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Sample records for transfer inefficiency cti

  1. Measurement and investigation of proton irradiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency in PPD CIS at different integration times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zujun; Zhang, Fengqi; Bian, Jingying; Yao, Zhibin; He, Baoping; Liu, Minbo; Sheng, Jiangkun; Ma, Wuying; Dong, Guantao; Jin, Junshan

    2018-04-01

    Charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) is an important parameter for photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs). A test system was built and used to measure the CTI of PPD CIS devices at different integration times. The radiation effects of 3 MeV and 10 MeV protons on the CTI were investigated. The experiments were carried out at the EN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at proton fluences in the range 1010 to 1011 p/cm2. The CTI was measured within the 2 h following proton radiations. The dependence of CTI on integration time, proton energy and fluence were investigated. The CTI was observed to increase after proton irradiation: with the effect of irradiation with 3 MeV proton being more severe than that with 10 MeV protons. The CTI was also observed to decrease with increasing integration time, which is thought to be related to the charge density in the space charge region (SCR) of the CIS devices. This work has provided a simple method to measure the CTI and helped us to understand proton radiation effects on the CTI of PPD CISs.

  2. Annealing bounds to prevent further Charge Transfer Inefficiency increase of the Chandra X-ray CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monmeyran, Corentin, E-mail: comonmey@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Patel, Neil S., E-mail: neilp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bautz, Mark W., E-mail: mwb@space.mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Grant, Catherine E., E-mail: cgrant@space.mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Prigozhin, Gregory Y., E-mail: gyp@space.mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agarwal, Anuradha, E-mail: anu@mit.edu [Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kimerling, Lionel C., E-mail: lckim@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    After the front-illuminated CCDs on board the X-ray telescope Chandra were damaged by radiation after launch, it was decided to anneal them in an effort to remove the defects introduced by the irradiation. The annealing led to an unexpected increase of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI). The performance degradation is attributed to point defect interactions in the devices. Specifically, the annealing at 30 °C activated the diffusion of the main interstitial defect in the device, the carbon interstitial, which led to its association with a substitutional impurity, ultimately resulting in a stable and electrically active defect state. Because the formation reaction of this carbon interstitial and substitutional impurity associate is diffusion limited, we recommend a higher upper bound for the annealing temperature and duration of any future CCD anneals, that of −50 °C for one day or −60 °C for a week, to prevent further CTI increase.

  3. Assessment of space proton radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency in the CCD204 for the Euclid space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, J P D; Murray, N J; Holland, A D; Hall, D J; Cropper, M; Burt, D; Hopkinson, G; Duvet, L

    2012-01-01

    Euclid is a medium class European Space Agency mission candidate for launch in 2019 with a primary goal to study the dark universe using the weak lensing and baryonic acoustic oscillations techniques. Weak lensing depends on accurate shape measurements of distant galaxies. Therefore it is beneficial that the effects of radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) in the Euclid CCDs over the course of the 5 year mission at L2 are understood. This will allow, through experimental analysis and modelling techniques, the effects of radiation induced CTI on shape to be decoupled from those of mass inhomogeneities along the line-of-sight. This paper discusses a selection of work from the study that has been undertaken using the e2v CCD204 as part of the initial proton radiation damage assessment for Euclid. The experimental arrangement and procedure are described followed by the results obtained, thereby allowing recommendations to be made on the CCD operating temperature, to provide an insight into CTI effects using an optical background, to assess the benefits of using charge injection on CTI recovery and the effect of the use of two different methods of serial clocking on serial CTI. This work will form the basis of a comparison with a p-channel CCD204 fabricated using the same mask set as the n-channel equivalent. A custom CCD has been designed, based on this work and discussions between e2v technologies plc. and the Euclid consortium, and designated the CCD273.

  4. Pediatric Trauma Transfer Imaging Inefficiencies-Opportunities for Improvement with Cloud Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Yana; To, Alvin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the inefficiencies of radiologic imaging transfers from one hospital to the other during pediatric trauma transfers in an era of cloud based information sharing. Retrospective review of all patients transferred to a pediatric trauma center from 2008-2014 was performed. Imaging was reviewed for whether imaging accompanied the patient, whether imaging was able to be uploaded onto computer for records, whether imaging had to be repeated, and whether imaging obtained at outside hospitals (OSH) was done per universal pediatric trauma guidelines. Of the 1761 patients retrospectively reviewed, 559 met our inclusion criteria. Imaging was sent with the patient 87.7% of the time. Imaging was unable to be uploaded 31.9% of the time. CT imaging had to be repeated 1.8% of the time. CT scan was not done per universal pediatric trauma guidelines 1.2% of the time. Our study demonstrated that current imaging transfer is inefficient, leads to excess ionizing radiation, and increased healthcare costs. Universal implementation of cloud based radiology has the potential to eliminate excess ionizing radiation to children, improve patient care, and save cost to healthcare system.

  5. Inefficient cationic lipid-mediated siRNA and antisense oligonucleotide transfer to airway epithelial cells in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jim

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cationic lipid Genzyme lipid (GL 67 is the current "gold-standard" for in vivo lung gene transfer. Here, we assessed, if GL67 mediated uptake of siRNAs and asODNs into airway epithelium in vivo. Methods Anti-lacZ and ENaC (epithelial sodium channel siRNA and asODN were complexed to GL67 and administered to the mouse airway epithelium in vivo Transfection efficiency and efficacy were assessed using real-time RT-PCR as well as through protein expression and functional studies. In parallel in vitro experiments were carried out to select the most efficient oligonucleotides. Results In vitro, GL67 efficiently complexed asODNs and siRNAs, and both were stable in exhaled breath condensate. Importantly, during in vitro selection of functional siRNA and asODN we noted that asODNs accumulated rapidly in the nuclei of transfected cells, whereas siRNAs remained in the cytoplasm, a pattern consistent with their presumed site of action. Following in vivo lung transfection siRNAs were only visible in alveolar macrophages, whereas asODN also transfected alveolar epithelial cells, but no significant uptake into conducting airway epithelial cells was seen. SiRNAs and asODNs targeted to β-galactosidase reduced βgal mRNA levels in the airway epithelium of K18-lacZ mice by 30% and 60%, respectively. However, this was insufficient to reduce protein expression. In an attempt to increase transfection efficiency of the airway epithelium, we increased contact time of siRNA and asODN using the in vivo mouse nose model. Although highly variable and inefficient, transfection of airway epithelium with asODN, but not siRNA, was now seen. As asODNs more effectively transfected nasal airway epithelial cells, we assessed the effect of asODN against ENaC, a potential therapeutic target in cystic fibrosis; no decrease in ENaC mRNA levels or function was detected. Conclusion This study suggests that although siRNAs and asODNs can be developed to inhibit

  6. An Informal Survey of the CTI Backup System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Covino

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to help decide whether or not to purchase computer backup systems from Computer Translation, Inc. (CTI, for use when the CLSI LIBS 100 automated circulation system is not operating, Great Neck Library conducted an informal survey of libraries using both systems

  7. A General Purpose Connections type CTI Server Based on SIP Protocol and Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Koizumi, Hisao

    In this paper, we propose a general purpose connections type CTI (Computer Telephony Integration) server that provides various CTI services such as voice logging where the CTI server communicates with IP-PBX using the SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), and accumulates voice packets of external line telephone call flowing between an IP telephone for extension and a VoIP gateway connected to outside line networks. The CTI server realizes CTI services such as voice logging, telephone conference, or IVR (interactive voice response) with accumulating and processing voice packets sampled. Furthermore, the CTI server incorporates a web server function which can provide various CTI services such as a Web telephone directory via a Web browser to PCs, cellular telephones or smart-phones in mobile environments.

  8. The Study of Application System for Small and Medium CTI Based on Voice Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of computer telecommunications integration (CTI technology, the development of application system for small and medium CTI are updated constantly, but the study of application system for small and medium CTI, we are lack of a stability and unified model. In this paper, the author analyzes the unified structure platform of application system for small and medium CTI based on voice card. Meanwhile, the author introduces a suitable software architecture model and general procedural framework for application system for small and medium CTI based on voice card by using the idea of hierarchical design, which shows the versatility of the architecture. It provided an efficient channel for the development of small and medium CTI.

  9. Introducing and modeling inefficiency contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Kronborg, Dorte; Matthews, Kent

    2016-01-01

    -called inefficiency contributions, which are defined as the relative contributions from specific variables to the overall levels of inefficiencies. A statistical model for distinguishing the inefficiency contributions between subgroups is proposed and the method is illustrated on a data set on Chinese banks....

  10. The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; De Leo, Alison A; Renfree, Marilyn B; Thomson, Peter C; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2012-06-08

    The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP) gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A). Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1) and early lactation (Phase 2A). The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI), spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI) and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5) genes. Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species.

  11. The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharo Elizabeth A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A. Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Results Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1 and early lactation (Phase 2A. The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI, spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5 genes. Conclusions Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species.

  12. Inefficient equilibria in transition economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Guriev

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a general equilibrium in an economy where all market participants face a bid-ask spread. The spread may be caused by indirect business taxes, middlemen rent-seeking, delays in payments or liquidity constraints or price uncertainty. Wherever it comes from the spread causes inefficiency of the market equilibrium. We discuss some institutions that can decrease the inefficiency. One is second currency (barter exchange in the inter-firm transactions. It is shown that the general equilibrium in an economy with second currency is effective though is still different from Arrow–Debreu equilibrium. Another solution can be introduction of mutual trade credit. In the economy with trade credit there are multiple equilibria that are more efficient than original bid-ask spread but still not as efficient as Arrow–Debreu one, too. The implications for firms' integration and applicability to Russian economy are discussed.

  13. Phase I dose escalation safety study of nanoparticulate paclitaxel (CTI 52010) in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak, Sandra M; Selting, Kim A; Decedue, Charles J; Henry, Carolyn J; Tate, Deborah; Howell, Jahna; Bilof, K James; Kim, Dae Y

    2011-01-01

    Paclitaxel is highly effective in the treatment of many cancers in humans, but cannot be routinely used in dogs as currently formulated due to the exquisite sensitivity of this species to surfactant-solubilizing agents. CTI 52010 is a formulation of nanoparticulate paclitaxel consisting of drug and normal saline. Our objectives were to determine the maximally tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of CTI 52010 administered intravenously to normal dogs. Three normal adult hound dogs were evaluated by physical examination, complete blood count, chemistry profile, and urinalysis. Dogs were treated with staggered escalating dosages of CTI 52010 with a 28-day washout. All dogs were treated with a starting dosage of 40 mg/m(2), and subsequent dosages were escalated at 50% (dog 1), 100% (dog 2), or 200% (dog 3) with each cycle, to a maximum of 240 mg/m(2). Dogs were monitored by daily physical assessment and weekly laboratory evaluation. Standard criteria were used to grade adverse events. Plasma was collected at regular intervals to determine pharmacokinetics. Dogs were euthanized humanely, and necropsy was performed one week after the last treatment. The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 neutropenia and the maximum tolerated dosage was 120 mg/m(2). Grade 1-2 gastrointestinal toxicity was noted at higher dosages. Upon post mortem evaluation, no evidence of organ (liver, kidney, spleen) toxicity was noted. CTI 52010 was well tolerated when administered intravenously to normal dogs. A starting dosage for a Phase I/II trial in tumor-bearing dogs is 80 mg/m(2).

  14. A critical discussion on the applicability of Compound Topographic Index (CTI) for predicting ephemeral gully erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalí, Javier; Chahor, Youssef; Giménez, Rafael; Campo-Bescós, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The so-called Compound Topographic Index (CTI) can be calculated for each grid cell in a DEM and be used to identify potential locations for ephemeral gullies (e. g.) based on land topography (CTI = A.S.PLANC, where A is upstream drainage area, S is local slope and PLANC is planform curvature, a measure of the landscape convergence) (Parker et al., 2007). It can be shown that CTI represents stream power per unit bed area and it considers the major parameters controlling the pattern and intensity of concentrated surface runoff in the field (Parker et al., 2007). However, other key variables controlling e.g. erosion (e. g. e.) such as soil characteristics, land-use and management, are not had into consideration. The critical CTI value (CTIc) "represents the intensity of concentrated overland flow necessary to initiate erosion and channelised flow under a given set of circumstances" (Parker et al., 2007). AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source) pollution model is an important management tool developed by (USDA) and uses CTI to locate potential ephemeral gullies. Then, and depending on rainfall characteristics of the period simulated by AnnAGNPS, potential e. g. can become "actual", and be simulated by the model accordingly. This paper presents preliminary results and a number of considerations after evaluating the CTI tool in Navarre. CTIc values found are similar to those cited by other authors, and the e. g. networks that on average occur in the area have been located reasonably well. After our experience we believe that it is necessary to distinguish between the CTIc corresponding to the location of headcuts whose migrations originate the e. g. (CTIc1); and the CTIc necessary to represent the location of the gully networks in the watershed (CTIc2), where gully headcuts are located in the upstream end of the gullies. Most scientists only consider one CTIc value, although, from our point of view, the two situations are different. CTIc1 would represent the

  15. Phase I dose escalation safety study of nanoparticulate paclitaxel (CTI 52010 in normal dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axiak SM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandra M Axiak1, Kim A Selting1, Charles J Decedue2, Carolyn J Henry1,3, Deborah Tate1, Jahna Howell2, K James Bilof1, Dae Y Kim4 1Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 2CritiTech Inc, Lawrence, KS, USA; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology; 4Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA Background: Paclitaxel is highly effective in the treatment of many cancers in humans, but cannot be routinely used in dogs as currently formulated due to the exquisite sensitivity of this species to surfactant-solubilizing agents. CTI 52010 is a formulation of nanoparticulate paclitaxel consisting of drug and normal saline. Our objectives were to determine the maximally tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of CTI 52010 administered intravenously to normal dogs. Methods: Three normal adult hound dogs were evaluated by physical examination, complete blood count, chemistry profile, and urinalysis. Dogs were treated with staggered escalating dosages of CTI 52010 with a 28-day washout. All dogs were treated with a starting dosage of 40 mg/m2, and subsequent dosages were escalated at 50% (dog 1, 100% (dog 2, or 200% (dog 3 with each cycle, to a maximum of 240 mg/m2. Dogs were monitored by daily physical assessment and weekly laboratory evaluation. Standard criteria were used to grade adverse events. Plasma was collected at regular intervals to determine pharmacokinetics. Dogs were euthanized humanely, and necropsy was performed one week after the last treatment. Results: The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 neutropenia and the maximum tolerated dosage was 120 mg/m2. Grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity was noted at higher dosages. Upon post mortem evaluation, no evidence of organ (liver, kidney, spleen toxicity was noted. Conclusion: CTI 52010 was well tolerated when administered intravenously to normal dogs. A starting

  16. The Unique Optical Design of the CTI-II Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, J. T.; MacFarlane, M.

    2006-12-01

    The CCD/Transit Instrument with Innovative Instrumentation (CTI-II) is being developed for precision ground-based astrometric and photometric astronomical observations. The 1.8m telescope will be stationary, near-zenith pointing and will feature a CCD-mosaic array operated in time-delay and integrate (TDI) mode to image a continuous strip of the sky in five bands. The heart of the telescope is a Nasmyth-like bent-Cassegrain optical system optimized to produce near diffraction-limited images with near zero distortion over a circular1.42 deg field. The optical design includes an f/2.2 parabolic ULE primary with no central hole salvaged from the original CTI telescope and adds the requisite hyperbolic secondary, a folding flat and a highly innovative all-spherical, five lens corrector which includes three plano surfaces. The reflective and refractive portions of the design have been optimized as individual but interdependent systems so that the same reflective system can be used with slightly different refractive correctors. At present, two nearly identical corrector designs are being evaluated, one fabricated from BK-7 glass and the other of fused silica. The five lens corrector consists of an air-spaced triplet separated from follow-on air-spaced doublet. Either design produces 0.25 arcsecond images at 83% encircled energy with a maximum of 0.0005% distortion. The innovative five lens corrector design has been applied to other current and planned Cassegrain, RC and super RC optical systems requiring correctors. The basic five lens approach always results in improved performance compared to the original designs. In some cases, the improvement in image quality is small but includes substantial reductions in distortion. In other cases, the improvement in image quality is substantial. Because the CTI-II corrector is designed for a parabolic primary, it might be especially useful for liquid mirror telescopes. We describe and discuss the CTI-II optical design with respect

  17. 543 DETERMINANTS OF TECHNICAL INEFFICIENCY AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-08-19

    Aug 19, 2013 ... randomly selected maize-based farming households. Descriptive analysis and ... inefficiency is 0.357 (35.7%), implying that about 36% percent efficiency gap from the optimum .... yields consistent estimators for β, the variance.

  18. Improvement of tribological properties of tool steels implanted with C+Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, E.; Segovia, J.L. de; Rodriguez, R.; Sanz, A.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical state and tribological properties of tempered and annealed steels (95MnCrW5 and 30CrMoV12) implanted with C+Ti has been studied by using the Auger sputtering depth profile and the ball on disk method to determine the wear parameters. The sample hardness was measured by the Vickers method. Friction coefficients are reduced by a factor of 0.8 for samples of steel 95MnCrW5 and by a factor of 0.4 for samples of 30CrMoV12 steel. The implanted 95MnCrW5 samples show a phase of mixed amorphous carbon and carbides. (author)

  19. Bell inequalities resistant to detector inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Roland, Jeremie; Gisin, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    We derive both numerically and analytically Bell inequalities and quantum measurements that present enhanced resistance to detector inefficiency. In particular, we describe several Bell inequalities which appear to be optimal with respect to inefficient detectors for small dimensionality d=2,3,4 and two or more measurement settings at each side. We also generalize the family of Bell inequalities described by Collins et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404 (2002)] to take into account the inefficiency of detectors. In addition, we consider the possibility for pairs of entangled particles to be produced with probability less than 1. We show that when the pair production probability is small, one should in general use different Bell inequalities than when the pair production probability is high

  20. Inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries and the impact of different factors on its inefficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahverdi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze changes in the inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries using DEA window analysis method over the period 1996 to 2009. We investigated the effects of different factors on inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries. Based on empirical results, the effect of all factors such as vertical integration, types of ownership, foreign investment, location, experience, and liberalization on inefficiency of refineries was significant. Experience, liberalization, and joint venture between private and public sectors showed an increase in efficiency, while joint venture between local and foreign investment and vertical integration increased refineries’ inefficiency. However, palm oil refineries which were located in the states of Sabah and Sarawak were less technically inefficient than those located in peninsular Malaysia.

  1. Financing Education: Overcoming Inefficiency and Inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Walter W., Ed.; Geske, Terry G., Ed.

    Fiscal inefficiency in education is addressed in this book and ideas for achieving increased efficiency while more effectively using resources to maintain reasonable equality of opportunity in higher education are examined. Fourteen articles and authors that consider social efficiency, equity, and policy implications are as follows: "Efficiency…

  2. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withers, P.J.A.; Dijk, van K.C.; Neset, T.S.S.; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of

  3. Technical inefficiency of Vietnamese pangasius farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anh Ngoc, Pham Thi; Gaitán-Cremaschi, D.; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Le, Tru Cong; Bosma, Roel H.; Verreth, Johan; Lansink, Alfons Oude

    2018-01-01

    Vietnamese pangasius farming needs to produce efficiently to compete in world markets. This study investigates the input- and output-specific technical inefficiency of Vietnamese pangasius farmers. First, we used a Russell-type (input–output) directional distance function to estimate the input- and

  4. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withers, Paul J. A.; Dijk, Kimo van; Neset, Tina-Simone

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R...

  5. On the Evolutionary Stability of Bargaining Inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game tough behavior survives. Indeed, almost all the surplus may be wasted. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary select...

  6. Decomposing dynamic profit inefficiency of Belgian dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, Frederic; Lansink, Alfons Oude

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a nonparametric framework for analysing dynamic profit inefficiency and applies this to a sample of Belgian, specialised dairy farms from 1996 to 2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into technical and allocative inefficiency. The paper also decomposes profit inefficiency

  7. Reliability of a positron emission tomography system (CTI: PT931/04-12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanuki, Shoichi; Itoh, Masatoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Ishii, Keizo; Orihara, Hikonojyo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2002-05-01

    The maintenance data of a PET system (PT931/04-12 CTI Inc.) was analyzed to evaluate its reliability. We examined whether the initial performance for the system resolution and efficiency is kept. The reliability of the PET system was evaluated from the value of MTTF (mean time to failure) and MTBF (mean time between failures) for each part of the system obtained from the maintenance data for 13 years. The initial performance was kept for the resolution, but the efficiency decreased to 72% of the initial value. The 83% of the troubles of the system was for detector block (DB) and DB control module (BC). The MTTF of DB and BC were 2,733 and 3,314 days, and the MTBF of DB and BC per detector ring were 38 and 114 days. The MTBF of the system was 23 days. We found seasonal dependence for the number of troubles of DB and BC. This means that the trouble may be related the humidity. The reliability of the PET system strongly depends on the MTBF of DB and BC. The improvement in quality of these parts and optimization of the environment in operation may increase the reliability of the PET system. For the popularization of PET, it is effective to evaluate the reliability of the system and to show it to the users. (author)

  8. Inefficiency in Latin-American market indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, L.; Tabak, B. M.; Pérez, D. G.; Garavaglia, M.; Rosso, O. A.

    2007-11-01

    We explore the deviations from efficiency in the returns and volatility returns of Latin-American market indices. Two different approaches are considered. The dynamics of the Hurst exponent is obtained via a wavelet rolling sample approach, quantifying the degree of long memory exhibited by the stock market indices under analysis. On the other hand, the Tsallis q entropic index is measured in order to take into account the deviations from the Gaussian hypothesis. Different dynamic rankings of inefficieny are obtained, each of them contemplates a different source of inefficiency. Comparing with the results obtained for a developed country (US), we confirm a similar degree of long-range dependence for our emerging markets. Moreover, we show that the inefficiency in the Latin-American countries comes principally from the non-Gaussian form of the probability distributions.

  9. Does resilient mean eco-inefficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    as long-term perfomance. Resilience is not explicitly taken into account within life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA determines the eco-efficiency of product systems, i.e. the ratio between the function provided by the product and its impact on the environment. The question is whether a product system which...... structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will not only be more inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when studied by means of LCA. In this work a two steps approach is proposed to study resilience of product systems: 1) assessment of disturbance conditions and their inclusion within the scope......, because the redundant connections between elements of a system make it less efficient but also more flexible and adaptable and allow to perform a function even if some connections are interrupted or missing. Balancing between resilience and efficiency seems to be the key for sustainability intended...

  10. Inefficiency of Data Storing in Physical Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruddin Malik Mohamad; Sapiee Haji Jamel; Mustafa Mat Deris

    2009-01-01

    Memory forensic is important in digital investigation. The forensic is based on the data stored in physical memory that involve memory management and processing time. However, the current forensic tools do not consider the efficiency in terms of storage management and the processing time. This paper shows the high redundancy of data found in the physical memory that cause inefficiency in processing time and memory management. The experiment is done using Borland C compile...

  11. Liquidity Hoarding and Inefficient Abundant Funding

    OpenAIRE

    Enisse Kharroubi

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies banks’ choice between building liquidity buffers and raising funding ex post to deal with reinvestment shocks. We uncover the possibility of an inefficient liquidity squeeze equilibrium when ex post funding is abundant. In the model, banks typically build larger liquidity buffers when they expect funding to be expensive. However, when banks hold larger liquidity buffers, pledgeable income is larger and they hence can raise more funding, which in the aggregate raises the fun...

  12. Performance evaluation of siemens CTI ECAT EXACT 47 scanner using NEMA NU2-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-01-01

    NEMA NU2-2001 was proposed as a new standard for performance evaluation of whole body PET scanners. In this study, system performance of Siemens CTI ECAT EXACT 47 PET scanner including spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, and count rate performance in 2D and 3D mode was evaluated using this new standard method. ECAT EXACT 47 is a BGO crystal based PET scanner and covers an axial field of view (FOV) of 16.2 cm. Retractable septa allow 2D and 3D data acquisition. All the PET data were acquired according to the NEMA NU2-2001 protocols (coincidence window: 12 ns, energy window: 250 ∼ 650 keV). For the spatial resolution measurement, F-18 point source was placed at the center of the axial FOV((a) x=0, and y=1, (b)x=0, and y=10, (c)x=10, and y=0cm) and a position one fourth of the axial FOV from the center ((a) x=0, and y=1, (b)x=0, and y=10, (c)x=10, and y=0cm). In this case, x and y are transaxial horizontal and vertical, and z is the scanner's axial direction. Images were reconstructed using FBP with ramp filter without any post-processing. To measure the system sensitivity, NEMA sensitivity phantom filled with F-18 solution and surrounded by 1∼5 aluminum sleeves were scanned at the center of transaxial FOV and 10 cm offset from the center. Attenuation free values of sensitivity were estimated by extrapolating data to the zero wall thickness. NEMA scatter phantom with length of 70 cm was filled with F-18 or C-11solution (2D: 2,900 MBq, 3D: 407 MBq), and coincidence count rates were measured for 7 half-lives to obtain noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and scatter fraction. We confirmed that dead time loss of the last frame were below 1%. Scatter fraction was estimated by averaging the true to background (scatter + random) ratios of last 3 frames in which the fractions of random rate are negligibly small. Axial and transverse resolutions at 1cm offset from the center were 0.62 and 0.66 cm (FBP in 2D and 3D), and 0.67 and 0.69 cm (FBP in 2D and 3D

  13. Dynamic Profit Inefficiency: A DEA Application to Belgian Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Frederic; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Using a nonparametric framework, we analyze dynamic profit inefficiency for a sample of Belgian, specialized dairy farms from 1996–2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into contributions of output, input, and investment. Moreover, we identify the contributions of technical and allocative inefficiency in each input and output. The results suggest substantial profit inefficiency under the current dairy-quota system, mainly driven by an average underproduction of approximately 50 percent and ...

  14. The cost of trauma operating theatre inefficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, W W; Sabharwal, S; Johannsson, H; Bhattacharya, R; Gupte, C M

    2016-05-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is currently facing a financial crisis with a projected deficit of £2billion by the end of financial year 2015/16. As operating rooms (OR) are one of the costliest components in secondary care, improving theatre efficiency should be at the forefront of efforts to improve health service efficiency. The objectives of this study were to characterize the causes of trauma OR delays and to estimate the cost of this inefficiency. A 1-month prospective single-centre study in St. Mary's Hospital. Turnaround time (TT) was used as the surrogate parameter to measure theatre efficiency. Factors including patient age, ASA score and presence of surgical and anaesthetic consultant were evaluated to identify positive or negative associations with theatre delays. Inefficiency cost was calculated by multiplying the time wasted with staff capacity costs and opportunity costs, found to be £24.77/minute. The commonest causes for increased TT were delays in sending for patients (50%) and problems with patient transport to the OR (31%). 461 min of delay was observed in 12 days, equivalent to loss of £951.58/theatre/day. Non-statistically significant trends were seen between length of delays and advancing patient age, ASA score and absence of either a senior clinician or an anaesthetic consultant. Interestingly, the trend was not as strong for absence of an anaesthetic consultant. This study found delays in operating TT to represent a sizable cost, with potential efficiency savings based on TT of £347,327/theatre/year. Further study of a larger sample is warranted to better evaluate the identified trends.

  15. ECONOMETRIC INEFFICIENCY ESTIMATES IN A COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Bernard Bastiaan Rivera Rivera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this paper is to apply a Cobb-Douglas, Translog Stochastic Production Function and Data Envelopment Analysis – particularly the Malmquist index - in order to estimate increases or decreases of inefficiencies over time as well as the sources of TFP changes for the main Brazilian grain crops - namely, rice, beans, maize, soybeans and wheat - throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 2001-2006. According to the Cobb Douglas model, the greatest elasticity presented is that of harvested area, followed by agricultural credit and limestone. The Translog production function presents an amelioration of aggregate productivity over time and, in a decreasing order, the Brazilian regions that have presented the greatest relative degree of efficiency are the Northeast, North, Southeast, South and Center-West regions. The results indicate that, although there have been positive changes in TFP for the sample analyzed, a decline in the use of technology has been evidenced for all the principal Brazilian grain crops between 2005/2007 – period in which we observe a remarkable downfall in the use of inputs in Brazilian agriculture.

  16. The contact-temperature ignition (CTI) criteria for propagating chemical reactions including the effect of moisture and application to Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    To assure the continued absence of uncontrolled condensed-phase chemical reactions in connection with the Hanford waste materials, efforts have been underway including both theoretical and experimental investigations to clarify the requirements for such reactions. This document defines the differences and requirements for homogeneous runaway and propagating chemical reactions incuding a discussion of general contact-temperature ignition (CTI) condition for propagating reactions that include the effect of moisture. The CTI condition implies that the contact temperature or interface temperature between reacted and unreacted materials must exceed the ignition temperature and is compared to experimental data including both synthetic ferrocyanide and surrogate organic materials. In all cases, the occurrences of ignition accompanied by self-propagating reactions are consistent with the theoretical anticipations of the CTI condition

  17. Parkinson's Law Quantified: Three Investigations on Bureaucratic Inefficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Peter; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We formulate three famous, descriptive essays of C.N. Parkinson on bureaucratic inefficiency in a quantifiable and dynamical socio-physical framework. In the first model we show how the use of recent opinion formation models for small groups can be used to understand Parkinson's observation that decision making bodies such as cabinets or boards become highly inefficient once their size exceeds a critical 'Coefficient of Inefficiency', typically around 20. A second observation of Parkinson - w...

  18. Technical inefficiency in dry season vegetable farming among urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stochastic production frontier function is applied to estimate output-oriented technical inefficiency of urban women cultivating waterleaf. By means of MLE, asymptotically consistent and efficient maximum likelihood (ML) estimates are obtained together with inefficiency determinants. Empirical result reveals the mean level of ...

  19. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western ... chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. ... (ii) absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; ...

  20. a study of technical inefficiencies of maize farmers within and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    frontier production functions were estimated for a sample of maize farmers within and outside the .... the normal distributions with the same variance, σ2, such that the mean,. µit, associated with the technical inefficiency effect, uit, is defined by.

  1. Profit inefficiency and its determinants among yam producers in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farm profit inefficiency in yam production in Imo State, Nigeria was estimated using stochastic translog profit frontier model. The mean output of yam producers was 10.3tons/ha, while the mean level of profit inefficiency was 63.7 percent with a wide range of 23.41 – 94.23 percent. Mean loss of profit was N76061 per hectare.

  2. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on international cooperation for technology transfer; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) is a framework for use by developed countries in international cooperation and voluntary promotion of the development and diffusion of technologies contributory to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CTI's activity goal is to accelerate the transfer and diffusion of technologies for climate change control. As the first step toward personnel development programs relating to energy efficiency, CTI organized its workshop on that theme. The results of the workshop have been examined, and its achievements were reported at COP4 meeting, while responses by participatory countries were studied to evaluate the potential of international cooperation with regard to personnel development for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In fiscal 1998, the CTI workshop 'Energy Efficiency' was held. The participants from developing countries understood the necessity and importance of energy saving enough through discussions in the workshop, and announced their message toward the world at COP4 meeting. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on international cooperation for technology transfer; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) is a framework for use by developed countries in international cooperation and voluntary promotion of the development and diffusion of technologies contributory to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CTI's activity goal is to accelerate the transfer and diffusion of technologies for climate change control. As the first step toward personnel development programs relating to energy efficiency, CTI organized its workshop on that theme. The results of the workshop have been examined, and its achievements were reported at COP4 meeting, while responses by participatory countries were studied to evaluate the potential of international cooperation with regard to personnel development for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In fiscal 1998, the CTI workshop 'Energy Efficiency' was held. The participants from developing countries understood the necessity and importance of energy saving enough through discussions in the workshop, and announced their message toward the world at COP4 meeting. (NEDO)

  4. Inefficiency persistence and heterogeneity in Colombian electricity utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galán, Jorge E.; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The electricity reform in Colombia has exhibited gains in terms of reliability but its effects on firm efficiency and service quality have not been clear. Previous studies evaluating the performance of distribution companies after the reform have not found evidence of improvements, although large differences in efficiency have been found among firms. This suggests high inefficiency persistence and heterogeneity in the Colombian distribution sector. In this paper, we propose an extension of dynamic stochastic frontier models that accounts for unobserved heterogeneity in the inefficiency persistence and in the technology. The model incorporates total expenses, service quality and energy losses in an efficiency analysis of Colombian distributors over fifteen years after the reform. We identify the presence of high inefficiency persistence in the sector, and important differences between firms. In particular, rural companies and firms with small customers present low persistence and evidence the largest gains in efficiency during the period. However, increases in efficiency are only manifested during thelast five years when the main improvements in service quality and energy losses are presented. Overall, inefficiency persistence, customer density and consumption density are found to be important criteria to be considered for regulatory purposes. - Highlights: • We evaluate efficiency of Colombian electricity distributors after the reform. • We use a stochastic frontier model with dynamic effects and heterogeneity. • We find high inefficiency persistence but important differences among firms. • High persistent and low efficient firms should draw the attention of the regulator. • Recent regulation in quality has increased not only efficiency but also tariffs

  5. Cultural differences in the imitation and transmission of inefficient actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, Kathleen H; DiYanni, Cara J; Clegg, Jennifer M; Min, Grace; Chin, Jason; Nasrini, Jad

    2017-09-01

    Across two studies, we explored cultural differences in children's imitation and transmission of inefficient actions. Chinese American and Caucasian American preschoolers (N=115) viewed either one or three models using two inefficient tools to perform two different tasks. In the video, when the model(s) performed the task, only the inefficient tool was available; thus, their choice to use that tool could be considered rational. Next, children were invited to complete the task with either the inefficient tool or an efficient alternative. Whereas the two cultural groups imitated a single model at similar rates, Chinese American children imitated significantly more than Caucasian American children after viewing a consensus. Similar results were found when exploring differences in information transmission. The Chinese American children were significantly more likely than their Caucasian American peers to instruct using an inefficient tool when they had initially viewed a consensus demonstrate it. We discuss these findings with respect to differences in children's use of social versus task-specific cues for learning and teaching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation of the Dynamic Inefficiency of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00380273

    2015-05-07

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost part of the CMS Tracker. It therefore has to prevail in the harshest environment in terms of particle fluence and radiation. There are several mechanisms that may decrease the efficiency of the detector. These are mainly caused by data acquisition (DAQ) problems and/or Single Event Upsets (SEU). Any remaining efficiency loss is referred to as the dynamic inefficiency. It is caused by various mechanisms inside the Readout Chip (ROC) and depends strongly on the data occupancy. In the 2012 data, at high values of instantaneous luminosity the inefficiency reached 2\\% (in the region closest to the interaction point) which is not negligible. In the 2015 run higher instantaneous luminosity is expected, which will result in lower efficiencies; therefore this effect needs to be understood and simulated. A data-driven method has been developed to simulate dynamic inefficiency, which has been shown to successfully simulate the effects.

  7. A Post-Truncation Parameterization of Truncated Normal Technical Inefficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Amsler; Peter Schmidt; Wen-Jen Tsay

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider a stochastic frontier model in which the distribution of technical inefficiency is truncated normal. In standard notation, technical inefficiency u is distributed as N^+ (μ,σ^2). This distribution is affected by some environmental variables z that may or may not affect the level of the frontier but that do affect the shortfall of output from the frontier. We will distinguish the pre-truncation mean (μ) and variance (σ^2) from the post-truncation mean μ_*=E(u) and var...

  8. A technique of forecasting inefficient negative investments in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya N. Andrienko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews a methodology of inefficient capital outflow forecasting in Ukraine, as one of the new instruments for investment activity revivification under the system crisis conditions. An analogy is made between the foreseeable and unexpected losses in crediting as well as the efficient and inefficient capital outflows in the form of reserve funds accrual and subsequent reverse procedure. Phenomenological approach and generalization of the experience in negative investment analysis are applied. Exposed is the substantiation of phenomenological approach in choosing one of the proposed beta distribution options with economic interpretation of this approach development. Considered is the maximum entropy principle as a stochastic dominance revealed therein.

  9. Inefficient Self-Selection into Education and Wage Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordine, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework where "within graduates" wage inequality is related to overeducation/educational mismatch in the labor market. We show that wage inequality may arise because of inefficient self-selection into education in the presence of ability-complementary technological progress and asymmetric information…

  10. Technical inefficiency and competitiveness in production: the case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined technical inefficiency and competitiveness among rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Data for the analysis came from a random sample survey of the area of study. A Single-stage (Cobb-Douglas based stochastic frontier production function was used in analyzing the data. Evidence from the analysis ...

  11. Determinants of technical inefficiency among maize-based farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining the level of farm-specific technical inefficiency of maize-based farming households in Niger state of Nigeria, this study fitted cross-sectional data into a Cobb- Douglass production frontier. Data used for this study were obtained using structured questionnaire administered to 108 randomly selected maize-based ...

  12. Allocative inefficiency and the capital-energy controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulos, Dimitris K.; Tsionas, Efthymios G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate a system of input demands for Greek manufacturing deviating from the standard practice of assuming strict cost minimization. The study allows for the presence of price distortions and allocative inefficiency in the decision process. This assumption affects parameter estimates and estimated elasticities materially, and throws new light on the capital-energy controversy in Greek manufacturing

  13. On the inefficiency of equilibria in linear bottleneck congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Keijzer (Bart); G. Schäfer (Guido); O. Telelis (Orestis); S. Kontogiannis (Spyros); E. Koutsoupias (Elias); P.G. Spirakis (Paul)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the inefficiency of equilibrium outcomes in bottleneck congestion games. These games model situations in which strategic players compete for a limited number of facilities. Each player allocates his weight to a (feasible) subset of the facilities with the goal to minimize the

  14. Identifying Organizational Inefficiencies with Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Patrishkoff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA was created by the author in 2004. PPA is a unique methodology which offers ten layers of additional analysis when compared to standard process mapping techniques.  The goal of PPA is to identify and eliminate waste, inefficiencies and risk in manufacturing or transactional business processes at 5 levels in an organization. The highest level being assessed is the process management, followed by the process work environment, detailed work habits, process performance metrics and general attitudes towards the process. This detailed process assessment and analysis is carried out during process improvement brainstorming efforts and Kaizen events. PPA creates a detailed visual efficiency rating for each step of the process under review.  A selection of 54 pictorial Inefficiency Icons (cards are available for use to highlight major inefficiencies and risks that are present in the business process under review. These inefficiency icons were identified during the author's independent research on the topic of why things go wrong in business. This paper will highlight how PPA was developed and show the steps required to conduct Pictorial Process Analysis on a sample manufacturing process. The author has successfully used PPA to dramatically improve business processes in over 55 different industries since 2004.  

  15. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  16. Enhancing Productivity and Resource Conservation by Eliminating Inefficiency of Thai Rice Farmers: A Zero Inefficiency Stochastic Frontier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxu Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study first identified fully efficient farmers and then estimated technical efficiency of inefficient farmers, identifying their determinants by applying a Zero Inefficiency Stochastic Frontier Model (ZISFM on a sample of 300 rice farmers from central-northern Thailand. Next, the study developed scenarios of potential production increase and resource conservation if technical inefficiency was eliminated. Results revealed that 13% of the sampled farmers were fully efficient, thereby justifying the use of our approach. The estimated mean technical efficiency was 91%, implying that rice production can be increased by 9%, by reallocating resources. Land and labor were the major productivity drivers. Education significantly improved technical efficiency. Farmers who transplanted seedlings were relatively technically efficient as compared to those who practised manual and/or mechanical direct seeding methods. Elimination of technical inefficiency could increase output by 8.64% per ha, or generate 5.7–6.4 million tons of additional rice output for Thailand each year. Similarly, elimination of technical inefficiency would potentially conserve 19.44% person-days of labor, 11.95% land area, 11.46% material inputs and 8.67% mechanical power services for every ton of rice produced. This translates into conservation of 2.9–3.0 million person-days of labor, 3.7–4.5 thousand km2 of land, 10.0–14.5 billion baht of material input and 7.6–12.8 billion baht of mechanical power costs to produce current level of rice output in Thailand each year. Policy implications include investment into educating farmers, and improving technical knowledge of seeding technology, to boost rice production and conserve scarce resources in Thailand.

  17. WAD(移动无线广告)业务及技术%The Application of CTI in Mobile Communication-The Discussion of WAD Service and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星昌; 李勇

    2001-01-01

    WAD(wireless advertisement,移动无线广告)是江苏移动通信业新兴的一种基于CTI(computer telecommunicationintegration,计算机电信集成)技术的增值业务平台,文中简要介绍了CTI技术及WAD的基本概念、系统结构和功能,并对其业务特点及在江苏的使用进行了探讨.

  18. DCF Fair Value Valuation, Excessive Assetes and Hidden Inefficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mielcarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fair value concept is widely used in DCF (Discounted Cash Flow  business valuation. One of the main principle of fair value concept is full information symmetry between contracting parties. The assumption enforces specific way of FCF (Free Cash Flow estimation: all areas of inefficiency of valuated companies should be identified and their effect on free cash flow should be eliminated. The projection of free cash flow thus prepared should reflect the optimum operations of the business. The methodological issues of fair value valuation of inefficient companies are not comprehensibly addressed in the financial and accounting literature. There is easily observable gap between fair value theory and valuation practices. Thus this article is an attempt to answer the question about practical issues in fair value valuation of companies which do not apply value based management rules. It is based on literature review, theory examination and short case studies which present proposed solution for practical problems. Methods of identification and assessment of impact of inefficiencies on the fair value of a business are hereinafter presented and supported with arguments.

  19. Parkinson's Law quantified: three investigations on bureaucratic inefficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    We formulate three famous, descriptive essays of Parkinson on bureaucratic inefficiency in a quantifiable and dynamical socio-physical framework. In the first model we show how the use of recent opinion formation models for small groups can be used to understand Parkinson's observation that decision-making bodies such as cabinets or boards become highly inefficient once their size exceeds a critical 'Coefficient of Inefficiency', typically around 20. A second observation of Parkinson—which is sometimes referred to as Parkinson's Law—is that the growth of bureaucratic or administrative bodies usually goes hand in hand with a drastic decrease of its overall efficiency. In our second model we view a bureaucratic body as a system of a flow of workers, who enter, become promoted to various internal levels within the system over time, and leave the system after having served for a certain time. Promotion usually is associated with an increase of subordinates. Within the proposed model it becomes possible to work out the phase diagram under which conditions of bureaucratic growth can be confined. In our last model we assign individual efficiency curves to workers throughout their life in administration, and compute the optimum time to give them the old age pension, in order to ensure a maximum of efficiency within the body—in Parkinson's words we compute the 'Pension Point'.

  20. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  1. Explaining the inefficiency of electrical distribution companies. Peruvian firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, OSINERGMIN (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the extent to which the structural reform of the Peruvian electricity market, implemented in the 1990s, has improved the efficiency of the distribution companies; and it evaluates the influence on efficiency of firm specific explanatory variables. To do this, we rely on data from 14 distribution companies between 1996 and 2006. The results indicate that the incentives generated by the reform process led to the firms becoming more efficient. Moreover, the time trend and private management of the distribution companies are variables that positively affect the levels of efficiency, whereas the lower network densities are then the greater the inefficiency. (author)

  2. Production inefficiency of electricity markets with hydro generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philpott, Andy; Guan, Ziming; Khazaei, Javad; Zakeri, Golbon

    2010-01-01

    Electricity market designs that decentralize decision making for participants can lead to inefficiencies in the presence of nonconvexity or missing markets. This has been shown in the case of unit-commitment problems that can make a decentralized market equilibrium less efficient than a centrally planned solution. Less attention has been focused on systems with large amounts of hydro-electric generation. We describe the results of an empirical study of the New Zealand wholesale electricity market that attempts to quantify production efficiency losses by comparing market outcomes with a counterfactual central plan. (author)

  3. Fractal stock markets: International evidence of dynamical (in)efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sergio; Frezza, Massimiliano

    2017-07-01

    The last systemic financial crisis has reawakened the debate on the efficient nature of financial markets, traditionally described as semimartingales. The standard approaches to endow the general notion of efficiency of an empirical content turned out to be somewhat inconclusive and misleading. We propose a topological-based approach to quantify the informational efficiency of a financial time series. The idea is to measure the efficiency by means of the pointwise regularity of a (stochastic) function, given that the signature of a martingale is that its pointwise regularity equals 1/2 . We provide estimates for real financial time series and investigate their (in)efficient behavior by comparing three main stock indexes.

  4. Explaining the inefficiency of electrical distribution companies. Peruvian firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul; Tovar, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which the structural reform of the Peruvian electricity market, implemented in the 1990s, has improved the efficiency of the distribution companies; and it evaluates the influence on efficiency of firm specific explanatory variables. To do this, we rely on data from 14 distribution companies between 1996 and 2006. The results indicate that the incentives generated by the reform process led to the firms becoming more efficient. Moreover, the time trend and private management of the distribution companies are variables that positively affect the levels of efficiency, whereas the lower network densities are then the greater the inefficiency. (author)

  5. Inefficient Job Destructions and Training with Hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chéron, Arnaud; Rouland, Benedicte

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an equilibrium search model with endogenous job destructions and where firms decide at the time of job entry how much to invest in match-specific human capital. We first show that job destruction and training investment decisions are strongly complementary. It is possible...... that there are no firings at equilibrium. Further, training investments are confronted to a hold-up problem making the decentralized equilibrium always inefficient. We show therefore that both training subsidies and firing taxes must be implemented to bring back efficiency....

  6. Locating inefficient links in a large-scale transportation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Liu, Like; Xu, Zhongzhi; Jie, Yang; Wei, Dong; Wang, Pu

    2015-02-01

    Based on data from geographical information system (GIS) and daily commuting origin destination (OD) matrices, we estimated the distribution of traffic flow in the San Francisco road network and studied Braess's paradox in a large-scale transportation network with realistic travel demand. We measured the variation of total travel time Δ T when a road segment is closed, and found that | Δ T | follows a power-law distribution if Δ T 0. This implies that most roads have a negligible effect on the efficiency of the road network, while the failure of a few crucial links would result in severe travel delays, and closure of a few inefficient links would counter-intuitively reduce travel costs considerably. Generating three theoretical networks, we discovered that the heterogeneously distributed travel demand may be the origin of the observed power-law distributions of | Δ T | . Finally, a genetic algorithm was used to pinpoint inefficient link clusters in the road network. We found that closing specific road clusters would further improve the transportation efficiency.

  7. Dynamic technical inefficiency and industrial concentration in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Maman; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between industrial concentration and technical inefficiency in the Indonesian food and beverages industry using a dynamic performance measure (dynamic technical inefficiency) that accounts for the presence of adjustment costs.

  8. Inefficiency in the market for 'Fine Art': how this market inefficiency promotes 'Art Tourism' in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Baur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for 'Fine Art' is dominated by institutions and auction houses. These act as gatekeepers by monopolising the primary market. The choice of art as an investment vehicle is based on a combination of expected return and subjective preference. The reason for investing in 'Fine Art' is more than purely for financial gain. There are other more intrinsic factors that are considered as part of the investor decision-making process. This market for 'Fine Art' can be considered largely inefficient. Exclusivity, high prices, institutional based indexes and the overall lack of information are by far the greatest drivers of this market inefficiency. 'Art' prices are usually set in the primary market for 'Fine Art' through the auction process and the auction process should also typically reflect an efficient way of creating shared value. However, the auction process in the primary art market is not efficient and does not create shared value as would occur in a typical free market structure. The systems employed by the auction process in the primary art market is a strategy in itself, giving the impression that there is shared value, and thus distorting prices while simultaneously stimulating investor confidence. This becomes apparent when the price for 'Fine Art' does not necessarily reflect the 'true' value of the respective 'Fine Art' being sold. Thus investors may take advantage of this situation, by traveling across international borders to purchase what they would consider valuable art. In effect, art tourism is driven by market inefficiency in the 'Fine Art' market.

  9. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: The case of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul J A; van Dijk, Kimo C; Neset, Tina-Simone S; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, Gitte H; Schoumans, Oscar F; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe's dependence on P imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship.

  10. On the Inefficiency of Equilibria in Linear Bottleneck Congestion Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Bart; Schäfer, Guido; Telelis, Orestis A.

    We study the inefficiency of equilibrium outcomes in bottleneck congestion games. These games model situations in which strategic players compete for a limited number of facilities. Each player allocates his weight to a (feasible) subset of the facilities with the goal to minimize the maximum (weight-dependent) latency that he experiences on any of these facilities. We derive upper and (asymptotically) matching lower bounds on the (strong) price of anarchy of linear bottleneck congestion games for a natural load balancing social cost objective (i.e., minimize the maximum latency of a facility). We restrict our studies to linear latency functions. Linear bottleneck congestion games still constitute a rich class of games and generalize, for example, load balancing games with identical or uniformly related machines with or without restricted assignments.

  11. Losses, inefficiencies and waste in the global food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter; Brown, Calum; Arneth, Almut; Finnigan, John; Moran, Dominic; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-05-01

    Losses at every stage in the food system influence the extent to which nutritional requirements of a growing global population can be sustainably met. Inefficiencies and losses in agricultural production and consumer behaviour all play a role. This paper aims to understand better the magnitude of different losses and to provide insights into how these influence overall food system efficiency. We take a systems view from primary production of agricultural biomass through to human food requirements and consumption. Quantities and losses over ten stages are calculated and compared in terms of dry mass, wet mass, protein and energy. The comparison reveals significant differences between these measurements, and the potential for wet mass figures used in previous studies to be misleading. The results suggest that due to cumulative losses, the proportion of global agricultural dry biomass consumed as food is just 6% (9.0% for energy and 7.6% for protein), and 24.8% of harvest biomass (31.9% for energy and 27.8% for protein). The highest rates of loss are associated with livestock production, although the largest absolute losses of biomass occur prior to harvest. Losses of harvested crops were also found to be substantial, with 44.0% of crop dry matter (36.9% of energy and 50.1% of protein) lost prior to human consumption. If human over-consumption, defined as food consumption in excess of nutritional requirements, is included as an additional inefficiency, 48.4% of harvested crops were found to be lost (53.2% of energy and 42.3% of protein). Over-eating was found to be at least as large a contributor to food system losses as consumer food waste. The findings suggest that influencing consumer behaviour, e.g. to eat less animal products, or to reduce per capita consumption closer to nutrient requirements, offer substantial potential to improve food security for the rising global population in a sustainable manner.

  12. Polymer ultrapermeability from the inefficient packing of 2D chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian; Bezzu, C. Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Comesaña-Gándara, Bibiana; Lasseuguette, Elsa; Ferrari, M. Chiara; Bernardo, Paola; Clarizia, Gabriele; Fuoco, Alessio; Jansen, Johannes C.; Hart, Kyle E.; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P.; Colina, Coray M.; McKeown, Neil B.

    2017-09-01

    The promise of ultrapermeable polymers, such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), for reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of membranes for gas separations remains unfulfilled due to their poor selectivity. We report an ultrapermeable polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-TMN-Trip) that is substantially more selective than PTMSP. From molecular simulations and experimental measurement we find that the inefficient packing of the two-dimensional (2D) chains of PIM-TMN-Trip generates a high concentration of both small (Gas permeability data for PIM-TMN-Trip surpass the 2008 Robeson upper bounds for O2/N2, H2/N2, CO2/N2, H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4, with the potential for biogas purification and carbon capture demonstrated for relevant gas mixtures. Comparisons between PIM-TMN-Trip and structurally similar polymers with three-dimensional (3D) contorted chains confirm that its additional intrinsic microporosity is generated from the awkward packing of its 2D polymer chains in a 3D amorphous solid. This strategy of shape-directed packing of chains of microporous polymers may be applied to other rigid polymers for gas separations.

  13. The inherent inefficiency of simultaneously feasible financial transmission rights auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Shi-Jie; Oren, Shmuel; Meliopoulos, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence from the New York ISO shows that the clearing prices for point-to-point congestion revenue rights, also known as financial transmission rights (FTRs), resulting from centralized auctions conducted by Independent System Operators differ significantly and systematically from the realized congestion revenues that determine the accrued payoffs of these rights. The question addressed by this paper is whether such deviations are due to price discovery errors which will eventually vanish or due to inherent inefficiencies in the auction structure. We show that even with perfect foresight of average congestion rents the clearing prices for the FTRs depend on the bid quantity and therefore may not be priced correctly in the financial transmission right (FTR) auction. In particular, we prove that quantity limits on the FTR bids may cause the auction clearing prices to differ from the bid prices. This phenomenon which is inherent in the theoretical properties of the optimization algorithm used to clear the auction, is further illustrated through numerical simulations with test systems. We conclude that price discovery alone would not remedy the discrepancy between the auction prices and the realized values of the FTRs. Secondary markets or frequent reconfiguration auctions are necessary in order to achieve such convergence. (author)

  14. Inefficient charging for delivered gas by local gas distributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Bikić

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this region, especially in Serbia, common belief is that local distributors of gas used by households don’t charge for gas properly. It is suspected that there are two sources for improper ways of gas charging. Local distributors charge for delivered gas only, according to flow rat but not according to gas quality. It is usual that local distributors deliver gas of different quality than one signed in contract. In this work will be considered only one of aspects inefficient charging for delivered gas by local gas distributors, which is connected to variable atmospheric pressure. There is doubt, that local distributors make mistakes during accounting for delivered gas to costumers in regard atmospheric pressure. At the beginning of every investigation, problem has to be located and recognized. Authors are going to collect as much as possible available data, to elaborate and analyze data by scientific methods and to represent conclusions. So, the aim of this work is to diagnose current state and to approve or disapprove above mentioned suspicions. In our region this theme is very interesting, both because of energy efficiency and air pollution control. In this way both consumer and distributor will know, how mush energy they have really spent.

  15. Impact of HMO penetration and other environmental factors on hospital X-inefficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, M D

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the impact of health maintenance organization (HMO) market penetration and other internal and external environmental factors on hospital X-inefficiency in a national sample (N = 1,966) of urban U.S. hospitals in 1997. Stochastic frontier analysis, a frontier regression technique, was used to measure X-inefficiency and estimate parameters of the correlates of X-inefficiency. Log-likelihood restriction tests were used to test a variety of assumptions about the empirical model that guided its selection. Average estimated X-inefficiency in study hospitals was 12.96 percent. Increases in managed care penetration, dependence on Medicare and Medicaid, membership in a multihospital system, and location in areas where competitive pressures and the pool of uncompensated care are greater were associated with less X-inefficiency. Not-for-profit ownership was associated with increased X-inefficiency.

  16. Rational inefficiency and non-performing loans in Chinese banking: A non-parametric bootstrapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Kent; Guo, Jianguang; Zhang, Nina

    2007-01-01

    The existing Chinese banking system was born out of a state-planning framework focussed on the funding of state-owned enterprises. Despite the development of a modern banking system, numerous studies of Chinese banking point to its high level of average inefficiency. Much of this inefficiency relates to the high level of non-performing loans held on the banks books. This study argues that a significant component of inefficiency relates to a defunct bureaucratic incentive structure. Using boot...

  17. Diagnósticos de enfermagem relacionados à oxigenação, atribuídos a vítimas de trauma admitidos em CTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurilene Josefa Cartaxo Gomes de Arruda

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo, realizado em um hospital público, do município de João Pessoa - PB, cujo objetivo geral foi o de estabelecer, à luz do modo fisiológico de adaptação de Roy, um perfil dos diagnósticos de enfermagem do componente oxigenação em pacientes vítimas de trauma. A população do estudo constituiu-se de pacientes vítimas de trauma, encaminhados para o CTI dessa instituição após atendimento na Unidade de Emergência. Para a organização da amostra determinou-se um recorte temporal, durante o qual foram coletados os dados de 22 pacientes. Foram estabelecidos para esses pacientes 6 diferentes diagnósticos de enfermagem no componente oxigenação, dos quais 4 alcançaram uma freqüência³ 50% na amostra de casos estudados e passaram a ser considerados como fazendo parte do perfil diagnóstico pretendido: Perfusão tissular periférica alterada (81,8%, Padrão respiratório ineficaz (77,3%, Troca de gases inadequada (77,3% e Hipoxia (77,3%.

  18. Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribuzy, C.V.B.; Ohser, S.; Priegnitz, M.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Neuhaus, J.; Dekorsy, T.; Biermann, K.; Kuenzel, H.

    2008-01-01

    By using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy we investigate the intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells. A biexponential behavior is an indication of intervalley scattering, which is, however, much slower than known from bulk material. This may be the reason why quantum cascade lasers at wavelengths as short as 3 μm are actually functioning In addition, when pumping slightly below resonance we observe an induced transient absorption, which can be interpreted in terms of electron heating within the first subband. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Radiation induced charge transfer inefficiencies in the Sentinel 4 instrument: modeling, performance, and correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizar, J.; Gulde, S.; Skegg, M.; Levillain, Y.; Weber, H.

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel 4 is an imaging UVN (UV-VIS-NIR) dispersive spectrometer, developed by Airbus DS under an ESA contract in the frame of the joint EU/ESA COPERNICUS program. The instrument is introduced in a dedicated presentation in this conference.

  20. Estimating farmers’ productive and marketing inefficiency: an application to vegetable producers in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Emvalomatis, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the technical and marketing inefficiency of a sample of urban vegetable producers in Benin. Marketing inefficiency is defined as the failure of farmers to achieve better marketing output and is reflected in lower output price indices. The study proposes a Russell-type measure of

  1. The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2016-01-01

    I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. - Highlights: • I investigate the transition between energy efficient/inefficient states. • On the average, energy inefficient state persists more than energy efficient state. • The duration of energy inefficient state is about twice as long as energy efficient state. • Price, income and trade openness have distinct energy saving effect irrespective of state. • A broad policy overhaul is needed to escape the energy inefficient state.

  2. Measuring and explaining multi-directional inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Suhaimi, Nurul Aisyah Binti; Mey, de Yann; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the technical inefficiency of dairy farms and subsequently investigate the factors affecting technical inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses multi-directional efficiency analysis to measure the

  3. Green Wireless Power Transfer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Golinnski, M.; Pawelczak, P.; Warnier, M.

    2016-01-01

    wireless power transfer network (WPTN) aims to support devices with cable-less energy on-demand. Unfortunately, wireless power transfer itself-especially through radio frequency radiation rectification-is fairly inefficient due to decaying power with distance, antenna polarization, etc.

  4. Measuring and explaining multi-directional inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Suhaimi, Nurul Aisyah Binti; de Mey, Yann; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the technical inefficiency of dairy farms and subsequently investigate the factors affecting technical inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry. This study uses multi-directional efficiency analysis to measure the technical inefficiency scores on a sample of 200 farm observations and single-bootstrap truncated regression model to define factors affecting technical inefficiency. Managerial and program inefficiency scores are presented for intensive and semi-intensive production systems. The results reveal marked differences in the inefficiency scores across inputs and between production systems. Intensive systems generally have lowest managerial and program inefficiency scores in the Malaysian dairy farming sector. Policy makers could use this information to advise dairy farmers to convert their farming system to the intensive system. The results suggest that the Malaysian Government should redefine its policy for providing farm finance and should target young farmers when designing training and extension programs in order to improve the performance of the dairy sector. The existing literature on Southeast Asian dairy farming has neither focused on investigating input-specific efficiency nor on comparing managerial and program efficiency. This paper aims to fill this gap.

  5. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  6. CTI capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Climate technology and energy efficiency. Challenges and changes for climate technology. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    Within the CTI Capacity Building Seminar for CEE/FSU Countries at 20th to 24th September, 2003 in Tutzing (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Excursion to fuel cell pilot project (Peter Fleischmann); (2) How to construct a climate change program - some basics (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (3) The EU emissions trading directive (Felix Matthes); (4) Emissions trading - The implementation of the EU-Directive in Germany (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (5) Emissions trading from a buyer's perspective (Albrecht von Ruffer); (6) Emissions trading from a seller's perspective: Czech Republic (Toma Chmelik); (7) Discussant notes: Emissions trading (Sonja Butzengeiger); (8) Carbon finance and the world bank: Chances, experiences, lessons learned (Charlotte Streck); (9) Joint implementation: Relationship to and compatibility with the emission trading scheme (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (10) Clean development mechanism in Central Asia (Liliya Zavyalova); (11) Creating a national CDM system in Georgia (Paata Janelidze); (12) Experiences from the certification of JI/CDM projects (Michael Rumberg); (13) Discussant notes Session JI and CDM (Tiit Kallaste); (14) The EU Directive on electricity from renewable energy sources 2001/77/EC (Volkmar Lauber); (15) Amending the Renewable Energy Source Act (Thorsten Mueller); (16) The new renewables support scheme in te Czech Republic (Martin Busik); (17) Replacing nuclear energy by renewables. The case of Lithunia (Kestutis Buinevicius); (18) Renewables in the New Energy Acts of Estonia (Villu Vares); (19) Discussant notes: Session incentive schemes for renewables (Hans-Joachim Ziesing); (20) Bankable energy efficiency projects - How to get energy efficiency investment financed (Petra Opitz); (21) Clear contract - clearinghouse for contracting (Ralf Goldmann); (22) CHP as an important element of a sustainable energy use in Germany (Juergen Landrebe); (23) The European CHP Directive - a step towards the smarter

  7. Trajetória institucional e políticas de CT&I: o caso do CNAVAL/IPT nos anos 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Gitahy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as relações entre a trajetória institucional do Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas (IPT e as mudanças nas políticas de CT&I estaduais e federais, tratando de identificar os pontos de inflexão, que impactaram suas rotinas organizacionais. O objetivo é compreender as estratégias que o Instituto, seus dirigentes e pesquisadores assumem face às transformações do contexto em que estão inseridos. Os conceitos de trajetória, evolução e aprendizagem, rotinas e rede tecnoeconômica são os norteadores do trabalho. Após um breve histórico das transformações mais relevantes sofridas pela instituição, entre 1970 e 1998, o trabalho foca na última década e na análise da experiência Centro de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica do Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas (CNAVAL/IPT. A abordagem metodológica é de caráter exploratório, combinando entrevistas com atores chaves, pesquisa documental, análise de dados primários e secundários e revisão da literatura sobre as transformações dos Institutos Públicos de Pesquisa (IPPs no Brasil.This article discusses the relationship between the institutional trajectory of the Institute for Technological Research (IPT and the changes in ST&I policies, trying to identify the inflection points which impacted their organizational routines. The objective is to understand the strategies that the Institute, their leaders and researchers assume face to the changing context in which they live. The concepts of trajectory, evolution, organizational learning, routines and techno-economics network are guiding this article. After a brief history of the most important transformations experienced by the institution, between 1970 and 1998, this work focuses in this recent decade and in a experience analysis of Center for Naval and Ocean Engineering (CNAVAL/IPT. The methodological approach is exploratory, combining interviews with key actor, documentary research and literature about

  8. Allocentric but not egocentric visual memory difficulties in adults with ADHD may represent cognitive inefficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Franklin C; Roth, Robert M; Katz, Lynda J

    2015-08-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has often been conceptualized as arising executive dysfunctions (e.g., inattention, defective inhibition). However, recent studies suggested that cognitive inefficiency may underlie many ADHD symptoms, according to reaction time and processing speed abnormalities. This study explored whether a non-timed measure of cognitive inefficiency would also be abnormal. A sample of 23 ADHD subjects was compared to 23 controls on a test that included both egocentric and allocentric visual memory subtests. A factor analysis was used to determine which cognitive variables contributed to allocentric visual memory. The ADHD sample performed significantly lower on the allocentric but not egocentric conditions. Allocentric visual memory was not associated with timed, working memory, visual perception, or mental rotation variables. This paper concluded by discussing how these results supported a cognitive inefficiency explanation for some ADHD symptoms, and discussed future research directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rationalising inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2013-01-01

    ]). A systematic pattern of slack consumption emerges, which suggests that the allocation of slack between staff groups is far from random. The slack pattern seems natural from the point of view of employee value and hierarchy and also considering employee flexibility and substitutability. For example we find...

  10. Is Declining malaria vector population in Africa a result of intervention Measures or sampling tools inefficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent entomological surveys have shown a declining trend of malaria vector population in sub-Saharan Africa and the observation have beenassociated with the scale-up and intensive use of malaria intervention measures such as insecticides treated nets and insecticide residual sprays.However, little is known on the contribution of the mosquito sampling tools inefficiency on the declining trends of malaria vector population. Inthis commentary paper, we explore the possibility of contribution of mosquito sampling tools’ inefficiency to the observed declining trends ofmalaria vector population in Africa.

  11. Inefficiency and classical communication bounds for conversion between partially entangled pure bipartite states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortescue, Ben; Lo, H.-K.

    2005-01-01

    We derive lower limits on the inefficiency and classical communication costs of dilution between two-term bipartite pure states that are partially entangled. We first calculate explicit relations between the allowable error and classical communication costs of entanglement dilution using a previously described protocol, then consider a two-stage dilution from singlets with this protocol followed by some unknown protocol for conversion between partially entangled states. Applying overall lower bounds on classical communication and inefficiency to this two-stage protocol, we derive bounds for the unknown protocol. In addition we derive analogous (but looser) bounds for general pure states

  12. State intervention causing inefficiency: an empirical analysis of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, Hossein A.

    2005-01-01

    State intervention in the Norwegian Continental Shelf started with the establishment of Statoil as the medium of state ownership over the found petroleum and as a tool to monitor oil companies' procurement behaviour. This paper tests the extent to which the state intervention created inefficiencies in the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) activities, as measured by data envelopment analysis, stochastic frontier analysis, Malmquist Indices, and standard regression analysis. Our results confirm such inefficiencies. Accordingly, the results provide an important insight into NCS production techniques and, more generally, into governments' abilities to influence private sector behaviour through contracts and tendering

  13. Explaining technical inefficiency and the variation in income from apple adoption in highland Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemu, Sintayehu Hailu; Kempen, van Luuk; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the performance and quality of apple fruits and seedlings production in Chencha district of southern Ethiopia. The estimated, three-factor (labour, land and capital) production frontier reveals that the technical inefficiency is 60% and 48% for fruits and seedlings

  14. Creating Sustainable Businesses by Reducing Food Waste : A Value Chain Framework for Eliminating Inefficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Gerry Kouwenhoven; Dr. Vijayender Reddy Nalla; Ton Lossonczy von Losoncz

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a systematic value chain approach to helping businesses identify and eliminate inefficiencies. The authors have developed a robust framework, which food-sector entrepreneurs can use to increase profitability of an existing business or to create new profitable opportunities. The

  15. Inefficiency, heterogeneity and spillover effects in maternal care in India: a spatial stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinfu, Yohannes; Sawhney, Monika

    2015-03-25

    Institutional delivery is one of the key and proven strategies to reduce maternal deaths. Since the 1990s, the government of India has made substantial investment on maternal care to reduce the huge burden of maternal deaths in the country. However, despite the effort access to institutional delivery in India remains below the global average. In addition, even in places where health investments have been comparable, inter- and intra-state difference in access to maternal care services remain wide and substantial. This raises a fundamental question on whether the sub-national units themselves differ in terms of the efficiency with which they use available resources, and if so, why? Data obtained from round 3 of the country's District Level Health and Facility Survey was analyzed to measure the level and determinants of inefficiency of institutional delivery in the country. Analysis was conducted using spatial stochastic frontier models that correct for heterogeneity and spatial interactions between sub-national units. Inefficiency differences in maternal care services between and within states are substantial. The top one third of districts in the country has a mean efficiency score of 90 per cent or more, while the bottom 10 per cent of districts exhibit mean inefficiency score of as high as over 75 per cent or more. Overall mean inefficiency is about 30 per cent. The result also reveals the existence of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation in institutional delivery in the country. Given the high level of inefficiency in the system, further progress in improving coverage of institutional delivery in the country should focus both on improving the efficiency of resource utilization--especially where inefficiency levels are extremely high--and on bringing new resources in to the system. The additional investment should specifically focus on those parts of the country where coverage rates are still low but efficiency levels are already at a high level. In

  16. Quantifying the economic impact of communication inefficiencies in U.S. hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ritu; Sands, Daniel Z; Schneider, Jorge Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Care delivery is a complex enterprise that involves multiple interactions among multiple stakeholders. Effective communication between these dispersed parties is critical to ensuring quality and safety and improves operational efficiencies. Time and motion studies in hospital settings provide strong evidence that care providers-doctors and nurses-spend a significant proportion of their time obtaining or providing information (i.e., communicating). Yet, surprisingly, no studies attempt to quantify the economic waste associated with communication inefficiencies in hospital settings at a national level. Our research focuses on developing models for quantifying the economic burden on hospitals of poor communications. We developed a conceptual model of the effects of poor communications in hospitals that isolates four outcomes: (1) efficiency of resource utilization, (2) effectiveness of core operations, (3) quality of work life, and (4) service quality, identifying specific metrics for each outcome. We developed estimates of costs associated with wasted physician time, wasted nurse time, and increase in length of stay caused by communication inefficiencies across all U.S. hospitals, using primary data collected from interviews in seven hospitals and secondary data from a literature review, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). We find that U.S. hospitals waste over $12 billion annually as a result of communication inefficiency among care providers. Increase in length of stay accounts for 53 percent of the annual economic burden. A 500-bed hospital loses over $4 million annually as a result of communication inefficiencies. We note that our estimates are conservative as they do not include all dimensions of economic waste arising from poor communications. The economic burden of communication inefficiency in U.S. hospitals is substantial. Information technologies and process redesign may help alleviate some of

  17. Technical and allocative inefficiencies and factor elasticities of substitution. An analysis of energy waste in Iran's manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiabani, Nasser; Hasani, Karim [Department of Economics, Institute for Management and Planning Studies, Mokhtar Asgari Str.10, 19395, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ignoring technical and allocative inefficiencies or embedding one of them alone in a system of input demands may result in biased elasticities. We consider a comprehensive model including technical inefficiency (in input and output forms) and allocative inefficiency and apply it to panel data from Iran's manufacturing sector. The results show that the presence of both inefficiencies affects the computed elasticities of demand and substitution. Moreover, in spite of current waste of energy in Iran's manufacturing, the elimination of environmental constraints will prompt the manufacturing firms to increase the utilization of energy relative to both capital and labor. (author)

  18. More nonlocality with less entanglement in Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt experiments using inefficient detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Daniel; Chitambar, Eric

    2018-06-01

    It is well-known that in certain scenarios weakly entangled states can generate stronger nonlocal effects than their maximally entangled counterparts. In this paper, we consider violations of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality when one party has inefficient detectors, a scenario known as an asymmetric Bell experiment. For any fixed detection efficiency, we derive a simple upper bound on the entanglement needed to violate the inequality by more than some specified amount κ ≥0 . When κ =0 , the amount of entanglement in all states violating the inequality goes to zero as the detection efficiency approaches 50 % from above. We finally consider the scenario in which detection inefficiency arises for only one choice of local measurement. In this case, it is shown that the CHSH inequality can always be violated for any nonzero detection efficiency and any choice of noncommuting measurements.

  19. The effect of group rational emotive behavior therapy on inefficient ideas of female high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The perpose of this stud was to determiine the effpyct of group rational emotive therapy on inefficient ideas of female high school students . Therfor 24 students were randomly selected and two therapy and control groups. The therapy group received 10 sessions of 90 minute therapy while the control groups did not receive any thing. The inefficient ideas quertomaire was administered to all subjects as the pre and post tests. The results of analysis of covariance showed that the mean total scores of the therapy group was significantly less on the following sub-scales : expectations (p=0/05 , excessive anxiety (p=0/04 , helplessness with change (p=0/05 , expecting others support (p=0/03 , and dependency (p=0/0001 .

  20. Tracking in dense environments and its inefficiency measurement using pixel $dE/dx$

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, Jason Dhia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement of the charged particle reconstruction inefficiency inside of jet cores, using data collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2015 of $pp$ collisions produced at the LHC, at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV. The determination of this inefficiency is important for jet energy scale and mass calibration, as well as multiple other performance studies and analyses. A data driven method is used, where the fraction of lost particle tracks is determined from energy deposition $dE/dx$ in the pixel detector. The fraction of lost tracks is found to be less than 5%, which is an improvement since the previous study, and agrees well within systematic uncertainties with a Monte Carlo simulation.

  1. The analysis of irreversibility, uncertainty and dynamic technical inefficiency on the investment decision in the Spanish olive sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambarraa, Fatima; Stefanou, Spiro; Gil, José M.

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses irreversible investment decision-making in the context of uncertainty when allowing for inefficiency to be transmitted over time. Both irreversibility and persistence in technical inefficiency can lead to sluggish adjustment of quasi-fixed factors of production. The context

  2. The Mechanisms of Market Inefficiency: An Introduction to the New Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Lynn A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, the Efficient Capital Market Hypothesis (ECMH) became one of the most widely-accepted and influential ideas in finance economics. More recently, however, the idea of market efficiency has fallen into disrepute as a result of market events and growing empirical evidence of inefficiencies. This essay argues that the weaknesses of the efficient market theory are, and were, apparent from a careful inspection of its initial premises, including the presumptions of ...

  3. Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Watson, Derrick G.; Cole, Louise (Researcher in Psychology); Cox, Angeline

    2014-01-01

    In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or...

  4. A Market-Clearing Role for Inefficiency on a Limit Order Book

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Large

    2006-01-01

    Using a stochastic sequential game in ergodic equilibrium, this paper models limit order book trading dynamics. It deduces investor surplus and some agents' strategies from depth's stationarity, while bypassing altogether agents' intricate forecasting problems. Market inefficiency adjusts to induce equal supply and demand for liquidity over time. Consequently, at a given bid-ask spread surplus per investor is invariant to faster, more regular or more sophisticated trading, or modified queuing...

  5. The Emergence of Network Inefficiencies in Infants With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John D; Evans, Alan C; Pruett, John R; Botteron, Kelly N; McKinstry, Robert C; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Estes, Annette M; Collins, D Louis; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Gerig, Guido; Dager, Stephen R; Paterson, Sarah; Schultz, Robert T; Styner, Martin A; Hazlett, Heather C; Piven, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder defined by behavioral features that emerge during the first years of life. Research indicates that abnormalities in brain connectivity are associated with these behavioral features. However, the inclusion of individuals past the age of onset of the defining behaviors complicates interpretation of the observed abnormalities: they may be cascade effects of earlier neuropathology and behavioral abnormalities. Our recent study of network efficiency in a cohort of 24-month-olds at high and low familial risk for ASD reduced this confound; we reported reduced network efficiencies in toddlers classified with ASD. The current study maps the emergence of these inefficiencies in the first year of life. This study uses data from 260 infants at 6 and 12 months of age, including 116 infants with longitudinal data. As in our earlier study, we use diffusion data to obtain measures of the length and strength of connections between brain regions to compute network efficiency. We assess group differences in efficiency within linear mixed-effects models determined by the Akaike information criterion. Inefficiencies in high-risk infants later classified with ASD were detected from 6 months onward in regions involved in low-level sensory processing. In addition, within the high-risk infants, these inefficiencies predicted 24-month symptom severity. These results suggest that infants with ASD, even before 6 months of age, have deficits in connectivity related to low-level processing, which contribute to a developmental cascade affecting brain organization and eventually higher-level cognitive processes and social behavior. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the efficiency versus the inefficiency of the energy sectors in formerly centrally planned economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorsatz, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    As much the extreme inefficiency of Eastern European energy sectors is emphasized, as little attention their relatively efficient aspects receive. Indeed, a few efficiency indicators show the highest global efficiencies for the formerly centrally planned economies, such as the overall primary to useful energy efficiency. These figures draw the attention to an underestimated feature of former socialist energy sectors and to crucial policy implications: in some respects central planning lead to a more efficient use of energy than the market economy. Consequently, if transitions from the central planning to the market economy are not managed carefully, further reductions in energy efficiency can be expected in some sectors of the economy.

  7. Social Costs of the Inefficient Management of the EU Funds for Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2016-01-01

    The study identifies and defines the social costs of the inefficient management of EU funds for Bulgaria. It is analyzed the last due programme period (2007-2015) and its prolongation. As methodology of the research the V4 BM model of Al-Debei and Avison (2010) which has not been used for analysis of EU funds management for cohesion policy in the public sector, is applied. In this way its potential for application in this field is tested. The concept of the study could be successfully used fo...

  8. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Clinical implications of experimental studies on metastatic inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Ann F; Naumov, George N; Vantyghem, Sharon A; Tuck, Alan B

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to an increasing ability to detect isolated tumour cells and groups of tumour cells in patients' blood, lymph nodes or bone marrow. However, the clinical significance of these cells is unclear. Should they be considered as evidence of metastasis, necessitating aggressive treatment, or are they in some cases unrelated to clinical outcome? Quantitative experimental studies on the basic biology of metastatic inefficiency are providing clues that may help in understanding the significance of these cells. This understanding will be of use in guiding clinical studies to assess the significance of isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in cancer patients

  9. ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Baris; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R; van der Meere, Jaap J; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with performance deficits across a broad range of tasks. Although individual tasks are designed to tap specific cognitive functions (e.g., memory, inhibition, planning, etc.), these deficits could also reflect general effects related to either inefficient or impulsive information processing or both. These two components cannot be isolated from each other on the basis of classical analysis in which mean reaction time (RT) and mean accuracy are handled separately. Seventy children with a diagnosis of combined type ADHD and 50 healthy controls (between 6 and 17 years) performed two tasks: a simple two-choice RT (2-CRT) task and a conflict control task (CCT) that required higher levels of executive control. RT and errors were analyzed using the Ratcliff diffusion model, which divides decisional time into separate estimates of information processing efficiency (called "drift rate") and speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO, called "boundary"). The model also provides an estimate of general nondecisional time. Results were the same for both tasks independent of executive load. ADHD was associated with lower drift rate and less nondecisional time. The groups did not differ in terms of boundary parameter estimates. RT and accuracy performance in ADHD appears to reflect inefficient rather than impulsive information processing, an effect independent of executive function load. The results are consistent with models in which basic information processing deficits make an important contribution to the ADHD cognitive phenotype. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Adopting new medical technologies in Russian hospitals: what causes inefficiency? (qualitative study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Sergey; Zasimova, Liudmila

    2018-01-01

    The adoption of new medical technologies often generates losses in efficiency associated with the excess or insufficient acquisition of new equipment, an inappropriate choice (in terms of economic and clinical parameters) of medical equipment, and its poor use. Russia is a good example for exploring the problem of the ineffective adoption of new medical technologies due to the massive public investment in new equipment for medical institutions in 2006-2013. This study examines the procurement of new technologies in Russian hospitals to find the main causes of inefficiency. The research strategy was based on in-depth semistructured interviews with representatives of prominent actors (regional health care authorities, hospital executives, senior physicians). The main result is that inefficiencies arise from the contradiction between hospitals' and authorities' motivation for acquiring new technologies: hospitals tend to adopt technologies which bring benefits to their department heads and physicians and minimize maintenance and servicing costs, while the authorities' main concern is the initial cost of the technology.

  11. A Patient Flow Analysis: Identification of Process Inefficiencies and Workflow Metrics at an Ambulatory Endoscopy Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increasing demand for endoscopic procedures coincides with the paradigm shift in health care delivery that emphasizes efficient use of existing resources. However, there is limited literature on the range of endoscopy unit efficiencies. Methods. A time and motion analysis of patient flow through the Hotel-Dieu Hospital (Kingston, Ontario endoscopy unit was followed by qualitative interviews. Procedures were directly observed in three segments: individual endoscopy room use, preprocedure/recovery room, and overall endoscopy unit utilization. Results. Data were collected for 137 procedures in the endoscopy room, 139 procedures in the preprocedure room, and 143 procedures for overall room utilization. The mean duration spent in the endoscopy room was 31.47 min for an esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 52.93 min for a colonoscopy, 30.47 min for a flexible sigmoidoscopy, and 66.88 min for a double procedure. The procedure itself accounted for 8.11 min, 34.24 min, 9.02 min, and 39.13 min for the above procedures, respectively. The focused interviews identified the scheduling template as a major area of operational inefficiency. Conclusions. Despite reasonable procedure times for all except colonoscopies, the endoscopy room durations exceed the allocated times, reflecting the impact of non-procedure-related factors and the need for a revised scheduling template. Endoscopy units have unique operational characteristics and identification of process inefficiencies can lead to targeted quality improvement initiatives.

  12. A Patient Flow Analysis: Identification of Process Inefficiencies and Workflow Metrics at an Ambulatory Endoscopy Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rowena; Paterson, William G; Craig, Nancy; Hookey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background. The increasing demand for endoscopic procedures coincides with the paradigm shift in health care delivery that emphasizes efficient use of existing resources. However, there is limited literature on the range of endoscopy unit efficiencies. Methods. A time and motion analysis of patient flow through the Hotel-Dieu Hospital (Kingston, Ontario) endoscopy unit was followed by qualitative interviews. Procedures were directly observed in three segments: individual endoscopy room use, preprocedure/recovery room, and overall endoscopy unit utilization. Results. Data were collected for 137 procedures in the endoscopy room, 139 procedures in the preprocedure room, and 143 procedures for overall room utilization. The mean duration spent in the endoscopy room was 31.47 min for an esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 52.93 min for a colonoscopy, 30.47 min for a flexible sigmoidoscopy, and 66.88 min for a double procedure. The procedure itself accounted for 8.11 min, 34.24 min, 9.02 min, and 39.13 min for the above procedures, respectively. The focused interviews identified the scheduling template as a major area of operational inefficiency. Conclusions. Despite reasonable procedure times for all except colonoscopies, the endoscopy room durations exceed the allocated times, reflecting the impact of non-procedure-related factors and the need for a revised scheduling template. Endoscopy units have unique operational characteristics and identification of process inefficiencies can lead to targeted quality improvement initiatives.

  13. Does moving towards renewable energy causes water and land inefficiency? An empirical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-mulali, Usama; Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Sheau-Ting, Low; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of renewable energy production on water and land footprint in 58 developed and developing countries for the period of 1980–2009. Utilizing the ecological footprint as an indicator, the fixed effects, difference and system generalized method of moment (GMM) approaches were employed and eight different models were constructed to achieve robustness in the empirical outcomes. Despite the use of different methods and models, the outcome was the same whereby GDP growth, urbanization, and trade openness increase the water and land footprint. Moreover, renewable energy production increases the water and land inefficiency because of its positive effect on ecological footprint. Additionally, based on the square of GDP it is concluded that the EKC hypothesis does not exist while the square of renewable energy production indicates that renewable energy production will continue to increase water and land footprint in the future. From the outcome of this study, a number of recommendations were provided to the investigated countries. - Highlights: •The effect of renewable energy production on water and land footprint is studied. •58 developed and developing countries were examined for the period of 1980–2009. •Eight different models were constructed to achieve robustness in the outcomes. •GDP, urbanization, and trade openness increase the water and land footprint. •Renewable energy production increases the water and land inefficiency.

  14. Inefficient national environmental regulation as a signal of high abatement costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyses the importance of informational asymmetries in international environmental regulation by use of a game theoretic approach of signaling games. More specific it analysis whether it is possible for a government to try to extract higher compensation in an international unidirectoral environmental problem. This may be possible when the national environmental regulation carries a signal of the cost of the regulated industry. In this case the government e.g. by means of inefficient environmental regulation on a national level may try to signal high abatement costs. In spite of the fact that many international environmental problems seem to be solvable by the use of financial payments there are only few examples that compensation payment arrangements have been implemented. As many countries and especially many polluting firms possess better information about abatement costs than the countries that receive the pollution, it is worthwhile to include asymmetric information. Consequently, this paper analyses whether the introduction of asymmetric information about abatement costs may bring forward incentives to misrepresent the true abatement cost in order to capture more compensation. If these incentives turn out to be present, it may explain some of the suspicion against using financial payment in order to induce other countries to join an agreement. The analysis shows that it may indeed be the case that the expected gain from cheating is so large that it gives incentives to use an inefficient national environmental policy. (au) 13 refs.

  15. Characterisation of a CMOS charge transfer device for TDI imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushton, J.; Holland, A.; Stefanov, K.; Mayer, F.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a prototype true charge transfer imaging sensor in CMOS is investigated. The finished device is destined for use in TDI applications, especially Earth-observation, and to this end radiation tolerance must be investigated. Before this, complete characterisation is required. This work starts by looking at charge transfer inefficiency and then investigates responsivity using mean-variance techniques

  16. Do Children and Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa Display an Inefficient Cognitive Processing Style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Lang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine neuropsychological processing in children and adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN. The relationship of clinical and demographic variables to neuropsychological functioning within the AN group was also explored.The performance of 41 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of AN were compared to 43 healthy control (HC participants on a number of neuropsychological measures.There were no differences in IQ between AN and HC groups. However, children and adolescents with AN displayed significantly more perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and lower Style and Central Coherence scores on the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test relative to HCs.Inefficient cognitive processing in the AN group was independent of clinical and demographic variables, suggesting it might represent an underlying trait for AN. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Deformation-driven, lethal damage to cancer cells. Its contribution to metastatic inefficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, L

    1991-04-01

    Direct and indirect, in vivo and in vitro observations are in accord with the hypothesis that as a consequence of their deformation within capillaries, cancer cells undergo sphere-to-cylinder shape-transformations that create a demand for increased surface area. When this demand cannot be met by apparent increases in surface area accomplished by nonlethal, surface "unfolding," the cell surface membrane is stretched; if expansion results in more than a 4% increase in true surface area, the membrane ruptures, resulting in cancer cell death. It is suggested that this deformation-driven process is an important factor in accounting for the rapid death of circulating cancer cells that have been trapped in the microvasculature. Therefore, this mechanism is thought to make a significant contribution to metastatic inefficiency by acting as a potent rate-regulator for hematogenous metastasis.

  18. A Mutation in PGM2 Causing Inefficient Galactose Metabolism in the Probiotic Yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Kong, In Iok; Yun, Eun Ju; Zheng, Jia-Qi; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Jin, Yong-Su

    2018-05-15

    The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii has been extensively studied for the prevention and treatment of diarrheal diseases, and it is now commercially available in some countries. S. boulardii displays notable phenotypic characteristics, such as a high optimal growth temperature, high tolerance against acidic conditions, and the inability to form ascospores, which differentiate S. boulardii from Saccharomyces cerevisiae The majority of prior studies stated that S. boulardii exhibits sluggish or halted galactose utilization. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying inefficient galactose uptake have yet to be elucidated. When the galactose utilization of a widely used S. boulardii strain, ATCC MYA-796, was examined under various culture conditions, the S. boulardii strain could consume galactose, but at a much lower rate than that of S. cerevisiae While all GAL genes were present in the S. boulardii genome, according to analysis of genomic sequencing data in a previous study, a point mutation (G1278A) in PGM2 , which codes for phosphoglucomutase, was identified in the genome of the S. boulardii strain. As the point mutation resulted in the truncation of the Pgm2 protein, which is known to play a pivotal role in galactose utilization, we hypothesized that the truncated Pgm2 might be associated with inefficient galactose metabolism. Indeed, complementation of S. cerevisiae PGM2 in S. boulardii restored galactose utilization. After reverting the point mutation to a full-length PGM2 in S. boulardii by Cas9-based genome editing, the growth rates of wild-type (with a truncated PGM2 gene) and mutant (with a full-length PGM2 ) strains with glucose or galactose as the carbon source were examined. As expected, the mutant (with a full-length PGM2 ) was able to ferment galactose faster than the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the mutant showed a lower growth rate than that of the wild-type strain on glucose at 37°C. Also, the wild-type strain was enriched in the

  19. Public lending to private hedge funds is inefficient, unstable, unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarshan Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public funds include federally insured deposits held under the custody of private banks, central bank loans and taxpayer funds. The principal finding of this paper is that lending such public funds through a private banking system to private hedge funds allied with the banks is inefficient, unstable, fundamentally unfair (unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable. This finding is akin to the unanimously agreeable safe central banking policy (Acharya, 1991-2016 which, in dynamic general equilibrium, (a eliminates federal guarantee of bank deposits, (b offers every business enterprise and household an option to keep in the central bank any part of its deposits it wants to be held absolutely safely, (c completely deregulates all private banks without any privilege to rob public or private wealth like too-big-to-fail or too-big-to-be-jailed status or the power of market making and clearing. Safe central banking is the only way to make private banks responsible to hold sufficient capital to attract uninsured private deposits like the trading houses currently do. The private banks will then have complete freedom to lend their uninsured deposits to private hedge funds. The Volker Rule (NYT, January 30, 2010, incorporated in the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, is an infeasible and unworkable band-aid for the moral-hazard driven systemic robbery of wealth creators wrought by the government-ordained private banking custody of public funds. The established systemic moral-hazard problem can be efficiently and constitutionally resolved only through unanimously agreeable safe central banking. Current proposals on overhauling of Fannie and Freddie made by various pundits of systemic robbery amount to a gargantuan amount of public lending to private hedge funds and, hence, inefficient, unstable, unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable.

  20. Is an inefficient transmission market better than none at all? On zonal and nodal pricing in electricity systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Joachim

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, the trade-off between inefficient transmission forward markets (in nodal pricing regimes) and the inefficiency induced by hiding transmission constraints from the market (in zonal pricing regimes) is analyzed. First, a simple two node model formalizing the general trade-off is developed. Then, comparative statics are performed with a stochastic equilibrium model including more nodes, loop flows and an energy and transmission forward market. Inefficiency in the transmission forward market is introduced via a bid-ask-spread and risk aversion of market participants. The welfare impacts for a broad range of supply, demand, grid and inefficiency parameters are analyzed numerically. For efficient spot and forward markets, the results of the literature of nodal pricing being the efficient benchmark are confirmed. With inefficient transmission forward markets, however, zonal pricing proves advantageous in situations with little congestion and low costs. The results imply that the trade-off between the pricing regimes should be considered carefully when defining the geographical scope of bidding zones.

  1. Exacerbating the Tragedy of the Commons: Private Inefficient Outcomes and Peer Effect in Experimental Games with Fishing Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Higinio Maldonado

    Full Text Available Economic Experimental Games have shown that individuals make decisions that deviate down from the suboptimal Nash equilibrium. However, few studies have analyzed the case when deviation is above the Nash equilibrium. Extracting from above the Nash equilibrium is inefficient not only socially but also privately and it would exacerbate the tragedy of the commons. That would be the case of a race to the fish when stocks are becoming depleted or driver behavior on a highly congested road. The objective of this study is to analyze private inefficient extraction behavior in experimental games and to associate the type of player and the type of player group with such inefficient outcomes. To do this, we carried out economic experimental games with local coastal fishermen in Colombia, using a setting where the scarcity of the resource allows for an interior Nash equilibrium and inefficient over-extraction is possible. The state of the resource, the type of player and the composition of the group explain, in part, this inefficient behavior.

  2. Transient Oral Human Cytomegalovirus Infections Indicate Inefficient Viral Spread from Very Few Initially Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Bryan T; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Swan, David; Ferrenberg, James; Simmons, Karen; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Schiffer, Joshua T; Gantt, Soren

    2017-06-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is acquired by the oral route in children, and primary infection is associated with abundant mucosal replication, as well as the establishment of latency in myeloid cells that results in lifelong infection. The efficiency of primary CMV infection in humans following oral exposure, however, is unknown. We consistently detected self-limited, low-level oral CMV shedding events, which we termed transient CMV infections, in a prospective birth cohort of 30 highly exposed CMV-uninfected infants. We estimated the likelihood of transient oral CMV infections by comparing their observed frequency to that of established primary infections, characterized by persistent high-level shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. We developed mathematical models of viral dynamics upon initial oral CMV infection and validated them using clinical shedding data. Transient infections comprised 76 to 88% of oral CMV shedding events. For this high percentage of transient infections to occur, we identified two mathematical prerequisites: a very small number of initially infected oral cells (1 to 4) and low viral infectivity (<1.5 new cells infected/cell). These observations indicate that oral CMV infection in infants typically begins with a single virus that spreads inefficiently to neighboring cells. Thus, although the incidence of CMV infection is high during infancy, our data provide a mechanistic framework to explain why multiple CMV exposures are typically required before infection is successfully established. These findings imply that a sufficiently primed immune response could prevent CMV from establishing latent infection in humans and support the achievability of a prophylactic CMV vaccine. IMPORTANCE CMV infects the majority of the world's population and is a major cause of birth defects. Developing a vaccine to prevent CMV infection would be extremely valuable but would be facilitated by a better understanding of how natural human CMV infection is acquired. We

  3. Hidden costs of HIV treatment in Spain: inefficiency of the antiretroviral drug packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre-Codina, Josep M; Andreu-Crespo, Angels; Cardona-Peitx, Gloria; Sala-Piñol, Ferran; Clotet-Sala, Bonaventura; Bonafont-Pujol, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral drugs in Spain are delivered by law only in hospital pharmacies. Commercial packages meet variable quality standards when dispensed drugs are returned due to treatment changes or adherence problems Nearly 20-25% of the initial regimens will be changed at 48 weeks for different reasons. We evaluated the economic impact on public health system of the inability of using returned drugs due to inefficient packaging. We defined socially efficient packaging as the best adapted one to being delivered in unit dose to outpatients and classified: Class A - Drug packed in unit doses with complete info (name of drug, dosage in mg, lot, and expiring date) in each unit, maintaining complete information of the drug if returned when the external package is opened. Class B - packed in blisters with complete info in the blister, but not in unit doses, without special conservation conditions (should be re-packed in unit doses in the pharmacy before its dispensation to assure a class A excellence). Class C - packed in plastic containers with complete info written only on a label over the container, would allow repackaging only before its initial delivery, but not when returned. Class D - drug packed in plastic containers with manufacturer's warning that the product cannot be placed outside of the original package due to special conditions of conservation (fridge, humidity) that doesn't allow a unit dose repackaging or reusing an opened container. We analysed a 12-month period (July 2011-June 2012) in a hospital-based HIV outpatient pharmacy that serves 2413 treated individuals. Patients generated 23,574 visits to pharmacy, and received 48,325 drug packages, with 2.529.137 pills delivered. The patients suffered 1051 treatment changes for any reason. A total amount of 122.945€ in treatment were returned to pharmacy in opened packages during the study period. 47.139.91€ would be totally lost, mainly due to being packaged in class C and D boxes, the equivalent of

  4. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  5. The economic inefficiency of grid parity. The case of German photovoltaics in scenarios until 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegemann, Cosima; Hagspiel, Simeon; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics

    2012-07-01

    Due to massive reductions in the price for photovoltaic (PV) systems, PV grid parity has recently been reached for German households. As PV system prices continue to decrease, the gap between the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) of PV and the retail electricity tariff will grow and trigger investments in residential PV systems for captive electricity generation - even in the absence of any direct financial incentives such as solar power feed-in tariffs. However, while the single household can lower its annual electricity costs through investments in rooftop PV systems for captive electricity generation, the partial optimization of the single household is inefficient from an economic perspective. Households optimize their PV investment by comparing the LCOE of PV to the residential electricity tariff that includes network tariffs, taxes, levies and other surcharges that can be avoided when consuming self-produced PV electricity instead of purchasing electricity from the grid. Therefore, private investments in rooftop PV systems receive an indirect financial incentive in the current regulatory environment. This paper analyzes the consequences of PV grid parity in Germany until 2030 from both the single household and the wholesale market perspective. We find that exempting self-consumed PV electricity from all additional charges induces significant investments in rooftop PV systems and small scale storage systems, allowing for high shares of in-house PV electricity consumption. From the single household perspective, the optimal PV and storage system capacities increase with the number of residents living in the household, enabling households to cover on average 72 % of their annual electricity demand by self-produced PV electricity. The single households's optimization behavior entails direct consequences for the wholesale market, as it changes the residual load both in volume and structure. The inefficiency caused by the partial optimization of single

  6. Frontopolar cortical inefficiency may underpin reward and working memory dysfunction in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogia, Jigar; Dima, Danai; Kumari, Veena; Frangou, Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder is thought to arise from dysfunction within prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control coupled with increased or aberrant activation within regions engaged in emotional processing. The aim of this study was to determine the common and distinct patterns of functional brain abnormalities during reward and working memory processing in patients with bipolar disorder. Participants were 36 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 37 healthy comparison subjects matched for age, sex and IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted during the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the n-back working memory task. During both tasks, patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated a pattern of inefficient engagement within the ventral frontopolar prefrontal cortex with evidence of segregation along the medial-lateral dimension for reward and working memory processing, respectively. Moreover, patients also showed greater activation in the anterior cingulate cortex during the Iowa Gambling Task and in the insula during the n-back task. Our data implicate ventral frontopolar dysfunction as a core abnormality underpinning bipolar disorder and confirm that overactivation in regions involved in emotional arousal is present even in tasks that do not typically engage emotional systems.

  7. The Properties of Reconnection Current Sheets in GRMHD Simulations of Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects may play a significant role in determining the dynamics, thermal properties, and observational signatures of radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. In particular, particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection events may influence black hole spectra and flaring properties. We use representative general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of black hole accretion flows to identify and explore the structures and properties of current sheets as potential sites of magnetic reconnection. In the case of standard and normal evolution (SANE) disks, we find that in the reconnection sites, the plasma beta ranges from 0.1 to 1000, the magnetization ranges from 10‑4 to 1, and the guide fields are weak compared with the reconnecting fields. In magnetically arrested (MAD) disks, we find typical values for plasma beta from 10‑2 to 103, magnetizations from 10‑3 to 10, and typically stronger guide fields, with strengths comparable to or greater than the reconnecting fields. These are critical parameters that govern the electron energy distribution resulting from magnetic reconnection and can be used in the context of plasma simulations to provide microphysics inputs to global simulations. We also find that ample magnetic energy is available in the reconnection regions to power the fluence of bright X-ray flares observed from the black hole in the center of the Milky Way.

  8. Inefficient Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers: Angular Momentum Belt in the Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-04-01

    We present unstratified 3D MHD simulations of an accretion disk with a boundary layer (BL) that have a duration ˜1000 orbital periods at the inner radius of the accretion disk. We find the surprising result that angular momentum piles up in the boundary layer, which results in a rapidly rotating belt of accreted material at the surface of the star. The angular momentum stored in this belt increases monotonically in time, which implies that angular momentum transport mechanisms in the BL are inefficient and do not couple the accretion disk to the star. This is in spite of the fact that magnetic fields are advected into the BL from the disk and supersonic shear instabilities in the BL excite acoustic waves. In our simulations, these waves only carry a small fraction (˜10%) of the angular momentum required for steady state accretion. Using analytical theory and 2D viscous simulations in the R - ϕ plane, we derive an analytical criterion for belt formation to occur in the BL in terms of the ratio of the viscosity in the accretion disk to the viscosity in the BL. Our MHD simulations have a dimensionless viscosity (α) in the BL that is at least a factor of ˜100 smaller than that in the disk. We discuss the implications of these results for BL dynamics and emission.

  9. Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; Watson, Derrick G; Cole, Louise; Cox, Angeline

    2014-02-01

    In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or scenes) prior to a contextual cueing task. In a typical contextual cueing experiment, RTs are reduced if displays are repeated across the experiment compared with novel displays that are not repeated. The results showed that a smaller contextual cueing effect was obtained after participants viewed negative stimuli than when they viewed neutral stimuli. However, in contrast to previous work, overall search RTs were not faster after viewing negative stimuli (Experiments 2 to 4). The findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional content on visual processing and the ability to use scene context to help facilitate search.

  10. Accidental ingestion of BiTine ring and a note on inefficient ring separation forceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghele ON

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Om Nemichand Baghele1, Mangala Om Baghele21Department of Periodontology, SMBT Dental College and Hospital, Sangamner, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India; 2Private General Dental Practice, Mumbai, IndiaBackground: Accidental ingestion of medium-to-large instruments is relatively uncommon during dental treatment but can be potentially dangerous. A case of BiTine ring ingestion is presented with a note on inefficient ring separation forceps.Case description: A 28-year-old male patient accidentally ingested the BiTine ring (2 cm diameter, 0.5 cm outward projections while it was being applied to a distoproximal cavity in tooth # 19. The ring placement forceps were excessively flexible; bending of the beaks towards the ring combined with a poor no-slippage mechanism led to sudden disengagement of the ring and accelerated movement towards the pharynx. We followed the patient with bulk forming agents and radiographs. Fortunately the ring passed out without any complications.Clinical implications: Checking equipment and methods is as important as taking precautions against any preventable medical emergency. It is the responsibility of the clinician to check, verify and then use any instrument/equipment.Keywords: foreign bodies/radiography, foreign bodies/complications, equipment failure, dental instrument, accidental ingestion

  11. DRG migration: A novel measure of inefficient surgical care in a value-based world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Byron D; Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Sieloff, Eric; Shan, Yong; Senagore, Anthony J

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) migration, DRG 331 to 330, is defined by the assignment to a higher cost DRG due only to post admission comorbidity or complications (CC). We assessed the 5% national Medicare data set (2011-2014) for colectomy (DRG's 331/330), excluding present on admission CC's and selecting patients with one or more CC's post-admission to define the impact on payments, cost, and length of stay (LOS). The incidence of DRG migration was 14.2%. This was associated with statistically significant increases in payments, hospital cost, and LOS compared to DRG 331 patients. When DRG migration rate was extrapolated to the entire at risk population, the results were an increase of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) cost by $98 million, hospital cost by $418 million, and excess hospital days equaling 68,669 days. These negative outcomes represent potentially unnecessary variations in the processes of care, and therefore a unique economic concept defining inefficient surgical care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inefficient and opaque price formation in the Japan Electric Power Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether the spot prices in the Japan Electric Power Exchange are efficiently formed from April 3, 2006, to March 31, 2012, using the conventional and rank-based variance-ratio tests. The results seem to reject the efficient market hypothesis in the market. Moreover, by applying Granger-causality tests, this paper investigates whether the power price is determined from the information of primary energy and exchange markets that directly affect the cost of power generation. The results indicate no Granger-causality from the prices of oil and gas and the exchange rate to the price of electricity. Finally, this paper discusses the factors that lead to inefficient and mysterious price formation. - Highlights: ► This study examines the wholesale electricity market in Japan. ► Efficient market hypothesis is rejected. ► Prices of imported fuel do not Granger-cause the prices of electricity. ► The WTI prices and the exchange rates do not Granger-cause the power prices

  13. Inefficiency of IDS Static Anomaly Detectors in Real-World Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Guillen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of IDS implementations with anomaly detection modules have been deployed. In general, those modules depend on intrusion knowledge databases, such as Knowledge Discovery Dataset (KDD99, Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA or Community Resource for Archiving Wireless Data at Dartmouth (CRAWDAD, among others. Once the database is analyzed and a machine learning method is employed to generate detectors, some classes of new detectors are created. Thereafter, detectors are supposed to be deployed in real network environments in order to achieve detection with good results for false positives and detection rates. Since the traffic behavior is quite different according to the user’s network activities over available services, restrictions and applications, it is supposed that behavioral-based detectors are not well suited to all kind of networks. This paper presents the differences of detection results between some network scenarios by applying traditional detectors that were calculated with artificial neural networks. The same detector is deployed in different scenarios to measure the efficiency or inefficiency of static training detectors.

  14. ECONOMETRIC INEFFICIENCY ESTIMATES IN A COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20080701001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Bernard Bastiaan Rivera Rivera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to apply a Cobb-Douglas, Translog Stochastic Production Function and Data Envelopment Analysis – particularly the Malmquist index - in order to estimate increases or decreases of inefficiencies over time as well as the sources of TFP changes for the main Brazilian grain crops - namely, rice, beans, maize, soybeans and wheat - throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 2001-2006. According to the Cobb Douglas model, the greatest elasticity presented is that of harvested area, followed by agricultural credit and limestone. The Translog production function presents an amelioration of aggregate productivity over time and, in a decreasing order, the Brazilian regions that have presented the greatest relative degree of efficiency are the Northeast, North, Southeast, South and Center-West regions. The results indicate that, although there have been positive changes in TFP for the sample analyzed, a decline in the use of technology has been evidenced for all the principal Brazilian grain crops between 2005/2007 – period in which we observe a remarkable downfall in the use of inputs in Brazilian agriculture.

  15. Energy savings potential in China's industrial sector: From the perspectives of factor price distortion and allocative inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoling; Sun, Chuanwang

    2015-01-01

    China's industrial energy consumption accounted for 70.82% of national and 14.12% of world energy usage in 2011. In the context of energy scarcity and environmental pollution, the industrial sector in China faces unsustainable growth problems. By adopting the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework, this paper analyzes the factor allocative efficiency of China's industrial sector, and estimates the energy savings potential from the perspective of allocative inefficiency. This paper focuses on three issues. The first is examining the factor allocative inefficiency of China's industrial sector. The second is measuring factor price distortion by the shadow price model. The third is estimating the energy savings potential in China's industrial sector during 2001–2009. Major conclusions are thus drawn. First, factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted in China due to government regulations. Moreover, energy price is relatively low compared to capital price, while is relatively high compared to labor price. Second, the industry-wide energy savings potential resulted from energy allocative inefficiency was about 9.71% during 2001–2009. The downward trend of energy savings potential implies the increasing energy allocative efficiency in China's industrial sector. Third, a transparent and reasonable pricing mechanism is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency. - Highlights: • We measure energy savings potential resulted from allocative inefficiency in China's industrial sector. • Allocative inefficiency is explained based on the theoretical and empirical models. • Factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted because of government regulations. • Energy pricing reform is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency

  16. Ambiguities in the grid-inefficiency correction for Frisch-Grid Ionization Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Adili, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Bencardino, R.; Oberstedt, S.; Pomp, S.

    2012-01-01

    Ionization chambers with Frisch grids have been very successfully applied to neutron-induced fission-fragment studies during the past 20 years. They are radiation resistant and can be easily adapted to the experimental conditions. The use of Frisch grids has the advantage to remove the angular dependency from the charge induced on the anode plate. However, due to the Grid Inefficiency (GI) in shielding the charges, the anode signal remains slightly angular dependent. The correction for the GI is, however, essential to determine the correct energy of the ionizing particles. GI corrections can amount to a few percent of the anode signal. Presently, two contradicting correction methods are considered in literature. The first method adding the angular-dependent part of the signal to the signal pulse height; the second method subtracting the former from the latter. Both additive and subtractive approaches were investigated in an experiment where a Twin Frisch-Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) was employed to detect the spontaneous fission fragments (FF) emitted by a 252 Cf source. Two parallel-wire grids with different wire spacing (1 and 2 mm, respectively), were used individually, in the same chamber side. All the other experimental conditions were unchanged. The 2 mm grid featured more than double the GI of the 1 mm grid. The induced charge on the anode in both measurements was compared, before and after GI correction. Before GI correction, the 2 mm grid resulted in a lower pulse-height distribution than the 1 mm grid. After applying both GI corrections to both measurements only the additive approach led to consistent grid independent pulse-height distributions. The application of the subtractive correction on the contrary led to inconsistent, grid-dependent results. It is also shown that the impact of either of the correction methods is small on the FF mass distributions of 235 U(n th , f).

  17. Apathy, but not depression, reflects inefficient cognitive strategies in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Varanese

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between apathy, depression and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD is still controversial. The objective of this study is to investigate whether apathy and depression are associated with inefficient cognitive strategies in PD.In this prospective clinical cohort study conducted in a university-based clinical and research movement disorders center we studied 48 PD patients. Based on clinical evaluation, they were classified in two groups: PD with apathy (PD-A group, n = 23 and PD without apathy (PD-NA group, n = 25. Patients received clinical and neuropsychological evaluations. The clinical evaluation included: Apathy Evaluation Scale-patient version, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn and Yahr staging system; the neuropsychological evaluation explored speed information processing, attention, working memory, executive function, learning abilities and memory, which included several measures of recall (immediate free, short delay free, long delay free and cued, and total recall.PD-A and PD-NA groups did not differ in age, disease duration, treatment, and motor condition, but differed in recall (p<0.001 and executive tasks (p<0.001. Immediate free recall had the highest predictive value for apathy (F = 10.94; p = 0.002. Depression and apathy had a weak correlation (Pearson index= 0.3; p<0.07, with three items of the depression scale correlating with apathy (Pearson index between .3 and.4; p<0.04. The depressed and non-depressed PD patients within the non-apathetic group did not differ.Apathy, but not depression, is associated with deficit in implementing efficient cognitive strategies. As the implementation of efficient strategies relies on the fronto-striatal circuit, we conclude that apathy, unlike depression, is an early expression of executive impairment in PD.

  18. Gas market distorting effects of imbalanced gas balancing rules: Inefficient regulation of pipeline flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyaerts, Nico; Hallack, Michelle; Glachant, Jean-Michel; D'haeseleer, William

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the value and cost of line-pack flexibility in liberalized gas markets through examination of the techno-economic characteristics of gas transport pipelines and the trade-offs between different ways to use the infrastructure: transport and flexibility. Line-pack flexibility is becoming increasingly important as a tool to balance gas supply and demand over different periods. In the European liberalized market context, a monopolist unbundled network operator offers regulated transport services and flexibility (balancing) services according to the network code and balancing rules. Therefore, gas policy makers should understand the role and consequences of line-pack regulation. The analysis shows that the line-pack flexibility service has an important economic value for the shippers and the TSO. Furthermore, the analysis identifies distorting effects in the gas market due to inadequate regulation of line-pack flexibility: by disregarding the sunk costs of flexibility in the balancing rules, the overall efficiency of the gas system is decreased. Finally, the analysis demonstrates that the actual costs of line-pack flexibility are related to the peak cumulative imbalance throughout the balancing period. Any price for pipeline flexibility should, therefore, be based on the related trade-off between the right to use the line-pack flexibility and the provision of transport services. - Research Highlights: →Line-pack flexibility is a main gas balancing instrument. →Capacity related costs of line-pack flexibility depend on peak cumulative imbalances. →Line-pack pricing rules determine choice between ex ante and ex post balancing. →Inefficient line-pack regulation causes gas market distortions.

  19. A long HBV transcript encoding pX is inefficiently exported from the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doitsh, Gilad; Shaul, Yosef

    2003-01-01

    The longest hepatitis B virus transcript is a 3.9-kb mRNA whose function remained unclear. In this study, we wished to identify the translation products and physiological role of this viral transcript. This transcript initiates from the X promoter region ignoring the inefficient and noncanonical viral polyadenylation signal at the first round of transcription. However, an HBV mutant with canonical polyadenylation signal continues, though with lower efficiency, to program the synthesis of this long transcript, indicating that the deviated HBV polyadenylation signal is important but not essential to enable transcription of the 3.9-kb species. The 3.9-kb RNA contains two times the X open reading frame (ORF). The X ORF at the 5'-end is positioned upstream of the CORE gene. By generating an HBV DNA mutant in which the X and Core ORFs are fused, we demonstrated the production of a 40-kDa X-Core fusion protein that must be encoded by the 3.9-kb transcript. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the production of this protein depends on the 5' X ORF ATG, suggesting that the 3.9-kb RNA is active in translation of the X ORF. Based on these features, the 3.9-kb transcript was designated lxRNA for long X RNA. Unlike other HBV transcripts, lxRNA harbors two copies of PRE, the posttranscriptional regulatory element that controls the nuclear export of HBV mRNAs. Unexpectedly, despite the presence of PRE sequences, RNA fractionation analysis revealed that lxRNA barely accumulates in the cytoplasm, suggesting that nuclear export of lxRNA is poor. Collectively, our data suggest that two distinct HBV mRNA species encode pX and that the HBV transcripts are differentially regulated at the level of nuclear export

  20. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadzire, Bvudzai P; Ward, Kim; Leng, Henry M J; Sanders, David

    2017-06-30

    South Africa (SA) has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM) in the Western Cape Province, SA. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers). We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i) delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii) absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii) suppliers' inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i) health facility operations; (ii) the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU), which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii) community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU's prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were asked to return for undispensed medication at a later

  1. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bvudzai P Magadzire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  2. ON THE RADIO POLARIZATION SIGNATURE OF EFFICIENT AND INEFFICIENT PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA REMNANT SN 1006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynoso, Estela M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), C. C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Moffett, David A., E-mail: ereynoso@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: david.moffett@furman.edu [Department of Physics, Furman University, Greenville, SC 29613 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    inefficient acceleration and little to no generation of magnetic turbulence are obtained for the quasi-perpendicular case.

  3. Inefficient postural responses to unexpected slips during walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, P F; Woollacott, M H

    1998-11-01

    maintaining trunk stability. In an attempt to quickly reestablish the base of support after the slips, older adults had an earlier contralateral foot strike and shortened stride length. The combination of slower onset and smaller magnitude of postural responses to slips in older adults resulted in an inefficient balance strategy. Older adults needed secondary compensatory adjustments, including a lengthened response duration and the use of the arms, to fully regain balance and prevent a fall. The shorter stride length and earlier contralateral foot strike following the slip indicate use of a more conservative balance strategy in older adults.

  4. ON THE RADIO POLARIZATION SIGNATURE OF EFFICIENT AND INEFFICIENT PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA REMNANT SN 1006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynoso, Estela M.; Hughes, John P.; Moffett, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Radio polarization observations provide essential information on the degree of order and orientation of magnetic fields, which themselves play a key role in the particle acceleration processes that take place in supernova remnants (SNRs). Here we present a radio polarization study of SN 1006, based on combined Very Large Array and Australia Telescope Compact Array observations at 20 cm that resulted in sensitive images with an angular resolution of 10 arcsec. The fractional polarization in the two bright radio and X-ray lobes of the SNR is measured to be 0.17, while in the southeastern sector, where the radio and non-thermal X-ray emission are much weaker, the polarization fraction reaches a value of 0.6 ± 0.2, close to the theoretical limit of 0.7. We interpret this result as evidence of a disordered, turbulent magnetic field in the lobes, where particle acceleration is believed to be efficient, and a highly ordered field in the southeast, where the acceleration efficiency has been shown to be very low. Utilizing the frequency coverage of our observations, an average rotation measure of ∼12 rad m –2 is determined from the combined data set, which is then used to obtain the intrinsic direction of the magnetic field vectors. While the orientation of magnetic field vectors across the SNR shell appear to be radial, a large fraction of the magnetic vectors lie parallel to the Galactic plane. Along the highly polarized southeastern rim, the field is aligned tangent to the shock, and therefore also nearly parallel to the Galactic plane. These results strongly suggest that the ambient field surrounding SN 1006 is aligned with this direction (i.e., from northeast to southwest) and that the bright lobes are due to a polar cap geometry. Our study establishes that the most efficient particle acceleration and generation of magnetic turbulence in SN 1006 is attained for shocks in which the magnetic field direction and shock normal are quasi-parallel, while inefficient

  5. Fast Recognition of BCI-Inefficient Users Using Physiological Features from EEG Signals: A Screening Study of Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaokang Shu; Shugeng Chen; Lin Yao; Xinjun Sheng; Dingguo Zhang; Ning Jiang; Jie Jia; Xiangyang Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has been developed as an alternative therapy for stroke rehabilitation. However, experimental evidence demonstrates that a significant portion (10–50%) of subjects are BCI-inefficient users (accuracy less than 70%). Thus, predicting BCI performance prior to clinical BCI usage would facilitate the selection of suitable end-users and improve the efficiency of stroke rehabilitation. In the current study, we proposed two physiological variab...

  6. Fast Recognition of BCI-Inefficient Users Using Physiological Features from EEG Signals: A Screening Study of Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokang Shu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI based brain-computer interface (BCI has been developed as an alternative therapy for stroke rehabilitation. However, experimental evidence demonstrates that a significant portion (10–50% of subjects are BCI-inefficient users (accuracy less than 70%. Thus, predicting BCI performance prior to clinical BCI usage would facilitate the selection of suitable end-users and improve the efficiency of stroke rehabilitation. In the current study, we proposed two physiological variables, i.e., laterality index (LI and cortical activation strength (CAS, to predict MI-BCI performance. Twenty-four stroke patients and 10 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Each subject was required to perform two blocks of left- and right-hand MI tasks. Linear regression analyses were performed between the BCI accuracies and two physiological predictors. Here, the predictors were calculated from the electroencephalography (EEG signals during paretic hand MI tasks (5 trials; approximately 1 min. LI values exhibited a statistically significant correlation with two-class BCI (left vs. right performance (r = −0.732, p < 0.001, and CAS values exhibited a statistically significant correlation with brain-switch BCI (task vs. idle performance (r = 0.641, p < 0.001. Furthermore, the BCI-inefficient users were successfully recognized with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 85.7% in the two-class BCI. The brain-switch BCI achieved a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 87.5% in the discrimination of BCI-inefficient users. These results demonstrated that the proposed BCI predictors were promising to promote the BCI usage in stroke rehabilitation and contribute to a better understanding of the BCI-inefficiency phenomenon in stroke patients.

  7. Cost inefficiency under financial strain: a stochastic frontier analysis of hospitals in Washington State through the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izón, Germán M; Pardini, Chelsea A

    2017-06-01

    The importance of increasing cost efficiency for community hospitals in the United States has been underscored by the Great Recession and the ever-changing health care reimbursement environment. Previous studies have shown mixed evidence with regards to the relationship between linking hospitals' reimbursement to quality of care and cost efficiency. Moreover, current evidence suggests that not only inherently financially disadvantaged hospitals (e.g., safety-net providers), but also more financially stable providers, experienced declines to their financial viability throughout the recession. However, little is known about how hospital cost efficiency fared throughout the Great Recession. This study contributes to the literature by using stochastic frontier analysis to analyze cost inefficiency of Washington State hospitals between 2005 and 2012, with controls for patient burden of illness, hospital process of care quality, and hospital outcome quality. The quality measures included in this study function as central measures for the determination of recently implemented pay-for-performance programs. The average estimated level of hospital cost inefficiency before the Great Recession (10.4 %) was lower than it was during the Great Recession (13.5 %) and in its aftermath (14.1 %). Further, the estimated coefficients for summary process of care quality indexes for three health conditions (acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and heart failure) suggest that higher quality scores are associated with increased cost inefficiency.

  8. Fast Recognition of BCI-Inefficient Users Using Physiological Features from EEG Signals: A Screening Study of Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaokang; Chen, Shugeng; Yao, Lin; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Jia, Jie; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2018-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has been developed as an alternative therapy for stroke rehabilitation. However, experimental evidence demonstrates that a significant portion (10-50%) of subjects are BCI-inefficient users (accuracy less than 70%). Thus, predicting BCI performance prior to clinical BCI usage would facilitate the selection of suitable end-users and improve the efficiency of stroke rehabilitation. In the current study, we proposed two physiological variables, i.e., laterality index (LI) and cortical activation strength (CAS), to predict MI-BCI performance. Twenty-four stroke patients and 10 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Each subject was required to perform two blocks of left- and right-hand MI tasks. Linear regression analyses were performed between the BCI accuracies and two physiological predictors. Here, the predictors were calculated from the electroencephalography (EEG) signals during paretic hand MI tasks (5 trials; approximately 1 min). LI values exhibited a statistically significant correlation with two-class BCI (left vs. right) performance (r = -0.732, p discrimination of BCI-inefficient users. These results demonstrated that the proposed BCI predictors were promising to promote the BCI usage in stroke rehabilitation and contribute to a better understanding of the BCI-inefficiency phenomenon in stroke patients.

  9. Fast Recognition of BCI-Inefficient Users Using Physiological Features from EEG Signals: A Screening Study of Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaokang; Chen, Shugeng; Yao, Lin; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Jia, Jie; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2018-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has been developed as an alternative therapy for stroke rehabilitation. However, experimental evidence demonstrates that a significant portion (10–50%) of subjects are BCI-inefficient users (accuracy less than 70%). Thus, predicting BCI performance prior to clinical BCI usage would facilitate the selection of suitable end-users and improve the efficiency of stroke rehabilitation. In the current study, we proposed two physiological variables, i.e., laterality index (LI) and cortical activation strength (CAS), to predict MI-BCI performance. Twenty-four stroke patients and 10 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Each subject was required to perform two blocks of left- and right-hand MI tasks. Linear regression analyses were performed between the BCI accuracies and two physiological predictors. Here, the predictors were calculated from the electroencephalography (EEG) signals during paretic hand MI tasks (5 trials; approximately 1 min). LI values exhibited a statistically significant correlation with two-class BCI (left vs. right) performance (r = −0.732, p discrimination of BCI-inefficient users. These results demonstrated that the proposed BCI predictors were promising to promote the BCI usage in stroke rehabilitation and contribute to a better understanding of the BCI-inefficiency phenomenon in stroke patients. PMID:29515363

  10. TRANSFERENCE BEFORE TRANSFERENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaminio, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    This paper is predominantly a clinical presentation that describes the transmigration of one patient's transference to another, with the analyst functioning as a sort of transponder. It involves an apparently accidental episode in which there was an unconscious intersection between two patients. The author's aim is to show how transference from one case may affect transference in another, a phenomenon the author calls transference before transference. The author believes that this idea may serve as a tool for understanding the unconscious work that takes place in the clinical situation. In a clinical example, the analyst finds himself caught up in an enactment involving two patients in which he becomes the medium of what happens in session. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  11. The role of auctions and forward markets in the EU ETS: counterbalancing the cost-inefficiencies of combining generous allocation with a ban on banking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, K.M.; Hoppe, C.; Schleich, J.; Seifert, S.

    2005-07-01

    From an analysis of the available national allocation plans for the first period (2005-2007) of the EU emissions trading scheme (EU ETS), it can be inferred that (i) the total allocation to installations covered under the EU ETS is rather generous and (ii) most EU Member States ban the transfer of allowances (banking) into the second period (2008-2012). In this article, we explore the cost-efficiency issues associated with such a generous allocation of allowances to the trading sectors in combination with the ban on banking. It is argued that allocation to the trading sectors is higher than implied by a cost-minimization approach. Moreover, due to the reduced level of flexibility, a ban on banking increases overall compliance costs. In addition, the results of a simulation game conducted with real company participants and with a student control group suggest that a generous primary allocation in the first phase combined with a ban on banking also leads to a cost-inefficient choice of abatement measures within periods. The results of the simulations are also consistent with the conjecture that forward markets and auctioning off a part of the total quantity of allowances result in more reliable price signals and most cost-efficient outcomes. (author)

  12. Estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas pela equipe de enfermagem de um CTI adulto perante situações de estresse Coping strategies used by the nursing staff of an adult ICU in stress situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Graziottin Colossi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Para os profissionais da saúde lidar com situações de estresse, como por exemplo, a eminência da morte dos pacientes, parece ser uma das maiores dificuldades vividas em sue ambiente de trabalho. Frente a este contexto, cada pessoa lança mão de estratégias próprias para o enfrentamento de situações estressantes (coping, as quais são determinadas pelo ambiente e por características de personalidade. Objetivo: Identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento (coping dos profissionais de enfermagem de um CTI adulto diante de situações estressantes inerentes a sua profissão. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo transversal, no qual foi aplicado o Inventário COPE, em trinta e oito técnicos de enfermagem e/ou enfermeiros. Os dados do inventário foram analisados em termos descritivos. Resultados: As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas foram as relacionadas à capacidade pró-ativa do sujeito (reinterpretação positiva, coping ativo e busca por suporte social e as menos utilizadas foram as relacionadas às emoções (foco nas emoções e humor. Conclusão: Na amostra estudada, os profissionais buscam estratégias que antecedam as dificuldades inerentes a sua prática diária, isolando os aspectos mais irrelevantes dos estressores e focalizando a atenção no resultado de suas ações, o que permite uma melhor percepção de seu trabalho e o sentimento de realização profissional.Introduction: For health professionals, to deal with stressful situations, such as the imminence of death of their patients, seems to be one of the greatest difficulties experienced in the workplace. In these situations, each person makes use of their own strategies in order to cope with stressful situations, which are determined by the environment and the personality traits. Objective: To identify the coping strategies used by nursing professionals of an adult ICU while facing stressful situations inherent to their

  13. Information inefficiency and willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient technology: A stated preference approach for China Energy Label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Bukenya, James O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which consumers' willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient room air conditioners may be altered by correcting the information inefficiency on the China Energy Label. The data are collected from a discrete choice experiment with two alternatives (variable-speed and constant-speed room air conditioners) characterized by attributes of brand, purchase price and energy grade. Three versions of the questionnaires with choice sets differing only in energy consumption indicators were distributed randomly to 1602 potential consumers in Nanjing, China and a sample of 1569 was obtained after dropping missing data. The analysis with multinomial and mixed logit models reveal that the price premium that consumers are willing to pay for a variable-speed room AC over a constant-speed room AC increases significantly when energy consumption information becomes comparable and additional energy-related information is provided. Furthermore, the impact of information on WTP varies under different energy-saving scenarios. It is suggested that China Energy Label should correct information inefficiency by adopting same energy indicators for room ACs with different technologies and providing energy consumption information based on different climate zones. - Highlights: • Choice experiments were carried out to examine the effect of information on WTP. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if information is comparable. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if more information is provided. • The impact of information on WTP is significant when energy saving is considerable. • Some demographics influence people's WTP.

  14. Evaluating zootechnical and environmental inefficiency for ecological intensification of tropical livestock systems. Case study of Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vayssières

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to FAO, animal production would contribute up to 18% to global anthropogenic green house gas (GHG emissions. In the face of an increasing world population and demand in food products, more productive and more environmentally- friendly livestock systems have to be conceived. With that aim, non-renewable energy uses and GHG emissions of main animal productions (dairy cattle, beef cattle, pig, poultry and rabbit were assessed in Reunion tropical island. Based on a method developed in mainland France, energy coefficients and emission factors were redefined to include specificities of the local context and livestock systems. The studied sample comprised 195 farms, i.e. more than 25% of farms overseen by local cooperatives. The study highlights the positive correlation between environmental inefficiency (non renewable energy uses, and GHG emissions per kilogram of animal product and zootechnical inefficiency (quantity of concentrate feed consumed per kilogram of animal product. It is thus possible to intensify ecologically animal productions. Similar studies are rare in countries of the South. Their development supposes even more drastic methodological adaptations than those conducted in Reunion so as to evaluate little- mechanized low-input mixed systems, where livestock activities are multifunctional and use various energy types.

  15. Mitochondrial complex III defects contribute to inefficient respiration and ATP synthesis in the myocardium of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian-Jun; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a thorough analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetic function as well as the biochemical and molecular factors that are deregulated and contribute to compromised adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in the myocardium during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. We show that ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration and ATP synthesis supported by pyruvate/malate (provides electrons to complex I) and succinate (provides electrons to complex II) substrates were significantly decreased in left ventricular tissue and isolated cardiac mitochondria of infected mice. The decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis in infected murine hearts was not a result of uncoupling between the electron-transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation and decreased availability of the intermediary metabolites (e.g., NADH). The observed decline in the activities of complex-I, -IV, and -V was not physiologically relevant and did not contribute to compromised respiration and ATP synthesis in infected myocardium. Instead, complex III activity was decreased above the threshold level and contributed to respiratory-chain inefficiency and the resulting decline in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in infected myocardium. The loss in complex III activity occurred as a consequence of cytochrome b depletion. Treatment of infected mice with phenyl-alpha-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN, antioxidant) was beneficial in preserving the mtDNA-encoded cytochrome b expression, and subsequently resulted in improved complex III activity, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP production in infected myocardium. Overall, we provide novel data on the mechanism(s) involved in cardiac bioenergetic inefficiency during T. cruzi infection.

  16. An Example of an Improvable Rao-Blackwell Improvement, Inefficient Maximum Likelihood Estimator, and Unbiased Generalized Bayes Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Tal; Meilijson, Isaac

    2016-01-02

    The Rao-Blackwell theorem offers a procedure for converting a crude unbiased estimator of a parameter θ into a "better" one, in fact unique and optimal if the improvement is based on a minimal sufficient statistic that is complete. In contrast, behind every minimal sufficient statistic that is not complete, there is an improvable Rao-Blackwell improvement. This is illustrated via a simple example based on the uniform distribution, in which a rather natural Rao-Blackwell improvement is uniformly improvable. Furthermore, in this example the maximum likelihood estimator is inefficient, and an unbiased generalized Bayes estimator performs exceptionally well. Counterexamples of this sort can be useful didactic tools for explaining the true nature of a methodology and possible consequences when some of the assumptions are violated. [Received December 2014. Revised September 2015.].

  17. The scope of public organisations with productive functions: insights from the inefficiency of Italian local public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Di Foggia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that reforms necessary to enhance competition and make the economy more attractive play a major role in the Government activity in Europe. Considering the Italian state of affairs, this paper focuses on the inefficiency of public producers in the light of certain market and legal impediments. This paper describes key barriers that undermine the healthy functioning of an important industrial and service sector of the Italian economy: specifically local public transport. This paper also sheds some light on this problem analysing the impact that a controversial regulation framework may have on an industry and suggests that the degree of liberalisation affects the return on investments.

  18. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  19. Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  20. FY1998 Report of surveys on network possibility involved with proliferation and transfer of environmental technologies (Europe, Australia and New Zealand); 1998 nendo kankyo gijutsu no fukyu iten ni kakawaru network kanosei chosa hokokusho . Oshu Goshu New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    At the third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (COP3) held in December 1997, the industrialized nations have agreed on development and proliferation of innovative technologies under international cooperation and transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries by expanding and strengthening CTI being the framework to be progressed spontaneously. Under the international strategic research project for global environment, NEDO has been promoting positively the research and development, whose support is urged to be expanded further in the future upon receiving the present agreement. Therefore, NEDO has performed the present survey in order to propose frameworks and measures for strengthening and expanding CTI. From among the policies and measures to be taken by the related countries based on the COP3 protocol, fiscal 1997 has performed review and new establishment of plans involved with execution of the items related to technology development, and surveys on action movements such as review and expansion of the measures, as the first stage. Fiscal 1998 has executed surveys focusing on the network for technology proliferation and transfer to developing countries as the second stage. (NEDO)

  1. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  2. Stuck in default mode: inefficient cross-frequency synchronization may lead to age-related short-term memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Aging-related decline in short-term memory capacity seems to be caused by deficient balancing of task-related and resting state brain networks activity; however, the exact neural mechanism underlying this deficit remains elusive. Here, we studied brain oscillatory activity in healthy young and old adults during visual information maintenance in a delayed match-to-sample task. Particular emphasis was on long range phase:amplitude coupling of frontal alpha (8-12 Hz) and posterior fast oscillatory activity (>30 Hz). It is argued that through posterior fast oscillatory activity nesting into the excitatory or the inhibitory phase of frontal alpha wave, long-range networks can be efficiently coupled or decoupled, respectively. On the basis of this mechanism, we show that healthy, elderly participants exhibit a lack of synchronization in task-relevant networks while maintaining synchronized regions of the resting state network. Lacking disconnection of this resting state network is predictive of aging-related short-term memory decline. These results support the idea of inefficient orchestration of competing brain networks in the aging human brain and identify the neural mechanism responsible for this control breakdown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of an inefficient electron scavenger on infrared- and visible-absorbing electrons in an ethanol matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, S.; Yoshida, K.; Ogasawara, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1980-01-01

    In order to obtain a deeper insight into the initial localization and the subsequent stabilization of electrons and to unravel the detailed mechanism of the electron scavenging reaction in a glassy ethanol matrix, spectrophotometric studies have been made on this matrix with toluene, an inefficient electron scavenger, γ irradiated at 4.2 0 K. Inhomogeneous depletion of the trapped electron spectrum by toluene indicates that IR-absorbing (lambda/sub max/ = 1500 nm) and visible-absorbing (lambda/sub max/ = 640 nm) electrons are initially generated, but that the former are unstable at higher temperature. Toluene scavenges the IR-absorbing electrons more efficiently by a factor of 10 than the visible-absorbing electrons. This selectivity is much higher than that of an efficient scavenger, such as benzyl chloride, as previously reported. The electron scavenging reaction results in the formation of the transient radical anion of toluene, which is readily protonated to yield the methylcyclohexadienyl radical at 77 0 K. 3 figures

  4. Molecular evidence of inefficient transduction of proliferating human B lymphocytes by VSV-pseudotyped HIV-1-derived lentivectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, M.; Naldini, L.; Introna, M.

    2004-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors are attractive tools to transduce dividing and nondividing cells. Human tonsillar B lymphocytes have been purified and induced to proliferate by the addition of anti-CD40 + IL-4 or anti-CD40 + anti-μ signals and transduced at high MOI with a VSV pseudotyped lentivector carrying the eGFP gene under the control of the PGK promoter. Parallel cultures of PHA-stimulated T lymphocytes containing a comparable amount of cycling cells during the infection reached over 70% eGFP transduction. By contrast, only less than 3% B lymphocytes became eGFP positive after 7 days from transduction. Molecular analysis of the viral life cycle shows that cytoplasmic retrotranscribed cDNA and nuclear 2LTR circles are detectable at lower levels and for a shorter period of time in proliferating B cells with respect to proliferating T lymphocytes. Moreover, FACS-sorted eGFP-positive and negative B cell populations were both positive for the presence of retrotranscribed cDNA and 2LTR circles nuclear forms. By contrast, nested Alu-LTR PCR allowed us to detect an integrated provirus in FACS-sorted eGFP-positive cells only. Together with the demonstration that infection in saturation conditions led to an increase in the percentage of transduced cells (reaching 9%), these findings suggest that in proliferating B lymphocytes, lentiviral transduction is an inefficient process blocked at the early steps of the viral life cycle possibly involving partially saturable restriction factors

  5. Study of the Relevance of the Quality of Care, Operating Efficiency and Inefficient Quality Competition of Senior Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jwu-Rong; Chen, Ching-Yu; Peng, Tso-Kwei

    2017-09-11

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relation between operating efficiency and the quality of care of senior care facilities. We designed a data envelopment analysis, combining epsilon-based measure and metafrontier efficiency analyses to estimate the operating efficiency for senior care facilities, followed by an iterative seemingly unrelated regression to evaluate the relation between the quality of care and operating efficiency. In the empirical studies, Taiwan census data was utilized and findings include the following: Despite the greater operating scale of the general type of senior care facilities, their average metafrontier technical efficiency is inferior to that of nursing homes. We adopted senior care facility accreditation results from Taiwan as a variable to represent the quality of care and examined the relation of accreditation results and operating efficiency. We found that the quality of care of general senior care facilities is negatively related to operating efficiency; however, for nursing homes, the relationship is not significant. Our findings show that facilities invest more in input resources to obtain better ratings in the accreditation report. Operating efficiency, however, does not improve. Quality competition in the industry in Taiwan is inefficient, especially for general senior care facilities.

  6. Impeding Xist expression from the active X chromosome improves mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inoue, K.; Kohda, T.; Sugimoto, M.; Sado, T.; Ogonuki, N.; Matoba, S.; Shiura, H.; Ikeda, R.; Mochida, K.; Fujii, T.; Sawai, K.; Otte, A.P.; Tian, X.C.; Yang, X.; Ishino, F.; Abe, K.; Ogura, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cloning mammals by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is highly inefficient because of erroneous reprogramming of the donor genome. Reprogramming errors appear to arise randomly, but the nature of nonrandom, SCNT-specific errors remains elusive. We found that Xist, a noncoding RNA that

  7. Inefficient cognitive control in adult ADHD: evidence from trial-by-trial Stroop test and cued task switching performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuser Isabella

    2007-08-01

    transient task-set updating were also found to be dependent on experimental manipulation of task preparation processes. With the exception of Stroop task error rates, all analyses revealed generally slower and less accurate ADHD group response patterns. Conclusion The current data obtained with experimental paradigms deliver novel evidence of inefficient interference control and task-set coordination in adults with persistent ADHD. However, all group differences observed in these central cognitive control processes were found to be partially dependent on atypical ADHD group task preparation mechanisms and/or response inconsistency. These deficiences may have contributed not only to inefficient cognitive control, but also generally slower and less accurate ADHD group performance. Given the inability to dissociate these impairments with the current data, it remains inconclusive as to whether ineffecient cognitive control in the clinical sample was due to top-down failure or bottom-up engagement thereof. To clarify this issue, future neuropsychological investigations are encouraged to employ tasks with significantly more trials and direct manipulations of bottom-up mechanisms with larger samples.

  8. Accumulation of dsRNA in endosomes contributes to inefficient RNA interference in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, June-Sun; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2017-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency varies among insects studied. The barriers for successful RNAi include the presence of double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNase) in the lumen and hemolymph that could potentially digest double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and the variability in the transport of dsRNA into and within the cells. We recently showed that the dsRNAs are transported into lepidopteran cells, but they are not processed into small interference RNAs (siRNAs) because they are trapped in acidic bodies. In the current study, we focused on the identification of acidic bodies in which dsRNAs accumulate in Sf9 cells. Time-lapse imaging studies showed that dsRNAs enter Sf9 cells and accumulate in acidic bodies within 20 min after their addition to the medium. CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA also accumulated in the midgut and fat body dissected from Spodoptera frugiperda larvae with similar patterns observed in Sf9 cells. Pharmacological inhibitor assays showed that the dsRNAs use clathrin mediated endocytosis pathway for transport into the cells. We investigated the potential dsRNA accumulation sites employing LysoTracker and double labeling experiments using the constructs to express a fusion of green fluorescence protein with early or late endosomal marker proteins and CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA. Interestingly, CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA accumulated predominantly in early and late endosomes. These data suggest that entrapment of internalized dsRNA in endosomes is one of the major factors contributing to inefficient RNAi response in lepidopteran insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SU-E-T-452: Identifying Inefficiencies in Radiation Oncology Workflow and Prioritizing Solutions for Process Improvement and Patient Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, N; Driewer, J; Denniston, K; Zhen, W; Enke, C [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Jacobs, K; Poole, M; McMahon, R; Wilson, K; Yager, A [Nebraska Medicine, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Successful radiation therapy requires multi-step processes susceptible to unnecessary delays that can negatively impact clinic workflow, patient satisfaction, and safety. This project applied process improvement tools to assess workflow bottlenecks and identify solutions to barriers for effective implementation. Methods: We utilized the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) methodology, limiting our scope to the treatment planning process. From May through December of 2014, times and dates of each step from simulation to treatment were recorded for 507 cases. A value-stream map created from this dataset directed our selection of outcome measures (Y metrics). Critical goals (X metrics) that would accomplish the Y metrics were identified. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices, in order to stratify them into four groups: in/out of control and high/low impact. Solutions to each barrier were then categorized into benefit-effort matries to identify those of high benefit and low effort. Results: For 507 cases, the mean time from simulation to treatment was 235 total hours. The mean process and wait time were 60 and 132 hours, respectively. The Y metric was to increase the ratio of all non-emergent plans completed the business day prior to treatment from 47% to 75%. Project X metrics included increasing the number of IMRT QAs completed at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 19% to 80% and the number of non-IMRT plans approved at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 33% to 80%. Intervals from simulation to target contour and from initial plan completion to plan approval were identified as periods that could benefit from intervention. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices and solutions by benefit-effort matrices. Conclusion: The DMAIC method can be successfully applied in radiation therapy clinics to identify inefficiencies and prioritize solutions for the highest impact.

  10. A mouse model for Chikungunya: young age and inefficient type-I interferon signaling are risk factors for severe disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Couderc

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS have recently been described in neonates as well as in adults with underlying conditions. The pathophysiology of CHIKV infection and the basis for disease severity are unknown. To address these critical issues, we have developed an animal model of CHIKV infection. We show here that whereas wild type (WT adult mice are resistant to CHIKV infection, WT mouse neonates are susceptible and neonatal disease severity is age-dependent. Adult mice with a partially (IFN-alpha/betaR(+/- or totally (IFN-alpha/betaR(-/- abrogated type-I IFN pathway develop a mild or severe infection, respectively. In mice with a mild infection, after a burst of viral replication in the liver, CHIKV primarily targets muscle, joint, and skin fibroblasts, a cell and tissue tropism similar to that observed in biopsy samples of CHIKV-infected humans. In case of severe infections, CHIKV also disseminates to other tissues including the CNS, where it specifically targets the choroid plexuses and the leptomeninges. Together, these data indicate that CHIKV-associated symptoms match viral tissue and cell tropisms, and demonstrate that the fibroblast is a predominant target cell of CHIKV. These data also identify the neonatal phase and inefficient type-I IFN signaling as risk factors for severe CHIKV-associated disease. The development of a permissive small animal model will expedite the testing of future vaccines and therapeutic candidates.

  11. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  12. Etnografia: esteatégia metodológica utilizada para contextualizar o cenário cultural do CTI de um hospital universitário Etnography: methodological strateger for contexture of a cultural background of a university hospital ICC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Antonini Ribeiro Bastos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é parte de um estudo etnográfico realizado em um CTI de um hospital universitário que teve o objetivo de descrever a cultura dos intensivistas. São apresentados domínios e taxonomias culturais elaborados a partir dos relatos dos intensivistas. Os resultados aqui apresentados demostraram que a etnografia é uma estratégia metodológica adequada para contextualização do cenário cultural sob o ponto de vista de quem vivencia o cotidiano do trabalho na terapia intensiva.This work is a part of an ethnographic study accomplished in a university hospital ICC that had as objective to describe the intensive care workers 'culture. It is presented cultural domains a taxonomies developed from the workers' narration The results here presented show that ethnography is a methodological strategy appropriate for a cultural background contexture from a viewpoint of those who experiment the everyday intensive care work.

  13. The effectiveness of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats is limited by an inefficient action on ASM function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, D T S Z; Zanatta, A L; Dias, B C L; Fogaça, R T H; Maurer, J B B; Donatti, L; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2013-09-01

    Episodes of acute exacerbation are the major clinical feature of asthma and therefore represent an important focus for developing novel therapies for this disease. There are many reports that the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, but there are few studies of the action of fish oil on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. In the present investigation, we evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation on smooth muscle force of contraction in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Wistar rats, and its consequences on static lung compliance, mucus production, leukocyte chemotaxis and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil supplementation suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in asthmatic animals (2.04 ± 0.19 × 10(6) cells vs. 3.33 ± 0.43 × 10(6) cells in the control asthmatic group; P < 0.05). Static lung compliance increased with fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats (0.640 ± 0.053 mL/cm H2O vs. 0.399 ± 0.043 mL/cm H2O; P < 0.05). However, fish oil did not prevent asthma-associated lung eosinophilia and did not affect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in lung tissue or the proportion of the airways obliterated with mucus. Fish oil had no effect on the force of contraction in asthmatic rats in response to acetylcholine (3.026 ± 0.274 mN vs. 2.813 ± 0.364 mN in the control asthmatic group). In conclusion, although fish oil exerts some benefits in this model of asthma, its effectiveness appears to be limited by an inefficient action on airway smooth muscle function.

  14. The effect of association between inefficient arsenic methylation capacity and demographic characteristics on the risk of skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hifza; Kay, Paul; Slack, Rebecca; Gong, Yun Yun

    2018-01-15

    This study was conducted in rural Pakistan to assess the dose-response relationship between skin lesions and arsenic exposure and their variation by demographic characteristics. The study included 398 participants (66 participants with skin lesions and 332 without) residing in six previously unstudied villages exposed to ground water arsenic in the range of iAs), total arsenic (tAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were analysed to determine methylation capacity, methylation efficiency and the dose-response relationship with skin lesions. Study participants with skin lesions were found to be exposed to arsenic >10μgL -1 with a daily arsenic intake of 3.23±3.75mgday -1 from household ground water sources for an exposure duration of 10-20years. The participants with skin lesions compared to those without skin lesions showed higher levels of urinary iAs (133.40±242.48 vs. 44.24±86.48μgg -1 Cr), MMA (106.38±135.04 vs. 35.43±39.97μgg -1 Cr), MMA% (15.26±6.31 vs.12.11±4.68) and lower levels of DMA% (66.99±13.59 vs. 73.39±10.44) and secondary methylation index (SMI) (0.81±0.11 vs. 0.86±0.07). Study participants carrying a lower methylation capacity characterized by higher MMA% (OR 5.06, 95% CI: 2.09-12.27), lower DMA% (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.33-1.26), primary methylation index (PMI) (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.28-1.12) and SMI (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.88) had a significantly higher risk of skin lesions compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for occupation categories. The findings confirmed that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was significantly associated with increased skin lesion risks and the effect might be modified by labour intensive occupations. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental evidence of state-selective charge transfer in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2004-01-01

    State-selective charge-transfer behavior was observed for Fe, Cr, Mn and Cu in inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry. Charge transfer from Ar + to Fe, Cr and Mn is state-selective because of inefficient collisional mixing of the quasiresonant charge-transfer energy levels with nearby levels. This low efficiency is the consequence of differences in electronic configuration of the core electrons. The reason for state-selective charge-transfer behavior to Cu is not clear, although a tentative explanation based on efficiency of intramultiplet and intermultiplet mixing for this special case is offered

  16. "Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickens, John M.

    The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

  17. Station Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ixed rail transit external system transfers for systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of...

  18. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    On the base of technological opportunities and of the environmental target of the various sectors of energy system this paper intend to conjugate the opportunity/objective with economic and social development through technology transfer and information dissemination [it

  19. Efficiency of Saffron Farmers in Shahyk Region of Ghaen City, Iran (Application of Data Envelopment Analysis Using the Efficient and Inefficient Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Naderi Mahdei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the special conditions of saffron growing areas, and planning the optimum use of its production factors need specific attention and determination of the efficiency of saffron farms seems to be necessary. Thus, the current study attempts to measure the efficiency of saffron fields by using bounded data envelopment analysis to give an overall assessment of the performance of the farms. The necessary data was collected by interviewing and filling 36 questionnaires by the saffron farmers of the city of Ghaen, Iran and the data were analyzed by GAMS software. The results showed that average optimistic output and input oriented efficiency is 1.259 and 0.849, respectively. Also, 13.8% of the farms are located on the inefficiency frontiers. 47 percent of the farms are surrounded by efficient and inefficient frontier that reflects the overuse of inputs and potential to produce more and reduce the use of inputs. According to the results, it may be suggested that the efficient farms should be considered as a pattern and we should present training of need assessment in inefficient farms in order to enhance farmers’ efficiency with appropriate and scientific planning.

  20. What Makes Urban Transportation Efficient? Evidence from Subway Transfer Stations in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subway stations have been proliferating underneath cosmopolitan metropolises with subway lines forming complex webs connected in strategic transfer stations. The efficiency of the subway system thus heavily weighs on the efficiency at these transfer stations. However, few studies have been conducted on transfer efficiency at transfer stations due to the complexities involved. As the first study of its kind in the subway context, we analyze the transfer efficiency of the subway transfer stations in Seoul, one of the megacities in the world, and demonstrate how transfer efficiency can be analyzed using bootstrap-based DEA technique. Based on the results, we discuss the reasons behind the inefficiency of subway transfer stations and possible ways to improve them into efficient decision-making units.

  1. Intergenerational transfers and the social discount rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B.

    1992-08-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations

  2. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  3. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boury, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  4. Social costs of the inefficient management of the EU funds for Bulgaria, Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW – Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The study identifies and defines the social costs of the inefficient management of EU funds for Bulgaria. It is analyzed the last due programme period (2007-2015) and its prolongation. As methodology of the research the V4 BM model of Al-Debei and Avison (2010) which has not been used for analysis of EU funds management for cohesion policy in the public sector, is applied. In this way its potential for application in this field is tested. The concept of the study could be successful...

  5. Pfizer's Centers for Therapeutic Innovation (CTI) for NIH Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NCATS works to make the translational process more efficient and effective by establishing new collaborative partnerships and creating technologies and methods that...

  6. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de

  7. Transfer Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daniel; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The technique described here, transfer zymography, was developed to overcome two limitations of conventional zymography. When proteolytic enzymes are resolved by nonreducing SDS-PAGE into a polyacrylamide gel with copolymerized protein substrate, the presence of the protein substrate can result in anomalous, often slower, migration of the protease and an estimated mass higher than its actual mass. A further drawback is that the presence of a high background of substrate protein interferes with proteomic analysis of the protease band by excision, tryptic digestion, and LC-MS/MS analysis. In transfer zymography, the proteolytic enzymes are resolved by conventional nonreducing SDS-PAGE, without protein substrate in the gel. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel that contains the protein substrate, by a process similar to western blotting. The receiving gel is then processed in a manner similar to conventional zymography. SDS is removed by Triton X-100 and incubated in conditions suitable for the proteolytic activity. After protein staining, followed by destaining, bands representing regions with active protease are visualized as clear bands in a darkly stained background. For proteomic analysis, electrophoresis is carried out simultaneously on a second resolving gel, and the bands corresponding to the clear regions in the receiving gel after zymogram development are excised for proteomic analysis.

  8. 大学生伦理学学习效果欠佳的成因剖析%Reasons of the Inefficiency of College Students' Ethics Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范虹

    2012-01-01

    The research on the effects of college students' ethics learning is not only because of the requirement of ethics teaching and research,but also because of the inefficiency of their ethics learning.The reasons of this inefficiency reside in the unimportance of humane education in colleges and universities,the insufficient supply of ethics teaching methods,the insufficient reliability of the subjects of ethics theory teaching,etc.%对大学生伦理学学习效果的研究,不仅缘于伦理学教学理论研究的需要,更迫于大学生伦理学学习效果欠佳的现状。伦理学在内的高校人文科学教育的被边缘化、伦理学有效教学方式的供给不足、伦理学理论传播主体的可信赖性不够等因素的存在是造成一些大学生对伦理学理论难以产生深感兴趣、自觉内化、主动践行等方面良好学习效果的重要根源。

  9. Cerebral Inefficient Activation in Schizophrenia Patients and Their Unaffected Parents during the N-Back Working Memory Task: A Family fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisi Jiang

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that working memory deficits is a core feature of symptomatology of schizophrenia, which can be detected in patients and their unaffected relatives. The impairment of working memory has been found related to the abnormal activity of human brain regions in many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies. This study investigated how brain region activation was altered in schizophrenia and how it was inherited independently from performance deficits.The authors used fMRI method during N-back task to assess working memory related cortical activation in four groups (N = 20 in each group, matching task performance, age, gender and education: schizophrenic patients, their unaffected biological parents, young healthy controls for the patients and older healthy controls for their parents.Compared to healthy controls, patients showed an exaggerated response in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (brodmann area [BA] 46 and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and had reduced activation in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9. In the conjunction analysis, the effect of genetic risk (parents versus older control shared significantly overlapped activation with effect of disease (patients versus young control in the right middle frontal gyrus (BA 46 and left inferior parietal gyrus (BA 40.Physiological inefficiency of dorsal prefrontal cortex and compensation involvement of ventral prefrontal cortex in working memory function may one physiological characteristics of schizophrenia. And relatively inefficient activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex probably can be a promising intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia.

  10. Inefficient Metabolism of the Human Milk Oligosaccharides Lacto-N-tetraose and Lacto-N-neotetraose Shifts Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Özcan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human milk contains a high concentration of indigestible oligosaccharides, which likely mediated the coevolution of the nursing infant with its gut microbiome. Specifically, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis often colonizes the infant gut and utilizes these human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs to enrich their abundance. In this study, the physiology and mechanisms underlying B. infantis utilization of two HMO isomers lacto-N-tetraose (LNT and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT was investigated in addition to their carbohydrate constituents. Both LNT and LNnT utilization induced a significant shift in the ratio of secreted acetate to lactate (1.7–2.0 in contrast to the catabolism of their component carbohydrates (~1.5. Inefficient metabolism of LNnT prompts B. infantis to shunt carbon toward formic acid and ethanol secretion. The global transcriptome presents genomic features differentially expressed to catabolize these two HMO species that vary by a single glycosidic linkage. Furthermore, a measure of strain-level variation exists between B. infantis isolates. Regardless of strain, inefficient HMO metabolism induces the metabolic shift toward formic acid and ethanol production. Furthermore, bifidobacterial metabolites reduced LPS-induced inflammation in a cell culture model. Thus, differential metabolism of milk glycans potentially drives the emergent physiology of host-microbial interactions to impact infant health.

  11. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-01-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  12. Identification of MIMO systems with sparse transfer function coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Saleem, Syed Khusro; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2012-12-01

    We study the problem of estimating transfer functions of multivariable (multiple-input multiple-output--MIMO) systems with sparse coefficients. We note that subspace identification methods are powerful and convenient tools in dealing with MIMO systems since they neither require nonlinear optimization nor impose any canonical form on the systems. However, subspace-based methods are inefficient for systems with sparse transfer function coefficients since they work on state space models. We propose a two-step algorithm where the first step identifies the system order using the subspace principle in a state space format, while the second step estimates coefficients of the transfer functions via L1-norm convex optimization. The proposed algorithm retains good features of subspace methods with improved noise-robustness for sparse systems.

  13. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  14. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2018-01-01

    Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....

  16. Heat transfer: Pittsburgh 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Process Heat Transfer; Thermal Hydraulics and Phase Change Phenomena; Analysis of Multicomponent Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer in Advanced Reactors; General Heat Transfer in Solar Energy; Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; High Temperature Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer Aspects of Severe Reactor Accidents; Hazardous Waste On-Site Disposal; and General Papers

  17. Ethylene homo- and copolymerization chain-transfers: A perspective from supported (n BuCp) 2 ZrCl 2 catalyst active centre distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Atiqullah, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    Polymerization chain termination reactions and unsaturation of the polymer backbone end are related. Therefore, in this study, the parameters resulting from the modelling of the active centre distribution of the supported catalyst - silica/MAO/(nBuCp)2ZrCl2 - were applied to evaluate the active-centre-dependent ethylene homo- and copolymerization rates, as well as the corresponding chain termination rates. This approach, from a microkinetic mechanistic viewpoint, elucidates better the 1-hexene-induced positive comonomer effect and chain transfer phenomenon. The kinetic expressions, developed on the basis of the proposed polymerization mechanisms, illustrate how the active site type-dependent chain transfer phenomenon is influenced by the different apparent termination rate constants and momoner concentrations. The active centre-specific molecular weight M ni (for the above homo- and copolymer), as a function of chain transfer probability, p CTi, varied as follows: log (p C Ti) = log (mwru) - log (Mn i), where mw ru is the molecular weight of the repeat unit. The physical significance of this finding has been explained. The homo- and copolymer backbones showed all the three chain end unsaturations (vinyl, vinylidene, and trans-vinylene). The postulated polymerization mechanisms reveal the underlying polymer chemistry. The results of the present study will contribute to develop in future supported metallocene catalysts that will be useful to synthesize polyethylene precursors having varying chain end unsaturations, which can be eventually used to prepare functional polyethylenes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences.

  18. Charge transfer between acenes and PbS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissanayake, D M N M [Solid State Electronics Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States); Hatton, R A [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Lutz, T [Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AY (United Kingdom); Curry, R J; Silva, S R P [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ndissa@umich.edu

    2009-05-13

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunctions have potential as the basis for future photovoltaic devices. Herein, we report the results of investigations exploring the possibility of using pentacene and tetracene as photoelectron donors in conjunction with PbS nanocrystals (PbS-NCs). Photoinduced charge transfer was probed using external quantum efficiency measurements on acene:PbS-NC hybrid photovoltaic devices in conjunction with photoluminescence studies of the corresponding bilayer films. It is shown that photoelectron transfer from pentacene to the PbS-NCs is inefficient as compared to that between tetracene and PbS-NCs. The latter case can be rationalized in terms of the energy level alignment at the heterojunction assuming a common vacuum level. However, in the case of pentacene:PbS-NC junctions an interfacial energy level shift must be considered in order to explain the observations.

  19. Inefficient but robust public leadership.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We investigate endogenous timing in a mixed duopoly in a differentiated product market. We find that private leadership is better than public leadership from a social welfare perspective if the private firm is domestic, regardless of the degree of product differentiation. Nevertheless, the public leadership equilibrium is risk-dominant, and it is thus robust if the degree of product differentiation is high. We also find that regardless of the degree of product differentiation, the public lead...

  20. Agents’ Response to Inefficient Judiciary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Zajc, Katarina; Simoneti, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The paper questions the impact of rule-based governance in an environment with poor legal enforcement and general mistrust in the law-setting institutions. We conduct a quasi-experiment and a survey to prove that ‘law on books’ can still play a role by triggering the social norm of ‘obeying the law......’. We furthermore expose and empirically confirm the role of the Corporate Governance Code as a signaling tool, and discuss why in a weak institutional environment the Code’s potential may be even stronger than in the developed market economies....

  1. Transfer and Social Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Transfer involves disembodying knowledge and transferring it for use in different contexts. Vocational knowledge arises in communities of practice, and difficulties arise in transferring it from one distinct community, such as a workplace, to another, such as a classroom. (SK)

  2. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  3. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  4. Insights into Resistance to Fe Deficiency Stress from a Comparative Study of In Vitro-Selected Novel Fe-Efficient and Fe-Inefficient Potato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina A. Boamponsem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency induces chlorosis (IDC in plants and can result in reduced plant productivity. Therefore, development of Fe-efficient plants is of great interest. To gain a better understanding of the physiology of Fe-efficient plants, putative novel plant variants were regenerated from potato (Solanum tubersosum L. var. ‘Iwa’ callus cultures selected under Fe deficient or low Fe supply (0–5 μM Fe. Based on visual chlorosis rating (VCR, 23% of callus-derived regenerants were classified as Fe-efficient (EF and 77% as Fe-inefficient (IFN plant lines when they were grown under Fe deficiency conditions. Stem height was found to be highly correlated with internodal distance, leaf and root lengths in the EF plant lines grown under Fe deficiency conditions. In addition, compared to the IFN plant lines and control parental biotype, the EF plants including the lines named A1, B2, and B9, exhibited enhanced formation of lateral roots and root hairs as well as increased expression of ferritin (fer3 in the leaf and iron-regulated transporter (irt1 in the root. These morphological adaptations and changes in expression the fer3 and irt1 genes of the selected EF potato lines suggest that they are associated with resistance to low Fe supply stress.

  5. Simulation of whole building coupled hygrothermal-airflow transfer in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Menghao; Walton, George; Belarbi, Rafik; Allard, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The coupled heat, air and moisture transfer between building envelopes and indoor air is complicated, and has a significant influence on the indoor environment and the energy performance of buildings. In the paper, a model for predicting coupled multi-zone hygrothermal-airflow transfer is presented. Both heat and moisture transfer in the building envelope and multi-zone indoor airflow are simultaneously considered; their interactions are modeled. The coupled system model is implemented into Matlab-Simulink, and is validated by using a series of testing tools and experiments. The new program is applied to investigate the moisture transfer effect on indoor air humidity and building energy consumption in different climates (hot-humid, temperate and hot-dry climates). The results show that not accounting for hygrothermal effects in modeling will result in overestimation of energy costs for hot and humid climate situations and possible over sizing of plant leading to inefficient operation.

  6. Exposição ao ruído tecnológico em cti: estratégias coletivas de defesa dos trabalhadores de enfermagem La exposición al ruido tecnológico en un centro de terapia intensiva: estrategias colectivas para la defensa de los trabajadores de enfermería Exposure to noise technology in an intensive therapy center: collective strategies for the defense of workers in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Barbosa de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa que objetivou identificar e analisar as estratégias coletivas de defesa elaboradas pelos trabalhadores de enfermagem diante do ruído tecnológico em Centro de Terapia Intensiva (CTI. Participaram do estudo 25 trabalhadores de enfermagem de um hospital universitário situado no município de Niterói (RJ em 2004. Na coleta de dados, utilizou-se a entrevista semi-estruturada mediante um roteiro, e, no tratamento dos dados, a análise de conteúdo revelou os seguintes resultados: o ruído tecnológico gera incômodo e estresse. Para minimizar o sofrimento, os trabalhadores elaboram estratégias coletivas de defesa que os mantêm trabalhando. Conclui-se que as estratégias coletivas de defesa podem se caracterizar num fator que resulta em alienação, ocultando a compreensão real do contexto de trabalho. As ações preventivas e as mudanças a serem implementadas em relação ao ruído no CTI devem ser pautadas na participação dos trabalhadores e se reverterem em melhoria das condições de trabalho e bem-estar do grupo.Estudio descriptivo con un enfoque cualitativo diseñado para analizar las estrategias colectivas de la defensa elaboradas pelos trabajadores de enfermería frente al sonido tecnológico en un centro de terapia intensiva. Veinticinco profesionales de la enfermería de un centro de terapia intensiva del Hospital Escuela en Niteroi (RJ participaron en el estudio en 2004. Para la recolección de datos, una entrevista semi estructurada fue utilizada. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una análisis de contenido que mostraran los resultados: los trabajadores elaboran estrategias colectivas de defensa que permiten trabajar. Estas estrategias muestran un conocimiento que permite a los individuos seguir trabajando, ya que crea formas adaptativa para contrarrestar el sonido en el ambiente de trabajo, buscando continuamente ser sujetos de la situación de trabajo. Adicionalmente

  7. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  8. Fermentation of Xylose Causes Inefficient Metabolic State Due to Carbon/Energy Starvation and Reduced Glycolytic Flux in Recombinant Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Nagashima, Atsushi; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, comprehensive, quantitative metabolome analysis was carried out on the recombinant glucose/xylose-cofermenting S. cerevisiae strain MA-R4 during fermentation with different carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures. Capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine the intracellular pools of metabolites from the central carbon pathways, energy metabolism pathways, and the levels of twenty amino acids. When xylose instead of glucose was metabolized by MA-R4, glycolytic metabolites including 3- phosphoglycerate, 2- phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate were dramatically reduced, while conversely, most pentose phosphate pathway metabolites such as sedoheptulose 7- phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate were greatly increased. These results suggest that the low metabolic activity of glycolysis and the pool of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates are potential limiting factors in xylose utilization. It was further demonstrated that during xylose fermentation, about half of the twenty amino acids declined, and the adenylate/guanylate energy charge was impacted due to markedly decreased adenosine triphosphate/adenosine monophosphate and guanosine triphosphate/guanosine monophosphate ratios, implying that the fermentation of xylose leads to an inefficient metabolic state where the biosynthetic capabilities and energy balance are severely impaired. In addition, fermentation with xylose alone drastically increased the level of citrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and increased the aromatic amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, strongly supporting the view that carbon starvation was induced. Interestingly, fermentation with xylose alone also increased the synthesis of the polyamine spermidine and its precursor S-adenosylmethionine. Thus, differences in carbon substrates, including glucose and xylose in the fermentation medium, strongly influenced the dynamic metabolism of MA-R4

  9. IFN-ε is constitutively expressed by cells of the reproductive tract and is inefficiently secreted by fibroblasts and cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Hermant

    Full Text Available Type-I interferons (IFNs form a large family of cytokines that primarily act to control the early development of viral infections. Typical type-I IFN genes, such as those encoding IFN-α or IFN-β are upregulated by viral infection in many cell types. In contrast, the gene encoding IFN-ε was reported to be constitutively expressed by cells of the female reproductive tract and to contribute to the protection against vaginal infections with herpes simplex virus 2 and Chlamydia muridarum. Our data confirm the lack of induction of IFN-ε expression after viral infection and the constitutive expression of IFN-ε by cells of the female but also of the male reproductive organs. Interestingly, when expressed from transfected expression plasmids in 293T, HeLa or Neuro2A cells, the mouse and human IFN-ε precursors were inefficiently processed and secretion of IFN-ε was minimal. Analysis of chimeric constructs produced between IFN-ε and limitin (IFN-ζ showed that both the signal peptide and the mature moiety of IFN-ε contribute to poor processing of the precursor. Immunofluorescent detection of FLAG-tagged IFN-ε in transfected cells suggested that IFN-ε and chimeric proteins were defective for progression through the secretory pathway. IFN-ε did not, however, act intracellularly and impart an antiviral state to producing cells. Given the constitutive expression of IFN-ε in specialized cells and the poor processing of IFN-ε precursor in fibroblasts and cell lines, we hypothesize that IFN-ε secretion may require a co-factor specifically expressed in cells of the reproductive organs, that might secure the system against aberrant release of this IFN.

  10. Residential energy consumption and conservation programs: A systematic approach to identify inefficient households, provide meaningful feedback, and prioritize homes for conservation intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsleyne, Amelia Chadbourne Carus

    There are three main objectives for residential energy conservation policies: to reduce the use of fossil fuels, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce the energy costs seen by the consumer (U.S. Department of Energy: Strategic Objectives, 2006). A prominent difficulty currently facing conservation policy makers and program managers is how to identify and communicate with households that would be good candidates for conservation intervention, in such a way that affects a change in consumption patterns and is cost-effective. This research addresses this issue by separating the problem into three components: how to identify houses that are significantly more inefficient than comparable households; how to find the maximum financially-feasible investment in energy efficiency for a household in order to reduce annual energy costs and/or improve indoor comfort; and how to prioritize low-income households for a subsidized weatherization program. Each component of the problem is presented as a paper prepared for publication. Household consumption related to physical house efficiency, thermostat settings, and daily appliance usage is studied in the first and second paper by analyzing natural gas utility meter readings associated with over 10,000 households from 2001-2006. A rich description of a house's architectural characteristics and household demographics is attained by integrating publicly available databases based on the house address. This combination of information allows for the largest number of individual households studied at this level of detail to date. The third paper uses conservation program data from two natural gas utilities that administer and sponsor the program; over 1,000 weatherized households are included in this sample. This research focuses on natural gas-related household conservation. However, the same principles and methods could be applied for electricity-related conservation programs. We find positive policy implications from each of

  11. Pediatric Trauma Transfer Imaging Inefficiencies—Opportunities for Improvement with Cloud Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Puckett

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the inefficiencies of radiologic imaging transfers from one hospital to the other during pediatric trauma transfers in an era of cloud based information sharing. METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients transferred to a pediatric trauma center from 2008–2014 was performed. Imaging was reviewed for whether imaging accompanied the patient, whether imaging was able to be uploaded onto computer for records, whether imaging had to be repeated, and whether imaging obtained at outside hospitals (OSH was done per universal pediatric trauma guidelines. RESULTS: Of the 1761 patients retrospectively reviewed, 559 met our inclusion criteria. Imaging was sent with the patient 87.7% of the time. Imaging was unable to be uploaded 31.9% of the time. CT imaging had to be repeated 1.8% of the time. CT scan was not done per universal pediatric trauma guidelines 1.2% of the time. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that current imaging transfer is inefficient, leads to excess ionizing radiation, and increased healthcare costs. Universal implementation of cloud based radiology has the potential to eliminate excess ionizing radiation to children, improve patient care, and save cost to healthcare system.

  12. Laboratory simulation of Euclid-like sky images to study the impact of CCD radiation damage on weak gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prod'homme, T.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Boudin, N.; Short, A.; Kohley, R.

    2014-07-01

    Euclid is the ESA mission to map the geometry of the dark universe. It uses weak gravitational lensing, which requires the accurate measurement of galaxy shapes over a large area in the sky. Radiation damage in the 36 Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) composing the Euclid visible imager focal plane has already been identified as a major contributor to the weak-lensing error budget; radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) distorts the galaxy images and introduces a bias in the galaxy shape measurement. We designed a laboratory experiment to project Euclid-like sky images onto an irradiated Euclid CCD. In this way - and for the first time - we are able to directly assess the effect of CTI on the Euclid weak-lensing measurement free of modelling uncertainties. We present here the experiment concept, setup, and first results. The results of such an experiment provide test data critical to refine models, design and test the Euclid data processing CTI mitigation scheme, and further optimize the Euclid CCD operation.

  13. Analysis of Heat Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book deals with analysis of heat transfer which includes nonlinear analysis examples, radiation heat transfer, analysis of heat transfer in ANSYS, verification of analysis result, analysis of heat transfer of transition with automatic time stepping and open control, analysis of heat transfer using arrangement of ANSYS, resistance of thermal contact, coupled field analysis such as of thermal-structural interaction, cases of coupled field analysis, and phase change.

  14. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of feasibility of international cooperation in the transfer of technology; 1999 nendo gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Among the activity goals of CTI (climate technology initiative), which is a framework designed to encourage international cooperation of leading nations in the voluntary development and diffusion of technologies supposed to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, there is the promotion of the transfer and diffusion of climate change preventing technologies. To achieve the goal, energy efficiency oriented workshops will be held as part of the training for the raising of people skilled in energy saving, the results will be examined, the achievements attained at such events will be introduced at COP5 (Conference of the Parties at Bonn), and the responses of the respective countries will be reviewed, all these for the investigation of the feasibility of international cooperation for raising people dedicated to the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. In this fiscal year, aiming to make clear the possibility of contribution to the transfer of software-related technologies through cooperation of multiple nations, lecturers from leading countries and participants from developing nations met, held a workshop over energy efficiency technologies, and the results were compiled. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 2000 report. Feasibility study on international cooperation concerning technology transfer; 2000 nendo gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A workshop was held concerning technology transfer in the software of environmental technologies, for the purpose of contributing to CTI (Climate Technology Initiative), an international framework for dealing with technological problems in preventing climate change, with the results of the workshop compiled. The workshop was held for a period from September 10 to September 23, 2000; the contents were, for example, an outline on energy conservation, introduction to cleaner production, lectures on related technologies, seminars on actual cases including case studies, factory tours, etc., and discussion session by all participants; and, in general, the workshop was conducted so as to promote understanding on cleaner production and energy conservation. Four lecturers were invited to this workshop from an international organization, U.S. and Japan. In addition, two staff members and two technical consultants from ICETT (the International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer) gave lectures and advice as technology advisers. Three environmental specialists were invited from each of the five countries, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam. (NEDO)

  16. Expert Performance Transfer: Making Knowledge Transfer Count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.L.; Braudt, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    'Knowledge Transfer' is a high-priority imperative as the nuclear industry faces the combined effects of an aging workforce and economic pressures to do more with less. Knowledge Transfer is only a part of the solution to these challenges, however. The more compelling and immediate need faced by industry is Accomplishment Transfer, or the transference of the applied knowledge necessary to assure optimal performance transfer from experienced, high-performing staff to inexperienced staff. A great deal of industry knowledge and required performance information has been documented in the form of procedures. Often under-appreciated either as knowledge stores or as drivers of human performance, procedures, coupled with tightly-focused and effective training, are arguably the most effective influences on human and plant performance. (author)

  17. High in vitro development after somatic cell nuclear transfer and trichostatin A treatment of reconstructed porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J.; Østrup, Olga; Villemoes, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal epigenetic modification is supposed to be one of factors accounting for inefficient reprogramming of the donor cell nuclei in ooplasm after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Trichostatin A (TSA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, potentially enhancing cloning efficiency. The aim...... transferred to 2 recipients resulting in one pregnancy and birth of one live and five dead piglets. Our data demonstrate that TSA treatment after HMC in pigs may affect reprogramming of the somatic genome resulting in higher in vitro embryo development, and enable full-term in vivo development....

  18. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  19. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  20. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    SUNDÉN, B

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  1. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Charge-transfer collisions involving few-electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.

    2016-01-01

    Ion-atom collision systems that involve more than one electron constitute nonseparable few-body problems, whose full solution is difficult to say the least. At impact energies well below 1 keV/amu an expansion of the stationary scattering wave function in terms of a limited number of products of nuclear and molecular state wave functions (amended to satisfy scattering boundary conditions) is feasible and usually sufficient to obtain accurate charge-transfer cross sections provided the electronic wave functions include configuration interaction. At energies above 1 keV/amu this approach becomes inefficient and close-coupling methods within the semi classical approximation are better suited to treat the problem. For bare-ion collisions from helium target atoms explicit solutions of the two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation can be achieved, but are computationally costly and cannot be extended to problems which involve more than two electrons.

  3. Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrafast Dynamics of Chemical Reactions in Condensed Phase: Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  4. Heat transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  5. Fuel transfer machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, I.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel transfer machine for transferring fuel assemblies through the fuel transfer tube of a nuclear power generating plant containment structure is described. A conventional reversible drive cable is attached to the fuel transfer carriage to drive it horizontally through the tube. A shuttle carrying a sheave at each end is arranged in parallel with the carriage to also travel into the tube. The cable cooperating with the sheaves permit driving a relatively short fuel transfer carriage a large distance without manually installing sheaves or drive apparatus in the tunnel. 8 claims, 3 figures

  6. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  7. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2014-01-01

    Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence e...

  8. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang; Schott, Mathias; Hansen, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Heat transfer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasatani, Masanobu; Itaya, Yoshinori

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop energy-saving techniques and new energy techniques, and also most advanced techniques by making industrial equipment with high performance, heat transfer performance frequently becomes an important problem. In addition, the improvement of conventional heat transfer techniques and the device of new heat transfer techniques are often required. It is most proper that chemical engineers engage in the research and development for enhancing heat transfer. The research and development for enhancing heat transfer are important to heighten heat exchange efficiency or to cool equipment for preventing overheat in high temperature heat transfer system. In this paper, the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer and the improvement of radiative heat transfer characteristics are reported. Radiative heat transfer is proportional to fourth power of absolute temperature, and it does not require any heat transfer medium, but efficient heat-radiation converters are necessary. As the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer, the increase of emission and absorption areas, the installation of emissive structures and the improvement of radiative characteristics are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  10. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  12. Improvement in Patient Transfer Process From the Operating Room to the PICU Using a Lean and Six Sigma-Based Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, Stephen J; Nemergut, Michael E; Stans, Anthony A; Haile, Dawit T; Feigal, Scott A; Heinrich, Angela L; Bosley, Christopher L; Tripathi, Sandeep

    2016-08-01

    Ineffective and inefficient patient transfer processes can increase the chance of medical errors. Improvements in such processes are high-priority local institutional and national patient safety goals. At our institution, nonintubated postoperative pediatric patients are first admitted to the postanesthesia care unit before transfer to the PICU. This quality improvement project was designed to improve the patient transfer process from the operating room (OR) to the PICU. After direct observation of the baseline process, we introduced a structured, direct OR-PICU transfer process for orthopedic spinal fusion patients. We performed value stream mapping of the process to determine error-prone and inefficient areas. We evaluated primary outcome measures of handoff error reduction and the overall efficiency of patient transfer process time. Staff satisfaction was evaluated as a counterbalance measure. With the introduction of the new direct OR-PICU patient transfer process, the handoff communication error rate improved from 1.9 to 0.3 errors per patient handoff (P = .002). Inefficiency (patient wait time and non-value-creating activity) was reduced from 90 to 32 minutes. Handoff content was improved with fewer information omissions (P improved among nearly all PICU providers. By using quality improvement methodology to design and implement a new direct OR-PICU transfer process with a structured multidisciplinary verbal handoff, we achieved sustained improvements in patient safety and efficiency. Handoff communication was enhanced, with fewer errors and content omissions. The new process improved efficiency, with high staff satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. → The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  14. Radioecology. Transfers of radioelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.

    2002-01-01

    The study of the cycle of radioelements in the environment requires the measurement of the radionuclides present in all parts of the ecosystems. The knowledge of the mechanisms of radioactive pollutant transfers and of the kinetics of the exchanges between a source term, the vectors and the constituents of the biosphere represents heart of the work of radio-ecologists. This article describes briefly the techniques used for the measurement of radionuclides in the environment and for the study of their physical dispersion mechanisms. Then, it treats more carefully of the transfer mechanisms in different environments: 1 - tools for the evaluation of transfers: metrology, atmospheric and liquid dispersion phenomena; 2 - processes of radioelement transfers: transfers in aquatic ecosystems, transfers in terrestrial environment. (J.S.)

  15. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  16. Transfer vibration through spine

    OpenAIRE

    Benyovszky, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...

  17. Nonparametric Transfer Function Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun M.; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a class of nonparametric transfer function models is proposed to model nonlinear relationships between ‘input’ and ‘output’ time series. The transfer function is smooth with unknown functional forms, and the noise is assumed to be a stationary autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process. The nonparametric transfer function is estimated jointly with the ARMA parameters. By modeling the correlation in the noise, the transfer function can be estimated more efficiently. The parsimonious ARMA structure improves the estimation efficiency in finite samples. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are investigated. The finite-sample properties are illustrated through simulations and one empirical example. PMID:20628584

  18. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  19. Containment condensing heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gido, R.G.; Koestel, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents a mechanistic heat-transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analogy to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained

  20. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  1. An Interdistrict Transfer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Norman

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before the May 1974 public hearings of the New York City Commission on Human Rights by the Administrator, Urban-Suburban Transfer Program and Inter district Transfer Program, West Irondequoit School District, New York, reviews a program which began with 25 minority group youngsters from one racially-imbalanced Rochester school…

  2. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs

  3. Sustainable technology transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punter, H.T.; Krikhaar, R.L.; Bril, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this position paper we address the issue of transferring a technology from research into an industrial organization by presenting a refined process for technology transfer. Based on over two decades of industrial experience, we identified the need for a dedicated technology engineering phase for

  4. Radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...

  5. Demand elasticity increase for reducing social welfare losses due to transfer capacity restriction: A test case on Italian cross-border imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Sergio; De Benedictis, Michele; La Scala, Massimo; Wangensteen, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    The paper is aimed at showing how demand-side policies for increasing inner demand elasticity could help in reducing market inefficiencies generated by transfer limits on interconnections, with a special regard to energy imports dependent countries. In order to develop the studies in a realistic environment, a model for the Italian electricity market has been developed. Test results show effects of variations in demand elasticity on the national social surplus and congestion costs. It will be shown how an increase of demand elasticity can counterbalance the need of additional transfer capacity in reducing cross-border congestions. (author)

  6. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun

    2009-01-01

    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  7. Multiscale solutions of radiative heat transfer by the discrete unified gas kinetic scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Cun-Hai; Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2018-06-01

    The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has two asymptotic regimes characterized by the optical thickness, namely, optically thin and optically thick regimes. In the optically thin regime, a ballistic or kinetic transport is dominant. In the optically thick regime, energy transport is totally dominated by multiple collisions between photons; that is, the photons propagate by means of diffusion. To obtain convergent solutions to the RTE, conventional numerical schemes have a strong dependence on the number of spatial grids, which leads to a serious computational inefficiency in the regime where the diffusion is predominant. In this work, a discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS) is developed to predict radiative heat transfer in participating media. Numerical performances of the DUGKS are compared in detail with conventional methods through three cases including one-dimensional transient radiative heat transfer, two-dimensional steady radiative heat transfer, and three-dimensional multiscale radiative heat transfer. Due to the asymptotic preserving property, the present method with relatively coarse grids gives accurate and reliable numerical solutions for large, small, and in-between values of optical thickness, and, especially in the optically thick regime, the DUGKS demonstrates a pronounced computational efficiency advantage over the conventional numerical models. In addition, the DUGKS has a promising potential in the study of multiscale radiative heat transfer inside the participating medium with a transition from optically thin to optically thick regimes.

  8. Knowledge transfer isn’t simply transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li; Napier, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines micro dynamic aspects of knowledge sharing and learning in international joint venture settings. Learning of expatriate and local managers appears far more complex and mutually dependent than conventionally speculated in existing literature. The paper proposes that the effect ...... Danish and Vietnamese firms. The paper suggests that learning in IJVs, even in the context of one-way knowledge transfer from the foreign parent, should be managed in a mutual perspective and with thoughtful coordination of individual learning....... and outcome of knowledge transfer from joint venture parents and learning in IJVs are dependent on how individual managers (including both expatriate and local) learn, perceive their learning roles, and enact a learning agenda. Empirical evidence is drawn from two cases of international joint ventures between...

  9. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  10. Technology transfer 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  11. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.

  12. Low frequency wireless power transfer using modified parallel resonance matching at a complex load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artit Rittiplang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Impedance Matching (IM condition of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT, series resonant and strong coupling structures have been widely studied which operate at an optimal parameter, a resistive load, and the high resonant frequency of greater than 1 MHz. However, i The optimal parameter (particular value limits the design, ii the common loads are complex, iii The high frequency RF sources are usually inefficient. This paper presents a modified parallel resonant structure that can operate at a low frequency of 15 kHz without an optimal parameter under the IM condition with a complex load, and the calculated efficiency is equal to 71.2 % at 5-cm transfer distance.

  13. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-08

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  14. Fast multilevel radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletou, Frédéric; Léger, Ludovick

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho (1995); it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry.

  15. A heat transfer textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lienhard, John H

    2011-01-01

    This introduction to heat transfer offers advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students a solid foundation in the subjects of conduction, convection, radiation, and phase-change, in addition to the related topic of mass transfer. A staple of engineering courses around the world for more than three decades, it has been revised and updated regularly by the authors, a pair of recognized experts in the field. The text addresses the implications, limitations, and meanings of many aspects of heat transfer, connecting the subject to its real-world applications and developing students' ins

  16. Excavating a transfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The transfer tunnel being dug here will take the 450 GeV beam from the SPS and inject it into the LHC where the beam energies will be increased to 7 TeV. In order to transfer this beam from the SPS to the LHC, two transfer tunnels are used to circulate the beams in opposite directions. When excavated, the accelerator components, including magnets, beam pipes and cryogenics will be installed and connected to both the SPS and LHC ready for operation to begin in 2008.

  17. [Countertransference in homoerotic transference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkert-Tress, B; Reister, G

    1995-01-01

    Until now psychoanalytic training and literature have hardly considered the transference love of homosexual patients. We summarized the scarce literature and related it to the background of our knowledge of heterosexual transference love. The discussion leaves no doubt that, like the heterosexual, homosexual transference love must be read on all levels of psychosexual development instead of reading it on only one and definitely not on an amorphous "preoedipal" level. This is particularly true for the level of the adult homosexual patient, as the case history demonstrates.

  18. Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system-quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described

  19. On Shocks Driven by High-mass Planets in Radiatively Inefficient Disks. III. Observational Signatures in Thermal Emission and Scattered Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Blake; Lyra, Wladimir; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2017-11-01

    Recent observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Be star HD 100546 show two bright features in infrared (H and {L}{\\prime } bands) at about 50 au,with one so far unexplained. We explore the observational signatures of a high-mass planet causing shock heating in order to determine if it could be the source of the unexplained infrared feature in HD 100546. More fundamentally, we identify and characterize planetary shocks as an extra, hitherto ignored, source of luminosity in transition disks. The RADMC-3D code is used to perform dust radiative transfer calculations on the hydrodynamical disk models, including volumetric heating. A stronger shock heating rate by a factor of 20 would be necessary to qualitatively reproduce the morphology of the second infrared source. Instead, we find that the outer edge of the gap carved by the planet heats up by about 50% relative to the initial reference temperature, which leads to an increase in the scale height. The bulge is illuminated by the central star, producing a lopsided feature in scattered light, as the outer gap edge shows an asymmetry in density and temperature attributable to a secondary spiral arm launched not from the Lindblad resonances but from the 2:1 resonance. We conclude that high-mass planets lead to shocks in disks that may be directly observed, particularly at wavelengths of 10 μm or longer, but that they are more likely to reveal their presence in scattered light by puffing up their outer gap edges and exciting multiple spiral arms.

  20. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  1. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  2. Industrial technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulger, W.

    1982-06-01

    The transfer of industrial technology is an essential part of the CANDU export marketing program. Potential customers require the opportunity to become self-sufficient in the supply of nuclear plant and equipment in the long term and they require local participation to the maximum extent possible. The Organization of CANDU Industries is working closely with Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. in developing comprehensive programs for the transfer of manufacturing technology. The objectives of this program are: 1) to make available to the purchasing country all nuclear component manufacturing technology that exists in Canada; and 2) to assure that the transfer of technology takes place in an efficient and effective way. Technology transfer agreements may be in the form of joint ventures or license agreements, depending upon the requirements of the recipient

  3. Fast multilevel radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paletou, Frederic; Leger, Ludovick

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho [A novel iterative scheme for the very fast and accurate solution of non-LTE radiative transfer problems. Astrophys J 1995;455:646]; it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry

  4. Technology transfer quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, F.C.

    1991-03-01

    The results of research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE are regularly transferred from the laboratory to the private sector. The principal focus of PNL is on environmental research and waste management technology; other programs of emphasis include molecular science research. The technology transfer process is predicated on Quality to achieve its objectives effectively. Total quality management (TQM) concepts and principles readily apply to the development and translation of new scientific concepts into commercial products. The concept of technology transfer epitomizes the TQM tenet of continuous improvement: always striving for a better way to do things and always satisfying the customer. A successful technology transfer process adds value to society by providing new or enhanced processes, products, and services to government and commercial customers, with a guarantee of product pedigree and process validity. 2 refs

  5. Analytical heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin

    2012-01-01

    … it will complete my library … [and] complement the existing literature on heat transfer. It will be of value for both graduate students and faculty members.-Bengt Sunden, Lund University, Sweden

  6. Technology transfer for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  7. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  8. Pneumatic transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, H.; Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.; Buchtela, K.

    1988-11-01

    A pneumatic transfer system for research reactors, including a sample changer system and to be used for neutron activation analysis, is described. The system can be obtained commercially from the Atominstitut. 2 figs. (qui)

  9. Theories Supporting Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  10. Convection heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

  11. Credit risk transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2003-01-01

    Executive summary Techniques for transferring credit risk, such as financial guarantees and credit insurance, have been a long-standing feature of financial markets. In the past few years, however, the range of credit risk transfer (CRT) instruments and the circumstances in which they are used have widened considerably. A number of factors have contributed to this growth, including: greater focus by banks and other financial institutions on risk management; a more rigorous approach to risk/re...

  12. Heat transfer II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1988-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  13. Transfer og effekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Effekt, virkning eller udbytte af en lederuddannelse afhænger af en række individuelle, uddannelsesmæssige og organisatoriske faktorer. Det ved vi fra uddannelsesforskningen og særligt fra forskningen i transfer. Kun hvis uddannelsesinstitutionerne såvel som de studerende og arbejdspladserne vil...... medvirke aktivt til at skabe og fremme transfer, kan man gøre sig forhåbninger om, at få effekt af en lederuddannelse....

  14. Advances in heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett, James P; Cho, Young I; Greene, George A

    2001-01-01

    Heat transfer is the exchange of heat energy between a system and its surrounding environment, which results from a temperature difference and takes place by means of a process of thermal conduction, mechanical convection, or electromagnetic radiation. Advances in Heat Transfer is designed to fill the information gap between regularly scheduled journals and university-level textbooks by providing in-depth review articles over a broader scope than is allowable in either journals or texts.

  15. Effective Bayesian Transfer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the class of algorithms analyzed by Bartlett’s work under task R4). With emphasis on transferring one type of objects to another, (e.g., coffee cups...obstacles, so those are temporarily pruned from the graph. In addition, the start and goal locations may not be currently included in the graph. They carried...Transfer Level 3 Varying shape within class Task A: Instances of an object from the same class. ( Coffee mug) Task B: Instances of a different object

  16. Shielded cells transfer automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures

  17. Inefficient HIV-1 trans infection of CD4+ T cells by macrophages from HIV-1 nonprogressors is associated with altered membrane cholesterol and DC-SIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Diana C; Rinaldo, Charles R; Rappocciolo, Giovanna

    2018-04-11

    ) -mediated HIV trans infection of CD4 + T cells is a unique characteristic associated with control of disease progression, and it is impaired in HIV-infected nonprogressors (NP). In vitro treatment of MΦ from healthy donors with simvastatin (SIMV) lowers their cholesterol content which results in a strongly reduced trans infection ability, similar to the levels of MΦ from NP. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that MΦ-mediated HIV-1 trans infection plays a role in HIV infection and disease progression and demonstrate that the use of SIMV to decrease this mechanism of virus transfer should be considered for future HIV therapeutic development. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Heat transfer bibliography: russian works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luikov, A V

    1965-02-01

    This bibliography of recent Russian publications in heat transfer is divided into the following categories: (1) books; (2) general; (3) experimental methods; (4) analytical calculation methods; (5) thermodynamics; (6) transfer processes involving phase conversions; ((7) transfer processes involving chemical conversions; (8) transfer processes involving very high velocities; (9) drying processes; (10) thermal properties of various materials, heat transfer agents and their determination methods; (11) high temperature physics and magneto- hydrodynamics; and (12) transfer processes in technological apparatuses. (357 refs.)

  19. Electrophoretic transfer protein zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daniel; Hill, Adam P; Kashou, Anthony; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2011-04-15

    Zymography detects and characterizes proteolytic enzymes by electrophoresis of protease-containing samples into a nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel containing a copolymerized protein substrate. The usefulness of zymography for molecular weight determination and proteomic analysis is hampered by the fact that some proteases exhibit slower migration through a gel that contains substrate protein. This article introduces electrophoretic transfer protein zymography as one solution to this problem. In this technique, samples containing proteolytic enzymes are first resolved in nonreducing SDS-PAGE on a gel without protein substrate. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel previously prepared with a copolymerized protein substrate. The receiving gel is then developed as a zymogram to visualize clear or lightly stained bands in a dark background. Band intensities are linearly related to the amount of protease, extending the usefulness of the technique so long as conditions for transfer and development of the zymogram are kept constant. Conditions of transfer, such as the pore sizes of resolving and receiving gels and the transfer time relative to the molecular weight of the protease, are explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. University Technology Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cox

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experiences and general observations of the author at Heriot-Watt University and concerns the transfer of university technology for the purposes of commercialisation. Full commercial exploitation of a university invention generally requires transferring that technology into the industrial arena, usually either by formation of a new company or licensing into an existing company. Commercialisation activities need to be carried out in unison with the prime activities of the university of research and teaching. Responsibility for commercialising university inventions generally rests with a specific group within the university, typically referred to as the technology transfer group. Each technology transfer should be considered individually and appropriate arrangements made for that particular invention. In general, this transfer process involves four stages: identification, evaluation, protection and exploitation. Considerations under these general headings are outlined from a university viewpoint. A phased approach is generally preferred where possible for the evaluation, protection and exploitation of an invention to balance risk with potential reward. Evaluation of the potential opportunity for a university invention involves essentially the same considerations as for an industrial invention. However, there are a range of commercial exploitation routes and potential deals so that only general guidelines can be given. Naturally, the final deal achieved is that which can be negotiated. The potential rewards for the university and inventor are both financial (via licensing income and equity realisation and non-financial.

  1. Photoelectric transfer device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinomiya, Takuji; Murao, Fumihide

    1987-12-07

    Concerning the conventional photoelectric transfer device, a short-circuit current of photodiodes is switched over with MOS transistors. However, since the backgate voltage of the MOS transistor which is to be used as the switching element, is provided by the source voltage, the leakage current between the backgate and the source/drain/ channel is great and due to this leakage current, errors occur in the photoelectric transfer power output. Especially, when the leakage current of the photodiodes is small, the error becomes large. In order to solve the above problem, this invention aims at offering a photoelectric transfer device which can provide the high precision photoelectric transfer even the short-circuit current generated in the photodiodes is small and proposes a photoelectric transfer device in which the backgate voltage of the MOS transistor switching over the short-circuit current of the photodiodes is made equal to the electric potential of the mutually connected anodes (or cathodes) of the photodiodes. (3 figs)

  2. Proposals for the gradual reduction of the inefficiencies associated with the account of consumption of fossil fuels of isolated systems; Propostas para a gradativa reducao das ineficiencias associadas a conta de consumo de combustiveis fosseis dos sistemas isolados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Pedro Coelho de Souza Monteiro; Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Restricted access to electricity, the existence of an energy matrix based on fossil fueled electricity plants and the lack of financial means by the population living in the Northern region of Brazil to afford the costs with electricity generation, transmission and distribution in the region created the need to implement cross subsidies in the country's Electric Sector Isolated System. The subsidy policies have aimed at allowing the access to electricity for the population and industries in the north of Brazil and at promoting the economic development of this region, but have brought a great cost to society, particularly the Fuel Consumption Account (CCC). This paper evaluates the current structure and the regulatory norms of the electricity sector' subsidies granted to the Isolated Systems, and indicates solutions to the inefficiency associated to cross-subsidization. (author)

  3. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  4. Quadrupolar transfer pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Sasa; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2006-06-01

    A set of graphical conventions called quadrupolar transfer pathways is proposed to describe a wide range of experiments designed for the study of quadrupolar nuclei with spin quantum numbers I = 1, 3/2, 2, 5/2, etc. These pathways, which inter alea allow one to appreciate the distinction between quadrupolar and Zeeman echoes, represent a generalization of the well-known coherence transfer pathways. Quadrupolar transfer pathways not merely distinguish coherences with different orders -2 I ⩽ p ⩽ +2 I, but allow one to follow the fate of coherences associated with single transitions that have the same coherence orderp=mIr-mIs but can be distinguished by a satellite orderq=(mIr)2-(mIs)2.

  5. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  6. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  7. Intergenerational Knowledge Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Institutions of higher education and universities have been at the forefront of intergenerational knowledge transfer. Their role has gone through evolution and several ideas of the university co-exist. Factors like the squeeze on public funding of higher education across nations, exhortation by governments to value work-based learning as a part of higher education and demand for graduates ready to start working immediately on joining a workplace, are making it necessary to further evolve the classical approach towards intergenerational knowledge transfer. The paper presents a framework that has been evolved in India to meet the requirements of intergenerational knowledge transfer. It essentially integrates a workplace and a university in a single entity similar to the practice in medical education. (author

  8. Charge transfer in astrophysical nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Charge transfer has become a standard ingredient in models of ionized nebulae, supernovae remnants and active galactic nuclei. Charge transfer rate coefficients and the physics of ionized nebulae are considered. Charge transfer is applied to the ionization structure and line emission of ionized nebulae. Photoionized nebulae observations are used to test theoretical predictions of charge transfer rates. (author)

  9. Vial freeze-drying, part 1: new insights into heat transfer characteristics of tubing and molded vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Susanne; Wagner, Christophe; Gieseler, Henning

    2012-03-01

    In order to optimize a freeze-drying cycle, information regarding the heat transfer characteristics of the container system is imperative. Two most recently developed tubing (TopLyo™) and molded (EasyLyo™) vial designs were compared with a standard serum tubing and molded vial, a polymer vial (TopPac™), and an amber molded EasyLyo™. In addition, the impact of methodology on the determination of reliable vial heat transfer coefficient (K(v) ) data is examined in detail. All K(v) s were gravimetrically determined by sublimation tests with pure water at 50, 100, 200, and 400 mTorr. In contrast to the traditional assumption that molded vials exhibit inefficient heat transfer characteristics, these vials showed a very similar performance compared with their serum tubing counterparts in the relevant pressure range for freeze-drying. At 100 mTorr, the TopLyo™ center vials show only 4% higher K(v) values than the EasyLyo™ center vials. All glass vials outmatch the polymer vial in terms of heat transfer, up to 30% elevated heat transfer for the TopLyo™ center vials at 400 mTorr. Sublimation tests have demonstrated to be a valuable tool to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of vials, but results are dependent on methodology. New developments in molded vial manufacturing lead to improved heat transfer performance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Engineering heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    The basic concepts of heat transfer are covered with special emphasis on up-to-date techniques for formulating and solving problems in the field. The discussion progresses logically from phenomenology to problem solving, and treats numerical, integral, and graphical methods as well as traditional analytical ones. The book is unique in its thorough coverage of the fundamentals of numerical analysis appropriate to solving heat transfer problems. This coverage includes several complete and readable examples of numerical solutions, with discussions and interpretations of results. The book also contains an appendix that provides students with physical data for often-encountered materials. An index is included. (U.S.)

  11. Transferences of Purkinje systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The transferences of heterocentric astigmatic Purkinje systems are special: submatrices B and C, that is, the disjugacy and the divergence of the system, are symmetric and submatrix D (the divarication is the transpose of submatrix A (the dilation.  It is the primary purpose of this paper to provide a proof.  The paper also derives other relationships among the fundamental properties and compact expressions for the transference and optical axis locator of a Purkinje system. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(2 57-60

  12. Elementary heat transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen; Hartnett, James P

    1976-01-01

    Elementary Heat Transfer Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of the nature of transient heat conduction. This book presents a thorough understanding of the thermal energy equation and its application to boundary layer flows and confined and unconfined turbulent flows. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of heat transfer coefficients in formulating the flux condition at phase interface. This text then explains the specification as well as application of flux boundary conditions. Other chapters consider a derivation of the tra

  13. Cernavoda NPP Knowledge Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valache, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a description of the Knowledge Transfer (KT) process implemented at Cernavoda NPP, its designing and implementation. It is underlined that applying a KT approach should improve the value of existing processes of the organization through: • Identifying business, operational and safety risks due to knowledge gaps, • Transfer of knowledge from the ageing workforce to the peers and/or the organization, • Continually learning from successes and failures of individual or teams, • Convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, • Improving operational and safety performance through creating both new knowledge and better access to existing knowledge. (author

  14. Thermal transfer recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Fukushima, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Shinozuka, M.; Seikohsha, K. K. Suwa

    1988-08-01

    The recording media consist of more than or one coloring layer and a layer containing a flame retardant to ensure noncombustibility and good thermal transfer. Thus, a PET film was coated on a side with a compound containing Vylon 290 (polyester resin), AFR-1021 (decabromodiphenyl oxide) 8 and Polysafe 60 (Sb oxide), and coated on the other side with a compound containing carnauba wax, HNP-9 (paraffin wax), EV-410 (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer), and Cu phthalocyanine to give a thermal transfer recording medium which showed good noncombustibility and antiblocking properties, and provided high quality images.

  15. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...... of parent firms to share knowledge is manifested in an increased capacity to articulate and codify knowledge and create opportunities to transfer this knowledge. Mediated by the effective use of organizational communication channels, articulation and codification capabilities have a significant impact...

  16. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude

    1990-10-01

    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  17. NASA Technology Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Peter B.; Okimura, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    NTTS is the IT infrastructure for the Agency's Technology Transfer (T2) program containing 60,000+ technology portfolio supporting all ten NASA field centers and HQ. It is the enterprise IT system for facilitating the Agency's technology transfer process, which includes reporting of new technologies (e.g., technology invention disclosures NF1679), protecting intellectual properties (e.g., patents), and commercializing technologies through various technology licenses, software releases, spinoffs, and success stories using custom built workflow, reporting, data consolidation, integration, and search engines.

  18. Beyond unidirectional knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Neergaard, Helle; Bjerregaard, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Using theory on technology transfer and on trust and an indepth study of nine university departments and nineteen science-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the authors explore the nature and direction of knowledge flows during university-industry R&D collaboration. More specifically......, they examine the nature and direction of R&D technological knowledge transfer in collaborations between universities and science-based SMEs and the primary mechanisms regulating such collaborations. The findings suggest that these collaborations are highly recursive processes of technological knowledge...

  19. Energy transfer in plasmonic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, Vitaliy N; Urbas, Augustine M; Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2014-01-01

    We present our results on energy transfer between donor and acceptor molecules or quantum dots near a plasmonic nanoparticle. In such systems, the Förster resonance energy transfer is strongly modified due to plasmon-mediated coupling between donors and acceptors. The transfer efficiency is determined by a competition between transfer, radiation and dissipation that depends sensitively on system parameters. When donor and accepror spectral bands overlap with dipole surface plasmon resonance, the dominant transfer mechanism is through plasmon-enhanced radiative coupling. When transfer takes place from an ensemble of donors to an acceptor, a cooperative amplification of energy transfer takes place in a wide range of system parameters. (paper)

  20. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  1. Evaluating disparities in the U.S. technology transfer ecosystem to improve bench to business translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, James; Bashyam, Ashvin; Ekchian, Gregory J; Paisner, Kathryn; Vanderford, Nathan L

    2018-01-01

    Background: A large number of highly impactful technologies originated from academic research, and the transfer of inventions from academic institutions to private industry is a major driver of economic growth, and a catalyst for further discovery. However, there are significant inefficiencies in academic technology transfer. In this work, we conducted a data-driven assessment of translational activity across United States (U.S.) institutions to better understand how effective universities are in facilitating the transfer of new technologies into the marketplace. From this analysis, we provide recommendations to guide technology transfer policy making at both the university and national level. Methods: Using data from the Association of University Technology Managers U.S. Licensing Activity Survey, we defined a commercialization pipeline that reflects the typical path intellectual property takes; from initial research funding to startup formation and gross income. We use this pipeline to quantify the performance of academic institutions at each step of the process, as well as overall, and identify the top performing institutions via mean reciprocal rank. The corresponding distributions were visualized and disparities quantified using the Gini coefficient. Results: We found significant discrepancies in commercialization activity between institutions; a small number of institutions contribute to the vast majority of total commercialization activity. By examining select top performing institutions, we suggest improvements universities and technology transfer offices could implement to emulate the environment at these high-performing institutions. Conclusion: Significant disparities in technology transfer performance exist in which a select set of institutions produce a majority share of the total technology transfer activity. This disparity points to missed commercialization opportunities, and thus, further investigation into the distribution of technology transfer

  2. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  3. Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John Winston

    The paper gives some personal observations on various aspects of enhanced condensation heat transfer. The topics discussed are external condensation (horizontal low-finned tubes and wire-wrapped tubes), internal condensation (microfin tubes and microchannels) and Marangoni condensation of binary mixtures.

  4. Investigating Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a…

  5. Knowledge Management and Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sennanye, D.M.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society, South African Nuclear Energy Cooperation, National Nuclear Regulator, P O Box 7106, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge management has become an important concept in the nuclear industry globally. This has been driven by the fact that new reactors are commissioned and some are decommissioned. Since most old experts are near retirement then there is a need to capture the nuclear knowledge and expertise and transfer it to the new generation. Knowledge transfer is one of the important building blocks of knowledge management. Processes and strategies need to be developed in order to transfer this knowledge. South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has established a document to address strategies that can be used to close the knowledge gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. This action will help the young generation to participate in knowledge management. The major challenges will be the willingness of the experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. The paper presents the SAYNPS point of view with regard to knowledge transfer. (authors)

  6. Science transfer for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the recent realisation that science and technology are the sustenance and major hope for economic betterment, the third world, barring a few countries like Argentina, Brazil, China and India, has taken to science - as distinct from technology - as only a marginal activity. This is also true of the aid - giving agencies of the richer countries, of the agencies of the UN and also unfortunately of the scientific communities of the developed countries which might naturally be expected to be the Third World's foremost allies. Policy makers, prestigious commissions (like the Brandt Commission) as well as aid-givers, speak uniformly of problems of technology transfer to the developing countries as if that is all that is involved. Very few within the developing world appear to stress that for long term effectiveness, technology transfers must always be accompanied by science transfers; that the science of today is the technology of tomorrow. Science transfer is effected by and to communities of scientists. Such communities (in developing countries) need building up to a critical size in their human resources and infrastructure. This building up calls for wise science policies, with long term commitment, generous patronage, self governance and free international contacts. Further, in our countries, the high level scientist must be allowed to play a role in nation building as an equal partner to the professional planner, the economist and the technologist. Few developing countries have promulgated such policies: few aid agencies have taken it as their mandate to encourage and help build up the scientific infrastructure. (author)

  7. Transfer metrics analytics project

    CERN Document Server

    Matonis, Zygimantas

    2016-01-01

    This report represents work done towards predicting transfer rates/latencies on Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) sites using Machine Learning techniques. Topic covered are technologies used for the project, data preparation for ML suitable format and attribute selection as well as a comparison of different ML algorithms.

  8. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  9. Electron transfer to sulfides:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Ana Belen; Antonello, Sabrina; Arevalo, Maria Carmen; Maran, Flavio

    2005-01-01

    The problem of characterizing the steps associated with the dissociative reduction of sulfides has been addressed. The electrochemical reduction of diphenylmethyl para-methoxyphenyl sulfide in N,N-dimethylformamide, on both glassy carbon and mercury electrodes, was chosen as a test system. The electrode process involves the slow heterogeneous outer-sphere electron transfer to the sulfide, the fast cleavage of the C-S bond, the reduction of the ensuing carbon radical, and the self-protonation triggered by the generation of the strong base Ph 2 CH - . The latter reaction is rather slow, in agreement with the large intrinsic barriers characterizing proton transfers between CH-acids and carbon bases. The dissociative reduction was studied in the presence of an exogenous acid. The results, obtained by convolution analysis, point to a stepwise DET mechanism in which the ET step is accompanied by rather large reorganization energy. Similar results were obtained on both electrode materials. Analysis of the heterogeneous electron transfer and associated C-S bond cleavage indicate that the reduction of this and other sulfides lies between the stepwise dissociative electron transfers leading to the formation of stiff π* radical anions and those going through the intermediacy of loose σ* radical anions

  10. Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P. P. [Molecular Physics Research, 6547 Kristina Ursula Court, Falls Church, Virginia 22044 (United States)

    2013-03-28

    The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, Gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity {Delta}=-{Delta}G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy ({Delta}={Lambda}{sub s}) along a maximum ln (w) vs. {Delta} ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for {Delta} where ln (w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions.

  11. Understanding Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark G.

    1983-01-01

    Stresses the difficulty of "maintenance" of newly learned behaviors by reinforcement and feedback on the job and proposes an alternative means of promoting transfer of training--establishing rule-governed behavior. Some ways of establishing rules in training are listed and discussed, including use of behavior-modeling and other…

  12. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  13. Knowledge Management and Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennanye, D.M.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management has become an important concept in the nuclear industry globally. This has been driven by the fact that new reactors are commissioned and some are decommissioned. Since most old experts are near retirement then there is a need to capture the nuclear knowledge and expertise and transfer it to the new generation. Knowledge transfer is one of the important building blocks of knowledge management. Processes and strategies need to be developed in order to transfer this knowledge. South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has established a document to address strategies that can be used to close the knowledge gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. This action will help the young generation to participate in knowledge management. The major challenges will be the willingness of the experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. The paper presents the SAYNPS point of view with regard to knowledge transfer. (authors)

  14. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  15. A comparison of different database technologies for the CMS AsyncStageOut transfer database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciangottini, D.; Balcas, J.; Mascheroni, M.; Rupeika, E. A.; Vaandering, E.; Riahi, H.; Silva, J. M. D.; Hernandez, J. M.; Belforte, S.; Ivanov, T. T.

    2017-10-01

    AsyncStageOut (ASO) is the component of the CMS distributed data analysis system (CRAB) that manages users transfers in a centrally controlled way using the File Transfer System (FTS3) at CERN. It addresses a major weakness of the previous, decentralized model, namely that the transfer of the user’s output data to a single remote site was part of the job execution, resulting in inefficient use of job slots and an unacceptable failure rate. Currently ASO manages up to 600k files of various sizes per day from more than 500 users per month, spread over more than 100 sites. ASO uses a NoSQL database (CouchDB) as internal bookkeeping and as way to communicate with other CRAB components. Since ASO/CRAB were put in production in 2014, the number of transfers constantly increased up to a point where the pressure to the central CouchDB instance became critical, creating new challenges for the system scalability, performance, and monitoring. This forced a re-engineering of the ASO application to increase its scalability and lowering its operational effort. In this contribution we present a comparison of the performance of the current NoSQL implementation and a new SQL implementation, and how their different strengths and features influenced the design choices and operational experience. We also discuss other architectural changes introduced in the system to handle the increasing load and latency in delivering output to the user.

  16. Study on the efficient export control for the Intangible Transfer of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-ho; Choi, Sun-do; Lee, Chansuh; Kim, Jong-sook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Technical Data may take forms such as document, drawing, description, report, manual and instruction. And, it can be written or recorded on storage medium such as disk, tape and read-only memories. Technical assistance may take forms such as instruction, skill, training, working knowledge and consulting services. Technical data or assistance can be transferred by intangible manners such as an electronic means (e.g. email, internet, telephone or fax) and through the oral (e.g. seminar, meeting or workshop). Currently, ROK's export control regulation is not classified between the transfer of listed items (or general technology) and intangible transfer of technology (ITT). It may make a loop hole or cause inefficient implementation of export control. The purpose of this study is to suggest the efficient control method for ITT independent from item control method. From the result of this study, several main feathers in regulations of developed countries are drawn. First, they define that technical assistance (or support) is the object of permission. And, they have a clear distinction between resident and non-resident. Second, The UK and Germany do not control the technical assistance related to construction and operation of nuclear facilities for peaceful use, as long as technology does not transfer to recipient that has a nuclear proliferation concerns such as the DPRK, Iran or Pakistan.

  17. Clinical holistic medicine: avoiding the Freudian trap of sexual transference and countertransference in psychodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2008-04-14

    Sexual transference and countertransference can make therapy slow and inefficient when libidinous gratification becomes more important for both the patient and the therapist than real therapeutic progress. Sexual transference is normal when working with a patient's repressed sexuality, but the therapeutic rule of not touching often hinders the integration of sexual traumas, as this needs physical holding. So the patient is often left with sexual, Oedipal energies projected onto the therapist as an "idealized father" figure. The strong and lasting sexual desire for the therapist without any healing taking place can prolong therapy for many years, as it often does in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. We call this problem "Freud's Trap". Freud used intimate bodywork, such as massage, in the beginning of his career, but stopped, presumably for moral and political reasons. In the tradition of psychoanalysis, touch is therefore not allowed. Recent research in clinical holistic medicine (CHM), salutogenesis, and sexual healing has shown that touch and bodywork (an integral part of medicine since Hippocrates) are as important for healing as conversational therapy. CHM allows the patient to regress spontaneously to early sexual and emotional traumas, and to heal the deep wounds on body, soul, and sexual character from arrested psychosexual development. CHM treats sexuality in therapy more as the patient's internal affair (i.e., energy work) and less as a thing going on between the patient and the therapist (i.e., transference). This accelerates healing, and reduces sexual transference and the need for mourning at the end of therapy.

  18. A Comparison of Different Database Technologies for the CMS AsyncStageOut Transfer Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciangottini, D. [INFN, Perugia; Balcas, J. [Caltech; Mascheroni, M. [Fermilab; Rupeika, E. A. [Vilnius U.; Vaandering, E. [Fermilab; Riahi, H. [CERN; Silva, J. M.D. [Sao Paulo, IFT; Hernandez, J. M. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Belforte, S. [INFN, Trieste; Ivanov, T. T. [Sofiya U.

    2017-11-22

    AsyncStageOut (ASO) is the component of the CMS distributed data analysis system (CRAB) that manages users transfers in a centrally controlled way using the File Transfer System (FTS3) at CERN. It addresses a major weakness of the previous, decentralized model, namely that the transfer of the user’s output data to a single remote site was part of the job execution, resulting in inefficient use of job slots and an unacceptable failure rate. Currently ASO manages up to 600k files of various sizes per day from more than 500 users per month, spread over more than 100 sites. ASO uses a NoSQL database (CouchDB) as internal bookkeeping and as way to communicate with other CRAB components. Since ASO/CRAB were put in production in 2014, the number of transfers constantly increased up to a point where the pressure to the central CouchDB instance became critical, creating new challenges for the system scalability, performance, and monitoring. This forced a re-engineering of the ASO application to increase its scalability and lowering its operational effort. In this contribution we present a comparison of the performance of the current NoSQL implementation and a new SQL implementation, and how their different strengths and features influenced the design choices and operational experience. We also discuss other architectural changes introduced in the system to handle the increasing load and latency in delivering output to the user.

  19. Wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  20. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation......, were used more intensively. Further, the degree of stickiness was significantly lower in the case of prior trust-based relations....

  1. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  2. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  3. Heat Transfer Analogies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A

    1965-11-15

    This report contains descriptions of various analogues utilised to study different steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer problems. The analogues covered are as follows: 1 . Hydraulic: a) water flow b) air flow 2. Membrane 3. Geometric Electrical: a) Electrolytic-tank b) Conducting sheet 4. Network; a) Resistance b) R-C A comparison of the different analogues is presented in the form of a table.

  4. Heat Transfer Analogies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.

    1965-11-01

    This report contains descriptions of various analogues utilised to study different steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer problems. The analogues covered are as follows: 1 . Hydraulic: a) water flow b) air flow 2. Membrane 3. Geometric Electrical: a) Electrolytic-tank b) Conducting sheet 4. Network; a) Resistance b) R-C A comparison of the different analogues is presented in the form of a table

  5. Technology transfer for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D.

    1990-07-01

    The IAEA has developed a multifaceted approach to ensure that assistance to Member States results in assured technology transfer. Through advice and planning, the IAEA helps to assess the costs and benefits of a given technology, determine the basic requirements for its efficient use in conditions specific to the country, and prepare a plan for its introduction. This report describes in brief the Technical Co-operation Programmes

  6. Heat transfer. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the 4 key-note lectures and 83 of the 148 papers presented at the 3rd UK National Conference on Heat Transfer. The papers are grouped under the following broad headings: boiling and condensation; heat exchangers; refrigeration and air-conditioning; natural convection; process safety and nuclear reactors; two-phase flow; post dry-out; combustion, radiation and chemical reaction. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 13 papers of relevance to nuclear reactors. (UK)

  7. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  8. ATTACHMENT AND TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Pasare, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Bowlby's concept of attachment and Freud's concept of transference are two of the most influential theories of how we construct mental representations of human relationships. The attachment’s theory offers one more strategy for the therapeutic approach. Factors that lead to a secure attachment between mother and child may also be applied to the relationship between patient and psychotherapist. Psychotherapy may help a patient create himself new attachment and relationship patterns. Creating a...

  9. Technology Transfer Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Since its inception, Goddard has pursued a commitment to technology transfer and commercialization. For every space technology developed, Goddard strives to identify secondary applications. Goddard then provides the technologies, as well as NASA expertise and facilities, to U.S. companies, universities, and government agencies. These efforts are based in Goddard's Technology Commercialization Office. This report presents new technologies, commercialization success stories, and other Technology Commercialization Office activities in 1999.

  10. Unsupervised Typography Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hanfei; Luo, Yiming; Lu, Ziang

    2018-01-01

    Traditional methods in Chinese typography synthesis view characters as an assembly of radicals and strokes, but they rely on manual definition of the key points, which is still time-costing. Some recent work on computer vision proposes a brand new approach: to treat every Chinese character as an independent and inseparable image, so the pre-processing and post-processing of each character can be avoided. Then with a combination of a transfer network and a discriminating network, one typograph...

  11. Chinese Typography Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jie; Gu, Yujun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new network architecture for Chinese typography transformation based on deep learning. The architecture consists of two sub-networks: (1)a fully convolutional network(FCN) aiming at transferring specified typography style to another in condition of preserving structure information; (2)an adversarial network aiming at generating more realistic strokes in some details. Unlike models proposed before 2012 relying on the complex segmentation of Chinese components or str...

  12. Transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammady, M.; Roohi, M.; Delavar, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to introduce the concepts of transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces. Also, some characterizations of them are considered. Further, the notion of minimal local intersection property will be introduced and characterized. Moreover, some maximal element theorems via minimal transfer closed multimaps and minimal local intersection property are given.

  13. Heavy ion transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, D.C.

    1977-06-01

    To complement discussions on the role of γ rays in heavy ion induced reactions, the author discusses the role played by particle detection. Transfer reactions are part of this subject and are among those in which one infers the properties of the residual nucleus in a reaction by observing the emerging light nucleus. Inelastic scattering ought not be excluded from this subject, although no particles are transferred, because of the role it plays in multistep reactions and in fixing O.M. parameters describing the entrance channel of the reaction. Heavy ion transfer reaction studies have been under study for some years and yet this research is still in its infancy. The experimental techniques are difficult and the demands on theory rigorous. One of the main products of heavy ion research has been the thrust to re-examine the assumptions of reaction theory and now include many effects neglected for light ion analysis. This research has spurred the addition of multistep processes to simple direct processes and coupled channel calculations. (J.R.)

  14. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  15. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  16. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M. [Universidade da Coruna (Spain). Escola Politecnica Superior], e-mail: mjabardo@cdf.udc.es

    2009-07-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 {mu}m and 10.5 {mu}m ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 {mu}m). (author)

  17. Laser induced energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcone, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Two related methods of rapidly transferring stored energy from one excited chemical species to another are described. The first of these, called a laser induced collision, involves a reaction in which the energy balance is met by photons from an intense laser beam. A collision cross section of ca 10 - 17 cm 2 was induced in an experiment which demonstrated the predicted dependence of the cross section on wavelength and power density of the applied laser. A second type of laser induced energy transfer involves the inelastic scattering of laser radiation from energetically excited atoms, and subsequent absorption of the scattered light by a second species. The technique of producing the light, ''anti-Stokes Raman'' scattering of visible and infrared wavelength laser photons, is shown to be an efficient source of narrow bandwidth, high brightness, tunable radiation at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths by using it to excite a rare gas transition at 583.7 A. In addition, this light source was used to make the first measurement of the isotopic shift of the helium metastable level at 601 A. Applications in laser controlled chemistry and spectroscopy, and proposals for new types of lasers using these two energy transfer methods are discussed

  18. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 μm and 10.5 μm ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 μm). (author)

  19. Deep Transfer Metric Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlin Hu; Jiwen Lu; Yap-Peng Tan; Jie Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Conventional metric learning methods usually assume that the training and test samples are captured in similar scenarios so that their distributions are assumed to be the same. This assumption does not hold in many real visual recognition applications, especially when samples are captured across different data sets. In this paper, we propose a new deep transfer metric learning (DTML) method to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations for cross-domain visual recognition by transferring discriminative knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Specifically, our DTML learns a deep metric network by maximizing the inter-class variations and minimizing the intra-class variations, and minimizing the distribution divergence between the source domain and the target domain at the top layer of the network. To better exploit the discriminative information from the source domain, we further develop a deeply supervised transfer metric learning (DSTML) method by including an additional objective on DTML, where the output of both the hidden layers and the top layer are optimized jointly. To preserve the local manifold of input data points in the metric space, we present two new methods, DTML with autoencoder regularization and DSTML with autoencoder regularization. Experimental results on face verification, person re-identification, and handwritten digit recognition validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  20. Californium source transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1995, the receipt of four sealed californium-252 sources from Oak Ridge National Lab was successfully accomplished by a team comprised of Radiological Engineering, Radiological Operations and Health Physics Instrumentation personnel. A procedure was developed and walked-down by the participants during a Dry Run Evolution. Several special tools were developed during the pre-planning phases of the project which reduced individual and job dose to minimal levels. These included a mobile lifting device for attachment of a transfer ball valve assembly to the undercarriage of the Cannonball Carrier, a transfer tube elbow to ensure proper angle of the source transfer tube, and several tools used during emergency response for remote retrieval and handling of an unshielded source. Lessons were learned in the areas of contamination control, emergency preparedness, and benefits of thorough pre-planning, effectiveness of locally creating and designing special tools to reduce worker dose, and methods of successfully accomplishing source receipt evolutions during extreme or inclement weather

  1. Mobilisation du financement privé aux fins de l'adaptation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Private Financing Advisory Network (PFAN) de la Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) réalisera la recherche en collaboration avec la Frankfurt Business School et le réseau actuel du PFAN de la CTI dans les pays d'Afrique subsaharienne ciblés. Les équipes ... International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer.

  2. "Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...

  3. Quantifying multiscale inefficiency in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uritskaya, Olga Y. [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, and Department of Economics and Management, St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    One of the basic features of efficient markets is the absence of correlations between price increments over any time scale leading to random walk-type behavior of prices. In this paper, we propose a new approach for measuring deviations from the efficient market state based on an analysis of scale-dependent fractal exponent characterizing correlations at different time scales. The approach is applied to two electricity markets, Alberta and Mid Columbia (Mid-C), as well as to the AECO Alberta natural gas market (for purposes of providing a comparison between storable and non-storable commodities). We show that price fluctuations in all studied markets are not efficient, with electricity prices exhibiting complex multiscale correlated behavior not captured by monofractal methods used in previous studies. (author)

  4. The impact of inefficiency on diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.; Kapelko, M.

    2015-01-01

    Diversification is often seen as a risk management tool, but specialization allows operators to exploit scale economies in single outputs and offers specialized operators more opportunities to fine-tune their skills which can promote a greater degree of technical proficiency. Measuring economies of

  5. Quantifying multiscale inefficiency in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uritskaya, Olga Y.; Serletis, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    One of the basic features of efficient markets is the absence of correlations between price increments over any time scale leading to random walk-type behavior of prices. In this paper, we propose a new approach for measuring deviations from the efficient market state based on an analysis of scale-dependent fractal exponent characterizing correlations at different time scales. The approach is applied to two electricity markets, Alberta and Mid Columbia (Mid-C), as well as to the AECO Alberta natural gas market (for purposes of providing a comparison between storable and non-storable commodities). We show that price fluctuations in all studied markets are not efficient, with electricity prices exhibiting complex multiscale correlated behavior not captured by monofractal methods used in previous studies. (author)

  6. Efficiency and inefficiency of public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman VAVREK

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public administration and local government in particular, which also includes municipalities in individual countries, is in the context of the economic crisis a very topical and widely discussed issue. The management of municipalities is subject to increasing control by the public, the state and the municipalities themselves. The aim of the presented paper is to offer a comprehensive definition of efficiency and methods which allow to measure it. As results of our analysis  can be mentioned overview of TOPSIS technique application in a several studies.

  7. What Is Technology Transfer? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between NIH research laboratories and external partners. With a team of technology transfer specialists, NCI TTC guides interactions from discovery to patenting, as well as from collaboration and invention development to licensing.

  8. Technology transfer of Cornell university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Wan Sik

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces technology transfer of Cornell university which deals with introduction of Cornell university, composition of organization and practice of technology transfer : a research contract, research perform, invention report, evaluation and succession of invention, a patent application and management, marketing, negotiation and writing contract, management of contract, compensation, result of technology transfer, cases of success on technical commercialization and daily life of technology transfer center.

  9. Design of LEIR Transfer Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Carli, Ch; Hemery, J-Y

    2002-01-01

    The LEIR transfer lines are designed to transport the ion beam from the Linac 3 to LEIR and, after accumulation and acceleration from LEIR to the PS. A part of the transfer line is used for both, injection and extraction. Thus, it is natural to design injection and extraction optics in common. Beside optics constraints, the geometry of the existing machines (Linac 3, LEIR and PS) and transfer tunnels have to be respected. A new proposal for the LEIR transfer lines is presented.

  10. Technology transfer in CANDU marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The author discusses how the CANDU system lends itself to technology transfer, the scope of CANDU technology transfer, and the benefits and problems associated with technology transfer. The establishment of joint ventures between supplier and client nations offers benefits to both parties. Canada can offer varying technology transfer packages, each tailored to a client nation's needs and capabilities. Such a package could include all the hardware and software necessary to develop a self-sufficient nuclear infrastructure in the client nation

  11. Large-Scale Multiantenna Multisine Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Clerckx, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is expected to be a technology reshaping the landscape of low-power applications such as the Internet of Things, Radio Frequency identification (RFID) networks, etc. Although there has been some progress towards multi-antenna multi-sine WPT design, the large-scale design of WPT, reminiscent of massive MIMO in communications, remains an open challenge. In this paper, we derive efficient multiuser algorithms based on a generalizable optimization framework, in order to design transmit sinewaves that maximize the weighted-sum/minimum rectenna output DC voltage. The study highlights the significant effect of the nonlinearity introduced by the rectification process on the design of waveforms in multiuser systems. Interestingly, in the single-user case, the optimal spatial domain beamforming, obtained prior to the frequency domain power allocation optimization, turns out to be Maximum Ratio Transmission (MRT). In contrast, in the general weighted sum criterion maximization problem, the spatial domain beamforming optimization and the frequency domain power allocation optimization are coupled. Assuming channel hardening, low-complexity algorithms are proposed based on asymptotic analysis, to maximize the two criteria. The structure of the asymptotically optimal spatial domain precoder can be found prior to the optimization. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated. Numerical results confirm the inefficiency of the linear model-based design for the single and multi-user scenarios. It is also shown that as nonlinear model-based designs, the proposed algorithms can benefit from an increasing number of sinewaves.

  12. The laser elevator - Momentum transfer using an optical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Mckenna, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    In a conventional laser lightsail system the payload is propelled by the momentum imparted to it by the reflection of a laser beam without the use of any propellant. Because of the unfavorable relationship between energy and momentum in a light beam, these systems are very inefficient. The efficiency can be greatly improved, in principle, if the photons that impact the payload mirror are returned to the source and then redirected back toward the payload again. This system, which recirculates the laser beam, is defined as the 'laser elevator'. The gain of the laser elevator over conventional lightsails depends on the number of times the beam is recycled which is limited by the reflectance of the mirrors used, any losses in the transmission of the beam, and diffraction. Due to the increase pathlength of the folded beam, diffraction losses occur at smaller separations of the payload and the source mirror than for conventional lightsail system. The laser elevator has potential applications in launching to low earth orbit, orbital transfer, and rapid interplanetary delivery of small payloads.

  13. Energy transfer properties and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the energy transfer mechanisms in azulene, benzene, toluene, and isotopomers. Also discussed is the coupled energy reservoirs model, quantum effects in energy transfer, NO 2 energy transfer, densities of states, the reactant states model, and O 3 excited electronic states

  14. Evaluating Technology Transfer and Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four articles discuss the evaluation of technology transfer and diffusion: (1) "Technology Transfer at the U.S. National Laboratories: A Framework for Evaluation"; (2) "Application of Social Psychological and Evaluation Research: Lessons from Energy Information Programs"; (3) "Technology and Knowledge Transfer in Energy R and D Laboratories: An…

  15. Nanoimprint-Transfer-Patterned Solids Enhance Light Absorption in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon

    2017-03-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) materials are of interest in thin-film solar cells due to their size-tunable bandgap and low-cost solution-processing. However, CQD solar cells suffer from inefficient charge extraction over the film thicknesses required for complete absorption of solar light. Here we show a new strategy to enhance light absorption in CQD solar cells by nanostructuring the CQD film itself at the back interface. We use two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations to study quantitatively the light absorption enhancement in nanostructured back interfaces in CQD solar cells. We implement this experimentally by demonstrating a nanoimprint-transfer-patterning (NTP) process for the fabrication of nanostructured CQD solids with highly ordered patterns. We show that this approach enables a boost in the power conversion efficiency in CQD solar cells primarily due to an increase in short-circuit current density as a result of enhanced absorption through light-trapping.

  16. Update on the Status of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, K. A.; Cox, C.; Debes, J. H.; DiFelice, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Hodge, P.; Holland, S.; Lindsay, K.; Lockwood, S. A.; Mason, E.; Oliveira, C. M.; Penton, S. V.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Taylor, J. M.; Wheeler, T.

    2013-06-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has been on orbit for approximately 16 years as one of the 2nd generation instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Its operations were interrupted by an electronics failure in 2004, but STIS was successfully repaired in May 2009 during Service Mission 4 (SM4) allowing it to resume science observations. The Instrument team continues to monitor its performance and work towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updated information on the status of the FUV and NUV MAMA and the CCD detectors onboard STIS and describe recent changes to the STIS calibration pipeline. We also discuss the status of efforts to apply a pixel-based correction for charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) effects to STIS CCD data. These techniques show promise for ameliorating the effects of ongoing radiation damage on the quality of STIS CCD data.

  17. Resource Transfers to the Elderly: Do Adult Children Substitute Financial Transfers for Time Transfers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zissimopoulos, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Using the Health and Retirement Study, this research investigates whether an adult child substitutes financial transfers to an elderly parent for time transfers as the cost of his or her time increases...

  18. TRIUMF: Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In our occasional series highlighting the increasingly important area of technology transfer and industrial spinoff from high energy physics, this month the CERN Courier focuses on TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada's major national facility for research in subatomic physics, a particularly illustrative example of the rewards and challenges involved. TRIUMF is based on a 520 MeV negative hydrogen ion cyclotron meson factory operated by a consortium of Canadian universities. Although the primary funding from the Canadian government is earmarked for support of basic research, the laboratory has always fostered applications of the technologies available, supporting them with funds from other sources. At first this ''applied programme'' involved simply the provision of particle beams for other scientific, medical and industrial uses - protons for the development of neutrondeficient radioisotopes, neutrons for activation analysis, pions for cancer therapy, and muons for chemistry and condensed-matter physics. Twenty five years on, the technology transfer process has resulted not only in a significantly expanded internal applied programme, with many areas of activity quite independent of the big cyclotron, but also in a number of successful commercial operations in the Vancouver area. Radioisotope production has been a particularly fruitful source for technology transfer, the early development work leading to two important initiatives - the establishment of a commercial radioisotope production facility on site and the inauguration of a positron emission tomography (PET) program at the University of British Columbia nearby. In 1979 Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd's isotope production division (now Nordion International Inc.) decided to establish a western Canadian facility at TRIUMF, to produce the increasingly important neutron-deficient radioisotopes obtainable with accelerator beams, primarily for medical applications. This would complement their

  19. Enabling cleanup technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites

  20. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  1. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  2. Matching with transfer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Alvarez, R.; Velasco, V.R.; Garcia-Moliner, F.; Rodriguez-Coppola, H.

    1987-10-01

    An ABC configuration - which corresponds to various systems of physical interest, such as a barrier or a quantum well - is studied by combining a surface Green function matching analysis of the entire system with a description of the intermediate (B) region in terms of a transfer matrix in the sense of Mora et al. (1985). This hybrid approach proves very useful when it is very difficult to construct the corresponding Green function G B . An application is made to the calculation of quantised subband levels in a parabolic quantum well. Further possibilities of extension of this approach are pointed out. (author). 27 refs, 1 tab

  3. Investigating wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Stuart A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a simple set of equipment to both demonstrate and investigate this phenomenon. It presents some initial findings and aims to encourage Physics educators and their students to conduct further research, pushing the bounds of their understanding.

  4. Technology transfer and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, Graham; Thornton, Anna

    1987-01-01

    The aims of the conference were advice, assistance and action for all those with technology to licence or inventions to patent, and for people seeking financial help and advice. There was a free exchange of ideas and information. Of the forty or so papers collected together, many are concerned with the financial aspects of new ventures, others look at technology transfer from academic institutes and schemes which support technological problems. One paper on fast reactor collaboration in Europe, is indexed separately. (U.K.)

  5. Introduction to heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Heat may be defined as that form of energy which spontaneously flows between two bodies, or two regions of a body, by virtue of a temperature difference. The second law of thermodynamics tells us that we cannot have heat flow from a low temperature to high temperature without doing work. Heat flows spontaneously from a high temperature to a low temperature region. Thermodynamics, which is concerned with equilibrium states, cannot tell us anything about the rate of heat flow in the presence of a finite temperature difference. It is to the discipline of heat transfer to which we must turn for this answer

  6. Nanostructure and Properties of Corrosion Resistance in C+Ti Multi-Ion-Implanted Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通和; 吴瑜光; 刘安东; 张旭; 王晓妍

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance of C+ Ti dual and C+Ti+C ternary implanted H13 steel were studied by using a multi-sweep cyclic voltammetry and a scanning electron microscope. The effects of phase formation on corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance were explored. The x-ray diffraction analysis shows that the nanometer-sized precipitate phases consist of compounds of Fe2 Ti, TiC, Fe2C and Fe3 C in dual implanted layer and even in ternary implanted layer. The passivation layer consists of these nanometer phases. It has been found that the corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance of dual and ternary implanted H13 steel are improved extremely. The corrosion resistance of ternary implanted layer is better than that of dual implantations and is enhanced with the increasing ion dose. When the ion dose of Ti is 6 × 1017/cm2 in the ternary implantation sample, the anodic peak current density is 95 times less than that of the H13 steel. The pitting corrosion potential of dual and ternary implantation samples is in the range from 55mV to 160mV which is much higher than that of the H13 steel. The phases against the corrosion and pitting corrosion are nanometer silkiness phases.

  7. The ground calibration of X-ray CCD cameras (XIS) with front-illuminated chips onboard Astro-E2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho Kitashirakawa Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: Nakajima@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho Kitashirakawa Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Matsumoto, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho Kitashirakawa Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsuru, T.G. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho Kitashirakawa Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Koyama, K. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho Kitashirakawa Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kissel, S. [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); LaMarr, B. [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Bautz, M. [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    We report on the results of the ground calibration of Astro-E2 XIS with front-illuminated (FI) chips. The sensors have basically the same performance as that of Astro-E XIS. However, there are some improved points: (1) A {sup 55}Fe radio isotope is equipped on the door and (2) the capability for charge injection (CI) has been added. We measured the gain, energy resolution, and quantum efficiency (QE) of the FI sensors as a function of energy by using characteristic X-rays for each sensor. An energy resolution of 130 eV at 5.9 keV in FWHM and a QE of 52% at 8.6 keV are achieved. After XIS is launched, the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) will increase due to radiation damage by cosmic rays. Then XIS is equipped with the CI capability to calibrate and compensate for the increase in CTI. We estimate the time variability in the amount of the injected charge.

  8. Transfer Learning beyond Text Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang

    Transfer learning is a new machine learning and data mining framework that allows the training and test data to come from different distributions or feature spaces. We can find many novel applications of machine learning and data mining where transfer learning is necessary. While much has been done in transfer learning in text classification and reinforcement learning, there has been a lack of documented success stories of novel applications of transfer learning in other areas. In this invited article, I will argue that transfer learning is in fact quite ubiquitous in many real world applications. In this article, I will illustrate this point through an overview of a broad spectrum of applications of transfer learning that range from collaborative filtering to sensor based location estimation and logical action model learning for AI planning. I will also discuss some potential future directions of transfer learning.

  9. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  10. International nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, P.; Rocchio, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Light water reactors (LWRs), originally developed in the United States, became the nuclear workhorses for utilities in Europe and Japan largely because the U.S. industry was willing and able to transfer its nuclear know-how abroad. In this international effort, the industry had the encouragement and support of the U.S. governement. In the case of the boiling water reactor (BWR) the program for technology transfer was developed in response to overseas customer demands for support in building local designs and manufacturing capabilities. The principal vehicles have been technology exchange agreements through which complete engineering and manufacturing information is furnished covering BWR systems and fuel. Agreements are held with companies in Germany, Japan, Italy, and Sweden. In recent years, a comprehensive program of joint technology development with overseas manufacturers has begun. The rapidly escalating cost of nuclear research and development make it desirable to minimize duplication of effort. These joint programs provide a mechanism for two or more parties jointly to plan a development program, assign work tasks among themselves, and exchange test results. Despite a slower-than-hoped-for start, nuclear power today is playing a significant role in the economic growth of some developing countries, and can continue to do so. Roughly half of the 23 free world nations that have adopted LWRs are developing countries

  11. aerodynamics and heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Rajadas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary optimization procedure, with the integration of aerodynamic and heat transfer criteria, has been developed for the design of gas turbine blades. Two different optimization formulations have been used. In the first formulation, the maximum temperature in the blade section is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint is imposed on the blade average temperature and a lower bound constraint is imposed on the blade tangential force coefficient. In the second formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. In both formulations, bounds are imposed on the velocity gradients at several points along the surface of the airfoil to eliminate leading edge velocity spikes which deteriorate aerodynamic performance. Shape optimization is performed using the blade external and coolant path geometric parameters as design variables. Aerodynamic analysis is performed using a panel code. Heat transfer analysis is performed using the finite element method. A gradient based procedure in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique is used for optimization. The results obtained using both optimization techniques are compared with a reference geometry. Both techniques yield significant improvements with the multiobjective formulation resulting in slightly superior design.

  12. Technology transfer at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.

    1994-06-01

    TRIUMF is Canada's major national research centre for sub-atomic physics. For the past five or six years, there has been an increasing emphasis on commercializing the technology that has emanated from the scientific research at the facility. This emphasis on technology transfer reflects a national policy trend of the Canadian federal government, which is the funding source for the majority of the research performed at TRIUMF. In TRIUMF's case, however, the initiative and funding for the commercialization office came from the provincial, or local government. This paper will describe the evolution of technology transfer at the TRIUMF facility, identifying the theory, policies and practical procedures that have been developed and followed. It will also include TRIUMF's experiences in finding exploitable technologies, protecting those technologies, and locating and linking with suitable industry partners to commercialize the technologies. There will be a discussion of resource allocation, and how TRIUMF has endeavoured to establish a portfolio of projects of assorted risks and expected returns. (author). 15 refs

  13. High performance data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R.; Fang, C.; Hanushevsky, A.; Kreuger, W.; Yang, W.

    2017-10-01

    The exponentially increasing need for high speed data transfer is driven by big data, and cloud computing together with the needs of data intensive science, High Performance Computing (HPC), defense, the oil and gas industry etc. We report on the Zettar ZX software. This has been developed since 2013 to meet these growing needs by providing high performance data transfer and encryption in a scalable, balanced, easy to deploy and use way while minimizing power and space utilization. In collaboration with several commercial vendors, Proofs of Concept (PoC) consisting of clusters have been put together using off-the- shelf components to test the ZX scalability and ability to balance services using multiple cores, and links. The PoCs are based on SSD flash storage that is managed by a parallel file system. Each cluster occupies 4 rack units. Using the PoCs, between clusters we have achieved almost 200Gbps memory to memory over two 100Gbps links, and 70Gbps parallel file to parallel file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  14. The expert meeting dedicated to the discussion of results of a local open-label multicenter observational study of the efficiency and safety of tofacitinib in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with the inefficiency of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and to the elaboration of recommendations for the use for tofacitinib in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The expert meeting dedicated to the discussion of results of a local open-label multicenter observational study of the efficiency and safety of tofacitinib in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with the inefficiency of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and to the elaboration of recommendations for the use for tofacitinib in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  16. Heat transfer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviany, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    This graduate textbook describes atomic-level kinetics (mechanisms and rates) of thermal energy storage, transport (conduction, convection, and radiation), and transformation (various energy conversions) by principal energy carriers. The approach combines the fundamentals of molecular orbitals-potentials, statistical thermodynamics, computational molecular dynamics, quantum energy states, transport theories, solid-state and fluid-state physics, and quantum optics. The textbook presents a unified theory, over fine-structure/molecular-dynamics/Boltzmann/macroscopic length and time scales, of heat transfer kinetics in terms of transition rates and relaxation times, and its modern applications, including nano- and microscale size effects. Numerous examples, illustrations, and homework problems with answers that enhance learning are included. This new edition includes applications in energy conversion (including chemical bond, nuclear, and solar), expanded examples of size effects, inclusion of junction quantum tr...

  17. HEAT TRANSFER METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

    1960-08-30

    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  18. Heat transfer probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  19. Managerial technology transfer

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Organisations need to think globally, but act locally - with a full appreciation of the diversity of local cultures. Major global companies must recognise that policies need to be managed with the broad context of business strategy and integrated into the work culture with the support of all elements of human resources management. Most currently, companies are accommodating national cultural differences while preserving work culture principals that encourage people to effectively execute the company's strategic objectives. Even to the casual observer, it is apparent that culture- a society's programming of the mind- has both a pervasive and changing influence on each national business environment. Global managers must recognise the influence of culture and be prepared to either respond to it or change it. This book examines current research in the study of managerial technology transfer.

  20. Knowledge Transfer Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Simard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article décrit un modèle visant à faciliter la compréhension du processus de transfert du contenu depuis sa source jusqu’à son utilisation. Un groupe de travail de Ressources naturelles Canada a étudié la nature du transfert des savoirs à l’aide d’un modèle de services, afin de découvrir et comprendre les modèles et processus sous-jacents. Les services de savoir sont des programmes qui créent et fournissent des produits organisationnels basés sur un contenu et ayant une valeur intégrée. Ces programmes sont destinés à être utilisés en interne ou transférés pour répondre aux souhaits et besoins d’un utilisateur externe. Les critères de conception du modèle sont les suivants : indépendance par rapport au contenu, concentration sur l’organisation, évolutivité, deux pilotes et deux niveaux de résolution. Le modèle est basé sur une chaîne de valeur dans laquelle la valeur est intégrée, déplacée ou extraite. Un système de services de savoir se divise en neuf étapes : générer, transformer, gérer, utiliser en interne, transférer, ajouter de la valeur, utiliser professionnellement, utiliser personnellement et évaluer. Les services de savoir sont fournis par l’intermédiaire d’un spectre de distribution allant de complexe à accessible. À chaque région du spectre de distribution correspond une série d’attributs qui influencent la manière dont les services sont fournis.This paper describes a model intended to increase understanding of how content is transferred from its source to its use. A Natural Resources Canada task group explored the nature of knowledge transfer with a services paradigm to discover and understand underlying patterns and processes. Knowledge Services are programs that produce and pro-vide content-based organizational outputs with embedded value that are intended to be used internally or transferred to meet external user wants or needs. Model design criteria

  1. Transfer Pricing and FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia-Sabina Macelaru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available FDI analysis is usually performed within the frame of the win-win hypothesis. However, we believe that certain circumstances (MNEs following their own business objectives, lack of appropriate regulations, non-observance of the arm’s length principle may generate disproportionate advantages at the level of FDI stakeholders. The disequilibrium between reinvested profits and repatriated profits may be viewed as a proof of such disproportionate advantages of stakeholders involved in FDI. In addition to figures showing the comparison between reinvested and repatriated profits, as well as the way in which such indicators vary e.g. in case of abnormal business conditions (global economy collapse, we try to show that lack/misuse of transfer pricing regulations may generate even more disequilibrium, the MNEs using intra-group transactions as an additional way of repatriating non-taxable/low tax profits.

  2. Technology transfer packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizon, G.A.; Bleasdale, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is firmly established in many developed countries'energy policies and is being adopted by emerging nations as an attractive way of gaining energy self sufficiency. The early users of nuclear power had to develop the technology that they needed, which now, through increasing world wide experience, has been rationalised to meet demanding economic and environmental pressures. These justifiable pressures, can lead to existing suppliers of nuclear services to consider changing to more appropriate technologies and for new suppliers to consider licensing proven technology rather then incurring the cost of developing new alternatives. The transfer of technology, under license, is made more straight forward if the owner conveniently groups appropriate technology into packages. This paper gives examples of 'Technology Packages' and suggests criteria for the specification, selection and contractual requirements to ensure successful licensing

  3. Technology transfer 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.

  4. Spectral energy transfer of atmospheric gravity waves through sum and difference nonlinear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K.M. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Chinese Academey of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment; Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Liu, A.Z.; Li, Z. [Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Nonlinear interactions of gravity waves are studied with a two-dimensional, fully nonlinear model. The energy exchanges among resonant and near-resonant triads are examined in order to understand the spectral energy transfer through interactions. The results show that in both resonant and near-resonant interactions, the energy exchange between two high frequency waves is strong, but the energy transfer from large to small vertical scale waves is rather weak. This suggests that the energy cascade toward large vertical wavenumbers through nonlinear interaction is inefficient, which is different from the rapid turbulence cascade. Because of considerable energy exchange, nonlinear interactions can effectively spread high frequency spectrum, and play a significant role in limiting wave amplitude growth and transferring energy into higher altitudes. In resonant interaction, the interacting waves obey the resonant matching conditions, and resonant excitation is reversible, while near-resonant excitation is not so. Although near-resonant interaction shows the complexity of match relation, numerical experiments show an interesting result that when sum and difference near-resonant interactions occur between high and low frequency waves, the wave vectors tend to approximately match in horizontal direction, and the frequency of the excited waves is also close to the matching value. (orig.)

  5. Overcoming the Cut-Off Charge Transfer Bandgaps at the PbS Quantum Dot Interface

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala'a O.

    2015-11-17

    Light harvesting from large size of semiconductor PbS quantum dots (QDs) with a bandgap of less than 1 eV is one of the greatest challenges precluding the development of PbS QD-based solar cells because the interfacial charge transfer (CT) from such QDs to the most commonly used electron acceptor materials is very inefficient, if it occurs at all. Thus, an alternative electron-accepting unit with a new driving force for CT is urgently needed to harvest the light from large-sized PbS QDs. Here, a cationic porphyrin is utilized as a new electron acceptor unit with unique features that bring the donor–acceptor components into close molecular proximity, allowing ultrafast and efficient electron transfer for QDs of all sizes, as inferred from the drastic photoluminescence quenching and the ultrafast formation of the porphyrin anionic species. The time-resolved results clearly demonstrate the possibility of modulating the electron transfer process between PbS QDs and porphyrin moieties not only by the size quantization effect but also by the interfacial electrostatic interaction between the positively charged porphyrin and the negatively charged QDs. This approach provides a new pathway for engineering QD-based solar cells that make the best use of the diverse photons making up the Sun\\'s broad irradiance spectrum.

  6. On the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer in dense molecular environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benten, Rebekka S. von [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet Goettingen, Tammannstrasse 6, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Abel, Bernd, E-mail: Bernd.Abel@uni-lepzig.de [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Leipzig, Linne-Strasse 2, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-12-09

    Graphical abstract: Mechanisms of IVR in multi-tiers of intramolecular energy levels in different molecular environments are investigated. - Abstract: Transient femtosecond-IR-pump-UV-absorption probe-spectroscopy has been employed to shed light on the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer (IVR) in dense molecular environments ranging from the diluted gas phase to the liquid. A general feature in our experiments and those of others is that IVR proceeds via multiple timescales if overtones or combination vibrations of high frequency modes are excited. It has been found that collisions enhance IVR if its (slower) timescales can compete with collisions. This enhancement is, however, much more weaker and rather inefficient as opposed to the effect of collisions on intermolecular energy transfer which is well known. In a series of experiments we found that IVR depends not significantly on the average energy transferred in a collision but rather on the number of collisions. The collisions are much less efficient in affecting IVR than VET. We conclude that collision induced broadening of vibrational energy levels reduces the energy gaps and enhances existing couplings between tiers. The present results are an important step forward to rationalize and understand apparently different and not consistent results from different groups on different molecular systems between gas and liquid phases.

  7. Overcoming the Cut-Off Charge Transfer Bandgaps at the PbS Quantum Dot Interface

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala'a O.; Alarousu, Erkki; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Amassian, Aram; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-01-01

    Light harvesting from large size of semiconductor PbS quantum dots (QDs) with a bandgap of less than 1 eV is one of the greatest challenges precluding the development of PbS QD-based solar cells because the interfacial charge transfer (CT) from such QDs to the most commonly used electron acceptor materials is very inefficient, if it occurs at all. Thus, an alternative electron-accepting unit with a new driving force for CT is urgently needed to harvest the light from large-sized PbS QDs. Here, a cationic porphyrin is utilized as a new electron acceptor unit with unique features that bring the donor–acceptor components into close molecular proximity, allowing ultrafast and efficient electron transfer for QDs of all sizes, as inferred from the drastic photoluminescence quenching and the ultrafast formation of the porphyrin anionic species. The time-resolved results clearly demonstrate the possibility of modulating the electron transfer process between PbS QDs and porphyrin moieties not only by the size quantization effect but also by the interfacial electrostatic interaction between the positively charged porphyrin and the negatively charged QDs. This approach provides a new pathway for engineering QD-based solar cells that make the best use of the diverse photons making up the Sun's broad irradiance spectrum.

  8. Dual Space Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.

    2009-03-01

    Over the past fifteen years, MER has had several NASA SBIR Phase II programs in the area of space technology, based upon carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. In addition, in November 2004, leading edges supplied by MER provided the enabling technology to reach a Mach 10 record for an air breathing engine on the X-43 A flight. The MER business model constitutes a spin-off of technologies initially by incubating in house, and ultimately creating spin-off stand alone companies. FMC was formed to provide for technology transfer in the area of fabrication of C-C composites. FMC has acquired ISO 9000 and AS9100 quality certifications. FMC is fabricating under AS9100 certification, flight parts for several flight programs. In addition, FMC is expanding the application of carbon-carbon composites to several critical military programs. In addition to space technology transfer to critical military programs, FMC is becoming the world leader in the commercial area of low-cost C-C composites for furnace fixtures. Market penetrations have been accomplished in North America, Europe and Asia. Low-cost, quick turn-around and excellent quality of FMC products paves the way to greatly increased sales. In addition, FMC is actively pursuing a joint venture with a new partner, near closure, to become the leading supplier of high temperature carbon based composites. In addition, several other spin-off companies such as TMC, FiC, Li-Tech and NMIC were formed by MER with a plethora of potential space applications.

  9. Transfer of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuckovich, M.; Burkett, J. P.; Sallustio, J.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor are transferred during fueling or refueling or the like by a crane. The work-engaging fixture of the crane picks up an assembly, removes it from this slot, transfers it to the deposit site and deposits it in its slot at the deposit site. The control for the crane includes a strain gauge connected to the crane line which raises and lowers the load. The strain gauge senses the load on the crane. The signal from the strain gauge is compared with setpoints; a high-level setpoint, a low-level setpoint and a slack-line setpoint. If the strain gauge signal exceeds the high-level setpoint, the line drive is disabled. This event may occur during raising of a fuel assembly which encounters resistance. The high-level setpoint may be overridden under proper precautions. The line drive is also disabled if the strain gauge signal is less than the low-level setpoint. This event occurs when a fuel assembly being deposited contacts the bottom of its slot or an obstruction in, or at the entry to the slot. To preclude lateral movement and possible damage to a fuel assembly suspended from the crane line, the traverse drive of the crane is disabled once the strain-gauge exceets the lov-level setpoint. The traverse drive can only be enabled after the strain-gauge signal is less than the slack-line set-point. This occurs when the lines has been set in slack-line setting. When the line is tensioned after slack-li ne setting, the traverse drive remains enabled only if the line has been disconnected from the fuel assembly

  10. Technology transfer from nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A number of processes, components and instruments developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, (BARC), Bombay, find application in industry and are available for transfer to private or public sector undertakings for commercial exploitation. The Technology Transfer Group (TTG) constituted in January 1980 identifies such processes and prototypes which can be made available for transfer. This catalogue contains brief descriptions of such technologies and they are arranged under three groups, namely, Group A containing descriptions of technologies already transferred, Group B containing descriptions of technologies ready for transfer and Group C containing descriptions of technology transfer proposals being processed. The position in the above-mentioned groups is as on 1 March 1989. The BARC has also set up a Technology Corner where laboratory models and prototypes of instruments, equipment and components are displayed. These are described in the second part of the catalogue. (M.G.B.)

  11. DNA Sequences Proximal to Human Mitochondrial DNA Deletion Breakpoints Prevalent in Human Disease Form G-quadruplexes, a Class of DNA Structures Inefficiently Unwound by the Mitochondrial Replicative Twinkle Helicase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Sommers, Joshua A.; Zhou, Jun; Kaplan, Daniel L.; Spelbrink, Johannes N.; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Brosh, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA deletions are prominent in human genetic disorders, cancer, and aging. It is thought that stalling of the mitochondrial replication machinery during DNA synthesis is a prominent source of mitochondrial genome instability; however, the precise molecular determinants of defective mitochondrial replication are not well understood. In this work, we performed a computational analysis of the human mitochondrial genome using the “Pattern Finder” G-quadruplex (G4) predictor algorithm to assess whether G4-forming sequences reside in close proximity (within 20 base pairs) to known mitochondrial DNA deletion breakpoints. We then used this information to map G4P sequences with deletions characteristic of representative mitochondrial genetic disorders and also those identified in various cancers and aging. Circular dichroism and UV spectral analysis demonstrated that mitochondrial G-rich sequences near deletion breakpoints prevalent in human disease form G-quadruplex DNA structures. A biochemical analysis of purified recombinant human Twinkle protein (gene product of c10orf2) showed that the mitochondrial replicative helicase inefficiently unwinds well characterized intermolecular and intramolecular G-quadruplex DNA substrates, as well as a unimolecular G4 substrate derived from a mitochondrial sequence that nests a deletion breakpoint described in human renal cell carcinoma. Although G4 has been implicated in the initiation of mitochondrial DNA replication, our current findings suggest that mitochondrial G-quadruplexes are also likely to be a source of instability for the mitochondrial genome by perturbing the normal progression of the mitochondrial replication machinery, including DNA unwinding by Twinkle helicase. PMID:25193669

  12. Prospects for Money Transfer Models

    OpenAIRE

    Yougui Wang; Ning Ding; Ning Xi

    2005-01-01

    Recently, in order to explore the mechanism behind wealth or income distribution, several models have been proposed by applying principles of statistical mechanics. These models share some characteristics, such as consisting of a group of individual agents, a pile of money and a specific trading rule. Whatever the trading rule is, the most noteworthy fact is that money is always transferred from one agent to another in the transferring process. So we call them money transfer models. Besides e...

  13. Transfer maps and projection formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuada, Goncalo

    2010-01-01

    Transfer maps and projection formulas are undoubtedly one of the key tools in the development and computation of (co)homology theories. In this note we develop an unified treatment of transfer maps and projection formulas in the non-commutative setting of dg categories. As an application, we obtain transfer maps and projection formulas in algebraic K-theory, cyclic homology, topological cyclic homology, and other scheme invariants.

  14. Energy transfer properties and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since no single experimental technique is the best method for energy transfer experiments, we have used both time-dependent infrared fluorescence (IRF) and time-dependent thermal lensing (TDTL) to study energy transfer in various systems. We are investigating pump-probe techniques employing resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). IRF was used to study benzene, azulene, and toluene. TDTL was used to study CS 2 and SO 2 (data not given for latter). Large molecule energy transfer mechanisms are discussed. 10 figs

  15. ASPECTS REGARDING THE SHARE TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cojocaru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its content, the memorandum of association, even in the case of a limited liability company, stipulates the contribution of each shareholder to the share capital while the share capital is divided into shares, corresponding to the contribution of each shareholder to the share capital. The limited liability company is established in consideration of the people who set it up and as such, the share transfer is subject to certain conditions provided by law. Therefore, the law sets out strict conditions for share transfer in the case the transfer is done to one or more shareholders, but especially if the transfer is done to people outside the company, or following the inheritance. If the transfer is done to a shareholder, such is possible provided that this transfer has not been prohibited by the act of incorporation itself. Instead, the transfer to people outside the company cannot be done without the cons ent of shareholders representing at least three quarters of the capital. In case of share transfer by succession, the law allows it provided that this transfer is permitted within the memorandum of association .

  16. Utrecht Radiative Transfer Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Utrecht course ``The Generation and Transport of Radiation'' teaches basic radiative transfer to second-year students. It is a much-expanded version of the first chapter of Rybicki & Lightman's ``Radiative Processes in Astrophysics''. After this course, students understand why intensity is measured per steradian, have an Eddington-Barbier feel for optically thick line formation, and know that scattering upsets LTE. The text is a computer-aided translation by Ruth Peterson of my 1992 Dutch-language course. My aim is to rewrite this course in non-computer English and make it web-available at some time. In the meantime, copies of the Peterson translation are made yearly at Uppsala -- ask them, not me. Eventually it should become a textbook. The Utrecht course ``Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres'' is a 30-hour course for third-year students. It treats NLTE line formation in plane-parallel stellar atmospheres at a level intermediate between the books by Novotny and Boehm-Vitense, and Mihalas' ``Stellar Atmospheres''. After this course, students appreciate that epsilon is small, that radiation can heat or cool, and that computers have changed the field. This course is web-available since 1995 and is regularly improved -- but remains incomplete. Eventually it should become a textbook. The three Utrecht exercise sets ``Stellar Spectra A: Basic Line Formation'', ``Stellar Spectra B: LTE Line Formation'', and ``Stellar Spectra C: NLTE Line Formation'' are IDL-based computer exercises for first-year, second-year, and third-year students, respectively. They treat spectral classification, Saha-Boltzmann population statistics, the curve of growth, the FAL-C solar atmosphere model, the role of H-minus in the solar continuum, LTE formation of Fraunhofer lines, inversion tactics, the Feautrier method, classical lambda iteration, and ALI computation. The first two sets are web-available since 1998; the third will follow. Acknowledgement. Both courses owe much to previous

  17. A statewide teleradiology system reduces radiation exposure and charges in transferred trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Justin J J; Moren, Alexis; Diggs, Brian; Houser, Ben; Eastes, Lynn; Brand, Dawn; Bilyeu, Pamela; Schreiber, Martin; Kiraly, Laszlo

    2016-05-01

    Trauma transfer patients routinely undergo repeat imaging because of inefficiencies within the radiology system. In 2009, the virtual private network (VPN) telemedicine system was adopted throughout Oregon allowing virtual image transfer between hospitals. The startup cost was a nominal $3,000 per hospital. A retrospective review from 2007 to 2012 included 400 randomly selected adult trauma transfer patients based on a power analysis (200 pre/200 post). The primary outcome evaluated was reduction in repeat computed tomography (CT) scans. Secondary outcomes included cost savings, emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), and spared radiation. All data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. P less than .05 indicated significance. Spared radiation was calculated as a weighted average per body region, and savings was calculated using charges obtained from Oregon Health and Science University radiology current procedural terminology codes. Four-hundred patients were included. Injury Severity Score, age, ED and overall LOS, mortality, trauma type, and gender were not statistically different between groups. The percentage of patients with repeat CT scans decreased after VPN implementation: CT abdomen (13.2% vs 2.8%, P < .01) and cervical spine (34.4% vs 18.2%, P < .01). Post-VPN, the total charges saved in 2012 for trauma transfer patients was $333,500, whereas the average radiation dose spared per person was 1.8 mSV. Length of stay in the ED for patients with Injury Severity Score less than 15 transferring to the ICU was decreased (P < .05). Implementation of a statewide teleradiology network resulted in fewer total repeat CT scans, significant savings, decrease in radiation exposure, and decreased LOS in the ED for patients with less complex injuries. The potential for health care savings by widespread adoption of a VPN is significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    -part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area. In a synergistic add-on to our workplan, we analyzed data from field experiments performed at the DOE Naturita Site under a separate DOE SBR grant, on which PI Day-Lewis served as co-PI. Techniques developed for application to Hanford datasets also were applied to data from Naturita. 1. Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) faces enormous scientific and engineering challenges associated with the remediation of legacy contamination at former nuclear weapons production facilities. Selection, design and optimization of appropriate site remedies (e.g., pump-and-treat, biostimulation, or monitored natural attenuation) requires reliable predictive models of radionuclide fate and transport; however, our current modeling capabilities are limited by an incomplete understanding of multi-scale mass transfer—its rates, scales, and the heterogeneity of controlling parameters. At many DOE sites, long “tailing” behavior, concentration rebound, and slower-than-expected cleanup are observed; these observations are all consistent with multi-scale mass transfer [Haggerty and Gorelick, 1995; Haggerty et al., 2000; 2004], which renders pump-and-treat remediation and biotransformation inefficient and slow [Haggerty and Gorelick, 1994; Harvey et al., 1994; Wilson, 1997]. Despite the importance of mass transfer, there are significant uncertainties associated with controlling parameters, and the prevalence of mass transfer remains a point of debate [e.g., Hill et al., 2006; Molz et al., 2006] for lack of experimental methods to verify and measure it in situ or independently of tracer breakthrough. There is a critical need for new field-experimental techniques to

  19. The block transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradish, G.J. III; Reid, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The central instrumentation control and data acquisition (CICADA) computer system is comprised of a functionally distributed hierarchical network of thirteen (13) 32-bit mini-computers that are the heart of the control, monitoring, data collection and data analysis for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). The CICADA system was designed with the goal of providing complete control, monitoring, and data acquisition for TFTR, which includes the acquisition and storage of 20M points of data within a five-minute shot cycle. It was realized early in the system design that in order to meet this goal an ancillary system would have to be provided to supplement the subsystem CAMAC systems that, due to the relatively slow throughput of the serial highways and the overhead of relaying data to the central facilities within a star network, would not provide the necessary throughput. The authors discuss how the block transfer system provided a means of moving data directly from the CAMAC crate to the application running on the central facility computers

  20. Heat transfer and fire spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal E. Anderson

    1969-01-01

    Experimental testing of a mathematical model showed that radiant heat transfer accounted for no more than 40% of total heat flux required to maintain rate of spread. A reasonable prediction of spread was possible by assuming a horizontal convective heat transfer coefficient when certain fuel and flame characteristics were known. Fuel particle size had a linear relation...

  1. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Dieguez Arias, D; Campana, S; Keeble, O; Magini, N; Molnar, Z; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Salichos, M; Tuckett, D; Flix, J; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Uzhinsky, A; Wildish, T

    2012-01-01

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being re-used. The paper describes the architecture of the Global Transfer monitoring system, the implementation of its components and the first prototype.

  2. Strammere retningslinjer om transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2015-01-01

    Transfer pricing vedrører prisfastsættelsen på transaktioner, der foregår mellem koncernforbundne selskaber og er fortsat et tema, der nyder stort fokus hos både multinationale koncerner og skattemyndigheder. For den multinationale koncern er transfer pricing i høj grad en aktivitet, der består i...

  3. Proton transfer events in GFP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Donato, M.; van Wilderen, L.J.G.W.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Cohen Stuart, T.A.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Proton transfer is one of the most important elementary processes in biology. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) serves as an important model system to elucidate the mechanistic details of this reaction, because in GFP proton transfer can be induced by light absorption. Illumination initiates proton

  4. Transfer mellem uddannelse og arbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Rapporten sammenfatter eksisterende forskning om faktorer, der bidrager til transfer, altså faktorer som bidrager til, at det, vi lærer i undervisningen, efterfølgende anvendes i en arbejdssituation. Forskningsoversigten præsenterer emririsk funderede resultater om, hvad vi ved om transfer. Den t...

  5. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  6. Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, Bogdan; Musial-Gabrys, Katarzyna; Roach, Jim; Innovation through Knowledge Transfer InnovationKT-2012

    2013-01-01

    Across the world there is growing awareness of the importance of innovation and knowledge transfer.  Innovation in the sense of generating new knowledge and making better use of existing knowledge, coupled with knowledge transfer and sharing paradigms, have never been more relevant to the universities, industry, commerce and the third sector.  This volume represents the proceedings of the Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012 Conference which formed an excellent opportunity to disseminate, share and discuss the impact of innovation, knowledge sharing, enterprise and entrepreneurship.  The volume contains papers presented at a Workshop on ‘The Meta Transfer of Knowledge: Challenges in the Transfer of Knowledge in Industry’, others from thematic sessions on ‘Next-Practice in University Based Open Innovation’,  ‘Social Innovation and Related Paradigms’, ‘Engagement with Industry and Commerce’ and ‘Knowledge Exchange’.  All papers were thoroughly reviewed by referees knowledgeable in...

  7. Involuntary transfer of Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed habiba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available IPR owners have a right about voluntary transfer but sometimes Intellectual property right transfer by force and thus, there are challenge that this article regard for its. IPR shall be devolved to their legitimate heirs after their death unless, owner indicate otherwise in their wills. The heirs have the exclusive right to exercise economic and moral rights, they decide upon publication of the work and in general do every exploitation. But, they shall exercise The decisive manner that IPR of holder intended before his death. On other hand, IPR may be liable to seizure or IPR have been used in mortgage loan. Thus they can be transfer to new person.Here, we regard to Involuntary transfer.This article highlight subject of involuntary transfer and analysis on aspects

  8. Cash transfers and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidrobo, Melissa; Fernald, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuel pin transfer tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel pin transfer tool has a latching device of the collet type attached to a first member movable vertically through a long work stroke enabling a fuel pin in an under water assembly to be engaged and withdrawn therefrom or placed therein and released. The latching device has a collet provided with a plurality of resilient fingers having cam portions normally spaced apart to receive the upper end of a fuel pin between them and a second member, movable vertically through a short stroke relative to the first member is provided with cam portions engageable with those of the fingers and is yieldably and resiliently held in a raised position in which its cam portions engage those of the fingers and force the fingers into their pin-gripping positions. When a predetermined force is applied to the second member, it is so moved that its cam portions are disengaged from the cam portions of the fingers permitting the latter to move into their normal relationship in which a gripped pin is released or another pin received but with their pin-gripping relationship positively re-established and maintained once the force on the tubular member is lessened. Movement of the first member in either direction and movement of the second member into its raised position is attended by forces inadequate to affect the integrity of fuel pin cladding. That force is applied in the preferred embodiment, by a power operated actuator which is within the upper portion of a housing and, in the preferred embodiment, carried by the long stroke member but always in the upper housing portion which is of a material sufficiently translucent to enable the actuator to be observed throughout the work stroke and is sufficiently light in weight to prevent the tool from being top heavy

  10. Numerical investigation of heat transfer and entropy generation of laminar flow in helical tubes with various cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfers of helical coiled tube with several cross section profiles are evaluated. • Helical tubes offer higher heat transfer and lower entropy generation. • Square cross-section generates the highest entropy, followed by ellipse and circular. • Study could serve as a guideline in designing an efficient helical tube heat exchanger. - Abstract: This study evaluates heat transfer performance and entropy generation of laminar flow in coiled tubes with various cross-sections geometries i.e. circular, ellipse and square, relatives to the straight tubes of similar cross-sections. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed and validated against empirical correlations. Good agreement is obtained within range of Reynolds and Dean numbers considered. Effect of geometry, wall temperature, Reynolds number and heating/cooling mode were examined. To evaluate the heat transfer performance of the coiled tube configurations, a parameter referred as Figure of Merit (FoM) is defined as the ratio heat transfer rate to the required pumping power. In addition, exergy analysis is carried out to examine the inefficiency of the coiled tube configurations. The results indicate that coiled tubes provide higher heat transfer rate. In addition, it was found to be more efficient as reflected by lower entropy generation as compared to straight tubes. Among the studied cross-section, square cross-section generates the highest entropy, followed by ellipse and circular counterpart. Entropy production from heat transfer contribution is two order-of-magnitude higher than that of entropy contribution from viscous dissipation. Cooling case produces slightly higher entropy than heating counterpart. Finally, this study can provide practical guideline to design more efficient coiled heat exchanger.

  11. Experimental studies on heat transfer and thermal performance characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heating system with helical and Left-Right twisted tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Conventional solar heaters are inefficient due to poor convective heat transfer. → Twisted tapes improve the heat transfer rate in solar water heater system. → Increase in outlet water temperature by 15 o C through the use of twisted tapes. →Thermal performance of twisted tape collector is 19% more than plain tube system. → Reduces collector area (0.6 m 2 ) whereas area for conventional collector is 1 m 2 . -- Abstract: Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with helical and Left-Right twist of twist ratio 3 has been performed and presented. The helical twisted tape induces swirl flow inside the riser tubes unidirectional over the length. But, in Left-Right system the swirl flow is bidirectional which increases the heat transfer and pressure drop when compared to the helical system. The experimental heat transfer and friction factors characteristics are validated with theoretical equations and the deviation falls with in the acceptable limits. The results show that heat transfer enhancement in twisted tape collector is higher than the plain tube collector. Compared to helical and Left-Right twisted tape system of same twist ratio 3, maximum thermal performance is obtained for Left-Right twisted tape collector with increase in solar intensity.

  12. Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougouffa, Smail; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four-qubit system and we demonstrate the conditions under which the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of non-zero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. Complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes, with transfer to the other pairs being limited to 50%. We find that complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of qubits may take place if the initial state is not the maximally entangled state and the atoms couple to the cavity modes with unequal strengths. Depending on the ratio between the coupling strengths, optimal entanglement can be created between the atoms and one of the cavity modes.

  13. Transfer Pricing - An Innovative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona MAXIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents transfer pricing and elements of drafting the transfer pricing file by the big companies. The transfer pricing procedure was founded based upon Order no. 442/2016 and the Fiscal Procedure Code and it represents a method upon which the tax base is transferred from a high tax country to a country with low taxation. This legislation outlines the conditions which companies must observe in order to draft the transfer pricing documentation and the significance thresholds. The purpose to draft a transfer pricing file is to reduce the differences between prices and market value and the actual results of company taxation. Economic double taxation occurs when tax authorities apply price adjustments because the company did not respect the principle of market value. Keeping records of transfer pricing and practicing a price aligned to market requirements contribute to an understanding of business development and the creation of appropriate tax planning. Taking into account all these aspects and the fact that any taxpayer is tempted to pay the lowest possible fees, tax havens become an option. In this context we can speak of a tax haven as a loophole in the use of the market price.

  14. Debugging data transfers in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, G; Belforte, S; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bonacorsi, D; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Hernandez, J; D'Hondt, J; Maes, J; Kadastik, M; Klem, J; Kodolova, O; Kuo, C-M; Letts, J; Magini, N; Metson, S; Piedra, J; Pukhaeva, N; Tuura, L

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment at CERN is preparing for LHC data taking in several computing preparation activities. In early 2007 a traffic load generator infrastructure for distributed data transfer tests was designed and deployed to equip the WLCG tiers which support the CMS virtual organization with a means for debugging, load-testing and commissioning data transfer routes among CMS computing centres. The LoadTest is based upon PhEDEx as a reliable, scalable data set replication system. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) task force was created to coordinate the debugging of the data transfer links. The task force aimed to commission most crucial transfer routes among CMS tiers by designing and enforcing a clear procedure to debug problematic links. Such procedure aimed to move a link from a debugging phase in a separate and independent environment to a production environment when a set of agreed conditions are achieved for that link. The goal was to deliver one by one working transfer routes to the CMS data operations team. The preparation, activities and experience of the DDT task force within the CMS experiment are discussed. Common technical problems and challenges encountered during the lifetime of the taskforce in debugging data transfer links in CMS are explained and summarized.

  15. The development of nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nack-chung Sung

    1987-01-01

    Korea, as a recipient of nuclear technology transfer, has good experience of progressively building up its indigeneous capability of nuclear technology through three stages of technology transfer, namely: technology transfer under the turnkey approach, component approach, and integrated technology transfer with a local prime contractor. Here, each stage of experience of technology transfer, with Korea as a recipient, is presented. (author)

  16. Coherently Enhanced Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnok, Alex; Baranov, Denis G.; Generalov, Andrey; Li, Sergey; Alu, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Extraction of electromagnetic energy by an antenna from impinging external radiation is at the basis of wireless communications and power transfer (WPT). The maximum of transferred energy is ensured when the antenna is conjugately matched, i.e., when it is resonant and it has an equal coupling with free space and its load, which is not easily implemented in near-field WPT. Here, we introduce the concept of coherently enhanced wireless power transfer. We show that a principle similar to the on...

  17. Nucleon transfer between heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Oertzen, W.

    1984-02-01

    Nucleon transfer reactions between heavy nuclei are characterized by the classical behaviour of the scattering orbits. Thus semiclassical concepts are well suited for the description of these reactions. In the present contribution the characteristics of single and multinucleon transfer reactions at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier are shown for systems like Sn+Sn, Xe+U and Ni+Pb. The role of the pairing interaction in the transfer of nucleon pairs is illustrated. For strong transitions the coupling of channels and the absorption into more complicated channels is taken into account in a coupled channels calculation

  18. Transfer your ideas to society!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology labs are the ideal places for developing innovative solutions. However, inventors sometimes don’t realize that their ideas can find an application in industry, which can in turn have a technical and economic impact on society. Some researchers may think that disclosing an invention is a time-consuming process which is worth doing only in very special cases. But one thing is certain: it is always worth informing the Knowledge and Technology Transfer group, as they will give you the correct advice and support. Don’t be afraid of the paperwork… it can be highly rewarding!   Why should researchers at CERN bother to disclose their inventions to the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Group first? “Because when inventors do so, a process to transfer the technology to industry is set in motion” explains Henning Huuse, Patent Portfolio Manager in the KTT Group. To facilitate this transfer, patent protection can be a useful tool. &...

  19. Technology transfer: The CANDU approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    The many and diverse technologies necessary for the design, construction licensing and operation of a nuclear power plant can be efficiently assimilated by a recipient country through an effective technology transfer program supported by the firm long term commitment of both the recipient country organizations and the supplier. AECL's experience with nuclear related technology transfer spans four decades and includes the construction and operation of CANDU plants in five countries and four continents. A sixth country will be added to this list with the start of construction of two CANDU 6 plants in China in early 1997. This background provides the basis for addressing the key factors in the successful transfer of nuclear technology, providing insights into the lessons learned and introducing a framework for success. This paper provides an overview of AECL experience relative to the important factors influencing technology transfer, and reviews specific country experiences. (author)

  20. 76 FR 44761 - Remittance Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... of the Dodd-Frank Act by explicitly referencing remittance transfers services. The amendment to FCU... NCUA issues a final rule as defined by Section 551 of the APA. 5 U.S.C. 551. NCUA has requested a...

  1. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  2. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  3. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Flight Demonstration development has been canceled in favor of a ground test bed development for of passive/active cryogenic propellant storage, transfer, and...

  4. Styring af international transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuther, Peter; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2011-01-01

    Nærværende artikel introducerer international transfer pricing, dels som et skatteretligt fænomen og dels som et værktøj til planlægning og økonomisk styring af koncernforbundne selskaber i en multinational virksomhed (MNV). Med udgangspunkt i en case-analyse af MNV’en gives der et konkret eksempel...... på hvordan transfer pricing håndteres i praksis. Artiklens formål er at give et praktisk eksempel på at transfer pricing handler om at efterleve regler, ikke omgå dem. På baggrund af case-analysen argumenteres der for, at såvel akademikere som praktikere bør tage virksomhedens tilgang til...... international transfer pricing i betragtning, når økonomiske styringssystemer i en MNV skal anvendes til planlægning og opfølgning....

  5. Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) is a mechanism with which EPA can patent its inventions and license them to companies, through which innovative technologies can enter the marketplace to improve the environment and human health.

  6. Experimental Evidence on Transfer Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Quoc H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We use incentivized economics experiments to test both the point predictions and comparative static predictions of optimal transfer pricing models, comparing behavior under varying conditions, including wholly versus partially-owned subsidiaries and different tariff and tax rates. As predicted, we find that transfer prices are responsive to relative tax and tariff rates as well as ownership proportions. Additionally, we examine convergence and learning in this setting. While individuals do not choose optimal transfer prices, their choices converge to optimal levels with experience. This paper thus makes two important contributions. First, by comparing behavior with theoretical predictions it provides evidence of whether (and when individuals set transfer prices optimally. Second, by comparing behavior under conditions of full and partial ownership it provides evidence on the impact of policy interventions (like regulating ownership proportions by MNEs on tax revenues.

  7. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1991-04-25

    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.

  8. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  9. To transfer or not to transfer? Kinematics and laterality quotient predict interlimb transfer of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefumat, Hannah Z; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Miall, R Chris; Cole, Jonathan; Buloup, Frank; Bringoux, Lionel; Bourdin, Christophe; Sarlegna, Fabrice R

    2015-11-01

    Humans can remarkably adapt their motor behavior to novel environmental conditions, yet it remains unclear which factors enable us to transfer what we have learned with one limb to the other. Here we tested the hypothesis that interlimb transfer of sensorimotor adaptation is determined by environmental conditions but also by individual characteristics. We specifically examined the adaptation of unconstrained reaching movements to a novel Coriolis, velocity-dependent force field. Right-handed subjects sat at the center of a rotating platform and performed forward reaching movements with the upper limb toward flashed visual targets in prerotation, per-rotation (i.e., adaptation), and postrotation tests. Here only the dominant arm was used during adaptation and interlimb transfer was assessed by comparing performance of the nondominant arm before and after dominant-arm adaptation. Vision and no-vision conditions did not significantly influence interlimb transfer of trajectory adaptation, which on average was significant but limited. We uncovered a substantial heterogeneity of interlimb transfer across subjects and found that interlimb transfer can be qualitatively and quantitatively predicted for each healthy young individual. A classifier showed that in our study, interlimb transfer could be predicted based on the subject's task performance, most notably motor variability during learning, and his or her laterality quotient. Positive correlations suggested that variability of motor performance and lateralization of arm movement control facilitate interlimb transfer. We further show that these individual characteristics can predict the presence and the magnitude of interlimb transfer of left-handers. Overall, this study suggests that individual characteristics shape the way the nervous system can generalize motor learning. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Avoiding the Freudian Trap of Sexual Transference and Countertransference in Psychodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual transference and countertransference can make therapy slow and inefficient when libidinous gratification becomes more important for both the patient and the therapist than real therapeutic progress. Sexual transference is normal when working with a patient's repressed sexuality, but the therapeutic rule of not touching often hinders the integration of sexual traumas, as this needs physical holding. So the patient is often left with sexual, Oedipal energies projected onto the therapist as an “idealized father” figure. The strong and lasting sexual desire for the therapist without any healing taking place can prolong therapy for many years, as it often does in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. We call this problem “Freud's Trap”. Freud used intimate bodywork, such as massage, in the beginning of his career, but stopped, presumably for moral and political reasons. In the tradition of psychoanalysis, touch is therefore not allowed. Recent research in clinical holistic medicine (CHM, salutogenesis, and sexual healing has shown that touch and bodywork (an integral part of medicine since Hippocrates are as important for healing as conversational therapy. CHM allows the patient to regress spontaneously to early sexual and emotional traumas, and to heal the deep wounds on body, soul, and sexual character from arrested psychosexual development. CHM treats sexuality in therapy more as the patient’s internal affair (i.e., energy work and less as a thing going on between the patient and the therapist (i.e., transference. This accelerates healing, and reduces sexual transference and the need for mourning at the end of therapy.

  11. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Avoiding the Freudian Trap of Sexual Transference and Countertransference in Psychodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2008-01-01

    Sexual transference and countertransference can make therapy slow and inefficient when libidinous gratification becomes more important for both the patient and the therapist than real therapeutic progress. Sexual transference is normal when working with a patient's repressed sexuality, but the therapeutic rule of not touching often hinders the integration of sexual traumas, as this needs physical holding. So the patient is often left with sexual, Oedipal energies projected onto the therapist as an “idealized father” figure. The strong and lasting sexual desire for the therapist without any healing taking place can prolong therapy for many years, as it often does in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. We call this problem “Freud's Trap”. Freud used intimate bodywork, such as massage, in the beginning of his career, but stopped, presumably for moral and political reasons. In the tradition of psychoanalysis, touch is therefore not allowed. Recent research in clinical holistic medicine (CHM), salutogenesis, and sexual healing has shown that touch and bodywork (an integral part of medicine since Hippocrates) are as important for healing as conversational therapy. CHM allows the patient to regress spontaneously to early sexual and emotional traumas, and to heal the deep wounds on body, soul, and sexual character from arrested psychosexual development. CHM treats sexuality in therapy more as the patient’s internal affair (i.e., energy work) and less as a thing going on between the patient and the therapist (i.e., transference). This accelerates healing, and reduces sexual transference and the need for mourning at the end of therapy. PMID:18454245

  12. Knowledge transfer and expatriation in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    Research on multinational corporation (MNC) knowledge transfer has argued continuously for the behavior of knowledge senders to be a determinant of knowledge transfer. Although the importance of disseminative capacity regarding knowledge transfer has been illustrated in numerous conceptual studies...

  13. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  14. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  15. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: Infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the 'Hayflick limit'. However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to 'passage' a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the 'passage' of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels

  16. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the "Hayflick limit". However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to "passage" a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the "passage" of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels.

  17. Debugging Data Transfers in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bagliesi, G; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bonacorsi, D; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Hernandez, J; D'Hondt, J; Kadastik, M; Klem, J; Kodolova, O; Kuo, C M; Letts, J; Maes, J; Magini, N; Metson, S; Piedra, J; Pukhaeva, N; Tuura, L; Sonajalg, S; Wu, Y; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Wurthwein, F

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment at CERN is preparing for LHC data taking in several computing preparation activities. In early 2007 a traffic load generator infrastructure for distributed data transfer tests called the LoadTest was designed and deployed to equip the WLCG sites that support CMS with a means for debugging, load-testing and commissioning data transfer routes among CMS computing centres. The LoadTest is based upon PhEDEx as a reliable, scalable data set replication system. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) task force was created to coordinate the debugging of the data transfer links. The task force aimed to commission most crucial transfer routes among CMS sites by designing and enforcing a clear procedure to debug problematic links. Such procedure aimed to move a link from a debugging phase in a separate and independent environment to a production environment when a set of agreed conditions are achieved for that link. The goal was to deliver one by one working transfer routes to the CMS data operations team...

  18. Net-based data transfer and automatic image fusion of metabolic (PET) and morphologic (CT/MRI) images for radiosurgical planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Przetak, C.; Schmuecking, M.; Klener, G.; Surber, G.; Hamm, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The main purpose of radiosurgery in comparison to conventional radiotherapy of brain tumors is to reach a higher radiation dose in the tumor and sparing normal brain tissue as much as possible. To reach this aim it is crucial to define the target volume extremely accurately. For this purpose, MRI and CT examinations are used for radiotherapy planning. In certain cases, however, metabolic information obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) may be useful to achieve a higher therapeutic accuracy by sparing important brain structures. This can be the case, i.e. in low grade astrocytomas for exact delineation of vital tumor as well as in differentiating scaring tissue from tumor recurrence and edema after operation. For this purpose, radiolabeled aminoacid analogues (e.g. C-11 methionine) and recently O-2-[ 18 F] Fluorethyl-L-Tyrosin (F-18 FET) have been introduced as PET tracers to detect the area of highest tumor metabolism which allows to obtain additional information as compared to FDG-PET that reflects the local glucose metabolism. In these cases, anatomical and metabolic data have to be combined with the technique of digital image fusion to exactly determine the target volume, the isodoses and the area where the highest dose has to be applied. Materials: We have set up a data transfer from the PET Center of the Zentralklinik Bad Berka with the Department of Stereotactic Radiation at the Helios Klinik Erfurt (distance approx. 25 km) to enable this kind of image fusion. PET data (ECAT EXACT 47, Siemens/CTI) are transferred to a workstation (NOVALIS) in the Dept. of Stereotactic Radiation to be co-registered with the CT or MRI data of the patient. All PET images are in DICOM format (obtained by using a HERMES computer, Nuclear Diagnostics, Sweden) and can easily be introduced into the NOVALIS workstation. The software uses the optimation of mutual information to achieve a good fusion quality. Sometimes manual corrections have to be performed to get an

  19. Radiation and combined heat transfer in channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamonis, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents numerical methods of calculation of radiative and combined heat transfer in channel flows of radiating as well as nonradiating media. Results obtained in calculations for flow conditions of combustion products from organic fuel products are given and methods used in determining the spectral optical properties of molecular gases are analyzed. The book presents applications of heat transfer in solving problems. Topic covered are as follows: optical properties of molecular gases; transfer equations for combined heat transfer; experimental technique; convective heat transfer in heated gas flows; radiative heat transfer in gaseous media; combined heat transfer; and radiative and combined heat transfer in applied problems

  20. Federal Technology Transfer Act Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) partnerships demonstrate the many advantages of technology transfer and collaboration. EPA and partner organizations create valuable and applicable technologies for the marketplace.

  1. Mobilizing the Private Sector for Adaptation Finance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... sector financing could be mobilized for climate change adaptation projects in the same ... the research in collaboration with the Frankfurt Business School and existing CTI PFAN ... International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer.

  2. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Transfer matrix method for four-flux radiative transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovick, Brian; Flom, Zachary; Zipp, Lucas; Krishnamurthy, Srini

    2017-07-20

    We develop a transfer matrix method for four-flux radiative transfer, which is ideally suited for studying transport through multiple scattering layers. The model predicts the specular and diffuse reflection and transmission of multilayer composite films, including interface reflections, for diffuse or collimated incidence. For spherical particles in the diffusion approximation, we derive closed-form expressions for the matrix coefficients and show remarkable agreement with numerical Monte Carlo simulations for a range of absorption values and film thicknesses, and for an example multilayer slab.

  4. Wireless power transfer: control algorithm to transfer the maximum power

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Urbano, Javier Arturo

    2016-01-01

    This job is developed as part of “Health aware enhanced range wireless power transfer systems", known as ETHER. It is a cooperation project where Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña (UPC) research groups are mainly involved. ETHER objective is to develop a wireless power transfer system for medical applications, specifically a pacemaker charger to improve patient’s lifestyle decreasing the number of required operations to replace pacemaker batter...

  5. CANISTER TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Gorpani

    2000-01-01

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane hoist,; DC--loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the; DC--is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the; DC--to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister

  6. Canister Transfer System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane/hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  7. Radioactivity transfer to animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Information on the behaviour of strontium, caesium, ruthenium, plutonium and americium in a range of domestic animals is reviewed to form a basis for the specification of time-dependent mathematical models describing uptake, distribution and retention in various domestic animals. Transfer factors relating concentration in animal product to daily radioactivity intake are derived after 100 d continuous intake and at equilibrium. These transfer factors are compared with the available published literature and used as a basis for the derivation of feedingstuff conversion factors relating limiting concentrations in animal feedingstuffs to limiting concentrations in human foodstuffs for application to animals receiving commercial feedingstuffs after a nuclear accident. Recommended transfer factors for animal products in conditions of continuous discharge and models for application to field conditions after a nuclear accident are also presented. Transfer of caesium to animal products is more effective than that for the other elements considered here. Transfer to meat of lamb, fattening pig, and chickens is generally more effective than that for other animals and other products

  8. Delaminated Transfer of CVD Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Alexis; Mao, Jinhai; Tilak, Nikhil; Altvater, Michael; Andrei, Eva

    Single layer graphene is commonly synthesized by dissociation of a carbonaceous gas at high temperatures in the presence of a metallic catalyst in a process known as Chemical Vapor Deposition or CVD. Although it is possible to achieve high quality graphene by CVD, the standard transfer technique of etching away the metallic catalyst is wasteful and jeopardizes the quality of the graphene film by contamination from etchants. Thus, development of a clean transfer technique and preservation of the parent substrate remain prominent hurdles to overcome. In this study, we employ a copper pretreatment technique and optimized parameters for growth of high quality single layer graphene at atmospheric pressure. We address the transfer challenge by utilizing the adhesive properties between a polymer film and graphene to achieve etchant-free transfer of graphene films from a copper substrate. Based on this concept we developed a technique for dry delamination and transferring of graphene to hexagonal boron nitride substrates, which produced high quality graphene films while at the same time preserving the integrity of the copper catalyst for reuse. DOE-FG02-99ER45742, Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program.

  9. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  10. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  11. MRS transfer facility feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jowdy, A.K.; Smith, R.I.

    1990-12-01

    Under contract to the US Department of Energy, Parsons was requested to evaluate the feasibility of building a simple hot cell (waste handling) transfer facility at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) site to facilitate acceptance of spent fuel into the Federal Waste Management System starting in early 1998. The Transfer Facility was intended to provide a receiving and transfer to storage capability at a relatively low throughput rate (approximately 500 MTU/yr) and to provide the recovery capability needed on the site in the event of a transport or storage cask seal failure during a period of about two years while the larger Spent Fuel Handling Building (SFHB) was being completed. Although the original study basis postulated an incremental addition to the larger, previously considered MRS configurations, study results show that the Transfer Facility may be capable of receiving and storing spent fuel at annual rates of 3000 MTU/yr or more, making a larger fuel handling structure unnecessary. In addition, the study analyses showed that the Transfer Facility could be constructed and put into service in 15--17 months and would cost less than the previous configurations. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Reverse Knowledge Transfer in MNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    a positive correlation with the extent of reverse knowledge transfers to the parent MNE. Relying on the headquarters-subsidiary view of the MNE, we argue that, beyond a point, increasing subsidiary innovativeness will be associated with lower reverse knowledge transfers. Further, we argue......It is now well recognized that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are differentiated networks wherein subsidiaries vary in terms of their ability to create new knowledge and competencies for their parent groups. In much of this theory, it is taken for granted that subsidiary innovativeness has...... that this relationship is sensitive to the subsidiary entry mode. Using data from a sample of 293 Italian subsidiaries, we find strong support for our hypotheses. In particular, our results confirm that the effect of subsidiary innovativeness on reverse knowledge transfers displays an inverted-U shape...

  13. TRANSFER PRICES IN ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA-LAVINIA CAZACU (NEAMTU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are a delicate subject and of major importance in jurisdictions to which they belong, as they are often used as a means of exploiting tax legislation. In proceedings of tax inspection and financial control carried out by the tax authorities, a special place is occupied by the transactions between affiliated entities with Romanian companies. The purpose of the tax inspection is: combating tax evasion and tracking these transactions to be carried out at market prices. The article aims to present how transfer prices affect the value of an enterprise, but also the methodological aspects relating to tax inspection and the necessary documents in order to deciphering the mode of transfer pricing in Romania.

  14. Some Metapsychological Considerations about Transference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Guillermo Castellanos-Urrego**

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a metapsychological re-creation of transference from a conceptualization of representations as the units of psychism. Transferences have their origins in the effort of an unsatisfied libidinal investiture that continues to be active in the Unconscious, and which allows the primary process to inadvertently filter into the secondary process through a “false link”. Therefore, a current perception becomes identified with the expectative representation, which makes the individual believe that this new person will satisfy the aforementioned investiture. Transference neurosis is a psychoanalytic pillar, since only through it may one consciously and currently have access the repressed unconscious drives, a feature of childhood sexuality, and restart the psychosexual development.

  15. SERPUKHOV: UNK transfer beamline commissioned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    At the end of the 1000 hour February-March run of the 70 GeV proton synchrotron at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Serpukhov, near Moscow, the new 2.7-kilometre UNK Beam Transfer Line (BTL) was commissioned with proton beam. BTL will eventually transfer beam from the existing U70 proton accelerator to the first stage of the UNK (UNK-1, now under construction) where it will be accelerated in the 21- kilometre ring up to 600 GeV. BTL was designed for proton energies between 60 and 70 GeV, momentum spread ± 2 x 10 -3 and beam emittance 2 mm.mrad, with systems for fast ejection, beam transfer and injection into UNK-1

  16. Heat transfer from rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1977-01-01

    Artificial roughness is often used in nuclear reactors to improve the thermal performance of the fuel elements. Although these are made up of clusters of rods, the experiments to measure the heat transfer and friction coefficients of roughness are performed with single rods contained in smooth tubes. This work illustrated a new transformation method to obtain data applicable to reactor fuel elements from these annulus experiments. New experimental friction data are presented for ten rods, each with a different artificial roughness made up of two-dimensional rectangular ribs. For each rod four tests have been performed, each in a different outer smooth tube. For two of these rods, each for two different outer tubes, heat transfer data are also given. The friction and heat transfer data, transformed with the present method, are correlated by simple equations. In the paper, these equations are applied to a case typical for a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor fuel element. (orig.) [de

  17. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  18. Essentials of radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...

  19. Preferred design of transfer points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firstbrook, J

    1983-06-01

    The paper reports the results of a study carried out at MRDE on the performance of transfer points. These sites still require a considerable deployment of manpower. The investigations were divided into 3 main sections: mineral handling; chute design; belt cleaning and spillage conveying. In order to achieve a sufficient level of reliability of a transfer system, it is considered that the coal size should not be greater than 250 mm. Different designs of gravity transfer chute were studied and 3 basic designs emerged as being effective : dump chute, curved site entry, and asymmetric side entry. Selection is dependent on conveyor sizes, speeds, and mineral throughput. Individual belt cleaners are not sufficient to clean belts carrying typical run-of-mine material: two cleaners followed by a set of squeeze rollers are recommended. Several designs of spillage conveyor were investigated; at the present time the electro/hydraulic type appears to be the most satisfactory.

  20. Computer Independent Data Transfer Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Rarath

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s era, transferring data among distinct storage devices has become one of the tasks which are done most frequently. In order to make data and information omnipresent, it needs to be shared anywhere and anytime. However the reliance of user on a PC or laptop for the same is not efficient. This paper is about the innovative way to overcome this restriction. This paper discusses the development of a portable device with the use of wired and wireless communication applications to share data and information among distinct storage devices without relying on a PC or a laptop. The proposed device is compact, comprises of a touch screen, power source and is capable of transferring all types of files. Hence, it eliminates the dependence on a PC or a laptop for transferring data.

  1. Ceramics for Molten Materials Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the main issues associated with molten materials transfer and handling on the lunar surface during the operation of a hig h temperature electrowinning cell used to produce oxygen, with molten iron and silicon as byproducts. A combination of existing technolog ies and purposely designed technologies show promise for lunar exploi tation. An important limitation that requires extensive investigation is the performance of refractory currently used for the purpose of m olten metal containment and transfer in the lunar environment associa ted with electrolytic cells. The principles of a laboratory scale uni t at a scale equivalent to the production of 1 metric ton of oxygen p er year are introduced. This implies a mass of molten materials to be transferred consistent with the equivalent of 1kg regolithlhr proces sed.

  2. Technology transfer - north/south

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercan, Y [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture

    1991-01-01

    Technology transfer is needed to the developing countries in the fields of fuel, combustion equipment, and operations to maximise combustion efficiency and minimise the harmful emissions. Channels of technology transfer available include: direct foreign investment, joint ventures, patent and licence purchases, industrial co-operation and technical aid, importation of technical goods, and turn-key projects. Dependency on totally imported technology and equipment both in boilers and flue gas treatment systems, however, results in high investment costs and may limit extensive use of power plants based on coal. If technologies to improve the efficiencies and emission behaviour of coal utilizing facilities are transferred to developing countries, a business scheme mutually beneficial both to the developing countries and the coal producing countries can be reached, which will boost the industrialization of the developing countries. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Knowledge transfer and expatriation practices in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    ) the willingness ofexpatriates to transfer the knowledge they possess from the headquarters to therespective subsidiaries. By stepping on two bodies of literature, namely theknowledge transfer literature and the expatriation literature, we suggest that MNCsmay enhance the expatriates' willingness to transfer...... 92 subsidiaries of Danish MNCslocated in 11 countries.Key words: knowledge transfer, MNC, expatriation, dissemination capacity...

  4. Innovative technology transfer of nondestructive evaluation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Xiping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Technology transfer is often an afterthought for many nondestructive evaluation (NDE) researchers. Effective technology transfer should be considered during the planning and execution of research projects. This paper outlines strategies for using technology transfer in NDE research and presents a wide variety of technology transfer methods used by a cooperative...

  5. 12 CFR 205.10 - Preauthorized transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The person that obtains the authorization shall provide a copy to the consumer. (c) Consumer's right... shall inform the consumer of the right to receive notice of all varying transfers, but may give the... FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.10 Preauthorized transfers. (a) Preauthorized transfers to consumer...

  6. Software engineering technology transfer: Understanding the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1993-01-01

    Technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this report, the mechanisms developed by NASA to transfer technology are explored and the actual mechanisms used to transfer software development technologies are investigated. Time, cost, and effectiveness of software engineering technology transfer is reported.

  7. Mass transfer measurements in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, J.G.; Fournel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:This study participates to the elaboration of a method for decontamination of the inside surfaces of steel structures (pipes, tanks,...). The solution which has been chosen is to attack the surface of the structure by a dipping solution. In order to reduce the quantity of product to be recovered and treated at the end of the cleaning process, the active solution will be introduced as a foam. During its free or forced drainage the foam supplies an active liquid film along the structure surfaces. It was important to know if the transfers of the dipping liquid inside the foam and between foam and wall film are sufficient to allow a correct supplying of the active liquid at the wall and a correct dragging of the dipped products. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical model which simulates the various transfers. However such a modeling cannot be performed without a thorough knowledge of the different transfer parameters in the foam and in the film. The following study has been performed on a model foam (foaming water + air) held in a smooth vertical glass pipe and submitted to a forced drainage by the foaming water (water + surfactants). The liquid transfer involves the dispersion of the drainage liquid inside the foam and the transfer between the foam and the liquid film flowing down at the wall. The different transfers has been analyzed by NMR using a PFGSE-NMR sequence, which allows to determine the propagator, i.e., the probability density of the liquid particle displacements during a given time interval Δt, along a selected direction. This study allowed to measure, firstly, the mean liquid and the liquid dispersion in the foam along the vertical and horizontal direction, and secondly, the vertical mean velocity in the parietal liquid film. (authors)

  8. Single-embryo transfer versus multiple-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerris, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the progress made in assisted reproductive technology, live birth rates remain disappointingly low. Multiple-embryo transfer has been an accepted practice with which to increase the success rate. This has led to a higher incidence of multiple-order births compared with natural conception, which not only increase the risk of mortality and morbidity to both mother and children but are also associated with social and economic consequences. Elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) was developed in an effort to increase singleton pregnancies in assisted reproduction. Studies comparing eSET with multiple-embryo transfer highlight the benefit of this approach and suggest that, with careful patient selection and the transfer of good-quality embryos, the risk of a multiple-order pregnancy can be reduced without significantly decreasing live birth rates. Although the use of eSET has gradually increased in clinical practice, its acceptance has been limited by factors such as availability of funding and awareness of the procedure. An open discussion of eSET is warranted in an effort to enable a broader understanding by physicians and patients of the merits of this approach. Ultimately, eSET may provide a more cost-effective, potentially safer approach to patients undergoing assisted reproduction technology.

  9. Heat transfer direction dependence of heat transfer coefficients in annuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Francois P. A.; Dirker, Jaco; Meyer, Josua P.

    2018-04-01

    In this experimental study the heat transfer phenomena in concentric annuli in tube-in-tube heat exchangers at different annular Reynolds numbers, annular diameter ratios, and inlet fluid temperatures using water were considered. Turbulent flow with Reynolds numbers ranging from 15,000 to 45,000, based on the average bulk fluid temperature was tested at annular diameter ratios of 0.327, 0.386, 0.409 and 0.483 with hydraulic diameters of 17.00, 22.98, 20.20 and 26.18 mm respectively. Both heated and cooled annuli were investigated by conducting tests at a range of inlet temperatures between 10 °C to 30 °C for heating cases, and 30 °C to 50 °C for cooling cases. Of special interest was the direct measurement of local wall temperatures on the heat transfer surface, which is often difficult to obtain and evasive in data-sets. Continuous verification and re-evaluation of temperatures measurements were performed via in-situ calibration. It is shown that inlet fluid temperature and the heat transfer direction play significant roles on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient. A new adjusted Colburn j-factor definition is presented to describe the heating and cooling cases and is used to correlate the 894 test cases considered in this study.

  10. Building Fitnes for Transfer - Transfering Manufacturing Knowledge Across Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove

    2009-01-01

    A key problem of manufacturing transfer remains that it is often difficult to explain what a company really knows, or why what it does really works. Still, practice indicates that attention is focused on planning the physical move and on the knowledge associated with normal operations. Introduction...... elements of dispatching capacity and places it in a model in a broader context....

  11. Radiation transfer and stellar atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swihart, T. L.

    This is a revised and expanded version of the author's Basic Physics of Stellar Atmospheres, published in 1971. The equation of transfer is considered, taking into account the intensity and derived quantities, the absorption coefficient, the emission coefficient, the source function, and special integrals for plane media. The gray atmosphere is discussed along with the nongray atmosphere, and aspects of line formation. Topics related to polarization are explored, giving attention to pure polarized radiation, general polarized radiation, transfer in a magnetic plasma, and Rayleigh scattering and the sunlit sky. Physical and astronomical constants, and a number of problems related to the subjects of the book are presented in an appendix.

  12. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2007-01-01

    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  13. Fast transfer of shared data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, C.; Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; Jostizembski, E.; MacLeod, R.W.; Wolin, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Event Transfer system enables its users to produce events (data) and share them with other users by utilizing shared memory on either Solaris or Linux-based computers. Its design emphasizes speed, reliability, ease of use, and recoverability from crashes. In addition to fast local operation, the ET system allows network transfer of events. Using multi-threaded code based on POSIX threades and mutexes, a successful implementation was developed which allowed passing events over 500 kHz on a 4 cpu Sun workstation and 150 kHz on a dual cpu PC

  14. Radiative transfer in molecular lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Cernicharo, J.

    2001-07-01

    The highly convergent iterative methods developed by Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho (1995) for radiative transfer (RT) applications are generalized to spherical symmetry with velocity fields. These RT methods are based on Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel (GS), and SOR iteration and they form the basis of a new NLTE multilevel transfer code for atomic and molecular lines. The benchmark tests carried out so far are presented and discussed. The main aim is to develop a number of powerful RT tools for the theoretical interpretation of molecular spectra.

  15. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  16. Muon transfer to sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhauser, F.; Schneuwly, H.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic study of muon capture and muon transfer has been performed in seven different H 2 + SO 2 gas mixtures. From the single-exponential time structure of the muonic sulphur x-rays, one determines the lifetime of the μp atoms under the given experimental conditions. The reduced muon transfer rates to the sulphur dioxide molecule, deduced from these lifetimes, all agree well with each other. The muonic oxygen time spectra show an additional structure as if μp atoms of another kind were present. Comparable time structures are observed in a D 2 + SO 2 mixture. (author)

  17. Indicators for knowledge transfer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaza, L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding by knowledge transfer, the process by which the scientific knowledge generated by the R+Ds Spanish public system investigators is finally harnessed and officially used by the agents that make up the productive system, or by the administration; this project aims to offer a global view of the main scientific indicators by which said process can be analysed and in particular, of the way that some of these indicators allow us to evaluate this transfer in the case of the Spanish I+D system and in that concerning the Biotechnology sector. (Author) 12 refs

  18. Radiative transfer on discrete spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran

  19. Heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Nardini, Sergio; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-01-01

    Properties of NanofluidSamuel Paolucci and Gianluca PolitiExact Solutions and Their Implications in Anomalous Heat TransferWenhao Li, Chen Yang and Akira NakayamaMechanisms and Models of Thermal Conductivity in NanofluidsSeung-Hyun Lee and Seok Pil JangExperimental Methods for the Characterization of Thermophysical Properties of NanofluidsSergio Bobbo and Laura FedeleNanofluid Forced ConvectionGilles RoyExperimental Study of Convective Heat Transfer in NanofluidsEhsan B. Haghighi, Adi T. Utomo, Andrzej W. Pacek and Björn E. PalmPerformance of Heat Exchangers Using NanofluidsBengt Sundén and Za

  20. Macroeconomic level of technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available World practice of economic management has proved that the best indicator of competitiveness is achieved by that economic system, the economic units of which timely and adequately update the resource and technical base, thus achieving higher financial and economic indicators. Ensuring that sustainable development becomes possible due to the transfer of technological innovations, namely the diffusion from the developer to the customer on both commercial and free of charge basis. The article focuses on functioning of technology transfer at the macro level, namely the creation of its domestic models.

  1. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1995-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 4 presents the reaction mechanisms involving the movement of single electrons. This book discusses the electron transfer reactions in organic, biochemical, organometallic, and excited state systems. Organized into four chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the photochemical behavior of two classes of sulfonium salt derivatives. This text then examines the parameters that control the efficiencies for radical ion pair formation. Other chapters consider the progress in the development of parameters that control the dynamics and reaction p

  2. Evaluating disparities in the U.S. technology transfer ecosystem to improve bench to business translation [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Weis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of highly impactful technologies originated from academic research, and the transfer of inventions from academic institutions to private industry is a major driver of economic growth, and a catalyst for further discovery. However, there are significant inefficiencies in academic technology transfer. In this work, we conducted a data-driven assessment of translational activity across United States (U.S. institutions to better understand how effective universities are in facilitating the transfer of new technologies into the marketplace. From this analysis, we provide recommendations to guide technology transfer policy making at both the university and national level. Methods: Using data from the Association of University Technology Managers U.S. Licensing Activity Survey, we defined a commercialization pipeline that reflects the typical path intellectual property takes; from initial research funding to startup formation and gross income. We use this pipeline to quantify the performance of academic institutions at each step of the process, as well as overall, and identify the top performing institutions via mean reciprocal rank. The corresponding distributions were visualized and disparities quantified using the Gini coefficient. Results: We found significant discrepancies in commercialization activity between institutions; a small number of institutions contribute to the vast majority of total commercialization activity. By examining select top performing institutions, we suggest improvements universities and technology transfer offices could implement to emulate the environment at these high-performing institutions. Conclusion: Significant disparities in technology transfer performance exist in which a select set of institutions produce a majority share of the total technology transfer activity. This disparity points to missed commercialization opportunities, and thus, further investigation into the distribution of

  3. Regulation of the transfer market in professional Russian football: impact of the limit for legionaries in 2005–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya A. Andreeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the efficiency of limit for legionaries as a tool for regulating the Russian transfer market. Methods formal methods of the labor market supply and demand model combinatory analysis statistical methods. Results the article views the order of regulation of the labor relations with foreign legionaries in sports. It is defined that in most countries regulation implies limitation of the number of legionaries who can be claimed for the season or be on the field. The article analyzes the approaches to the transfer market regulation methods as well as the arguments for and against limiting the number of legionaries. Basing on the analysis of literature the author estimates the efficiency of transfer market regulating from the economics viewpoint as well as the results of sports events. The author checks the hypothesis about the inefficiency of the limit as a tool for increasing the quality of the Russian playersrsquo performance based on a number of indicators such as the inefficiency of the national teamrsquos performance number of legionaries their performance etc. The estimation was carried out on the basis of a number of theoretical models 1 model of increasing the footballersrsquo salaries 2 model of free selection of players by the coach and 3 model of quality playersrsquo selection. Basing on these models the hypothesis was disproved of the rapid ldquovictory effectrdquo from the limit ndash the first significant results of the regulation appeared in Russia not earlier than after 10 years. It is supposed that the limit can be explained by G. Akerlofrsquos model by controlling the number of legionaries it is possible to attract more qualified foreign players into the national league. Analysis of the Russian teamsrsquo experience showed that the limit has not resulted in 1 the increase of the legionariesrsquo quality of performance 2 the increase of the playing time of the Russian players on the field in the national

  4. Fouling of roughened stainless steel surfaces during convective heat transfer to aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, A.; Malayeri, M.R.; Mueller-Steinhagen, H.

    2008-01-01

    The deterioration of heat transfer performance due to fouling is the prime cause for higher energy consumption and inefficiency in many industrial heat exchangers such as those in power plants, refineries, food and dairy industries. Fouling is also a very complex process in which many geometrical, physical and operating parameters are involved with poorly understood interaction. Among them, the surface roughness is an important surface characteristic that would greatly influence crystallisation fouling mechanisms and hence deposition morphology and stickability to the surface. In this work, the effect of the surface roughness of AISI 304 BA stainless steel surfaces on fouling of an aqueous solution with inverse solubility behaviour has been investigated under convective heat transfer. Several experiments have been performed on roughened surfaces ranging from 0.18 to 1.55 μm for different bulk concentrations and heat fluxes. The EDTA titration method was used to measure the concentration of the calcium sulphate salt in order to maintain it at constant value during each fouling run. Experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient of very rough surfaces (1.55 μm) decreases more rapidly than that of 0.54 μm. Several facts contribute to this behaviour notably (1) increased of primary heterogeneous nucleation rate on the surfaces; (2) reduction of local shear stress in the valleys and (3) reduced removal rate of the crystals from the surfaces where the roughness elements protrude out of the viscous sub-layer. The results also show linear and proportional variation of the fouling rate and heat flux within the range of operating conditions. In addition, the deposition process in terms of fouling rate could only be affected at lower surface contact angles. Such results would particularly be of interest for new surface treatment technologies which aim at altering the surface texture

  5. Promoting Transfer of Ecosystems Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Sinha, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    This study examines to what extent students transferred their knowledge from a familiar aquatic ecosystem to an unfamiliar rainforest ecosystem after participating in a technology-rich inquiry curriculum. We coded students' drawings for components of important ecosystems concepts at pre- and posttest. Our analysis examined the extent to which each…

  6. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  7. Wireless Power Transfer, New Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Fawzy Mansour Al Zoreiqat

    2016-01-01

    Many configurations representing wireless power transfer have been applied for this purpose. A simple and effective circuit is used in this research that contains components which are easily located for constructing the complete suggested configuration; we were successful in using Li Fi technology in transmitting power from one side to another through air.

  8. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  9. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EARNEST, S.; KO, H.; DOCKERY, W.; PERNISI, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to perform a dynamic and static analysis on the Dry Transfer Facility, and to determine the response spectra seismic forces for the design basis ground motions. The resulting seismic forces and accelerations will be used in a subsequent calculation to complete preliminary design of the concrete shear walls, diaphragms, and basemat

  10. DESY: Technology transfer on show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    As well as exploring the unknown, fundamental physics research, with its continual demands for special conditions and precision measurements, makes special demands on frontier technology. One of the most prolific areas of this technology transfer, superconductivity and cryogenics, was highlighted by a recent exhibition at DESY organized by the International Cryogenic Engineering Committee

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals to monitor gene transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L. I.; Morin, K. W.; Knaus, E. E.

    1997-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering and molecular biology have opened the door to disease treatment by transferring genes to cells that are responsible for the pathological condition being addressed. These genes can serve to supplement or introduce the function of indigenous genes that are either inadequately expressed or that are congenitally absent in the patient. They can introduce new functions such as drug sensitization to provide a unique therapeutic target. Gene transfer is readily monitored in vitro using a range of histochemical and biochemical tests that are ''built in'' to the therapeutic gene cassette. In vivo, in situ monitoring of the gene transfer and gene expression processes can be achieved with these tests only if biopsy is possible. Scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the extent and location of gene expression, provided that an appropriate reporter gene is included in the therapeutic cassette. This overview includes a brief orientation to gene transfer therapy and is followed by a review of current approaches to gene therapy imaging. The concluding section deals with imaging based on radiolabelled nucleoside substrates for herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase, with emphasis on IVFRU, a stable potent and selective HSV-1 TK substrate developed in their laboratories

  12. Technology transfer around the corner?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, R.B.; Rowell, D.; Patchen, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will describe how the Oil and Gas industry can become involved in shaping a new national program to aid in the transfer of technology from a variety of sources to the hands of the local independents. Technology Transfer has been a ''buzzword'' in the Oil and Gas Industry for some time now. Most of them might admit that it has been more of a ''buzzword'' and less of an activity. While most of the operators in the Appalachian Basin want to apply the latest in technology to their exploration and production activities is has quite often been difficult to find the appropriate technology. The Department of Energy, realizing that much of the technology which exists involving Oil and Gas is seldom applied by those who work so hard to produce it efficiently, has instigated the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC). The PTTC will be a national ''umbrella'' organization formed by the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA), in cooperation with the state and regional oil and gas producer associations, the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGGCC), and other groups. The mission of the PTTC is to foster the effective transfer of exploration and production technology to domestic producers in all regions of the country. One of the most important functions of the program will be to provide a feedback loop so that the needs and concerns of producers can be communicated effectively to the entire research community and to the Department of Energy

  13. Placental transfer of selected radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegst, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews animal experiments carried out to determine the transfer of radiopharmaceuticals from mother to fetus. Animal data are compared to any human data available. The radiopharmaceuticals included in the discussion are Tc-99m pertechnetate, Tc-99m DTPA, Ga-67 citrate and Tl-201 chloride. (6 tab., 5 refs.)

  14. A relativistic radiation transfer benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, A.

    1988-01-01

    We use the integral form of the radiation transfer equation in an one dimensional slab to determine the time-dependent propagation of the radiation energy, flux and pressure in a collisionless homogeneous medium. First order v/c relativistic terms are included and the solution is given in the fluid frame and the laboratory frame

  15. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan

    2016-01-01

    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  16. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine

  17. DESY: Technology transfer on show

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-12-15

    As well as exploring the unknown, fundamental physics research, with its continual demands for special conditions and precision measurements, makes special demands on frontier technology. One of the most prolific areas of this technology transfer, superconductivity and cryogenics, was highlighted by a recent exhibition at DESY organized by the International Cryogenic Engineering Committee.

  18. Technology Transfer: Marketing Tomorrow's Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Erene

    1995-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and the end of the Cold War have triggered many changes in the traditional practices of U.S. industry. To effectively apply the resources available to the United States, the federal government has firmly advocated a policy of technology transfer between private industry and government labs, in this case the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin is a strong proponent of this policy and has organized technology transfer or commercialization programs at each of the NASA field centers. Here at Langley Research Center, the Technology Applications Group (TAG) is responsible for facilitating the transfer of Langley developed research and technology to U.S. industry. Entering the program, I had many objectives for my summer research with TAG. Certainly, I wanted to gain a more thorough understanding of the concept of technology transfer and Langley's implementation of a system to promote it to both the Langley community and the community at large. Also, I hoped to become more familiar with Langley's research capabilities and technology inventory available to the public. More specifically, I wanted to learn about the technology transfer process at Langley. Because my mentor is a member of Materials and Manufacturing marketing sector of the Technology Transfer Team, another overriding objective for my research was to take advantage of his work and experience in materials research to learn about the Advanced Materials Research agency wide and help market these developments to private industry. Through the various projects I have been assigned to work on in TAG, I have successfully satisfied the majority of these objectives. Work on the Problem Statement Process for TAG as well as the development of the Advanced Materials Research Brochure have provided me with the opportunity to learn about the technology transfer process from the outside looking in and the inside looking out. Because TAG covers

  19. People transfer-sinequanon for nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1977-01-01

    The main obstacles facing the developing countries which wish to adopt sophisticated nuclear technology can be the following: lack of trained personnel, lack of entrepreneurs and capital, and bureaucracy. Of these the greatest problem is undoubtedly the lack of trained manpower. Urgently required skilled manpower may be obtained through training of selected persons in foreign countries on a crash program of nuclear energy. Exchange of expertise can also take place among the developing countries themselves. Another problem particularly peculiar to the poor developing countries is the lack of entrepreneurs and capital. It therefore becomes necessary to attract entrepreneurs from abroad with all the benefit of managerial know-how and capital transfer that it entails. Exchange of scientist, teachers, managerial and administrative personnel between the developed and developing countries and also among the developing countries themselves is therefore essential for an effective transfer of nuclear technology

  20. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorpani, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed