to improve the thermal performance of traditional oil-immersed transformers. This mixture, also known as nanofluid, has shown the potential in practical application through experimental measurements. This paper presents the comparisons of nanofluid filled transformer and traditional oil-immersed transformer in terms of their computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions from the perspective of optimal design. Thermal performance of transformers with the same parameters except coolants is compared. A further comparison on heat transfer then is made after minimizing the oil volume and maximum temperature-rise of these two transformers. Adaptive multi-objective optimization method is employed to tackle this optimization problem.
Transformers analysis, design, and measurement
Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz
2012-01-01
This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.; Gutierre, M.S.
2010-01-01
This paper presents results of a molecular dynamics simulation study of dehydrated 2:1 clay minerals using the Parrinello-Rahman constant-pressure molecular dynamics method. The method is capable of simulating a system under the most general applied stress conditions by considering the changes of MD cell size and shape. Given the advantage of the method, it is the major goal of the paper to investigate the influence of imposed cell boundary conditions on the molecular structural transformation of 2:1 clay minerals under different normal pressures. Simulation results show that the degrees of freedom of the simulation cell (i.e., whether the cell size or shape change is allowed) determines the final equilibrated crystal structure of clay minerals. Both the MD method and the static method have successfully revealed unforeseen structural transformations of clay minerals upon relaxation under different normal pressures. It is found that large shear distortions of clay minerals occur when full allowance is given to the cell size and shape change. A complete elimination of the interlayer spacing is observed in a static simulation. However, when only the cell size change is allowed, interlayer spacing is retained, but large internal shear stresses also exist.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Guo-Cheng
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This note presents a Laplace transform approach in the determination of the Lagrange multiplier when the variational iteration method is applied to time fractional heat diffusion equation. The presented approach is more straightforward and allows some simplification in application of the variational iteration method to fractional differential equations, thus improving the convergence of the successive iterations.
Full three-dimensional isotropic transformation media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García-Meca, C; Martí, J; Martínez, A; Ortuño, R
2014-01-01
We present a method that enables the implementation of full three-dimensional (3D) transformation media with minimized anisotropy. It is based on a special kind of shape-preserving mapping and a subsequent optimization process. For sufficiently smooth transformations, the resulting anisotropy can be neglected, paving the way for practically realizable 3D devices. The method is independent of the considered wave phenomenon and can thus be applied to any field for which a transformational technique exists, such as acoustics or thermodynamics. Full 3D isotropy has an additional important implication for optical transformation media, as it eliminates the need for magnetic materials in many situations. To illustrate the potential of the method, we design 3D counterparts of transformation-based electromagnetic squeezers and bends. (paper)
Integral transformational coaching
Keizer, W.A.J.; Nandram, S.S.
2009-01-01
In Chap. 12, Keizer and Nandram present the concept of Integral Transformational Coaching based on the concept of Flow and its effects on work performance. Integral Transformational Coaching is a method that prevents and cures unhealthy stress and burnout. They draw on some tried and tested
Quantization of the Lee static model by the Bogolyubov transformation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bornyakov, V.G.
1984-01-01
The Lee static strong-coupling model is studied. The model permits to find an exact solution for the state vector of the system and for the scattering matrix in the first permanent order of expansion in the inverse value of the coupling constant. The Bogolyubov method has been applied to quantize the Lee model with a hamiltonian, provided a high classical constituent of a boson field exists. Ground state of the system and scattering matrix from the obtained bound state are found. The way to avoid additional zero modes arising at Bogolyubov transformation for creation and annihilation operators is shown
Bastaki, Nasmah K; Cullis, Christopher A
2014-12-19
Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation via floral-dip is a widely used technique in the field of plant transformation and has been reported to be successful for many plant species. However, flax (Linum usitatissimum) transformation by floral-dip has not been reported. The goal of this protocol is to establish that Agrobacterium and the floral-dip method can be used to generate transgenic flax. We show that this technique is simple, inexpensive, efficient, and more importantly, gives a higher transformation rate than the current available methods of flax transformation. In summary, inflorescences of flax were dipped in a solution of Agrobacterium carrying a binary vector plasmid (T-DNA fragment plus the Linum Insertion Sequence, LIS-1) for 1 - 2 min. The plants were laid flat on their side for 24 hr. Then, plants were maintained under normal growth conditions until the next treatment. The process of dipping was repeated 2 - 3 times, with approximately 10 - 14 day intervals between dipping. The T1 seeds were collected and germinated on soil. After approximately two weeks, treated progenies were tested by direct PCR; 2 - 3 leaves were used per plant plus the appropriate T-DNA primers. Positive transformants were selected and grown to maturity. The transformation rate was unexpectedly high, with 50 - 60% of the seeds from treated plants being positive transformants. This is a higher transformation rate than those reported for Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species, using floral-dip transformation. It is also the highest, which has been reported so far, for flax transformation using other methods for transformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Hanchuang; Chen, Shengchang; Ren, Haoran; Liang, Donghui; Zhou, Huamin; She, Deping
2015-01-01
In current research of seismic data recovery problems, the sparsity-promoting method usually produces an insufficient recovery result at the locations of null traces. The HRT (hyperbolic Radon transform) method can be applied to problems of seismic data recovery with approximately hyperbolic events. Influenced by deviations of hyperbolic characteristics between real and ideal travel-time curves, some spurious events are usually introduced and the recovery effect of intermediate and far-offset traces is worse than that of near-offset traces. Sparsity-promoting recovery is primarily dependent on the sparsity of seismic data in the sparse transform domain (i.e. on the local waveform characteristics), whereas HRT recovery is severely affected by the global characteristics of the seismic events. Inspired by the above conclusion, a two-step recovery approach combining sparsity-promoting and time-invariant HRT methods is proposed, which is based on both local and global characteristics of the seismic data. Two implementation strategies are presented in detail, and the selection criteria of the relevant strategies is also discussed. Numerical examples of synthetic and real data verify that the new approach can achieve a better recovery effect by simultaneously overcoming the shortcomings of sparsity-promoting recovery and HRT recovery. (paper)
Meng, Zeng; Yang, Dixiong; Zhou, Huanlin; Yu, Bo
2018-05-01
The first order reliability method has been extensively adopted for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), but it shows inaccuracy in calculating the failure probability with highly nonlinear performance functions. Thus, the second order reliability method is required to evaluate the reliability accurately. However, its application for RBDO is quite challenge owing to the expensive computational cost incurred by the repeated reliability evaluation and Hessian calculation of probabilistic constraints. In this article, a new improved stability transformation method is proposed to search the most probable point efficiently, and the Hessian matrix is calculated by the symmetric rank-one update. The computational capability of the proposed method is illustrated and compared to the existing RBDO approaches through three mathematical and two engineering examples. The comparison results indicate that the proposed method is very efficient and accurate, providing an alternative tool for RBDO of engineering structures.
Cancer cell detection and classification using transformation invariant template learning methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talware, Rajendra; Abhyankar, Aditya
2011-01-01
In traditional cancer cell detection, pathologists examine biopsies to make diagnostic assessments, largely based on cell morphology and tissue distribution. The process of image acquisition is very much subjective and the pattern undergoes unknown or random transformations during data acquisition (e.g. variation in illumination, orientation, translation and perspective) results in high degree of variability. Transformed Component Analysis (TCA) incorporates a discrete, hidden variable that accounts for transformations and uses the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to jointly extract components and normalize for transformations. Further the TEMPLAR framework developed takes advantage of hierarchical pattern models and adds probabilistic modeling for local transformations. Pattern classification is based on Expectation Maximization algorithm and General Likelihood Ratio Tests (GLRT). Performance of TEMPLAR is certainly improved by defining area of interest on slide a priori. Performance can be further enhanced by making the kernel function adaptive during learning. (author)
Road Detection by Using a Generalized Hough Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weifeng Liu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Road detection plays key roles for remote sensing image analytics. Hough transform (HT is one very typical method for road detection, especially for straight line road detection. Although many variants of Hough transform have been reported, it is still a great challenge to develop a low computational complexity and time-saving Hough transform algorithm. In this paper, we propose a generalized Hough transform (i.e., Radon transform implementation for road detection in remote sensing images. Specifically, we present a dictionary learning method to approximate the Radon transform. The proposed approximation method treats a Radon transform as a linear transform, which then facilitates parallel implementation of the Radon transform for multiple images. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we conduct extensive experiments on the popular RSSCN7 database for straight road detection. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is superior to the traditional algorithms in terms of accuracy and computing complexity.
Method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography using the Anscombe transformation.
Borges, Lucas R; Oliveira, Helder C R de; Nunes, Polyana F; Bakic, Predrag R; Maidment, Andrew D A; Vieira, Marcelo A C
2016-06-01
This work proposes an accurate method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography starting from a clinical image acquired with a standard dose. The method developed in this work consists of scaling a mammogram acquired at the standard radiation dose and adding signal-dependent noise. The algorithm accounts for specific issues relevant in digital mammography images, such as anisotropic noise, spatial variations in pixel gain, and the effect of dose reduction on the detective quantum efficiency. The scaling process takes into account the linearity of the system and the offset of the detector elements. The inserted noise is obtained by acquiring images of a flat-field phantom at the standard radiation dose and at the simulated dose. Using the Anscombe transformation, a relationship is created between the calculated noise mask and the scaled image, resulting in a clinical mammogram with the same noise and gray level characteristics as an image acquired at the lower-radiation dose. The performance of the proposed algorithm was validated using real images acquired with an anthropomorphic breast phantom at four different doses, with five exposures for each dose and 256 nonoverlapping ROIs extracted from each image and with uniform images. The authors simulated lower-dose images and compared these with the real images. The authors evaluated the similarity between the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and power spectrum (PS) of simulated images and real images acquired with the same dose. The maximum relative error was less than 2.5% for every ROI. The added noise was also evaluated by measuring the local variance in the real and simulated images. The relative average error for the local variance was smaller than 1%. A new method is proposed for simulating dose reduction in clinical mammograms. In this method, the dependency between image noise and image signal is addressed using a novel application of the Anscombe transformation. NNPS, PS, and local noise
Jiang, Hongquan; Zhao, Yalin; Gao, Jianmin; Gao, Zhiyong
2017-06-01
The radiographic testing (RT) image of a steam turbine manufacturing enterprise has the characteristics of low gray level, low contrast, and blurriness, which lead to a substandard image quality. Moreover, it is not conducive for human eyes to detect and evaluate defects. This study proposes an adaptive pseudo-color enhancement method for weld radiographic images based on the hue, saturation, and intensity (HSI) color space and the self-transformation of pixels to solve these problems. First, the pixel's self-transformation is performed to the pixel value of the original RT image. The function value after the pixel's self-transformation is assigned to the HSI components in the HSI color space. Thereafter, the average intensity of the enhanced image is adaptively adjusted to 0.5 according to the intensity of the original image. Moreover, the hue range and interval can be adjusted according to personal habits. Finally, the HSI components after the adaptive adjustment can be transformed to display in the red, green, and blue color space. Numerous weld radiographic images from a steam turbine manufacturing enterprise are used to validate the proposed method. The experimental results show that the proposed pseudo-color enhancement method can improve image definition and make the target and background areas distinct in weld radiographic images. The enhanced images will be more conducive for defect recognition. Moreover, the image enhanced using the proposed method conforms to the human eye visual properties, and the effectiveness of defect recognition and evaluation can be ensured.
Jiang, Hongquan; Zhao, Yalin; Gao, Jianmin; Gao, Zhiyong
2017-06-01
The radiographic testing (RT) image of a steam turbine manufacturing enterprise has the characteristics of low gray level, low contrast, and blurriness, which lead to a substandard image quality. Moreover, it is not conducive for human eyes to detect and evaluate defects. This study proposes an adaptive pseudo-color enhancement method for weld radiographic images based on the hue, saturation, and intensity (HSI) color space and the self-transformation of pixels to solve these problems. First, the pixel's self-transformation is performed to the pixel value of the original RT image. The function value after the pixel's self-transformation is assigned to the HSI components in the HSI color space. Thereafter, the average intensity of the enhanced image is adaptively adjusted to 0.5 according to the intensity of the original image. Moreover, the hue range and interval can be adjusted according to personal habits. Finally, the HSI components after the adaptive adjustment can be transformed to display in the red, green, and blue color space. Numerous weld radiographic images from a steam turbine manufacturing enterprise are used to validate the proposed method. The experimental results show that the proposed pseudo-color enhancement method can improve image definition and make the target and background areas distinct in weld radiographic images. The enhanced images will be more conducive for defect recognition. Moreover, the image enhanced using the proposed method conforms to the human eye visual properties, and the effectiveness of defect recognition and evaluation can be ensured.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ish - Shalom Shahar
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Botrytis cinerea is a haploid necrotrophic ascomycete which is responsible for 'grey mold' disease in more than 200 plant species. Broad molecular research has been conducted on this pathogen in recent years, resulting in the sequencing of two strains, which has generated a wealth of information toward developing additional tools for molecular transcriptome, proteome and secretome investigations. Nonetheless, transformation protocols have remained a significant bottleneck for this pathogen, hindering functional analysis research in many labs. Results In this study, we tested three different transformation methods for B. cinerea: electroporation, air-pressure-mediated and sclerotium-mediated transformation. We demonstrate successful transformation with three different DNA constructs using both air-pressure- and sclerotium-mediated transformation. Conclusions These transformation methods, which are fast, simple and reproducible, can expedite functional gene analysis of B. cinerea.
The Genetic Intractability Of Symbiodinium microadriaticum To Standard Algal Transformation Methods
Chen, Jit Ern
2017-05-23
Modern transformation and genome editing techniques have shown great success across a broad variety of organisms. However, no study of successfully applied genome editing has been reported in a dinoflagellate despite the first genetic transformation of Symbiodinium being published about 20 years ago. Using an array of different available transformation techniques, we attempted to transform Symbiodinium microadriaticum (CCMP2467), a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals, in order to perform CRISPR-Ca9 mediated genome editing. Plasmid vectors containing the chloramphenicol resistance gene under the control of the CaMV p35S promoter as well as several putative endogenous promoters were used to test a variety of transformation techniques including biolistics, electroporation, silica whiskers and glass bead agitation. We report that we have been unable to confer chloramphenicol resistance to our specific Symbiodinium strain. These results are intended to provide other researchers with an overview of previously attempted techniques and sequences in order to support efficient planning of future experiments in this important field.
A Fourier transform method for Vsin i estimations under nonlinear Limb-Darkening laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levenhagen, R. S., E-mail: ronaldo.levenhagen@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Depto. Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Rua Prof. Arthur Riedel, 275, Jd. Eldorado, CEP 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil)
2014-12-10
Star rotation offers us a large horizon for the study of many important physical issues pertaining to stellar evolution. Currently, four methods are widely used to infer rotation velocities, namely those related to line width calibrations, on the fitting of synthetic spectra, interferometry, and on Fourier transforms (FTs) of line profiles. Almost all of the estimations of stellar projected rotation velocities using the Fourier method in the literature have been addressed with the use of linear limb-darkening (LD) approximations during the evaluation of rotation profiles and their cosine FTs, which in certain cases, lead to discrepant velocity estimates. In this work, we introduce new mathematical expressions of rotation profiles and their Fourier cosine transforms assuming three nonlinear LD laws—quadratic, square-root, and logarithmic—and study their applications with and without gravity-darkening (GD) and geometrical flattening (GF) effects. Through an analysis of He I models in the visible range accounting for both limb and GD, we find out that, for classical models without rotationally driven effects, all the Vsin i values are too close to each other. On the other hand, taking into account GD and GF, the Vsin i obtained with the linear law result in Vsin i values that are systematically smaller than those obtained with the other laws. As a rule of thumb, we apply these expressions to the FT method to evaluate the projected rotation velocity of the emission B-type star Achernar (α Eri).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javad Safaee Kuchaksaraee
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The increasing consumption of electrical energy and the use of non-linear loads that create transient regime states in distribution networks is increasing day by day. This is the only reason due to which the analysis of power quality for energy sustainability in power networks has become more important. Transients are often created by energy injection through switching or lightning and make changes in voltage and nominal current. Sudden increase or decrease in voltage or current makes characteristics of the transient regime. This paper shed some lights on the capacitor bank switching, which is one of the main causes for oscillatory transient regime states in the distribution network, using wavelet transform. The identification of the switching current of capacitor bank and the internal fault current of the transformer to prevent the unnecessary outage of the differential relay, it propose a new smart method. The accurate performance of this method is shown by simulation in EMTP and MATLAB (matrix laboratory software.
A prediction method based on wavelet transform and multiple models fusion for chaotic time series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhongda, Tian; Shujiang, Li; Yanhong, Wang; Yi, Sha
2017-01-01
In order to improve the prediction accuracy of chaotic time series, a prediction method based on wavelet transform and multiple models fusion is proposed. The chaotic time series is decomposed and reconstructed by wavelet transform, and approximate components and detail components are obtained. According to different characteristics of each component, least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is used as predictive model for approximation components. At the same time, an improved free search algorithm is utilized for predictive model parameters optimization. Auto regressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) is used as predictive model for detail components. The multiple prediction model predictive values are fusion by Gauss–Markov algorithm, the error variance of predicted results after fusion is less than the single model, the prediction accuracy is improved. The simulation results are compared through two typical chaotic time series include Lorenz time series and Mackey–Glass time series. The simulation results show that the prediction method in this paper has a better prediction.
Chen, Xiaojing; Wu, Di; He, Yong; Liu, Shou
2009-04-06
Glycerol monolaurate (GML) products contain many impurities, such as lauric acid and glucerol. The GML content is an important quality indicator for GML production. A hybrid variable selection algorithm, which is a combination of wavelet transform (WT) technology and modified uninformative variable eliminate (MUVE) method, was proposed to extract useful information from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy for the determination of GML content. FT-IR spectra data were compressed by WT first; the irrelevant variables in the compressed wavelet coefficients were eliminated by MUVE. In the MUVE process, simulated annealing (SA) algorithm was employed to search the optimal cutoff threshold. After the WT-MUVE process, variables for the calibration model were reduced from 7366 to 163. Finally, the retained variables were employed as inputs of partial least squares (PLS) model to build the calibration model. For the prediction set, the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9910 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 4.8617 were obtained. The prediction result was better than the PLS model with full-spectra data. It was indicated that proposed WT-MUVE method could not only make the prediction more accurate, but also make the calibration model more parsimonious. Furthermore, the reconstructed spectra represented the projection of the selected wavelet coefficients into the original domain, affording the chemical interpretation of the predicted results. It is concluded that the FT-IR transmission spectroscopy technique with the proposed method is promising for the fast detection of GML content.
Unitary transformations in solid state physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, M.
1986-01-01
The main emphasis of this book is on the practical application of unitary transformations to problems in solid state physics. This is a method used in the field of nonadiabatic electron-phonon phenomena where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is no longer applicable. The book is intended as a tool for those who want to apply unitary transformations quickly and on a more elementary level and also for those who want to use this method for more involved problems. The book is divided into 6 chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with presenting quick applications of unitary transformations and chapter 4 presents a more systematic procedure. The last two chapters contain the major known examples of the utilization of unitary transformations in solid state physics, including such highlights as the Froehlich and the Fulton-Gouterman transformations. The book is supplemented by extended tables of unitary transformations, whose properties and peculiarities are also listed. This tabulated material is unique and will be of great practical use to those applying the method of unitary transformations in their work. (Auth.)
Inverse problem in transformation optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey
2011-01-01
The straightforward method of transformation optics implies that one starts from the coordinate transformation and determines the Jacobian matrix, the fields and material parameters of the cloak. However, the coordinate transformation appears as an optional function: it is not necessary to know it...
Transformation method for the MIRD absorbed fractions as applied to various physiques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, Hiroshi
1978-01-01
This study concerns with the transformation method of the MIRD absorbed fraction (AF) to the AF corresponding to an individual having the dimensions different from those of the MIRD standard man. The absorbed dose of a target organ T from a source organs S, received by the administration of a radiopharmaceutical agent is expressed with the equilibrium absorbed dose constant, the cumulative activity in the S, and the specific absorbed fraction (SAF). It is dealt only with how the MIRD SAF data can be modified for estimating individual SAF values. The SAF for individuals is given for penetrating and non-penetrating radiations. In case of the penetrating radiation, the SAF is given from the corresponding MIRD SAF by using a transformation coefficient for the MIRD SAF, when the MIRD standard man is transfigured to a corresponding phantom of an individual by the scale factors selected separately for the head section, trunk section and leg section of the MIRD standard man. The obtained results were compared with the ORNL results, and showed good agreement. (Kato, T.)
A New Method Based on Laplace Transform and Its Application to Stability of Pipe Conveying Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. B. Wen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A new differential transformation method is developed in this paper and is applied for free vibration problem of pipes conveying fluid. The natural frequencies, critical flow velocities, and vibration mode functions of such pipes with several typical boundary conditions are obtained and compared with the results predicted by Galerkin method and finite element method (FEM and with other results archived. The results show that the present method is of high precision and can serve as an analytical method for the vibration of pipes conveying fluid.
Application of Classical and Lie Transform Methods to Zonal Perturbation in the Artificial Satellite
San-Juan, J. F.; San-Martin, M.; Perez, I.; Lopez-Ochoa, L. M.
2013-08-01
A scalable second-order analytical orbit propagator program is being carried out. This analytical orbit propagator combines modern perturbation methods, based on the canonical frame of the Lie transform, and classical perturbation methods in function of orbit types or the requirements needed for a space mission, such as catalog maintenance operations, long period evolution, and so on. As a first step on the validation of part of our orbit propagator, in this work we only consider the perturbation produced by zonal harmonic coefficients in the Earth's gravity potential, so that it is possible to analyze the behaviour of the perturbation methods involved in the corresponding analytical theories.
Yi, Rongxing; Yang, Xinyan; Zhou, Ran; Li, Jiaming; Yu, Huiwu; Hao, Zhongqi; Guo, Lianbo; Li, Xiangyou; Lu, Yongfeng; Zeng, Xiaoyan
2018-05-18
To detect available heavy metals in soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and improve its poor detection sensitivity, a simple and low cost sample pretreatment method named solid-liquid-solid transformation was proposed. By this method, available heavy metals were extracted from soil through ultrasonic vibration and centrifuging and then deposited on a glass slide. Utilization of this solid-liquid-solid transformation method, available Cd and Pb elements in soil were detected successfully. The results show that the regression coefficients of calibration curves for soil analyses reach to more than 0.98. The limits of detection could reach to 0.067 and 0.94 ppm for available Cd and Pb elements in soil under optimized conditions, respectively, which are much better than those obtained by conventional LIBS.
Rao, T. R. Ramesh
2018-04-01
In this paper, we study the analytical method based on reduced differential transform method coupled with sumudu transform through Pades approximants. The proposed method may be considered as alternative approach for finding exact solution of Gas dynamics equation in an effective manner. This method does not require any discretization, linearization and perturbation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claude Rodrigue Bambe Moutsinga
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Most existing multivariate models in finance are based on diffusion models. These models typically lead to the need of solving systems of Riccati differential equations. In this paper, we introduce an efficient method for solving systems of stiff Riccati differential equations. In this technique, a combination of Laplace transform and homotopy perturbation methods is considered as an algorithm to the exact solution of the nonlinear Riccati equations. The resulting technique is applied to solving stiff diffusion model problems that include interest rates models as well as two and three-factor stochastic volatility models. We show that the present approach is relatively easy, efficient and highly accurate.
A two-step Hilbert transform method for 2D image reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noo, Frederic; Clackdoyle, Rolf; Pack, Jed D
2004-01-01
The paper describes a new accurate two-dimensional (2D) image reconstruction method consisting of two steps. In the first step, the backprojected image is formed after taking the derivative of the parallel projection data. In the second step, a Hilbert filtering is applied along certain lines in the differentiated backprojection (DBP) image. Formulae for performing the DBP step in fan-beam geometry are also presented. The advantage of this two-step Hilbert transform approach is that in certain situations, regions of interest (ROIs) can be reconstructed from truncated projection data. Simulation results are presented that illustrate very similar reconstructed image quality using the new method compared to standard filtered backprojection, and that show the capability to correctly handle truncated projections. In particular, a simulation is presented of a wide patient whose projections are truncated laterally yet for which highly accurate ROI reconstruction is obtained
Electromagnetic reactions of few-body systems with the Lorentz integral transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leidemann, W.
2007-01-01
Various electromagnetic few-body break-up reactions into the many-body continuum are calculated microscopically with the Lorentz integral transform (LIT) method. For three- and four-body nuclei the nuclear Hamiltonian includes two- and three-nucleon forces, while semirealistic interactions are used in case of six- and seven-body systems. Comparisons with experimental data are discussed. In addition various interesting aspects of the 4 He photodisintegration are studied: investigation of a tetrahedrical symmetry of 4 He and a test of non-local nuclear force models via the induced two-body currents
Wavelet transform and real-time learning method for myoelectric signal in motion discrimination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Haihua; Chen Xinhao; Chen Yaguang
2005-01-01
This paper discusses the applicability of the Wavelet transform for analyzing an EMG signal and discriminating motion classes. In many previous works, researchers have dealt with steady EMG and have proposed suitable analyzing methods for the EMG, for example FFT and STFT. Therefore, it is difficult for the previous approaches to discriminate motions from the EMG in the different phases of muscle activity, i.e., pre-activity, in activity, postactivity phases, as well as the period of motion transition from one to another. In this paper, we introduce the Wavelet transform using the Coiflet mother wavelet into our real-time EMG prosthetic hand controller for discriminating motions from steady and unsteady EMG. A preliminary experiment to discriminate three hand motions from four channel EMG in the initial pre-activity and in activity phase is carried out to show the effectiveness of the approach. However, future research efforts are necessary to discriminate more motions much precisely
Determination and use of scaling factors for waste characterization in nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-01-01
The management of radioactive waste requires knowledge of the amounts and concentrations of specific radionuclides in the waste. The particular radionuclides of interest or concern may vary according to the safety case or other requirements of the waste management facility and/or the regulations of the Member State. Many of the radionuclides important for long term management of the waste are difficult to measure (DTM) from the outside of a waste package. Identification and quantification of these DTM nuclides require methods that, in general, involve analysis of waste samples using complex radiochemical analysis to separate the various radionuclides for measurement. This method of direct measurement is generally not practical to employ for large numbers of waste packages or for many heterogeneous waste streams. An alternative approach that can be used in many cases is to exploit the relationship between some easy to measure (ETM) key nuclides, such as certain gamma emitters, and the DTM nuclides to derive information for the DTM nuclides of interest. The scaling factor (SF) method is such an approach that is widely used to evaluate these DTM nuclides. The SF method is based on developing a correlation between ETM and DTM nuclides. The activities of DTM nuclides in waste packages are then estimated by measuring the ETM nuclides based on gamma measurements from outside the package and applying the SFs to calculate the DTM activities. The international standard ISO 21238:2007 gives guidelines for the general methodology for empirically determining SFs to evaluate the radioactivity of DTM nuclides in low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) packages. The objective of this report is to provide information on the international experience in the determination and use of SFs. This report shows actual examples of the ways in which SFs have been derived and applied in various Member States. Although the main focus of the ISO standard is on LILW from the operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jinchuan; Xi Hongfei; Guo Zhongyan; Zhan Wenlong; Zhu Yongtai; Zhou Jianqun; Liu Guanhua; Su Hong
1992-01-01
Laplace transform method is applied to investigate the effect of the choice of amplifier parameter on identification of the light charged particles emitted from 12 C(46.7 MeV/u) + 58 Ni reaction. The significance of application of Laplace transformation method in heavy ion experimental nuclear physics is discussed as well
Shen, Wei; Li, Dongsheng; Zhang, Shuaifang; Ou, Jinping
2017-07-01
This paper presents a hybrid method that combines the B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI) finite element method and spectral analysis based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) to study wave propagation in One-Dimensional (1D) structures. BSWI scaling functions are utilized to approximate the theoretical wave solution in the spatial domain and construct a high-accuracy dynamic stiffness matrix. Dynamic reduction on element level is applied to eliminate the interior degrees of freedom of BSWI elements and substantially reduce the size of the system matrix. The dynamic equations of the system are then transformed and solved in the frequency domain through FFT-based spectral analysis which is especially suitable for parallel computation. A comparative analysis of four different finite element methods is conducted to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method when utilized in high-frequency wave problems. Other numerical examples are utilized to simulate the influence of crack and delamination on wave propagation in 1D rods and beams. Finally, the errors caused by FFT and their corresponding solutions are presented.
Maser-like transformations using the lie transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michelotti, L.
1985-01-01
The Deprit-Hori-Kamel recursive algorithm is presented for carrying out canonical transformations that eliminate non-secular terms of a Hamiltonian. The method is illustrated in the context of accelerator theory by application to three sample problems. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sun Huan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we use the Laplace transform series expansion method to find the analytical solution for the local fractional heat-transfer equation defined on Cantor sets via local fractional calculus.
Methods of Weyl representation of the phase space and canonical transformations. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budanov, V.G.
1984-01-01
The kernel structure of canonical transformation and differential equation for the intertwining operator is found. The Weyl symbol of operators producing linear canonical transformations is associated with the Cayley transformation of classical canonical transformation. Due to the invariance of the Weyl formalism a complete study of singularity and factorization of these symbols is manageable. In particular, one can study the symbols of Green functions and elements of Lie groups and find the spectra of arbitrary stationary quadratic Hamiltonians with the help of the known classification of the spectra of classical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su Xiaoxing; Wang Yuesheng
2010-01-01
In this paper, a new postprocessing method for the finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculation of the point defect states in two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystals (PNCs) is developed based on the chirp Z transform (CZT), one of the frequency zooming techniques. The numerical results for the defect states in 2D solid/liquid PNCs with single or double point defects show that compared with the fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based postprocessing method, the method can improve the estimation accuracy of the eigenfrequencies of the point defect states significantly when the FDTD calculation is run with relatively few iterations; and furthermore it can yield the point defect bands without calculating all eigenfrequencies outside the band gaps. The efficiency and accuracy of the FDTD method can be improved significantly with this new postprocessing method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su Xiaoxing, E-mail: xxsu@bjtu.edu.c [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang Yuesheng [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)
2010-09-01
In this paper, a new postprocessing method for the finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculation of the point defect states in two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystals (PNCs) is developed based on the chirp Z transform (CZT), one of the frequency zooming techniques. The numerical results for the defect states in 2D solid/liquid PNCs with single or double point defects show that compared with the fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based postprocessing method, the method can improve the estimation accuracy of the eigenfrequencies of the point defect states significantly when the FDTD calculation is run with relatively few iterations; and furthermore it can yield the point defect bands without calculating all eigenfrequencies outside the band gaps. The efficiency and accuracy of the FDTD method can be improved significantly with this new postprocessing method.
Li, S. H.; Chen, Y. H.
2016-12-01
The iron sulfide nano-minerals possess advantages of high abundance, low cost, and low toxicity. These advantages make them be competitive in the magnetic, electronic, and photoelectric applications. Mackinawite can be used in soil or water remediations. Greigite is very important for paleomagnetic and geochemical environment studies and the anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Besides, greigite is also utilized for hyperthermia and biomedicine. Pyrrhotite can be applied as geothermometry. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, iron sulfide minerals have specific significances and they must be further investigated, like their phase transformations, magnetic properties, and etc. In this study, the iron sulfide minerals were synthesized by using a hydrothermal method. The ex-situ and in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to examine the crystal structure and phase transformation of iron sulfide minerals. The Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) were carried out to investigate their morphology and magnetic properties, respectively. The results suggested that the phase transformation sequence was followed the order: mackinawite → greigite → (smythite) → pyrrhotite. Two pure mineral phases of greigite and pyrrhotite were obtained under the hydrothermal conditions. The morphology of the pure greigite is granular aggregates with a particle size of approximately 30 nm and pyrrhotite presented a hexagonal sheet stacking with a particle size of thousands nanometers. The greigite had a ferri-magnetic behavior and pyrrhotite was weak ferro-magnetic. Both of them had a pseudo-single magnetic domain (PSD) based on the Day's plot from SQUID data. The complete phase-transformation pathways and high magnetization of iron sulfide minerals are observed in this study and these kind of iron sulfide minerals are worthy to further study.
Integrating Data Transformation in Principal Components Analysis
Maadooliat, Mehdi
2015-01-02
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular dimension reduction method to reduce the complexity and obtain the informative aspects of high-dimensional datasets. When the data distribution is skewed, data transformation is commonly used prior to applying PCA. Such transformation is usually obtained from previous studies, prior knowledge, or trial-and-error. In this work, we develop a model-based method that integrates data transformation in PCA and finds an appropriate data transformation using the maximum profile likelihood. Extensions of the method to handle functional data and missing values are also developed. Several numerical algorithms are provided for efficient computation. The proposed method is illustrated using simulated and real-world data examples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al Khawaja, U.
2010-01-01
We derive the integrability conditions of nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equations using the Lax pair and similarity transformation methods. We present a comparative analysis of these integrability conditions with those of the Painleve method. We show that while the Painleve integrability conditions restrict the dispersion, nonlinearity, and dissipation/gain coefficients to be space independent and the external potential to be only a quadratic function of position, the Lax Pair and the similarity transformation methods allow for space-dependent coefficients and an external potential that is not restricted to the quadratic form. The integrability conditions of the Painleve method are retrieved as a special case of our general integrability conditions. We also derive the integrability conditions of nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equations for two- and three-spacial dimensions.
A new general method for transform canonically a Hamiltonian in another one of a given form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez T, A.
2002-01-01
The more general method to perform a canonical transformation of a Hamiltonian into another one of a given form is based on the repeated use of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This is usually a tedious technique which leads to some particular solutions of the problem. We present a new general method which does not rely on the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and moreover it gives all the possible solutions. (Author)
Ab initio pair potentials for FCC metals: An application of the method of Moebius transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mookerjee, A.; Chen Nanxian; Kumar, V.; Satter, M.A.
1991-10-01
We use the method of Moebius transform introduced by one of us (Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1193 (1990)) to obtain pair potentials for fcc metals from first principles total energy calculations. The derivation is exact for radial potentials and it converges much faster than the earlier reported method of Carlsson-Gelatt-Ehrenreich. We have tested this formulation for Cu using the tight binding representation of the linear muffin tin orbital method. Our results agree with those obtained by Carlsson et al. and qualitatively with the other Morse-type pair potentials derived from effective medium theories. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Junhua; Xu Haiguang; Wang Jingying; Chen Wen; An Tao
2013-01-01
We propose a continuous wavelet transform based non-parametric foreground subtraction method for the detection of redshifted 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. This method works based on the assumption that the foreground spectra are smooth in frequency domain, while the 21 cm signal spectrum is full of saw-tooth-like structures, thus their characteristic scales are significantly different. We can distinguish them in the wavelet coefficient space easily and perform the foreground subtraction. Compared with the traditional spectral fitting based method, our method is more tolerant to complex foregrounds. Furthermore, we also find that when the instrument has uncorrected response error, our method can also work significantly better than the spectral fitting based method. Our method can obtain similar results with the Wp smoothing method, which is also a non-parametric method, but our method consumes much less computing time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noviadi Arief Rachman
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Charge Simulation Method is one of the field theory that can be used as an approach to calculate the electromagnetic distribution on the electrical conductor. This paper discussed electric field modeling around power transformator by using Matlab to find the safety distance. The safe distance threshold of the electric field to human health refers to WHO and SNI was 5 kV/m. The specification of the power transformator was three phases, 150/20 kV, and 100 MVA. The basic concept is to change the distribution charge on the conductor or dielectric polarization charge with a set of discrete fictitious charge. The value of discrete fictitious charge was equivalent to the potential value of the conductor, and became a reference to calculate the electric field around the surface contour of the selected power transformator. The measurement distance was 5 meter on each side of the transformator surface. The results showed that the magnitude of the electric field at the front side was 5541 V/m, exceeding the safety limits.
Qin, Xunpeng; Gao, Kai; Zhu, Zhenhua; Chen, Xuliang; Wang, Zhou
2017-09-01
The spot continual induction hardening (SCIH) process, which is a modified induction hardening, can be assembled to a five-axis cooperating computer numerical control machine tool to strengthen more than one small area or relatively large area on complicated component surface. In this study, a response surface method was presented to optimize phase transformation region after the SCIH process. The effects of five process parameters including feed velocity, input power, gap, curvature and flow rate on temperature, microstructure, microhardness and phase transformation geometry were investigated. Central composition design, a second-order response surface design, was employed to systematically estimate the empirical models of temperature and phase transformation geometry. The analysis results indicated that feed velocity has a dominant effect on the uniformity of microstructure and microhardness, domain size, oxidized track width, phase transformation width and height in the SCIH process while curvature has the largest effect on center temperature in the design space. The optimum operating conditions with 0.817, 0.845 and 0.773 of desirability values are expected to be able to minimize ratio (tempering region) and maximize phase transformation width for concave, flat and convex surface workpieces, respectively. The verification result indicated that the process parameters obtained by the model were reliable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heinz Toparkus
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider first-order systems with constant coefficients for two real-valued functions of two real variables. This is both a problem in itself, as well as an alternative view of the classical linear partial differential equations of second order with constant coefficients. The classification of the systems is done using elementary methods of linear algebra. Each type presents its special canonical form in the associated characteristic coordinate system. Then you can formulate initial value problems in appropriate basic areas, and you can try to achieve a solution of these problems by means of transform methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashcraft, C. Chace [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Niederhaus, John Henry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, Allen C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-01-29
We present a verification and validation analysis of a coordinate-transformation-based numerical solution method for the two-dimensional axisymmetric magnetic diffusion equation, implemented in the finite-element simulation code ALEGRA. The transformation, suggested by Melissen and Simkin, yields an equation set perfectly suited for linear finite elements and for problems with large jumps in material conductivity near the axis. The verification analysis examines transient magnetic diffusion in a rod or wire in a very low conductivity background by first deriving an approximate analytic solution using perturbation theory. This approach for generating a reference solution is shown to be not fully satisfactory. A specialized approach for manufacturing an exact solution is then used to demonstrate second-order convergence under spatial refinement and tem- poral refinement. For this new implementation, a significant improvement relative to previously available formulations is observed. Benefits in accuracy for computed current density and Joule heating are also demonstrated. The validation analysis examines the circuit-driven explosion of a copper wire using resistive magnetohydrodynamics modeling, in comparison to experimental tests. The new implementation matches the accuracy of the existing formulation, with both formulations capturing the experimental burst time and action to within approximately 2%.
A Review of Transformer Aging and Control Strategies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup; Kirkham, Harold; Sivaraman, Deepak
2017-09-19
Transformer aging is an important challenge in power system. Distribution transformers themselves are minimally controllable, but smart meters provide excellent, new insights into electrical loads, which insights can be used to understand and mitigate transformer aging. The nature of transformer loads is changing with the integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This paper first reviews factors that influence the aging of distribution transformers, including root causes of transformer failure. Existing and proposed load control methods are then discussed. A distribution model is introduced to help evaluate potential control methods.
Lorentz force effect on mixed convection micropolar flow in a vertical conduit
Abdel-wahed, Mohamed S.
2017-05-01
The present work provides a simulation of control and filtration process of hydromagnetic blood flow with Hall current under the effect of heat source or sink through a vertical conduit (pipe). This work meets other engineering applications, such as nuclear reactors cooled during emergency shutdown, geophysical transport in electrically conducting and heat exchangers at low velocity conditions. The problem is modeled by a system of partial differential equations taking the effect of viscous dissipation, and these equations are simplified and solved analytically as a series solution using the Differential Transformation Method (DTM). The velocities and temperature profiles of the flow are plotted and discussed. Moreover, the conduit wall shear stress and heat flux are deduced and explained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Jesús Guerrero
2009-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a stereo feature-based method using SIFT (Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors. We use automatic feature extractors, matching algorithms between images and techniques of robust estimation to produce a DTM (Digital Terrain Model using convergent shots of a rock glacier.The geomorphologic structure observed in this study is the Veleta rock glacier (Sierra Nevada, Granada, Spain. This rock glacier is of high scientific interest because it is the southernmost active rock glacier in Europe and it has been analyzed every year since 2001. The research on the Veleta rock glacier is devoted to the study of its displacement and cartography through geodetic and photogrammetric techniques.
INFORMATION MODEL OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Мария Васильевна Комова
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The social transformation is considered as a process of qualitative changes of the society, creating a new level of organization in all areas of life, in different social formations, societies of different types of development. The purpose of the study is to create a universal model for studying social transformations based on their understanding as the consequence of the information exchange processes in the society. After defining the conceptual model of the study, the author uses the following methods: the descriptive method, analysis, synthesis, comparison.Information, objectively existing in all elements and systems of the material world, is an integral attribute of the society transformation as well. The information model of social transformations is based on the definition of the society transformation as the change in the information that functions in the society’s information space. The study of social transformations is the study of information flows circulating in the society and being characterized by different spatial, temporal, and structural states. Social transformations are a highly integrated system of social processes and phenomena, the nature, course and consequences of which are affected by the factors representing the whole complex of material objects. The integrated information model of social transformations foresees the interaction of the following components: social memory, information space, and the social ideal. To determine the dynamics and intensity of social transformations the author uses the notions of "information threshold of social transformations" and "information pressure".Thus, the universal nature of information leads to considering social transformations as a system of information exchange processes. Social transformations can be extended to any episteme actualized by social needs. The establishment of an information threshold allows to simulate the course of social development, to predict the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.
1989-01-01
We describe a spectral method for solving the paraxial wave equation in cylindrical geometry that is based on expansion of the exponential evolution operator in a Taylor series and use of fast Fourier transforms to evaluate derivatives. A fourth-order expansion gives excellent agreement with a two-transverse-dimensional split-operator calculation at a fraction of the cost in computation time per z step and at a considerable savings in storage
Transform methods for precision continuum and control models of flexible space structures
Lupi, Victor D.; Turner, James D.; Chun, Hon M.
1991-01-01
An open loop optimal control algorithm is developed for general flexible structures, based on Laplace transform methods. A distributed parameter model of the structure is first presented, followed by a derivation of the optimal control algorithm. The control inputs are expressed in terms of their Fourier series expansions, so that a numerical solution can be easily obtained. The algorithm deals directly with the transcendental transfer functions from control inputs to outputs of interest, and structural deformation penalties, as well as penalties on control effort, are included in the formulation. The algorithm is applied to several structures of increasing complexity to show its generality.
Process for compound transformation
Basset, Jean-Marie
2016-12-29
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ledermüller, Katrin; Schütz, Martin, E-mail: martin.schuetz@chemie.uni-regensburg.de [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2014-04-28
A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest.
Ledermüller, Katrin; Schütz, Martin
2014-04-28
A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ledermüller, Katrin; Schütz, Martin
2014-01-01
A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest
Canonical transformations of Kepler trajectories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mostowski, Jan
2010-01-01
In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these transformations change the eccentricity of the orbit. A method of obtaining elliptic trajectories from the circular ones with the help of canonical trajectories is discussed.
Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform.
Zheng, Qiong; Yang, Siyang; Wei, Guo-Wei
2012-03-01
This work proposes a new framework for the surface generation based on the partial differential equation (PDE) transform. The PDE transform has recently been introduced as a general approach for the mode decomposition of images, signals, and data. It relies on the use of arbitrarily high-order PDEs to achieve the time-frequency localization, control the spectral distribution, and regulate the spatial resolution. The present work provides a new variational derivation of high-order PDE transforms. The fast Fourier transform is utilized to accomplish the PDE transform so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order PDEs. As a consequence, the time integration of high-order PDEs can be done efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. The present approach is validated with a variety of test examples in two-dimensional and three-dimensional settings. We explore the impact of the PDE transform parameters, such as the PDE order and propagation time, on the quality of resulting surfaces. Additionally, we utilize a set of 10 proteins to compare the computational efficiency of the present surface generation method and a standard approach in Cartesian meshes. Moreover, we analyze the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of biomolecular surface, that is, surface area, surface-enclosed volume, solvation free energy, and surface electrostatic potential. A test set of 13 protein molecules is used in the present investigation. The electrostatic analysis is carried out via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation model. To further demonstrate the utility of the present PDE transform-based surface method, we solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations with a PDE transform surface of a protein. Second-order convergence is observed for the electrostatic potential and concentrations. Finally, to test the capability and efficiency of the present PDE transform-based surface generation method, we apply it to the construction of an excessively large biomolecule, a
Greene, Samuel M; Batista, Victor S
2017-09-12
We introduce the "tensor-train split-operator Fourier transform" (TT-SOFT) method for simulations of multidimensional nonadiabatic quantum dynamics. TT-SOFT is essentially the grid-based SOFT method implemented in dynamically adaptive tensor-train representations. In the same spirit of all matrix product states, the tensor-train format enables the representation, propagation, and computation of observables of multidimensional wave functions in terms of the grid-based wavepacket tensor components, bypassing the need of actually computing the wave function in its full-rank tensor product grid space. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the TT-SOFT method as applied to propagation of 24-dimensional wave packets, describing the S 1 /S 2 interconversion dynamics of pyrazine after UV photoexcitation to the S 2 state. Our results show that the TT-SOFT method is a powerful computational approach for simulations of quantum dynamics of polyatomic systems since it avoids the exponential scaling problem of full-rank grid-based representations.
Fast data reconstructed method of Fourier transform imaging spectrometer based on multi-core CPU
Yu, Chunchao; Du, Debiao; Xia, Zongze; Song, Li; Zheng, Weijian; Yan, Min; Lei, Zhenggang
2017-10-01
Imaging spectrometer can gain two-dimensional space image and one-dimensional spectrum at the same time, which shows high utility in color and spectral measurements, the true color image synthesis, military reconnaissance and so on. In order to realize the fast reconstructed processing of the Fourier transform imaging spectrometer data, the paper designed the optimization reconstructed algorithm with OpenMP parallel calculating technology, which was further used for the optimization process for the HyperSpectral Imager of `HJ-1' Chinese satellite. The results show that the method based on multi-core parallel computing technology can control the multi-core CPU hardware resources competently and significantly enhance the calculation of the spectrum reconstruction processing efficiency. If the technology is applied to more cores workstation in parallel computing, it will be possible to complete Fourier transform imaging spectrometer real-time data processing with a single computer.
Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Jingjing; Wubs, Martijn; Ginzburg, Pavel
2016-01-01
Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (S......, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices....
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of lipomyces
Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Deng, Shuang; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Culley, David E.
2018-03-13
This disclosure provides Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods for the oil-producing (oleaginous) yeast Lipomyces sp., as well as yeast produced by the method. Such methods utilize Agrobacterium sp. cells that have a T-DNA binary plasmid, wherein the T-DNA binary plasmid comprises a first nucleic acid molecule encoding a first protein and a second nucleic acid molecule encoding a selective marker that permits growth of transformed Lipomyces sp. cells in selective culture media comprising an antibiotic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Hongyi; Hao Ren; Lu Hailiang
2008-01-01
Based on our previous paper (Commun. Theor. Phys. 39 (2003) 417) we derive the convolution theorem of fractional Fourier transformation in the context of quantum mechanics, which seems a convenient and neat way. Generalization of this method to the complex fractional Fourier transformation case is also possible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zuo-Cai; Ren, Wei-Xin; Chen, Gen-Da
2012-01-01
This paper presents a recursive Hilbert transform method for the time-varying property identification of large-scale shear-type buildings with limited sensor deployments. An observer technique is introduced to estimate the building responses from limited available measurements. For an n-story shear-type building with l measurements (l ≤ n), the responses of other stories without measurements can be estimated based on the first r mode shapes (r ≤ l) as-built conditions and l measurements. Both the measured responses and evaluated responses and their Hilbert transforms are then used to track any variation of structural parameters of a multi-story building over time. Given floor masses, both the stiffness and damping coefficients of the building are identified one-by-one from the top to the bottom story. When variations of parameters are detected, a new developed branch-and-bound technique can be used to update the first r mode shapes with the identified parameters. A 60-story shear building with abruptly varying stiffness at different floors is simulated as an example. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method can detect variations of the parameters of large-scale shear-type buildings with limited sensor deployments at appropriate locations. (paper)
Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.
Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít
2013-08-01
In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdelhalim Ebaid
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The main feature of the boundary layer flow problems of nanofluids or classical fluids is the inclusion of the boundary conditions at infinity. Such boundary conditions cause difficulties for any of the series methods when applied to solve such a kind of problems. In order to solve these difficulties, the authors usually resort to either Padé approximants or the commercial numerical codes. However, an intensive work is needed to perform the calculations using Padé technique. Due to the importance of the nanofluids flow as a growing field of research and the difficulties caused by using Padé approximants to solve such problems, a suggestion is proposed in this paper to map the semi-infinite domain into a finite one by the help of a transformation. Accordingly, the differential equations governing the fluid flow are transformed into singular differential equations with classical boundary conditions which can be directly solved by using the differential transformation method. The numerical results obtained by using the proposed technique are compared with the available exact solutions, where excellent accuracy is found. The main advantage of the present technique is the complete avoidance of using Padé approximants to treat the infinity boundary conditions.
Transformation properties of the integrable evolution equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopelchenko, B.G.
1981-01-01
Group-theoretical properties of partial differential equations integrable by the inverse scattering transform method are discussed. It is shown that nonlinear transformations typical to integrable equations (symmetry groups, Baecklund-transformations) and these equations themselves are contained in a certain universal nonlinear transformation group. (orig.)
Target recognition by wavelet transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Zhengdong; He Wuliang; Zheng Xiaodong; Cheng Jiayuan; Peng Wen; Pei Chunlan; Song Chen
2002-01-01
Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided
Zarkevich, Nikolai; Johnson, Duane D.
Titanium is on of the four most utilized structural metals, and, hence, its structural changes and potential metastable phases under stress are of considerable importance. Using DFT+U combined with the generalized solid-state nudged elastic band (SS-NEB) method, we consider the pressure-driven transformation between Ti α and ω phases, and find an intermediate metastable body-centered orthorhombic (bco) structure of lower density. We verify its stability, assess the phonons and electronic structure, and compare computational results to experiment. Interestingly, standard density functional theory (DFT) yields the ω phase as the Ti ground state, in contradiction to the observed α phase at low pressure and temperature. We correct this by proper consideration of the strongly correlated d-electrons, and utilize DFT+U method in the SS-NEB to obtain the relevant transformation pathway and structures. We use methods developed with support by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-03ER46026 and DE-AC02-07CH11358). Ames Laboratory is operated for the DOE by Iowa State University under Contract DE-AC02-07CH11358.
Power-law behaviour evaluation from foreign exchange market data using a wavelet transform method
Wei, H. L.; Billings, S. A.
2009-09-01
Numerous studies in the literature have shown that the dynamics of many time series including observations in foreign exchange markets exhibit scaling behaviours. A simple new statistical approach, derived from the concept of the continuous wavelet transform correlation function (WTCF), is proposed for the evaluation of power-law properties from observed data. The new method reveals that foreign exchange rates obey power-laws and thus belong to the class of self-similarity processes.
Power-law behaviour evaluation from foreign exchange market data using a wavelet transform method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, H.L., E-mail: w.hualiang@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, the University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Billings, S.A., E-mail: s.billings@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, the University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2009-09-07
Numerous studies in the literature have shown that the dynamics of many time series including observations in foreign exchange markets exhibit scaling behaviours. A simple new statistical approach, derived from the concept of the continuous wavelet transform correlation function (WTCF), is proposed for the evaluation of power-law properties from observed data. The new method reveals that foreign exchange rates obey power-laws and thus belong to the class of self-similarity processes.
Power-law behaviour evaluation from foreign exchange market data using a wavelet transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, H.L.; Billings, S.A.
2009-01-01
Numerous studies in the literature have shown that the dynamics of many time series including observations in foreign exchange markets exhibit scaling behaviours. A simple new statistical approach, derived from the concept of the continuous wavelet transform correlation function (WTCF), is proposed for the evaluation of power-law properties from observed data. The new method reveals that foreign exchange rates obey power-laws and thus belong to the class of self-similarity processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pileggi Marcos
2001-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient method for constructing transgenic lettuce cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens was described by Torres et al., 1993. In the present work, an improvement of the above procedure is described and applied to transform the cultivar Grand Rapids with a mutated P5CS gene. The major modifications were concerned with turning more practical the transformation and regeneration protocols. Also we tried to improve transformation steps by increasing injured area in explants and prolonging co-cultivation with Agrobacteria (in larger concentration. A more significant selective pressure was used against non-transformed plants and bacteria. In these work we were concerned to obtain T1 and T2 seeds. The P5CS gene codes for a delta¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes two steps of proline biosynthesis in plants (Zhang et al., 1995; Peng et al., 1996, while the mutated gene is insensitive to feedback inhibition by proline. The potential benefit of this gene is to confer water stress resistance (drought, salt, cold due to increased intracellular levels of proline that works like an osmoprotectant. In this work could obtain and characterize transgenic lettuce lineages which are resistant to freezing temperature.
Automatic Tree Data Removal Method for Topography Measurement Result Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner
Yokoyama, H.; Chikatsu, H.
2017-02-01
Recently, laser scanning has been receiving greater attention as a useful tool for real-time 3D data acquisition, and various applications such as city modelling, DTM generation and 3D modelling of cultural heritage sites have been proposed. And, former digital data processing were demanded in the past digital archive techniques for cultural heritage sites. However, robust filtering method for distinguishing on- and off-terrain points by terrestrial laser scanner still have many issues. In the past investigation, former digital data processing using air-bone laser scanner were reported. Though, efficient tree removal methods from terrain points for the cultural heritage are not considered. In this paper, authors describe a new robust filtering method for cultural heritage using terrestrial laser scanner with "the echo digital processing technology" as latest data processing techniques of terrestrial laser scanner.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joon-Ho Choi
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A distribution system was designed and operated by considering unidirectional power flow from a utility source to end-use loads. The large penetrations of distributed generation (DG into the existing distribution system causes a variety of technical problems, such as frequent tap changing problems of the on-load tap changer (OLTC transformer, local voltage rise, protection coordination, exceeding short-circuit capacity, and harmonic distortion. In view of voltage regulation, the intermittent fluctuation of the DG output power results in frequent tap changing operations of the OLTC transformer. Thus, many utilities limit the penetration level of DG and are eager to find the reasonable penetration limits of DG in the distribution system. To overcome this technical problem, utilities have developed a new voltage regulation method in the distribution system with a large DG penetration level. In this paper, the impact of DG on the OLTC operations controlled by the line drop compensation (LDC method is analyzed. In addition, a generalized determination methodology for the DG penetration limits in a distribution substation transformer is proposed. The proposed DG penetration limits could be adopted for a simplified interconnection process in DG interconnection guidelines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HASHEM SABERI NAJAFI
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Generalized differential transform method (GDTM is a powerful method to solve the fractional differential equations. In this paper, a new fractional model for systems with single degree of freedom (SDOF is presented, by using the GDTM. The advantage of this method compared with some other numerical methods has been shown. The analysis of new approximations, damping and acceleration of systems are also described. Finally, by reducing damping and analysis of the errors, in one of the fractional cases, we have shown that in addition to having a suitable solution for the displacement close to the exact one, the system enjoys acceleration once crossing the equilibrium point.
Design of a Data Distribution Core Model for Seafloor Observatories in East China Sea
Chen, H.; Qin, R.; Xu, H.
2017-12-01
High loadings of nutrients and pollutants from agriculture, industries and city waste waters are carried by Changjiang (Yangtze) River and transformed into the foodweb in the river freshwater plume. Understanding these transport and transformation processes is essential for the ecosystem protection, fisheries resources management, seafood safety and human health. As Xiaoqushan Seafloor Observatory and Zhujiajian Seafloor Observatory built in East China Sea, it is an opportunity and a new way for the research of Changjiang River plume. Data collected by seafloor observatory should be accessed conveniently by end users in real time or near real time, which can make it play a better role. Therefore, data distribution is one of major issues for seafloor observatory characterized by long term, real time, high resolution and continuous observation. This study describes a Data Distribution core Model for Seafloor Observatories in East China Sea (ESDDM) containing Data Acquisition Module (DAM), Data Interpretation Module (DIM), Data Transmission Module (DTM) and Data Storage Module (DTM), which enables acquiring, interpreting, transmitting and storing various types of data in real time. A Data Distribution Model Makeup Language (DDML) based on XML is designed to enhance the expansibility and flexibility of the system implemented by ESDDM. Network sniffer is used to acquire data by IP address and port number in DAM promising to release the operating pressure of junction boxes. Data interface, core data processing plugins and common libraries consist of DIM helping it interpret data in a hot swapping way. DTM is an external module in ESDDM transmitting designated raw data packets to Secondary Receiver Terminal. The technology of database connection pool used in DSM facilitates the efficiency of large volumes of continuous data storage. Given a successful scenario in Zhujiajian Seafloor Observatory, the protosystem based on ESDDM running up to 1500h provides a reference for
An accelerated hologram calculation using the wavefront recording plane method and wavelet transform
Arai, Daisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Nishitsuji, Takashi; Kakue, Takashi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2017-06-01
Fast hologram calculation methods are critical in real-time holography applications such as three-dimensional (3D) displays. We recently proposed a wavelet transform-based hologram calculation called WASABI. Even though WASABI can decrease the calculation time of a hologram from a point cloud, it increases the calculation time with increasing propagation distance. We also proposed a wavefront recoding plane (WRP) method. This is a two-step fast hologram calculation in which the first step calculates the superposition of light waves emitted from a point cloud in a virtual plane, and the second step performs a diffraction calculation from the virtual plane to the hologram plane. A drawback of the WRP method is in the first step when the point cloud has a large number of object points and/or a long distribution in the depth direction. In this paper, we propose a method combining WASABI and the WRP method in which the drawbacks of each can be complementarily solved. Using a consumer CPU, the proposed method succeeded in performing a hologram calculation with 2048 × 2048 pixels from a 3D object with one million points in approximately 0.4 s.
Control practices contribute to premature transformer failures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jauch, E.T. [Beckwith Electric Company Inc., Largo, FL (United States)
2007-07-01
Studies of premature load tap changer (LTC) transformer failures on utility systems have shown the tap changers to be the primary contributing factor. Some of the LTC factors that lead to transformer failures include oil quality and particulate contamination; LTC contact temperature rise; contact coking; carbon film build-up; short circuit mechanical forces; and contact wear and arcing. These factors create increasing contact resistance thereby increasing voltage drop, localized heating, contact pitting, oil contamination and general deterioration. This paper discussed utility tapchanger control practices and methods of determining control functions to be activated as well as the determination of optimum settings contributing to excessive or untimely tap change operations. The transformer applications that were considered included transmission tie transformers as well as transmission distribution interface transformers. The paper discussed the circulating current paralleling method and the circulating reactive current or var sharing paralleling method. Several common practices were discussed, including basic voltage control ranges and setting effects; timing options available; LDC misapplications; first house protection methods; and various paralleling techniques. It was concluded that although there are several other methods of paralleling power transformers, many are not applicable under certain system configurations. In these applications, improper use of a paralleling method or improper setting and commissioning may cause hunting for appropriate tap positions and dramatically increase the number of tap changes, causing wear and degradation of the tap changer contacts. 3 refs., 5 figs.
Cai, Jianhua
2017-05-01
The time-frequency analysis method represents signal as a function of time and frequency, and it is considered a powerful tool for handling arbitrary non-stationary time series by using instantaneous frequency and instantaneous amplitude. It also provides a possible alternative to the analysis of the non-stationary magnetotelluric (MT) signal. Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a time-frequency analysis method is proposed to obtain stable estimates of the magnetotelluric response function. In contrast to conventional methods, the response function estimation is performed in the time-frequency domain using instantaneous spectra rather than in the frequency domain, which allows for imaging the response parameter content as a function of time and frequency. The theory of the method is presented and the mathematical model and calculation procedure, which are used to estimate response function based on HHT time-frequency spectrum, are discussed. To evaluate the results, response function estimates are compared with estimates from a standard MT data processing method based on the Fourier transform. All results show that apparent resistivities and phases, which are calculated from the HHT time-frequency method, are generally more stable and reliable than those determined from the simple Fourier analysis. The proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of the traditional Fourier methods, and the resulting parameter minimises the estimation bias caused by the non-stationary characteristics of the MT data.
A finite element formulation for perturbation theory calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozgener, B.; Kaluc, S.
2004-01-01
Full text: When the introduced change in the configuration of a nuclear system is neutronically not too significant, the use of the perturbation theory approximation ('the perturbation theory method' or PTM) is usually considered as an alternative to the recalculation of the effective multiplication factor (K eff ) of the modified system ('the diffusion theory method' or DTM) for the determination of the ensuing change in reactivity. In the DTM, the change in reactivity due to the introduced change can be calculated by the multigroup diffusion theory by performing two K eff determinations, one for the original and one for the modified system. The accuracy of this method is only limited by the approximations inherent in the multigroup diffusion theory and the numerical method employed for its solution. The error stemming from the numerical approximation can be nearly eliminated by utilizing a fine enough spatial mesh ad an 'exact' solution is nearly possible. Its basic disadvantage relative to the PTM is the necessity of a new K eff calculation for every change in the configuration no matter how small. On the other hand, if we use PTM, with an only one-time calculation of the flux and the adjoint flux of the original system, the change in reactivity due to any kind of perturbation can be approximately calculated using the changes in the cross section data in the perturbation theory reactivity formula. The accuracy of the PTM is restricted by the size and location of the induced change. In this work, our aim is to assess the accuracy of PTM relative to the DTM and determine criteria for the justification of its use. For all required solutions of the normal and adjoint multigroup diffusion equations, we choose the finite element method (FEM) as our numerical method and a 1-D cylindrical geometry model. The underlying theory is implemented in our FORTRAN program PERTURB. The validation of PERTURB is carried out via comparisons with analytical solutions for bare and
Automatic Detection of Microaneurysms in Color Fundus Images using a Local Radon Transform Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamid Reza Pourreza
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is one of the most serious and most frequent eye diseases in the world and the most common cause of blindness in adults between 20 and 60 years of age. Following 15 years of diabetes, about 2% of the diabetic patients are blind and 10% suffer from vision impairment due to DR complications. This paper addresses the automatic detection of microaneurysms (MA in color fundus images, which plays a key role in computer-assisted early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Materials and Methods: The algorithm can be divided into three main steps. The purpose of the first step or pre-processing is background normalization and contrast enhancement of the images. The second step aims to detect candidates, i.e., all patterns possibly corresponding to MA, which is achieved using a local radon transform, Then, features are extracted, which are used in the last step to automatically classify the candidates into real MA or other objects using the SVM method. A database of 100 annotated images was used to test the algorithm. The algorithm was compared to manually obtained gradings of these images. Results: The sensitivity of diagnosis for DR was 100%, with specificity of 90% and the sensitivity of precise MA localization was 97%, at an average number of 5 false positives per image. Discussion and Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm make it one of the best methods in this field. Using the local radon transform in this algorithm eliminates the noise sensitivity for MA detection in retinal image analysis.
Spotlight on modern transformer design
Georgilakis, Pavlos S
2009-01-01
Increasing competition in the global transformer market has put tremendous responsibilities on the industry to increase reliability while reducing cost. This book introduces an approach to transformer design using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in combination with finite element method (FEM).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foged, Hans Isak Worre
2017-01-01
Transformation of the built environment in Denmark is estimated to become 51% of the total building activities in the future in order to accommodate new energy targets, a general population move to the city and to maintain buildings, which otherwise presents high architectural qualities. This poi......Transformation of the built environment in Denmark is estimated to become 51% of the total building activities in the future in order to accommodate new energy targets, a general population move to the city and to maintain buildings, which otherwise presents high architectural qualities....... This points to the need of new ideas, methods and models for architects to transform existing building envelopes beyond the current primary approach of simply adding and external insulation layer. The research studies and present thermal simulation methods, models, elementary design studies and applied design...... approaches to envelope transformations based on modifying colours and local geometries of an envelope. The study finds that colour can be used instrumentally as a design variable to control external surface heat accumulation and envelope heat transfer, whereas local geometric variations only present...
Kanjanapen, Manorth; Kunsombat, Cherdsak; Chiangga, Surasak
2017-09-01
The functional transformation method (FTM) is a powerful tool for detailed investigation of digital sound synthesis by the physical modeling method, the resulting sound or measured vibrational characteristics at discretized points on real instruments directly solves the underlying physical effect of partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we present the Higuchi’s method to examine the difference between the timbre of tone and estimate fractal dimension of musical signals which contains information about their geometrical structure that synthesizes by FTM. With the Higuchi’s method we obtain the whole process is not complicated, fast processing, with the ease of analysis without expertise in the physics or virtuoso musicians and the easiest way for the common people can judge that sounds similarly presented.
Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geick, R.
1981-01-01
This review starts with the basic principles of resonance phenomena in physical systems. Especially, the connection is shown between the properties of these systems and Fourier transforms. Next, we discuss the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance. Starting from the general properties of physical systems showing resonance phenomena and from the special properties of nuclear spin systems, the main part of this paper reviews pulse and Fourier methods in nuclear magnetic resonance. Among pulse methods, an introduction will be given to spin echoes, and, apart from the principle of Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance, an introduction to the technical problems of this method, e.g. resolution in the frequency domain, aliasing, phase and intensity errors, stationary state of the spin systems for repetitive measurements, proton decoupling, and application of Fourier methods to systems in a nonequilibrium state. The last section is devoted to special applications of Fourier methods and recent developments, e.g. measurement of relaxation times, solvent peak suppression, 'rapid scan'-method, methods for suppressing the effects of dipolar coupling in solids, two-dimensional Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance, and spin mapping or zeugmatography. (author)
The Lorentz integral transform and its inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnea, N.; Efros, V.D.; Leidemann, W.; Orlandini, G.
2010-01-01
The Lorentz integral transform method is briefly reviewed. The issue of the inversion of the transform, and in particular its ill-posedness, is addressed. It is pointed out that the mathematical term ill-posed is misleading and merely due to a historical misconception. In this connection standard regularization procedures for the solution of the integral transform problem are presented. In particular a recent one is considered in detail and critical comments on it are provided. In addition a general remark concerning the concept of the Lorentz integral transform as a method with a controlled resolution is made. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Liu
Full Text Available Depth image-based rendering (DIBR, which is used to render virtual views with a color image and the corresponding depth map, is one of the key techniques in the 2D to 3D conversion process. Due to the absence of knowledge about the 3D structure of a scene and its corresponding texture, DIBR in the 2D to 3D conversion process, inevitably leads to holes in the resulting 3D image as a result of newly-exposed areas. In this paper, we proposed a structure-aided depth map preprocessing framework in the transformed domain, which is inspired by recently proposed domain transform for its low complexity and high efficiency. Firstly, our framework integrates hybrid constraints including scene structure, edge consistency and visual saliency information in the transformed domain to improve the performance of depth map preprocess in an implicit way. Then, adaptive smooth localization is cooperated and realized in the proposed framework to further reduce over-smoothness and enhance optimization in the non-hole regions. Different from the other similar methods, the proposed method can simultaneously achieve the effects of hole filling, edge correction and local smoothing for typical depth maps in a united framework. Thanks to these advantages, it can yield visually satisfactory results with less computational complexity for high quality 2D to 3D conversion. Numerical experimental results demonstrate the excellent performances of the proposed method.
Photogrammetric Processing of Planetary Linear Pushbroom Images Based on Approximate Orthophotos
Geng, X.; Xu, Q.; Xing, S.; Hou, Y. F.; Lan, C. Z.; Zhang, J. J.
2018-04-01
It is still a great challenging task to efficiently produce planetary mapping products from orbital remote sensing images. There are many disadvantages in photogrammetric processing of planetary stereo images, such as lacking ground control information and informative features. Among which, image matching is the most difficult job in planetary photogrammetry. This paper designs a photogrammetric processing framework for planetary remote sensing images based on approximate orthophotos. Both tie points extraction for bundle adjustment and dense image matching for generating digital terrain model (DTM) are performed on approximate orthophotos. Since most of planetary remote sensing images are acquired by linear scanner cameras, we mainly deal with linear pushbroom images. In order to improve the computational efficiency of orthophotos generation and coordinates transformation, a fast back-projection algorithm of linear pushbroom images is introduced. Moreover, an iteratively refined DTM and orthophotos scheme was adopted in the DTM generation process, which is helpful to reduce search space of image matching and improve matching accuracy of conjugate points. With the advantages of approximate orthophotos, the matching results of planetary remote sensing images can be greatly improved. We tested the proposed approach with Mars Express (MEX) High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images. The preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Macro Photography for Reflectance Transformation Imaging: A Practical Guide to the Highlights Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonino Cosentino
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI is increasingly being used for art documentation and analysis and it can be successful also for the examination of features on the order of hundreds of microns. This paper evaluates some macro scale photography methods specifically for RTI employing the Highlights method for documenting sub-millimeter details. This RTI technique consists in including one reflective sphere in the scene photographed so that the processing software can calculate for each photo the direction of the light source from its reflection on the sphere. RTI documentation can be performed also with an RTI dome, but the Highlights method is preferred because is more mobile and more affordable. This technique is demonstrated in the documentation of some prints ranging from the XV to the XX century from to the Ingels collection in Sweden. The images are here examined and discussed, showing the application of macro RTI for identifying features of prints.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimenko, S.P.; Gritsina, V.M.; Petel'guzov, I.A.; Chernyaeva, T.P.
2007-01-01
The paper determines the applicability areas of different methods for the study of structural phase transformations in a Zr+1Nb alloy, which is extensively used in reactor construction; production and fabrication of products from Zr+1Nb is currently developed in Ukraine. Electromotive force and electric resistance were measured to study structural phase transformations of Zr+1Nb fuel rod tubes based on calciumthermal zirconium (Zr1Nb). It was established that changes in electric resistance clearly show the beginning of a massive α → β transition at ∼ 750 degree C and the end of α → β transition at ∼ 950 degree C, whereas measurement of thermo-e.m.f. in the samples subjected to successive 3-hour step annealing in the temperature range from 300 to 700 degree C allows the temperature of monotectoid transformation to be found. For sample Zr1Nb batches the temperature of monotectoid transformation is (620±7) degree C. The measurement results are consistent with the similar studies carried out on Zr+1Nb fuel rod tubes based on electrolytic zirconium (E110), for which the temperature of monotectoid transformation is equal to ∼ 610 degree C
Transform Methods for Precision Nonlinear Wave Models of Flexible space Structures
1990-08-20
developed, each of which has motivated a structural control methodology in a natural way. The Transform Element Modelling (TEM) approach uses the Laplace...IEk A L 2 = -, c G= ( C .3 a ,b ) Talng the Laplace transfor-m (neglecting initial conditions) )ields [1+tjSZ-(,s) +S ((X’S) + al2a~ pS4 (X’S) j(X’s) (04
Application of Hadamard transform in IMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sha Miaomiao; Liu Weihao; Chen Yong; Jiang Dazhen
2008-01-01
Hadamard transform can improve the SNR by increasing the ion duty cycle in IMS. In this paper, the ion spectral signals were processed by Hadamard transform based on the IMS detector hardware platform. The results showed that Hadamard transform can greatly improve the SNR of the IMS detector in contrast with traditional method. (authors)
Medical Image Denoising Using Mixed Transforms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaleel Sadoon Jameel
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a mixed transform method is proposed based on a combination of wavelet transform (WT and multiwavelet transform (MWT in order to denoise medical images. The proposed method consists of WT and MWT in cascade form to enhance the denoising performance of image processing. Practically, the first step is to add a noise to Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI or Computed Tomography (CT images for the sake of testing. The noisy image is processed by WT to achieve four sub-bands and each sub-band is treated individually using MWT before the soft/hard denoising stage. Simulation results show that a high peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR is improved significantly and the characteristic features are well preserved by employing mixed transform of WT and MWT due to their capability of separating noise signals from image signals. Moreover, the corresponding mean square error (MSE is decreased accordingly compared to other available methods.
Transforming criticality control methods for EBR-II fuel handling during reactor decommissioning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eberle, C.S.; Dean, E.M.; Angelo, P.L.
1995-01-01
A review of the Department of Energy (DOE) request to decommission the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) was conducted in order to develop a scope of work and analysis method for performing the safety review of the facility. Evaluation of the current national standards, DOE orders, EBR-II nuclear safeguards and criticality control practices showed that a decommissioning policy for maintaining criticality safety during a long term fuel transfer process did not exist. The purpose of this research was to provide a technical basis for transforming the reactor from an instrumentation and measurement controlled system to a system that provides both physical constraint and administrative controls to prevent criticality accidents. Essentially, this was done by modifying the reactor core configuration, reactor operations procedures and system instrumentation to meet the safety practices of ANS-8.1-1983. Subcritical limits were determined by applying established liquid metal reactor methods for both the experimental and computational validations
Solimun, Fernandes, Adji Achmad Rinaldo; Arisoesilaningsih, Endang
2017-12-01
Research in various fields generally investigates systems and involves latent variables. One method to analyze the model representing the system is path analysis. The data of latent variables measured using questionnaires by applying attitude scale model yields data in the form of score, before analyzed should be transformation so that it becomes data of scale. Path coefficient, is parameter estimator, calculated from scale data using method of successive interval (MSI) and summated rating scale (SRS). In this research will be identifying which data transformation method is better. Path coefficients have smaller varieties are said to be more efficient. The transformation method that produces scaled data and used in path analysis capable of producing path coefficients (parameter estimators) with smaller varieties is said to be better. The result of analysis using real data shows that on the influence of Attitude variable to Intention Entrepreneurship, has relative efficiency (ER) = 1, where it shows that the result of analysis using data transformation of MSI and SRS as efficient. On the other hand, for simulation data, at high correlation between items (0.7-0.9), MSI method is more efficient 1.3 times better than SRS method.
Reverse ray tracing for transformation optics.
Hu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung
2015-06-29
Ray tracing is an important technique for predicting optical system performance. In the field of transformation optics, the Hamiltonian equations of motion for ray tracing are well known. The numerical solutions to the Hamiltonian equations of motion are affected by the complexities of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices of the optical device. Based on our knowledge, no previous work has been conducted on ray tracing for transformation optics with extreme inhomogeneity and anisotropicity. In this study, we present the use of 3D reverse ray tracing in transformation optics. The reverse ray tracing is derived from Fermat's principle based on a sweeping method instead of finding the full solution to ordinary differential equations. The sweeping method is employed to obtain the eikonal function. The wave vectors are then obtained from the gradient of that eikonal function map in the transformed space to acquire the illuminance. Because only the rays in the points of interest have to be traced, the reverse ray tracing provides an efficient approach to investigate the illuminance of a system. This approach is useful in any form of transformation optics where the material property tensor is a symmetric positive definite matrix. The performance and analysis of three transformation optics with inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices are explored. The ray trajectories and illuminances in these demonstration cases are successfully solved by the proposed reverse ray tracing method.
Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques
Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.
Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.
Abel inverse transformation applied to plasma diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shiyao
1987-01-01
Two methods of Abel inverse transformation are applied to two different test profiles. The effects of random errors of input data, position uncertainty and number of points of input data on the accuracy of inverse transformation have been studied. The two methods are compared in each other
Ghanbarzadeh, Mitra; Aminghafari, Mina
2015-05-01
This article studies the prediction of periodically correlated process using wavelet transform and multivariate methods with applications to climatological data. Periodically correlated processes can be reformulated as multivariate stationary processes. Considering this fact, two new prediction methods are proposed. In the first method, we use stepwise regression between the principal components of the multivariate stationary process and past wavelet coefficients of the process to get a prediction. In the second method, we propose its multivariate version without principal component analysis a priori. Also, we study a generalization of the prediction methods dealing with a deterministic trend using exponential smoothing. Finally, we illustrate the performance of the proposed methods on simulated and real climatological data (ozone amounts, flows of a river, solar radiation, and sea levels) compared with the multivariate autoregressive model. The proposed methods give good results as we expected.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole
1996-01-01
Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...... of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen. (C) 1996 Optical Society of America...... measurement at a known sample temperature, for example, at ambient temperature. The temperature of the sample surface can be measured rather easily at ambient temperature. The spectrum at ambient temperature is used to eliminate background effects from spectra as measured at other surface temperatures...
Kasubuchi, Kenji; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Takahiko
2018-02-26
Dart-throwing motion (DTM) is an important component of wrist function and, consequently, has the potential to become an evaluation tool in rehabilitation. However, no measurement method is currently available to reliably measure range of motion (ROM) of the wrist in the DTM plane. To determine the reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device to measure wrist ROM in the DTM plane. ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured in 70 healthy participants. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the relative reliability of measurement, and a Bland-Altman analysis conducted to establish its absolute reliability, including the 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA). The standard error of the measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level (MDC 95 ) were calculated as measures of responsiveness. The intra-rater ICC was 0.87, and an inter-rater ICC of 0.71. There was no evidence of a fixed or proportional bias. For intra- and inter-rater reliability, 95% LOA ranged from -13.83 to 11.12 and from -17.75 to 16.19, respectively. The SEM and MDC 95 were 4.5° and 12.4°, respectively, for intra-rater reliability, and 6.0° and 16.6°, respectively, for inter-rater reliability. The ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured with fair-to-good reliability and responsiveness and, therefore, has the potential to become an evaluation tool for rehabilitation.
Optimal transformations for categorical autoregressive time series
Buuren, S. van
1996-01-01
This paper describes a method for finding optimal transformations for analyzing time series by autoregressive models. 'Optimal' implies that the agreement between the autoregressive model and the transformed data is maximal. Such transformations help 1) to increase the model fit, and 2) to analyze
Kukkonen, M.; Maltamo, M.; Packalen, P.
2017-08-01
Image matching is emerging as a compelling alternative to airborne laser scanning (ALS) as a data source for forest inventory and management. There is currently an open discussion in the forest inventory community about whether, and to what extent, the new method can be applied to practical inventory campaigns. This paper aims to contribute to this discussion by comparing two different image matching algorithms (Semi-Global Matching [SGM] and Next-Generation Automatic Terrain Extraction [NGATE]) and ALS in a typical managed boreal forest environment in southern Finland. Spectral features from unrectified aerial images were included in the modeling and the potential of image matching in areas without a high resolution digital terrain model (DTM) was also explored. Plot level predictions for total volume, stem number, basal area, height of basal area median tree and diameter of basal area median tree were modeled using an area-based approach. Plot level dominant tree species were predicted using a random forest algorithm, also using an area-based approach. The statistical difference between the error rates from different datasets was evaluated using a bootstrap method. Results showed that ALS outperformed image matching with every forest attribute, even when a high resolution DTM was used for height normalization and spectral information from images was included. Dominant tree species classification with image matching achieved accuracy levels similar to ALS regardless of the resolution of the DTM when spectral metrics were used. Neither of the image matching algorithms consistently outperformed the other, but there were noticeably different error rates depending on the parameter configuration, spectral band, resolution of DTM, or response variable. This study showed that image matching provides reasonable point cloud data for forest inventory purposes, especially when a high resolution DTM is available and information from the understory is redundant.
An optical Fourier transform coprocessor with direct phase determination.
Macfaden, Alexander J; Gordon, George S D; Wilkinson, Timothy D
2017-10-20
The Fourier transform is a ubiquitous mathematical operation which arises naturally in optics. We propose and demonstrate a practical method to optically evaluate a complex-to-complex discrete Fourier transform. By implementing the Fourier transform optically we can overcome the limiting O(nlogn) complexity of fast Fourier transform algorithms. Efficiently extracting the phase from the well-known optical Fourier transform is challenging. By appropriately decomposing the input and exploiting symmetries of the Fourier transform we are able to determine the phase directly from straightforward intensity measurements, creating an optical Fourier transform with O(n) apparent complexity. Performing larger optical Fourier transforms requires higher resolution spatial light modulators, but the execution time remains unchanged. This method could unlock the potential of the optical Fourier transform to permit 2D complex-to-complex discrete Fourier transforms with a performance that is currently untenable, with applications across information processing and computational physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartosch, T. [Erlanger-Nuernberg Univ., Erlanger (Germany). Lehrstul fuer Nachrichtentechnik I; Seidl, D. [Seismologisches Zentralobservatorium Graefenberg, Erlanegen (Greece). Bundesanstalt fuer Geiwissenschaften und Rohstoffe
1999-06-01
Among a variety of spectrogram methods short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli (Italy).
Automated reconstruction of pre-transformation microstructures in zirconium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishna, K.V. Mani; Tripathi, P.; Hiwarkar, V.D.; Pant, P.; Samajdar, I.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.
2010-01-01
An automated reconstruction of the pre-transformation microstructure from the microtexture data of the post-transformation product phase is proposed. The method involves identifying triplets of neighboring product grains with a common variant and linking such neighboring triplets via a generalized misorientation criterion. The approach is non-iterative and extremely efficient computationally. The method was tested successfully for different post-transformation microstructures in zirconium.
Establishment of an efficient transformation system for Pleurotus ostreatus.
Lei, Min; Wu, Xiangli; Zhang, Jinxia; Wang, Hexiang; Huang, Chenyang
2017-11-21
Pleurotus ostreatus is widely cultivated worldwide, but the lack of an efficient transformation system regarding its use restricts its genetic research. The present study developed an improved and efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method in P. ostreatus. Four parameters were optimized to obtain the most efficient transformation method. The strain LBA4404 was the most suitable for the transformation of P. ostreatus. A bacteria-to-protoplast ratio of 100:1, an acetosyringone (AS) concentration of 0.1 mM, and 18 h of co-culture showed the best transformation efficiency. The hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (HPH) was used as the selective marker, and EGFP was used as the reporter gene in this study. Southern blot analysis combined with EGFP fluorescence assay showed positive results, and mitotic stability assay showed that more than 75% transformants were stable after five generations. These results showed that our transformation method is effective and stable and may facilitate future genetic studies in P. ostreatus.
Dependency Parsing with Transformed Feature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuxiang Wu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Dependency parsing is an important subtask of natural language processing. In this paper, we propose an embedding feature transforming method for graph-based parsing, transform-based parsing, which directly utilizes the inner similarity of the features to extract information from all feature strings including the un-indexed strings and alleviate the feature sparse problem. The model transforms the extracted features to transformed features via applying a feature weight matrix, which consists of similarities between the feature strings. Since the matrix is usually rank-deficient because of similar feature strings, it would influence the strength of constraints. However, it is proven that the duplicate transformed features do not degrade the optimization algorithm: the margin infused relaxed algorithm. Moreover, this problem can be alleviated by reducing the number of the nearest transformed features of a feature. In addition, to further improve the parsing accuracy, a fusion parser is introduced to integrate transformed and original features. Our experiments verify that both transform-based and fusion parser improve the parsing accuracy compared to the corresponding feature-based parser.
Multi-Scale Scattering Transform in Music Similarity Measuring
Wang, Ruobai
Scattering transform is a Mel-frequency spectrum based, time-deformation stable method, which can be used in evaluating music similarity. Compared with Dynamic time warping, it has better performance in detecting similar audio signals under local time-frequency deformation. Multi-scale scattering means to combine scattering transforms of different window lengths. This paper argues that, multi-scale scattering transform is a good alternative of dynamic time warping in music similarity measuring. We tested the performance of multi-scale scattering transform against other popular methods, with data designed to represent different conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pickett, T.J.; Shirts, R.B.
1991-01-01
Based on work by Martens and Ezra and partially developed independently by Eaker, we apply an improved method of approximating the quantum energy levels of a system of coupled oscillators using the fast-Fourier transform of classical coordinates and momenta to find quantizing trajectories. Application is made to a two-dimensional system modeling the stretching motions of the HDO molecule. The results are in excellent agreement with quantum calculations. This method is useful because: (1) it gives results which are independent of any separability of the Hamiltonian, (2) it is not limited in the number of degrees of freedom that can be handled, and (3) no zero-order approximation to the system is necessary. Results are equally valid inside and outside of resonance zones
[The lymphocyte transformation test in dermatology].
Zinn, K; Braun-Falco, O
1976-03-01
At first, immunologie and methodic basies of the lymphocyte transformation test are discussed. Then the results gained by this test in several dermatologic diseases are summarized. Finally, practice of the lymphocyte transformation test is critically reviewed.
Development of 600 kV triple resonance pulse transformer.
Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Faqiang; Liang, Chuan; Xu, Zhou
2015-06-01
In this paper, a triple-resonance pulse transformer based on an air-core transformer is introduced. The voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is significantly less than the output voltage; instead, the full output voltage appears across the tuning inductor. The maximum ratio of peak load voltage to peak transformer voltage is 2.77 in theory. By analyzing pulse transformer's lossless circuit, the analytical expression for the output voltage and the characteristic equation of the triple-resonance circuit are presented. Design method for the triple-resonance pulse transformer (iterated simulation method) is presented, and a triple-resonance pulse transformer is developed based on the existing air-core transformer. The experimental results indicate that the maximum ratio of peak voltage across the load to peak voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is approximately 2.0 and the peak output voltage of the triple-resonance pulse transformer is approximately 600 kV.
Fourier transformation methods in the field of gamma spectrometry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The basic principles of a new version of Fourier transformation is presented. This new version was applied to solve some main problems such as smoothing, and denoising in gamma spectroscopy. The mathematical procedures were first tested by simulated data and then by actual experimental data.
INTRODUCTION OF GENERALIZED LAPLACE-FRACTIONAL MELLIN TRANSFORM
V. D. Sharma*, M. M. Thakare
2016-01-01
In present era, Fractional Integral Transform plays an important role in various fields of mathematics and Technology. Mellin transform has an many application in navigations, correlaters, in area of statistics, probability and also solving in differential equation. Fractional Mellin transform is integral part of mathematical modeling method because of its scale invariance property. The aim of this paper is to generalization of Laplace-Fractional Mellin Transform. Analyticity theore...
q-Generalization of the inverse Fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jauregui, M.; Tsallis, C.
2011-01-01
A wide class of physical distributions appears to follow the q-Gaussian form, which plays the role of attractor according to a q-generalized Central Limit Theorem, where a q-generalized Fourier transform plays an important role. We introduce here a method which determines a distribution from the knowledge of its q-Fourier transform and some supplementary information. This procedure involves a recently q-generalized representation of the Dirac delta and the class of functions on which it acts. The present method conveniently extends the inverse of the standard Fourier transform, and is therefore expected to be very useful in the study of many complex systems. - Highlights: → We present a method to invert the q-Fourier transform of a distribution. → We illustrate when Dirac delta can be represented using q-exponentials. → We describe a family of functions for which this new representation works.
Firth, Jean M
1992-01-01
The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...
The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villegas-Blas, Carlos
2002-01-01
This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms
Calculation of transformers leakage reactance using electromagnetic energy technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feiz, J.; Mohseni, H.; Sabet Marzooghi, S.; Naderian Jahromi, A.
2004-01-01
Determination of transformer leakage reactance using magnetic cores has long been an area of interest to engineers involved in the design of power and distribution transformers. This is required for predicting the performance of transformers before actual assembly of the transformers. In this paper a closed form solution technique applicable to the leakage reactance calculations for transformers is presented. An emphasis is on the development of a simple method to calculate the leakage reactance of the distribution transformers and smaller transformers. Energy technique procedure for computing the leakage reactances in distribution transformers is presented. This method is very efficient compared with the use of flux element and image technique and is also remarkably accurate. Examples of calculated leakage inductances and the short circuit impedance are given for illustration. For validation, the results are compared with the results obtained using test. This paper presents a novel technique for calculation of the leakage inductance in different parts of the transformer using the electromagnetic stored energy
Główka, Franciszek K; Romański, Michał; Teżyk, Artur; Żaba, Czesław
2013-01-01
Treosulfan (TREO) is an alkylating agent registered for treatment of advanced platin-resistant ovarian carcinoma. Nowadays, TREO is increasingly applied iv in high doses as a promising myeloablative agent with low organ toxicity in children. Under physiological conditions it undergoes pH-dependent transformation into epoxy-transformers (S,S-EBDM and S,S-DEB). The mechanism of this reaction is generally known, but not its kinetic details. In order to investigate kinetics of TREO transformation, HPLC method with refractometric detection for simultaneous determination of the three analytes in one analytical run has been developed for the first time. The samples containing TREO, S,S-EBDM, S,S-DEB and acetaminophen (internal standard) were directly injected onto the reversed phase column. To assure stability of the analytes and obtain their complete resolution, mobile phase composed of acetate buffer pH 4.5 and acetonitrile was applied. The linear range of the calibration curves of TREO, S,S-EBDM and S,S-DEB spanned concentrations of 20-6000, 34-8600 and 50-6000 μM, respectively. Intra- and interday precision and accuracy of the developed method fulfilled analytical criteria. The stability of the analytes in experimental samples was also established. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to the investigation of the kinetics of TREO activation to S,S-EBDM and S,S-DEB. At pH 7.4 and 37 °C the transformation of TREO followed first-order kinetics with a half-life 1.5h. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bagheri, H.; Sadjadi, S. Y.; Sadeghian, S.
2013-09-01
One of the most significant tools to study many engineering projects is three-dimensional modelling of the Earth that has many applications in the Geospatial Information System (GIS), e.g. creating Digital Train Modelling (DTM). DTM has numerous applications in the fields of sciences, engineering, design and various project administrations. One of the most significant events in DTM technique is the interpolation of elevation to create a continuous surface. There are several methods for interpolation, which have shown many results due to the environmental conditions and input data. The usual methods of interpolation used in this study along with Genetic Algorithms (GA) have been optimised and consisting of polynomials and the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. In this paper, the Artificial Intelligent (AI) techniques such as GA and Neural Networks (NN) are used on the samples to optimise the interpolation methods and production of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The aim of entire interpolation methods is to evaluate the accuracy of interpolation methods. Universal interpolation occurs in the entire neighbouring regions can be suggested for larger regions, which can be divided into smaller regions. The results obtained from applying GA and ANN individually, will be compared with the typical method of interpolation for creation of elevations. The resulting had performed that AI methods have a high potential in the interpolation of elevations. Using artificial networks algorithms for the interpolation and optimisation based on the IDW method with GA could be estimated the high precise elevations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trieu, A.T.; Burleigh, S.H.; Kardailsky, I.V.
2000-01-01
Two rapid and simple in planta transformation methods have been developed for the model legume Medicago truncatula. The first approach is based on a method developed for transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and involves infiltration of flowering plants with a suspension of Agrobacterium....... The second method involves infiltration of young seedlings with Agrobacterium. In both cases a proportion of the progeny of the infiltrated plants is transformed. The transformation frequency ranges from 4.7 to 76% for the flower infiltration method, and from 2.9 to 27.6% for the seedling infiltration method....... Both procedures resulted in a mixture of independent transformants and sibling transformants. The transformants were genetically stable, and analysis of the T-2 generation indicates that the transgenes are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. These transformation systems will increase the utility of M...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin Cristian ALBU
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to make the geometric model to the Archimedean spiral, curve often used in practice. Although it is a widely used, in AutoCAD there is no command with which to represent the Archimedean spiral. The method used for determining the mathematical relationships that define the spiral is the coordinate transformation, and for the calculation of the points which define it, is use AutoLISP, representation being made in AutoCAD. The result of this work is to develop an AutoLISP program which can represent the Archimedean spiral, presented a method that can be applied to the representation of any curves used in the technique.
Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Leaf Base Segments.
Gasparis, Sebastian
2017-01-01
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has become a routine method of genetic engineering of cereals, gradually replacing the biolistic protocols. Simple integration patterns of transgenic loci, decent transformation efficiency, and technical simplicity are the main advantages offered by this method. Here we present a detailed protocol for the production of transgenic oat plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf base segments. The use of leaf explants as target tissues for transformation and in vitro regeneration of transgenic plants may be a good alternative for genotypes which are not susceptible to regeneration from immature or mature embryos. We also describe the biochemical and molecular analysis procedures of the transgenic plants including a GUS histochemical assay, and Southern blot, both of which are optimized for application in oat.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)
1998-12-31
Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P.
1998-01-01
Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magalas L.B.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, we present a novel Hilbert-twin method to compute an envelope and the logarithmic decrement, δ, from exponentially damped time-invariant harmonic strain signals embedded in noise. The results obtained from five computing methods: (1 the parametric OMI (Optimization in Multiple Intervals method, two interpolated discrete Fourier transform-based (IpDFT methods: (2 the Yoshida-Magalas (YM method and (3 the classic Yoshida (Y method, (4 the novel Hilbert-twin (H-twin method based on the Hilbert transform, and (5 the conventional Hilbert transform (HT method are analyzed and compared. The fundamental feature of the Hilbert-twin method is the efficient elimination of intrinsic asymmetrical oscillations of the envelope, aHT (t, obtained from the discrete Hilbert transform of analyzed signals. Excellent performance in estimation of the logarithmic decrement from the Hilbert-twin method is comparable to that of the OMI and YM for the low- and high-damping levels. The Hilbert-twin method proved to be robust and effective in computing the logarithmic decrement and the resonant frequency of exponentially damped free decaying signals embedded in experimental noise. The Hilbert-twin method is also appropriate to detect nonlinearities in mechanical loss measurements of metals and alloys.
An improved method for determining the continuous cooling transformation diagram of C-Mn steels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mesplont, C.; Cooman, B.C. de [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Lab. for Iron and Steelmaking; Zhao, J.Z.; Vandeputte, S. [Ocas, Zelzate (Belgium)
2001-07-01
Dilatometry is often used to study the decomposition of austenite in steels, but the analysis of dilatometric data is often limited to the determination of transformation temperatures. The well-known lever rule is not applicable when more than one phase transformation occurs. A model accounting for the carbon partitioning effects was developed to extract the phase transformation kinetics of a C-Mn steel cooled using a wide range of cooling rates. The model is shown to be suitable to analyze the phase transformations in C-Mn steels and it can be used to obtain a detailed CCT diagram for those steels. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Ken-ichi
2011-01-01
The 11th lecture about microstructures and fluctuation in solids reports on the martensitic phase transformation of alkali metals and alloys. The martensitic transformation is a diffusionless first order phase transformation. Martensitic transformations are classified into two with respect to kinetics, one is isothermal transformation and the other is athermal transformation. The former transformation depends upon both temperature and time, but the latter solely depends on temperature. The former does not have a definite transformation start temperature but occurs after some finite incubation time during isothermal holding. The isothermal martensitic transformation is changed to the athermal one under high magnetic field, and also the reverse transformation occurs under the application of hydrostatic pressure. The former phenomena were observed in Fe-Ni-Mn alloys, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys and also the reverse transformation in Fe-3.1at%Ni-0.5at%Mn alloys. The athermal transformation was observed in Li and Na metals at 73 and 36 K, respectively. A neutron diffraction study has been performed on single crystals of metallic Na. On cooling the virgin sample, the incubation time to transform from the bcc structure to the low-temperature structure (9R structure) is formed to be more than 2h at 38 K, 2 K higher than the transformation temperature of 36 K. The full width of half maximum of the Bragg reflection suddenly increased, due to some deformation introduced by the nucleation of the low-temperature structure. In relation to the deformation, strong extra-diffuse scattering (Huang scattering) was observed around the Bragg reflection in addition to thermal diffuse scattering. The kinetics of the martensitic transformation in In-Tl alloys has been studied by x-ray and neutron diffraction methods. A characteristic incubation time appeared at fixed temperature above Ms, the normal martensitic transformation start temperature. (author)
Quantum arithmetic with the Quantum Fourier Transform
Ruiz-Perez, Lidia; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2014-01-01
The Quantum Fourier Transform offers an interesting way to perform arithmetic operations on a quantum computer. We review existing Quantum Fourier Transform adders and multipliers and propose some modifications that extend their capabilities. Among the new circuits, we propose a quantum method to compute the weighted average of a series of inputs in the transform domain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J.; Robitaille, G.
1995-01-01
This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides
Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Yanxi
2018-05-01
We present a new wavelet ridge extraction method employing a novel cost function in two-dimensional wavelet transform profilometry (2-D WTP). First of all, the maximum value point is extracted from two-dimensional wavelet transform coefficient modulus, and the local extreme value points over 90% of maximum value are also obtained, they both constitute wavelet ridge candidates. Then, the gradient of rotate factor is introduced into the Abid's cost function, and the logarithmic Logistic model is used to adjust and improve the cost function weights so as to obtain more reasonable value estimation. At last, the dynamic programming method is used to accurately find the optimal wavelet ridge, and the wrapped phase can be obtained by extracting the phase at the ridge. Its advantage is that, the fringe pattern with low signal-to-noise ratio can be demodulated accurately, and its noise immunity will be better. Meanwhile, only one fringe pattern is needed to projected to measured object, so dynamic three-dimensional (3-D) measurement in harsh environment can be realized. Computer simulation and experimental results show that, for the fringe pattern with noise pollution, the 3-D surface recovery accuracy by the proposed algorithm is increased. In addition, the demodulation phase accuracy of Morlet, Fan and Cauchy mother wavelets are compared.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chih-Hao Lu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We developed a computational method to identify NAD- and FAD-binding sites in proteins. First, we extracted from the Protein Data Bank structures of proteins that bind to at least one of these ligands. NAD-/FAD-binding residue templates were then constructed by identifying binding residues through the ligand-binding database BioLiP. The fragment transformation method was used to identify structures within query proteins that resembled the ligand-binding templates. By comparing residue types and their relative spatial positions, potential binding sites were identified and a ligand-binding potential for each residue was calculated. Setting the false positive rate at 5%, our method predicted NAD- and FAD-binding sites at true positive rates of 67.1% and 68.4%, respectively. Our method provides excellent results for identifying FAD- and NAD-binding sites in proteins, and the most important is that the requirement of conservation of residue types and local structures in the FAD- and NAD-binding sites can be verified.
Finite Countermodel Based Verification for Program Transformation (A Case Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexei P. Lisitsa
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Both automatic program verification and program transformation are based on program analysis. In the past decade a number of approaches using various automatic general-purpose program transformation techniques (partial deduction, specialization, supercompilation for verification of unreachability properties of computing systems were introduced and demonstrated. On the other hand, the semantics based unfold-fold program transformation methods pose themselves diverse kinds of reachability tasks and try to solve them, aiming at improving the semantics tree of the program being transformed. That means some general-purpose verification methods may be used for strengthening program transformation techniques. This paper considers the question how finite countermodels for safety verification method might be used in Turchin's supercompilation method. We extract a number of supercompilation sub-algorithms trying to solve reachability problems and demonstrate use of an external countermodel finder for solving some of the problems.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.