WorldWideScience

Sample records for transfer inefficiency cti

  1. Measurement and investigation of proton irradiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency in PPD CIS at different integration times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zujun; Zhang, Fengqi; Bian, Jingying; Yao, Zhibin; He, Baoping; Liu, Minbo; Sheng, Jiangkun; Ma, Wuying; Dong, Guantao; Jin, Junshan

    2018-04-01

    Charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) is an important parameter for photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs). A test system was built and used to measure the CTI of PPD CIS devices at different integration times. The radiation effects of 3 MeV and 10 MeV protons on the CTI were investigated. The experiments were carried out at the EN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at proton fluences in the range 1010 to 1011 p/cm2. The CTI was measured within the 2 h following proton radiations. The dependence of CTI on integration time, proton energy and fluence were investigated. The CTI was observed to increase after proton irradiation: with the effect of irradiation with 3 MeV proton being more severe than that with 10 MeV protons. The CTI was also observed to decrease with increasing integration time, which is thought to be related to the charge density in the space charge region (SCR) of the CIS devices. This work has provided a simple method to measure the CTI and helped us to understand proton radiation effects on the CTI of PPD CISs.

  2. Annealing bounds to prevent further Charge Transfer Inefficiency increase of the Chandra X-ray CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monmeyran, Corentin, E-mail: comonmey@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Patel, Neil S., E-mail: neilp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bautz, Mark W., E-mail: mwb@space.mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Grant, Catherine E., E-mail: cgrant@space.mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Prigozhin, Gregory Y., E-mail: gyp@space.mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agarwal, Anuradha, E-mail: anu@mit.edu [Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kimerling, Lionel C., E-mail: lckim@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    After the front-illuminated CCDs on board the X-ray telescope Chandra were damaged by radiation after launch, it was decided to anneal them in an effort to remove the defects introduced by the irradiation. The annealing led to an unexpected increase of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI). The performance degradation is attributed to point defect interactions in the devices. Specifically, the annealing at 30 °C activated the diffusion of the main interstitial defect in the device, the carbon interstitial, which led to its association with a substitutional impurity, ultimately resulting in a stable and electrically active defect state. Because the formation reaction of this carbon interstitial and substitutional impurity associate is diffusion limited, we recommend a higher upper bound for the annealing temperature and duration of any future CCD anneals, that of −50 °C for one day or −60 °C for a week, to prevent further CTI increase.

  3. Assessment of space proton radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency in the CCD204 for the Euclid space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, J P D; Murray, N J; Holland, A D; Hall, D J; Cropper, M; Burt, D; Hopkinson, G; Duvet, L

    2012-01-01

    Euclid is a medium class European Space Agency mission candidate for launch in 2019 with a primary goal to study the dark universe using the weak lensing and baryonic acoustic oscillations techniques. Weak lensing depends on accurate shape measurements of distant galaxies. Therefore it is beneficial that the effects of radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) in the Euclid CCDs over the course of the 5 year mission at L2 are understood. This will allow, through experimental analysis and modelling techniques, the effects of radiation induced CTI on shape to be decoupled from those of mass inhomogeneities along the line-of-sight. This paper discusses a selection of work from the study that has been undertaken using the e2v CCD204 as part of the initial proton radiation damage assessment for Euclid. The experimental arrangement and procedure are described followed by the results obtained, thereby allowing recommendations to be made on the CCD operating temperature, to provide an insight into CTI effects using an optical background, to assess the benefits of using charge injection on CTI recovery and the effect of the use of two different methods of serial clocking on serial CTI. This work will form the basis of a comparison with a p-channel CCD204 fabricated using the same mask set as the n-channel equivalent. A custom CCD has been designed, based on this work and discussions between e2v technologies plc. and the Euclid consortium, and designated the CCD273.

  4. Innovate with the CTI National Thematic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Susanne Lauber

    2014-12-01

    Winning in the global market place with brilliant innovations is the recipe for success for the Swiss economy. Indeed, Switzerland always stands out in the global rankings when it comes to innovation. Yet there is nothing as dangerous as to rest on one's laurels, and this is particularly true for R&D-based businesses. For this reason CTI, the Commission for Technology and Innovation, offers Swiss companies quick and effective access to knowledge available at Swiss public research institutions, and to international R&D programs promoting application-oriented research. Knowledge and technology transfer are promoted - via its KTT support - through National Thematic Networks (NTNs), Innovation Mentors and information platforms. The following article highlights the activities of the National Thematic Networks and invites Swiss companies and research institutes to benefit from the multiple offers and services available.

  5. Rationalising inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2013-01-01

    Envelopment Analysis (DEA) we nevertheless find considerable ‘inefficiency’ which raises the question whether this is best interpreted as waste or if the apparent inefficiency may serve other purposes. To investigate this, we invoke the theoretical framework of rational inefficiency (Bogetoft and Hougaard [8...

  6. Inefficient cationic lipid-mediated siRNA and antisense oligonucleotide transfer to airway epithelial cells in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jim

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cationic lipid Genzyme lipid (GL 67 is the current "gold-standard" for in vivo lung gene transfer. Here, we assessed, if GL67 mediated uptake of siRNAs and asODNs into airway epithelium in vivo. Methods Anti-lacZ and ENaC (epithelial sodium channel siRNA and asODN were complexed to GL67 and administered to the mouse airway epithelium in vivo Transfection efficiency and efficacy were assessed using real-time RT-PCR as well as through protein expression and functional studies. In parallel in vitro experiments were carried out to select the most efficient oligonucleotides. Results In vitro, GL67 efficiently complexed asODNs and siRNAs, and both were stable in exhaled breath condensate. Importantly, during in vitro selection of functional siRNA and asODN we noted that asODNs accumulated rapidly in the nuclei of transfected cells, whereas siRNAs remained in the cytoplasm, a pattern consistent with their presumed site of action. Following in vivo lung transfection siRNAs were only visible in alveolar macrophages, whereas asODN also transfected alveolar epithelial cells, but no significant uptake into conducting airway epithelial cells was seen. SiRNAs and asODNs targeted to β-galactosidase reduced βgal mRNA levels in the airway epithelium of K18-lacZ mice by 30% and 60%, respectively. However, this was insufficient to reduce protein expression. In an attempt to increase transfection efficiency of the airway epithelium, we increased contact time of siRNA and asODN using the in vivo mouse nose model. Although highly variable and inefficient, transfection of airway epithelium with asODN, but not siRNA, was now seen. As asODNs more effectively transfected nasal airway epithelial cells, we assessed the effect of asODN against ENaC, a potential therapeutic target in cystic fibrosis; no decrease in ENaC mRNA levels or function was detected. Conclusion This study suggests that although siRNAs and asODNs can be developed to inhibit

  7. Target and accelerator developments at CTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvord, C. W.; Mendez, A. J.; Wittner, D. E.

    2001-07-01

    The accelerator products marketed by CTI have exclusively focused on proton-only, low energy (11 MeV) designs. This choice best suited the research customer, interested in producing several doses a day of a variety of positron emitting compounds. The PET cyclotron market has evolved into a high output, cost driven, competitive radiotracer production environment. A thoughtful analysis of the choices of energy and particle reveals that an 11 MeV proton accelerator outfitted with target changers and automated target loading and unloading equipment is still the best choice for FDG distribution. However technological innovations are required to face the challenges of the rapidly growing PET radiotracer business. Modifications to the CTI line of accelerators developed to face this evolving need will be presented.

  8. The Study of Application System for Small and Medium CTI Based on Voice Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of computer telecommunications integration (CTI technology, the development of application system for small and medium CTI are updated constantly, but the study of application system for small and medium CTI, we are lack of a stability and unified model. In this paper, the author analyzes the unified structure platform of application system for small and medium CTI based on voice card. Meanwhile, the author introduces a suitable software architecture model and general procedural framework for application system for small and medium CTI based on voice card by using the idea of hierarchical design, which shows the versatility of the architecture. It provided an efficient channel for the development of small and medium CTI.

  9. Introducing and modeling inefficiency contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Kronborg, Dorte; Matthews, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Whilst Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is the most commonly used non-parametric benchmarking approach, the interpretation and application of DEA results can be limited by the fact that radial improvement potentials are identified across variables. In contrast, Multi-directional Efficiency Analysis......-called inefficiency contributions, which are defined as the relative contributions from specific variables to the overall levels of inefficiencies. A statistical model for distinguishing the inefficiency contributions between subgroups is proposed and the method is illustrated on a data set on Chinese banks....

  10. The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharo Elizabeth A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A. Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Results Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1 and early lactation (Phase 2A. The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI, spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5 genes. Conclusions Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species.

  11. Process model and capacity upgrades of the CTI-4000 liquid helium coldbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Benjamin; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Quack, Hans [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-01-29

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is in the process of re-commissioning a vintage CTI-4000 liquid helium coldbox, initially supplied by CTI-Cryogenics/Sulzer to Los Alamos in 1979. The coldbox was originally designed as a liquid helium refrigerator with capacity of ∼1200 W at nominal 4-K. The process utilized LN{sub 2} precooling, in-series operation of two centrifugal gas bearing turboexpanders and final Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion. At FNAL, the coldbox will be utilized as a liquefier to support 2-K operations. A process model was developed to aid in the upgrade decisions and used to determine the nominal capacity of the liquefier. Capacity upgrades are achieved by safely utilizing the internal LN2 precooler, the addition of a 3-inch reciprocating wet expansion engine and increasing the overall process pressure by recertifying two limiting pressure vessels to a higher MAWP.

  12. Phase I dose escalation safety study of nanoparticulate paclitaxel (CTI 52010) in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak, Sandra M; Selting, Kim A; Decedue, Charles J; Henry, Carolyn J; Tate, Deborah; Howell, Jahna; Bilof, K James; Kim, Dae Y

    2011-01-01

    Paclitaxel is highly effective in the treatment of many cancers in humans, but cannot be routinely used in dogs as currently formulated due to the exquisite sensitivity of this species to surfactant-solubilizing agents. CTI 52010 is a formulation of nanoparticulate paclitaxel consisting of drug and normal saline. Our objectives were to determine the maximally tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of CTI 52010 administered intravenously to normal dogs. Three normal adult hound dogs were evaluated by physical examination, complete blood count, chemistry profile, and urinalysis. Dogs were treated with staggered escalating dosages of CTI 52010 with a 28-day washout. All dogs were treated with a starting dosage of 40 mg/m(2), and subsequent dosages were escalated at 50% (dog 1), 100% (dog 2), or 200% (dog 3) with each cycle, to a maximum of 240 mg/m(2). Dogs were monitored by daily physical assessment and weekly laboratory evaluation. Standard criteria were used to grade adverse events. Plasma was collected at regular intervals to determine pharmacokinetics. Dogs were euthanized humanely, and necropsy was performed one week after the last treatment. The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 neutropenia and the maximum tolerated dosage was 120 mg/m(2). Grade 1-2 gastrointestinal toxicity was noted at higher dosages. Upon post mortem evaluation, no evidence of organ (liver, kidney, spleen) toxicity was noted. CTI 52010 was well tolerated when administered intravenously to normal dogs. A starting dosage for a Phase I/II trial in tumor-bearing dogs is 80 mg/m(2).

  13. A critical discussion on the applicability of Compound Topographic Index (CTI) for predicting ephemeral gully erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalí, Javier; Chahor, Youssef; Giménez, Rafael; Campo-Bescós, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The so-called Compound Topographic Index (CTI) can be calculated for each grid cell in a DEM and be used to identify potential locations for ephemeral gullies (e. g.) based on land topography (CTI = A.S.PLANC, where A is upstream drainage area, S is local slope and PLANC is planform curvature, a measure of the landscape convergence) (Parker et al., 2007). It can be shown that CTI represents stream power per unit bed area and it considers the major parameters controlling the pattern and intensity of concentrated surface runoff in the field (Parker et al., 2007). However, other key variables controlling e.g. erosion (e. g. e.) such as soil characteristics, land-use and management, are not had into consideration. The critical CTI value (CTIc) "represents the intensity of concentrated overland flow necessary to initiate erosion and channelised flow under a given set of circumstances" (Parker et al., 2007). AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source) pollution model is an important management tool developed by (USDA) and uses CTI to locate potential ephemeral gullies. Then, and depending on rainfall characteristics of the period simulated by AnnAGNPS, potential e. g. can become "actual", and be simulated by the model accordingly. This paper presents preliminary results and a number of considerations after evaluating the CTI tool in Navarre. CTIc values found are similar to those cited by other authors, and the e. g. networks that on average occur in the area have been located reasonably well. After our experience we believe that it is necessary to distinguish between the CTIc corresponding to the location of headcuts whose migrations originate the e. g. (CTIc1); and the CTIc necessary to represent the location of the gully networks in the watershed (CTIc2), where gully headcuts are located in the upstream end of the gullies. Most scientists only consider one CTIc value, although, from our point of view, the two situations are different. CTIc1 would represent the

  14. The Unique Optical Design of the CTI-II Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, J. T.; MacFarlane, M.

    2006-12-01

    The CCD/Transit Instrument with Innovative Instrumentation (CTI-II) is being developed for precision ground-based astrometric and photometric astronomical observations. The 1.8m telescope will be stationary, near-zenith pointing and will feature a CCD-mosaic array operated in time-delay and integrate (TDI) mode to image a continuous strip of the sky in five bands. The heart of the telescope is a Nasmyth-like bent-Cassegrain optical system optimized to produce near diffraction-limited images with near zero distortion over a circular1.42 deg field. The optical design includes an f/2.2 parabolic ULE primary with no central hole salvaged from the original CTI telescope and adds the requisite hyperbolic secondary, a folding flat and a highly innovative all-spherical, five lens corrector which includes three plano surfaces. The reflective and refractive portions of the design have been optimized as individual but interdependent systems so that the same reflective system can be used with slightly different refractive correctors. At present, two nearly identical corrector designs are being evaluated, one fabricated from BK-7 glass and the other of fused silica. The five lens corrector consists of an air-spaced triplet separated from follow-on air-spaced doublet. Either design produces 0.25 arcsecond images at 83% encircled energy with a maximum of 0.0005% distortion. The innovative five lens corrector design has been applied to other current and planned Cassegrain, RC and super RC optical systems requiring correctors. The basic five lens approach always results in improved performance compared to the original designs. In some cases, the improvement in image quality is small but includes substantial reductions in distortion. In other cases, the improvement in image quality is substantial. Because the CTI-II corrector is designed for a parabolic primary, it might be especially useful for liquid mirror telescopes. We describe and discuss the CTI-II optical design with respect

  15. Life Sciences Start-ups in Switzerland: CTI and its Support for Young Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Klara

    2014-12-01

    According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2013, perceived opportunities to start a business in Switzerland are high and rank above average compared to other innovation-based countries. 2013 was a record year for start-ups in Switzerland. Around 40,000 new businesses were recorded in the commercial register and the trend is set to continue. There are two main criteria that lead to success, particularly for science- or technology- based start-ups: first of all, it is the business or product idea itself, and secondly it is the entrepreneurial team. CTI is supporting innovation in a manner that responds to a need in the market identified by industry.

  16. Bell inequalities resistant to detector inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Roland, Jeremie; Gisin, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    We derive both numerically and analytically Bell inequalities and quantum measurements that present enhanced resistance to detector inefficiency. In particular, we describe several Bell inequalities which appear to be optimal with respect to inefficient detectors for small dimensionality d=2,3,4 and two or more measurement settings at each side. We also generalize the family of Bell inequalities described by Collins et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404 (2002)] to take into account the inefficiency of detectors. In addition, we consider the possibility for pairs of entangled particles to be produced with probability less than 1. We show that when the pair production probability is small, one should in general use different Bell inequalities than when the pair production probability is high

  17. Inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries and the impact of different factors on its inefficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahverdi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze changes in the inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries using DEA window analysis method over the period 1996 to 2009. We investigated the effects of different factors on inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries. Based on empirical results, the effect of all factors such as vertical integration, types of ownership, foreign investment, location, experience, and liberalization on inefficiency of refineries was significant. Experience, liberalization, and joint venture between private and public sectors showed an increase in efficiency, while joint venture between local and foreign investment and vertical integration increased refineries’ inefficiency. However, palm oil refineries which were located in the states of Sabah and Sarawak were less technically inefficient than those located in peninsular Malaysia.

  18. On the Evolutionary Stability of Bargaining Inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game tough behavior survives. Indeed, almost all the surplus may be wasted. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary...

  19. Does resilient mean eco-inefficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    , because the redundant connections between elements of a system make it less efficient but also more flexible and adaptable and allow to perform a function even if some connections are interrupted or missing. Balancing between resilience and efficiency seems to be the key for sustainability intended...... as long-term perfomance. Resilience is not explicitly taken into account within life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA determines the eco-efficiency of product systems, i.e. the ratio between the function provided by the product and its impact on the environment. The question is whether a product system which...... structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will not only be more inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when studied by means of LCA. In this work a two steps approach is proposed to study resilience of product systems: 1) assessment of disturbance conditions and their inclusion within the scope...

  20. Inefficiency of Data Storing in Physical Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruddin Malik Mohamad; Sapiee Haji Jamel; Mustafa Mat Deris

    2009-01-01

    Memory forensic is important in digital investigation. The forensic is based on the data stored in physical memory that involve memory management and processing time. However, the current forensic tools do not consider the efficiency in terms of storage management and the processing time. This paper shows the high redundancy of data found in the physical memory that cause inefficiency in processing time and memory management. The experiment is done using Borland C compile...

  1. Delays in hiring Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) graduates and the impact on their training success rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Terra A.

    This research project identified three distinct groups of individuals the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) utilizes when filling the employee ranks of Air Traffic Controllers (ATC). After a nationwide strike, President Reagan fired the entire ATC workforce in 1981 (Pavel, 2012). Since then the FAA has worked very diligently in filling the vacant positions. Now three decades later the impending retirements and attrition of those hired earlier is estimated at nearly 14,000 controllers over the next 10 years (FAA CWP, 2012). In response to this shortage it would be advantageous for the FAA to minimize the time lapsed in the selection, hiring and training processes. If the hiring process time was decreased, it would save the FAA money in terms of a reduction in the initial cost of training Air Traffic Controllers (GAO, 2012; IRP, 2011). Traditionally the FAA hires from three distinct groups of people. The first is those with prior ATC experience which was usually obtained through the military. Second the general public with no experience and third the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) candidates. The AT-CTI program is a valued partner with the FAA that helps educate the next generation of Air Traffic Controllers; however in the past the program has had difficulty producing the total number of replacement controllers needed. Due to the delay some CTI graduates may choose other career paths rather than wait and be hired to go to the FAA Academy which will further reduce the number of candidates for the FAA to hire. To date, no public research has been done pertaining to the time delay in the hiring process of AT-CTI candidates and the impact on training success at the FAA Academy and at the CTI's first FAA facility. This study used a survey tool to gather information on how long AT-CTI graduates wait to be hired to attend the FAA Academy. Information was gathered on the factors that may affect the time lapse between graduation and the time they

  2. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withers, Paul J. A.; Dijk, Kimo van; Neset, Tina-Simone

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R...... imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help...

  3. The cost of trauma operating theatre inefficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, W.W.; Sabharwal, S.; Johannsson, H.; Bhattacharya, R.; Gupte, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is currently facing a financial crisis with a projected deficit of ?2billion by the end of financial year 2015/16. As operating rooms (OR) are one of the costliest components in secondary care, improving theatre efficiency should be at the forefront of efforts to improve health service efficiency. The objectives of this study were to characterize the causes of trauma OR delays and to estimate the cost of this inefficiency. A 1-month prospective single-centre ...

  4. Managerial and program inefficiency for European meat manufacturing firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic multidirectional inefficiency analysis approach within the context of Data Envelopment Analysis to measuring input- and investment-specific managerial and program inefficiency for groups of firms characterized by different technologies. Dynamic managerial

  5. ECONOMETRIC INEFFICIENCY ESTIMATES IN A COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Bernard Bastiaan Rivera Rivera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this paper is to apply a Cobb-Douglas, Translog Stochastic Production Function and Data Envelopment Analysis – particularly the Malmquist index - in order to estimate increases or decreases of inefficiencies over time as well as the sources of TFP changes for the main Brazilian grain crops - namely, rice, beans, maize, soybeans and wheat - throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 2001-2006. According to the Cobb Douglas model, the greatest elasticity presented is that of harvested area, followed by agricultural credit and limestone. The Translog production function presents an amelioration of aggregate productivity over time and, in a decreasing order, the Brazilian regions that have presented the greatest relative degree of efficiency are the Northeast, North, Southeast, South and Center-West regions. The results indicate that, although there have been positive changes in TFP for the sample analyzed, a decline in the use of technology has been evidenced for all the principal Brazilian grain crops between 2005/2007 – period in which we observe a remarkable downfall in the use of inputs in Brazilian agriculture.

  6. Parkinson's Law Quantified: Three Investigations on Bureaucratic Inefficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Peter; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We formulate three famous, descriptive essays of C.N. Parkinson on bureaucratic inefficiency in a quantifiable and dynamical socio-physical framework. In the first model we show how the use of recent opinion formation models for small groups can be used to understand Parkinson's observation that decision making bodies such as cabinets or boards become highly inefficient once their size exceeds a critical 'Coefficient of Inefficiency', typically around 20. A second observation of Parkinson - w...

  7. The contact-temperature ignition (CTI) criteria for propagating chemical reactions including the effect of moisture and application to Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    To assure the continued absence of uncontrolled condensed-phase chemical reactions in connection with the Hanford waste materials, efforts have been underway including both theoretical and experimental investigations to clarify the requirements for such reactions. This document defines the differences and requirements for homogeneous runaway and propagating chemical reactions incuding a discussion of general contact-temperature ignition (CTI) condition for propagating reactions that include the effect of moisture. The CTI condition implies that the contact temperature or interface temperature between reacted and unreacted materials must exceed the ignition temperature and is compared to experimental data including both synthetic ferrocyanide and surrogate organic materials. In all cases, the occurrences of ignition accompanied by self-propagating reactions are consistent with the theoretical anticipations of the CTI condition

  8. Technical inefficiency in dry season vegetable farming among urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stochastic production frontier function is applied to estimate output-oriented technical inefficiency of urban women cultivating waterleaf. By means of MLE, asymptotically consistent and efficient maximum likelihood (ML) estimates are obtained together with inefficiency determinants. Empirical result reveals the mean level of ...

  9. Inefficiency in Networks with Multiple Sources and Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyejin; Gastner, Michael T.; Jeong, Hawoong

    We study the problem of optimizing traffic in decentralized transportation networks, where the cost of a link depends on its congestion. If users of a transportation network are permitted to choose their own routes, they generally try to minimize their personal travel time. In the absence of centralized coordination, such a behavior can be inefficient for society and even for each individual user. This inefficiency can be quantified by the “price of anarchy”, the ratio of the suboptimal total cost to the socially optimal cost. Here we study the price of anarchy in multi-commodity networks, (i.e., networks where traffic simultaneously flows between different origins and destinations).

  10. A technique of forecasting inefficient negative investments in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya N. Andrienko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews a methodology of inefficient capital outflow forecasting in Ukraine, as one of the new instruments for investment activity revivification under the system crisis conditions. An analogy is made between the foreseeable and unexpected losses in crediting as well as the efficient and inefficient capital outflows in the form of reserve funds accrual and subsequent reverse procedure. Phenomenological approach and generalization of the experience in negative investment analysis are applied. Exposed is the substantiation of phenomenological approach in choosing one of the proposed beta distribution options with economic interpretation of this approach development. Considered is the maximum entropy principle as a stochastic dominance revealed therein.

  11. Oral tolerance is inefficient in neonatal mice due to a physiological vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfkruyer, M; Rekima, A; Macchiaverni, P; Le Bourhis, L; Muncan, V; van den Brink, G R; Tulic, M K; Verhasselt, V

    2016-03-01

    Increased risk of allergy during early life indicates deficient immune regulation in this period of life. To date, the cause for inefficient neonatal immune regulation has never been elucidated. We aimed to define the ontogeny of oral tolerance and to identify necessary conditions specific for this stage of life. Ovalbumin (OVA) was administered orally to mice through breast milk and efficiency of systemic tolerance to OVA was assessed in adulthood using a model of allergic airway inflammation. Oral tolerance induction was fully efficient starting third week of life. Inefficiency in neonates was a consequence of abnormal antigen transfer across the gut barrier and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase expression by mesenteric lymph node CD103(+) neonatal dendritic cells, resulting in inefficient T-cell activation. Neonates' serum retinol levels were three times lower than in adult mice, and vitamin A supplementation was sufficient to rescue neonatal defects and allow tolerance induction from birth. The establishment of oral tolerance required the differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes in both vitamin A-supplemented neonates and 3-week-old unsupplemented mice. This knowledge should guide the design of interventions for allergy prevention that are adapted to the neonatal stage of life such as vitamin A supplementation.

  12. a study of technical inefficiencies of maize farmers within and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Key words: Stochastic frontiers, Technical inefficiencies, Agricultural extension, Harari Region, Ethiopia ... frontier production functions were estimated for a sample of maize farmers within and outside the New Extension .... the normal distributions with the same variance, σ2, such that the mean,. µit, associated with the ...

  13. Technical inefficiency and competitiveness in production: the case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined technical inefficiency and competitiveness among rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Data for the analysis came from a random sample survey of the area of study. A Single-stage (Cobb-Douglas based stochastic frontier production function was used in analyzing the data. Evidence from the analysis ...

  14. Inefficient Self-Selection into Education and Wage Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordine, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework where "within graduates" wage inequality is related to overeducation/educational mismatch in the labor market. We show that wage inequality may arise because of inefficient self-selection into education in the presence of ability-complementary technological progress and asymmetric information…

  15. Allocative inefficiency and the capital-energy controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulos, Dimitris K.; Tsionas, Efthymios G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate a system of input demands for Greek manufacturing deviating from the standard practice of assuming strict cost minimization. The study allows for the presence of price distortions and allocative inefficiency in the decision process. This assumption affects parameter estimates and estimated elasticities materially, and throws new light on the capital-energy controversy in Greek manufacturing

  16. Identifying Organizational Inefficiencies with Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Patrishkoff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA was created by the author in 2004. PPA is a unique methodology which offers ten layers of additional analysis when compared to standard process mapping techniques.  The goal of PPA is to identify and eliminate waste, inefficiencies and risk in manufacturing or transactional business processes at 5 levels in an organization. The highest level being assessed is the process management, followed by the process work environment, detailed work habits, process performance metrics and general attitudes towards the process. This detailed process assessment and analysis is carried out during process improvement brainstorming efforts and Kaizen events. PPA creates a detailed visual efficiency rating for each step of the process under review.  A selection of 54 pictorial Inefficiency Icons (cards are available for use to highlight major inefficiencies and risks that are present in the business process under review. These inefficiency icons were identified during the author's independent research on the topic of why things go wrong in business. This paper will highlight how PPA was developed and show the steps required to conduct Pictorial Process Analysis on a sample manufacturing process. The author has successfully used PPA to dramatically improve business processes in over 55 different industries since 2004.  

  17. Enhancing Productivity and Resource Conservation by Eliminating Inefficiency of Thai Rice Farmers: A Zero Inefficiency Stochastic Frontier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxu Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study first identified fully efficient farmers and then estimated technical efficiency of inefficient farmers, identifying their determinants by applying a Zero Inefficiency Stochastic Frontier Model (ZISFM on a sample of 300 rice farmers from central-northern Thailand. Next, the study developed scenarios of potential production increase and resource conservation if technical inefficiency was eliminated. Results revealed that 13% of the sampled farmers were fully efficient, thereby justifying the use of our approach. The estimated mean technical efficiency was 91%, implying that rice production can be increased by 9%, by reallocating resources. Land and labor were the major productivity drivers. Education significantly improved technical efficiency. Farmers who transplanted seedlings were relatively technically efficient as compared to those who practised manual and/or mechanical direct seeding methods. Elimination of technical inefficiency could increase output by 8.64% per ha, or generate 5.7–6.4 million tons of additional rice output for Thailand each year. Similarly, elimination of technical inefficiency would potentially conserve 19.44% person-days of labor, 11.95% land area, 11.46% material inputs and 8.67% mechanical power services for every ton of rice produced. This translates into conservation of 2.9–3.0 million person-days of labor, 3.7–4.5 thousand km2 of land, 10.0–14.5 billion baht of material input and 7.6–12.8 billion baht of mechanical power costs to produce current level of rice output in Thailand each year. Policy implications include investment into educating farmers, and improving technical knowledge of seeding technology, to boost rice production and conserve scarce resources in Thailand.

  18. DCF Fair Value Valuation, Excessive Assetes and Hidden Inefficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mielcarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fair value concept is widely used in DCF (Discounted Cash Flow  business valuation. One of the main principle of fair value concept is full information symmetry between contracting parties. The assumption enforces specific way of FCF (Free Cash Flow estimation: all areas of inefficiency of valuated companies should be identified and their effect on free cash flow should be eliminated. The projection of free cash flow thus prepared should reflect the optimum operations of the business. The methodological issues of fair value valuation of inefficient companies are not comprehensibly addressed in the financial and accounting literature. There is easily observable gap between fair value theory and valuation practices. Thus this article is an attempt to answer the question about practical issues in fair value valuation of companies which do not apply value based management rules. It is based on literature review, theory examination and short case studies which present proposed solution for practical problems. Methods of identification and assessment of impact of inefficiencies on the fair value of a business are hereinafter presented and supported with arguments.

  19. Parkinson's Law quantified: three investigations on bureaucratic inefficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    We formulate three famous, descriptive essays of Parkinson on bureaucratic inefficiency in a quantifiable and dynamical socio-physical framework. In the first model we show how the use of recent opinion formation models for small groups can be used to understand Parkinson's observation that decision-making bodies such as cabinets or boards become highly inefficient once their size exceeds a critical 'Coefficient of Inefficiency', typically around 20. A second observation of Parkinson—which is sometimes referred to as Parkinson's Law—is that the growth of bureaucratic or administrative bodies usually goes hand in hand with a drastic decrease of its overall efficiency. In our second model we view a bureaucratic body as a system of a flow of workers, who enter, become promoted to various internal levels within the system over time, and leave the system after having served for a certain time. Promotion usually is associated with an increase of subordinates. Within the proposed model it becomes possible to work out the phase diagram under which conditions of bureaucratic growth can be confined. In our last model we assign individual efficiency curves to workers throughout their life in administration, and compute the optimum time to give them the old age pension, in order to ensure a maximum of efficiency within the body—in Parkinson's words we compute the 'Pension Point'.

  20. Fractal stock markets: International evidence of dynamical (in)efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sergio; Frezza, Massimiliano

    2017-07-01

    The last systemic financial crisis has reawakened the debate on the efficient nature of financial markets, traditionally described as semimartingales. The standard approaches to endow the general notion of efficiency of an empirical content turned out to be somewhat inconclusive and misleading. We propose a topological-based approach to quantify the informational efficiency of a financial time series. The idea is to measure the efficiency by means of the pointwise regularity of a (stochastic) function, given that the signature of a martingale is that its pointwise regularity equals 12. We provide estimates for real financial time series and investigate their (in)efficient behavior by comparing three main stock indexes.

  1. Production inefficiency of electricity markets with hydro generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philpott, Andy; Guan, Ziming; Khazaei, Javad; Zakeri, Golbon [Electric Power Optimization Centre (EPOC), Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    Electricity market designs that decentralize decision making for participants can lead to inefficiencies in the presence of nonconvexity or missing markets. This has been shown in the case of unit-commitment problems that can make a decentralized market equilibrium less efficient than a centrally planned solution. Less attention has been focused on systems with large amounts of hydro-electric generation. We describe the results of an empirical study of the New Zealand wholesale electricity market that attempts to quantify production efficiency losses by comparing market outcomes with a counterfactual central plan. (author)

  2. Inefficient Job Destructions and Training with Hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chéron, Arnaud; Rouland, Benedicte

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an equilibrium search model with endogenous job destructions and where firms decide at the time of job entry how much to invest in match-specific human capital. We first show that job destruction and training investment decisions are strongly complementary. It is possible...... that there are no firings at equilibrium. Further, training investments are confronted to a hold-up problem making the decentralized equilibrium always inefficient. We show therefore that both training subsidies and firing taxes must be implemented to bring back efficiency....

  3. Fractal stock markets: International evidence of dynamical (in)efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sergio; Frezza, Massimiliano

    2017-07-01

    The last systemic financial crisis has reawakened the debate on the efficient nature of financial markets, traditionally described as semimartingales. The standard approaches to endow the general notion of efficiency of an empirical content turned out to be somewhat inconclusive and misleading. We propose a topological-based approach to quantify the informational efficiency of a financial time series. The idea is to measure the efficiency by means of the pointwise regularity of a (stochastic) function, given that the signature of a martingale is that its pointwise regularity equals 1/2 . We provide estimates for real financial time series and investigate their (in)efficient behavior by comparing three main stock indexes.

  4. Explaining the inefficiency of electrical distribution companies. Peruvian firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, OSINERGMIN (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the extent to which the structural reform of the Peruvian electricity market, implemented in the 1990s, has improved the efficiency of the distribution companies; and it evaluates the influence on efficiency of firm specific explanatory variables. To do this, we rely on data from 14 distribution companies between 1996 and 2006. The results indicate that the incentives generated by the reform process led to the firms becoming more efficient. Moreover, the time trend and private management of the distribution companies are variables that positively affect the levels of efficiency, whereas the lower network densities are then the greater the inefficiency. (author)

  5. Explaining the inefficiency of electrical distribution companies. Peruvian firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul; Tovar, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which the structural reform of the Peruvian electricity market, implemented in the 1990s, has improved the efficiency of the distribution companies; and it evaluates the influence on efficiency of firm specific explanatory variables. To do this, we rely on data from 14 distribution companies between 1996 and 2006. The results indicate that the incentives generated by the reform process led to the firms becoming more efficient. Moreover, the time trend and private management of the distribution companies are variables that positively affect the levels of efficiency, whereas the lower network densities are then the greater the inefficiency. (author)

  6. Tackling wastage and inefficiency in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D; Newbrander, W

    1994-01-01

    Governments and the public are concerned about waste and inefficiency in the health sector. Although there are likely to be various underlying causes, wastage often results from limited information and from limited accountability for decisions about the use of resources. Corruption and fraud occur where there are conflicting interests in combination with limited accountability. Policy-makers, managers, providers and service users should feel responsible for ensuring that scare health resources are used efficiently. They should actively combat wastage by identifying the causes, and then make corresponding changes in policy, management and technical procedures.

  7. Locating inefficient links in a large-scale transportation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Liu, Like; Xu, Zhongzhi; Jie, Yang; Wei, Dong; Wang, Pu

    2015-02-01

    Based on data from geographical information system (GIS) and daily commuting origin destination (OD) matrices, we estimated the distribution of traffic flow in the San Francisco road network and studied Braess's paradox in a large-scale transportation network with realistic travel demand. We measured the variation of total travel time Δ T when a road segment is closed, and found that | Δ T | follows a power-law distribution if Δ T 0. This implies that most roads have a negligible effect on the efficiency of the road network, while the failure of a few crucial links would result in severe travel delays, and closure of a few inefficient links would counter-intuitively reduce travel costs considerably. Generating three theoretical networks, we discovered that the heterogeneously distributed travel demand may be the origin of the observed power-law distributions of | Δ T | . Finally, a genetic algorithm was used to pinpoint inefficient link clusters in the road network. We found that closing specific road clusters would further improve the transportation efficiency.

  8. Greenhouse strawberry production in Iran, efficient or inefficient in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaeian, N.; Omid, M.; Ahmadi, H. [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    This paper attempts to identify origins of inefficient used resource for greenhouse strawberry production in Tehran. A nonparametric method, data envelopment analysis (DEA), was used to study the technical efficiency of producers with regard to effective energy utilization on strawberry yield. Data for the production of strawberries were collected from 25 greenhouses by using a face-to-face questionnaire method. Both constant and variable returns to scale DEA models were used to evaluate and rank technical efficiency of greenhouses based on four energy inputs: fertilizer, human labor, diesel fuel, and electricity. Pure technical efficiency specification shows that 10 greenhouses are producing at an efficient scale. The study has also helped to segregate efficient greenhouses from inefficient ones to get insights into the performance of individual producers, to identify wasteful uses of energy, and to suggest reasonable savings in energy uses from different sources. The results reveal that, on an average, about 16% of the total input energy could be saved if the producers follow the input package recommended by the study. The results of analysis show that DEA is a pivotal tool for analyzing productive efficiency of agricultural units.

  9. Improving supply chain collaborations and performance of inefficient supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern manufacturing enterprises are required to collaborate by their business partners through their business process operations such as design, manufacture, distribution, and aftersales services. And furthermore performance evaluation is of great importance for effective supply chain man agement. Therefore, DEA can help companies to remove some of the in efficiencies in operational processes in order to become more effective. The current paper develops one approach for determining the DEA projections for inefficient supply chains. Meanwhile this approach aims at providing an easy, efficient and more practical approach based on the performance evaluation for the multi-member supply chain. And ultimately, this model is illustrated by an numerical example of Chinese commercial bank, and case study application to provide of machine-making supply chain.

  10. Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (CTI) y la RED de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación (IDI). La Innovación

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Luna, Américo

    2017-01-01

    Las actividades de ciencia, tecnología e innovación (CTI) deben fortalecerse a través de la diversificación productiva. La Declaración sobre CTI, promovida por la Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, el Colegio de Ingenieros del Perú y la RED IDI, señala que es necesario incrementar el financiamiento y el fortalecimiento del CONCYTEC, y propone que el Perú alcance una inversión del 1% del PBI en investigación y desarrollo.

  11. Distinguishing Technical Inefficiency from Desirable and Undesirable Congestion with an Application to Regional Industries in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Congestion is an important issue that requires the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs. We first classify conventional congestion into congestion (newly defined and technical inefficiency, based on prior research and real applications. Modified definitions and mathematical expression of congestion, managerial inefficiency, and technical inefficiency are proposed to better illustrate the differences between them. Several modified models are provided to identify and recognize those types of inefficiencies and congestion. We then extend the model by considering the desirable and undesirable types of congestion simultaneously. The proposed approach is applied and verified by identifying resource congestion and environmental inefficiencies in China’s economic development.

  12. Inefficient charging for delivered gas by local gas distributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Bikić

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this region, especially in Serbia, common belief is that local distributors of gas used by households don’t charge for gas properly. It is suspected that there are two sources for improper ways of gas charging. Local distributors charge for delivered gas only, according to flow rat but not according to gas quality. It is usual that local distributors deliver gas of different quality than one signed in contract. In this work will be considered only one of aspects inefficient charging for delivered gas by local gas distributors, which is connected to variable atmospheric pressure. There is doubt, that local distributors make mistakes during accounting for delivered gas to costumers in regard atmospheric pressure. At the beginning of every investigation, problem has to be located and recognized. Authors are going to collect as much as possible available data, to elaborate and analyze data by scientific methods and to represent conclusions. So, the aim of this work is to diagnose current state and to approve or disapprove above mentioned suspicions. In our region this theme is very interesting, both because of energy efficiency and air pollution control. In this way both consumer and distributor will know, how mush energy they have really spent.

  13. Polymer ultrapermeability from the inefficient packing of 2D chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian; Bezzu, C. Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Comesaña-Gándara, Bibiana; Lasseuguette, Elsa; Ferrari, M. Chiara; Bernardo, Paola; Clarizia, Gabriele; Fuoco, Alessio; Jansen, Johannes C.; Hart, Kyle E.; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P.; Colina, Coray M.; McKeown, Neil B.

    2017-09-01

    The promise of ultrapermeable polymers, such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), for reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of membranes for gas separations remains unfulfilled due to their poor selectivity. We report an ultrapermeable polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-TMN-Trip) that is substantially more selective than PTMSP. From molecular simulations and experimental measurement we find that the inefficient packing of the two-dimensional (2D) chains of PIM-TMN-Trip generates a high concentration of both small (Gas permeability data for PIM-TMN-Trip surpass the 2008 Robeson upper bounds for O2/N2, H2/N2, CO2/N2, H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4, with the potential for biogas purification and carbon capture demonstrated for relevant gas mixtures. Comparisons between PIM-TMN-Trip and structurally similar polymers with three-dimensional (3D) contorted chains confirm that its additional intrinsic microporosity is generated from the awkward packing of its 2D polymer chains in a 3D amorphous solid. This strategy of shape-directed packing of chains of microporous polymers may be applied to other rigid polymers for gas separations.

  14. The radiative efficiency of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, C. R.; Fridriksson, J. K.; Messenger, C.; Patruno, A.

    2015-05-01

    A recent joint XMM-Newton/Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the accreting neutron star Cen X-4 (LX ˜ 1033 erg s-1) revealed a hard power-law component (Γ ˜ 1-1.5) with a relatively low cut-off energy (˜10 keV), suggesting bremsstrahlung emission. The physical requirements for bremsstrahlung combined with other observed properties of Cen X-4 suggest the emission comes from a boundary layer rather than the accretion flow. The accretion flow itself is thus undetected (with an upper limit of Lflow ≲ 0.3LX). A deep search for coherent pulsations (which would indicate a strong magnetic field) places a 6 per cent upper limit on the fractional amplitude of pulsations, suggesting the flow is not magnetically regulated. Considering the expected energy balance between the accretion flow and the boundary layer for different values of the neutron star parameters (size, magnetic field, and spin) we use the upper limit on Lflow to set an upper limit of ε ≲ 0.3 for the intrinsic radiative efficiency of the accretion flow for the most likely model of a fast-spinning, non-magnetic neutron star. The non-detection of the accretion flow provides the first direct evidence that this flow is indeed `radiatively inefficient', i.e. most of the gravitational potential energy lost by the flow before it hits the star is not emitted as radiation.

  15. The inherent inefficiency of simultaneously feasible financial transmission rights auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Shi-Jie; Oren, Shmuel; Meliopoulos, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence from the New York ISO shows that the clearing prices for point-to-point congestion revenue rights, also known as financial transmission rights (FTRs), resulting from centralized auctions conducted by Independent System Operators differ significantly and systematically from the realized congestion revenues that determine the accrued payoffs of these rights. The question addressed by this paper is whether such deviations are due to price discovery errors which will eventually vanish or due to inherent inefficiencies in the auction structure. We show that even with perfect foresight of average congestion rents the clearing prices for the FTRs depend on the bid quantity and therefore may not be priced correctly in the financial transmission right (FTR) auction. In particular, we prove that quantity limits on the FTR bids may cause the auction clearing prices to differ from the bid prices. This phenomenon which is inherent in the theoretical properties of the optimization algorithm used to clear the auction, is further illustrated through numerical simulations with test systems. We conclude that price discovery alone would not remedy the discrepancy between the auction prices and the realized values of the FTRs. Secondary markets or frequent reconfiguration auctions are necessary in order to achieve such convergence. (author)

  16. Is inefficient multisensory processing associated with falls in older people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Annalisa; Burke, Kate E; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N

    2011-03-01

    Although falling is a significant problem for older persons, little is understood about its underlying causes. Spatial cognition and balance maintenance rely on the efficient integration of information across the main senses. We investigated general multisensory efficiency in older persons with a history of falls compared to age- and sensory acuity-matched controls and younger adults using a sound-induced flash illusion. Older fallers were as susceptible to the illusion as age-matched, non-fallers or younger adults at a short delay of 70 ms between the auditory and visual stimuli. Both older adult groups were more susceptible to the illusion at longer SOAs than younger adults. However, with increasing delays between the visual and auditory stimuli, older fallers did not show a decline in the frequency at which the illusion was experienced even with delays of up to 270 ms. We argue that this relatively higher susceptibility to the illusion reflects inefficient audio-visual processing in the central nervous system and has important implications for the diagnosis and rehabilitation of falling in older persons.

  17. Reducing communication inefficiencies for a flexible programming paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischler, M.; Gao, M.; Hockney, G.; Isely, M.; Uchima, M.

    1992-11-01

    The ACPMAPS system at Fermilab has been upgraded to 50 GF by inserting new CPU modules, based on the Intel i860. This ten-fold increase in power, utilizing the identical communications backbone, places the system in a different realm: The transfer latency and overheads are now greater, relative to the cost of a floating point operation. We explore the consequences for programs written using CANOPY, which relies on low communications latencies. We present techniques for alleviating the efficiency decrease, by coalescing transfers, without abandoning the considerable advantages of the CANOPY paradigm.

  18. Radiation induced charge transfer inefficiencies in the Sentinel 4 instrument: modeling, performance, and correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizar, J.; Gulde, S.; Skegg, M.; Levillain, Y.; Weber, H.

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel 4 is an imaging UVN (UV-VIS-NIR) dispersive spectrometer, developed by Airbus DS under an ESA contract in the frame of the joint EU/ESA COPERNICUS program. The instrument is introduced in a dedicated presentation in this conference.

  19. The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2016-01-01

    I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. - Highlights: • I investigate the transition between energy efficient/inefficient states. • On the average, energy inefficient state persists more than energy efficient state. • The duration of energy inefficient state is about twice as long as energy efficient state. • Price, income and trade openness have distinct energy saving effect irrespective of state. • A broad policy overhaul is needed to escape the energy inefficient state.

  20. Green Wireless Power Transfer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Golinnski, M.; Pawelczak, P.; Warnier, M.

    2016-01-01

    wireless power transfer network (WPTN) aims to support devices with cable-less energy on-demand. Unfortunately, wireless power transfer itself-especially through radio frequency radiation rectification-is fairly inefficient due to decaying power with distance, antenna polarization, etc.

  1. Diagnósticos de enfermagem relacionados à oxigenação, atribuídos a vítimas de trauma admitidos em CTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurilene Josefa Cartaxo Gomes de Arruda

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo, realizado em um hospital público, do município de João Pessoa - PB, cujo objetivo geral foi o de estabelecer, à luz do modo fisiológico de adaptação de Roy, um perfil dos diagnósticos de enfermagem do componente oxigenação em pacientes vítimas de trauma. A população do estudo constituiu-se de pacientes vítimas de trauma, encaminhados para o CTI dessa instituição após atendimento na Unidade de Emergência. Para a organização da amostra determinou-se um recorte temporal, durante o qual foram coletados os dados de 22 pacientes. Foram estabelecidos para esses pacientes 6 diferentes diagnósticos de enfermagem no componente oxigenação, dos quais 4 alcançaram uma freqüência³ 50% na amostra de casos estudados e passaram a ser considerados como fazendo parte do perfil diagnóstico pretendido: Perfusão tissular periférica alterada (81,8%, Padrão respiratório ineficaz (77,3%, Troca de gases inadequada (77,3% e Hipoxia (77,3%.

  2. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  3. Comparison of proton irradiated P-channel and N-channel CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, Jason P.D., E-mail: j.p.d.gow@open.ac.uk [e2v Centre for Electronic Imaging, Planetary and Space Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Murray, Neil J.; Holland, Andrew D. [e2v Centre for Electronic Imaging, Planetary and Space Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Burt, David; Pool, Peter J. [e2v Technologies plc, 106 Waterhouse Lance, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 2QU (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-11

    Charge transfer inefficiency and dark current effects are compared for e2v Technologies plc p-channel and n-channel CCDs, both irradiated with protons. The p-channel devices, prior to their irradiation, exhibited twice the dark current and considerable worse charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) than a typical n-channel. The radiation induced increase in dark current was found to be comparable with n-channel CCDs, and its temperature dependence suggest that the divacancy is the dominant source of thermally generated dark current pre- and post-irradiation. The factor of improvement in tolerance to radiation induced CTI varied by between 15 and 25 for serial CTI and 8 and 3 for parallel CTI, between -70 Degree-Sign C and -110 Degree-Sign C, respectively.

  4. Identification and Stochastic Analysis of Factors Influencing Technical Inefficiency of Nigerian Smallholder Soybean Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otitoju, MA.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder soybean production is investigated using an econometric analysis otherwise known as stochastic frontier analysis through transcendental logarithmic (translog production function, which incorporates an inefficiency effects model. Ninety-six farmers were randomly selected through multistage techniques in Benue State, Nigeria. Factors (socio-economic and institutional considered in the inefficiency effects model include household size, sex, age, years of schooling, farming experience in soybean production, health status, off-farm employment, non-family labour, credit accessibility, land fragmentation and extension contact. The parameters of the stochastic frontier translog production function are estimated contemporaneously with those involved in the inefficiency effects model. The results indicate that household size, age, non-family labour were significant and negatively related to the technical inefficiency while farming experience, off-farm employment, credit accessibility, land fragmentation, and extension contact were statistically significant and positively related to the inefficiency. The mean technical efficiency of the farmers is 0.84. This means that the farmers can still improve their efficiency level by 16%.

  5. CTI capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Climate technology and energy efficiency. Challenges and changes for climate technology. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    Within the CTI Capacity Building Seminar for CEE/FSU Countries at 20th to 24th September, 2003 in Tutzing (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Excursion to fuel cell pilot project (Peter Fleischmann); (2) How to construct a climate change program - some basics (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (3) The EU emissions trading directive (Felix Matthes); (4) Emissions trading - The implementation of the EU-Directive in Germany (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (5) Emissions trading from a buyer's perspective (Albrecht von Ruffer); (6) Emissions trading from a seller's perspective: Czech Republic (Toma Chmelik); (7) Discussant notes: Emissions trading (Sonja Butzengeiger); (8) Carbon finance and the world bank: Chances, experiences, lessons learned (Charlotte Streck); (9) Joint implementation: Relationship to and compatibility with the emission trading scheme (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (10) Clean development mechanism in Central Asia (Liliya Zavyalova); (11) Creating a national CDM system in Georgia (Paata Janelidze); (12) Experiences from the certification of JI/CDM projects (Michael Rumberg); (13) Discussant notes Session JI and CDM (Tiit Kallaste); (14) The EU Directive on electricity from renewable energy sources 2001/77/EC (Volkmar Lauber); (15) Amending the Renewable Energy Source Act (Thorsten Mueller); (16) The new renewables support scheme in te Czech Republic (Martin Busik); (17) Replacing nuclear energy by renewables. The case of Lithunia (Kestutis Buinevicius); (18) Renewables in the New Energy Acts of Estonia (Villu Vares); (19) Discussant notes: Session incentive schemes for renewables (Hans-Joachim Ziesing); (20) Bankable energy efficiency projects - How to get energy efficiency investment financed (Petra Opitz); (21) Clear contract - clearinghouse for contracting (Ralf Goldmann); (22) CHP as an important element of a sustainable energy use in Germany (Juergen Landrebe); (23) The European CHP Directive - a step towards the smarter

  6. Allocentric but not egocentric visual memory difficulties in adults with ADHD may represent cognitive inefficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Franklin C; Roth, Robert M; Katz, Lynda J

    2015-08-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has often been conceptualized as arising executive dysfunctions (e.g., inattention, defective inhibition). However, recent studies suggested that cognitive inefficiency may underlie many ADHD symptoms, according to reaction time and processing speed abnormalities. This study explored whether a non-timed measure of cognitive inefficiency would also be abnormal. A sample of 23 ADHD subjects was compared to 23 controls on a test that included both egocentric and allocentric visual memory subtests. A factor analysis was used to determine which cognitive variables contributed to allocentric visual memory. The ADHD sample performed significantly lower on the allocentric but not egocentric conditions. Allocentric visual memory was not associated with timed, working memory, visual perception, or mental rotation variables. This paper concluded by discussing how these results supported a cognitive inefficiency explanation for some ADHD symptoms, and discussed future research directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is Declining malaria vector population in Africa a result of intervention Measures or sampling tools inefficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent entomological surveys have shown a declining trend of malaria vector population in sub-Saharan Africa and the observation have beenassociated with the scale-up and intensive use of malaria intervention measures such as insecticides treated nets and insecticide residual sprays.However, little is known on the contribution of the mosquito sampling tools inefficiency on the declining trends of malaria vector population. Inthis commentary paper, we explore the possibility of contribution of mosquito sampling tools’ inefficiency to the observed declining trends ofmalaria vector population in Africa.

  8. Measuring inefficiency for specific inputs using data envelopment analysis: evidence from construction industry in Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    This article contributes to the efficiency literature by defining, in the context of the data envelopment analysis framework, the directional distance function approach for measuring both technical and scale inefficiencies with regard to the use of individual inputs. The input-specific technical and scale inefficiencies are then aggregated in order to calculate the overall inefficiency measures. Empirical application focuses on a large dataset of Spanish and Portuguese construction companies between 2002 and 2010 and accounts for three inputs: materials, labor and fixed assets. The results show, first, that for both Spanish and Portuguese construction companies, fixed assets are the most technically inefficient input. Second, the most inefficient scale concerns the utilization of material input in both samples; the reason for this inefficiency is that firms tend to operate in the increasing returns to scale portion of technology set. Third, in both samples, large firms have the lowest input-specific technical inefficiencies, but the highest input-specific scale inefficiencies, compared to their small and medium-sized counterparts, and tend to suffer from decreasing returns to scale. Finally, in both samples, input-specific technical inefficiency under constant returns to scale increased during the period of the recent financial crisis, mainly due to the augmentation in scale inefficiency.

  9. Creating Sustainable Businesses by Reducing Food Waste : A Value Chain Framework for Eliminating Inefficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Gerry Kouwenhoven; Dr. Vijayender Reddy Nalla; Ton Lossonczy von Losoncz

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a systematic value chain approach to helping businesses identify and eliminate inefficiencies. The authors have developed a robust framework, which food-sector entrepreneurs can use to increase profitability of an existing business or to create new profitable opportunities. The

  10. Explaining technical inefficiency and the variation in income from apple adoption in highland Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemu, Sintayehu Hailu; Kempen, van Luuk; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the performance and quality of apple fruits and seedlings production in Chencha district of southern Ethiopia. The estimated, three-factor (labour, land and capital) production frontier reveals that the technical inefficiency is 60% and 48% for fruits and seedlings

  11. Oral tolerance is inefficient in neonatal mice due to a physiological vitamin A deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turfkruyer, M.; Rekima, A.; Macchiaverni, P.; Le Bourhis, L.; Muncan, V.; van den Brink, G. R.; Tulic, M. K.; Verhasselt, V.

    2016-01-01

    Increased risk of allergy during early life indicates deficient immune regulation in this period of life. To date, the cause for inefficient neonatal immune regulation has never been elucidated. We aimed to define the ontogeny of oral tolerance and to identify necessary conditions specific for this

  12. Imperfect Labour Markets, the Stock Market and the Inefficiency of Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Alan

    1989-01-01

    In a capitalist economy, capitalists can sell their stake in a firm on the stock market whereas workers cannot sell their jobs. It is argued that when workers have some bargaining power this asymmetry in property rights leads to inefficiencies. The consequences of this are explored and certain policy options considered. Copyright 1992 by Royal Economic Society.

  13. A Study on the Reasons for the Inefficiency of College English Teaching and Some Tentative Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaogang

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of a survey, the reasons for the inefficiency of current College English teaching are examined. First, the traditional learning methodology is entrenched and the concepts and ideology of language teaching are outdated. Second, the social and learning environment resulted in the conflicts between the purpose of English teaching and the…

  14. Quantifying the economic impact of communication inefficiencies in U.S. hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ritu; Sands, Daniel Z; Schneider, Jorge Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Care delivery is a complex enterprise that involves multiple interactions among multiple stakeholders. Effective communication between these dispersed parties is critical to ensuring quality and safety and improves operational efficiencies. Time and motion studies in hospital settings provide strong evidence that care providers-doctors and nurses-spend a significant proportion of their time obtaining or providing information (i.e., communicating). Yet, surprisingly, no studies attempt to quantify the economic waste associated with communication inefficiencies in hospital settings at a national level. Our research focuses on developing models for quantifying the economic burden on hospitals of poor communications. We developed a conceptual model of the effects of poor communications in hospitals that isolates four outcomes: (1) efficiency of resource utilization, (2) effectiveness of core operations, (3) quality of work life, and (4) service quality, identifying specific metrics for each outcome. We developed estimates of costs associated with wasted physician time, wasted nurse time, and increase in length of stay caused by communication inefficiencies across all U.S. hospitals, using primary data collected from interviews in seven hospitals and secondary data from a literature review, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). We find that U.S. hospitals waste over $12 billion annually as a result of communication inefficiency among care providers. Increase in length of stay accounts for 53 percent of the annual economic burden. A 500-bed hospital loses over $4 million annually as a result of communication inefficiencies. We note that our estimates are conservative as they do not include all dimensions of economic waste arising from poor communications. The economic burden of communication inefficiency in U.S. hospitals is substantial. Information technologies and process redesign may help alleviate some of

  15. Tracking in dense environments and its inefficiency measurement using pixel $dE/dx$

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, Jason Dhia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement of the charged particle reconstruction inefficiency inside of jet cores, using data collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2015 of $pp$ collisions produced at the LHC, at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV. The determination of this inefficiency is important for jet energy scale and mass calibration, as well as multiple other performance studies and analyses. A data driven method is used, where the fraction of lost particle tracks is determined from energy deposition $dE/dx$ in the pixel detector. The fraction of lost tracks is found to be less than 5%, which is an improvement since the previous study, and agrees well within systematic uncertainties with a Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. The analysis of irreversibility, uncertainty and dynamic technical inefficiency on the investment decision in the Spanish olive sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambarraa, Fatima; Stefanou, Spiro; Gil, José M.

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses irreversible investment decision-making in the context of uncertainty when allowing for inefficiency to be transmitted over time. Both irreversibility and persistence in technical inefficiency can lead to sluggish adjustment of quasi-fixed factors of production. The context

  17. Costs and Technology of Public Transit Systems in Italy:Some Insights to Face Inefficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Fraquelli; Massimiliano Piacenza; Graziano Abrate

    2001-01-01

    This study provides fresh evidence about the characteristics of technology and cost structure of public transit systems in Italy. The aim is to suggest useful guidelines for facing detected inefficiencies. The analysis is carried out through the estimation of a translog variable cost function. The sample includes 45 Italian public companies. Firms are observed in the years 1996, 1997 and 1998, and operate both in the urban and extra-urban compartments. Results support previous evidence on the...

  18. Emphysema on Thoracic CT and Exercise Ventilatory Inefficiency in Mild-to-Moderate COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua H; Zelt, Joel T; Hirai, Daniel M; Diniz, Camilla V; Zaza, Aida; O'Donnell, Denis E; Neder, J Alberto

    2017-04-01

    There is growing evidence that emphysema on thoracic computed tomography (CT) is associated with poor exercise tolerance in COPD patients with only mild-to-moderate airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that an excessive ventilatory response to exercise (ventilatory inefficiency) would underlie these abnormalities. In a prospective study, 19 patients (FEV 1 = 82 ± 13%, 12 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 1) and 26 controls underwent an incremental exercise test. Ventilatory inefficiency was assessed by the ventilation ([Formula: see text]E)/CO 2 output ([Formula: see text]CO 2 ) nadir. Pulmonary blood flow (PBF) in a submaximal test was calculated by inert gas rebreathing. Emphysema was quantified as % of attenuation areas below 950 HU. Patients typically presented with centrilobular emphysema (76.8 ± 10.1% of total emphysema) in the upper lobes (upper/total lung ratio = 0.82 ± 0.04). They had lower peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2 ), higher [Formula: see text]E/[Formula: see text]CO 2 nadir, and greater dyspnea scores than controls (p exercise (p exercise (r = -0.69) (p exercise ventilatory efficiency in mild-to-moderate COPD. Exercise ventilatory inefficiency links structure (emphysema) and function (D L CO) to a key clinical outcome (poor exercise tolerance) in COPD patients with only modest spirometric abnormalities.

  19. Access to credit and determinants of technical inefficiency of specialized smallholder farmers in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan von Cramon-Taubadel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit and credit constraint are critical determinants of competitiveness in agriculture; they have an impact on the technical efficiency of farms. The objective of this study was to analyze how credit variables influence the technical efficiency of two groups of specialized smallholder farmers in Chile. The translog stochastic production frontier model was used to predict the level of farm technical efficiency by the maximum likelihood method. Based on 2004 data, production functions and technical inefficiency score were estimated for 109 livestock and 342 crop producers. Results showed that the mean technical efficiency was 89% and 78% for crop and livestock producers, respectively. Technical efficiency increased with the decreasing use of inputs, dependence on on-farm income, farmer education, family size, and age of the head of household. Credit volume had a significant impact by increasing and decreasing efficiency in crop and livestock production, respectively. Correspondingly, credit-constrained farmers were less efficient in crop production and more efficient in livestock production. For livestock producers, credit volume and credit constraints were found to be endogenous to technical efficiency. A possible explanation is the organization of public support for small livestock producers in Chile, which provides lenders with information about individual livestock producers. Correcting for this endogeneity did not lead to qualitatively different results, but it did influence point estimates of parameters in the production function and inefficiency models, suggesting that it is important to test for endogeneity in the variables used to model inefficiency effects.

  20. Análise bibliométrica da produção tecnológica em biodiesel: contribuições para uma política em CT&I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Melo Maricato

    Full Text Available Analisa a produção tecnológica internacional em biodiesel através de indicadores bibliométricos de patentes. A coleta dos dados deu-se na base de dados Derwent Innovations Index, limitando-se ao período entre 2000 a 2007. Analisou-se a evolução do registro de patentes por organizações e indivíduos, assim como a classificação das invenções. Visualiza-se a dinâmica da produção tecnológica em biodiesel, subsidiando reflexões tanto do ponto de vista do uso de indicadores bibliométricos quanto para a Política em CT&I no campo de biodiesel.

  1. Virtuosity and inefficiencies of the global virtual water trade (with application to Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Julia Anna; Allamano, Paola; Claps, Pierluigi

    2014-05-01

    The current trade of agricultural goods, with connections involving all continents, entails for global exchanges of "virtual" water, i.e. water used in the production process of alimentary products, but not contained within. Each trade link translates into a corresponding virtual water trade, allowing quantification of import and export fluxes of virtual water. The assessment of the virtual water import for a given nation, compared to the national consumption, could give an approximate idea of the country's reliance on external resources from the food and the water resources point of view. A descriptive approach to the understanding of a nation's degree of dependency from overseas food and water resources is first proposed, and indices of water trade virtuosity, as opposed to inefficiency, are devised. Such indices are based on the concepts of self-sufficiency and relative export, computed systematically on all products from the FAOSTAT database, taking Italy as the first case study. Analysis of time series of the self-sufficiency and relative export can demonstrate effects of market tendencies and influence water-related policies at the international level. The goal of this approach is highlighting incongruent terms in the virtual water balances by the viewpoint of single products. Specific products, which are here referred to as "swap products", are in fact identified as those that lead to inefficiencies in the virtual water balance due to their contemporaneously high import and export. The inefficiencies due to the exchanges of the same products between two nations are calculated in terms of virtual water volumes. Furthermore, the cases of swap products are investigated by computing two further indexes denoting the ratio of virtual water exchanged in the swap and the ratio of the economic values of the swapped products. The analysis of these figures can help examine the reasons behind the swap phenomenon in trade.

  2. Reduced suppression or labile memory? Mechanisms of inefficient filtering of irrelevant information in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Monica; Low, Kathy A; Wee, Emily; Sable, Jeffrey J; Gratton, Gabriele

    2006-04-01

    Cognitive aging theories emphasize the decrease in efficiency of inhibitory processes and attention control in normal aging, which, in turn, may result in reduction of working memory function. Accordingly, some of these age-related changes may be due to faster sensory memory decay or to inefficient filtering of irrelevant sensory information (sensory gating). Here, event-related brain potentials and the event-related optical signal were recorded in younger and older adults passively listening to tone trains. To determine whether age differentially affects decay of sensory memory templates over short intervals, trains were separated by delays of either 1 or 5 sec. To determine whether age affects the suppression of responses to unattended repeated stimuli, we evaluated the brain activity elicited by successive train stimuli. Some trains started with a shorter-duration stimulus (deviant trains). Results showed that both electrical and optical responses to tones were more persistent with repeated stimulation in older adults than in younger adults, whereas the effects of delay were similar in the two groups. A mismatch negativity (MMN) was elicited by the first stimulus in deviant trains. This MMN was larger for 1- than 5-sec delay, but did not differ across groups. These data suggest that age-related changes in sensory processing are likely due to inefficient filtering of repeated information, rather than to faster sensory memory decay. This inefficient filtering may be due to, or interact with, reduced attention control. Furthermore, it may increase the noise levels in the information processing system and thus contribute to problems with working memory and speed of processing.

  3. Assessing the efficiency versus the inefficiency of the energy sectors in formerly centrally planned economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorsatz, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    As much the extreme inefficiency of Eastern European energy sectors is emphasized, as little attention their relatively efficient aspects receive. Indeed, a few efficiency indicators show the highest global efficiencies for the formerly centrally planned economies, such as the overall primary to useful energy efficiency. These figures draw the attention to an underestimated feature of former socialist energy sectors and to crucial policy implications: in some respects central planning lead to a more efficient use of energy than the market economy. Consequently, if transitions from the central planning to the market economy are not managed carefully, further reductions in energy efficiency can be expected in some sectors of the economy.

  4. Social Costs of the Inefficient Management of the EU Funds for Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2016-01-01

    The study identifies and defines the social costs of the inefficient management of EU funds for Bulgaria. It is analyzed the last due programme period (2007-2015) and its prolongation. As methodology of the research the V4 BM model of Al-Debei and Avison (2010) which has not been used for analysis of EU funds management for cohesion policy in the public sector, is applied. In this way its potential for application in this field is tested. The concept of the study could be successfully used fo...

  5. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Clinical implications of experimental studies on metastatic inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Ann F; Naumov, George N; Vantyghem, Sharon A; Tuck, Alan B

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to an increasing ability to detect isolated tumour cells and groups of tumour cells in patients' blood, lymph nodes or bone marrow. However, the clinical significance of these cells is unclear. Should they be considered as evidence of metastasis, necessitating aggressive treatment, or are they in some cases unrelated to clinical outcome? Quantitative experimental studies on the basic biology of metastatic inefficiency are providing clues that may help in understanding the significance of these cells. This understanding will be of use in guiding clinical studies to assess the significance of isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in cancer patients

  6. Does moving towards renewable energy causes water and land inefficiency? An empirical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-mulali, Usama; Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Sheau-Ting, Low; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of renewable energy production on water and land footprint in 58 developed and developing countries for the period of 1980–2009. Utilizing the ecological footprint as an indicator, the fixed effects, difference and system generalized method of moment (GMM) approaches were employed and eight different models were constructed to achieve robustness in the empirical outcomes. Despite the use of different methods and models, the outcome was the same whereby GDP growth, urbanization, and trade openness increase the water and land footprint. Moreover, renewable energy production increases the water and land inefficiency because of its positive effect on ecological footprint. Additionally, based on the square of GDP it is concluded that the EKC hypothesis does not exist while the square of renewable energy production indicates that renewable energy production will continue to increase water and land footprint in the future. From the outcome of this study, a number of recommendations were provided to the investigated countries. - Highlights: •The effect of renewable energy production on water and land footprint is studied. •58 developed and developing countries were examined for the period of 1980–2009. •Eight different models were constructed to achieve robustness in the outcomes. •GDP, urbanization, and trade openness increase the water and land footprint. •Renewable energy production increases the water and land inefficiency.

  7. A Patient Flow Analysis: Identification of Process Inefficiencies and Workflow Metrics at an Ambulatory Endoscopy Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increasing demand for endoscopic procedures coincides with the paradigm shift in health care delivery that emphasizes efficient use of existing resources. However, there is limited literature on the range of endoscopy unit efficiencies. Methods. A time and motion analysis of patient flow through the Hotel-Dieu Hospital (Kingston, Ontario endoscopy unit was followed by qualitative interviews. Procedures were directly observed in three segments: individual endoscopy room use, preprocedure/recovery room, and overall endoscopy unit utilization. Results. Data were collected for 137 procedures in the endoscopy room, 139 procedures in the preprocedure room, and 143 procedures for overall room utilization. The mean duration spent in the endoscopy room was 31.47 min for an esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 52.93 min for a colonoscopy, 30.47 min for a flexible sigmoidoscopy, and 66.88 min for a double procedure. The procedure itself accounted for 8.11 min, 34.24 min, 9.02 min, and 39.13 min for the above procedures, respectively. The focused interviews identified the scheduling template as a major area of operational inefficiency. Conclusions. Despite reasonable procedure times for all except colonoscopies, the endoscopy room durations exceed the allocated times, reflecting the impact of non-procedure-related factors and the need for a revised scheduling template. Endoscopy units have unique operational characteristics and identification of process inefficiencies can lead to targeted quality improvement initiatives.

  8. A Patient Flow Analysis: Identification of Process Inefficiencies and Workflow Metrics at an Ambulatory Endoscopy Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rowena; Paterson, William G; Craig, Nancy; Hookey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background. The increasing demand for endoscopic procedures coincides with the paradigm shift in health care delivery that emphasizes efficient use of existing resources. However, there is limited literature on the range of endoscopy unit efficiencies. Methods. A time and motion analysis of patient flow through the Hotel-Dieu Hospital (Kingston, Ontario) endoscopy unit was followed by qualitative interviews. Procedures were directly observed in three segments: individual endoscopy room use, preprocedure/recovery room, and overall endoscopy unit utilization. Results. Data were collected for 137 procedures in the endoscopy room, 139 procedures in the preprocedure room, and 143 procedures for overall room utilization. The mean duration spent in the endoscopy room was 31.47 min for an esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 52.93 min for a colonoscopy, 30.47 min for a flexible sigmoidoscopy, and 66.88 min for a double procedure. The procedure itself accounted for 8.11 min, 34.24 min, 9.02 min, and 39.13 min for the above procedures, respectively. The focused interviews identified the scheduling template as a major area of operational inefficiency. Conclusions. Despite reasonable procedure times for all except colonoscopies, the endoscopy room durations exceed the allocated times, reflecting the impact of non-procedure-related factors and the need for a revised scheduling template. Endoscopy units have unique operational characteristics and identification of process inefficiencies can lead to targeted quality improvement initiatives.

  9. Explaining the Most Energetic Supernovae with an Inefficient Jet-feedback Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkis, Avishai; Soker, Noam; Papish, Oded

    2016-08-01

    We suggest that the energetic radiation from core-collapse super-energetic supernovae (SESNe) is due to a long-lasting accretion process onto the newly born neutron star (NS), resulting from an inefficient operation of the jet-feedback mechanism (JFM). The jets that are launched by the accreting NS or black hole maintain their axis due to a rapidly rotating pre-collapse core and do not manage to eject core material from near the equatorial plane. The jets are able to eject material from the core along the polar directions and reduce the gravity near the equatorial plane. The equatorial gas expands, and part of it falls back over a timescale of minutes to days to prolong the jet-launching episode. According to the model for SESNe proposed in the present paper, the principal parameter that distinguishes between the different cases of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) explosions, such as between normal CCSNe and SESNe, is the efficiency of the JFM. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the pre-collapse core mass, envelope mass, core convection, and, most of all, the angular momentum profile in the core. One prediction of the inefficient JFM for SESNe is the formation of a slow equatorial outflow in the explosion. The typical velocity and mass of this outflow are estimated to be v eq ≈ 1000 km s-1 and M eq ≳ 1 M ⊙, respectively, though quantitative values will have to be checked in future hydrodynamic simulations.

  10. Characterisation of a CMOS charge transfer device for TDI imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushton, J.; Holland, A.; Stefanov, K.; Mayer, F.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a prototype true charge transfer imaging sensor in CMOS is investigated. The finished device is destined for use in TDI applications, especially Earth-observation, and to this end radiation tolerance must be investigated. Before this, complete characterisation is required. This work starts by looking at charge transfer inefficiency and then investigates responsivity using mean-variance techniques

  11. Deformation-driven, lethal damage to cancer cells. Its contribution to metastatic inefficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, L

    1991-04-01

    Direct and indirect, in vivo and in vitro observations are in accord with the hypothesis that as a consequence of their deformation within capillaries, cancer cells undergo sphere-to-cylinder shape-transformations that create a demand for increased surface area. When this demand cannot be met by apparent increases in surface area accomplished by nonlethal, surface "unfolding," the cell surface membrane is stretched; if expansion results in more than a 4% increase in true surface area, the membrane ruptures, resulting in cancer cell death. It is suggested that this deformation-driven process is an important factor in accounting for the rapid death of circulating cancer cells that have been trapped in the microvasculature. Therefore, this mechanism is thought to make a significant contribution to metastatic inefficiency by acting as a potent rate-regulator for hematogenous metastasis.

  12. An exploration study to detect different factors influencing on inefficiency of office automation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Roostaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Office automation systems play important role on increasing productivity and efficiency of organizations. An automated system is capable of improving required communications, speed up the process of tasks and removes unnecessary activities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing on inefficiency of office automation systems in ministry of science, research and technology of Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among management team who work for this organization. The results of our investigation indicate that two factors, lack of necessary infrastructure for participating in office automation activities as well as lack of management support, play important role on reaching desirable results. In addition, educational background and work experience also influence office automation systems’ applicability.

  13. Do Children and Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa Display an Inefficient Cognitive Processing Style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Lang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine neuropsychological processing in children and adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN. The relationship of clinical and demographic variables to neuropsychological functioning within the AN group was also explored.The performance of 41 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of AN were compared to 43 healthy control (HC participants on a number of neuropsychological measures.There were no differences in IQ between AN and HC groups. However, children and adolescents with AN displayed significantly more perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and lower Style and Central Coherence scores on the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test relative to HCs.Inefficient cognitive processing in the AN group was independent of clinical and demographic variables, suggesting it might represent an underlying trait for AN. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. “P[e]neu”, “Ad[e]vogado” and “Af[e]tosa”: the lowering of the suarabácti vowels in data of the Linguistic Atlas Project of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Pereira Romano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research reflects on the vowel epenthesis in Brazilian Portuguese, especially on the phonetic-phonological phenomenon known as suarabácti, which consists in the insertion of a epenthetic vowel to undo inappropriate consonant clusters. We use as corpus the data that make up the database of the Linguistic Atlas Project of Brazil, collected in two federal states, Paraná and São Paulo, with 220 stratified informants equally according to the variables gender (male and female and range age (range I: 18 to 30 years/ range II: 50 to 65 years, all with maximum education until the 9th grade of elementary school. Three issues of Phonetic-Phonological Questionnaire were selected, namely: issue 54 (AFTOSA, 72 (PNEU and 101 (ADVOGADO and they were treated from the theoretical and methodological aspects of Dialectology and of variationist Sociolinguistics through graphics, linguistic maps and analysis according to the results obtained from the GoldVarb Program (2001, considering the intersection and linguistic and extralinguistic variables in the occurrence of the variable rule, vowel lowering [i] > [e].

  15. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  16. Hidden costs of HIV treatment in Spain: inefficiency of the antiretroviral drug packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre-Codina, Josep M; Andreu-Crespo, Angels; Cardona-Peitx, Gloria; Sala-Piñol, Ferran; Clotet-Sala, Bonaventura; Bonafont-Pujol, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral drugs in Spain are delivered by law only in hospital pharmacies. Commercial packages meet variable quality standards when dispensed drugs are returned due to treatment changes or adherence problems Nearly 20-25% of the initial regimens will be changed at 48 weeks for different reasons. We evaluated the economic impact on public health system of the inability of using returned drugs due to inefficient packaging. We defined socially efficient packaging as the best adapted one to being delivered in unit dose to outpatients and classified: Class A - Drug packed in unit doses with complete info (name of drug, dosage in mg, lot, and expiring date) in each unit, maintaining complete information of the drug if returned when the external package is opened. Class B - packed in blisters with complete info in the blister, but not in unit doses, without special conservation conditions (should be re-packed in unit doses in the pharmacy before its dispensation to assure a class A excellence). Class C - packed in plastic containers with complete info written only on a label over the container, would allow repackaging only before its initial delivery, but not when returned. Class D - drug packed in plastic containers with manufacturer's warning that the product cannot be placed outside of the original package due to special conditions of conservation (fridge, humidity) that doesn't allow a unit dose repackaging or reusing an opened container. We analysed a 12-month period (July 2011-June 2012) in a hospital-based HIV outpatient pharmacy that serves 2413 treated individuals. Patients generated 23,574 visits to pharmacy, and received 48,325 drug packages, with 2.529.137 pills delivered. The patients suffered 1051 treatment changes for any reason. A total amount of 122.945€ in treatment were returned to pharmacy in opened packages during the study period. 47.139.91€ would be totally lost, mainly due to being packaged in class C and D boxes, the equivalent of

  17. Ventilatory inefficiency in major depressive disorder: a potential adjunct for cardiac risk stratification in depressive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Puta, Christian; Boettger, Silke; Mueller, Hans Josef; Faude, Oliver; Meyer, Tim; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Gabriel, Holger H W

    2010-08-16

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides insights into ventilatory, cardiac and metabolic dysfunction in heart and lung diseases and might play a role in cardiac risk stratification in major depressive disorder (MDD). The VE/VCO(2)-slope indicates ventilatory efficiency and has been applied to stratify the cardiac risk in heart failure (HF). Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate and classify ventilatory efficiency and its relationship to physical fitness and disease severity in MDD. Exhaustive incremental exercise testing was completed by 15 female MDD patients and pair matched controls. The ventilatory threshold (VT) and the VE/VCO(2)-slope were assessed. Statistical analyses were conducted by means of MANOVAs and follow-up univariate ANOVAs. In patients with MDD, significant different relative work rates and oxygen uptakes at the VT in comparison to healthy controls were observed. Furthermore, we found an increased VE/VCO(2)-slope in depressed patients. We additionally report an inverse relationship between the VE/VCO(2)-slope and peak power output as well as peak oxygen uptake solely in patients. We did not observe any association of assessed parameters with disease severity. CPET measures indicate ventilatory inefficiency in patients with MDD. The elevated VE/VCO(2)-slope indicates that patients with MDD need to ventilate significantly more to a given amount of developing CO(2). Further investigations are needed to verify the application of the ventilatory classification system to stratify cardiovascular risk in depressive disorder. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hormonal imbalance in relation to exercise intolerance and ventilatory inefficiency in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitou, Varvara; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Kapelios, Christos; Karatzanos, Eleftherios; Manetos, Christos; Georgantas, Andreas; Ntalianis, Argyrios; Terrovitis, John; Karga, Helen; Nanas, Serafim

    2013-04-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is associated with altered catabolic/anabolic balance and poor prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study evaluated catabolic and anabolic abnormalities in relation to disease severity in CHF patients. Forty-two stable CHF patients (34 men; aged 56±12 years, body mass index, 27±5 kg/m2) receiving optimal medical treatment underwent incremental symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer. Blood samples were drawn within 10 days to determine serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, insulin-like growth factor 1, growth hormone, and total testosterone in men. Patients with higher cortisol levels presented with impaired peak oxygen uptake (Vo2 peak: 18.3±3.9 vs. 14.2±3.7 ml/kg/min, phormones, whereas cortisol remained the only independent predictor of Ve/Vco2 slope (R2 = 0.133; F = 6.1; SE = 6.2; p = 0.02). Enhanced catabolic status is significantly associated with exercise intolerance, ventilatory inefficiency, and chronotropic incompetence in CHF patients, suggesting a significant contributing mechanism to their limited functional status. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Properties of Reconnection Current Sheets in GRMHD Simulations of Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects may play a significant role in determining the dynamics, thermal properties, and observational signatures of radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. In particular, particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection events may influence black hole spectra and flaring properties. We use representative general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of black hole accretion flows to identify and explore the structures and properties of current sheets as potential sites of magnetic reconnection. In the case of standard and normal evolution (SANE) disks, we find that in the reconnection sites, the plasma beta ranges from 0.1 to 1000, the magnetization ranges from 10‑4 to 1, and the guide fields are weak compared with the reconnecting fields. In magnetically arrested (MAD) disks, we find typical values for plasma beta from 10‑2 to 103, magnetizations from 10‑3 to 10, and typically stronger guide fields, with strengths comparable to or greater than the reconnecting fields. These are critical parameters that govern the electron energy distribution resulting from magnetic reconnection and can be used in the context of plasma simulations to provide microphysics inputs to global simulations. We also find that ample magnetic energy is available in the reconnection regions to power the fluence of bright X-ray flares observed from the black hole in the center of the Milky Way.

  20. Inefficient and opaque price formation in the Japan Electric Power Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether the spot prices in the Japan Electric Power Exchange are efficiently formed from April 3, 2006, to March 31, 2012, using the conventional and rank-based variance-ratio tests. The results seem to reject the efficient market hypothesis in the market. Moreover, by applying Granger-causality tests, this paper investigates whether the power price is determined from the information of primary energy and exchange markets that directly affect the cost of power generation. The results indicate no Granger-causality from the prices of oil and gas and the exchange rate to the price of electricity. Finally, this paper discusses the factors that lead to inefficient and mysterious price formation. - Highlights: ► This study examines the wholesale electricity market in Japan. ► Efficient market hypothesis is rejected. ► Prices of imported fuel do not Granger-cause the prices of electricity. ► The WTI prices and the exchange rates do not Granger-cause the power prices

  1. Frontopolar cortical inefficiency may underpin reward and working memory dysfunction in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogia, Jigar; Dima, Danai; Kumari, Veena; Frangou, Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder is thought to arise from dysfunction within prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control coupled with increased or aberrant activation within regions engaged in emotional processing. The aim of this study was to determine the common and distinct patterns of functional brain abnormalities during reward and working memory processing in patients with bipolar disorder. Participants were 36 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 37 healthy comparison subjects matched for age, sex and IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted during the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the n-back working memory task. During both tasks, patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated a pattern of inefficient engagement within the ventral frontopolar prefrontal cortex with evidence of segregation along the medial-lateral dimension for reward and working memory processing, respectively. Moreover, patients also showed greater activation in the anterior cingulate cortex during the Iowa Gambling Task and in the insula during the n-back task. Our data implicate ventral frontopolar dysfunction as a core abnormality underpinning bipolar disorder and confirm that overactivation in regions involved in emotional arousal is present even in tasks that do not typically engage emotional systems.

  2. Inefficiency of IDS Static Anomaly Detectors in Real-World Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Guillen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of IDS implementations with anomaly detection modules have been deployed. In general, those modules depend on intrusion knowledge databases, such as Knowledge Discovery Dataset (KDD99, Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA or Community Resource for Archiving Wireless Data at Dartmouth (CRAWDAD, among others. Once the database is analyzed and a machine learning method is employed to generate detectors, some classes of new detectors are created. Thereafter, detectors are supposed to be deployed in real network environments in order to achieve detection with good results for false positives and detection rates. Since the traffic behavior is quite different according to the user’s network activities over available services, restrictions and applications, it is supposed that behavioral-based detectors are not well suited to all kind of networks. This paper presents the differences of detection results between some network scenarios by applying traditional detectors that were calculated with artificial neural networks. The same detector is deployed in different scenarios to measure the efficiency or inefficiency of static training detectors.

  3. Inefficient Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers: Angular Momentum Belt in the Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-04-01

    We present unstratified 3D MHD simulations of an accretion disk with a boundary layer (BL) that have a duration ˜1000 orbital periods at the inner radius of the accretion disk. We find the surprising result that angular momentum piles up in the boundary layer, which results in a rapidly rotating belt of accreted material at the surface of the star. The angular momentum stored in this belt increases monotonically in time, which implies that angular momentum transport mechanisms in the BL are inefficient and do not couple the accretion disk to the star. This is in spite of the fact that magnetic fields are advected into the BL from the disk and supersonic shear instabilities in the BL excite acoustic waves. In our simulations, these waves only carry a small fraction (˜10%) of the angular momentum required for steady state accretion. Using analytical theory and 2D viscous simulations in the R - ϕ plane, we derive an analytical criterion for belt formation to occur in the BL in terms of the ratio of the viscosity in the accretion disk to the viscosity in the BL. Our MHD simulations have a dimensionless viscosity (α) in the BL that is at least a factor of ˜100 smaller than that in the disk. We discuss the implications of these results for BL dynamics and emission.

  4. ECONOMETRIC INEFFICIENCY ESTIMATES IN A COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20080701001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Bernard Bastiaan Rivera Rivera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to apply a Cobb-Douglas, Translog Stochastic Production Function and Data Envelopment Analysis – particularly the Malmquist index - in order to estimate increases or decreases of inefficiencies over time as well as the sources of TFP changes for the main Brazilian grain crops - namely, rice, beans, maize, soybeans and wheat - throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 2001-2006. According to the Cobb Douglas model, the greatest elasticity presented is that of harvested area, followed by agricultural credit and limestone. The Translog production function presents an amelioration of aggregate productivity over time and, in a decreasing order, the Brazilian regions that have presented the greatest relative degree of efficiency are the Northeast, North, Southeast, South and Center-West regions. The results indicate that, although there have been positive changes in TFP for the sample analyzed, a decline in the use of technology has been evidenced for all the principal Brazilian grain crops between 2005/2007 – period in which we observe a remarkable downfall in the use of inputs in Brazilian agriculture.

  5. Estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas pela equipe de enfermagem de um CTI adulto perante situações de estresse = Coping strategies used by the nursing staff of an adult ICU in stress situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colossi, Emanuelle Graziottin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Para os profissionais da saúde lidar com situações de estresse, como por exemplo, a eminência da morte dos pacientes, parece ser uma das maiores dificuldades vividas em sue ambiente de trabalho. Frente a este contexto, cada pessoa lança mão de estratégias próprias para o enfrentamento de situações estressantes (coping, as quais são determinadas pelo ambiente e por características de personalidade. Objetivo: Identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento (coping dos profissionais de enfermagem de um CTI adulto diante de situações estressantes inerentes a sua profissão. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo transversal, no qual foi aplicado o Inventário COPE, em trinta e oito técnicos de enfermagem e/ou enfermeiros. Os dados do inventário foram analisados em termos descritivos. Resultados: As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas foram as relacionadas à capacidade pró-ativa do sujeito (reinterpretação positiva, coping ativo e busca por suporte social e as menos utilizadas foram as relacionadas às emoções (foco nas emoções e humor. Conclusão: Na amostra estudada, os profissionais buscam estratégias que antecedam as dificuldades inerentes a sua prática diária, isolando os aspectos mais irrelevantes dos estressores e focalizando a atenção no resultado de suas ações, o que permite uma melhor percepção de seu trabalho e o sentimento de realização profissional

  6. Preparation, characterization and wear resistance to ceramic composites Si C/Ti B{sub 2}; Elaboration, caracterisation et resistance a l`usure de composites ceramiques SiC/TiB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, C.

    1997-12-18

    The composites Si C-Ti B{sub 2} (5,10,15% vol. Ti B{sub 2}) have been synthesized by natural and reactive sintering from Ti O{sub 2}, B{sub 4} C and phenolic resin used as carbon source, by the reaction: Ti O{sub 2} + 0.5 B{sub 4} C +1.5 C -> Ti B{sub 2} + 2 CO (1400 degrees Celsius). They have been characterized from a microstructural, mechanical and tribological point of view. The dispersion of Ti B{sub 2} particles is very homogeneous in optical microscopy and in scanning electron microscopy. The images analysis has showed that most of the particles have a size smaller than 1 {mu}m. The atomic force microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy have revealed the existence of nanometrical particles. Concerning the mechanical properties, the fracture toughness increases with the Ti B{sub 2} rate and the hardness decreases. By friction, the composite materials wear slowly than the monolithic SiC. The wear mechanisms are modified in air and in water. In air, a layer of oxidized scraps, protector if it is stable, are formed for composites while there is formation of rollers for SiC. In water, composites are polished while SiC wears by cleavages. The influence of the Ti B{sub 2} phase on the wear resistance is due to the tribo-oxidation: a lubrication can take place through the tribo-oxidation products. (O.M.) 64 refs.

  7. Energy savings potential in China's industrial sector: From the perspectives of factor price distortion and allocative inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoling; Sun, Chuanwang

    2015-01-01

    China's industrial energy consumption accounted for 70.82% of national and 14.12% of world energy usage in 2011. In the context of energy scarcity and environmental pollution, the industrial sector in China faces unsustainable growth problems. By adopting the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework, this paper analyzes the factor allocative efficiency of China's industrial sector, and estimates the energy savings potential from the perspective of allocative inefficiency. This paper focuses on three issues. The first is examining the factor allocative inefficiency of China's industrial sector. The second is measuring factor price distortion by the shadow price model. The third is estimating the energy savings potential in China's industrial sector during 2001–2009. Major conclusions are thus drawn. First, factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted in China due to government regulations. Moreover, energy price is relatively low compared to capital price, while is relatively high compared to labor price. Second, the industry-wide energy savings potential resulted from energy allocative inefficiency was about 9.71% during 2001–2009. The downward trend of energy savings potential implies the increasing energy allocative efficiency in China's industrial sector. Third, a transparent and reasonable pricing mechanism is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency. - Highlights: • We measure energy savings potential resulted from allocative inefficiency in China's industrial sector. • Allocative inefficiency is explained based on the theoretical and empirical models. • Factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted because of government regulations. • Energy pricing reform is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency

  8. Ambiguities in the grid-inefficiency correction for Frisch-Grid Ionization Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Adili, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Bencardino, R.; Oberstedt, S.; Pomp, S.

    2012-01-01

    Ionization chambers with Frisch grids have been very successfully applied to neutron-induced fission-fragment studies during the past 20 years. They are radiation resistant and can be easily adapted to the experimental conditions. The use of Frisch grids has the advantage to remove the angular dependency from the charge induced on the anode plate. However, due to the Grid Inefficiency (GI) in shielding the charges, the anode signal remains slightly angular dependent. The correction for the GI is, however, essential to determine the correct energy of the ionizing particles. GI corrections can amount to a few percent of the anode signal. Presently, two contradicting correction methods are considered in literature. The first method adding the angular-dependent part of the signal to the signal pulse height; the second method subtracting the former from the latter. Both additive and subtractive approaches were investigated in an experiment where a Twin Frisch-Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) was employed to detect the spontaneous fission fragments (FF) emitted by a 252 Cf source. Two parallel-wire grids with different wire spacing (1 and 2 mm, respectively), were used individually, in the same chamber side. All the other experimental conditions were unchanged. The 2 mm grid featured more than double the GI of the 1 mm grid. The induced charge on the anode in both measurements was compared, before and after GI correction. Before GI correction, the 2 mm grid resulted in a lower pulse-height distribution than the 1 mm grid. After applying both GI corrections to both measurements only the additive approach led to consistent grid independent pulse-height distributions. The application of the subtractive correction on the contrary led to inconsistent, grid-dependent results. It is also shown that the impact of either of the correction methods is small on the FF mass distributions of 235 U(n th , f).

  9. A long HBV transcript encoding pX is inefficiently exported from the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doitsh, Gilad; Shaul, Yosef

    2003-01-01

    The longest hepatitis B virus transcript is a 3.9-kb mRNA whose function remained unclear. In this study, we wished to identify the translation products and physiological role of this viral transcript. This transcript initiates from the X promoter region ignoring the inefficient and noncanonical viral polyadenylation signal at the first round of transcription. However, an HBV mutant with canonical polyadenylation signal continues, though with lower efficiency, to program the synthesis of this long transcript, indicating that the deviated HBV polyadenylation signal is important but not essential to enable transcription of the 3.9-kb species. The 3.9-kb RNA contains two times the X open reading frame (ORF). The X ORF at the 5'-end is positioned upstream of the CORE gene. By generating an HBV DNA mutant in which the X and Core ORFs are fused, we demonstrated the production of a 40-kDa X-Core fusion protein that must be encoded by the 3.9-kb transcript. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the production of this protein depends on the 5' X ORF ATG, suggesting that the 3.9-kb RNA is active in translation of the X ORF. Based on these features, the 3.9-kb transcript was designated lxRNA for long X RNA. Unlike other HBV transcripts, lxRNA harbors two copies of PRE, the posttranscriptional regulatory element that controls the nuclear export of HBV mRNAs. Unexpectedly, despite the presence of PRE sequences, RNA fractionation analysis revealed that lxRNA barely accumulates in the cytoplasm, suggesting that nuclear export of lxRNA is poor. Collectively, our data suggest that two distinct HBV mRNA species encode pX and that the HBV transcripts are differentially regulated at the level of nuclear export

  10. Apathy, but not depression, reflects inefficient cognitive strategies in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Varanese

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between apathy, depression and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD is still controversial. The objective of this study is to investigate whether apathy and depression are associated with inefficient cognitive strategies in PD.In this prospective clinical cohort study conducted in a university-based clinical and research movement disorders center we studied 48 PD patients. Based on clinical evaluation, they were classified in two groups: PD with apathy (PD-A group, n = 23 and PD without apathy (PD-NA group, n = 25. Patients received clinical and neuropsychological evaluations. The clinical evaluation included: Apathy Evaluation Scale-patient version, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn and Yahr staging system; the neuropsychological evaluation explored speed information processing, attention, working memory, executive function, learning abilities and memory, which included several measures of recall (immediate free, short delay free, long delay free and cued, and total recall.PD-A and PD-NA groups did not differ in age, disease duration, treatment, and motor condition, but differed in recall (p<0.001 and executive tasks (p<0.001. Immediate free recall had the highest predictive value for apathy (F = 10.94; p = 0.002. Depression and apathy had a weak correlation (Pearson index= 0.3; p<0.07, with three items of the depression scale correlating with apathy (Pearson index between .3 and.4; p<0.04. The depressed and non-depressed PD patients within the non-apathetic group did not differ.Apathy, but not depression, is associated with deficit in implementing efficient cognitive strategies. As the implementation of efficient strategies relies on the fronto-striatal circuit, we conclude that apathy, unlike depression, is an early expression of executive impairment in PD.

  11. Gas market distorting effects of imbalanced gas balancing rules: Inefficient regulation of pipeline flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyaerts, Nico [University of Leuven (K.U.Leuven) Energy Institute - TME branch (Applied Mechanics and Energy Conversion), Celestijnenlaan 300A box 2421, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Hallack, Michelle [ADIS-Groupe Reseaux Jean Monnet, Universite de Paris Sud 11, 27 Avenue Lombart, F-92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Glachant, Jean-Michel [ADIS-Groupe Reseaux Jean Monnet, Universite de Paris Sud 11, 27 Avenue Lombart, F-92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); European University Institute RSCAS and Florence School of Regulation, 19 Via delle Fontanelle, 50014 San Domenico di Fiesole (Italy); D' haeseleer, William, E-mail: william.dhaeseleer@mech.kuleuven.b [University of Leuven (K.U.Leuven) Energy Institute - TME branch (Applied Mechanics and Energy Conversion), Celestijnenlaan 300A box 2421, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-02-15

    This paper analyzes the value and cost of line-pack flexibility in liberalized gas markets through examination of the techno-economic characteristics of gas transport pipelines and the trade-offs between different ways to use the infrastructure: transport and flexibility. Line-pack flexibility is becoming increasingly important as a tool to balance gas supply and demand over different periods. In the European liberalized market context, a monopolist unbundled network operator offers regulated transport services and flexibility (balancing) services according to the network code and balancing rules. Therefore, gas policy makers should understand the role and consequences of line-pack regulation. The analysis shows that the line-pack flexibility service has an important economic value for the shippers and the TSO. Furthermore, the analysis identifies distorting effects in the gas market due to inadequate regulation of line-pack flexibility: by disregarding the sunk costs of flexibility in the balancing rules, the overall efficiency of the gas system is decreased. Finally, the analysis demonstrates that the actual costs of line-pack flexibility are related to the peak cumulative imbalance throughout the balancing period. Any price for pipeline flexibility should, therefore, be based on the related trade-off between the right to use the line-pack flexibility and the provision of transport services. - Research Highlights: {yields}Line-pack flexibility is a main gas balancing instrument. {yields}Capacity related costs of line-pack flexibility depend on peak cumulative imbalances. {yields}Line-pack pricing rules determine choice between ex ante and ex post balancing. {yields}Inefficient line-pack regulation causes gas market distortions.

  12. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bvudzai P Magadzire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  13. The effect of Nazism on medical progress in gastroenterology: the inefficiency of evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, Mitchell S

    2006-06-01

    , as herein documented, is attributable to the Nazi commitment of so much human, economic, and social resources to the military to wage wars of aggression, to the secret police (Gestapo) to pursue and exterminate perceived internal enemies, and to the Party to control and regiment civil society. Most inefficient is the incarceration, exile, or murder of Germany's most trained physicians and talented researchers because of religion or race, sociological parameters that are irrelevant to productivity. Intimidation and repression stifle scientific scholarship and creativity. This work disproves the myth of the efficiency of Nazism, and like tyrannies, by the novel application of semiquantitative scientific methodology to assess causality in medical history.

  14. Fusion neutron damage to a charge coupled device camera

    OpenAIRE

    Amaden, Christopher Dean

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A charge coupled device (CCD) camera's performance has been degraded by damage produced by 14 MeV neutrons (n) from the Rotating Target Neutron Source. High energy neutrons produce atomic dislocation in doped silicon electronics. This thesis explores changes in Dark Current (J), Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI), and Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) as measures of neutron damage. The camera was irradiated to a fluence, Phi, of 6.60 x ...

  15. Fast Recognition of BCI-Inefficient Users Using Physiological Features from EEG Signals: A Screening Study of Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokang Shu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI based brain-computer interface (BCI has been developed as an alternative therapy for stroke rehabilitation. However, experimental evidence demonstrates that a significant portion (10–50% of subjects are BCI-inefficient users (accuracy less than 70%. Thus, predicting BCI performance prior to clinical BCI usage would facilitate the selection of suitable end-users and improve the efficiency of stroke rehabilitation. In the current study, we proposed two physiological variables, i.e., laterality index (LI and cortical activation strength (CAS, to predict MI-BCI performance. Twenty-four stroke patients and 10 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Each subject was required to perform two blocks of left- and right-hand MI tasks. Linear regression analyses were performed between the BCI accuracies and two physiological predictors. Here, the predictors were calculated from the electroencephalography (EEG signals during paretic hand MI tasks (5 trials; approximately 1 min. LI values exhibited a statistically significant correlation with two-class BCI (left vs. right performance (r = −0.732, p < 0.001, and CAS values exhibited a statistically significant correlation with brain-switch BCI (task vs. idle performance (r = 0.641, p < 0.001. Furthermore, the BCI-inefficient users were successfully recognized with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 85.7% in the two-class BCI. The brain-switch BCI achieved a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 87.5% in the discrimination of BCI-inefficient users. These results demonstrated that the proposed BCI predictors were promising to promote the BCI usage in stroke rehabilitation and contribute to a better understanding of the BCI-inefficiency phenomenon in stroke patients.

  16. Cost inefficiency under financial strain: a stochastic frontier analysis of hospitals in Washington State through the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izón, Germán M; Pardini, Chelsea A

    2017-06-01

    The importance of increasing cost efficiency for community hospitals in the United States has been underscored by the Great Recession and the ever-changing health care reimbursement environment. Previous studies have shown mixed evidence with regards to the relationship between linking hospitals' reimbursement to quality of care and cost efficiency. Moreover, current evidence suggests that not only inherently financially disadvantaged hospitals (e.g., safety-net providers), but also more financially stable providers, experienced declines to their financial viability throughout the recession. However, little is known about how hospital cost efficiency fared throughout the Great Recession. This study contributes to the literature by using stochastic frontier analysis to analyze cost inefficiency of Washington State hospitals between 2005 and 2012, with controls for patient burden of illness, hospital process of care quality, and hospital outcome quality. The quality measures included in this study function as central measures for the determination of recently implemented pay-for-performance programs. The average estimated level of hospital cost inefficiency before the Great Recession (10.4 %) was lower than it was during the Great Recession (13.5 %) and in its aftermath (14.1 %). Further, the estimated coefficients for summary process of care quality indexes for three health conditions (acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and heart failure) suggest that higher quality scores are associated with increased cost inefficiency.

  17. Fast Recognition of BCI-Inefficient Users Using Physiological Features from EEG Signals: A Screening Study of Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaokang; Chen, Shugeng; Yao, Lin; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Jia, Jie; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2018-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has been developed as an alternative therapy for stroke rehabilitation. However, experimental evidence demonstrates that a significant portion (10-50%) of subjects are BCI-inefficient users (accuracy less than 70%). Thus, predicting BCI performance prior to clinical BCI usage would facilitate the selection of suitable end-users and improve the efficiency of stroke rehabilitation. In the current study, we proposed two physiological variables, i.e., laterality index (LI) and cortical activation strength (CAS), to predict MI-BCI performance. Twenty-four stroke patients and 10 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Each subject was required to perform two blocks of left- and right-hand MI tasks. Linear regression analyses were performed between the BCI accuracies and two physiological predictors. Here, the predictors were calculated from the electroencephalography (EEG) signals during paretic hand MI tasks (5 trials; approximately 1 min). LI values exhibited a statistically significant correlation with two-class BCI (left vs. right) performance (r = -0.732, p vs. idle) performance ( r = 0.641, p two-class BCI. The brain-switch BCI achieved a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 87.5% in the discrimination of BCI-inefficient users. These results demonstrated that the proposed BCI predictors were promising to promote the BCI usage in stroke rehabilitation and contribute to a better understanding of the BCI-inefficiency phenomenon in stroke patients.

  18. What are the main inefficiencies in trial conduct: a survey of UKCRC registered clinical trials units in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Gillman, Alexa; Duggan, Marian; Belson, Stephanie; Knox, Jill; McDonald, Alison; Rawcliffe, Charlotte; Simon, Joanne; Sprosen, Tim; Watson, Jude; Wood, Wendy

    2018-01-08

    The UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) Network aims to support high-quality, efficient and sustainable clinical trials research in the UK. To better understand the challenges in efficient trial conduct, and to help prioritise tackling these challenges, we surveyed CTU staff. The aim was to identify important inefficiencies during two key stages of the trial conduct life cycle: (i) from grant award to first participant, (ii) from first participant to reporting of final results. Respondents were asked to list their top three inefficiencies from grant award to recruitment of the first participant, and from recruitment of the first participant to publication of results. Free text space allowed respondents to explain why they thought these were important. The survey was constructed using SurveyMonkey and circulated to the 45 registered CTUs in May 2013. Respondents were asked to name their unit and job title, but were otherwise anonymous. Free-text responses were coded into broad categories. There were 43 respondents from 25 CTUs. The top inefficiency between grant award and recruitment of first participant was reported as obtaining research and development (R&D) approvals by 23 respondents (53%), contracts by 22 (51%), and other approvals by 13 (30%). The top inefficiency from recruitment of first participant to publication of results was failure to meet recruitment targets, reported by 19 (44%) respondents. A common comment was that this reflected overoptimistic or inaccurate estimates of recruitment at site. Data management, including case report form design and delays in resolving data queries with sites, was reported as an important inefficiency by 11 (26%) respondents, and preparation and submission for publication by 9 (21%). Recommendations for improving the efficiency of trial conduct within the CTUs network include: further reducing unnecessary bureaucracy in approvals and contracting; improving training for site

  19. Limited trafficking of a neurotropic virus through inefficient retrograde axonal transport and the type I interferon response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Z Lancaster

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Poliovirus is an enteric virus that rarely invades the human central nervous system (CNS. To identify barriers limiting poliovirus spread from the periphery to CNS, we monitored trafficking of 10 marked viruses. After oral inoculation of susceptible mice, poliovirus was present in peripheral neurons, including vagus and sciatic nerves. To model viral trafficking in peripheral neurons, we intramuscularly injected mice with poliovirus, which follows a muscle-sciatic nerve-spinal cord-brain route. Only 20% of the poliovirus population successfully moved from muscle to brain, and three barriers limiting viral trafficking were identified. First, using light-sensitive viruses, we found limited viral replication in peripheral neurons. Second, retrograde axonal transport of poliovirus in peripheral neurons was inefficient; however, the efficiency was increased upon muscle damage, which also increased the transport efficiency of a non-viral neural tracer, wheat germ agglutinin. Third, using susceptible interferon (IFN alpha/beta receptor knockout mice, we demonstrated that the IFN response limited viral movement from the periphery to the brain. Surprisingly, the retrograde axonal transport barrier was equivalent in strength to the IFN barrier. Illustrating the importance of barriers created by the IFN response and inefficient axonal transport, IFN alpha/beta receptor knockout mice with muscle damage permitted 80% of the viral population to access the brain, and succumbed to disease three times faster than mice with intact barriers. These results suggest that multiple separate barriers limit poliovirus trafficking from peripheral neurons to the CNS, possibly explaining the rare incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis. This study identifies inefficient axonal transport as a substantial barrier to poliovirus trafficking in peripheral neurons, which may limit CNS access for other viruses.

  20. Estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas pela equipe de enfermagem de um CTI adulto perante situações de estresse Coping strategies used by the nursing staff of an adult ICU in stress situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Graziottin Colossi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Para os profissionais da saúde lidar com situações de estresse, como por exemplo, a eminência da morte dos pacientes, parece ser uma das maiores dificuldades vividas em sue ambiente de trabalho. Frente a este contexto, cada pessoa lança mão de estratégias próprias para o enfrentamento de situações estressantes (coping, as quais são determinadas pelo ambiente e por características de personalidade. Objetivo: Identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento (coping dos profissionais de enfermagem de um CTI adulto diante de situações estressantes inerentes a sua profissão. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo transversal, no qual foi aplicado o Inventário COPE, em trinta e oito técnicos de enfermagem e/ou enfermeiros. Os dados do inventário foram analisados em termos descritivos. Resultados: As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas foram as relacionadas à capacidade pró-ativa do sujeito (reinterpretação positiva, coping ativo e busca por suporte social e as menos utilizadas foram as relacionadas às emoções (foco nas emoções e humor. Conclusão: Na amostra estudada, os profissionais buscam estratégias que antecedam as dificuldades inerentes a sua prática diária, isolando os aspectos mais irrelevantes dos estressores e focalizando a atenção no resultado de suas ações, o que permite uma melhor percepção de seu trabalho e o sentimento de realização profissional.Introduction: For health professionals, to deal with stressful situations, such as the imminence of death of their patients, seems to be one of the greatest difficulties experienced in the workplace. In these situations, each person makes use of their own strategies in order to cope with stressful situations, which are determined by the environment and the personality traits. Objective: To identify the coping strategies used by nursing professionals of an adult ICU while facing stressful situations inherent to their

  1. Modeling of shallow and inefficient convection in the outer layers of the Sun using realistic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Cheol; Fox, Peter A.; Sofia, Sabatino; Demarque, Pierre

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the properties of convective energy transport in the solar convective zone, a numerical model has been constructed for turbulent flows in a compressible, radiation-coupled, nonmagnetic, gravitationally stratified medium using a realistic equation of state and realistic opacities. The time-dependent, three-dimensional hydrodynamic equations are solved with minimal simplifications. The statistical information obtained from the present simulation provides an improved undserstanding of solar photospheric convection. The characteristics of solar convection in shallow regions is parameterized and compared with the results of Chan & Sofia's (1989) simulations of deep and efficient convection. We assess the importance of the zones of partial ionization in the simulation and confirm that the radiative energy transfer is negliglble throughout the region except in the uppermost scale heights of the convection zone, a region of very high superadiabaticity. When the effects of partial ionization are included, the dynamics of flows are altered significantly. However, we confirm the Chan & Sofia result that kinetic energy flux is nonnegligible and can have a negative value in the convection zone.

  2. Mitochondrial complex III defects contribute to inefficient respiration and ATP synthesis in the myocardium of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian-Jun; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a thorough analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetic function as well as the biochemical and molecular factors that are deregulated and contribute to compromised adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in the myocardium during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. We show that ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration and ATP synthesis supported by pyruvate/malate (provides electrons to complex I) and succinate (provides electrons to complex II) substrates were significantly decreased in left ventricular tissue and isolated cardiac mitochondria of infected mice. The decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis in infected murine hearts was not a result of uncoupling between the electron-transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation and decreased availability of the intermediary metabolites (e.g., NADH). The observed decline in the activities of complex-I, -IV, and -V was not physiologically relevant and did not contribute to compromised respiration and ATP synthesis in infected myocardium. Instead, complex III activity was decreased above the threshold level and contributed to respiratory-chain inefficiency and the resulting decline in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in infected myocardium. The loss in complex III activity occurred as a consequence of cytochrome b depletion. Treatment of infected mice with phenyl-alpha-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN, antioxidant) was beneficial in preserving the mtDNA-encoded cytochrome b expression, and subsequently resulted in improved complex III activity, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP production in infected myocardium. Overall, we provide novel data on the mechanism(s) involved in cardiac bioenergetic inefficiency during T. cruzi infection.

  3. The scope of public organisations with productive functions: insights from the inefficiency of Italian local public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Di Foggia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that reforms necessary to enhance competition and make the economy more attractive play a major role in the Government activity in Europe. Considering the Italian state of affairs, this paper focuses on the inefficiency of public producers in the light of certain market and legal impediments. This paper describes key barriers that undermine the healthy functioning of an important industrial and service sector of the Italian economy: specifically local public transport. This paper also sheds some light on this problem analysing the impact that a controversial regulation framework may have on an industry and suggests that the degree of liberalisation affects the return on investments.

  4. Structural basis for the inefficient nucleotide incorporation opposite cisplatin-DNA lesion by human DNA polymerase β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koag, Myong-Chul; Lai, Lara; Lee, Seongmin

    2014-11-07

    Human DNA polymerase β (polβ) has been suggested to play a role in cisplatin resistance, especially in polβ-overexpressing cancer cells. Polβ has been shown to accurately albeit slowly bypass the cisplatin-1,2-d(GpG) (Pt-GG) intramolecular cross-link in vitro. Currently, the structural basis for the inefficient Pt-GG bypass mechanism of polβ is unknown. To gain structural insights into the mechanism, we determined two ternary structures of polβ incorporating dCTP opposite the templating Pt-GG lesion in the presence of the active site Mg(2+) or Mn(2+). The Mg(2+)-bound structure shows that the bulky Pt-GG adduct is accommodated in the polβ active site without any steric hindrance. In addition, both guanines of the Pt-GG lesion form Watson-Crick base pairing with the primer terminus dC and the incoming dCTP, providing the structural basis for the accurate bypass of the Pt-GG adduct by polβ. The Mn(2+)-bound structure shows that polβ adopts a catalytically suboptimal semiclosed conformation during the insertion of dCTP opposite the templating Pt-GG, explaining the inefficient replication across the Pt-GG lesion by polβ. Overall, our studies provide the first structural insights into the mechanism of the potential polβ-mediated cisplatin resistance. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Inefficient cognitive control in adult ADHD: evidence from trial-by-trial Stroop test and cued task switching performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joseph A; Colla, Michael; Brass, Marcel; Heuser, Isabella; von Cramon, Dy

    2007-08-20

    experimental manipulation of task preparation processes. With the exception of Stroop task error rates, all analyses revealed generally slower and less accurate ADHD group response patterns. The current data obtained with experimental paradigms deliver novel evidence of inefficient interference control and task-set coordination in adults with persistent ADHD. However, all group differences observed in these central cognitive control processes were found to be partially dependent on atypical ADHD group task preparation mechanisms and/or response inconsistency. These deficiences may have contributed not only to inefficient cognitive control, but also generally slower and less accurate ADHD group performance. Given the inability to dissociate these impairments with the current data, it remains inconclusive as to whether ineffecient cognitive control in the clinical sample was due to top-down failure or bottom-up engagement thereof. To clarify this issue, future neuropsychological investigations are encouraged to employ tasks with significantly more trials and direct manipulations of bottom-up mechanisms with larger samples.

  6. FY1998 Report of surveys on network possibility involved with proliferation and transfer of environmental technologies (Europe, Australia and New Zealand); 1998 nendo kankyo gijutsu no fukyu iten ni kakawaru network kanosei chosa hokokusho . Oshu Goshu New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    At the third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (COP3) held in December 1997, the industrialized nations have agreed on development and proliferation of innovative technologies under international cooperation and transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries by expanding and strengthening CTI being the framework to be progressed spontaneously. Under the international strategic research project for global environment, NEDO has been promoting positively the research and development, whose support is urged to be expanded further in the future upon receiving the present agreement. Therefore, NEDO has performed the present survey in order to propose frameworks and measures for strengthening and expanding CTI. From among the policies and measures to be taken by the related countries based on the COP3 protocol, fiscal 1997 has performed review and new establishment of plans involved with execution of the items related to technology development, and surveys on action movements such as review and expansion of the measures, as the first stage. Fiscal 1998 has executed surveys focusing on the network for technology proliferation and transfer to developing countries as the second stage. (NEDO)

  7. Stuck in default mode: inefficient cross-frequency synchronization may lead to age-related short-term memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Aging-related decline in short-term memory capacity seems to be caused by deficient balancing of task-related and resting state brain networks activity; however, the exact neural mechanism underlying this deficit remains elusive. Here, we studied brain oscillatory activity in healthy young and old adults during visual information maintenance in a delayed match-to-sample task. Particular emphasis was on long range phase:amplitude coupling of frontal alpha (8-12 Hz) and posterior fast oscillatory activity (>30 Hz). It is argued that through posterior fast oscillatory activity nesting into the excitatory or the inhibitory phase of frontal alpha wave, long-range networks can be efficiently coupled or decoupled, respectively. On the basis of this mechanism, we show that healthy, elderly participants exhibit a lack of synchronization in task-relevant networks while maintaining synchronized regions of the resting state network. Lacking disconnection of this resting state network is predictive of aging-related short-term memory decline. These results support the idea of inefficient orchestration of competing brain networks in the aging human brain and identify the neural mechanism responsible for this control breakdown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cortical inefficiency in patients with unipolar depression: an event-related FMRI study with the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerd; Sinsel, Esther; Sobanski, Thomas; Köhler, Sabine; Marinou, Varvara; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlösser, Ralf G M

    2006-05-15

    The present study is aimed to examine the neuronal correlates of Stroop interference in medication-free patients with major depressive disorder. Sixteen patients fulfilling Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for unipolar depression and 16 healthy control subjects matched for age, gender, and education were included. All subjects underwent an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design with an adapted version of the Stroop task including congruent and incongruent task conditions. The fMRI experiment was conducted on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner, and item responses were given manually by the subjects. With regard to behavioral performance, patients revealed no differences in both reaction time and accuracy relative to control subjects. With regard to brain activations, direct comparison of patients with control subjects in the interference condition revealed hyperactivity in rostral anterior cingulate gyrus (rACG) and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in depressive patients, which correlated strongly with the Stroop interference. The study provides new evidence for the functioning and dissociation of the anterior cingulate in depressed patients. The greater prefrontal activation may reflect a cortical inefficiency due to hyperactivity in rACG enhancing the cognitive interferences from the emotional state.

  9. Inefficiencies of over-screening and under-screening for cervical cancer prevention in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Wheeler, Cosette M; Campos, Nicole G; Sy, Stephen; Burger, Emily A; Kim, Jane J

    2018-03-14

    There is limited information on the cost-inefficiencies of non-adherence to recommended cervical cancer screening or the potential value for improving non-adherence. We estimated the incremental value of adhering to recommended screening every three years with cytology, using a disease simulation model that integrated real-world screening practice data from New Mexico. The amount that can be spent to improve adherence was estimated by calculating the incremental net monetary benefit (INMB) under scenarios of Current Practice (assuming a population of mixed adherence) and Uniformly Non-Adherent populations with imperfect or perfect adherence to follow-up of screen-positive women. Getting unscreened women screened every three years by cytology was a better value than increasing screening in the under-screened or reducing screening in the over-screened. For example, INMBs were $3998 for screening previously unscreened women versus $136 for eliminating annual screening at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Strategies to reach unscreened women are potentially high-value investments. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Study of the Relevance of the Quality of Care, Operating Efficiency and Inefficient Quality Competition of Senior Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jwu-Rong; Chen, Ching-Yu; Peng, Tso-Kwei

    2017-09-11

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relation between operating efficiency and the quality of care of senior care facilities. We designed a data envelopment analysis, combining epsilon-based measure and metafrontier efficiency analyses to estimate the operating efficiency for senior care facilities, followed by an iterative seemingly unrelated regression to evaluate the relation between the quality of care and operating efficiency. In the empirical studies, Taiwan census data was utilized and findings include the following: Despite the greater operating scale of the general type of senior care facilities, their average metafrontier technical efficiency is inferior to that of nursing homes. We adopted senior care facility accreditation results from Taiwan as a variable to represent the quality of care and examined the relation of accreditation results and operating efficiency. We found that the quality of care of general senior care facilities is negatively related to operating efficiency; however, for nursing homes, the relationship is not significant. Our findings show that facilities invest more in input resources to obtain better ratings in the accreditation report. Operating efficiency, however, does not improve. Quality competition in the industry in Taiwan is inefficient, especially for general senior care facilities.

  11. Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Mads Grenaa; Nørgaard, Mads Frid; Hansen, Manjarita

    2013-01-01

    This project seeks to highlight some of the criticisms given towards the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines and the challenges Danish companies experience by pricing their goods and the problems this causes for trade. The project is based on a series of interviews that represent the different agents who are operating in Transfer Pricing business. These interviews, combined with the Transfer Pricing Guidelines, gives us the basis to analyse the challenges we want to clarify based on the hypothes...

  12. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  13. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...

  14. Melanoregulin regulates a shedding mechanism that drives melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xufeng S.; Masedunskas, Andreas; Weigert, Roberto; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Hammer, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian pigmentation is driven by the intercellular transfer of pigment-containing melanosomes from the tips of melanocyte dendrites to surrounding keratinocytes. Tip accumulation of melanosomes requires myosin Va, because melanosomes concentrate in the center of melanocytes from myosin Va-null (dilute) mice. This distribution defect results in inefficient melanosome transfer and a dilution of coat color. Dilute mice that simultaneously lack melanoregulin, the product of the dilute suppress...

  15. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE has...... a production subsidiary in one country, from where it sells the produced good locally as well as to a sales subsidiary in a second country. The latter subsidiary is engaged in duopolistic competition with a local competitor. The MNE has two aims in setting the transfer price: strategic delegation and tax...... minimization. We examine the extent to which the four transfer pricing regimes we set up allow the MNE to pursue these aims. While neither strategic delegation nor tax minimization will be eliminated, trade-offs are inevitable, albeit to varying degree....

  16. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    a production subsidiary in one country, from where it sells the produced good locally as well as to a sales subsidiary in a second country. The latter subsidiary is engaged in duopolistic competition with a local competitor. The MNE has two aims in setting the transfer price: strategic delegation and tax......Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE has...... minimization. We examine the extent to which the four transfer pricing regimes we set up allow the MNE to pursue these aims. While neither strategic delegation nor tax minimization will be eliminated, trade-offs are inevitable, albeit to varying degree....

  17. Inefficient cognitive control in adult ADHD: evidence from trial-by-trial Stroop test and cued task switching performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joseph A; Colla, Michael; Brass, Marcel; Heuser, Isabella; von Cramon, DY

    2007-01-01

    also found to be dependent on experimental manipulation of task preparation processes. With the exception of Stroop task error rates, all analyses revealed generally slower and less accurate ADHD group response patterns. Conclusion The current data obtained with experimental paradigms deliver novel evidence of inefficient interference control and task-set coordination in adults with persistent ADHD. However, all group differences observed in these central cognitive control processes were found to be partially dependent on atypical ADHD group task preparation mechanisms and/or response inconsistency. These deficiences may have contributed not only to inefficient cognitive control, but also generally slower and less accurate ADHD group performance. Given the inability to dissociate these impairments with the current data, it remains inconclusive as to whether ineffecient cognitive control in the clinical sample was due to top-down failure or bottom-up engagement thereof. To clarify this issue, future neuropsychological investigations are encouraged to employ tasks with significantly more trials and direct manipulations of bottom-up mechanisms with larger samples. PMID:17708762

  18. Inefficient cognitive control in adult ADHD: evidence from trial-by-trial Stroop test and cued task switching performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuser Isabella

    2007-08-01

    transient task-set updating were also found to be dependent on experimental manipulation of task preparation processes. With the exception of Stroop task error rates, all analyses revealed generally slower and less accurate ADHD group response patterns. Conclusion The current data obtained with experimental paradigms deliver novel evidence of inefficient interference control and task-set coordination in adults with persistent ADHD. However, all group differences observed in these central cognitive control processes were found to be partially dependent on atypical ADHD group task preparation mechanisms and/or response inconsistency. These deficiences may have contributed not only to inefficient cognitive control, but also generally slower and less accurate ADHD group performance. Given the inability to dissociate these impairments with the current data, it remains inconclusive as to whether ineffecient cognitive control in the clinical sample was due to top-down failure or bottom-up engagement thereof. To clarify this issue, future neuropsychological investigations are encouraged to employ tasks with significantly more trials and direct manipulations of bottom-up mechanisms with larger samples.

  19. When unconscious rewards boost cognitive task performance inefficiently: The role of consciousness in integrating value and attainability information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eZedelius

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that high vs. low value rewards improve cognitive task performance independent of whether they are perceived consciously or unconsciously. However, efficient performance in response to high value rewards also depends on whether or not rewards are attainable. This raises the question of whether unconscious reward processing enables people to take into account such attainability information. Building on a theoretical framework according to which conscious reward processing is required to enable higher level cognitive processing, the present research tested the hypothesis that conscious but not unconscious reward processing enables integration of reward value with attainability information. In two behavioral experiments, participants were exposed to masked high and low value coins serving as rewards on a working memory task. The likelihood for conscious processing was manipulated by presenting the coins relatively briefly (17 ms or long and clearly visible (300 ms. Crucially, rewards were expected to be attainable or unattainable. Requirements to integrate reward value with attainability information varied across experiments. Results showed that when integration of value and attainability was required (Experiment 1, long reward presentation led to efficient performance, i.e., selectively improved performance for high value attainable rewards. In contrast, in the short presentation condition, performance was increased for high value rewards even when these were unattainable. This difference between the effects of long and short presentation time disappeared when integration of value and attainability information was not required (Experiment 2. Together these findings suggest that unconsciously processed reward information is not integrated with attainability expectancies, causing inefficient effort investment. These findings are discussed in terms of a unique role of consciousness in efficient allocation of effort to cognitive

  20. Inefficiency of emotion regulation as vulnerability marker for bipolar disorder: evidence from healthy individuals with hypomanic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heissler, Janine; Kanske, Philipp; Schönfelder, Sandra; Wessa, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation deficits are a key characteristic of bipolar disorder (BD). In the present study, we asked if deficits in emotion regulation are also a vulnerability marker for BD. To this end, we investigated a healthy group of participants at high-risk for developing BD, defined on the basis of a hypomanic personality trait. We examined the neural correlates of two emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and distraction. Twenty-two individuals with higher risk for BD and twenty-four controls were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Participants were presented with negative, positive and neutral pictures and were either required to passively view the images, to down-regulate the emotional response by reappraising the pictures' content, or to perform a distracting arithmetic task. High-risk individuals showed increased emotional reactivity to negative stimuli, indicated by heightened amygdala activation during passive viewing. High-risk participants were also less successful in down-regulating amygdala activity using reappraisal of negative stimuli. During distraction from positive stimuli, high-risk individuals showed heightened task-related activity in the inferior parietal cortex, suggesting increased distractibility by task-irrelevant positive background stimuli. There were no differences in habitual emotion regulation as assessed by a self-report questionnaire. Generalizability of the present results is limited by the age- and education-homogenous sample and the small sample size. This is the first study to report neural correlates of increased emotional reactivity and deficient emotion regulation in healthy individuals at risk for BD. These findings suggest inefficient emotion regulation through reappraisal and distraction in individuals with high hypomanic personality who are supposed to be at higher risk to develop bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SU-E-T-452: Identifying Inefficiencies in Radiation Oncology Workflow and Prioritizing Solutions for Process Improvement and Patient Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, N; Driewer, J; Denniston, K; Zhen, W; Enke, C [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Jacobs, K; Poole, M; McMahon, R; Wilson, K; Yager, A [Nebraska Medicine, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Successful radiation therapy requires multi-step processes susceptible to unnecessary delays that can negatively impact clinic workflow, patient satisfaction, and safety. This project applied process improvement tools to assess workflow bottlenecks and identify solutions to barriers for effective implementation. Methods: We utilized the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) methodology, limiting our scope to the treatment planning process. From May through December of 2014, times and dates of each step from simulation to treatment were recorded for 507 cases. A value-stream map created from this dataset directed our selection of outcome measures (Y metrics). Critical goals (X metrics) that would accomplish the Y metrics were identified. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices, in order to stratify them into four groups: in/out of control and high/low impact. Solutions to each barrier were then categorized into benefit-effort matries to identify those of high benefit and low effort. Results: For 507 cases, the mean time from simulation to treatment was 235 total hours. The mean process and wait time were 60 and 132 hours, respectively. The Y metric was to increase the ratio of all non-emergent plans completed the business day prior to treatment from 47% to 75%. Project X metrics included increasing the number of IMRT QAs completed at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 19% to 80% and the number of non-IMRT plans approved at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 33% to 80%. Intervals from simulation to target contour and from initial plan completion to plan approval were identified as periods that could benefit from intervention. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices and solutions by benefit-effort matrices. Conclusion: The DMAIC method can be successfully applied in radiation therapy clinics to identify inefficiencies and prioritize solutions for the highest impact.

  2. SU-E-T-452: Identifying Inefficiencies in Radiation Oncology Workflow and Prioritizing Solutions for Process Improvement and Patient Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennion, N; Driewer, J; Denniston, K; Zhen, W; Enke, C; Jacobs, K; Poole, M; McMahon, R; Wilson, K; Yager, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Successful radiation therapy requires multi-step processes susceptible to unnecessary delays that can negatively impact clinic workflow, patient satisfaction, and safety. This project applied process improvement tools to assess workflow bottlenecks and identify solutions to barriers for effective implementation. Methods: We utilized the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) methodology, limiting our scope to the treatment planning process. From May through December of 2014, times and dates of each step from simulation to treatment were recorded for 507 cases. A value-stream map created from this dataset directed our selection of outcome measures (Y metrics). Critical goals (X metrics) that would accomplish the Y metrics were identified. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices, in order to stratify them into four groups: in/out of control and high/low impact. Solutions to each barrier were then categorized into benefit-effort matries to identify those of high benefit and low effort. Results: For 507 cases, the mean time from simulation to treatment was 235 total hours. The mean process and wait time were 60 and 132 hours, respectively. The Y metric was to increase the ratio of all non-emergent plans completed the business day prior to treatment from 47% to 75%. Project X metrics included increasing the number of IMRT QAs completed at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 19% to 80% and the number of non-IMRT plans approved at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 33% to 80%. Intervals from simulation to target contour and from initial plan completion to plan approval were identified as periods that could benefit from intervention. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices and solutions by benefit-effort matrices. Conclusion: The DMAIC method can be successfully applied in radiation therapy clinics to identify inefficiencies and prioritize solutions for the highest impact

  3. Station Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ixed rail transit external system transfers for systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of...

  4. The effectiveness of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats is limited by an inefficient action on ASM function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, D T S Z; Zanatta, A L; Dias, B C L; Fogaça, R T H; Maurer, J B B; Donatti, L; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2013-09-01

    Episodes of acute exacerbation are the major clinical feature of asthma and therefore represent an important focus for developing novel therapies for this disease. There are many reports that the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, but there are few studies of the action of fish oil on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. In the present investigation, we evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation on smooth muscle force of contraction in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Wistar rats, and its consequences on static lung compliance, mucus production, leukocyte chemotaxis and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil supplementation suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in asthmatic animals (2.04 ± 0.19 × 10(6) cells vs. 3.33 ± 0.43 × 10(6) cells in the control asthmatic group; P < 0.05). Static lung compliance increased with fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats (0.640 ± 0.053 mL/cm H2O vs. 0.399 ± 0.043 mL/cm H2O; P < 0.05). However, fish oil did not prevent asthma-associated lung eosinophilia and did not affect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in lung tissue or the proportion of the airways obliterated with mucus. Fish oil had no effect on the force of contraction in asthmatic rats in response to acetylcholine (3.026 ± 0.274 mN vs. 2.813 ± 0.364 mN in the control asthmatic group). In conclusion, although fish oil exerts some benefits in this model of asthma, its effectiveness appears to be limited by an inefficient action on airway smooth muscle function.

  5. What Makes Urban Transportation Efficient? Evidence from Subway Transfer Stations in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subway stations have been proliferating underneath cosmopolitan metropolises with subway lines forming complex webs connected in strategic transfer stations. The efficiency of the subway system thus heavily weighs on the efficiency at these transfer stations. However, few studies have been conducted on transfer efficiency at transfer stations due to the complexities involved. As the first study of its kind in the subway context, we analyze the transfer efficiency of the subway transfer stations in Seoul, one of the megacities in the world, and demonstrate how transfer efficiency can be analyzed using bootstrap-based DEA technique. Based on the results, we discuss the reasons behind the inefficiency of subway transfer stations and possible ways to improve them into efficient decision-making units.

  6. Etnografia: esteatégia metodológica utilizada para contextualizar o cenário cultural do CTI de um hospital universitário Etnography: methodological strateger for contexture of a cultural background of a university hospital ICC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Antonini Ribeiro Bastos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é parte de um estudo etnográfico realizado em um CTI de um hospital universitário que teve o objetivo de descrever a cultura dos intensivistas. São apresentados domínios e taxonomias culturais elaborados a partir dos relatos dos intensivistas. Os resultados aqui apresentados demostraram que a etnografia é uma estratégia metodológica adequada para contextualização do cenário cultural sob o ponto de vista de quem vivencia o cotidiano do trabalho na terapia intensiva.This work is a part of an ethnographic study accomplished in a university hospital ICC that had as objective to describe the intensive care workers 'culture. It is presented cultural domains a taxonomies developed from the workers' narration The results here presented show that ethnography is a methodological strategy appropriate for a cultural background contexture from a viewpoint of those who experiment the everyday intensive care work.

  7. Observed-predicted length of stay for an acute psychiatric department, as an indicator of inpatient care inefficiencies. Retrospective case-series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marot Milagros

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Length of stay (LOS is an important indicator of efficiency for inpatient care but it does not achieve an adequate performance if it is not adjusted for the case mix of the patients hospitalized during the period considered. After two similar studies for Internal Medicine and Surgery respectively, the aims of the present study were to search for Length of Stay (LOS predictors in an acute psychiatric department and to assess the performance of the difference: observed-predicted length of stay, as an indicator of inpatient care inefficiencies. Methods Retrospective case-series of patients discharged during 1999 from the Psychiatric Department from General Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras" in Havana, Cuba. The 374 eligible medical records were randomly split into two groups of 187 each. We derived the function for estimating the predicted LOS within the first group. Possible predictors were: age; sex; place of residence; diagnosis, use of electroconvulsive therapy; co morbidities; symptoms at admission, medications, marital status, and response to treatment. LOS was the dependent variable. A thorough exam of the patients' records was the basis to assess the capacity of the function for detecting inefficiency problems, within the second group. Results The function explained 37% of LOS variation. The strongest influence on LOS came from: age (p = 0.002, response to treatment (p Conclusions This study demonstrates the importance of possible predictors of LOS, in an acute care Psychiatric department. The proposed indicator can be readily used to detect inefficiencies.

  8. Intergenerational transfers and the social discount rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B.

    1992-08-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations

  9. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  10. Inefficient jet-induced star formation in Centaurus A. High resolution ALMA observations of the northern filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, Q.; Salomé, P.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Combes, F.; Hamer, S.

    2017-12-01

    NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) is one of the best targets to study AGN feedback in the local Universe. At 13.5 kpc from the galaxy, optical filaments with recent star formation lie along the radio jet direction. This region is a testbed for positive feedback, here through jet-induced star formation. Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) observations have revealed strong CO emission in star-forming regions and in regions with no detected tracers of star formation activity. In cases where star formation is observed, this activity appears to be inefficient compared to the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to map the 12CO(1-0) emission all along the filaments of NGC 5128 at a resolution of 1.3'' 23.8pc. We find that the CO emission is clumpy and is distributed in two main structures: (i) the Horseshoe complex, located outside the HI cloud, where gas is mostly excited by shocks and where no star formation is observed, and (ii) the Vertical filament, located at the edge of the HI shell, which is a region of moderate star formation. We identified 140 molecular clouds using a clustering method applied to the CO data cube. A statistical study reveals that these clouds have very similar physical properties, such as size, velocity dispersion, and mass, as in the inner Milky Way. However, the range of radius available with the present ALMA observations does not enable us to investigate whether or not the clouds follow the Larson relation. The large virial parameter αvir of the clouds suggests that gravity is not dominant and clouds are not gravitationally unstable. Finally, the total energy injection in the northern filaments of Centaurus A is of the same order as in the inner part of the Milky Way. The strong CO emission detected in the northern filaments is an indication that the energy injected by the jet acts positively in the formation of dense molecular gas. The relatively high virial parameter of the molecular clouds

  11. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boury, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  12. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de

  13. Anatomy Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Dicko, Ali Hamadi; Liu, Tiantian; Gilles, Benjamin; Kavan, Ladislav; Faure, François; Palombi, Olivier; Cani, Marie-Paule

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Characters with precise internal anatomy are important in film and visual effects, as well as in medical applications. We propose the first semi-automatic method for creating anatomical structures, such as bones, muscles, viscera and fat tissues. This is done by transferring a reference anatomical model from an input template to an arbitrary target character, only defined by its boundary representation (skin). The fat distribution of the target character needs to be sp...

  14. Transfer Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daniel; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The technique described here, transfer zymography, was developed to overcome two limitations of conventional zymography. When proteolytic enzymes are resolved by nonreducing SDS-PAGE into a polyacrylamide gel with copolymerized protein substrate, the presence of the protein substrate can result in anomalous, often slower, migration of the protease and an estimated mass higher than its actual mass. A further drawback is that the presence of a high background of substrate protein interferes with proteomic analysis of the protease band by excision, tryptic digestion, and LC-MS/MS analysis. In transfer zymography, the proteolytic enzymes are resolved by conventional nonreducing SDS-PAGE, without protein substrate in the gel. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel that contains the protein substrate, by a process similar to western blotting. The receiving gel is then processed in a manner similar to conventional zymography. SDS is removed by Triton X-100 and incubated in conditions suitable for the proteolytic activity. After protein staining, followed by destaining, bands representing regions with active protease are visualized as clear bands in a darkly stained background. For proteomic analysis, electrophoresis is carried out simultaneously on a second resolving gel, and the bands corresponding to the clear regions in the receiving gel after zymogram development are excised for proteomic analysis.

  15. Social costs of the inefficient management of the EU funds for Bulgaria, Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW – Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The study identifies and defines the social costs of the inefficient management of EU funds for Bulgaria. It is analyzed the last due programme period (2007-2015) and its prolongation. As methodology of the research the V4 BM model of Al-Debei and Avison (2010) which has not been used for analysis of EU funds management for cohesion policy in the public sector, is applied. In this way its potential for application in this field is tested. The concept of the study could be successful...

  16. Inefficient entry of vicriviroc-resistant HIV-1 via the inhibitor-CCR5 complex at low cell surface CCR5 densities

    OpenAIRE

    Pugach, Pavel; Ray, Neelanjana; Klasse, Per Johan; Ketas, Thomas J.; Michael, Elizabeth; Doms, Robert W.; Lee, Benhur; Moore, John P.

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 variants resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors such as vicriviroc (VVC) have modified Env complexes that can use both the inhibitor-bound and -free forms of the CCR5 co-receptor to enter target cells. However, entry via the inhibitor-CCR5 complex is inefficient in some, but not all, cell types, particularly cell lines engineered to express CCR5. We investigated the effect of increasing CCR5 expression, and hence the density of the inhibitor-CCR5 complex when a saturating inhibitor...

  17. Methods for gene transfer to synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, R; Robbins, P D; Evans, C H

    1997-01-01

    Development of methods for gene transfer to synoviocytes was borne from the idea that gene therapy could be used to more effectively treat rheumatoid arthritis (EU) and other joint disorders (1). Current pharmaceutical modalities in use against RA have limited effectiveness because of problems related to inefficient targeting of drugs to the joint, as well as inefficacies of the drugs themselves. Drug delivery to the joint by traditional oral, iv, and intramuscular routes, depends on passive diffusion of the drug from the synovial vasculature into the joint space (2). Thus, high systemic concentrations of the drug are necessary to achieve therapeutic intra-articular drug levels; in chronic RA, perfusion of the synovium may be compromised (3), driving required systemic drug levels even higher. This is of major concern, as the pharmaceuticals used to treat this disease are associated with serious side effects. Further compounding these problems is the chronic nature of RA, which requires lifelong treatment with high dosages of these drugs.

  18. Identification of MIMO systems with sparse transfer function coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Saleem, Syed Khusro; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2012-12-01

    We study the problem of estimating transfer functions of multivariable (multiple-input multiple-output--MIMO) systems with sparse coefficients. We note that subspace identification methods are powerful and convenient tools in dealing with MIMO systems since they neither require nonlinear optimization nor impose any canonical form on the systems. However, subspace-based methods are inefficient for systems with sparse transfer function coefficients since they work on state space models. We propose a two-step algorithm where the first step identifies the system order using the subspace principle in a state space format, while the second step estimates coefficients of the transfer functions via L1-norm convex optimization. The proposed algorithm retains good features of subspace methods with improved noise-robustness for sparse systems.

  19. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enright Brian

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle.

  20. Cerebral Inefficient Activation in Schizophrenia Patients and Their Unaffected Parents during the N-Back Working Memory Task: A Family fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisi Jiang

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that working memory deficits is a core feature of symptomatology of schizophrenia, which can be detected in patients and their unaffected relatives. The impairment of working memory has been found related to the abnormal activity of human brain regions in many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies. This study investigated how brain region activation was altered in schizophrenia and how it was inherited independently from performance deficits.The authors used fMRI method during N-back task to assess working memory related cortical activation in four groups (N = 20 in each group, matching task performance, age, gender and education: schizophrenic patients, their unaffected biological parents, young healthy controls for the patients and older healthy controls for their parents.Compared to healthy controls, patients showed an exaggerated response in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (brodmann area [BA] 46 and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and had reduced activation in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9. In the conjunction analysis, the effect of genetic risk (parents versus older control shared significantly overlapped activation with effect of disease (patients versus young control in the right middle frontal gyrus (BA 46 and left inferior parietal gyrus (BA 40.Physiological inefficiency of dorsal prefrontal cortex and compensation involvement of ventral prefrontal cortex in working memory function may one physiological characteristics of schizophrenia. And relatively inefficient activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex probably can be a promising intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia.

  1. CONCYTEC: Nuevos tiempos para la CTI. Memoria 2012 - 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Consejo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Tecnológica

    2014-01-01

    La Memoria Anual del CONCYTEC presenta un balance de la labor realizada, a lo largo del 2013, para cumplir con los objetivos de la institución orientados a promover y gestionar acciones para difundir el conocimiento científico y tecnológico, así como contribuir al desarrollo social y económico del Perú.

  2. Pfizer's Centers for Therapeutic Innovation (CTI) for NIH Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NCATS works to make the translational process more efficient and effective by establishing new collaborative partnerships and creating technologies and methods that...

  3. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Kimberly R.

    1995-01-01

    The development and application of new technologies in the United States has always been important to the economic well being of the country. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been an important source of these new technologies for almost four decades. Recently, increasing global competition has emphasized the importance of fully utilizing federally funded technologies. Today NASA must meet its mission goals while at the same time, conduct research and development that contributes to securing US economic growth. NASA technologies must be quickly and effectively transferred into commercial products. In order to accomplish this task, NASA has formulated a new way of doing business with the private sector. Emphasis is placed on forming mutually beneficial partnerships between NASA and US industry. New standards have been set in response to the process that increase effectiveness, efficiency, and timely customer response. This summer I have identified potential markets for two NASA inventions: including the Radially Focused Eddy Current Sensor for Characterization of Flaws in Metallic Tubing and the Radiographic Moire. I have also worked to establish a cooperative program with TAG, private industry, and a university known as the TAG/Industry/Academia Program.

  4. Letter naming and letter writing reversals in children with dyslexia: momentary inefficiency in the phonological and orthographic loops of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Allison D; Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Given mounting evidence for working memory impairments in dyslexia, letter reversals during rapid automatic letter naming (phonological loop) or rapid automatic letter writing (orthographic loop) may reflect momentary inefficiency of working memory. Few of the children, with or without dyslexia, in a multi-generational family genetics study, produced reversals, but those with dyslexia produced more than those without dyslexia. Working-memory component predictors (word storing and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and executive functions) in regressions differentiated children with dyslexia (average age 11) who did and did not make reversals, predicted the number of reversals on specific letter naming or letter writing tasks, and explained unique variance in reading and writing outcomes. Although reversals are not a hallmark defining feature of dyslexia, children who produce reversals may benefit from instruction designed to develop specific working memory components and their efficient coordination in time.

  5. Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrafast Dynamics of Chemical Reactions in Condensed Phase: Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond. Dipak K. Palit Radaition & Photochemistry Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Mumbai 400 085, India.

  6. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  7. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  8. Ethylene homo- and copolymerization chain-transfers: A perspective from supported (n BuCp) 2 ZrCl 2 catalyst active centre distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Atiqullah, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    Polymerization chain termination reactions and unsaturation of the polymer backbone end are related. Therefore, in this study, the parameters resulting from the modelling of the active centre distribution of the supported catalyst - silica/MAO/(nBuCp)2ZrCl2 - were applied to evaluate the active-centre-dependent ethylene homo- and copolymerization rates, as well as the corresponding chain termination rates. This approach, from a microkinetic mechanistic viewpoint, elucidates better the 1-hexene-induced positive comonomer effect and chain transfer phenomenon. The kinetic expressions, developed on the basis of the proposed polymerization mechanisms, illustrate how the active site type-dependent chain transfer phenomenon is influenced by the different apparent termination rate constants and momoner concentrations. The active centre-specific molecular weight M ni (for the above homo- and copolymer), as a function of chain transfer probability, p CTi, varied as follows: log (p C Ti) = log (mwru) - log (Mn i), where mw ru is the molecular weight of the repeat unit. The physical significance of this finding has been explained. The homo- and copolymer backbones showed all the three chain end unsaturations (vinyl, vinylidene, and trans-vinylene). The postulated polymerization mechanisms reveal the underlying polymer chemistry. The results of the present study will contribute to develop in future supported metallocene catalysts that will be useful to synthesize polyethylene precursors having varying chain end unsaturations, which can be eventually used to prepare functional polyethylenes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences.

  9. Agents’ Response to Inefficient Judiciary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Zajc, Katarina; Simoneti, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The paper questions the impact of rule-based governance in an environment with poor legal enforcement and general mistrust in the law-setting institutions. We conduct a quasi-experiment and a survey to prove that ‘law on books’ can still play a role by triggering the social norm of ‘obeying the law...

  10. Insights into Resistance to Fe Deficiency Stress from a Comparative Study of In Vitro-Selected Novel Fe-Efficient and Fe-Inefficient Potato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina A. Boamponsem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency induces chlorosis (IDC in plants and can result in reduced plant productivity. Therefore, development of Fe-efficient plants is of great interest. To gain a better understanding of the physiology of Fe-efficient plants, putative novel plant variants were regenerated from potato (Solanum tubersosum L. var. ‘Iwa’ callus cultures selected under Fe deficient or low Fe supply (0–5 μM Fe. Based on visual chlorosis rating (VCR, 23% of callus-derived regenerants were classified as Fe-efficient (EF and 77% as Fe-inefficient (IFN plant lines when they were grown under Fe deficiency conditions. Stem height was found to be highly correlated with internodal distance, leaf and root lengths in the EF plant lines grown under Fe deficiency conditions. In addition, compared to the IFN plant lines and control parental biotype, the EF plants including the lines named A1, B2, and B9, exhibited enhanced formation of lateral roots and root hairs as well as increased expression of ferritin (fer3 in the leaf and iron-regulated transporter (irt1 in the root. These morphological adaptations and changes in expression the fer3 and irt1 genes of the selected EF potato lines suggest that they are associated with resistance to low Fe supply stress.

  11. Nitrogen-efficient and nitrogen-inefficient Indian mustard cultivars show differential protein expression in response to elevated CO2 and low nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerjada Yasir Yousof

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C and nitrogen (N are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2] and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF. The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard.

  12. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also p...

  13. Simulation of whole building coupled hygrothermal-airflow transfer in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Menghao; Walton, George; Belarbi, Rafik; Allard, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The coupled heat, air and moisture transfer between building envelopes and indoor air is complicated, and has a significant influence on the indoor environment and the energy performance of buildings. In the paper, a model for predicting coupled multi-zone hygrothermal-airflow transfer is presented. Both heat and moisture transfer in the building envelope and multi-zone indoor airflow are simultaneously considered; their interactions are modeled. The coupled system model is implemented into Matlab-Simulink, and is validated by using a series of testing tools and experiments. The new program is applied to investigate the moisture transfer effect on indoor air humidity and building energy consumption in different climates (hot-humid, temperate and hot-dry climates). The results show that not accounting for hygrothermal effects in modeling will result in overestimation of energy costs for hot and humid climate situations and possible over sizing of plant leading to inefficient operation.

  14. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  15. Effective Bayesian Transfer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Classes: cougar, car, butterfly, rooster, bass, buddha •!Transferred knowledge: •!Keypoints (landmarks) that define the shape •!Location of...keypoints TL5 Raw Curves for Buddha Class Cartoons to real images Transfer No Transfer 27 TL5 Raw Curves for all classes Cartoons to real images...bass buddha butterfly car cougar rooster TL5 Average Curve for Butterfly class Cartoons to real images Transfer No Transfer TL5 Average Curves for

  16. Fermentation of Xylose Causes Inefficient Metabolic State Due to Carbon/Energy Starvation and Reduced Glycolytic Flux in Recombinant Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Nagashima, Atsushi; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, comprehensive, quantitative metabolome analysis was carried out on the recombinant glucose/xylose-cofermenting S. cerevisiae strain MA-R4 during fermentation with different carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures. Capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine the intracellular pools of metabolites from the central carbon pathways, energy metabolism pathways, and the levels of twenty amino acids. When xylose instead of glucose was metabolized by MA-R4, glycolytic metabolites including 3- phosphoglycerate, 2- phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate were dramatically reduced, while conversely, most pentose phosphate pathway metabolites such as sedoheptulose 7- phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate were greatly increased. These results suggest that the low metabolic activity of glycolysis and the pool of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates are potential limiting factors in xylose utilization. It was further demonstrated that during xylose fermentation, about half of the twenty amino acids declined, and the adenylate/guanylate energy charge was impacted due to markedly decreased adenosine triphosphate/adenosine monophosphate and guanosine triphosphate/guanosine monophosphate ratios, implying that the fermentation of xylose leads to an inefficient metabolic state where the biosynthetic capabilities and energy balance are severely impaired. In addition, fermentation with xylose alone drastically increased the level of citrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and increased the aromatic amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, strongly supporting the view that carbon starvation was induced. Interestingly, fermentation with xylose alone also increased the synthesis of the polyamine spermidine and its precursor S-adenosylmethionine. Thus, differences in carbon substrates, including glucose and xylose in the fermentation medium, strongly influenced the dynamic metabolism of MA-R4

  17. Correction of androgen deficiency in chronic infectious prostatitis as pathogenetic method of overcoming inefficiencies standard antibiotics against the growing antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The chronic prostatitis occupies the big relative density in structure of an out-patient urological pathology in our country, however, results of its standard pharmacotherapy remain unsatisfactory that is accompanied by high risk clinical recurrence and progressing of anatomic and functional disorders in prostata. Modern methods of diagnostics of the chronic infectious prostatitis, which share in the general structure of inflammatory prostata diseases does not exceed 10 %, are based on the recommended volume of the standard tests directed only on revealing of the infectious agent in a prostatic secret, and do not consider degree of disorders of the prostatic homeostasis which key moment is prostata androgen-dependence. It leads to mainly symptomatic approach in treatment of a chronic infectious prostatitis in the modern urological practice, based exclusively on antibacterial therapy that promotes the further growth of prostate pathogens antibiotics resistance, inefficiencies of unreasonable repeated courses of antibacterial therapy and are supported by a myth about incurability of a chronic prostatitis. At the same time, intraprostatic androgen balance defines all basic functions of gland, and its safety essentially depends on testosterone blood level, therefore endogenic testosterone level it is possible to consider as universal predictor of prostata metabolic homeostasis disorders, leading to decrease in bactericidal function of gland and infections. This author’s concept allows to consider correction of an adverse hormonal and metabolic background on which the clinical picture of a chronic prostatitis (first of all, deficiency of sexual hormones as pathogenetic therapy of all infectious chronic prostatitises against which realisation of effects of antibacterial therapy is essentially facilitated is developed or last is not so necessary, to what own clinical supervision resulted in article testify. Such interdisciplinary approach will lead

  18. Laboratory simulation of Euclid-like sky images to study the impact of CCD radiation damage on weak gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prod'homme, T.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Boudin, N.; Short, A.; Kohley, R.

    2014-07-01

    Euclid is the ESA mission to map the geometry of the dark universe. It uses weak gravitational lensing, which requires the accurate measurement of galaxy shapes over a large area in the sky. Radiation damage in the 36 Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) composing the Euclid visible imager focal plane has already been identified as a major contributor to the weak-lensing error budget; radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) distorts the galaxy images and introduces a bias in the galaxy shape measurement. We designed a laboratory experiment to project Euclid-like sky images onto an irradiated Euclid CCD. In this way - and for the first time - we are able to directly assess the effect of CTI on the Euclid weak-lensing measurement free of modelling uncertainties. We present here the experiment concept, setup, and first results. The results of such an experiment provide test data critical to refine models, design and test the Euclid data processing CTI mitigation scheme, and further optimize the Euclid CCD operation.

  19. Achieving High Throughput for Data Transfer over ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; Townsend, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    File-transfer rates for ftp are often reported to be relatively slow, compared to the raw bandwidth available in emerging gigabit networks. While a major bottleneck is disk I/O, protocol issues impact performance as well. Ftp was developed and optimized for use over the TCP/IP protocol stack of the Internet. However, TCP has been shown to run inefficiently over ATM. In an effort to maximize network throughput, data-transfer protocols can be developed to run over UDP or directly over IP, rather than over TCP. If error-free transmission is required, techniques for achieving reliable transmission can be included as part of the transfer protocol. However, selected image-processing applications can tolerate a low level of errors in images that are transmitted over a network. In this paper we report on experimental work to develop a high-throughput protocol for unreliable data transfer over ATM networks. We attempt to maximize throughput by keeping the communications pipe full, but still keep packet loss under five percent. We use the Bay Area Gigabit Network Testbed as our experimental platform.

  20. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  1. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    SUNDÉN, B

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  2. Exposição ao ruído tecnológico em cti: estratégias coletivas de defesa dos trabalhadores de enfermagem La exposición al ruido tecnológico en un centro de terapia intensiva: estrategias colectivas para la defensa de los trabajadores de enfermería Exposure to noise technology in an intensive therapy center: collective strategies for the defense of workers in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Barbosa de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa que objetivou identificar e analisar as estratégias coletivas de defesa elaboradas pelos trabalhadores de enfermagem diante do ruído tecnológico em Centro de Terapia Intensiva (CTI. Participaram do estudo 25 trabalhadores de enfermagem de um hospital universitário situado no município de Niterói (RJ em 2004. Na coleta de dados, utilizou-se a entrevista semi-estruturada mediante um roteiro, e, no tratamento dos dados, a análise de conteúdo revelou os seguintes resultados: o ruído tecnológico gera incômodo e estresse. Para minimizar o sofrimento, os trabalhadores elaboram estratégias coletivas de defesa que os mantêm trabalhando. Conclui-se que as estratégias coletivas de defesa podem se caracterizar num fator que resulta em alienação, ocultando a compreensão real do contexto de trabalho. As ações preventivas e as mudanças a serem implementadas em relação ao ruído no CTI devem ser pautadas na participação dos trabalhadores e se reverterem em melhoria das condições de trabalho e bem-estar do grupo.Estudio descriptivo con un enfoque cualitativo diseñado para analizar las estrategias colectivas de la defensa elaboradas pelos trabajadores de enfermería frente al sonido tecnológico en un centro de terapia intensiva. Veinticinco profesionales de la enfermería de un centro de terapia intensiva del Hospital Escuela en Niteroi (RJ participaron en el estudio en 2004. Para la recolección de datos, una entrevista semi estructurada fue utilizada. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una análisis de contenido que mostraran los resultados: los trabajadores elaboran estrategias colectivas de defensa que permiten trabajar. Estas estrategias muestran un conocimiento que permite a los individuos seguir trabajando, ya que crea formas adaptativa para contrarrestar el sonido en el ambiente de trabajo, buscando continuamente ser sujetos de la situación de trabajo. Adicionalmente

  3. Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrafast Dynamics of Chemical Reactions in Condensed Phase: Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  4. Fuel transfer machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, I.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel transfer machine for transferring fuel assemblies through the fuel transfer tube of a nuclear power generating plant containment structure is described. A conventional reversible drive cable is attached to the fuel transfer carriage to drive it horizontally through the tube. A shuttle carrying a sheave at each end is arranged in parallel with the carriage to also travel into the tube. The cable cooperating with the sheaves permit driving a relatively short fuel transfer carriage a large distance without manually installing sheaves or drive apparatus in the tunnel. 8 claims, 3 figures

  5. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  6. Heat transfer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasatani, Masanobu; Itaya, Yoshinori

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop energy-saving techniques and new energy techniques, and also most advanced techniques by making industrial equipment with high performance, heat transfer performance frequently becomes an important problem. In addition, the improvement of conventional heat transfer techniques and the device of new heat transfer techniques are often required. It is most proper that chemical engineers engage in the research and development for enhancing heat transfer. The research and development for enhancing heat transfer are important to heighten heat exchange efficiency or to cool equipment for preventing overheat in high temperature heat transfer system. In this paper, the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer and the improvement of radiative heat transfer characteristics are reported. Radiative heat transfer is proportional to fourth power of absolute temperature, and it does not require any heat transfer medium, but efficient heat-radiation converters are necessary. As the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer, the increase of emission and absorption areas, the installation of emissive structures and the improvement of radiative characteristics are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  7. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Ribosomal Protein S12 and Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Modulate A-site mRNA Cleavage and Transfer-Messenger RNA Activity in Escherichia coli*

    OpenAIRE

    Holberger, Laura E.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Translational pausing in Escherichia coli can lead to mRNA cleavage within the ribosomal A-site. A-site mRNA cleavage is thought to facilitate transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)·SmpB- mediated recycling of stalled ribosome complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin inhibit A-site cleavage of stop codons during inefficient translation termination. Aminoglycosides also induced stop codon read-through, suggesting that these antibiotics alleviate ribosome pa...

  9. Improvement in Patient Transfer Process From the Operating Room to the PICU Using a Lean and Six Sigma-Based Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, Stephen J; Nemergut, Michael E; Stans, Anthony A; Haile, Dawit T; Feigal, Scott A; Heinrich, Angela L; Bosley, Christopher L; Tripathi, Sandeep

    2016-08-01

    Ineffective and inefficient patient transfer processes can increase the chance of medical errors. Improvements in such processes are high-priority local institutional and national patient safety goals. At our institution, nonintubated postoperative pediatric patients are first admitted to the postanesthesia care unit before transfer to the PICU. This quality improvement project was designed to improve the patient transfer process from the operating room (OR) to the PICU. After direct observation of the baseline process, we introduced a structured, direct OR-PICU transfer process for orthopedic spinal fusion patients. We performed value stream mapping of the process to determine error-prone and inefficient areas. We evaluated primary outcome measures of handoff error reduction and the overall efficiency of patient transfer process time. Staff satisfaction was evaluated as a counterbalance measure. With the introduction of the new direct OR-PICU patient transfer process, the handoff communication error rate improved from 1.9 to 0.3 errors per patient handoff (P = .002). Inefficiency (patient wait time and non-value-creating activity) was reduced from 90 to 32 minutes. Handoff content was improved with fewer information omissions (P improved among nearly all PICU providers. By using quality improvement methodology to design and implement a new direct OR-PICU transfer process with a structured multidisciplinary verbal handoff, we achieved sustained improvements in patient safety and efficiency. Handoff communication was enhanced, with fewer errors and content omissions. The new process improved efficiency, with high staff satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Fuel transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  11. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  12. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  13. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  14. Nonparametric Transfer Function Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun M.; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a class of nonparametric transfer function models is proposed to model nonlinear relationships between ‘input’ and ‘output’ time series. The transfer function is smooth with unknown functional forms, and the noise is assumed to be a stationary autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process. The nonparametric transfer function is estimated jointly with the ARMA parameters. By modeling the correlation in the noise, the transfer function can be estimated more efficiently. The parsimonious ARMA structure improves the estimation efficiency in finite samples. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are investigated. The finite-sample properties are illustrated through simulations and one empirical example. PMID:20628584

  15. Coupled transfers; Transferts couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, X.; Lauriat, G.; Jimenez-Rondan, J. [Universite de Marne-la-Vallee, Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts d' Energie et de Matiere (LETEM), 77 (France); Bouali, H.; Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, IUSTI UMR 6595, 13 Marseille (France); Stoian, M.; Rebay, M.; Lachi, M.; Padet, J. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Thermomecanique, UTAP, 51 - Reims (France); Mladin, E.C. [Universitaire Polytechnique Bucarest, Faculte de Genie Mecanique, Bucarest (Romania); Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Dept. de Physique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C.; Papini, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, IUSTI, 13 - Marseille (France); Lorrette, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Boechat, C.; Pailler, R. [Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux, UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Ben Salah, M.; Askri, F.; Jemni, A.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Lab. d' Etudes des Systemes Thermiques et Energetiques (Tunisia); Grine, A.; Desmons, J.Y.; Harmand, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Radenac, E.; Gressier, J.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France); Giovannini, A. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about coupled transfers gathers 30 articles dealing with: numerical study of coupled heat transfers inside an alveolar wall; natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a plugged and ventilated chimney; finite-volume modeling of the convection-conduction coupling in non-stationary regime; numerical study of the natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a partitioned cavity; modeling of the thermal conductivity of textile reinforced composites: finite element homogenization on a full periodical pattern; application of the control volume method based on non-structured finite elements to the problems of axisymmetrical radiant heat transfers in any geometries; modeling of convective transfers in transient regime on a flat plate; a conservative method for the non-stationary coupling of aero-thermal engineering codes; measurement of coupled heat transfers (forced convection/radiant transfer) inside an horizontal duct; numerical simulation of the combustion of a water-oil emulsion droplet; numerical simulation study of heat and mass transfers inside a reactor for nano-powders synthesis; reduction of a combustion and heat transfer model of a direct injection diesel engine; modeling of heat transfers inside a knocking operated spark ignition engine; heat loss inside an internal combustion engine, thermodynamical and flamelet model, composition effects of CH{sub 4}H{sub 2} mixtures; experimental study and modeling of the evolution of a flame on a solid fuel; heat transfer for laminar subsonic jet of oxygen plasma impacting an obstacle; hydrogen transport through a A-Si:H layer submitted to an hydrogen plasma: temperature effects; thermal modeling of the CO{sub 2} laser welding of a magnesium alloy; radiant heat transfer inside a 3-D environment: application of the finite volume method in association with the CK model; optimization of the infrared baking of two types of powder paints; optimization of the emission power of an infrared

  16. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  17. IT Department Technology Transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    Birker, D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of Technology Transfer (TT) at CERN is “to make known and available to third parties under agreed conditions, technical developments achieved in fulfi lling the laboratory’s mission in fundamental research”. The IT Department contributes to this objective by the transfer of technology, expertise and know-how to industry, universities, public institutions and the society at large.

  18. Transferability and Linguistic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlin, Terence

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of transferability principles to language contact in the British Isles, especially Ireland, is shown with a detailed discussion of absolute constructions, structures with interesting relations between syntax and discourse, and with susceptibility to cross-linguistic influence. Evidence for transferability of absolutes in…

  19. Radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...

  20. Site-sensitive energy transfer modes in Ca3Al2O6: Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)/Mn(2+) phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilin; He, Yani; Qiu, Zhongxian; Zhang, Weilu; Zhou, Wenli; Yu, Liping; Lian, Shixun

    2014-12-28

    Ce(3+)/Eu(2+), Tb(3+) and Mn(2+) co-doping in single-phase hosts is a common strategy to achieve white-light phosphors via energy transfer, which provides a high color rendering index (CRI) value and good color stability. However, not all hosts are suitable for white-light phosphors due to inefficient energy transfer. In this study, the site-sensitive energy transfer from different crystallographic sites of Ce(3+) to Tb(3+)/Mn(2+) in Ca3Al2O6 has been investigated in detail. The energy transfer from purplish-blue Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) is an electric dipole-dipole mode, and the calculated critical distance (Rc) suggests the existence of purplish-blue Ce(3+)-Tb(3+) clusters. No energy transfer is observed from purplish-blue Ce(3+) to Mn(2+). In co-doped phosphors based on greenish-blue Ce(3+), however, the radiative mode dominates the energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+), and an electric dipole-quadrupole interaction is responsible for the energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Mn(2+). A detailed discussion on the site-sensitive energy transfer modes might provide a new aspect to discuss and understand the possibilities and mechanisms of energy transfer, according to certain crystallographic sites in a complex host with different cation sites, as well as provide a possible approach in searching for single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors.

  1. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun

    2009-01-01

    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  2. Technology transfer 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  3. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.

  4. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  5. Water stress, water transfer and social equity in Northern China--implications for policy reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing

    2008-04-01

    Water stress in Northern China is characterized with major, inefficient irrigation water use and rapidly growing non-agricultural water demands, as well as limited water quantity and declining water quality. Water use in the region is undergoing transfer from agricultural to municipal and industrial sectors. Currently, part of the economic loss and environmental damage due to water stress can be considered as a consequence of water transfer failures, including the current transfers, which hurt farmers' livelihood and income, and the needed transfers, which industry and cities have been waiting for but have not received. This paper starts with a discussion of the causes of water stress in Northern China, which is fundamental to understand the necessity and complexity of agricultural water transfers. Following that, it reviews water transfers in Northern China as a cause for concern over the social stability, economy and environment of the region. Based on an integrated analysis of economic, environmental, fiscal and social implications, this paper begins by identifying critical barriers to smooth water redistribution; and ends with implications for policy reforms, ensuring that farmers can and will save water. It is concluded that the decisions of water reallocation under water stress should be shared by communities at all levels, from the local to the national, to ensure equal access of water, especially the availability of the basic water need for all groups.

  6. A heat transfer textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lienhard, John H

    2011-01-01

    This introduction to heat transfer offers advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students a solid foundation in the subjects of conduction, convection, radiation, and phase-change, in addition to the related topic of mass transfer. A staple of engineering courses around the world for more than three decades, it has been revised and updated regularly by the authors, a pair of recognized experts in the field. The text addresses the implications, limitations, and meanings of many aspects of heat transfer, connecting the subject to its real-world applications and developing students' ins

  7. Excavating a transfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The transfer tunnel being dug here will take the 450 GeV beam from the SPS and inject it into the LHC where the beam energies will be increased to 7 TeV. In order to transfer this beam from the SPS to the LHC, two transfer tunnels are used to circulate the beams in opposite directions. When excavated, the accelerator components, including magnets, beam pipes and cryogenics will be installed and connected to both the SPS and LHC ready for operation to begin in 2008.

  8. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-08

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  9. Pig transgenesis by piggyBac transposition in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenfang; Xu, Zhiqian; Zou, Xian; Zeng, Fang; Shi, Junsong; Liu, Dewu; Urschitz, Johann; Moisyadi, Stefan; Li, Zicong

    2013-12-01

    The production of animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is inefficient, with approximately 2% of micromanipulated oocytes going to term and resulting in live births. However, it is the most commonly used method for the generation of cloned transgenic livestock as it facilitates the attainment of transgenic animals once the nuclear donor cells are stably transfected and more importantly as alternatives methods of transgenesis in farm animals have proven even less efficient. Here we describe piggyBac-mediated transposition of a transgene into porcine primary cells and use of these genetically modified cells as nuclear donors for the generation of transgenic pigs by SCNT. Gene transfer by piggyBac transposition serves to provide an alternative approach for the transfection of nuclear donor cells used in SCNT.

  10. Cell-to-Cell Transfer of M. tuberculosis Antigens Optimizes CD4 T Cell Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Ernst, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other respiratory infections, optimal T cell activation requires pathogen transport from the lung to a local draining lymph node (LN). However, the infected inflammatory monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that transport M. tuberculosis to the local lymph node are relatively inefficient at activating CD4 T cells, possibly due to bacterial inhibition of antigen presentation. We found that infected migratory DCs release M. tuberculosis antigens as soluble, unprocessed proteins for uptake and presentation by uninfected resident lymph node DCs. This transfer of bacterial proteins from migratory to local DCs results in optimal priming of antigen-specific CD4 T cells, which are essential in controlling tuberculosis. Additionally, this mechanism does not involve transfer of the whole bacterium and is distinct from apoptosis or exosome shedding. These findings reveal a mechanism that bypasses pathogen inhibition of antigen presentation by infected cells and generates CD4 T cell responses that control the infection. PMID:24922576

  11. International Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert G.

    The flow of technology out of the United States is discussed. Methods of technology flow, such as licensing and investing, are identified, and the advantages and disadvantages of technology transfer are discussed, especially in relation to the government's role. (MLH)

  12. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...... of parent firms to share knowledge is manifested in an increased capacity to articulate and codify knowledge and create opportunities to transfer this knowledge. Mediated by the effective use of organizational communication channels, articulation and codification capabilities have a significant impact...... on the transfer of knowledge. The creation of opportunities for face-to-face interactions between organizations also has an impact on knowledge transfer, but only when senders and receivers have similar products and technologies...

  13. Industrial technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulger, W.

    1982-06-01

    The transfer of industrial technology is an essential part of the CANDU export marketing program. Potential customers require the opportunity to become self-sufficient in the supply of nuclear plant and equipment in the long term and they require local participation to the maximum extent possible. The Organization of CANDU Industries is working closely with Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. in developing comprehensive programs for the transfer of manufacturing technology. The objectives of this program are: 1) to make available to the purchasing country all nuclear component manufacturing technology that exists in Canada; and 2) to assure that the transfer of technology takes place in an efficient and effective way. Technology transfer agreements may be in the form of joint ventures or license agreements, depending upon the requirements of the recipient

  14. Technology transfer quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, F.C.

    1991-03-01

    The results of research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE are regularly transferred from the laboratory to the private sector. The principal focus of PNL is on environmental research and waste management technology; other programs of emphasis include molecular science research. The technology transfer process is predicated on Quality to achieve its objectives effectively. Total quality management (TQM) concepts and principles readily apply to the development and translation of new scientific concepts into commercial products. The concept of technology transfer epitomizes the TQM tenet of continuous improvement: always striving for a better way to do things and always satisfying the customer. A successful technology transfer process adds value to society by providing new or enhanced processes, products, and services to government and commercial customers, with a guarantee of product pedigree and process validity. 2 refs

  15. Fast multilevel radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paletou, Frederic; Leger, Ludovick

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho [A novel iterative scheme for the very fast and accurate solution of non-LTE radiative transfer problems. Astrophys J 1995;455:646]; it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry

  16. Analytical heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin

    2012-01-01

    … it will complete my library … [and] complement the existing literature on heat transfer. It will be of value for both graduate students and faculty members.-Bengt Sunden, Lund University, Sweden

  17. Pneumatic transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, H.; Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.; Buchtela, K.

    1988-11-01

    A pneumatic transfer system for research reactors, including a sample changer system and to be used for neutron activation analysis, is described. The system can be obtained commercially from the Atominstitut. 2 figs. (qui)

  18. Transfer delay audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraqi, S; Coughlan, R

    2007-05-01

    The purpose was to determine the average transfer time taken for acute patients to arrive to the medical unit from the time of referral by an A/E officer. We included the first 200 consecutive patients with completed records. 86 were men and 114 women, aged between 14 and 96 years. Transfer time was calculated as the difference from the time of referral by the A/E officer in UCHG to the time of arrival to the medical unit in MPH. The average transfer time for all patients was 91.5 minutes. The longest was in the second (17:00-24:00) interval with a mean of 105 minutes. 26.5% of patients arrived later than 2 hours after referral. Our findings confirm the existence of unacceptably long transfer time for a significant number of patients. Causes for this delay should be searched for to help find and implement solutions.

  19. Tendon Transfers for Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that 65% to 75% of patients with cervical spinal cord injuries could benefit from upper extremity tendon transfer surgery. The goals of surgery are to restore elbow extension, as well as hand pinch, grasp, and release. Patients who have defined goals, actively participate in therapy, and understand expected outcomes, appear to have the highest satisfaction following tendon transfer procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxygen transfer in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskal, J; Potůcek, F

    1985-04-01

    In the laboratory-type airlift tower reactor oxygen transfer from air in tap water and/or polyacrylamide solutions (Neuperm WF) was studied. In order to characterize the system, volumetric coefficient of oxygen transfer was determined by the gassing-out method. Two arrangements of the airlift tower reactor were compared, namely the reactor with and without motionless mixer. In addition, mean relative gas holdup and gas power output were determined for both arrangements.

  1. Advances in heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett, James P; Cho, Young I; Greene, George A

    2001-01-01

    Heat transfer is the exchange of heat energy between a system and its surrounding environment, which results from a temperature difference and takes place by means of a process of thermal conduction, mechanical convection, or electromagnetic radiation. Advances in Heat Transfer is designed to fill the information gap between regularly scheduled journals and university-level textbooks by providing in-depth review articles over a broader scope than is allowable in either journals or texts.

  2. Heat transfer II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1988-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  3. Convection heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

  4. Knowledge transfer isn’t simply transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li; Napier, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines micro dynamic aspects of knowledge sharing and learning in international joint venture settings. Learning of expatriate and local managers appears far more complex and mutually dependent than conventionally speculated in existing literature. The paper proposes that the effect...... and outcome of knowledge transfer from joint venture parents and learning in IJVs are dependent on how individual managers (including both expatriate and local) learn, perceive their learning roles, and enact a learning agenda. Empirical evidence is drawn from two cases of international joint ventures between...

  5. PENGARUH IKLIM TRANSFER TERHADAP MOTIVASI TRANSFER DAN TRANSFER PELATIHAN BAGI PARA PEGAWAI ADMINISTRATIF UNIVERSITAS JAMBI

    OpenAIRE

    ., Edward; ., Sumarni

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of transfer climate on transfermotivation and training transfer in context of climate transfer and training transfer. Data are collected from 176 respondents; they are administration employee of Jambi University.Data analysis useRegression both Simple and Multiple Regressions. Research result shows that there is mediating mechanism in contexet of Climate transfer and training transfer. Hence, it is could be concluded that the leader encour...

  6. Inefficient HIV-1 trans infection of CD4+ T cells by macrophages from HIV-1 nonprogressors is associated with altered membrane cholesterol and DC-SIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Diana C; Rinaldo, Charles R; Rappocciolo, Giovanna

    2018-04-11

    ) -mediated HIV trans infection of CD4 + T cells is a unique characteristic associated with control of disease progression, and it is impaired in HIV-infected nonprogressors (NP). In vitro treatment of MΦ from healthy donors with simvastatin (SIMV) lowers their cholesterol content which results in a strongly reduced trans infection ability, similar to the levels of MΦ from NP. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that MΦ-mediated HIV-1 trans infection plays a role in HIV infection and disease progression and demonstrate that the use of SIMV to decrease this mechanism of virus transfer should be considered for future HIV therapeutic development. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Electrophoretic transfer protein zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daniel; Hill, Adam P; Kashou, Anthony; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2011-04-15

    Zymography detects and characterizes proteolytic enzymes by electrophoresis of protease-containing samples into a nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel containing a copolymerized protein substrate. The usefulness of zymography for molecular weight determination and proteomic analysis is hampered by the fact that some proteases exhibit slower migration through a gel that contains substrate protein. This article introduces electrophoretic transfer protein zymography as one solution to this problem. In this technique, samples containing proteolytic enzymes are first resolved in nonreducing SDS-PAGE on a gel without protein substrate. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel previously prepared with a copolymerized protein substrate. The receiving gel is then developed as a zymogram to visualize clear or lightly stained bands in a dark background. Band intensities are linearly related to the amount of protease, extending the usefulness of the technique so long as conditions for transfer and development of the zymogram are kept constant. Conditions of transfer, such as the pore sizes of resolving and receiving gels and the transfer time relative to the molecular weight of the protease, are explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  9. Intergenerational Knowledge Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Institutions of higher education and universities have been at the forefront of intergenerational knowledge transfer. Their role has gone through evolution and several ideas of the university co-exist. Factors like the squeeze on public funding of higher education across nations, exhortation by governments to value work-based learning as a part of higher education and demand for graduates ready to start working immediately on joining a workplace, are making it necessary to further evolve the classical approach towards intergenerational knowledge transfer. The paper presents a framework that has been evolved in India to meet the requirements of intergenerational knowledge transfer. It essentially integrates a workplace and a university in a single entity similar to the practice in medical education. (author

  10. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Baehr, Hans Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook provides a solid foundation of knowledge on the principles of heat and mass transfer and shows how to solve problems by applying modern methods. The basic theory is developed systematically, exploring in detail the solution methods to all important problems.   The thoroughly revised 3rd edition includes an introduction to the numerical solution of Finite Elements. A new section on heat and mass transfer in porous media has also been added.   The book will be useful not only to upper-level and graduate students, but also to practicing scientists and engineers, offering a firm understanding of the principles of heat and mass transfer, and showing how to solve problems by applying modern methods. Many completed examples and numerous exercises with solutions facilitate learning and understanding, and an appendix includes data on key properties of important substances.

  11. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  12. Neutron signal transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pleinert, H; Lehmann, E

    1999-01-01

    A new method called neutron signal transfer analysis has been developed for quantitative determination of hydrogenous distributions from neutron radiographic measurements. The technique is based on a model which describes the detector signal obtained in the measurement as a result of the action of three different mechanisms expressed by signal transfer functions. The explicit forms of the signal transfer functions are determined by Monte Carlo computer simulations and contain only the distribution as a variable. Therefore an unknown distribution can be determined from the detector signal by recursive iteration. This technique provides a simple and efficient tool for analysis of this type while also taking into account complex effects due to the energy dependency of neutron interaction and single and multiple scattering. Therefore this method provides an efficient tool for precise quantitative analysis using neutron radiography, as for example quantitative determination of moisture distributions in porous buil...

  13. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  14. Tech transfer outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebetrau, S. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. Tech Transfer Outreach '' was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

  15. Charge transfer in astrophysical nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Charge transfer has become a standard ingredient in models of ionized nebulae, supernovae remnants and active galactic nuclei. Charge transfer rate coefficients and the physics of ionized nebulae are considered. Charge transfer is applied to the ionization structure and line emission of ionized nebulae. Photoionized nebulae observations are used to test theoretical predictions of charge transfer rates. (author)

  16. Nerve Transfers in Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ida K

    2016-05-01

    Hand and upper extremity function is instrumental to basic activities of daily living and level of independence in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve transfer surgery is a novel and alternate approach for restoring function in SCI. This article discusses the biologic basis of nerve transfers in SCI, patient evaluation, management, and surgical approaches. Although the application of this technique is not new; recent case reports and case series in the literature have increased interest in this field. The challenges are to improve function, achieve maximal gains in function, avoid complications, and to primum non nocere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Engineering heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    The basic concepts of heat transfer are covered with special emphasis on up-to-date techniques for formulating and solving problems in the field. The discussion progresses logically from phenomenology to problem solving, and treats numerical, integral, and graphical methods as well as traditional analytical ones. The book is unique in its thorough coverage of the fundamentals of numerical analysis appropriate to solving heat transfer problems. This coverage includes several complete and readable examples of numerical solutions, with discussions and interpretations of results. The book also contains an appendix that provides students with physical data for often-encountered materials. An index is included. (U.S.)

  18. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation...

  19. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  20. Cernavoda NPP Knowledge Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valache, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a description of the Knowledge Transfer (KT) process implemented at Cernavoda NPP, its designing and implementation. It is underlined that applying a KT approach should improve the value of existing processes of the organization through: • Identifying business, operational and safety risks due to knowledge gaps, • Transfer of knowledge from the ageing workforce to the peers and/or the organization, • Continually learning from successes and failures of individual or teams, • Convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, • Improving operational and safety performance through creating both new knowledge and better access to existing knowledge. (author

  1. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude

    1990-10-01

    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  2. Transferring Technology to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenbarger, J. Ken

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology transfer processes in which JPL has been involved to assist in transferring the technology derived from aerospace research and development to industry. California Institute of Technology (CalTech), the organization that runs JPL, is the leading institute in patents for all U.S. universities. There are several mechanisms that are available to JPL to inform industry of these technological advances: (1) a dedicated organization at JPL, National Space Technology Applications (NSTA), (2) Tech Brief Magazine, (3) Spinoff magazine, and (4) JPL publications. There have also been many start-up organizations and businesses from CalTech.

  3. Convective transfers; Transferts convectifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accary, G.; Raspo, I.; Bontoux, P. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ. Paul Cezanne, CNRS, Lab. MSNM-GP UMR 6181, 13 - Marseille (France); Zappoli, B. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France); Polidori, G.; Fohanno, S. [Laboratoire de Thermomecanique, 51 - Reims (France); Hirata, S.C.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D. [Paris-6 et Paris-11 Univ., FAST-UMR CNRS 7608, 91 - Orsay (France); Cotta, R.M. [UFRJ/LTTC/PEM/EE/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Perrin, L.; Reulet, P.; Micheli, F.; Millan, P. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 31 - Toulouse (France); Menard, V. [France Telecom R and D, 22 - Lannion (France); Benkhelifa, A.; Penot, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d' Aerotechnique (ENSMA), Lab. d' Etudes Thermiques, UMR CNRS 6608, 86 - Poitiers (France); Ng Wing Tin, M.; Haquet, J.F.; Journeau, C. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/DTN/STRI/LMA), Lab. d' Essais pour la Maitrise des Accidents Graves, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Naffouti, T.; Hammani, M.; Ben Maad, R. [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Lab. d' Energetique et des Transferts Thermique et Massique, Dept. de Physique, Tunis (Tunisia); Zinoubi, J. [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Nabeul (Tunisia); Menard, V.; Le Masson, S.; Nortershauser, D. [France Telecom R and D, 22 - Lannion (France); Stitou, A.; Perrin, L.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about convective transfers gathers 31 articles dealing with: numerical study of the hydrodynamic stability of a bottom heated supercritical fluid layer; establishment of laminar-turbulent transition criteria of free convection dynamic and thermal boundary layers; heat transfer changes in free convection by mechanical and thermal disturbances; natural convection stability in partially porous horizontal layers; experimental characterization of the dynamic and thermal aspects of a natural convection flow inside a confined space; determination of transitions towards non-stationary natural convection inside a differentially heated inclined cavity; interface temperatures for the convection of fluids with variable viscosity; influence of the height of a vertical cylinder on the flow resulting from a plume-thermosyphon interaction; simultaneous measurement of dynamic and thermal fields by thermo-chromic liquid crystals in natural convection; numerical simulation of turbulent natural convection flows inside a heated room; numerical and experimental study of mixed convection heat transfer inside an axisymmetrical network; analysis of laminar flow instabilities in assisted mixed convection; entropy generation in mixed convection; thermal and mass convection in non-stationary regime inside a ventilated cavity; study of a low Reynolds number mixed convection flow; numerical study of a convective flow inside a rotating annular cavity; study of the dynamical behaviour of a transient mixed convection flow inside a thick vertical duct; internal laminar convection: selection criteria for the identification of natural, mixed or forced regimes; turbulent flow and convection heat transfer inside a channel with corrugated walls; study of the impact of an axisymmetrical jet on a concave wall; modeling of volume irreversibilities of turbulent forced convection; numerical study of forced convection irreversibilities around a network of cylindrical tubes; estimation of the

  4. Beyond unidirectional knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Neergaard, Helle; Bjerregaard, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Using theory on technology transfer and on trust and an indepth study of nine university departments and nineteen science-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the authors explore the nature and direction of knowledge flows during university-industry R&D collaboration. More specifically......, they examine the nature and direction of R&D technological knowledge transfer in collaborations between universities and science-based SMEs and the primary mechanisms regulating such collaborations. The findings suggest that these collaborations are highly recursive processes of technological knowledge...

  5. NASA Technology Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Peter B.; Okimura, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    NTTS is the IT infrastructure for the Agency's Technology Transfer (T2) program containing 60,000+ technology portfolio supporting all ten NASA field centers and HQ. It is the enterprise IT system for facilitating the Agency's technology transfer process, which includes reporting of new technologies (e.g., technology invention disclosures NF1679), protecting intellectual properties (e.g., patents), and commercializing technologies through various technology licenses, software releases, spinoffs, and success stories using custom built workflow, reporting, data consolidation, integration, and search engines.

  6. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  7. MUC1 and other sialoglycoconjugates inhibit adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcasoy, S M; Latoche, J; Gondor, M; Watkins, S C; Henderson, R A; Hughey, R; Finn, O J; Pilewski, J M

    1997-10-01

    Recombinant adenoviruses are currently being evaluated as gene transfer vectors for the treatment of airway diseases. Recent evidence indicates that gene transfer to differentiated airway epithelial cells is inefficient. We hypothesized that apical membrane glycoconjugates, such as the transmembrane mucin MUC1, reduce the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. To address this, studies were performed in primary bronchial epithelial and Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transduced to express human MUC1. Colocalization of MUC1 and an adenoviral lacZ transgene in the bronchial epithelial cells revealed that at several multiplicities of infection, the percentage of cells expressing lacZ was five-fold less in MUC1-expressing cells. Moreover, lacZ expression was three- to eight-fold lower in MUC1-expressing than in control MDCK cells, demonstrating that MUC1 interferes with gene transfer and is not merely a phenotypic marker of a cell that is refractory to adenovirus infection. Neuraminidase pretreatment of cells to remove sialic acid residues prior to viral adsorption increased the efficiency of gene transfer two- to five-fold in human airway and MDCK cells, and in a xenograft model of human airway. This effect was also observed in cultured cells that do not express MUC1, suggesting that other sialylated glycoconjugates impact on the efficiency of gene transfer. An inhibitory effect of negatively charged glycoconjugates on adenovirus binding was further supported by the finding that adsorption of adenovirus with a polycation significantly increased gene transfer efficiency. These data demonstrate for the first time that sialoglycoconjugates on epithelial cells reduce the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer.

  8. Knowledge Management and Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennanye, D.M.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management has become an important concept in the nuclear industry globally. This has been driven by the fact that new reactors are commissioned and some are decommissioned. Since most old experts are near retirement then there is a need to capture the nuclear knowledge and expertise and transfer it to the new generation. Knowledge transfer is one of the important building blocks of knowledge management. Processes and strategies need to be developed in order to transfer this knowledge. South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has established a document to address strategies that can be used to close the knowledge gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. This action will help the young generation to participate in knowledge management. The major challenges will be the willingness of the experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. The paper presents the SAYNPS point of view with regard to knowledge transfer. (authors)

  9. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...

  10. Interface transfer of equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashton, I.J.

    1989-04-01

    This article details the interface transfer of heavy-duty face equipment from 5's to 6's face in the Great Row Seam at Silverdale Colliery, British Coal, Western Area. The salvaged face was roofbolted using leg-mounted Wombat drilling rigs. All heavy-duty equipment was transported by FSV's. 5 figs.

  11. Transfer metrics analytics project

    CERN Document Server

    Matonis, Zygimantas

    2016-01-01

    This report represents work done towards predicting transfer rates/latencies on Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) sites using Machine Learning techniques. Topic covered are technologies used for the project, data preparation for ML suitable format and attribute selection as well as a comparison of different ML algorithms.

  12. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  13. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  14. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...

  15. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  16. Science transfer for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the recent realisation that science and technology are the sustenance and major hope for economic betterment, the third world, barring a few countries like Argentina, Brazil, China and India, has taken to science - as distinct from technology - as only a marginal activity. This is also true of the aid - giving agencies of the richer countries, of the agencies of the UN and also unfortunately of the scientific communities of the developed countries which might naturally be expected to be the Third World's foremost allies. Policy makers, prestigious commissions (like the Brandt Commission) as well as aid-givers, speak uniformly of problems of technology transfer to the developing countries as if that is all that is involved. Very few within the developing world appear to stress that for long term effectiveness, technology transfers must always be accompanied by science transfers; that the science of today is the technology of tomorrow. Science transfer is effected by and to communities of scientists. Such communities (in developing countries) need building up to a critical size in their human resources and infrastructure. This building up calls for wise science policies, with long term commitment, generous patronage, self governance and free international contacts. Further, in our countries, the high level scientist must be allowed to play a role in nation building as an equal partner to the professional planner, the economist and the technologist. Few developing countries have promulgated such policies: few aid agencies have taken it as their mandate to encourage and help build up the scientific infrastructure. (author)

  17. Proposals for the gradual reduction of the inefficiencies associated with the account of consumption of fossil fuels of isolated systems; Propostas para a gradativa reducao das ineficiencias associadas a conta de consumo de combustiveis fosseis dos sistemas isolados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Pedro Coelho de Souza Monteiro; Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Restricted access to electricity, the existence of an energy matrix based on fossil fueled electricity plants and the lack of financial means by the population living in the Northern region of Brazil to afford the costs with electricity generation, transmission and distribution in the region created the need to implement cross subsidies in the country's Electric Sector Isolated System. The subsidy policies have aimed at allowing the access to electricity for the population and industries in the north of Brazil and at promoting the economic development of this region, but have brought a great cost to society, particularly the Fuel Consumption Account (CCC). This paper evaluates the current structure and the regulatory norms of the electricity sector' subsidies granted to the Isolated Systems, and indicates solutions to the inefficiency associated to cross-subsidization. (author)

  18. Transfer in adult and further training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training".......The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training"....

  19. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  20. Flexible Quantum Oblivious Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Yang, Rui; Cao, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2017-04-01

    We propose a flexible protocol for one-out-of- nquantum oblivious transfer (QOT) Compared with existing QOT protocols, our protocol is more flexible. We demonstrate that, by adjusting the value of 𝜃 the flexible one-out-of- nQOT is allowable where n can be located theoretically on any value the communicating parties wanted. Meanwhile, it also meets the rigorous security requirements of the oblivious transfer (OT) definition, which ensures Bob can receive on average one of n messages held by Alice, while Alice cannot know which one Bob has received. Finally, we analyze the security of our protocol and show that it is not based on quantum bit commitment and does not violate Lo's no-go theorem so that its security can be achieved.

  1. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  2. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation......, were used more intensively. Further, the degree of stickiness was significantly lower in the case of prior trust-based relations....

  3. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  4. Heat Transfer Analogies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.

    1965-11-01

    This report contains descriptions of various analogues utilised to study different steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer problems. The analogues covered are as follows: 1 . Hydraulic: a) water flow b) air flow 2. Membrane 3. Geometric Electrical: a) Electrolytic-tank b) Conducting sheet 4. Network; a) Resistance b) R-C A comparison of the different analogues is presented in the form of a table

  5. Unsupervised Typography Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hanfei; Luo, Yiming; Lu, Ziang

    2018-01-01

    Traditional methods in Chinese typography synthesis view characters as an assembly of radicals and strokes, but they rely on manual definition of the key points, which is still time-costing. Some recent work on computer vision proposes a brand new approach: to treat every Chinese character as an independent and inseparable image, so the pre-processing and post-processing of each character can be avoided. Then with a combination of a transfer network and a discriminating network, one typograph...

  6. ATTACHMENT AND TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Pasare, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Bowlby's concept of attachment and Freud's concept of transference are two of the most influential theories of how we construct mental representations of human relationships. The attachment’s theory offers one more strategy for the therapeutic approach. Factors that lead to a secure attachment between mother and child may also be applied to the relationship between patient and psychotherapist. Psychotherapy may help a patient create himself new attachment and relationship patterns. Creating a...

  7. Heat transfer. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the 4 key-note lectures and 83 of the 148 papers presented at the 3rd UK National Conference on Heat Transfer. The papers are grouped under the following broad headings: boiling and condensation; heat exchangers; refrigeration and air-conditioning; natural convection; process safety and nuclear reactors; two-phase flow; post dry-out; combustion, radiation and chemical reaction. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 13 papers of relevance to nuclear reactors. (UK)

  8. Technology Transfer Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Since its inception, Goddard has pursued a commitment to technology transfer and commercialization. For every space technology developed, Goddard strives to identify secondary applications. Goddard then provides the technologies, as well as NASA expertise and facilities, to U.S. companies, universities, and government agencies. These efforts are based in Goddard's Technology Commercialization Office. This report presents new technologies, commercialization success stories, and other Technology Commercialization Office activities in 1999.

  9. Technology transfer for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D.

    1990-07-01

    The IAEA has developed a multifaceted approach to ensure that assistance to Member States results in assured technology transfer. Through advice and planning, the IAEA helps to assess the costs and benefits of a given technology, determine the basic requirements for its efficient use in conditions specific to the country, and prepare a plan for its introduction. This report describes in brief the Technical Co-operation Programmes

  10. Transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammady, M.; Roohi, M.; Delavar, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to introduce the concepts of transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces. Also, some characterizations of them are considered. Further, the notion of minimal local intersection property will be introduced and characterized. Moreover, some maximal element theorems via minimal transfer closed multimaps and minimal local intersection property are given.

  11. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  12. Heat transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    An intermediate heat exchanger that provides the required physical isolation between the primary reactor coolant loops and a secondary liquid loop in which steam is generated was developed. The intermediate heat exchanger is contained within a sealed vapor chamber that includes a bottom interior portion and an adjacent upper interior portion in vertical communication with one another. The chamber is exhausted of all noncondensible gases at ambient temperature. A heat transfer medium within the chamber maintains a two phase liquid-vapor-liquid system at the design heat transfer temperature. A first set of tubes in the bottom portion of the vapor chamber is supplied with primary reactor coolant. A second set of tubes in the upper portion of the chamber is supplied with water or steam. A thermal linkage is provided between the two sets of tubes by the heat transfer medium, which is evaporated in the vicinity of the first set and is condensed in the vicinity of the second set. This results in a latent heat transport system, condensate return being accomplished by gravity

  13. Laser induced energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcone, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Two related methods of rapidly transferring stored energy from one excited chemical species to another are described. The first of these, called a laser induced collision, involves a reaction in which the energy balance is met by photons from an intense laser beam. A collision cross section of ca 10 - 17 cm 2 was induced in an experiment which demonstrated the predicted dependence of the cross section on wavelength and power density of the applied laser. A second type of laser induced energy transfer involves the inelastic scattering of laser radiation from energetically excited atoms, and subsequent absorption of the scattered light by a second species. The technique of producing the light, ''anti-Stokes Raman'' scattering of visible and infrared wavelength laser photons, is shown to be an efficient source of narrow bandwidth, high brightness, tunable radiation at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths by using it to excite a rare gas transition at 583.7 A. In addition, this light source was used to make the first measurement of the isotopic shift of the helium metastable level at 601 A. Applications in laser controlled chemistry and spectroscopy, and proposals for new types of lasers using these two energy transfer methods are discussed

  14. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M. [Universidade da Coruna (Spain). Escola Politecnica Superior], e-mail: mjabardo@cdf.udc.es

    2009-07-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 {mu}m and 10.5 {mu}m ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 {mu}m). (author)

  15. Deep Transfer Metric Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlin Hu; Jiwen Lu; Yap-Peng Tan; Jie Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Conventional metric learning methods usually assume that the training and test samples are captured in similar scenarios so that their distributions are assumed to be the same. This assumption does not hold in many real visual recognition applications, especially when samples are captured across different data sets. In this paper, we propose a new deep transfer metric learning (DTML) method to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations for cross-domain visual recognition by transferring discriminative knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Specifically, our DTML learns a deep metric network by maximizing the inter-class variations and minimizing the intra-class variations, and minimizing the distribution divergence between the source domain and the target domain at the top layer of the network. To better exploit the discriminative information from the source domain, we further develop a deeply supervised transfer metric learning (DSTML) method by including an additional objective on DTML, where the output of both the hidden layers and the top layer are optimized jointly. To preserve the local manifold of input data points in the metric space, we present two new methods, DTML with autoencoder regularization and DSTML with autoencoder regularization. Experimental results on face verification, person re-identification, and handwritten digit recognition validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  16. Californium source transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1995, the receipt of four sealed californium-252 sources from Oak Ridge National Lab was successfully accomplished by a team comprised of Radiological Engineering, Radiological Operations and Health Physics Instrumentation personnel. A procedure was developed and walked-down by the participants during a Dry Run Evolution. Several special tools were developed during the pre-planning phases of the project which reduced individual and job dose to minimal levels. These included a mobile lifting device for attachment of a transfer ball valve assembly to the undercarriage of the Cannonball Carrier, a transfer tube elbow to ensure proper angle of the source transfer tube, and several tools used during emergency response for remote retrieval and handling of an unshielded source. Lessons were learned in the areas of contamination control, emergency preparedness, and benefits of thorough pre-planning, effectiveness of locally creating and designing special tools to reduce worker dose, and methods of successfully accomplishing source receipt evolutions during extreme or inclement weather

  17. A comparison of different database technologies for the CMS AsyncStageOut transfer database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciangottini, D.; Balcas, J.; Mascheroni, M.; Rupeika, E. A.; Vaandering, E.; Riahi, H.; Silva, J. M. D.; Hernandez, J. M.; Belforte, S.; Ivanov, T. T.

    2017-10-01

    AsyncStageOut (ASO) is the component of the CMS distributed data analysis system (CRAB) that manages users transfers in a centrally controlled way using the File Transfer System (FTS3) at CERN. It addresses a major weakness of the previous, decentralized model, namely that the transfer of the user’s output data to a single remote site was part of the job execution, resulting in inefficient use of job slots and an unacceptable failure rate. Currently ASO manages up to 600k files of various sizes per day from more than 500 users per month, spread over more than 100 sites. ASO uses a NoSQL database (CouchDB) as internal bookkeeping and as way to communicate with other CRAB components. Since ASO/CRAB were put in production in 2014, the number of transfers constantly increased up to a point where the pressure to the central CouchDB instance became critical, creating new challenges for the system scalability, performance, and monitoring. This forced a re-engineering of the ASO application to increase its scalability and lowering its operational effort. In this contribution we present a comparison of the performance of the current NoSQL implementation and a new SQL implementation, and how their different strengths and features influenced the design choices and operational experience. We also discuss other architectural changes introduced in the system to handle the increasing load and latency in delivering output to the user.

  18. Big Data Smart Socket (BDSS): a system that abstracts data transfer habits from end users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Nicholas A; Feltus, Frank A

    2017-02-15

    The ability to centralize and store data for long periods on an end user's computational resources is increasingly difficult for many scientific disciplines. For example, genomics data is increasingly large and distributed, and the data needs to be moved into workflow execution sites ranging from lab workstations to the cloud. However, the typical user is not always informed on emerging network technology or the most efficient methods to move and share data. Thus, the user defaults to using inefficient methods for transfer across the commercial internet. To accelerate large data transfer, we created a tool called the Big Data Smart Socket (BDSS) that abstracts data transfer methodology from the user. The user provides BDSS with a manifest of datasets stored in a remote storage repository. BDSS then queries a metadata repository for curated data transfer mechanisms and optimal path to move each of the files in the manifest to the site of workflow execution. BDSS functions as a standalone tool or can be directly integrated into a computational workflow such as provided by the Galaxy Project. To demonstrate applicability, we use BDSS within a biological context, although it is applicable to any scientific domain. BDSS is available under version 2 of the GNU General Public License at https://github.com/feltus/BDSS . ffeltus@clemson.edu. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. The influence of compressibility on nonlinear spectral energy transfer - Part 1: Fundamental mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praturi, Divya Sri; Girimaji, Sharath

    2017-11-01

    Nonlinear spectral energy transfer by triadic interactions is one of the foundational processes in fluid turbulence. Much of our current knowledge of this process is contingent upon pressure being a Lagrange multiplier with the only function of re-orienting the velocity wave vector. In this study, we examine how the nonlinear spectral transfer is affected in compressible turbulence when pressure is a true thermodynamic variable with a wave character. We perform direct numerical simulations of multi-mode evolution at different turbulent Mach numbers of Mt = 0.03 , 0.6 . Simulations are performed with initial modes that are fully solenoidal, fully dilatational and mixed solenoidal-dilatational. It is shown that solenoidal-solenoidal interactions behave in canonical manner at all Mach numbers. However, dilatational and mixed mode interactions are profoundly different. This is due to the fact that wave-pressure leads to kinetic-internal energy exchange via the pressure-dilatation mechanism. An important consequence of this exchange is that the triple correlation term, responsible for spectral transfer, experiences non-monotonic behavior resulting in inefficient energy transfer to other modes.

  20. A Comparison of Different Database Technologies for the CMS AsyncStageOut Transfer Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciangottini, D. [INFN, Perugia; Balcas, J. [Caltech; Mascheroni, M. [Fermilab; Rupeika, E. A. [Vilnius U.; Vaandering, E. [Fermilab; Riahi, H. [CERN; Silva, J. M.D. [Sao Paulo, IFT; Hernandez, J. M. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Belforte, S. [INFN, Trieste; Ivanov, T. T. [Sofiya U.

    2017-11-22

    AsyncStageOut (ASO) is the component of the CMS distributed data analysis system (CRAB) that manages users transfers in a centrally controlled way using the File Transfer System (FTS3) at CERN. It addresses a major weakness of the previous, decentralized model, namely that the transfer of the user’s output data to a single remote site was part of the job execution, resulting in inefficient use of job slots and an unacceptable failure rate. Currently ASO manages up to 600k files of various sizes per day from more than 500 users per month, spread over more than 100 sites. ASO uses a NoSQL database (CouchDB) as internal bookkeeping and as way to communicate with other CRAB components. Since ASO/CRAB were put in production in 2014, the number of transfers constantly increased up to a point where the pressure to the central CouchDB instance became critical, creating new challenges for the system scalability, performance, and monitoring. This forced a re-engineering of the ASO application to increase its scalability and lowering its operational effort. In this contribution we present a comparison of the performance of the current NoSQL implementation and a new SQL implementation, and how their different strengths and features influenced the design choices and operational experience. We also discuss other architectural changes introduced in the system to handle the increasing load and latency in delivering output to the user.

  1. Particle Transfer from Magnetic Plugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Mervin

    1998-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to review the debris transfer from the magnetic plug and suggest procedures to reduce the operator effort, increase the efficiency of the debris transfer and to improve...

  2. What Is Technology Transfer? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between NIH research laboratories and external partners. With a team of technology transfer specialists, NCI TTC guides interactions from discovery to patenting, as well as from collaboration and invention development to licensing.

  3. Technology transfer in CANDU marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The author discusses how the CANDU system lends itself to technology transfer, the scope of CANDU technology transfer, and the benefits and problems associated with technology transfer. The establishment of joint ventures between supplier and client nations offers benefits to both parties. Canada can offer varying technology transfer packages, each tailored to a client nation's needs and capabilities. Such a package could include all the hardware and software necessary to develop a self-sufficient nuclear infrastructure in the client nation

  4. Generalized reflood heat transfer correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsuj-Chieh Yeh; Dodge, C.E.; Hochreiter, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    A reflood heat transfer correlation has been developed from the FLECHT reflood data for different axial power shapes and arbitrary variable flooding rate conditions. This correlation consists of a separate quench correlation and a heat transfer coefficient correlation. The reflood correlation predicts both the quench front, location and the heat transfer coefficient above the quench front.. The reflood heat transfer correlation prediction is in good agreement with both the cosine and the skewed axial power shape FLECHT reflooding data. (author)

  5. Technology transfer of Cornell university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Wan Sik

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces technology transfer of Cornell university which deals with introduction of Cornell university, composition of organization and practice of technology transfer : a research contract, research perform, invention report, evaluation and succession of invention, a patent application and management, marketing, negotiation and writing contract, management of contract, compensation, result of technology transfer, cases of success on technical commercialization and daily life of technology transfer center.

  6. Large molten pool heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This workshop on large molten pool heat transfer is composed of 5 sessions which titles are: feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling; experiments on molten pool heat transfer; calculational efforts on molten pool convection; heat transfer to the surrounding water, experimental techniques; future experiments and ex-vessel studies (RASPLAV, TOLBIAC, BALI, SULTAN, CORVIS, VULCANO, CORINE programs)

  7. The laser elevator - Momentum transfer using an optical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Mckenna, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    In a conventional laser lightsail system the payload is propelled by the momentum imparted to it by the reflection of a laser beam without the use of any propellant. Because of the unfavorable relationship between energy and momentum in a light beam, these systems are very inefficient. The efficiency can be greatly improved, in principle, if the photons that impact the payload mirror are returned to the source and then redirected back toward the payload again. This system, which recirculates the laser beam, is defined as the 'laser elevator'. The gain of the laser elevator over conventional lightsails depends on the number of times the beam is recycled which is limited by the reflectance of the mirrors used, any losses in the transmission of the beam, and diffraction. Due to the increase pathlength of the folded beam, diffraction losses occur at smaller separations of the payload and the source mirror than for conventional lightsail system. The laser elevator has potential applications in launching to low earth orbit, orbital transfer, and rapid interplanetary delivery of small payloads.

  8. Resource Transfers to the Elderly: Do Adult Children Substitute Financial Transfers for Time Transfers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zissimopoulos, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Using the Health and Retirement Study, this research investigates whether an adult child substitutes financial transfers to an elderly parent for time transfers as the cost of his or her time increases...

  9. TRIUMF: Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In our occasional series highlighting the increasingly important area of technology transfer and industrial spinoff from high energy physics, this month the CERN Courier focuses on TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada's major national facility for research in subatomic physics, a particularly illustrative example of the rewards and challenges involved. TRIUMF is based on a 520 MeV negative hydrogen ion cyclotron meson factory operated by a consortium of Canadian universities. Although the primary funding from the Canadian government is earmarked for support of basic research, the laboratory has always fostered applications of the technologies available, supporting them with funds from other sources. At first this ''applied programme'' involved simply the provision of particle beams for other scientific, medical and industrial uses - protons for the development of neutrondeficient radioisotopes, neutrons for activation analysis, pions for cancer therapy, and muons for chemistry and condensed-matter physics. Twenty five years on, the technology transfer process has resulted not only in a significantly expanded internal applied programme, with many areas of activity quite independent of the big cyclotron, but also in a number of successful commercial operations in the Vancouver area. Radioisotope production has been a particularly fruitful source for technology transfer, the early development work leading to two important initiatives - the establishment of a commercial radioisotope production facility on site and the inauguration of a positron emission tomography (PET) program at the University of British Columbia nearby. In 1979 Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd's isotope production division (now Nordion International Inc.) decided to establish a western Canadian facility at TRIUMF, to produce the increasingly important neutron-deficient radioisotopes obtainable with accelerator beams, primarily for medical applications. This would complement their

  10. 543 DETERMINANTS OF TECHNICAL INEFFICIENCY AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-08-19

    Aug 19, 2013 ... intensification and market access. Policy that would promote adoption of hybrid seeds and other inputs as well as facilitate the development of infrastructures such as roads and market facilities among farming households are .... mixtures are sole maize, maize-okro mix and maize-okro-tomatoes mix.

  11. Understanding Inefficiencies in Data-Intensive Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    and not the entire software stack, measured values of I/O bandwidths are used as inputs to the model. An ideal run is “hardware-efficient,” if the...appropriate parameter values depend on what is being evaluated. If we are evaluating the efficiency of an entire software stack, from the OS up, then using...Dusseau, Fail- Stutter Fault Tolerance, 8th Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HotOS VIII), 2001, pp. 33–38. [9] Randal E. Bryant, Data

  12. Idling - cruising the fuel inefficiency highway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Levinson, T. (Energy Systems); (DOE)

    2011-06-30

    What is the purpose of idling? The scale of idling can be small, as when parents idle their vehicles while waiting for their children outside of school, or it can be large, as when ocean liners are in port. In many cases, the primary purpose for idling is to control the temperature of a passenger or freight compartment. Large line-haul trucks idle overnight to keep fuel and the engine warm, for the resting driver's comfort, to mask out noises and smells, and for safety. In addition, all classes of trucks idle during the workday at ports and terminals, busy delivery sites, border crossings, and other work sites. They may be idling to enable slow movement in a queue (creep idling) or to provide other services. Bus drivers also idle their vehicles while they wait for passengers and to warm up in the morning. Even locomotive engines are idled so they start, for hotel load, to keep the battery charged, to keep the toilet water from freezing, and for air brakes, or because the operator idles out of habit. Although this document focuses on long-haul trucks, much of the information applies to other vehicles as well. The impacts of idling are substantial, with as much as 6 billion gallons of fuel burned unnecessarily each year in the United States at a cost of over $20 billion. The extra hours of engine operation also cost the owners money for more frequent maintenance and overhauls. In addition, idling vehicles emit particulates (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). These emissions, along with noise from idling vehicles, have led to many local and state restrictions on idling. Two main factors have combined to create a surge of interest in idling reduction (IR): (1) Increasing restrictions on idling for heavy vehicles and (2) The price of diesel fuel. Because stakeholders focus their efforts on improving different factors (air quality, fuel economy, noise level), they do not necessarily agree on the most advantageous technological alternatives to implement. In addition, although many equipment manufacturers have tried to educate customers and government agencies, they often provide conflicting claims about the comparative merits of different devices. This makes it difficult for truck owners to choose the right equipment for their needs. In this study, we present the first comparison of IR technologies with each other and with idling on the basis of both costs and full fuel-cycle emissions, for different locations, fuel prices, and idling patterns. The preferences described are for the technologies that reduce total emissions the most and cost truck owners the least. We also discuss how regulatory issues and legislation affect IR, what financial incentives help to promote IR, and how outreach and education approaches can be adopted to reduce the need to idle. Finally, we offer a prediction of how future research and development (R&D), regulations, and citizen involvement can help to improve fuel economy and clean the air.

  13. Investigating wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Stuart A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a simple set of equipment to both demonstrate and investigate this phenomenon. It presents some initial findings and aims to encourage Physics educators and their students to conduct further research, pushing the bounds of their understanding.

  14. Technology transfer and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, Graham; Thornton, Anna

    1987-01-01

    The aims of the conference were advice, assistance and action for all those with technology to licence or inventions to patent, and for people seeking financial help and advice. There was a free exchange of ideas and information. Of the forty or so papers collected together, many are concerned with the financial aspects of new ventures, others look at technology transfer from academic institutes and schemes which support technological problems. One paper on fast reactor collaboration in Europe, is indexed separately. (U.K.)

  15. ENERGY-TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonemann, P.C.; Cowhig, W.T.; Davenport, P.A.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to the transfer of energy in a traveling electromagnetic wave to direct-current electrical energy in a gaseous medium. The traveling wave is generated by means of a radio-frequency oscillator connected across a capacitance-loaded helix wound around a sealed tube enclosing the gaseous medium. The traveling wave causes the electrons within the medium to drift towards one end of the tube. The direct current appearing across electrodes placed at each end of the tube is then used by some electrical means. (AEC)

  16. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  17. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  18. Transferring heat during a bounce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Samira; Bird, James

    2015-11-01

    When a hot liquid drop impacts a cold non-wetting surface, the temperature difference drives heat transfer. If the drop leaves the surface before reaching thermal equilibrium, the amount of heat transfer may depend on the contact time. Past studies exploring finite-time heat exchange with droplets focus on the Leidenfrost condition where heat transfer is regulated by a thin layer of vapor. Here, we present systematic experiments to measure the heat transferred by a bouncing droplet in non-Leidenfrost conditions. We propose a physical model of this heat transfer and compare our model to the experiments.

  19. Nanoimprint-Transfer-Patterned Solids Enhance Light Absorption in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon

    2017-03-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) materials are of interest in thin-film solar cells due to their size-tunable bandgap and low-cost solution-processing. However, CQD solar cells suffer from inefficient charge extraction over the film thicknesses required for complete absorption of solar light. Here we show a new strategy to enhance light absorption in CQD solar cells by nanostructuring the CQD film itself at the back interface. We use two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations to study quantitatively the light absorption enhancement in nanostructured back interfaces in CQD solar cells. We implement this experimentally by demonstrating a nanoimprint-transfer-patterning (NTP) process for the fabrication of nanostructured CQD solids with highly ordered patterns. We show that this approach enables a boost in the power conversion efficiency in CQD solar cells primarily due to an increase in short-circuit current density as a result of enhanced absorption through light-trapping.

  20. Transfer Learning beyond Text Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang

    Transfer learning is a new machine learning and data mining framework that allows the training and test data to come from different distributions or feature spaces. We can find many novel applications of machine learning and data mining where transfer learning is necessary. While much has been done in transfer learning in text classification and reinforcement learning, there has been a lack of documented success stories of novel applications of transfer learning in other areas. In this invited article, I will argue that transfer learning is in fact quite ubiquitous in many real world applications. In this article, I will illustrate this point through an overview of a broad spectrum of applications of transfer learning that range from collaborative filtering to sensor based location estimation and logical action model learning for AI planning. I will also discuss some potential future directions of transfer learning.

  1. Mobilisation du financement privé aux fins de l'adaptation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Private Financing Advisory Network (PFAN) de la Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) réalisera la recherche en collaboration avec la Frankfurt Business School et le réseau actuel du PFAN de la CTI dans les pays d'Afrique subsaharienne ciblés. Les équipes ... International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer.

  2. Creation of a market of transferable permits for the purpose of the reduction of greenhouse gases in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During production and consumption of goods, economic entities emit gases into the atmosphere that create a greenhouse effect, which is harmful to the environment. The result is inefficiency, and for its elimination state intervention is a necessity. One of the ways in which a country can achieve the reduction of Greenhouse gasses emissions is through the introduction of a system of transferable permits. A disadvantage of this system is the difficulty to determine the optimal level at which the limit is set for the total amount of allowable emissions. However, within a level that is determined, it is possible to achieve efficient allocation of rights to pollute.

  3. High in vitro development after somatic cell nuclear transfer and trichostatin A treatment of reconstructed porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J.; Østrup, Olga; Villemoes, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal epigenetic modification is supposed to be one of factors accounting for inefficient reprogramming of the donor cell nuclei in ooplasm after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Trichostatin A (TSA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, potentially enhancing cloning efficiency. The aim...... of our present study was to establish the optimal TSA treatment in order to improve the development of handmade cloned (HMC) porcine embryos and examine the effect of TSA on their development. The blastocyst percentage of HMC embryos treated with 37.5 nM TSA for 22-24 h after activation increased up...

  4. Technology transfer at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.

    1994-06-01

    TRIUMF is Canada's major national research centre for sub-atomic physics. For the past five or six years, there has been an increasing emphasis on commercializing the technology that has emanated from the scientific research at the facility. This emphasis on technology transfer reflects a national policy trend of the Canadian federal government, which is the funding source for the majority of the research performed at TRIUMF. In TRIUMF's case, however, the initiative and funding for the commercialization office came from the provincial, or local government. This paper will describe the evolution of technology transfer at the TRIUMF facility, identifying the theory, policies and practical procedures that have been developed and followed. It will also include TRIUMF's experiences in finding exploitable technologies, protecting those technologies, and locating and linking with suitable industry partners to commercialize the technologies. There will be a discussion of resource allocation, and how TRIUMF has endeavoured to establish a portfolio of projects of assorted risks and expected returns. (author). 15 refs

  5. Inferring horizontal gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Ravenhall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric" methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic" approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events.

  6. aerodynamics and heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Rajadas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary optimization procedure, with the integration of aerodynamic and heat transfer criteria, has been developed for the design of gas turbine blades. Two different optimization formulations have been used. In the first formulation, the maximum temperature in the blade section is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint is imposed on the blade average temperature and a lower bound constraint is imposed on the blade tangential force coefficient. In the second formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. In both formulations, bounds are imposed on the velocity gradients at several points along the surface of the airfoil to eliminate leading edge velocity spikes which deteriorate aerodynamic performance. Shape optimization is performed using the blade external and coolant path geometric parameters as design variables. Aerodynamic analysis is performed using a panel code. Heat transfer analysis is performed using the finite element method. A gradient based procedure in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique is used for optimization. The results obtained using both optimization techniques are compared with a reference geometry. Both techniques yield significant improvements with the multiobjective formulation resulting in slightly superior design.

  7. High performance data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R.; Fang, C.; Hanushevsky, A.; Kreuger, W.; Yang, W.

    2017-10-01

    The exponentially increasing need for high speed data transfer is driven by big data, and cloud computing together with the needs of data intensive science, High Performance Computing (HPC), defense, the oil and gas industry etc. We report on the Zettar ZX software. This has been developed since 2013 to meet these growing needs by providing high performance data transfer and encryption in a scalable, balanced, easy to deploy and use way while minimizing power and space utilization. In collaboration with several commercial vendors, Proofs of Concept (PoC) consisting of clusters have been put together using off-the- shelf components to test the ZX scalability and ability to balance services using multiple cores, and links. The PoCs are based on SSD flash storage that is managed by a parallel file system. Each cluster occupies 4 rack units. Using the PoCs, between clusters we have achieved almost 200Gbps memory to memory over two 100Gbps links, and 70Gbps parallel file to parallel file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  8. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  9. International nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, P.; Rocchio, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Light water reactors (LWRs), originally developed in the United States, became the nuclear workhorses for utilities in Europe and Japan largely because the U.S. industry was willing and able to transfer its nuclear know-how abroad. In this international effort, the industry had the encouragement and support of the U.S. governement. In the case of the boiling water reactor (BWR) the program for technology transfer was developed in response to overseas customer demands for support in building local designs and manufacturing capabilities. The principal vehicles have been technology exchange agreements through which complete engineering and manufacturing information is furnished covering BWR systems and fuel. Agreements are held with companies in Germany, Japan, Italy, and Sweden. In recent years, a comprehensive program of joint technology development with overseas manufacturers has begun. The rapidly escalating cost of nuclear research and development make it desirable to minimize duplication of effort. These joint programs provide a mechanism for two or more parties jointly to plan a development program, assign work tasks among themselves, and exchange test results. Despite a slower-than-hoped-for start, nuclear power today is playing a significant role in the economic growth of some developing countries, and can continue to do so. Roughly half of the 23 free world nations that have adopted LWRs are developing countries

  10. Melanoregulin regulates a shedding mechanism that drives melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xufeng S; Masedunskas, Andreas; Weigert, Roberto; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A; Hammer, John A

    2012-07-31

    Mammalian pigmentation is driven by the intercellular transfer of pigment-containing melanosomes from the tips of melanocyte dendrites to surrounding keratinocytes. Tip accumulation of melanosomes requires myosin Va, because melanosomes concentrate in the center of melanocytes from myosin Va-null (dilute) mice. This distribution defect results in inefficient melanosome transfer and a dilution of coat color. Dilute mice that simultaneously lack melanoregulin, the product of the dilute suppressor locus, exhibit a nearly complete restoration of coat color, but, surprisingly, melanosomes remain concentrated in the center of their melanocytes. Here we show that dilute/dsu melanocytes, but not dilute melanocytes, readily transfer the melanosomes concentrated in their center to surrounding keratinocytes in situ. Using time-lapse imaging of WT melanocyte/keratinocyte cocultures in which the plasma membranes of the two cells are marked with different colors, we define an intercellular melanosome transfer pathway that involves the shedding by the melanocyte of melanosome-rich packages, which subsequently are phagocytosed by the keratinocyte. Shedding, which occurs primarily at dendritic tips but also from more central regions, involves adhesion to the keratinocyte, thinning behind the forming package, and apparent self-abscission. Finally, we show that shedding from the cell center is sixfold more frequent in cultured dilute/dsu melanocytes than in dilute melanocytes, consistent with the in situ data. Together, these results explain how dsu restores the coat color of dilute mice without restoring intracellular melanosome distribution, indicate that melanoregulin is a negative regulator of melanosome transfer, and provide insight into the mechanism of intercellular melanosome transfer.

  11. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  12. Olympic torch transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    KSC Shuttle Operations Manager Loren J. Shriver (right) transfers the Olympic flame to KSC runner Joanne Maceo's torch at the top of Launch Pad 39A after he carried the Olympic torch to the top of the pad as his contribution to the July 7, 1996 KSC Olympic torch relay effort. Jon Granston of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games (center) witnesses the exchange. Maceo then carried her lit torch down the concrete hard stand of the pad to pass the flame to another of the 20-member KSC runner team that participated in the KSC relay effort. The Olympic torch arrived at KSC at 1:40 p.m. and traveled a 20-mile course to the pad and then out to the KSC visitor Center. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is behind the trio, poised for the STS-79 mission, with will feature the fourth docking of the shuttle with the Russian Mir space station.

  13. Technology transfer 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.

  14. Managerial technology transfer

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Organisations need to think globally, but act locally - with a full appreciation of the diversity of local cultures. Major global companies must recognise that policies need to be managed with the broad context of business strategy and integrated into the work culture with the support of all elements of human resources management. Most currently, companies are accommodating national cultural differences while preserving work culture principals that encourage people to effectively execute the company's strategic objectives. Even to the casual observer, it is apparent that culture- a society's programming of the mind- has both a pervasive and changing influence on each national business environment. Global managers must recognise the influence of culture and be prepared to either respond to it or change it. This book examines current research in the study of managerial technology transfer.

  15. Technology-transfer workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    A workshop was held to generate a better understanding of the many diverse factors and steps involved in the technology transfer process. The introductory presentations reviewed relevant theories, addressed the importance of planning for the process, and presented possible organizational structures to help promote the process. Specific cases were used to expose the participants to a variety of situations that were relevant to EPRI. These sessions served as a common starting point for small group discussions that were eventually combined into a list of recommendations for future action by EPRI (and should be useful for others as well). Some of the key conclusions reached are: it is important to identify incentives; the process is more effective if it is personalized; planning cannot start too early; recipes can be developed for customizing to specific situations; and both transmitter and receptor must recognize and fulfill their roles

  16. Elements of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2012-01-01

    1 Basic Concepts and Definitions1.1 Introduction1.1.1 Driving Potential1.2 Dimensions and Units1.2.1 Dimensional Homogeneity1.3 Closed and Open Systems1.3.1 Closed System (ControlMass)1.3.2 Isolated System1.3.3 Open System (ControlVolume)1.4 Forms of Energy1.4.1 Internal Energy1.5 Properties of a System1.5.1 Intensive and Extensive Properties1.6 State and Equilibrium1.7 Thermal and Calorical Properties1.7.1 Specific Heat of an Incompressible Substance1.7.2 Thermally Perfect Gas 1.8 The Perfect Gas1.9 Summary1.10 Exercise ProblemsConduction Heat Transfer2.1 Introduction2.2 Conduction Heat Trans

  17. Technology transfer packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizon, G.A.; Bleasdale, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is firmly established in many developed countries'energy policies and is being adopted by emerging nations as an attractive way of gaining energy self sufficiency. The early users of nuclear power had to develop the technology that they needed, which now, through increasing world wide experience, has been rationalised to meet demanding economic and environmental pressures. These justifiable pressures, can lead to existing suppliers of nuclear services to consider changing to more appropriate technologies and for new suppliers to consider licensing proven technology rather then incurring the cost of developing new alternatives. The transfer of technology, under license, is made more straight forward if the owner conveniently groups appropriate technology into packages. This paper gives examples of 'Technology Packages' and suggests criteria for the specification, selection and contractual requirements to ensure successful licensing

  18. LRAT: Lightning Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanord, Dieudonne D.

    1993-01-01

    In this report, we extend to cloud physics the work done for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves. We consider the scattering of light, visible or infrared, by a spherical cloud represented by a statistically homogeneous ensemble of configurations of N identical spherical water droplets whose centers are uniformly distributed in its volume V. The ensemble is specified by the average number rho of scatterers in unit volume and by rho f(R) with f(R) as the distribution function for separations R of pairs. The incident light, vector-phi(sub 0) a plane electromagnetic wave with harmonic time dependence, is from outside the cloud. The propagation parameter kappa(sub 0) and the index of refraction eta(sub 0) determine physically the medium outside the distribution of scatterers. We solve the interior problem separately to obtain the bulk parameters for the scatterer equivalent to the ensemble of spherical droplets. With the interior solution or the equivalent medium approach, the multiple scattering problem is reduced to that of an equivalent single scatterer excited from outside illumination. A dispersion relation which determines the bulk propagation parameter K and the bulk index of refraction eta of the cloud is given in terms of the vector equivalent scattering amplitude vector-G and the dyadic scattering amplitude tilde-g of the single object in isolation. Based on this transfer model we will have the ability to consider clouds composed of inhomogeneous distribution of water and/or ice particles and we will be able to take into account particle size distributions within the cloud. We will also be able to study the effects of cloud composition (i.e., particle shape, size, composition, orientation, location) on the polarization of the single or the multiple scattered waves. Finally, this study will provide a new starting point for studying the problem of lightning radiative transfer.

  19. Transfer of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuckovich, M.; Burkett, J. P.; Sallustio, J.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor are transferred during fueling or refueling or the like by a crane. The work-engaging fixture of the crane picks up an assembly, removes it from this slot, transfers it to the deposit site and deposits it in its slot at the deposit site. The control for the crane includes a strain gauge connected to the crane line which raises and lowers the load. The strain gauge senses the load on the crane. The signal from the strain gauge is compared with setpoints; a high-level setpoint, a low-level setpoint and a slack-line setpoint. If the strain gauge signal exceeds the high-level setpoint, the line drive is disabled. This event may occur during raising of a fuel assembly which encounters resistance. The high-level setpoint may be overridden under proper precautions. The line drive is also disabled if the strain gauge signal is less than the low-level setpoint. This event occurs when a fuel assembly being deposited contacts the bottom of its slot or an obstruction in, or at the entry to the slot. To preclude lateral movement and possible damage to a fuel assembly suspended from the crane line, the traverse drive of the crane is disabled once the strain-gauge exceets the lov-level setpoint. The traverse drive can only be enabled after the strain-gauge signal is less than the slack-line set-point. This occurs when the lines has been set in slack-line setting. When the line is tensioned after slack-li ne setting, the traverse drive remains enabled only if the line has been disconnected from the fuel assembly

  20. Dual Space Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.

    2009-03-01

    Over the past fifteen years, MER has had several NASA SBIR Phase II programs in the area of space technology, based upon carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. In addition, in November 2004, leading edges supplied by MER provided the enabling technology to reach a Mach 10 record for an air breathing engine on the X-43 A flight. The MER business model constitutes a spin-off of technologies initially by incubating in house, and ultimately creating spin-off stand alone companies. FMC was formed to provide for technology transfer in the area of fabrication of C-C composites. FMC has acquired ISO 9000 and AS9100 quality certifications. FMC is fabricating under AS9100 certification, flight parts for several flight programs. In addition, FMC is expanding the application of carbon-carbon composites to several critical military programs. In addition to space technology transfer to critical military programs, FMC is becoming the world leader in the commercial area of low-cost C-C composites for furnace fixtures. Market penetrations have been accomplished in North America, Europe and Asia. Low-cost, quick turn-around and excellent quality of FMC products paves the way to greatly increased sales. In addition, FMC is actively pursuing a joint venture with a new partner, near closure, to become the leading supplier of high temperature carbon based composites. In addition, several other spin-off companies such as TMC, FiC, Li-Tech and NMIC were formed by MER with a plethora of potential space applications.

  1. Technology transfer from nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A number of processes, components and instruments developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, (BARC), Bombay, find application in industry and are available for transfer to private or public sector undertakings for commercial exploitation. The Technology Transfer Group (TTG) constituted in January 1980 identifies such processes and prototypes which can be made available for transfer. This catalogue contains brief descriptions of such technologies and they are arranged under three groups, namely, Group A containing descriptions of technologies already transferred, Group B containing descriptions of technologies ready for transfer and Group C containing descriptions of technology transfer proposals being processed. The position in the above-mentioned groups is as on 1 March 1989. The BARC has also set up a Technology Corner where laboratory models and prototypes of instruments, equipment and components are displayed. These are described in the second part of the catalogue. (M.G.B.)

  2. Energy transfer properties and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since no single experimental technique is the best method for energy transfer experiments, we have used both time-dependent infrared fluorescence (IRF) and time-dependent thermal lensing (TDTL) to study energy transfer in various systems. We are investigating pump-probe techniques employing resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). IRF was used to study benzene, azulene, and toluene. TDTL was used to study CS 2 and SO 2 (data not given for latter). Large molecule energy transfer mechanisms are discussed. 10 figs

  3. Altruism and the Transfer Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Kojun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether altruism causes the transfer paradox in the model with two countries and two goods when the consumers of the donor and recipient countries have altruistic utility. We demonstrate that if the Walrasian stability condition is satisfied in the general equilibrium, the transfer paradox can never take place irrespective of the definition of utility. The result suggests that the motivation for transfer cannot beexplained by the donor's enrichment because it is not caused...

  4. Prospects for Money Transfer Models

    OpenAIRE

    Yougui Wang; Ning Ding; Ning Xi

    2005-01-01

    Recently, in order to explore the mechanism behind wealth or income distribution, several models have been proposed by applying principles of statistical mechanics. These models share some characteristics, such as consisting of a group of individual agents, a pile of money and a specific trading rule. Whatever the trading rule is, the most noteworthy fact is that money is always transferred from one agent to another in the transferring process. So we call them money transfer models. Besides e...

  5. On the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer in dense molecular environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benten, Rebekka S. von [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet Goettingen, Tammannstrasse 6, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Abel, Bernd, E-mail: Bernd.Abel@uni-lepzig.de [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Leipzig, Linne-Strasse 2, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-12-09

    Graphical abstract: Mechanisms of IVR in multi-tiers of intramolecular energy levels in different molecular environments are investigated. - Abstract: Transient femtosecond-IR-pump-UV-absorption probe-spectroscopy has been employed to shed light on the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer (IVR) in dense molecular environments ranging from the diluted gas phase to the liquid. A general feature in our experiments and those of others is that IVR proceeds via multiple timescales if overtones or combination vibrations of high frequency modes are excited. It has been found that collisions enhance IVR if its (slower) timescales can compete with collisions. This enhancement is, however, much more weaker and rather inefficient as opposed to the effect of collisions on intermolecular energy transfer which is well known. In a series of experiments we found that IVR depends not significantly on the average energy transferred in a collision but rather on the number of collisions. The collisions are much less efficient in affecting IVR than VET. We conclude that collision induced broadening of vibrational energy levels reduces the energy gaps and enhances existing couplings between tiers. The present results are an important step forward to rationalize and understand apparently different and not consistent results from different groups on different molecular systems between gas and liquid phases.

  6. Overcoming the Cut-Off Charge Transfer Bandgaps at the PbS Quantum Dot Interface

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala'a O.

    2015-11-17

    Light harvesting from large size of semiconductor PbS quantum dots (QDs) with a bandgap of less than 1 eV is one of the greatest challenges precluding the development of PbS QD-based solar cells because the interfacial charge transfer (CT) from such QDs to the most commonly used electron acceptor materials is very inefficient, if it occurs at all. Thus, an alternative electron-accepting unit with a new driving force for CT is urgently needed to harvest the light from large-sized PbS QDs. Here, a cationic porphyrin is utilized as a new electron acceptor unit with unique features that bring the donor–acceptor components into close molecular proximity, allowing ultrafast and efficient electron transfer for QDs of all sizes, as inferred from the drastic photoluminescence quenching and the ultrafast formation of the porphyrin anionic species. The time-resolved results clearly demonstrate the possibility of modulating the electron transfer process between PbS QDs and porphyrin moieties not only by the size quantization effect but also by the interfacial electrostatic interaction between the positively charged porphyrin and the negatively charged QDs. This approach provides a new pathway for engineering QD-based solar cells that make the best use of the diverse photons making up the Sun\\'s broad irradiance spectrum.

  7. A statewide teleradiology system reduces radiation exposure and charges in transferred trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Justin J J; Moren, Alexis; Diggs, Brian; Houser, Ben; Eastes, Lynn; Brand, Dawn; Bilyeu, Pamela; Schreiber, Martin; Kiraly, Laszlo

    2016-05-01

    Trauma transfer patients routinely undergo repeat imaging because of inefficiencies within the radiology system. In 2009, the virtual private network (VPN) telemedicine system was adopted throughout Oregon allowing virtual image transfer between hospitals. The startup cost was a nominal $3,000 per hospital. A retrospective review from 2007 to 2012 included 400 randomly selected adult trauma transfer patients based on a power analysis (200 pre/200 post). The primary outcome evaluated was reduction in repeat computed tomography (CT) scans. Secondary outcomes included cost savings, emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), and spared radiation. All data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. P less than .05 indicated significance. Spared radiation was calculated as a weighted average per body region, and savings was calculated using charges obtained from Oregon Health and Science University radiology current procedural terminology codes. Four-hundred patients were included. Injury Severity Score, age, ED and overall LOS, mortality, trauma type, and gender were not statistically different between groups. The percentage of patients with repeat CT scans decreased after VPN implementation: CT abdomen (13.2% vs 2.8%, P exposure, and decreased LOS in the ED for patients with less complex injuries. The potential for health care savings by widespread adoption of a VPN is significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Utrecht Radiative Transfer Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Utrecht course ``The Generation and Transport of Radiation'' teaches basic radiative transfer to second-year students. It is a much-expanded version of the first chapter of Rybicki & Lightman's ``Radiative Processes in Astrophysics''. After this course, students understand why intensity is measured per steradian, have an Eddington-Barbier feel for optically thick line formation, and know that scattering upsets LTE. The text is a computer-aided translation by Ruth Peterson of my 1992 Dutch-language course. My aim is to rewrite this course in non-computer English and make it web-available at some time. In the meantime, copies of the Peterson translation are made yearly at Uppsala -- ask them, not me. Eventually it should become a textbook. The Utrecht course ``Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres'' is a 30-hour course for third-year students. It treats NLTE line formation in plane-parallel stellar atmospheres at a level intermediate between the books by Novotny and Boehm-Vitense, and Mihalas' ``Stellar Atmospheres''. After this course, students appreciate that epsilon is small, that radiation can heat or cool, and that computers have changed the field. This course is web-available since 1995 and is regularly improved -- but remains incomplete. Eventually it should become a textbook. The three Utrecht exercise sets ``Stellar Spectra A: Basic Line Formation'', ``Stellar Spectra B: LTE Line Formation'', and ``Stellar Spectra C: NLTE Line Formation'' are IDL-based computer exercises for first-year, second-year, and third-year students, respectively. They treat spectral classification, Saha-Boltzmann population statistics, the curve of growth, the FAL-C solar atmosphere model, the role of H-minus in the solar continuum, LTE formation of Fraunhofer lines, inversion tactics, the Feautrier method, classical lambda iteration, and ALI computation. The first two sets are web-available since 1998; the third will follow. Acknowledgement. Both courses owe much to previous

  9. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  10. DNA Sequences Proximal to Human Mitochondrial DNA Deletion Breakpoints Prevalent in Human Disease Form G-quadruplexes, a Class of DNA Structures Inefficiently Unwound by the Mitochondrial Replicative Twinkle Helicase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Sommers, Joshua A.; Zhou, Jun; Kaplan, Daniel L.; Spelbrink, Johannes N.; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Brosh, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA deletions are prominent in human genetic disorders, cancer, and aging. It is thought that stalling of the mitochondrial replication machinery during DNA synthesis is a prominent source of mitochondrial genome instability; however, the precise molecular determinants of defective mitochondrial replication are not well understood. In this work, we performed a computational analysis of the human mitochondrial genome using the “Pattern Finder” G-quadruplex (G4) predictor algorithm to assess whether G4-forming sequences reside in close proximity (within 20 base pairs) to known mitochondrial DNA deletion breakpoints. We then used this information to map G4P sequences with deletions characteristic of representative mitochondrial genetic disorders and also those identified in various cancers and aging. Circular dichroism and UV spectral analysis demonstrated that mitochondrial G-rich sequences near deletion breakpoints prevalent in human disease form G-quadruplex DNA structures. A biochemical analysis of purified recombinant human Twinkle protein (gene product of c10orf2) showed that the mitochondrial replicative helicase inefficiently unwinds well characterized intermolecular and intramolecular G-quadruplex DNA substrates, as well as a unimolecular G4 substrate derived from a mitochondrial sequence that nests a deletion breakpoint described in human renal cell carcinoma. Although G4 has been implicated in the initiation of mitochondrial DNA replication, our current findings suggest that mitochondrial G-quadruplexes are also likely to be a source of instability for the mitochondrial genome by perturbing the normal progression of the mitochondrial replication machinery, including DNA unwinding by Twinkle helicase. PMID:25193669

  11. Fuel pin transfer tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randazza, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel pin transfer tool has a tubular housing of sufficient length to enable it to be suspended in a body of water in which a fuel pin assembly is submerged with the upper end of the housing above the water and with the tool in vertical alignment with a selected fuel pin from which the lower end of the tool is closely spaced. The housing has a cylinder spaced from its ends in which there is a piston having a tubular piston rod extending slidably through both ends of the cylinder. An actuator, the control for which has first and second positions, is fixed on the upper end of the piston rod and has a member extending freely downwardly therethrough which on short downward travel, resulting when the control is in its second position, effects the pin-releasing position of a latching device secured to the lower end of the piston rod. The pin-releasing position is held until the control is returned to its first position with the latching device held in its pin-gripping position until the control is again in its second position. When the piston is in its low position and the control is in its second position, the selected pin may then be gripped by the latching device when the control is in its first position

  12. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    -part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area. In a synergistic add-on to our workplan, we analyzed data from field experiments performed at the DOE Naturita Site under a separate DOE SBR grant, on which PI Day-Lewis served as co-PI. Techniques developed for application to Hanford datasets also were applied to data from Naturita. 1. Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) faces enormous scientific and engineering challenges associated with the remediation of legacy contamination at former nuclear weapons production facilities. Selection, design and optimization of appropriate site remedies (e.g., pump-and-treat, biostimulation, or monitored natural attenuation) requires reliable predictive models of radionuclide fate and transport; however, our current modeling capabilities are limited by an incomplete understanding of multi-scale mass transfer—its rates, scales, and the heterogeneity of controlling parameters. At many DOE sites, long “tailing” behavior, concentration rebound, and slower-than-expected cleanup are observed; these observations are all consistent with multi-scale mass transfer [Haggerty and Gorelick, 1995; Haggerty et al., 2000; 2004], which renders pump-and-treat remediation and biotransformation inefficient and slow [Haggerty and Gorelick, 1994; Harvey et al., 1994; Wilson, 1997]. Despite the importance of mass transfer, there are significant uncertainties associated with controlling parameters, and the prevalence of mass transfer remains a point of debate [e.g., Hill et al., 2006; Molz et al., 2006] for lack of experimental methods to verify and measure it in situ or independently of tracer breakthrough. There is a critical need for new field-experimental techniques to

  13. TASQC Quantum Key Transfer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-04

    Securely transferring timing information in the electrical grid is a critical component of securing the nation's infrastructure from cyber attacks. One solution to this problem is to use quantum information to securely transfer the timing information across sites. This software provides such an infrastructure using a standard Java webserver that pulls the quantum information from associated hardware.

  14. Strammere retningslinjer om transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2015-01-01

    Transfer pricing vedrører prisfastsættelsen på transaktioner, der foregår mellem koncernforbundne selskaber og er fortsat et tema, der nyder stort fokus hos både multinationale koncerner og skattemyndigheder. For den multinationale koncern er transfer pricing i høj grad en aktivitet, der består i...

  15. Intermanual transfer in prosthetic training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske

    2016-01-01

    The concept of intermanual transfer might be used to start prosthesis training faster after the amputation. Intermanual transfer means that after training motor skills on one side, the other side will also improve. For prosthesis training this means that, directly after the amputation, one starts to

  16. Transfer van opleiding naar werkplek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Om meer inzicht te krijgen in de transfer van opleiding naar werkplek heeft TNO een methode opgesteld. Deze is samen met de KL uitgeprobeerd. De methode geeft inzicht in hoe men omgaat met transfer of training en de wijze waarop dit kan worden geoptimaliseerd

  17. Transfer mellem uddannelse og arbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Rapporten sammenfatter eksisterende forskning om faktorer, der bidrager til transfer, altså faktorer som bidrager til, at det, vi lærer i undervisningen, efterfølgende anvendes i en arbejdssituation. Forskningsoversigten præsenterer emririsk funderede resultater om, hvad vi ved om transfer. Den t...

  18. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Dieguez Arias, D; Campana, S; Keeble, O; Magini, N; Molnar, Z; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Salichos, M; Tuckett, D; Flix, J; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Uzhinsky, A; Wildish, T

    2012-01-01

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being re-used. The paper describes the architecture of the Global Transfer monitoring system, the implementation of its components and the first prototype.

  19. Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, Bogdan; Musial-Gabrys, Katarzyna; Roach, Jim; Innovation through Knowledge Transfer InnovationKT-2012

    2013-01-01

    Across the world there is growing awareness of the importance of innovation and knowledge transfer.  Innovation in the sense of generating new knowledge and making better use of existing knowledge, coupled with knowledge transfer and sharing paradigms, have never been more relevant to the universities, industry, commerce and the third sector.  This volume represents the proceedings of the Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012 Conference which formed an excellent opportunity to disseminate, share and discuss the impact of innovation, knowledge sharing, enterprise and entrepreneurship.  The volume contains papers presented at a Workshop on ‘The Meta Transfer of Knowledge: Challenges in the Transfer of Knowledge in Industry’, others from thematic sessions on ‘Next-Practice in University Based Open Innovation’,  ‘Social Innovation and Related Paradigms’, ‘Engagement with Industry and Commerce’ and ‘Knowledge Exchange’.  All papers were thoroughly reviewed by referees knowledgeable in...

  20. Cash transfers and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidrobo, Melissa; Fernald, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Involuntary transfer of Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed habiba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available IPR owners have a right about voluntary transfer but sometimes Intellectual property right transfer by force and thus, there are challenge that this article regard for its. IPR shall be devolved to their legitimate heirs after their death unless, owner indicate otherwise in their wills. The heirs have the exclusive right to exercise economic and moral rights, they decide upon publication of the work and in general do every exploitation. But, they shall exercise The decisive manner that IPR of holder intended before his death. On other hand, IPR may be liable to seizure or IPR have been used in mortgage loan. Thus they can be transfer to new person.Here, we regard to Involuntary transfer.This article highlight subject of involuntary transfer and analysis on aspects

  2. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Flix, J; Flix, J; Keeble, O; Magini, N; Molnar, Z; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Salichos, M; Tuckett, D; Uzhinsky, A; Wildish, T

    2012-01-01

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being...

  3. Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougouffa, Smail; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four-qubit system and we demonstrate the conditions under which the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of non-zero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. Complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes, with transfer to the other pairs being limited to 50%. We find that complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of qubits may take place if the initial state is not the maximally entangled state and the atoms couple to the cavity modes with unequal strengths. Depending on the ratio between the coupling strengths, optimal entanglement can be created between the atoms and one of the cavity modes.

  4. Transfer Pricing - An Innovative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona MAXIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents transfer pricing and elements of drafting the transfer pricing file by the big companies. The transfer pricing procedure was founded based upon Order no. 442/2016 and the Fiscal Procedure Code and it represents a method upon which the tax base is transferred from a high tax country to a country with low taxation. This legislation outlines the conditions which companies must observe in order to draft the transfer pricing documentation and the significance thresholds. The purpose to draft a transfer pricing file is to reduce the differences between prices and market value and the actual results of company taxation. Economic double taxation occurs when tax authorities apply price adjustments because the company did not respect the principle of market value. Keeping records of transfer pricing and practicing a price aligned to market requirements contribute to an understanding of business development and the creation of appropriate tax planning. Taking into account all these aspects and the fact that any taxpayer is tempted to pay the lowest possible fees, tax havens become an option. In this context we can speak of a tax haven as a loophole in the use of the market price.

  5. Numerical investigation of heat transfer and entropy generation of laminar flow in helical tubes with various cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfers of helical coiled tube with several cross section profiles are evaluated. • Helical tubes offer higher heat transfer and lower entropy generation. • Square cross-section generates the highest entropy, followed by ellipse and circular. • Study could serve as a guideline in designing an efficient helical tube heat exchanger. - Abstract: This study evaluates heat transfer performance and entropy generation of laminar flow in coiled tubes with various cross-sections geometries i.e. circular, ellipse and square, relatives to the straight tubes of similar cross-sections. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed and validated against empirical correlations. Good agreement is obtained within range of Reynolds and Dean numbers considered. Effect of geometry, wall temperature, Reynolds number and heating/cooling mode were examined. To evaluate the heat transfer performance of the coiled tube configurations, a parameter referred as Figure of Merit (FoM) is defined as the ratio heat transfer rate to the required pumping power. In addition, exergy analysis is carried out to examine the inefficiency of the coiled tube configurations. The results indicate that coiled tubes provide higher heat transfer rate. In addition, it was found to be more efficient as reflected by lower entropy generation as compared to straight tubes. Among the studied cross-section, square cross-section generates the highest entropy, followed by ellipse and circular counterpart. Entropy production from heat transfer contribution is two order-of-magnitude higher than that of entropy contribution from viscous dissipation. Cooling case produces slightly higher entropy than heating counterpart. Finally, this study can provide practical guideline to design more efficient coiled heat exchanger.

  6. The development of nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nack-chung Sung

    1987-01-01

    Korea, as a recipient of nuclear technology transfer, has good experience of progressively building up its indigeneous capability of nuclear technology through three stages of technology transfer, namely: technology transfer under the turnkey approach, component approach, and integrated technology transfer with a local prime contractor. Here, each stage of experience of technology transfer, with Korea as a recipient, is presented. (author)

  7. Energy imparted, energy transferred, and net energy transferred

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attix, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    The ICRU-defined non-stochastic quantity absorbed dose is related to the stochastic quantity energy imparted. In the present paper the corresponding stochastic quantities energy transferred and net energy transferred are defined as precursors for kerma and collision kerma, respectively. This forms a rational fundamental framework for radiation dosimetry which facilitates its teaching and understanding. For neutrons collision kerma coincides with kerma, because the heavy secondaries do not lose significant energy by radiative processes (e.g., bremsstrahlung)

  8. Beam Transfer and Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    Beam transfer, such as injection into or extraction from an accelerator, is one of the most critical moments in terms of machine protection in a high-intensity machine. Special equipment is used and machine protection aspects have to be taken into account in the design of the beam transfer concepts. A brief introduction of the principles of beam transfer and the equipment involved will be given in this lecture. The main concepts of machine protection for injection and extraction will be presented, with examples from the CERN SPS and LHC.

  9. Nucleon transfer between heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Oertzen, W.

    1984-02-01

    Nucleon transfer reactions between heavy nuclei are characterized by the classical behaviour of the scattering orbits. Thus semiclassical concepts are well suited for the description of these reactions. In the present contribution the characteristics of single and multinucleon transfer reactions at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier are shown for systems like Sn+Sn, Xe+U and Ni+Pb. The role of the pairing interaction in the transfer of nucleon pairs is illustrated. For strong transitions the coupling of channels and the absorption into more complicated channels is taken into account in a coupled channels calculation

  10. Versatile UHV sample transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausing, R.E.; Heatherly, L.; Emerson, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    A vacuum transfer system has been developed that allows samples to be inserted from air into an Auger analyzer. Following an initial analysis they may then be moved to and from a separate vacuum chamber for other studies. The system is constructed of standard UHV components and is unlimited with respect to the transfer distance. All-metal sealed valves isolate the various chambers so that the vacuum integrity of each is maintained. The sample size is limited only by the smallest constriction within the components which, in the system described, is 2 cm. The transfer is rapid and is capable of being controlled remotely for use in a hostile environment

  11. Technological inductive power transfer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzharov, Nikolay D.; Nemkov, Valentin S.

    2017-05-01

    Inductive power transfer is a very fast expanding technology with multiple design principles and practical implementations ranging from charging phones and computers to bionic systems, car chargers and continuous power transfer in technological lines. Only a group of devices working in near magnetic field is considered. This article is devoted to overview of different inductive power transfer (IPT) devices. The review of literature in this area showed that industrial IPT are not much discussed and examined. The authors have experience in design and implementation of several types of IPTs belonging to wireless automotive chargers and to industrial application group. Main attention in the article is paid to principles and design of technological IPTs

  12. Convective heat transfer on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arx, A.V. von; Delgado, A. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An examination was made into the feasibility of using convective heat transfer on Mars to reject the waste heat from a Closed Brayton Cycle. Forced and natural convection were compared to thermal radiation. For the three radiator configurations studied, it was concluded that thermal radiation will yield the minimum mass and forced convection will result in the minimum area radiator. Other issues such as reliability of a fan motor were not addressed. Convective heat transfer on Mars warrants further investigation. However, the low density of the Martian atmosphere makes it difficult to utilize convective heat transfer without incurring a weight penalty

  13. Electron transfer of monovalent cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerat-Parizot, O.; Potier, J.; Hickel, B.

    1993-01-01

    The surveys presented here concern monovalent Cadmium in aqueous solutions, produced by reduction of Cd(II), using pulsed radiolysis. We specifically studied the Cd(I) reactivity when complexed in certain synthetic ionophores. Cd(I), being an extremely powerful reducing agent, regains its stable valence by transferring an electron to an acceptor. Organic molecules are introduced into a solvent, permitting the analysis of the transfer rate of this electron. We investigated the influence of the ligand specificities and the variation of the electron transfer rate, that depend on the potential difference between Cadmium and the acceptor being used. 34 refs

  14. Transfer your ideas to society!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology labs are the ideal places for developing innovative solutions. However, inventors sometimes don’t realize that their ideas can find an application in industry, which can in turn have a technical and economic impact on society. Some researchers may think that disclosing an invention is a time-consuming process which is worth doing only in very special cases. But one thing is certain: it is always worth informing the Knowledge and Technology Transfer group, as they will give you the correct advice and support. Don’t be afraid of the paperwork… it can be highly rewarding!   Why should researchers at CERN bother to disclose their inventions to the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Group first? “Because when inventors do so, a process to transfer the technology to industry is set in motion” explains Henning Huuse, Patent Portfolio Manager in the KTT Group. To facilitate this transfer, patent protection can be a useful tool. &...

  15. Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Material Transfer Agreements are appropriate for exchange of materials into or out of the Frederick National Laboratory for research or testing purposes, with no collaborative research by parties involving the materials.

  16. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Flight Demonstration development has been canceled in favor of a ground test bed development for of passive/active cryogenic propellant storage, transfer, and...

  17. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  18. Power Transfer in Physical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeck, Jack A.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the power transfer using (1) a simple electric circuit consisting of a power source with internal resistance; (2) two different mechanical systems (gravity driven and constant force driven); (3) ecological examples; and (4) a linear motor. (YP)

  19. Energy transfer in compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Francoise; Zhou, YE; Bertoglio, Jean-Pierre

    1995-01-01

    This letter investigates the compressible energy transfer process. We extend a methodology developed originally for incompressible turbulence and use databases from numerical simulations of a weak compressible turbulence based on Eddy-Damped-Quasi-Normal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure. In order to analyze the compressible mode directly, the well known Helmholtz decomposition is used. While the compressible component has very little influence on the solenoidal part, we found that almost all of the compressible turbulence energy is received from its solenoidal counterpart. We focus on the most fundamental building block of the energy transfer process, the triadic interactions. This analysis leads us to conclude that, at low turbulent Mach number, the compressible energy transfer process is dominated by a local radiative transfer (absorption) in both inertial and energy containing ranges.

  20. Experimental Evidence on Transfer Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Quoc H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We use incentivized economics experiments to test both the point predictions and comparative static predictions of optimal transfer pricing models, comparing behavior under varying conditions, including wholly versus partially-owned subsidiaries and different tariff and tax rates. As predicted, we find that transfer prices are responsive to relative tax and tariff rates as well as ownership proportions. Additionally, we examine convergence and learning in this setting. While individuals do not choose optimal transfer prices, their choices converge to optimal levels with experience. This paper thus makes two important contributions. First, by comparing behavior with theoretical predictions it provides evidence of whether (and when individuals set transfer prices optimally. Second, by comparing behavior under conditions of full and partial ownership it provides evidence on the impact of policy interventions (like regulating ownership proportions by MNEs on tax revenues.

  1. Technology transfer: The CANDU approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    The many and diverse technologies necessary for the design, construction licensing and operation of a nuclear power plant can be efficiently assimilated by a recipient country through an effective technology transfer program supported by the firm long term commitment of both the recipient country organizations and the supplier. AECL's experience with nuclear related technology transfer spans four decades and includes the construction and operation of CANDU plants in five countries and four continents. A sixth country will be added to this list with the start of construction of two CANDU 6 plants in China in early 1997. This background provides the basis for addressing the key factors in the successful transfer of nuclear technology, providing insights into the lessons learned and introducing a framework for success. This paper provides an overview of AECL experience relative to the important factors influencing technology transfer, and reviews specific country experiences. (author)

  2. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1991-04-25

    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.

  3. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  4. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  5. Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) is a mechanism with which EPA can patent its inventions and license them to companies, through which innovative technologies can enter the marketplace to improve the environment and human health.

  6. To transfer or not to transfer? Kinematics and laterality quotient predict interlimb transfer of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefumat, Hannah Z; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Miall, R Chris; Cole, Jonathan; Buloup, Frank; Bringoux, Lionel; Bourdin, Christophe; Sarlegna, Fabrice R

    2015-11-01

    Humans can remarkably adapt their motor behavior to novel environmental conditions, yet it remains unclear which factors enable us to transfer what we have learned with one limb to the other. Here we tested the hypothesis that interlimb transfer of sensorimotor adaptation is determined by environmental conditions but also by individual characteristics. We specifically examined the adaptation of unconstrained reaching movements to a novel Coriolis, velocity-dependent force field. Right-handed subjects sat at the center of a rotating platform and performed forward reaching movements with the upper limb toward flashed visual targets in prerotation, per-rotation (i.e., adaptation), and postrotation tests. Here only the dominant arm was used during adaptation and interlimb transfer was assessed by comparing performance of the nondominant arm before and after dominant-arm adaptation. Vision and no-vision conditions did not significantly influence interlimb transfer of trajectory adaptation, which on average was significant but limited. We uncovered a substantial heterogeneity of interlimb transfer across subjects and found that interlimb transfer can be qualitatively and quantitatively predicted for each healthy young individual. A classifier showed that in our study, interlimb transfer could be predicted based on the subject's task performance, most notably motor variability during learning, and his or her laterality quotient. Positive correlations suggested that variability of motor performance and lateralization of arm movement control facilitate interlimb transfer. We further show that these individual characteristics can predict the presence and the magnitude of interlimb transfer of left-handers. Overall, this study suggests that individual characteristics shape the way the nervous system can generalize motor learning. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  8. 27 CFR 24.282 - Multiple transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Transfer of Wine in Bond § 24.282... transfer record for all wine (including distilling material and vinegar stock) transferred by pipeline to...

  9. Recognizing and Managing Erotic and Eroticized Transferences

    OpenAIRE

    Ladson, Darnell; Welton, Randon

    2007-01-01

    Transference has been proposed as a critical concept in psychotherapy. The transference may be positive, negative, or sexualized. When the transference becomes sexualized, there are potentially damaging outcomes depending on the management of the transference. This paper addresses the significance of early experiences in residency training with sexualized transference and focuses on the therapeutic relationship in which the transference has become eroticized. The author will explore the poten...

  10. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Avoiding the Freudian Trap of Sexual Transference and Countertransference in Psychodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2008-01-01

    Sexual transference and countertransference can make therapy slow and inefficient when libidinous gratification becomes more important for both the patient and the therapist than real therapeutic progress. Sexual transference is normal when working with a patient's repressed sexuality, but the therapeutic rule of not touching often hinders the integration of sexual traumas, as this needs physical holding. So the patient is often left with sexual, Oedipal energies projected onto the therapist as an “idealized father” figure. The strong and lasting sexual desire for the therapist without any healing taking place can prolong therapy for many years, as it often does in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. We call this problem “Freud's Trap”. Freud used intimate bodywork, such as massage, in the beginning of his career, but stopped, presumably for moral and political reasons. In the tradition of psychoanalysis, touch is therefore not allowed. Recent research in clinical holistic medicine (CHM), salutogenesis, and sexual healing has shown that touch and bodywork (an integral part of medicine since Hippocrates) are as important for healing as conversational therapy. CHM allows the patient to regress spontaneously to early sexual and emotional traumas, and to heal the deep wounds on body, soul, and sexual character from arrested psychosexual development. CHM treats sexuality in therapy more as the patient’s internal affair (i.e., energy work) and less as a thing going on between the patient and the therapist (i.e., transference). This accelerates healing, and reduces sexual transference and the need for mourning at the end of therapy. PMID:18454245

  11. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Avoiding the Freudian Trap of Sexual Transference and Countertransference in Psychodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual transference and countertransference can make therapy slow and inefficient when libidinous gratification becomes more important for both the patient and the therapist than real therapeutic progress. Sexual transference is normal when working with a patient's repressed sexuality, but the therapeutic rule of not touching often hinders the integration of sexual traumas, as this needs physical holding. So the patient is often left with sexual, Oedipal energies projected onto the therapist as an “idealized father” figure. The strong and lasting sexual desire for the therapist without any healing taking place can prolong therapy for many years, as it often does in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. We call this problem “Freud's Trap”. Freud used intimate bodywork, such as massage, in the beginning of his career, but stopped, presumably for moral and political reasons. In the tradition of psychoanalysis, touch is therefore not allowed. Recent research in clinical holistic medicine (CHM, salutogenesis, and sexual healing has shown that touch and bodywork (an integral part of medicine since Hippocrates are as important for healing as conversational therapy. CHM allows the patient to regress spontaneously to early sexual and emotional traumas, and to heal the deep wounds on body, soul, and sexual character from arrested psychosexual development. CHM treats sexuality in therapy more as the patient’s internal affair (i.e., energy work and less as a thing going on between the patient and the therapist (i.e., transference. This accelerates healing, and reduces sexual transference and the need for mourning at the end of therapy.

  12. Targeting latent function: Encouraging effective encoding for successful memory training and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Cindy; Flegal, Kristin E.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive training programs for older adults often result in improvements at the group level. However, there are typically large age and individual differences in the size of training benefits. These differences may be related to the degree to which participants implement the processes targeted by the training program. To test this possibility, we tested older adults in a memory-training procedure either under specific strategy instructions designed to encourage semantic, integrative encoding, or in a condition that encouraged time and attention to encoding but allowed participants to choose their own strategy. Both conditions improved the performance of old-old adults relative to an earlier study (Bissig & Lustig, 2007) and reduced self-reports of everyday memory errors. Performance in the strategy-instruction group was related to pre-existing ability, performance in the strategy-choice group was not. The strategy-choice group performed better on a laboratory transfer test of recognition memory, and training performance was correlated with reduced everyday memory errors. Training programs that target latent but inefficiently-used abilities while allowing flexibility in bringing those abilities to bear may best promote effective training and transfer. PMID:19140647

  13. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer project will demonstrate the capability to safely and efficiently store, transfer and measure cryogenic propellants,...

  14. Federal Technology Transfer Act Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) partnerships demonstrate the many advantages of technology transfer and collaboration. EPA and partner organizations create valuable and applicable technologies for the marketplace.

  15. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Net-based data transfer and automatic image fusion of metabolic (PET) and morphologic (CT/MRI) images for radiosurgical planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Przetak, C.; Schmuecking, M.; Klener, G.; Surber, G.; Hamm, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The main purpose of radiosurgery in comparison to conventional radiotherapy of brain tumors is to reach a higher radiation dose in the tumor and sparing normal brain tissue as much as possible. To reach this aim it is crucial to define the target volume extremely accurately. For this purpose, MRI and CT examinations are used for radiotherapy planning. In certain cases, however, metabolic information obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) may be useful to achieve a higher therapeutic accuracy by sparing important brain structures. This can be the case, i.e. in low grade astrocytomas for exact delineation of vital tumor as well as in differentiating scaring tissue from tumor recurrence and edema after operation. For this purpose, radiolabeled aminoacid analogues (e.g. C-11 methionine) and recently O-2-[ 18 F] Fluorethyl-L-Tyrosin (F-18 FET) have been introduced as PET tracers to detect the area of highest tumor metabolism which allows to obtain additional information as compared to FDG-PET that reflects the local glucose metabolism. In these cases, anatomical and metabolic data have to be combined with the technique of digital image fusion to exactly determine the target volume, the isodoses and the area where the highest dose has to be applied. Materials: We have set up a data transfer from the PET Center of the Zentralklinik Bad Berka with the Department of Stereotactic Radiation at the Helios Klinik Erfurt (distance approx. 25 km) to enable this kind of image fusion. PET data (ECAT EXACT 47, Siemens/CTI) are transferred to a workstation (NOVALIS) in the Dept. of Stereotactic Radiation to be co-registered with the CT or MRI data of the patient. All PET images are in DICOM format (obtained by using a HERMES computer, Nuclear Diagnostics, Sweden) and can easily be introduced into the NOVALIS workstation. The software uses the optimation of mutual information to achieve a good fusion quality. Sometimes manual corrections have to be performed to get an

  17. Canister Transfer System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane/hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  18. CANISTER TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Gorpani

    2000-01-01

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane hoist,; DC--loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the; DC--is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the; DC--to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister

  19. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  20. Delaminated Transfer of CVD Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Alexis; Mao, Jinhai; Tilak, Nikhil; Altvater, Michael; Andrei, Eva

    Single layer graphene is commonly synthesized by dissociation of a carbonaceous gas at high temperatures in the presence of a metallic catalyst in a process known as Chemical Vapor Deposition or CVD. Although it is possible to achieve high quality graphene by CVD, the standard transfer technique of etching away the metallic catalyst is wasteful and jeopardizes the quality of the graphene film by contamination from etchants. Thus, development of a clean transfer technique and preservation of the parent substrate remain prominent hurdles to overcome. In this study, we employ a copper pretreatment technique and optimized parameters for growth of high quality single layer graphene at atmospheric pressure. We address the transfer challenge by utilizing the adhesive properties between a polymer film and graphene to achieve etchant-free transfer of graphene films from a copper substrate. Based on this concept we developed a technique for dry delamination and transferring of graphene to hexagonal boron nitride substrates, which produced high quality graphene films while at the same time preserving the integrity of the copper catalyst for reuse. DOE-FG02-99ER45742, Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program.

  1. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  2. Radioactivity transfer to animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Information on the behaviour of strontium, caesium, ruthenium, plutonium and americium in a range of domestic animals is reviewed to form a basis for the specification of time-dependent mathematical models describing uptake, distribution and retention in various domestic animals. Transfer factors relating concentration in animal product to daily radioactivity intake are derived after 100 d continuous intake and at equilibrium. These transfer factors are compared with the available published literature and used as a basis for the derivation of feedingstuff conversion factors relating limiting concentrations in animal feedingstuffs to limiting concentrations in human foodstuffs for application to animals receiving commercial feedingstuffs after a nuclear accident. Recommended transfer factors for animal products in conditions of continuous discharge and models for application to field conditions after a nuclear accident are also presented. Transfer of caesium to animal products is more effective than that for the other elements considered here. Transfer to meat of lamb, fattening pig, and chickens is generally more effective than that for other animals and other products

  3. MRS transfer facility feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jowdy, A.K.; Smith, R.I.

    1990-12-01

    Under contract to the US Department of Energy, Parsons was requested to evaluate the feasibility of building a simple hot cell (waste handling) transfer facility at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) site to facilitate acceptance of spent fuel into the Federal Waste Management System starting in early 1998. The Transfer Facility was intended to provide a receiving and transfer to storage capability at a relatively low throughput rate (approximately 500 MTU/yr) and to provide the recovery capability needed on the site in the event of a transport or storage cask seal failure during a period of about two years while the larger Spent Fuel Handling Building (SFHB) was being completed. Although the original study basis postulated an incremental addition to the larger, previously considered MRS configurations, study results show that the Transfer Facility may be capable of receiving and storing spent fuel at annual rates of 3000 MTU/yr or more, making a larger fuel handling structure unnecessary. In addition, the study analyses showed that the Transfer Facility could be constructed and put into service in 15--17 months and would cost less than the previous configurations. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  5. Some Metapsychological Considerations about Transference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Guillermo Castellanos-Urrego**

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a metapsychological re-creation of transference from a conceptualization of representations as the units of psychism. Transferences have their origins in the effort of an unsatisfied libidinal investiture that continues to be active in the Unconscious, and which allows the primary process to inadvertently filter into the secondary process through a “false link”. Therefore, a current perception becomes identified with the expectative representation, which makes the individual believe that this new person will satisfy the aforementioned investiture. Transference neurosis is a psychoanalytic pillar, since only through it may one consciously and currently have access the repressed unconscious drives, a feature of childhood sexuality, and restart the psychosexual development.

  6. Essentials of radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...

  7. Reverse Knowledge Transfer in MNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    It is now well recognized that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are differentiated networks wherein subsidiaries vary in terms of their ability to create new knowledge and competencies for their parent groups. In much of this theory, it is taken for granted that subsidiary innovativeness has...... a positive correlation with the extent of reverse knowledge transfers to the parent MNE. Relying on the headquarters-subsidiary view of the MNE, we argue that, beyond a point, increasing subsidiary innovativeness will be associated with lower reverse knowledge transfers. Further, we argue...... that this relationship is sensitive to the subsidiary entry mode. Using data from a sample of 293 Italian subsidiaries, we find strong support for our hypotheses. In particular, our results confirm that the effect of subsidiary innovativeness on reverse knowledge transfers displays an inverted-U shape...

  8. SERPUKHOV: UNK transfer beamline commissioned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    At the end of the 1000 hour February-March run of the 70 GeV proton synchrotron at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Serpukhov, near Moscow, the new 2.7-kilometre UNK Beam Transfer Line (BTL) was commissioned with proton beam. BTL will eventually transfer beam from the existing U70 proton accelerator to the first stage of the UNK (UNK-1, now under construction) where it will be accelerated in the 21- kilometre ring up to 600 GeV. BTL was designed for proton energies between 60 and 70 GeV, momentum spread ± 2 x 10 -3 and beam emittance 2 mm.mrad, with systems for fast ejection, beam transfer and injection into UNK-1

  9. Ceramics for Molten Materials Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the main issues associated with molten materials transfer and handling on the lunar surface during the operation of a hig h temperature electrowinning cell used to produce oxygen, with molten iron and silicon as byproducts. A combination of existing technolog ies and purposely designed technologies show promise for lunar exploi tation. An important limitation that requires extensive investigation is the performance of refractory currently used for the purpose of m olten metal containment and transfer in the lunar environment associa ted with electrolytic cells. The principles of a laboratory scale uni t at a scale equivalent to the production of 1 metric ton of oxygen p er year are introduced. This implies a mass of molten materials to be transferred consistent with the equivalent of 1kg regolithlhr proces sed.

  10. Heat transfer from rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1977-01-01

    Artificial roughness is often used in nuclear reactors to improve the thermal performance of the fuel elements. Although these are made up of clusters of rods, the experiments to measure the heat transfer and friction coefficients of roughness are performed with single rods contained in smooth tubes. This work illustrated a new transformation method to obtain data applicable to reactor fuel elements from these annulus experiments. New experimental friction data are presented for ten rods, each with a different artificial roughness made up of two-dimensional rectangular ribs. For each rod four tests have been performed, each in a different outer smooth tube. For two of these rods, each for two different outer tubes, heat transfer data are also given. The friction and heat transfer data, transformed with the present method, are correlated by simple equations. In the paper, these equations are applied to a case typical for a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor fuel element. (orig.) [de

  11. Innovative technology transfer of nondestructive evaluation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Xiping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Technology transfer is often an afterthought for many nondestructive evaluation (NDE) researchers. Effective technology transfer should be considered during the planning and execution of research projects. This paper outlines strategies for using technology transfer in NDE research and presents a wide variety of technology transfer methods used by a cooperative...

  12. Software engineering technology transfer: Understanding the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1993-01-01

    Technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this report, the mechanisms developed by NASA to transfer technology are explored and the actual mechanisms used to transfer software development technologies are investigated. Time, cost, and effectiveness of software engineering technology transfer is reported.

  13. Wheelchair transfer techniques for the dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, R S; Gillette, V M; Leseberg, K

    1988-01-01

    Dental offices must be made more accessible to individuals who are physically challenged. Transfer techniques for safely moving patients between wheelchairs and dental chairs, sliding transfers, one- and two-person transfers, and methods of accommodating patients in a dental operatory who cannot be transferred from wheelchairs are presented.

  14. Transference and Counter-Transference in Treating Incarcerated Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brad; Brekke, Karl E.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the processes involved in treating sex offenders. Focuses on how therapists can feel traumatized by this patient population, the dynamism of transference, and tactics used by sex offender patients, such as seduction, imitation, intimidation, and invalidation. Describes ways for therapists to maintain objectivity and use transference…

  15. Building Fitnes for Transfer - Transfering Manufacturing Knowledge Across Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove

    2009-01-01

    A key problem of manufacturing transfer remains that it is often difficult to explain what a company really knows, or why what it does really works. Still, practice indicates that attention is focused on planning the physical move and on the knowledge associated with normal operations. Introducti...... elements of dispatching capacity and places it in a model in a broader context....

  16. Macroeconomic level of technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available World practice of economic management has proved that the best indicator of competitiveness is achieved by that economic system, the economic units of which timely and adequately update the resource and technical base, thus achieving higher financial and economic indicators. Ensuring that sustainable development becomes possible due to the transfer of technological innovations, namely the diffusion from the developer to the customer on both commercial and free of charge basis. The article focuses on functioning of technology transfer at the macro level, namely the creation of its domestic models.

  17. Heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Nardini, Sergio; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-01-01

    Properties of NanofluidSamuel Paolucci and Gianluca PolitiExact Solutions and Their Implications in Anomalous Heat TransferWenhao Li, Chen Yang and Akira NakayamaMechanisms and Models of Thermal Conductivity in NanofluidsSeung-Hyun Lee and Seok Pil JangExperimental Methods for the Characterization of Thermophysical Properties of NanofluidsSergio Bobbo and Laura FedeleNanofluid Forced ConvectionGilles RoyExperimental Study of Convective Heat Transfer in NanofluidsEhsan B. Haghighi, Adi T. Utomo, Andrzej W. Pacek and Björn E. PalmPerformance of Heat Exchangers Using NanofluidsBengt Sundén and Za

  18. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1995-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 4 presents the reaction mechanisms involving the movement of single electrons. This book discusses the electron transfer reactions in organic, biochemical, organometallic, and excited state systems. Organized into four chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the photochemical behavior of two classes of sulfonium salt derivatives. This text then examines the parameters that control the efficiencies for radical ion pair formation. Other chapters consider the progress in the development of parameters that control the dynamics and reaction p

  19. Styring af international transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuther, Peter; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2011-01-01

    Nærværende artikel introducerer international transfer pricing, dels som et skatteretligt fænomen og dels som et værktøj til planlægning og økonomisk styring af koncernforbundne selskaber i en multinational virksomhed (MNV). Med udgangspunkt i en case-analyse af MNV’en gives der et konkret eksempel...... international transfer pricing i betragtning, når økonomiske styringssystemer i en MNV skal anvendes til planlægning og opfølgning....

  20. Radial to axillary nerve transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaclocha, Vicente; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Rivera-Paz, Marlon; Martínez-Gómez, Deborah; Vanaclocha, Leyre

    2018-01-01

    Axillary nerve injury is common after brachial plexus injuries, particularly with shoulder luxation. Nerve grafting is the traditional procedure for postganglionic injuries. Nerve transfer is emerging as a viable option particularly in late referrals. At the proximal arm the radial and axillary nerves lie close by. Sacrificing one of the triceps muscle nerve branches induces little negative consequences. Transferring the long head of the triceps nerve branch is a good option to recover axillary nerve function. The surgical technique is presented in a video, stressing the steps to achieve a successful result. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/WbVbpMuPxIE .

  1. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  2. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2007-01-01

    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  3. Radiative transfer on discrete spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran

  4. Evaluating disparities in the U.S. technology transfer ecosystem to improve bench to business translation [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Weis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of highly impactful technologies originated from academic research, and the transfer of inventions from academic institutions to private industry is a major driver of economic growth, and a catalyst for further discovery. However, there are significant inefficiencies in academic technology transfer. In this work, we conducted a data-driven assessment of translational activity across United States (U.S. institutions to better understand how effective universities are in facilitating the transfer of new technologies into the marketplace. From this analysis, we provide recommendations to guide technology transfer policy making at both the university and national level. Methods: Using data from the Association of University Technology Managers U.S. Licensing Activity Survey, we defined a commercialization pipeline that reflects the typical path intellectual property takes; from initial research funding to startup formation and gross income. We use this pipeline to quantify the performance of academic institutions at each step of the process, as well as overall, and identify the top performing institutions via mean reciprocal rank. The corresponding distributions were visualized and disparities quantified using the Gini coefficient. Results: We found significant discrepancies in commercialization activity between institutions; a small number of institutions contribute to the vast majority of total commercialization activity. By examining select top performing institutions, we suggest improvements universities and technology transfer offices could implement to emulate the environment at these high-performing institutions. Conclusion: Significant disparities in technology transfer performance exist in which a select set of institutions produce a majority share of the total technology transfer activity. This disparity points to missed commercialization opportunities, and thus, further investigation into the distribution of

  5. Placental transfer of selected radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegst, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews animal experiments carried out to determine the transfer of radiopharmaceuticals from mother to fetus. Animal data are compared to any human data available. The radiopharmaceuticals included in the discussion are Tc-99m pertechnetate, Tc-99m DTPA, Ga-67 citrate and Tl-201 chloride. (6 tab., 5 refs.)

  6. Entrepreneurial separation to transfer technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, Richard R.

    2010-09-01

    Entrepreneurial separation to transfer technology (ESTT) program is that entrepreneurs terminate their employment with Sandia. The term of the separation is two years with the option to request a third year. Entrepreneurs are guaranteed reinstatement by Sandia if they return before ESTT expiration. Participants may start up or helpe expand technology businesses.

  7. Authorship Confirmation and Copyright Transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    figures and any later errata, is transferred to the Indian Academy of Sciences, for both online and print versions. ... work after publication by the Indian Academy of Sciences, in whole or in part, in any or all of the following ways ... b) Inclusion in a thesis or dissertation for a research degree of any institution. c) Presentations in ...

  8. Heat transfer and thermal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, A. L.

    Radiation heat transfer is considered along with conduction heat transfer, heat pipes, and thermal control. Attention is given to the radiative properties of a painted layer containing nonspherical pigment, bidirectional reflectance measurements of specular and diffuse surfaces with a simple spectrometer, the radiative equilibrium in a general plane-parallel environment, and the application of finite-element techniques to the interaction of conduction and radiation in participating medium, a finite-element approach to combined conductive and radiative heat transfer in a planar medium. Heat transfer in irradiated shallow layers of water, an analytical and experimental investigation of temperature distribution in laser heated gases, numerical methods for the analysis of laser annealing of doped semiconductor wafers, and approximate solutions of transient heat conduction in a finite slab are also examined. Consideration is also given to performance testing of a hydrogen heat pipe, heat pipe performance with gravity assist and liquid overfill, vapor chambers for an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a prototype heat pipe radiator for the German Direct Broadcasting TV Satellite, free convection in enclosures exposed to compressive heating, and a thermal analysis of a multipurpose furnace for material processing in space.

  9. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan

    2016-01-01

    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  10. Promoting Transfer of Ecosystems Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Sinha, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    This study examines to what extent students transferred their knowledge from a familiar aquatic ecosystem to an unfamiliar rainforest ecosystem after participating in a technology-rich inquiry curriculum. We coded students' drawings for components of important ecosystems concepts at pre- and posttest. Our analysis examined the extent to which each…

  11. Mass Transfer Method and Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    .g. polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon $m(3)) membranes, in the form of hollow fibres having gas-containing pores and contacting the second fluid with the inner surface of the membranes. Useful membranes are characterized in that they e.g. have a porosity ($g(e)) of at least 0.50, a mass transfer coefficient of e...

  12. Governance of material transfer agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2008-01-01

    The governance of material transfer agreements (MTAs) is crucial for research and the progress of science. When developing a research project, researchers face the problem of availability of research material or restrictive provisions imposed by providers. This article discusses the governance of

  13. Radiopharmaceuticals to monitor gene transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L. I.; Morin, K. W.; Knaus, E. E.

    1997-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering and molecular biology have opened the door to disease treatment by transferring genes to cells that are responsible for the pathological condition being addressed. These genes can serve to supplement or introduce the function of indigenous genes that are either inadequately expressed or that are congenitally absent in the patient. They can introduce new functions such as drug sensitization to provide a unique therapeutic target. Gene transfer is readily monitored in vitro using a range of histochemical and biochemical tests that are ''built in'' to the therapeutic gene cassette. In vivo, in situ monitoring of the gene transfer and gene expression processes can be achieved with these tests only if biopsy is possible. Scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the extent and location of gene expression, provided that an appropriate reporter gene is included in the therapeutic cassette. This overview includes a brief orientation to gene transfer therapy and is followed by a review of current approaches to gene therapy imaging. The concluding section deals with imaging based on radiolabelled nucleoside substrates for herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase, with emphasis on IVFRU, a stable potent and selective HSV-1 TK substrate developed in their laboratories

  14. prisoner transfer to south africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    However, the position of the South African government on the issue of prisoner transfer ...... CCPR/C/100/D/1818/2008 (2010) in which the South African government ignored repeated calls from the Human Rights ..... forms of exploitation and degradation of man particularly slavery, slave trade, torture, cruel, inhuman and ...

  15. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  16. Efficient transfer of francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Seth; Behr, John; Gorelov, Alexander; Pearson, Matt; Tandecki, Michael; Collister, Robert; Gwinner, Gerald; Shiells, Kyle; Gomez, Eduardo; Orozco, Luis; Zhang, Jiehang; Zhao, Yanting; FrPNC Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We report on the progress of the FrPNC collaboration towards Parity Non Conservation Measurements (PNC) using francium atoms at the TRIUMF accelerator. We demonstrate efficient transfer (higher than 40%) to the science vacuum chamber where the PNC measurements will be performed. The transfer uses a downward resonant push beam from the high-efficiency capture magneto optical trap (MOT) towards the science chamber where the atoms are recaptured in a second MOT. The transfer is very robust with respect to variations in the parameters (laser power, detuning, alignment, etc.). We accumulate a growing number of atoms at each transfer pulse (limited by the lifetime of the MOT) since the push beam does not eliminate the atoms already trapped in the science MOT. The number of atoms in the science MOT is on track to meet the requirements for competitive PNC measurements when high francium rates (previously demonstrated) are delivered to our apparatus. The catcher/neutralizer for the ion beam has been tested reliably to 100,000 heating/motion cycles. We present initial tests on the direct microwave excitation of the ground hyperfine transition at 45 GHz. Support from NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and Fulbright from USA, and CONACYT from Mexico.

  17. Cyclic transfers in school timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard F.; Ahmadi, Samad; Geertsema, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a neighbourhood structure based on sequential/cyclic moves and a cyclic transfer algorithm for the high school timetabling problem. This method enables execution of complex moves for improving an existing solution, while dealing with the challenge of exploring the

  18. Cyclic transfers in school timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard F.; Ahmadi, Samad; Geertsema, Frederik

    In this paper we propose a neighbourhood structure based on sequential/cyclic moves and a Cyclic Transfer algorithm for the high school timetabling problem. This method enables execution of complex moves for improving an existing solution, while dealing with the challenge of exploring the

  19. Technology Transfer: Marketing Tomorrow's Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Erene

    1995-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and the end of the Cold War have triggered many changes in the traditional practices of U.S. industry. To effectively apply the resources available to the United States, the federal government has firmly advocated a policy of technology transfer between private industry and government labs, in this case the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin is a strong proponent of this policy and has organized technology transfer or commercialization programs at each of the NASA field centers. Here at Langley Research Center, the Technology Applications Group (TAG) is responsible for facilitating the transfer of Langley developed research and technology to U.S. industry. Entering the program, I had many objectives for my summer research with TAG. Certainly, I wanted to gain a more thorough understanding of the concept of technology transfer and Langley's implementation of a system to promote it to both the Langley community and the community at large. Also, I hoped to become more familiar with Langley's research capabilities and technology inventory available to the public. More specifically, I wanted to learn about the technology transfer process at Langley. Because my mentor is a member of Materials and Manufacturing marketing sector of the Technology Transfer Team, another overriding objective for my research was to take advantage of his work and experience in materials research to learn about the Advanced Materials Research agency wide and help market these developments to private industry. Through the various projects I have been assigned to work on in TAG, I have successfully satisfied the majority of these objectives. Work on the Problem Statement Process for TAG as well as the development of the Advanced Materials Research Brochure have provided me with the opportunity to learn about the technology transfer process from the outside looking in and the inside looking out. Because TAG covers

  20. Electron transfer in pnicogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Liangyu; Mo, Yirong

    2014-10-02

    As a new type of noncovalent interactions, pnicogen bond between a VA group element (N, P, and As) and an electron donor (Lewis base) has grabbed attention in recent several years. Here we employ the block-localized wave function (BLW) based energy decomposition scheme to probe the bonding nature in a series of substituted phosphines X(n)PH(3-n) complexed with ammonia. As the BLW method can derive the optimal monomer orbitals in a complex with the electron transfer among monomers quenched, we can effectively examine the HOMO-LUMO interaction in these pnicogen bonding systems. Among various energy components, electron transfer energy together with the polarization energy dominates the pnicogen bonding energy. Although usually it is assumed that the electron transfer from ammonia to substituted phosphines occurs in the form of n → σ*(XP) hyperconjugative interaction, we identify a kind of new pathway when X = NO2 and CN, i.e., n → dπ*, which results from the interaction between the π orbital of cyano or nitro substituent and d orbitals on P. But still this picture of electron transfer using a single pair of orbitals is greatly simplified, as the electron density difference (EDD) maps corresponding to the overall electron transfer processes show the accumulation of electron density on the P side opposite to the X-P bond, with insignificant or even negligible gain of electron density on the substituent group side. Thus, the EDD maps tend to support the concept of σ-hole in pnicogen bonds.

  1. Fouling of roughened stainless steel surfaces during convective heat transfer to aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, A.; Malayeri, M.R.; Mueller-Steinhagen, H.

    2008-01-01

    The deterioration of heat transfer performance due to fouling is the prime cause for higher energy consumption and inefficiency in many industrial heat exchangers such as those in power plants, refineries, food and dairy industries. Fouling is also a very complex process in which many geometrical, physical and operating parameters are involved with poorly understood interaction. Among them, the surface roughness is an important surface characteristic that would greatly influence crystallisation fouling mechanisms and hence deposition morphology and stickability to the surface. In this work, the effect of the surface roughness of AISI 304 BA stainless steel surfaces on fouling of an aqueous solution with inverse solubility behaviour has been investigated under convective heat transfer. Several experiments have been performed on roughened surfaces ranging from 0.18 to 1.55 μm for different bulk concentrations and heat fluxes. The EDTA titration method was used to measure the concentration of the calcium sulphate salt in order to maintain it at constant value during each fouling run. Experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient of very rough surfaces (1.55 μm) decreases more rapidly than that of 0.54 μm. Several facts contribute to this behaviour notably (1) increased of primary heterogeneous nucleation rate on the surfaces; (2) reduction of local shear stress in the valleys and (3) reduced removal rate of the crystals from the surfaces where the roughness elements protrude out of the viscous sub-layer. The results also show linear and proportional variation of the fouling rate and heat flux within the range of operating conditions. In addition, the deposition process in terms of fouling rate could only be affected at lower surface contact angles. Such results would particularly be of interest for new surface treatment technologies which aim at altering the surface texture

  2. Regulation of the transfer market in professional Russian football: impact of the limit for legionaries in 2005–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya A. Andreeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the efficiency of limit for legionaries as a tool for regulating the Russian transfer market. Methods formal methods of the labor market supply and demand model combinatory analysis statistical methods. Results the article views the order of regulation of the labor relations with foreign legionaries in sports. It is defined that in most countries regulation implies limitation of the number of legionaries who can be claimed for the season or be on the field. The article analyzes the approaches to the transfer market regulation methods as well as the arguments for and against limiting the number of legionaries. Basing on the analysis of literature the author estimates the efficiency of transfer market regulating from the economics viewpoint as well as the results of sports events. The author checks the hypothesis about the inefficiency of the limit as a tool for increasing the quality of the Russian playersrsquo performance based on a number of indicators such as the inefficiency of the national teamrsquos performance number of legionaries their performance etc. The estimation was carried out on the basis of a number of theoretical models 1 model of increasing the footballersrsquo salaries 2 model of free selection of players by the coach and 3 model of quality playersrsquo selection. Basing on these models the hypothesis was disproved of the rapid ldquovictory effectrdquo from the limit ndash the first significant results of the regulation appeared in Russia not earlier than after 10 years. It is supposed that the limit can be explained by G. Akerlofrsquos model by controlling the number of legionaries it is possible to attract more qualified foreign players into the national league. Analysis of the Russian teamsrsquo experience showed that the limit has not resulted in 1 the increase of the legionariesrsquo quality of performance 2 the increase of the playing time of the Russian players on the field in the national

  3. People transfer-sinequanon for nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1977-01-01

    The main obstacles facing the developing countries which wish to adopt sophisticated nuclear technology can be the following: lack of trained personnel, lack of entrepreneurs and capital, and bureaucracy. Of these the greatest problem is undoubtedly the lack of trained manpower. Urgently required skilled manpower may be obtained through training of selected persons in foreign countries on a crash program of nuclear energy. Exchange of expertise can also take place among the developing countries themselves. Another problem particularly peculiar to the poor developing countries is the lack of entrepreneurs and capital. It therefore becomes necessary to attract entrepreneurs from abroad with all the benefit of managerial know-how and capital transfer that it entails. Exchange of scientist, teachers, managerial and administrative personnel between the developed and developing countries and also among the developing countries themselves is therefore essential for an effective transfer of nuclear technology

  4. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Fesenko, S.

    2009-01-01

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain

  5. Fiduciary transfer of property rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđić Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiduciary transfer of property rights for the purpose of loan security represents the non-possessory form of collateral, which experiences renaissance in the comparative law. It is a complex legal institute, which is subject to numerous concerns and can be viewed from different perspectives, due to the large number of its specific features - non typical for the Continental European legal systems. The paper discusses disputed issues related to defining the causa, as well as the legal grounds, for fiduciary transfer of property rights, its legal nature and the justification thereof. Aiming at more adequate understanding of this complex Property Law institute and finding satisfactory answers to some of the disputed issues the legal theory has opened, the author analyses provisions of current legislation in Montenegro, which was the first country in the Region to regulate this non-possessory form of collateral.

  6. Quantum maps from transfer operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.B.; Carioli, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Selberg zeta function ζ S (s) yields an exact relationship between the periodic orbits of a fully chaotic Hamiltonian system (the geodesic flow on surfaces of constant negative curvature) and the corresponding quantum system (the spectrum of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the same manifold). It was found that for certain manifolds, ζ S (s) can be exactly rewritten as the Fredholm-Grothendieck determinant det(1-T s ), where T s is a generalization of the Ruelle-Perron-Frobenius transfer operator. An alternative derivation of this result is given, yielding a method to find not only the spectrum but also the eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in terms of eigenfunctions of T s . Various properties of the transfer operator are investigated both analytically and numerically for several systems. (author) 30 refs.; 16 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. PRAGMATIC TRANSFER IN REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the pragmatic transfer in English request realizations made by EFL learners, i.e. the proficient learners. The subjects were students of an English Study Program who obtained TOEFL-like scores of at least 450. The data were collected by means of DCT-questionnaires and Role-plays. The results show that the subjects realize requests in the form of external modifications more frequently. Most of them embed their requests with supportive moves dominantly. They enfold the acts with the moves before, after or in both positions. Of the three positions, they mostly insert the moves initial position, i.e., through inductive patterns. This is due to pragmatic transfer.

  8. Embedded system file transfer USB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaoua, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    The development of the communication series A emphasized new aspects of data exchange. The transfer of data, subject of my project of end of studies, consists in transferring from the files of a support of mass towards another via port USB. In first phase, I had like stain the realization of an embarked system allowing the communication between a key USB and final of communication such as a Pc. For this fact, I had to include/understand the operation of protocol USB and thus I could programmed a Peak to manage this communication. The second phase, will consist in extending this project towards a transmission de< donnees between two keys USB without intervention of a powerful machine equipped with an operating system pour rant to manage this transaction. (Author)

  9. Atmospheric radon: origin and transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Pena, P.; Gaso, I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Mireles, F.; Davila, I.; Quirino, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric indoor and outdoor radon surveys have been performed in several locations of Mexico. In order to estimate the radon transfer from different origins to the atmosphere, soil and ground water, together with the exhalation rate from bare and coated building materials have also been studied. The radon detection was performed with SSNTD, an automatic silicon-based radon monitor and the liquid scintillation technique. The results from several years of monitoring indicate that the atmospheric radon behaviour is different for the countryside as compared with more complex inhabited regions; transfer from soil being inhibited by the specific structures of the cities. The effect of wall coatings reduced from 50% to 90% the radon exhalation from bare building materials. A low radon content was observed in the ground water samples studied. (Author).

  10. Transfer of Rights and Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beale, Hugh; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This chapter compares the law on transfer of rights (i.e., assignment) in the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), English law, and German law. It first considers cases in which the three systems produce similar results before concentrating on situations in which the results and the interactions...... with other areas of law differ. It then deals with the transfer of obligations. In their basic aspects, the laws of England, Germany, and the DCFR provide for functionally similar systems of assignment, but there are some differences in the mechanisms involved. Should the current provisions of the DCFR...... on assignment be included in a later version of an optional instrument, there will be a number of interactions with both English and German law in the sense that it will matter which system governs the agreements, particularly the agreement for assignment. Key differences include, inter alia, the proprietary...

  11. Virus transfer between fingerpads and fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, T R; Leckie, J O; Boehm, A B

    2010-12-01

    Virus transfer between individuals and fomites is an important route of transmission for both gastrointestinal and respiratory illness. The present study examines how direction of transfer, virus species, time since last handwashing, gender, and titre affect viral transfer between fingerpads and glass. Six hundred fifty-six total transfer events, performed by 20 volunteers using MS2, φX174, and fr indicated 0·23 ± 0·22 (mean and standard deviation) of virus is readily transferred on contact. Virus transfer is significantly influenced by virus species and time since last handwashing. Transfer of fr bacteriophage is significantly higher than both MS2 and φX174. Virus transfer between surfaces is reduced for recently washed hands. Viruses are readily transferred between skin and surfaces on contact. The fraction of virus transferred is dependent on multiple factors including virus species, recently washing hands, and direction of transfer likely because of surface physicochemical interactions. The study is the first to provide a large data set of virus transfer events describing the central tendency and distribution of fraction virus transferred between fingers and glass. The data set from the study, along with the quantified effect sizes of the factors explored, inform studies examining role of fomites in disease transmission. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Basic heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, A F

    1999-01-01

    The Second Edition offers complete coverage of heat transfer with broad up-to-date coverage that includes an emphasis on engineering relevance and on problem solving. Integrates software to assist the reader in efficiently calculations. Carefully orders material to make book more reader-friendly and accessible. Offers an extensive introduction to heat exchange design to enhance the engineering and design content of course to satisfy ABET requirements. For professionals in engineering fields.

  13. Stray energy transfer during endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward L; Madani, Amin; Overbey, Douglas M; Kiourti, Asimina; Bojja-Venkatakrishnan, Satheesh; Mikami, Dean J; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Arcomano, Todd R; Robinson, Thomas N

    2017-10-01

    Endoscopy is the standard tool for the evaluation and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. While the risk of complication is low, the use of energy devices can increase complications by 100-fold. The mechanism of increased injury and presence of stray energy is unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine if stray energy transfer occurs during endoscopy and if so, to define strategies to minimize the risk of energy complications. A gastroscope was introduced into the stomach of an anesthetized pig. A monopolar generator delivered energy for 5 s to a snare without contacting tissue or the endoscope itself. The endoscope tip orientation, energy device type, power level, energy mode, and generator type were varied to mimic in vivo use. The primary outcome (stray current) was quantified as the change in tissue temperature (°C) from baseline at the tissue closest to the tip of the endoscope. Data were reported as mean ± standard deviation. Using the 60 W coag mode while changing the orientation of the endoscope tip, tissue temperature increased by 12.1 ± 3.5 °C nearest the camera lens (p energy transfer (p = 0.04 and p = 0.002, respectively) as did utilizing the low-voltage cut mode (6.6 ± 0.5 °C, p energy transfer compared to a standard generator (1.5 ± 3.5 °C vs. 9.5 ± 0.8 °C, p energy is transferred within the endoscope during the activation of common energy devices. This could result in post-polypectomy syndrome, bleeding, or perforation outside of the endoscopist's view. Decreasing the power, utilizing low-voltage modes and/or an impedance-monitoring generator can decrease the risk of complication.

  14. Project approach helps technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walcher, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The placing of the contract by the National Power Corporation with Westinghouse for the Philippines nuclear power plant (PNPP-1) is described. Maximised use of Philippine contractors under Westinghouse supervision was provided for. Technology transfer is an important benefit of the contract arrangements, since National Power Corporation project management acquires considerable nuclear plant experience during plant construction through consultation with technical personnel. (U.K.)

  15. NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute’s Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between the NIH research laboratories and external partners. With specialized teams, TTC guides the interactions of our partners from the point of discovery to patenting, from invention development to licensing. We play a key role in helping to accelerate development of cutting-edge research by connecting our partners to NIH’s world-class researchers, facilities, and knowledge.

  16. Data Transfer Study HPSS Archiving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, James [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Parete-Koon, Suzanne T [ORNL; Mitchell, Quinn [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); White, Stanley R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The movement of the large amounts of data produced by codes run in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment can be a bottleneck for project workflows. To balance filesystem capacity and performance requirements, HPC centers enforce data management policies to purge old files to make room for new computation and analysis results. Users at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and many other HPC user facilities must archive data to avoid data loss during purges, therefore the time associated with data movement for archiving is something that all users must consider. This study observed the difference in transfer speed from the originating location on the Lustre filesystem to the more permanent High Performance Storage System (HPSS). The tests were done with a number of different transfer methods for files that spanned a variety of sizes and compositions that reflect OLCF user data. This data will be used to help users of Titan and other Cray supercomputers plan their workflow and data transfers so that they are most efficient for their project. We will also discuss best practice for maintaining data at shared user facilities.

  17. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values for describing dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel. Data obtained during observation of the offloading of research reactor spent fuel at Newport News Terminal in the Port of Hampton Roads, Virginia, are described. These data include estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors, and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Other workers include crane operators, scale operators, security personnel, and truck drivers. The data are compared to the default data in RADTRAN 4, and the latter are found to be conservative. The casks were loaded under IAEA supervision at their point of origin, and three separate radiological inspections of each cask were performed at the entry to the port (Hampton Roads) by the U.S. Coast Guard, the state of Virginia, and the shipping firm. As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handler exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. (author)

  18. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  19. Coherently Enhanced Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnok, Alex; Baranov, Denis G.; Generalov, Andrey; Li, Sergey; Alù, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Extraction of electromagnetic energy by an antenna from impinging external radiation is at the basis of wireless communications and wireless power transfer (WPT). The maximum of transferred energy is ensured when the antenna is conjugately matched, i.e., when it is resonant and it has an equal coupling with free space and its load. This condition, however, can be easily affected by changes in the environment, preventing optimal operation of a WPT system. Here, we introduce the concept of coherently enhanced WPT that allows us to bypass this difficulty and achieve dynamic control of power transfer. The approach relies on coherent excitation of the waveguide connected to the antenna load with a backward propagating signal of specific amplitude and phase. This signal creates a suitable interference pattern at the load resulting in a modification of the local wave impedance, which in turn enables conjugate matching and a largely increased amount of extracted energy. We develop a simple theoretical model describing this concept, demonstrate it with full-wave numerical simulations for the canonical example of a dipole antenna, and verify experimentally in both near-field and far-field regimes.

  20. Heat transfer from rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1980-11-01

    The transformation of the friction data obtained with experiments in annuli can be performed either with the assumption of universal logarithmic velocity profile or of an universal eddy momentum diffusivity profile. For the roughness of practical interest both methods, when properly applied, give good results. For these roughnesses the transformed friction factors seem not to be unduly affected if one assumes a constant slope of the velocity profile equal to 2.5. All the transformation methods of the heat transfer data so far proposed predict too high wall temperatures in the central channels of a 19-rod bundle with three-dimensional roughness. Preliminary calculations show that the application of the superimposition principle with the logarithmic temperature profiles gives good results for the three-dimensional roughness as well. Although the measurements show that the slope of the logarithmic temperature profiles is different from 2.5, the assumption of a constant slope equal to 2.5 does not affect the transformed heat transfer data appreciably. For moderately high roughness ribs the turbulent Prandtl number, averaged over the cross section of a tube, is about the same (approx. 0.8) for rough as for smooth surfaces. The temperature effect on the heat transfer data with air cooling is stronger than originally assumed in the general correlation of Dalle Donne and Meyer. With helium cooling this temperature effect is even stronger. (orig.) [de

  1. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  2. Ex-vessel nuclear fuel transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    A system for transferring fuel assemblies between a fuel transfer area and a fuel storage area while the fuel assemblies remain completely submerged in a continuous body of coolant is described. A fuel transfer area filled with reactor coolant communicating with the reactor vessel below the reactor coolant level provides a transfer area for fuel assemblies in transit to and from the reactor vessel. A positioning mechanism comprising at least one rotatable plug disposed on a fuel transfer tank located outside the reactor vessel cooperates with either the fuel transfer area or the fuel storage area to position a fuel assembly in transit. When in position, a transporting mechanism cooperating with the positioning mechanism lifts or lowers a chosen fuel assembly. The transporting mechanism together with the positioning mechanism are capable of transferring a fuel assembly between the fuel transfer area and the fuel storage area

  3. Behavioural domain knowledge transfer for autonomous agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , and Behavior Transfer in Autonomous Robots, AAAI 2014 Fall Symposium Series, 13-15 November 2014 Behavioural Domain Knowledge Transfer for Autonomous Agents Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Modelling and Digital Science Council...

  4. EPA Reports to Congress on Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agencies are required to report to the Congress annually on their technology transfer activities. These reports summarize technology transfer activities of the EPA’s federal laboratories, by fiscal year.

  5. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms

  6. HEAT-MASS TRANSFER IN MOVING MELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Yesman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives mathematical formation and solution of the heat-mass transfer problem when liquid metals are flowing in the channels of complicated geometry. The problem is solved with the help of numerical methods. A method of control volume is used for finite-difference approximation of transfer equations. The research results can be applied for execution of a numerical experiment while investigating heat-mass transfer in liquid-metal heat-transfer and reological media.

  7. Technology Transfer and its effect on Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Neelanjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses technology transfer and innovation activities by the high cost firm in a Cournot duopoly framework, where technology transfer between the firms may occur after the innovation decision. The two effects of innovation are to access the superior technology of the low cost firm if higher cost prohibits technology transfer and to affect the pricing rule of technology transfer via higher bargaining power. The incentive for innovation is more in fixed-fee licensing than in two-par...

  8. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  9. Technology transfer and localization: A Framatome perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preneuf, R. de

    2000-01-01

    Localization and technology transfer have been important factors influencing the decision-making process in countries embarking on a nuclear power programme. It seems natural that relationships between donors and recipients of technology, beginning with sub-contracting, should evolve towards technology transfers and cooperation on an equal footing. France was both a receiver and a donor of technology transfer in the area of nuclear power. This paper describes the French experience in technology transfer and the lesson learned therefrom. (author)

  10. Heat transfer--Orlando (Symposium), 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    This conference proceedings contains 36 papers of which 3 appear as abstracts. 23 papers are indexed separately. Topics covered include: thermodynamics of PWR and LMFBR Steam Generators; two-phase flow in parallel channels; geothermal heat transfer; natural circulation in complex geometries; heat transfer in non-Newtonian systems; and process heat transfer

  11. Message transfer in a communication network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... We study message transfer in a 2-d communication network of regular nodes and randomly distributed hubs. We study both single message transfer and multiple message transfer on the lattice. The average travel time for single messages travelling between source and target pairs of fixed separations ...

  12. The Transfer of Training: What Really Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Rebecca; Salas, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Although organizations invest billions of dollars in training every year, many trained competencies reportedly fail to transfer to the workplace. Researchers have long examined the "transfer problem", uncovering a wealth of information regarding the transfer of training. Inconsistencies remain, however, and organizations may find it difficult to…

  13. Training Transfer: Not the 10% Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Training transfer is a key concern for organizational stakeholders, training professionals, and researchers. Since Georgenson's (1982) article on transfer, his conversational gambit that only 10% of training transfers to performance on the job has been quoted often. This estimate suggests a low level of success with training programs in general,…

  14. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  15. Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W

    1974-01-01

    Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.

  16. Group Differences in California Community College Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Deborah; Stowers, Genie N. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which community colleges succeed in assisting students to transfer to four-year colleges. The study uses data from the California Community College system to test hypotheses about overall transfers and transfers of underrepresented students, It utilizes a framework based upon social reproduction theory (Bowles…

  17. Laser-Induced Energy Transfer in Solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, J.B.W.; Rullmann, Johan; Wiersma, Douwe

    1981-01-01

    Laser-induced energy transfer was observed and studied in the system pentacene doped into naphthalene. The transfer spectrum shows a remarkable correspondence with the host density of states function. The rate for laser-induced energy transfer is given and it is concluded that most likely,

  18. Transferring World Class Production to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Mefford, Robert Neil

    1998-01-01

    Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice of the produ...

  19. 17 CFR 190.06 - Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (v) Accounts which are in deficit. (2) Amount of equity which may be transferred. In no case may... transfer prior to the order for relief by a public customer, including a transfer by a public customer... appropriate and in the public interest. (3) Withdrawals prior to bankruptcy. The withdrawal or settlement of a...

  20. Technology transfer: the key to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    The paper brings to light some of the reasons why technology transfer is difficult in fusion, examines some of the impediments to the process, and finally looks at a successful example of technology transfer. The paper considers some subjective features of fusion - one might call them the sociology of fusion - that are none the less real and that serve as impediments to technology transfer

  1. Transfer across Second Language Acquisition Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat

    2011-01-01

    Transfer has been discussed from different points of view since the advent of Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis [13], [8]. Mishina-Mori [19] has defied transfer as merging grammatical properties from one language to another. The effect of transfer from a first language (L1) to a second language (L2) or a third language (L3) has been viewed…

  2. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue; Pang, Daxin; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2011-07-29

    The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50μg/mL vitamin C 15h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Angular momentum transfer in primordial discs and the rotation of the first stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Bromm, Volker

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the rotation velocity of the first stars by modelling the angular momentum transfer in the primordial accretion disc. Assessing the impact of magnetic braking, we consider the transition in angular momentum transport mode at the Alfvén radius, from the dynamically dominated free-fall accretion to the magnetically dominated solid-body one. The accreting protostar at the centre of the primordial star-forming cloud rotates with close to breakup speed in the case without magnetic fields. Considering a physically-motivated model for small-scale turbulent dynamo amplification, we find that stellar rotation speed quickly declines if a large fraction of the initial turbulent energy is converted to magnetic energy (≳ 0.14). Alternatively, if the dynamo process were inefficient, for amplification due to flux-freezing, stars would become slow rotators if the pre-galactic magnetic field strength is above a critical value, ≃ 10-8.2 G, evaluated at a scale of nH = 1 cm-3, which is significantly higher than plausible cosmological seed values (˜10-15 G). Because of the rapid decline of the stellar rotational speed over a narrow range in model parameters, the first stars encounter a bimodal fate: rapid rotation at almost the breakup level, or the near absence of any rotation.

  4. Angular momentum transfer in primordial discs and the rotation of the first stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Bromm, Volker

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the rotation velocity of the first stars by modelling the angular momentum transfer in the primordial accretion disc. Assessing the impact of magnetic braking, we consider the transition in angular momentum transport mode at the Alfvén radius, from the dynamically dominated free-fall accretion to the magnetically dominated solid-body one. The accreting protostar at the centre of the primordial star-forming cloud rotates with close to breakup speed in the case without magnetic fields. Considering a physically motivated model for small-scale turbulent dynamo amplification, we find that stellar rotation speed quickly declines if a large fraction of the initial turbulent energy is converted to magnetic energy (≳ 0.14). Alternatively, if the dynamo process were inefficient, for amplification due to flux freezing, stars would become slow rotators if the pre-galactic magnetic field strength is above a critical value, ≃10-8.2 G, evaluated at a scale of nH = 1 cm-3, which is significantly higher than plausible cosmological seed values (˜10-15 G). Because of the rapid decline of the stellar rotational speed over a narrow range in model parameters, the first stars encounter a bimodal fate: rapid rotation at almost the breakup level, or the near absence of any rotation.

  5. Intramolecular electron transfer in laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farver, Ole; Wherland, Scot; Koroleva, Olga; Loginov, Dmitry S; Pecht, Israel

    2011-09-01

    Rate constants and activation parameters have been determined for the internal electron transfer from type 1 (T1) to type 3 (T3) copper ions in laccase from both the fungus Trametes hirsuta and the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera, using the pulse radiolysis method. The rate constant at 298 K and the enthalpy and entropy of activation were 25 ± 1 s(-1), 39.7 ± 5.0 kJ·mol(-1) and -87 ± 9 J·mol(-1) ·K(-1) for the fungal enzyme and 1.1 ± 0.1 s(-1), 9.8 ± 0.2 kJ·mol(-1) and -211 ± 3 J·mol(-1) ·K(-1) for the tree enzyme. The initial reduction of the T1 site by pulse radiolytically produced radicals was direct in the case of T. hirsuta laccase, but occured indirectly via a disulfide radical in R. vernicifera. The equilibrium constant that characterizes the electron transfer from T1 to T3 copper ions was 0.4 for T. hirsuta laccase and 1.5 for R. vernicifera laccase, leading to full reduction of the T1 site occurring at 2.9 ± 0.2 electron equivalents for T. hirsuta and 4 electron equivalents for R. vernicifera laccase. These results were compared with each other and with those for the same process in other multicopper oxidases, ascorbate oxidase and Streptomyces coelicolor laccase, using available structural information and electron transfer theory. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  6. Pumped energy transfer stations (STEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournery, Jean-Francois

    2015-12-01

    As objectives of development are high for renewable energies (they are supposed to cover 50 per cent of new energy needs by 2035), pumped energy transfer stations are to play an important role in this respect. The author first discusses the consequences of the development of renewable energies on the exploitation of electric grids: issue of intermittency for some of them, envisaged solutions. Then, he addresses one of the solutions: the storage of electric power. He notices that increasing the potential energy of a volume of water is presently the most mature solution to face massive needs of the power system. Dams and pumped energy transfer stations represent now almost the whole installed storage power in the world. The author then presents these pumped energy transfer stations: principle, brief history (the first appeared in Italy and Switzerland at the end of the 1890's). He indicates the various parameters of assessment of such stations: maximum stored energy, installed power in pumping mode and turbine mode, time constant, efficiency, level of flexibility. He discusses economic issues. He describes and comments the operation of turbine-pump groups: ternary groups, reversible binary groups. He discusses barriers to be overcome and technical advances to be made for varying speed groups and for marine stations. He finally gives an overview (table with number of stations belonging to different power ranges, remarkable installations) of existing stations in China, USA, Japan, Germany, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, France and UK, and indicate predictions regarding storage needs at the world level. Some data are finally indicated for the six existing French installations

  7. Ks-BAND DETECTION OF THERMAL EMISSION AND COLOR CONSTRAINTS TO CoRoT-1b: A LOW-ALBEDO PLANET WITH INEFFICIENT ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY REDISTRIBUTION AND A TEMPERATURE INVERSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Justin C.; Apai, Daniel; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Sing, David K.; Burrows, Adam

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection in Ks-band of the secondary eclipse of the hot Jupiter CoRoT-1b from time series photometry with the ARC 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory. The eclipse shows a depth of 0.336 ± 0.042% and is centered at phase 0.5022 +0.0023 -0.0027 , consistent with a zero eccentricity orbit (e cos ω = 0.0035 +0.0036 -0.0042 ). We perform the first optical to near-infrared multi-band photometric analysis of an exoplanet's atmosphere and constrain the reflected and thermal emissions by combining our result with the recent 0.6, 0.71, and 2.09 μm secondary eclipse detections by Snellen et al., Gillon et al., and Alonso et al. Comparing the multi-wavelength detections to state-of-the-art radiative-convective chemical-equilibrium atmosphere models, we find the near-infrared fluxes difficult to reproduce. The closest blackbody-based and physical models provide the following atmosphere parameters: a temperature T = 2460 +80 -160 K; a very low Bond albedo A B = 0.000 +0.081 -0.000 ; and an energy redistribution parameter P n = 0.1, indicating a small but nonzero amount of heat transfer from the day to nightside. The best physical model suggests a thermal inversion layer with an extra optical absorber of opacity κ e = 0.05 cm 2 g -1 , placed near the 0.1 bar atmospheric pressure level. This inversion layer is located 10 times deeper in the atmosphere than the absorbers used in models to fit mid-infrared Spitzer detections of other irradiated hot Jupiters.

  8. Transfer of Training: Interventions to Facilitate Transfer of Training Based on Time and Role Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonhee; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2008-01-01

    Transfer of training has been of vital concern for training effectiveness. However, even though a variety of studies have been conducted on transfer of training, little research has focused on action-oriented interventions to facilitate transfer. The purpose of this paper is then to suggest strategies to enhance transfer of training based on…

  9. 78 FR 17053 - Indirect Stock Transfers and the Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... 1545-BJ75 Indirect Stock Transfers and the Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or... stock transfers for certain outbound asset reorganizations. The regulations also modify the third... respect to transfers of stock or securities by a domestic corporation to a foreign corporation in a...

  10. 78 FR 17066 - Indirect Stock Transfers and Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or Securities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... Indirect Stock Transfers and Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or Securities in Outbound... stock transfers for certain outbound asset reorganizations. The temporary regulations also modify the... changes with respect to transfers of stock or securities by a domestic corporation to a foreign...

  11. Social Support at the Workplace, Motivation to Transfer and Training Transfer: A Multilevel Indirect Effects Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenberg, Ann-Christine; Spurk, Daniel; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors of training transfer. Transfer motivation is thought to mediate the support-training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e. whole-team training), individual perception of these…

  12. Exploring the Critical Role of Motivation to Transfer in the Training Transfer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Anna; Beller, Johannes; Kauffeld, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring the critical role of motivation to transfer within the training transfer process. In a sample of N?=?252 employees of one industrial company, one peer rating and several self-ratings of transfer were used to investigate the mediating role of motivation to transfer in the relationship between training…

  13. When Creativity Met Transfer: Increasing Creativity and Transfer by Controlling the Styles of Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniel, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to combine both transfer of learning (hereafter, transfer) and creativity into similar processes that can increase the products of transfer and creativity. Both transfer and creativity operate within reciprocal relationships between memory storage and working memory. Moreover, they are also based on moving…

  14. Laser cooling by adiabatic transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcia, Matthew; Cline, Julia; Bartolotta, John; Holland, Murray; Thompson, James

    2017-04-01

    We have demonstrated a new method of laser cooling applicable to particles with narrow linewidth optical transitions. This simple and robust cooling mechanism uses a frequency-swept laser to adiabatically transfer atoms between internal and motional states. The role of spontaneous emission is reduced (though is still critical) compared to Doppler cooling. This allows us to achieve greater slowing forces than would be possible with Doppler cooling, and may make this an appealing technique for cooling molecules. In this talk, I will present a demonstration of this technique in a cold strontium system. DARPA QUASAR, NIST, NSF PFC.

  15. Radionuclide transfer to meadow vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Matsko, N.; Zhebrakova, I.; Montik, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper results of radioecological monitoring of natural plant populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Polesky State Radioecological Reserve) during the period from 1987 to 1998 are presented. The level of radiation background in experimental areas varied from 0.1 to 30 mR/h that correspond to the total soil activity of 300-24000 kBq/m 2 (for May 1997). Monitoring was carried out including the radionuclide migration in natural plant complexes and transfer of 137 Cs between some plant organs. Refs. 3 (author)

  16. Genetic transfer in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, B.J.; Wall, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    An apparently defective bacteriophage capable of mediating transduction has been identified in culture filtrates of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (American Type Culture Collection 27774). Phage-mediated intraspecies transfer of antibiotic resistance markers occurs with a frequency of 10 -4 to 10 -6 per recipient cell. The vector contains linear fragments of double-strained DNA of about 13.5 kilobase pairs, which appear to be random pieces of bacterial DNA. As yet, neither induction nor plaque formation has been observed. To the authors' knowledge, a system of genetic exchange has not been described before for a member of the sulfate-reducing bacteria

  17. Transfer matrices for multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquero, R.

    1988-08-01

    We consider four of the transfer matrices defined to deal with multilayer structures. We deduce algorithms to calculate them numerically, in a simple and neat way. We illustrate their application to semi-infinite systems using SGFM formulae. These algorithms are of fast convergence and allow a calculation of bulk-, surface- and inner-layers band structure in good agreement with much more sophisticated calculations. Supermatrices, interfaces and multilayer structures can be calculated in this way with a small computational effort. (author). 10 refs

  18. Credit Risk Transfer and Crunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    banks as risk navigators and generated a competitive hierarchy within the global banking industry determined on a gauge of this capacity. This private regulatory regime promoted market inflation and rendered institutional liquidity and risk transfer definitive of market power. In turn, a ballooning...... value for government bonds, central banks have effectively recognised that the products of innovation in the private sphere are global money. The state is in a curious bind. It takes on limitless exposure to private liabilities while its reform agenda is constrained to calling for greater levels...

  19. Liquid metal heat transfer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, H.W.; Yoder, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    An alkali liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor coupled with an alkali metal Rankine cycle provides a practicable option for space systems/missions requiring power in the 1 to 100 MW(e) range. Thermal issues relative to the use of alkali liquid metals for this purpose are identified as these result from the nature of the alkali metal fluid itself, from uncertainties in the available heat transfer correlations, and from design and performance requirements for system components operating in the earth orbital microgravity environment. It is noted that, while these issues require further attention to achieve optimum system performance, none are of such magnitude as to invalidate this particular space power concept

  20. International Transfer Pricing in Multinational Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Cools, Martine; Rohde, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    , the Appendix provides an overview of the ‘OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations’ (OECD, 2010), hereafter OECD Guidelines, upon which most transfer pricing regulations worldwide are based. It includes an introduction to the arm’s length principle, OECD....... As a result, tax risk management considerations play a key role in the transfer pricing decisions of MNEs today. This case seeks to provide you with examples of the core principles of international transfer pricing, as well as to allow you to discuss international transfer pricing in the context...

  1. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  2. Mechanistic modelling of infrared mediated energy transfer during the primary drying step of a continuous freeze-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; De Meyer, Laurens; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Conventional pharmaceutical freeze-drying is an inefficient and expensive batch-wise process, associated with several disadvantages leading to an uncontrolled end product variability. The proposed continuous alternative, based on spinning the vials during freezing and on optimal energy supply during drying, strongly increases process efficiency and improves product quality (uniformity). The heat transfer during continuous drying of the spin frozen vials is provided via non-contact infrared (IR) radiation. The energy transfer to the spin frozen vials should be optimised to maximise the drying efficiency while avoiding cake collapse. Therefore, a mechanistic model was developed which allows computing the optimal, dynamic IR heater temperature in function of the primary drying progress and which, hence, also allows predicting the primary drying endpoint based on the applied dynamic IR heater temperature. The model was validated by drying spin frozen vials containing the model formulation (3.9mL in 10R vials) according to the computed IR heater temperature profile. In total, 6 validation experiments were conducted. The primary drying endpoint was experimentally determined via in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and compared with the endpoint predicted by the model (50min). The mean ratio of the experimental drying time to the predicted value was 0.91, indicating a good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data. The end product had an elegant product appearance (visual inspection) and an acceptable residual moisture content (Karl Fischer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of the number of transferred embryos, the interval between nuclear transfer and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern on pig cloning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Chol Ho; Fu, Zhixin; Bao, Lei; Chen, Haide; Zhang, Dan; Luo, Qiong; Ri, Hak Chol; Huang, Hefeng; Luan, Zhidong; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Chun; Xiao, Lei; Jong, Ui Myong

    2013-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of producing cloned pigs, we investigated the influence of the number of transferred embryos, the culturing interval between nuclear transfer (NT) and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern (single oviduct or double oviduct) on cloning efficiency. The results demonstrated that transfer of either 150-200 or more than 200NT embryos compared to transfer of 100-150 embryos resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (48 ± 16, 50 ± 16 vs. 29 ± 5%, pcloning efficiency is achieved by adjusting the number and in vitro culture time of reconstructed embryos as well as the embryo transfer pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Data fusion in multivariate calibration transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wangdong; Brown, Steven D; Man, Ruilin

    2010-02-28

    We report the use of stacked partial least-squares regression and stacked dual-domain regression analysis with four commonly used techniques for calibration transfer to improve predictive performance from transferred multivariate calibration models. The predictive performance from three conventional calibration transfer methods, piecewise direct standardization (PDS), orthogonal signal correction (OSC) and model updating (MUP), requiring standards measured on both instruments, was significantly improved from data fusion either by stacking of wavelet scales or by stacking of spectral intervals, as demonstrated by transfer of calibrations developed on near-infrared spectra of synthetic gasoline. Stacking did not produce as significant an improvement for calibration transfer using a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, but application of SPLS regression to FIR-transferred spectra improves predictive performance of the transferred model. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysing CMS transfers using Machine Learning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Diotalevi, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    LHC experiments transfer more than 10 PB/week between all grid sites using the FTS transfer service. In particular, CMS manages almost 5 PB/week of FTS transfers with PhEDEx (Physics Experiment Data Export). FTS sends metrics about each transfer (e.g. transfer rate, duration, size) to a central HDFS storage at CERN. The work done during these three months, here as a Summer Student, involved the usage of ML techniques, using a CMS framework called DCAFPilot, to process this new data and generate predictions of transfer latencies on all links between Grid sites. This analysis will provide, as a future service, the necessary information in order to proactively identify and maybe fix latency issued transfer over the WLCG.

  6. A Microcontroller-Based Automatic Transfer Switching System for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unreliability in electric power supply has occasioned the proliferation of standby generators especially in developing countries. However, the methods and equipment employed to effect power supply changeover remain fraught with challenges ranging from inefficiency to cost. Most industries still employ the manual method ...

  7. Electromechanical capacitor for energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, T.A.; Chowdhuri, P.; Marshall, J.

    1983-01-01

    Inductive energy transfer between two magnets can be achieved with almost 100% efficiency with a transfer capacitor. However, the bulk and cost will be high, and reliability low if conventional capacitors are used. A homopolar machine, used as a capacitor, will be compact and economical. A homopolar machine was designed with counter-rotating copper disks completely immersed in a liquid metal (NaK-78) to work as a pulse capacitor. Absence of solid-brush collectors minimized wear and frictional losses. Wetting of the copper disks throughout the periphery by the liquid metal minimized the resistive losses at the collector interface. A liquid-metal collector would, however, introduce hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic losses. The selected liquid metal, e.g., NaK-78 will produce the lowest of such losses among the available liquid metals. An electromechanical capacitor of this design was tested at various dc magnetic fields. Its measured capacitance was about 100 farads at a dc magnetic field of 1.15 tesla

  8. Radionuclide transfer to meadow plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzharova, N.; Fesenko, S.; Belli, M.; Arkhipov, A.; Ivanova, T.; Perepelyatnikov, G.; Tsvetnova, O.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data on 90 Sr and 137 Cs transfer to plants of natural and semi-natural meadows selected in the main CIS region contaminated due to the ChNPP accident are discussed. The highest TF's in grass stand are obtained for peatlands, and minimal ones - for dry meadows. 137 Cs content in plants decreased after the accident, on average, by a factor of 2-4. The dynamics of 137 Cs uptake by plants depends on meadow and soil properties. The first half life of 137 Cs transfer to plants change from 2,0 to 2,2 years and the second (slower) period half life change from 4,0 to 12 years for different meadow types. 90 Sr TF's are higher than those obtained for 137 Cs. The correlation between soil parameters and TP's are shown. 137 Cs TF's in grass stand depend on meadow type and decrease in the following order: peatlands> flood plain and wet (lowland) meadows> dry meadows

  9. Spin Transfer Torque in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Chen, Zhihong

    2014-03-01

    Graphene is an idea channel material for spin transport due to its long spin diffusion length. To develop graphene based spin logic, it is important to demonstrate spin transfer torque in graphene. Here, we report the experimental measurement of spin transfer torque in graphene nonlocal spin valve devices. Assisted by a small external in-plane magnetic field, the magnetization reversal of the receiving magnet is induced by pure spin diffusion currents from the injector magnet. The magnetization switching is reversible between parallel and antiparallel configurations by controlling the polarity of the applied charged currents. Current induced heating and Oersted field from the nonlocal charge flow have also been excluded in this study. Next, we further enhance the spin angular momentum absorption at the interface of the receiving magnet and graphene channel by removing the tunneling barrier in the receiving magnet. The device with a tunneling barrier only at the injector magnet shows a comparable nonlocal spin valve signal but lower electrical noise. Moreover, in the same preset condition, the critical charge current density for spin torque in the single tunneling barrier device shows a substantial reduction if compared to the double tunneling barrier device.

  10. Skills Development and Transfer Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutshena, M.T.; Nkuna, K.K.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed [1]. The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)

  11. Transferability of glass lens molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, Masahide

    2006-02-01

    Sphere lenses have been used for long time. But it is well known that sphere lenses theoretically have spherical aberration, coma and so on. And, aspheric lenses attract attention recently. Plastic lenses are molded easily with injection machines, and are relatively low cost. They are suitable for mass production. On the other hand, glass lenses have several excellent features such as high refractive index, heat resistance and so on. Many aspheric glass lenses came to be used for the latest digital camera and mobile phone camera module. It is very difficult to produce aspheric glass lenses by conventional process of curve generating and polishing. For the solution of this problem, Glass Molding Machine was developed and is spreading through the market. High precision mold is necessary to mold glass lenses with Glass Molding Machine. The mold core is ground or turned by high precision NC aspheric generator. To obtain higher transferability of the mold core, the function of the molding machine and the conditions of molding are very important. But because of high molding temperature, there are factors of thermal expansion and contraction of the mold and glass material. And it is hard to avoid the factors. In this session, I introduce following items. [1] Technology of glass molding and the machine is introduced. [2] The transferability of glass molding is analyzed with some data of glass lenses molded. [3] Compensation of molding shape error is discussed with examples.

  12. Technology Transfer: A Contact Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Nina P.

    1995-01-01

    Technology transfer is a dynamic process, involving dynamic people as the bridge between NASA Langley Research Center and the outside world. This bridge, for nonaerospace applications, is known as the Technology Applications Group. The introduction of new innovations and expertise where they are needed occurs through a 'push' and 'pull' process. A 'push' occurs when a new technology is first developed with high commercial potential and then a company is found to licence or further develop the technology. The 'pull' process occurs through problem statements. A company or group will submit a written statement of what they need and the shortcomings of commercially available technology. The Technology Transfer Team (T3) reviews these problem statements and decides where NASA LaRC can offer assistance. A researcher or group of researchers are then identified who can help solve the problem and they are put in contact with the company. Depending upon the situation in either method, a Space Act Agreement (SAA), or outline of the responsibilities for each party, is developed.

  13. Submandibular Gland Transfer: A Potential Imaging Pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Yom, S S; Ha, P K; Heaton, C M; Glastonbury, C M

    2018-03-29

    The Seikaly and Jha submandibular gland transfer surgery is performed to facilitate gland shielding during radiation therapy for head and neck tumors to circumvent radiation-induced xerostomia. It results in an asymmetric postsurgical appearance of the submandibular and submental spaces. Our purpose was to characterize the morphologic and enhancement characteristics of the transferred submandibular gland and identify potential pitfalls in postoperative radiologic interpretation. This retrospective study identified patients with head and neck cancer who had undergone the submandibular gland transfer procedure at our institution. Chart reviews were performed to identify relevant oncologic histories and therapies. CT and MR neck imaging was reviewed to characterize morphologic and enhancement characteristics of the pre- and postoperative submandibular glands, as well as interpretive accuracy. Eleven patients with oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas who underwent submandibular gland transfer were identified. The transferred glands were significantly lengthened in the anteroposterior dimension compared with contralateral glands ( P submandibular and submental spaces. Enhancement patterns of the transferred submandibular glands varied, depending on the time of imaging relative to the operation and radiation therapy. Submandibular gland transfer was acknowledged in the postoperative report in 7/11 cases. Errors in interpretation were present in 2/11 reports. After the submandibular gland transfer procedure, the submandibular and submental spaces lose their symmetric appearances as the transferred submandibular glands become lengthened and located more anteriorly and inferiorly, with variable enhancement characteristics. Familiarity with the postsurgical appearance of the transferred submandibular glands is key to accurate imaging interpretation. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. ASPEK PERPAJAKAN DALAM PRAKTEK TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Mangoting

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer pricing is defined as a special price for sale that is used in exchange of interdivisional to record the revenue of the selling division and expense of the buying division. The main goal of transfer pricing is to evaluate and measure the performance of a company. But transfer pricing is often used by multinational companies to minimize tax paid through the re-engineering of price transferred among divisions. The key to a successful practice of transfer pricing from tax standpoint is the existence of related parties transactions. Related parties is relationship between one company with other company and this relationship happens because of such relationship between each company does not exist naturally.To regulate the tranfer pricing practice, the regulations govern the authority to realocate transfer price among divisions that have related parties transactions. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Transfer pricing didefenisikan sebagai suatu harga jual khusus yang dipakai dalam pertukaran antardivisional untuk mencatat pendapatan divisi penjual (selling division dan biaya divisi pembeli (buying division. Tujuan utama dari transfer pricing adalah mengevaluasi dan mengukur kinerja perusahaan. Tetapi sering juga transfer pricing digunakan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan multinasional untuk meminimalkan jumlah pajak yang dibayar melalui rekayasa harga yang ditransfer antardivisi. Kunci utama keberhasilan transfer pricing dari sisi pajak adalah adanya transaksi karena adanya hubungan istimewa. Hubungan istimewa merupakan hubungan kepemilikan antara satu perusahaan dengan perusahaan lain dan hubungan ini terjadi karena adanya keterkaitan satu pihak dengan pihak lain yang tidak terdapat pada hubungan biasa. Untuk mengatur transfer pricing ini, undang-undang memberikan kewenangan kepada pihak fiskus untuk menentukan kembali jumlah harga transfer antar pihak-pihak yang mempunyai hubungan istimewa. Kata kunci: transfer pricing, hubungan istimewa, perusahaan

  15. Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the

  16. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Philip [Overland Park, KS; Watterson, Carl [Kansas City, MO

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  17. Helium hammer in superfluid transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tward, E.; Mason, P. V.

    1984-01-01

    Large transient pressure pulses, referred to as a helium hammer, which occurred in the transfer line of the main cryogenic tank during the development tests of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, launched on January 25, 1983, are analyzed, and the measures taken to prevent a failure described. The modifications include an installation of a 2.3-liter surge tank upstream, and a back-up relief valve downstream, of a burst disk. The surge tank is designed to attenuate a 0.33-MPa pressure pulse at the inlet down to 0.092 MPa at the outlet. A mechanism of the pulse generation is suggested, which involves flashing and rapid recondensation of the small amount of liquid entering the warm section of a transition to room temperature.

  18. Transplacental transfer of environmental genotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Vestergaard, Astrid Beck; Okkels, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Transplacental transfer of genotoxic material has been determined by measuring the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-albumin adduct level in serum isolated from the mother and the umbilical cord using a competitive ELISA assay and the antibody (8E11) against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) tetrols. Smoking.......82; 40). Exposure to passive smoking did not modify the adduct levels. When all non-smoking cases were combined, the transport time to/from the home became a major contributing factor to the adduct level. The median adduct level in umbilical cord blood was significantly lower than in maternal blood......, the maternal/fetal ratio being approximately 1.3, and a positive association between the adduct levels in the mother and umbilical cord blood was observed. The frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype in the study population, females aged 19-44, was 55.4%, but the GSTM1 genotype did not significantly alter...

  19. Modeling of atmospheric pollutant transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdain, F.

    2007-01-01

    Modeling is today a common tool for the evaluation of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution events, for the design of air monitoring networks or for the calculation of pollutant concentrations in the ambient air. It is even necessary for the a priori evaluation of the consequences of a pollution plume. A large choice of atmospheric transfer codes exist but no ideal tool is available which allows to model all kinds of situations. The present day approach consists in combining different types of modeling according to the requested results and simulations. The CEA has a solid experience in this domain and has developed independent tools for the impact and safety studies relative to industrial facilities and to the management of crisis situations. (J.S.)

  20. Heat transfer in porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Amanifard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of electrical double layer (EDL near the solid/ liquid interface, on three dimensional heat transfer characteristic and pressure drop of water flow through a rectangular microchannel numerically are investigated. An additional body force originating from the existence of EDL is considered to modify the conventional Navier-stokes and energy equations. These modified equations are solved numerically for steady laminar flow on the basis of control volume approaches. Fluid velocity distribution and temperature with presence and absence of EDL effects are presented for various geometric cases and different boundary conditions. The results illustrate that, the liquid flow in rectangular microchannels is influenced significantly by the EDL, particularly in the high electric potentials, and hence deviates from flow characteristics described by classical fluid mechanics.