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Sample records for transfer blastocysts reconstructed

  1. Transfer of spontaneously hatching or hatched blastocyst yields better pregnancy rates than expanded blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natachandra M Chimote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blastocyst stage embryo transfer (ET has become routine practice in recent years. However, probably due to limitations of assisted hatching techniques, expanded blastocyst transfer (EBT is still the preferred mode. Inexplicably, not much consideration has been given to spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst transfer (SHBT. Aim: This study aimed to investigate developmental potential of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst against EBT in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of 146 women undergoing their first IVF- ET cycle. SUBJECTS AND Methods: On the basis of blastocyst status, women were classified into SHBT and EBT groups. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were excluded to remove male factor bias. Implantation rate (IR, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate were the main outcome measures. Statistical Analysis: Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. Results: SHBT group showed significantly higher blastocyst formation rate (53.3 ± 17.5 vs. 43.1 ± 14.5%, P = 0.0098, top-quality blastocysts (71.8 vs. 53.7%, P = 0.0436, IR (43.6 vs. 27.9%, P = 0.0408, pregnancy rate (59.4 vs. 45.1%, P = 0.0173, and live birth rate (36.8 vs. 22.8%, P = 0.003 compared to EBT group. Multiple pregnancy rates remained comparable between the two groups. Implantation correlated strongly with top-quality blastocysts (Pearson, r = 0.4441 in SHBT group, while the correlation was nonsignificant in EBT group. Conclusion: Extending culture of expanded blastocysts by a few hours to allow transfer of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts gives higher implantation and pregnancy rates with no added risk of multiple gestations. Spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts have a better potential to implant and develop into a positive pregnancy.

  2. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes of singletons after single blastocyst transfer: is there any difference according to blastocyst morphology?

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    Bouillon, Céline; Celton, Noémie; Kassem, Sandra; Frapsauce, Cynthia; Guérif, Fabrice

    2017-08-01

    A strong correlation between blastocyst morphology and implantation has been shown by many studies. The consequences and effects of assisted reproductive techniques on children's short and long-term health have always been a source of discussion. The obstetric and perinatal outcome of singletons according to blastocyst morphology has rarely been evaluated. The aim of this observational study is to determine whether a relationship exists between blastocyst morphology and obstetric and perinatal outcomes. A total of 799 singleton clinical pregnancies were analysed after transfer of a single fresh blastocyst on day 5 between 2006 and 2013. Blastocysts were divided into four groups based on their morphology on day 5: group 1 = good morphology blastocysts; group 2 = fair morphology blastocysts; group 3 = poor morphology blastocysts and group 4 = early (B1/B2) blastocysts. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared between the four groups. After adjustment for some confounding variables, main obstetric and perinatal outcomes after transfer of blastocysts with poor morphological characteristics were not associated with increased adverse obstetric and perinatal events. Sex ratio was significantly higher in group 1 compared with groups 2, 3 and 4, and in Group 2 compared with Group 3 (P < 0.001) even after adjustment (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Embryo transfer using cryopreserved Boer goat blastocysts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of embryo cryopreservation techniques on the survivability of embryos and fertility following transfer to Boer goat does. The oestrous cycles of 27 mature recipients Boer goat does were synchronised using controlled internal drug release dispensers (CIDR's) for 16 days. At CIDR ...

  4. Numerical chromosome errors in day 7 somatic nuclear transfer bovine blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Viuff, Dorthe; Tan, Shijian

    2003-01-01

    Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona-free manipulat......Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona...... amino acids, myoinositol, sodium citrate, and 5% cattle serum in microwells for 7 days, at which time nuclei from all blastocysts were extracted and chromosome aberrations were evaluated using dual-color fluorescent in situ hybridization with bovine chromosome 6- and 7-specific probes. Five embryo clone......; the vast majority (>75%) of the abnormal nuclei were tetraploid. Completely diploid and mixoploid embryos represented 22.1 +/- 4.5% and 73.7 +/- 5.5%, respectively, of all clones. Six totally polyploid blastocysts, containing or=5N chromosome complements, respectively) between two clone families were...

  5. Single blastocyst transfer after ICSI from ejaculate spermatozoa, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)

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    Nilsson, Staffan; Waldenström, Urban; Engström, Ann-Britt; Hellberg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of IVF following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from ejaculate, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with subsequent blastocyst culture and single blastocyst transfer.

  6. Predictive value of serum HCG concentrations in pregnancies achieved after single fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer.

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    Oron, Galia; Shavit, Tal; Esh-Broder, Efrat; Weon-Young, Son; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2017-09-01

    Possible differences between serum HCG levels in pregnancies achieved after transfer of a single fresh or a vitrified-warmed blastocyst were evaluated. Out of 1130 single blastocyst transfers resulting in positive HCG results, 789 were single fresh blastocyst transfers and 341 single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfers. The initial serum HCG levels of 869 clinical intrauterine pregnancies were evaluated, 638 after the transfer of a single fresh blastocysts and 231 after the transfer of a single vitrified-warmed blastocysts. The HCG levels from cycles resulting in a clinical intrauterine pregnancy were significantly higher after the transfer of a single vitrified-warmed blastocyst (383 ± 230 IU/l) versus a fresh transfer (334 ± 192 IU/l; P = 0.01). Threshold values for predicting a clinical pregnancy for a fresh blastocyst were 111 IU/l and for a vitrified-warmed blastocyst 137 IU/l. Our study shows that the overall beta-HCG levels are comparable after the transfer of a fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst, suggesting that vitrification most probably does not affect the ability of the embryos to produce beta-HCG. This study further shows that when clinicians counsel patients, they should take into account that higher HCG levels are needed after a vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer to predict a clinical intrauterine pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Artificial cryopreserved embryo transfer cycle success depends on blastocyst developmental rate and progesterone timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozgur, Kemal; Bulut, Hasan; Berkkanoglu, Murat

    2018-01-01

    This retrospective cohort analysis compared the developmental competence of cryopreserved day-4 and 5 blastocysts, and investigated the effect of progesterone administration duration on the success of artificial frozen embryo transfers. Between October 2015 and March 2016, 868 intracytoplasmic sp...

  8. Cleavage stage versus blastocyst stage embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology.

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    Glujovsky, Demián; Farquhar, Cindy; Quinteiro Retamar, Andrea Marta; Alvarez Sedo, Cristian Roberto; Blake, Deborah

    2016-06-30

    Advances in cell culture media have led to a shift in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) practice from cleavage stage embryo transfer to blastocyst stage transfer. The rationale for blastocyst transfer is to improve both uterine and embryonic synchronicity and enable self selection of viable embryos, thus resulting in better live birth rates. To determine whether blastocyst stage (day 5 to 6) embryo transfers improve the live birth rate, and other associated outcomes, compared with cleavage stage (day 2 to 3) embryo transfers. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library; 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Bio extracts from inception to 4th April 2016. We also searched registers of ongoing trials and the reference lists of studies retrieved. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the effectiveness of blastocyst versus cleavage stage transfers. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcomes were live birth and cumulative clinical pregnancy rates. Secondary outcomes were clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, high order pregnancy, miscarriage, failure to transfer embryos, and embryo freezing. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for the main comparisons using GRADE methods. We included 27 RCTs (4031 couples or women).The live birth rate following fresh transfer was higher in the blastocyst transfer group (odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 to 1.82; 13 RCTs, 1630 women, I(2) = 45%, low quality evidence) following fresh transfer. This suggests that if 29% of women achieve live birth after fresh cleavage stage transfer, between 32% and 42% would do so after fresh blastocyst stage transfer.There was no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates per couple of cumulative pregnancy following fresh and frozen

  9. Good quality blastocyst from non-/mono-pronuclear zygote may be used for transfer during IVF.

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    Yin, Bao-Li; Hao, Hao-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wei, Duo; Zhang, Cui-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Although healthy infants have developed from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes, the transfer of embryos from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes is not recommended because there are no proper selection criteria. In the present study, we discuss how to select non- and mono-pronuclear embryos with the highest developmental potential at 19-20 hours post-insemination. We found that the percentage of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution in non-pronuclear zygotes was slightly higher than in mono-pronuclear zygotes. Non- and mono-pronuclear embryos that were at the 4-cell stage on D2 and/or at the 6- to 8-cell stage on D3 had higher incidence rates of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitutions. We also found higher incidences of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution on D6 than on D5. The results suggest that if high quality non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes develop to the 4-cell stage on D2 and the 6-to 8- cell stages on D3, along with high quality D6 blastocysts, the incidence of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution is higher.

  10. Risk of ectopic pregnancy lowest with transfer of single frozen blastocyst.

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    Li, Z; Sullivan, E A; Chapman, M; Farquhar, C; Wang, Y A

    2015-09-01

    What type of transferred embryo is associated with a lower rate of ectopic pregnancy? The lowest risk of ectopic pregnancy was associated with the transfer of blastocyst, frozen and single embryo compared with cleavage stage, fresh and multiple embryos. Ectopic pregnancy is a recognized complication following assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. It has been estimated that the rate of ectopic pregnancy is doubled in pregnancies following ART treatment compared with spontaneous pregnancies. However, it was not clear whether the excess rate of ectopic pregnancy following ART treatment is related to the underlying demographic factors of women undergoing ART treatment, the number of embryos transferred or the developmental stage of the embryo. A population-based cohort study of pregnancies following autologous treatment cycles between January 2009 and December 2011 were obtained from the Australian and New Zealand Assisted Reproduction Technology Database (ANZARD). The ANZARD collects ART treatment information and clinical outcomes annually from all fertility centres in Australia and New Zealand. Between 2009 and 2011, a total of 44 102 pregnancies were included in the analysis. The rate of ectopic pregnancy was compared by demographic and ART treatment factors. Generalized linear regression of Poisson distribution was used to estimate the likelihood of ectopic pregnancy. Odds ratios, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The overall rate of ectopic pregnancy was 1.4% for women following ART treatment in Australia and New Zealand. Pregnancies following single embryo transfers had 1.2% ectopic pregnancies, significantly lower than double embryo transfers (1.8%) (P ectopic pregnancy rate was 1.9% for pregnancies from transfers of fresh cleavage embryo, followed by transfers of frozen cleavage embryo (1.7%), transfers of fresh blastocyst (1.3%), and transfers of frozen blastocyst (0.8%). Compared with fresh blastocyst

  11. Are there ethnic differences in pregnancy rates in African-American versus white women undergoing frozen blastocyst transfers?

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    Csokmay, John M; Hill, Micah J; Maguire, Marcy; Payson, Mark D; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer pregnancy rates (PR) are lower in African-American compared with white women. Retrospective review of frozen blastocyst cycles. University-based assisted reproductive technology (ART) program. All patients who underwent a frozen blastocyst transfer between 2003 and 2008. None. Live birth rate. One hundred sixty-nine patients underwent transfer of a frozen-thawed blastocyst. African-American women had a higher incidence of leiomyoma (40% vs. 10%) and tubal and uterine factor infertility. There was no difference in the live birth rate for African-American patients (28.0%) compared with white patients (30.2%). Of the patients who underwent a frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, 58% (n=98) had their fresh, autologous IVF cycle, which produced the cryopreserved blastocyst, at Walter Reed Medical Center. A higher peak serum E2 level was noted in African-American patients (5,355 pg/mL) compared with white patients (4,541 pg/mL). During the fresh cycle, the live birth rates between African-American and white patients were significantly different at 16.7% versus 39.7%, respectively. Live birth rates after frozen blastocyst transfer are not different between African-American and white women despite a fourfold higher incidence of leiomyomas in African-American women. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Abdominal ectopic pregnancy with undetectable serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin 9 days following blastocyst transfer.

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    Irani, Mohamad; Elias, Rony T; Pereira, Nigel; Gunnala, Vinay; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2016-12-01

    With the availability of the highly sensitive β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) assays, all pregnancies, including ectopic pregnancies (EP), are expected to have detectable serum β-hCG at 4 weeks' gestation or 9 days following blastocyst transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a woman who underwent in vitro fertilization, had undetectable serum β-hCG 9 days after blastocyst transfer, and was then diagnosed with a ruptured abdominal EP and intra-abdominal bleeding 19 days later. This case highlights that the rise in serum β-hCG might be delayed in abdominal EP compared to intrauterine pregnancy. This delay should raise the suspicion for EP, thus meriting close monitoring. Moreover, in the absence of menstruation, an undetectable serum β-hCG 9 days post-blastocyst transfer should prompt β-hCG measurement in 2-3 days to avoid the misdiagnosis of an EP. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Reducing multiple pregnancy in assisted reproduction technology: towards a policy of single blastocyst transfer in younger women.

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    Kalu, E; Thum, M-Y; Abdalla, H

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the effects of single blastocyst transfer (SBT) on live birth and multiple pregnancy in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Descriptive cohort study. A London private IVF/postgraduate training unit. A total of 700 fresh and 102 frozen blastocyst cycles performed between January 2005 and December 2006. Young women aged 25-37 years and those aged 38-43 years were further divided into those who had SBT and those who received two blastocysts (double blastocyst transfer [DBT]). Live birth and multiple pregnancy rates were compared between groups. Cumulative live birth was compared between women who had DBT and those who received a SBT followed by a frozen blastocyst if the fresh cycle was unsuccessful. Live birth rate, cumulative live birth rate, multiple pregnancy rate, uptake of SBT. Among women aged 25-37 years, live birth rate following SBT was 59.0 versus 60.7% following DBT. The twin pregnancy rate in this group was 2.3 and 47.6% respectively. For women aged 38-43 years, live birth following SBT was 29.4% and multiple pregnancy rate was 33.3%. DBT in older women gave a higher live birth rate (44.3%) and a multiple pregnancy rate of 36.4%. Cumulative live birth following SBT in women aged 25-37 years was 72.8% versus 60.5% following DBT. Among the women aged 38-43 years, cumulative live birth was higher (63.3%) following DBT versus 28.6% following SBT. Single blastocyst transfer followed by transfer of a frozen blastocyst if the preceding fresh cycle was unsuccessful resulted in a better cumulative live birth and lower twin pregnancy in young women. In older women, two fresh blastocysts gave better results than one fresh followed by a frozen cycle. Older women should have the option of replacing two fresh blastocysts as this optimises their chances of taking home a baby.

  14. Development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transferred blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohmad Shah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed buffalo embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer derived blastocysts, produced by hand-guided cloning technique. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst was cut mechanically using a Microblade and cultured onto feeder cells in buffalo embryonic stem (ES cell culture medium at 38 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The stem cell colonies were characterized for alkaline phosphatase activity, karyotype, pluripotency and self-renewal markers like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-Myc, FOXD3, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and CD90. The cell lines also possessed the capability to differentiate across all the three germ layers under spontaneous differentiation conditions.

  15. Successful pregnancy following single blastocyst transfer in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvel, V Arun; Ravindran, Manipriya; Chander, Aravind; Veluswamy, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Numerous spontaneous pregnancies have been reported in renal transplant recipients; however, only a few pregnancies after the use of assisted reproductive techniques. The authors report a case of renal transplant recipient with secondary infertility who delivered a healthy baby without any complications. The report highlights the importance of minimal stimulation protocol during ovarian stimulation, single embryo transfer, and the need for multispecialty care for these patients. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present report is the first such case from India and also the second in the world to report a blastocyst transfer among renal transplant recipients.

  16. Treatment of porcine oocytes with MEM vitamins during in vitro maturation improves subsequent blastocyst development following nuclear transfer.

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    Naruse, Kenji; Quan, Yan-Shi; Choi, Su-Min; Park, Chang-Sik; Jin, Dong-Il

    2007-06-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of minimum essential medium (MEM) vitamins during in vitro maturation (IVM)/in vitro culture (IVC) of porcine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos on subsequent developmental capacity in vitro. Porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were divided into five groups, matured for 44 h in maturation medium with various concentrations of MEM vitamins (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%), and observed for maturation rate. Also, COCs were matured in NUSU-23 media without MEM vitamins for 44 h and cultured in PZM-3 media with various concentrations of MEM vitamins (0, 0.05, 0.4 and 1.0%) for 6 days following nuclear transfer. Factorial (IVM/IVC) experiments were also performed in NCSU-23 medium with or without 0.05% MEM vitamins and PZM-3 medium with or without 0.4% MEM vitamins. They were then tested by examining in vitro development of the porcine reconstructed embryos. The maturation rates of the COCs treated with the MEM vitamins did not differ significantly among the MEM vitamin-treated groups. Addition of vitamins to culture medium did not affect development of porcine reconstructed embryos in vitro. However, addition of low concentrations of MEM vitamins only to maturation medium increased (Pembryos developing into blastocysts compared with the control group. Addition of MEM vitamins to IVC medium did not enhance the developmental rate compared with the control group. Thus, addition of MEM vitamins to IVM medium could improve subsequent blastocyst development of porcine NT embryos.

  17. Numerical Chromosome Errors in Day 7 Somatic Nuclear Transfer Bovine Blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J.; VIUFF, Dorte; Tan, Shijian

    2002-01-01

    Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona-free manipulat......Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona...

  18. Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, pvitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, pVitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.

  19. An Epigenetic Modifier Results in Improved In Vitro Blastocyst production after Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan; Villemoes, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, on development of porcine cloned embryos. Our results showed that treatment of cloned embryos derived from sow oocytes with 50 nM TSA for up to 24 h after the onset of activation could...... significantly improve blastocyst yield compared to the control (46.4 ± 4.6% vs 17.7 ± 4.9% for treated and untreated embryos, respectively; p ... were tested, and for all cell lines an enhancement in blastocyst development compared to their corresponding control was observed. Our data demonstrate that TSA treatment after somatic cell nuclear transfer in the pig can significantly improve the in vitro blastocyst production...

  20. Frozen-thawed day 5 blastocyst transfer is associated with a lower risk of ectopic pregnancy than day 3 transfer and fresh transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cong; Huang, Rui; Wei, Li-Na; Jia, Lei

    2015-03-01

    To determine the ectopic pregnancy rate with fresh versus frozen-thawed embryo transfers, and factors associated with ectopic pregnancy in patients undergoing IVF-ET. Retrospective analysis. Institutional IVF center. A total of 3,183 patients who received 3,340 blastocysts transfers: 1,994 fresh transfers and 1,346 frozen-thawed transfers. Patients received fresh day 3 embryos (F-D3 group), fresh day 5 blastocysts (F-D5 group), frozen-thawed day 3 embryos (T-D3 group), or frozen-thawed day 5 or 6 blastocysts (T-D5 and T-D6 groups). Ectopic pregnancy rate. The ectopic pregnant rates were 2.4% in the F-D3 group, 1.7% in F-D5, 1.9% in T-D3, 0.3% in T-D5, and 0.5% in T-D6. The ectopic pregnant rate of the T-D3 group was significantly greater than that of the T-D5 and T-D6 groups (1.9% vs. 0.3% and 0.5%). The ectopic pregnancy rate of the F-D5 group was significantly greater than that of the T-D5 group (1.7% vs. 0.3%). Frozen-thawed day 5 blastocyst transfer is associated with a lower ectopic pregnancy rate than frozen-thawed day 3 transfer and fresh transfer in patients undergoing IVF-ET. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictive value of initial serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels for pregnancies after single fresh and frozen blastocyst transfer.

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    Zhao, Wei-E; Li, Yu-Jie; Ou, Jian-Ping; Sun, Peng; Chen, Wen-Qiu; Liang, Xiao-Yan

    2017-06-01

    As one of the earliest markers for predicting pregnancy outcomes, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) values have been inconclusive on reliability of the prediction after frozen and fresh embryo transfer (ET). In this retrospective study, patients with positive hCG (day 12 after transfer) were included to examine the hCG levels and their predictive value for pregnancy outcomes following 214 fresh and 1513 vitrified-warmed single-blastocyst transfer cycles. For patients who got clinical pregnancy, the mean initial hCG value was significantly higher after frozen cycles than fresh cycles, and the similar result was demonstrated for patients with live births (LB). The difference in hCG value existed even after adjusting for the potential covariates. The area under curves (AUC) and threshold values calculated by receiver operator characteristic curves were 0.944 and 213.05 mIU/mL for clinical pregnancy after fresh ET, 0.894 and 399.50 mIU/mL for clinical pregnancy after frozen ET, 0.812 and 222.86 mIU/mL for LB after fresh ET, and 0.808 and 410.80 mIU/mL for LB after frozen ET with acceptable sensitivity and specificity, respectively. In conclusion, single frozen blastocyst transfer leads to higher initial hCG values than single fresh blastocyst transfer, and the initial hCG level is a reliable predictive factor for predicting IVF outcomes.

  2. Coasting, embryo development and outcomes of blastocyst transfer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Chahvar, Solmas; Zosmer, Ariel; Caragia, Alina; Balestrini, Simona; Sabatini, Luca; Tranquilli, Andrea Luigi; Al-Shawaf, Talha

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the effect on blastocyst development and clinical outcome of coasting in women at increased risk of moderate-severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS; n=389) with a control group matched for age and basal FSH that did not undergo coasting (n=386) in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. The main outcome measures were rate of blastocyst development and live birth. More cycles progressed to the blastocyst stage in the coasted group (n=169) compared with the control group (n=83; 43.4% versus 21.5%; P<0.001). The biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar (46.5% versus 42.0%; 40.6% versus 37.8%; 31.6% versus 30.1%). The duration of coasting up to 4 days did not affect progression to blastocyst stage. The multivariate model showed that coasting (OR 1.73, P=0.004) and the number of oocytes retrieved (OR 1.17, P=0.001) were positively correlated with blastocyst formation. Coasting, a measure to reduce the risk of OHSS, does not impair blastocyst development or clinical outcome. Coasting should remain an effective measure to prevent OHSS. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Uncoupled embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues compromise blastocyst development after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine A Degrelle

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is the most efficient cell reprogramming technique available, especially when working with bovine species. Although SCNT blastocysts performed equally well or better than controls in the weeks following embryo transfer at Day 7, elongation and gastrulation defects were observed prior to implantation. To understand the developmental implications of embryonic/extra-embryonic interactions, the morphological and molecular features of elongating and gastrulating tissues were analysed. At Day 18, 30 SCNT conceptuses were compared to 20 controls (AI and IVP: 10 conceptuses each; one-half of the SCNT conceptuses appeared normal while the other half showed signs of atypical elongation and gastrulation. SCNT was also associated with a high incidence of discordance in embryonic and extra-embryonic patterns, as evidenced by morphological and molecular "uncoupling". Elongation appeared to be secondarily affected; only 3 of 30 conceptuses had abnormally elongated shapes and there were very few differences in gene expression when they were compared to the controls. However, some of these differences could be linked to defects in microvilli formation or extracellular matrix composition and could thus impact extra-embryonic functions. In contrast to elongation, gastrulation stages included embryonic defects that likely affected the hypoblast, the epiblast, or the early stages of their differentiation. When taking into account SCNT conceptus somatic origin, i.e. the reprogramming efficiency of each bovine ear fibroblast (Low: 0029, Med: 7711, High: 5538, we found that embryonic abnormalities or severe embryonic/extra-embryonic uncoupling were more tightly correlated to embryo loss at implantation than were elongation defects. Alternatively, extra-embryonic differences between SCNT and control conceptuses at Day 18 were related to molecular plasticity (high efficiency/high plasticity and subsequent pregnancy loss. Finally

  4. Should we consider day-2 and day-3 embryo morphology before day-5 transfer when blastocysts reach a similar good quality?

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    Herbemont, Charlene; Sarandi, Solmaz; Boujenah, Jeremy; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Sermondade, Nathalie; Vivot, Alexandre; Poncelet, Christophe; Grynberg, Michael; Sifer, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Clinical outcomes of 291 day-5 blastocyst transfers carried out between January 2012 and March 2016 were retrospectively compared according to their quality at day 2 and 3. Inclusion criteria were female age younger than 37 years; first or second IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle; quality of the transferred blastocyst: blastocoele B3 or higher; inner-cell-mass A/B; trophectoderm A/B; and known implantation outcome for each transferred blastocyst. Blastocysts were classified into good-quality and poor-quality embryo groups at day 2 and 3. Implantation (38.7% versus 41.4), clinical pregnancy (40.3% versus 45.9%), miscarriage (22.2% versus 26.7%;) and live birth rates (37.4% versus 38.8%) were comparable in day 2 good and poor-quality embryo groups. No signficiant differences in morphology of transferred blastocysts at day 3 were found. Multivariable analysis highlighted that poor or good embryo quality at day 2 and day 3 were not predictive of the implantation of good-quality blastocysts (at day 2: adjusted odds ratio = 0.82 CI 95% 0.49 to 1.38; at day 3: adjusted odds ratio = 1.39; CI 95% 0.77 to 2.52). Good-quality blastocyst transfer should, therefore, be carried out irrespective of embryo quality at cleavage stage, as it may not compromise success rates in a good-prognosis population. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrafollicular Oocyte Transfer (IFOT) of Abattoir-Derived and In Vitro-Matured Oocytes Results in Viable Blastocysts and Birth of Healthy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassens, Ana; Held, Eva; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Sieme, Harald; Wrenzycki, Christine; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Hoelker, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There are still major differences between in vitro production (IVP)-derived and in vivo-derived bovine blastocysts. Therefore, intrafollicular oocyte transfer (IFOT) was used in the present study to allow early embryonic development within the physiological oviductal environment, in order to avoid subsequent harmful effects of the in vitro culture environment. Using modified ovum pickup equipment, in vitro-matured oocytes were transferred into the preovulatory follicle of synchronized heifers (follicular recipients), enabling subsequent ovulation, in vivo fertilization, and in vivo development. When 1646 in vitro-matured oocytes were transferred to 28 follicular recipients, a total of 583 embryos (35.2%) were recovered in excess after uterine flushing at Day 7. Although numbers of generated extra embryos were highly variable, preovulatory follicles with a diameter of 13-14 mm delivered significantly (P < 0.05) larger amounts of extra embryos (34.3 vs. 7.3), as well as extra morulae and blastocysts (8.3 vs. 0.8), compared with follicles with a diameter of 9-10 mm. Nevertheless, the developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was lower in IFOT compared with in vitro-derived control (Vitro) embryos at Day 7 (8.0% vs. 36.5%). Likewise, cumulative developmental rates to the morula or blastocyst stage until Day 7 were lower in IFOT-derived embryos when related to the number of transferred (8.4% vs. 51.7%) or flushed (22.8% vs. 51.7%) embryos. Of the latter, IFOT-derived embryos yielded significantly lower cleavage rates compared with the Vitro controls (63.2% vs. 88.8%), and developmental rate to the morula or blastocyst stage were lower even when related to the proportion of cleaved embryos (36.8% vs. 58.2%). In contrast, lipid content and cryotolerance did not differ between IFOT and fully IVP embryos; but IFOT-derived embryos showed significantly lower lipid content (P < 0.05) and significantly higher cryotolerance compared with IVP-derived embryos cultured in CR1aa

  6. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  7. The accumulation of vitrified oocytes is a strategy to increase the number of euploid available blastocysts for transfer after preimplantation genetic testing

    OpenAIRE

    Chamayou, Sandrine; Sicali, Maria; Alecci, Carmelita; Ragolia, Carmen; Liprino, Annalisa; Nibali, Daniela; Storaci, Giorgia; Cardea, Antonietta; Guglielmino, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In a preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy (PGD-A) program, the more embryos available for biopsy, consequently increases the chances of obtaining euploid embryos to transfer. The aim was to increase the number of viable euploid blastocysts in patients undergoing PGD-A using fresh oocytes together with previously accumulated vitrified oocytes. Methods Sixty-nine patients with normal ovarian reserve underwent PGD-A for repeated implantation failure or recurrent pregnancy los...

  8. Monozygotic twinning after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment is not related to advanced maternal age, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, assisted hatching, or blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Wu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Until definite conclusions are drawn from larger trials, patients receiving IVF should not be overly concerned about the increase in MZT risk when proceeding to various assisted reproductive procedures (i.e., ICSI, AH, and blastocyst transfer. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of monochorionic–monoamniotic twins may be significantly increased after IVF/ICSI cycles. Patients should be informed about the possible obstetric complications regarding this rare type of MZT.

  9. In vitro fertilization outcomes after fresh and frozen blastocyst transfer in South Asian compared with Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meera Sridhar; Caballes, Marissa; Lathi, Ruth Bunker; Baker, Valerie Lynn; Westphal, Lynn Marie; Milki, Amin A

    2016-06-01

    To study pregnancy outcomes between South Asian and Caucasian women undergoing frozen blastocyst transfer cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. Caucasian and South Asian patients undergoing frozen blastocyst transfer between January 2011 and December 2014. Not applicable. Live birth rate. A total of 196 Caucasian and 117 South Asian women were included in our study. Indians were on average 2.2 years younger than Caucasian women (34.9 vs. 37.1 years), and were more likely to be nulliparous (59% vs. 43%). All other baseline characteristics were similar. In women undergoing their first frozen ET cycle, implantation rate (49% vs. 47%), clinical pregnancy rate (PR; 54% vs. 49%), and live birth rate (43% vs. 43%) were similar between South Asians and Caucasians, respectively. In patients who underwent a prior fresh blastocyst transfer, the live birth rate was significantly lower in South Asian versus Caucasian women (21% vs. 37%). Our data demonstrate that IVF outcomes are better in frozen versus fresh cycles among South Asian women. The IVF clinics may wish to consider these findings when counseling South Asian patients about the timing of ET. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytogenetic analysis of the retained products of conception after missed abortion following blastocyst transfer: a retrospective, large-scale, single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Tomoya; Kuroda, Tomoko; Kato, Keiichi; Kuroda, Masako; Omi, Kenji; Miyauchi, Osamu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisao; Teramoto, Shokichi

    2017-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of the retained products of conception (POC) is the most effective test for identifying miscarriage causes. However, there has been no large-scale study limited to blastocyst transfer. This study retrospectively reports the findings of 1030 cases in which POC analysis was performed after missed abortion following single blastocyst transfer performed at the Shinbashi Yume Clinic. We identified 19.4% as normal karyotypes and 80.6% as aneuploid. These cases broke down into: 62.3% trisomy; 7.8% double trisomy; 0.5% triple or quadruple trisomy; 1.3% monosomy 21; 3.2% monosomy X; 0.1% 47,XXY; 1.0% polyploidy; 1.0% mixed; 1.1% embryonic mosaicism; and 2.4% structural anomalies. In samples with normal karyotypes, 49.5% were female while 50.5% were male. The occurrence of trisomy and double trisomy were both significantly more frequent in the ≥38 years group than in the ≤37 years group (P < 0.01). Trisomy was significantly more frequently associated with fetal heartbeat (P < 0.01); double trisomy, polyploidy and normal karyotype were significantly more frequent with no fetal heartbeat (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities between the number of miscarriages or blastocyst quality. Thus, POC cytogenetic testing is highly valuable for ascertaining the cause of miscarriage. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HCG administration after endogenous LH rise negatively influences pregnancy rate in modified natural cycle for frozen-thawed euploid blastocyst transfer: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwicka, Katarzyna; Mencacci, Cecilia; Arrivi, Cristiana; Varricchio, Maria Teresa; Caragia, Alina; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Greco, Ermanno

    2017-11-17

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether in a modified natural cycle (modified-NC) for a frozen-thawed single euploid blastocyst transfer, a critical LH value, above which human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration should be avoided, may be defined. One hundred and sixty-seven patients underwent modified natural cycle in order to transfer a single frozen-thawed euploid blastocyst. All embryos were obtained by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and were biopsied at the blastocyst stage and analyzed by means of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Ovulation was induced using 10.000 IU hCG when the mean follicle diameter was at least of 17 mm, independently from LH values. The primary end points were the hCG-positive test and clinical pregnancy. The interim analysis showed that LH value ≥ 13 mIU/ml on the day of hCG injection may negatively influence the clinical results, suggesting that in this condition, it should be advisable waiting for spontaneous ovulation. Among patients who received hCG for ovulation induction, the hCG-positive test and clinical pregnancy rates in modified-NC were significantly lower in cycles with LH ≥ 13 mIU/ml in respect to those with LH hCG administration led to significantly lower rates of hCG-positive test (45.4 vs 74.5% in hCG administration and spontaneous ovulation groups, respectively) and clinical pregnancy (36.4 vs 64.7% in hCG administration and spontaneous ovulation groups, respectively). The baseline patient characteristics were comparable in all groups. The findings of this study highlight that LH elevation ≥ 13 mIU/ml prior to hCG administration may negatively affect clinical pregnancy rates in modified-NC for single euploid blastocyst transfer. The LH determination should be routinely performed during follicular monitoring. In the presence of LH level ≥ 13 mIU/ml, hCG administration should be avoided, and the embryo transfer should be planned only after spontaneous

  12. Development of interspecies nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed with argali (Ovis ammon) somatic cells and sheep ooplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yanli; Guo, Zhiqin; Wang, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Interspecies nuclear transfer has already achieved success in several species, which shows great potential in recovery and conservation of endangered animals. The study was conducted to establish an efficient system for in vitro argali (Ovis ammon)-sheep embryo reconstruction via interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT). The competence of domestic sheep cytoplasts to reprogram the adult argali fibroblast nuclei was evaluated, and the effects of enucleation methods and donor cell passage and cell state on the in vitro development of argali-sheep cloned embryos were also examined. Sheep oocytes could support argali and sheep fibroblast cell nuclei transfer and develop to blastocysts in vitro. Oocytes matured for 21–23 h and enucleated by chemically assisted enucleation (CAE) had a higher enucleation rate than blind enucleation (BE), but the development rate of iSCNTembryos was the same (P>0.05). Moreover, passage numbers of fibroblast cells embryos. Thus sheep cytoplasm successfully supports argali nucleus development to blastocyst stage after optimising the nuclear transfer procedure, which indicates that iSCNT can be used to conserve endangered argali in the near future.

  13. Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons (lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)). Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure.

  14. A randomized assessor-blind trial comparing highly purified hMG and recombinant FSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle with compulsory single-blastocyst transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devroey, Paul; Pellicer, Antonio; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of highly purified menotropin (hphMG) and recombinant FSH (rFSH) for controlled ovarian stimulation in a GnRH antagonist cycle with compulsory single-blastocyst transfer. DESIGN: Randomized, open-label, assessor-blind, parallel groups, multicenter......, noninferiority trial. SETTING: Twenty-five infertility centers in seven countries. PATIENT(S): Seven hundred forty-nine women. INTERVENTION(S): Controlled ovarian stimulation with hphMG or rFSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle with compulsory single-blastocyst transfer on day 5 in one fresh or subsequent frozen......MG versus 27% with rFSH for the per-protocol (PP) population and 29% versus 27% for the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Noninferiority of hphMG compared to rFSH was established. Considering frozen cycles initiated within 1 year, the cumulative live birth rate for a single stimulation cycle was 40...

  15. Bovine conceptus of Bos indicus produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis present morphological variations since the blastocyst stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In cattle, embryo development is characterized by the appearance of two distinct cell layers, the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass. The latter will undergo differentiation to form the embryonic disc consisting of the epiblast and hypoblast. The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally characterize the bovine embryo from different in vitro production techniques, with emphasis on trophectoderm and inner cell mass cells. Bovine embryos on day 7 (conception = D1 of pregnancy, derived via in vitro production techniques, were fixed for light and transmission electron microscopy processing. Results suggested that embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cells and parthenogenesis showed significant changes in macroscopic and microscopic structure. Size was reduced, and the inner cell mass had no defined shape. Furthermore, organelles responsible for the absorption processes, communication, growth, and cellular metabolism were fewer and had changes in shape, when compared to results in embryos produced by in vitrofertilization. We concluded that embryos produced by parthenogenesis and SCNT exhibit morphological differences when compared with IVF embryos, such as undeveloped blastocoel, poorly defined distribution of ICM, and morphological differences in organelles.

  16. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Hoest, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis

    2017-06-01

    This study included 238 good morphology blastocysts, which were transferred after vitrification-warming to 152 women by single blastocyst transfer in Holbæk Fertility Clinic, Denmark. Time-lapse recordings of transferred good morphology blastocysts were reassessed to recognize every abnormal cell division (ACD) from the 1st to the 4th cell cycle. ACDs were distinguished as failed cell divisions and multi-cell divisions. ACDs were recognized in 37.0% (no. 88/238) of good morphology blastocysts that were vitrified-warmed and transferred in our clinic. Good morphology blastocysts with ACDs showed a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd: 18.5%; 4th: 18.1%). More blastocysts presented failed cell divisions (no. 95) than multi-cell divisions (no. 14). Live births were achieved from blastocysts showing multi-cell divisions at any cell cycle and failed cell divisions from the 2nd cell cycle. Analyses of the subgroup of first blastocyst transferred to each patient showed similar to results. In conclusion, good morphology blastocysts presenting ACDs can result in live birth although lower compared to blastocysts with solely regular cell division. Pre-implantation embryos in vitro may undergo self-selection or correcting processes. This supports the transfer of blastocysts instead of cleavage stage embryos, giving first priority to blastocyst showing solely regular cell divisions, and giving second priority to blastocysts presenting ACDs at any cell cycle. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yuan; Shu, Yimin; Cheng, Yuan; Qiao, Jie; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2012-01-01

    Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin) in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for infertility

  18. Transferência de blastocisto após descongelamento de embriões em mórula resultando em gestação gemelar: relato de caso Twin pregnancy after thawing of morula embryos and blastocyst transfer: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo T. Albuquerque

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A criopreservação de embriões em estágios mais tardios do desenvolvimento parece apresentar resultados satisfatórios. Com o objetivo de melhor testar a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento de embriões, os mesmos foram criopreservados e descongelados em estadio de mórula ou blastocisto e deixados em cultura para que pudesse ser avaliada sua evolução natural. Dos 2 blastocistos e 5 mórulas congelados, 4 mórulas sobreviveram ao descongelamento, tendo sido transferidas em estadio de blastocisto, 24 horas depois. A transferência, realizada em paciente jovem, segundo casamento de homem vasectomizado há dez anos, resultou em gestação gemelar. O descongelamento de embriões em estadio de mórula e a observação in vitro da retomada de seu desenvolvimento até o estadio de blastocisto fornecem um parâmetro adicional na avaliação da qualidade do embrião e, provavelmente, melhore as taxas de gravidez.The cryopreservation of embryos in late developing stages seems to present satisfactory results. With the purpose of better testing the embryos' survival, they were cryopreserved in the morula or blastocyst stage, thawed and left in culture for 24 hours so that their natural evolution could be observed. Amongst the frozen 2 blastocysts and 5 morulas, 4 morulas survived the thawing process, being transferred as blastocysts 24 hours later. The transfer was performed in a young patient, second marriage of a ten-year vasectomized man and resulted in twin pregnancy. Thawing morula embryos and the in vitro observation of their development resumption until the blastocyst stage give us an additional parameter in the quality evaluation of the embryo and probably an improvement in pregnancy rates.

  19. Blastocyst cryopreservation using solid surface vitrification: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan S Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a blastocyst cryopreservation program using solid surface vitrification. Setting: This study took place in a university teaching hospital. Study Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Women undergoing frozen embryo transfer cycles over a 4-year period between 2006 and 2010 were studied. The cryopreservation policy followed was a vitrification protocol performed at the blastocyst stage, using a solid surface (nonimmersion method. The post-thaw survival rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and neonatal outcome were recorded. Results: Eighty-one women underwent 86 frozen embryo transfer cycles. Of the 240 blastocysts warmed, 204 survived giving a cryosurvival rate of 85% (204/240. The clinical pregnancy, implantation, miscarriage, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth rates per transfer were 47%, 29%, 12%, 16%, and 23% respectively. Of the 20 live births, there were 16 singletons and 4 twins. Eleven boys and 13 girls were delivered with no major or minor abnormality detected. Conclusion(s: The blastocyst vitrification protocol using the solid surface method is effective with results comparable to fresh blastocyst transfers. While retaining the rapid cooling effect, the nonimmersion technique eliminates the risk of contamination and disease transmission. Larger studies with long-term follow-up data would further confirm the efficacy and safety of this method of vitrification.

  20. Application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in equine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady ST

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a procedure used to screen in vitroproduced embryos or embryos recovered after uterine flush to determine genetic traits by DNA testing prior to transfer into the uterus. Biopsy methods to obtain a sample of cells for genetic analysis before implantation have been successful in small embryos (morulae and blastocysts 300 µm diameter. The successful biopsy of expanded equine blastocysts via micromanipulation, with subsequent normal pregnancy rates, was first reported in 2010. Direct PCR may be performed when evaluating only one gene, such as for embryo sexing, while whole genome amplification is effective for subsequent multiplex PCR of multiple genes.

  1. Blastocyst Morphology Holds Clues Concerning The Chromosomal Status of The Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Savio Figueira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embryo morphology has been proposed as an alternative marker of chromosomal status. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the association between the chromosomal status on day 3 of embryo development and blastocyst morphology. Materials and Methods: A total of 596 embryos obtained from 106 cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI followed by preimplantation genetic aneuploidy screening (PGS were included in this retrospective study. We evaluated the relationship between blastocyst morphological features and embryonic chromosomal alteration. Results: Of the 564 embryos with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH results, 200 reached the blastocyst stage on day 5 of development. There was a significantly higher proportion of euploid embryos in those that achieved the blastocyst stage (59.0% compared to embryos that did not develop to blastocysts (41.2% on day 5 (P<0.001. Regarding blastocyst morphology, we observed that all embryos that had an abnormal inner cell mass (ICM were aneuploid. Embryos with morphologically normal ICM had a significantly higher euploidy rate (62.1%, P<0.001. As regards to the trophectoderm (TE morphology, an increased rate of euploidy was observed in embryos that had normal TE (65.8% compared to embryos with abnormal TE (37.5%, P<0.001. Finally, we observed a two-fold increase in the euploidy rate in high-quality blastocysts with both high-quality ICM and TE (70.4% compared to that found in low-quality blastocysts (31.0%, P<0.001. Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities do not impair embryo development as aneuploidy is frequently observed in embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. A high-quality blastocyst does not represent euploidy of chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y. However, aneuploidy is associated with abnormalities in the ICM morphology. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether or not the transfer of blastocysts with low-quality ICM should be

  2. Fingertip Reconstruction Using Free Toe Tissue Transfer Without Venous Anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Yoon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study was designed to introduce the feasibility of toe tissue transfer without venous outflow for fingertip reconstruction.MethodsFive cases of fingertip defects were treated successfully with this method. Four cases were traumatic fingertip defects, and one case was a hook-nail deformity. The lateral pulp of a great toe or medioinferior portion of a second toe was used as the donor site. An arterial pedicle was dissected only within the digit and anastomosis was performed within 2 cm around the defect margin. The digital nerve was repaired simultaneously. No additional dissection of the dorsal or volar pulp vein was performed in either the donor or recipient sites. Other surgical procedures were performed following conventional techniques. Postoperative venous congestion was monitored with pulp temperature, color, and degree of tissue oxygen saturation. Venous congestion was decompressed with a needle-puncture method intermittently, but did not require continuous external bleeding for salvage.ResultsVenous congestion was observed in all the flaps, but improved within 3 or 4 days postoperatively. The flap size was from 1.5×1.5 cm2 to 2.0×3.0 cm2. The mean surgical time was 2 hours and 20 minutes. A needle puncture was carried out every 2 hours during the first postoperative day, and then every 4 hours thereafter. The amount of blood loss during each puncture procedure was less than 0.2 mL. In the long-term follow-up, no flap atrophy was observed.ConclusionsWhen used properly, the free toe tissue transfer without venous anastomosis method can be a treatment option for small defects on the fingertip area.

  3. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Høst, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2017-01-01

    division (ACD) from the 1st to the 4th cell cycle. ACDs were distinguished as failed cell divisions and multi-cell divisions. ACDs were recognized in 37.0% (no. 88/238) of good morphology blastocysts that were vitrified-warmed and transferred in our clinic. Good morphology blastocysts with ACDs showed...... a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd......: 18.5%; 4th: 18.1%). More blastocysts presented failed cell divisions (no. 95) than multi-cell divisions (no. 14). Live births were achieved from blastocysts showing multi-cell divisions at any cell cycle and failed cell divisions from the 2nd cell cycle. Analyses of the subgroup of first blastocyst...

  4. Calcium release and development of heat-shocked porcine oocytes after nucleus-ooplasm reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jung-Kai; Liu, Han-Ken; Lin, Tzu-An; Yang, Chun-Ru; Yang, Xiangzhong; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2009-12-01

    We determined the effect of heat shock (HS) on the alterations of development and calcium releasing capacity of nuclear-ooplasmic reconstructed porcine oocytes stimulated by thimerosal. The non-HS (39 degrees C) and the HS2h (41.5 degrees C for 2 h) matured oocytes were enucleated and their spindles/chromosomes were exchanged between these two groups followed by parthenogenetic activation. In the Control group (Csp-Coop), the non-HS spindle (Csp) was transferred to the non-HS ooplasm (Coop). Blastocyst and cleavage rates were higher in both Csp-HSoop (non-HS spindle transferred to the HS ooplasm) and HSsp-Coop (HS spindle transferred to non-HS ooplasm) reconstructed oocytes, but no difference was detected in the average cell number per blastocyst. However, intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) generally declined (p calcium release in the cloned porcine oocytes.

  5. On free jejunal and colon transfer for pharyngo-esophageal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Kiyoko; Annraku, Kuniaki; Ikenoya, Shintaro; Makino, Sachio; Ito, Kazuyuki; Takubo, Kenji; Kaji, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    Free jejunal transfer is a common procedure for hypopharyngo-esophageal reconstruction. We reviewed our experience with patients who underwent free jejunal and colon transfer surgery for hypopharyngo-esophageal reconstruction in the last 20 years in our institute. A retrospective review was conducted for 31 cases of reconstruction with free jejunal and colon transfer performed at Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital during the period of 20 years from January 1992 to December 2011. The mean age of the patients was 66 years. There were 30 patients with hypopharynx cancer and one patient with larynx cancer. Thirty patients had received preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The average time of surgery for free jejunal transfer reconstruction was 8.8 hours, including extraction of the hypopharynx, pharynx and cervical esophagus, debridment of pars hemi-cervicalis, and grafting procedure of free jejunum. The most common recipient vessels were the transverse cervical artery and external jugular vein, but recently, vessels of free flaps are often chosen to be anastomosed with the superior thyroid artery and internal jugular vein. The free jejunal and colon grafts for reconstruction took successfully in all patients. The complication rate was 52% (16/31 cases). Complications often occurred in cases of total esophagectomy, recurrence after full-dose chemoradiotherapy, and radiation therapy administered postoperatively. (author)

  6. Food Reconstruction Using Isotopic Transferred Signals (FRUITS): A Bayesian Model for Diet Reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernandes, R.; Millard, A.R.; Brabec, Marek; Nadeau, M.J.; Grootes, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2014), Art . no. e87436 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : ancienit diet reconstruction * stable isotope measurements * mixture model * Bayesian estimation * Dirichlet prior Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  7. [Distal reconstruction of the finger with a partial toe transfer in the child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, P; Leclère, F M

    2013-09-01

    Distal reconstruction of the finger or the thumb with a "custom-made" arterialized toe transfer in the child is a sophisticated operation. This operation can restore an excellent hand function and good cosmetic result with reduced morbidity at the donor site. Characteristics of these microsurgical toe transfers in the child are the potential of nerve regeneration and the conservation of a growth potential of the phalanx. We report 10 cases of reconstruction of a part of the distal finger in children (nail, pulp, bone) with a high degree of parents' satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and initial culture of porcine inner cell masses derived from in vitro-produced blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Son, H-Y; Kim, S; Lee, G-S; Park, C-H; Kang, S-K; Lee, B-C; Hwang, W-S; Lee, C-K

    2007-02-01

    The present study was conducted to isolate and culture inner cell mass (ICM) primarily derived from in vitro-produced blastocysts and to develop the culture conditions for the ICM cells. In Experiment 1, immunosurgically isolated ICMs of blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or parthenogenetic activation (PA) were seeded onto STO cells. Primary colonies from each isolated ICM were formed with a ratio of 28.9, 30.0 and 4.9%, respectively. In Experiment 2, blastocysts collected from IVF were directly seeded onto a feeder layer with or without zona pellucida (ZP), or were subjected to ICM isolation by immunosurgery. Primary colonies were formed in 36.8% of isolated ICMs and 19.4% in intact blastocysts without ZP. In Experiment 3, ICMs from IVF blastocysts were seeded onto STO cells, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) or porcine uterine epithelial cells (PUEC). On STO and MEF cells, 34.5 and 22.2% of primary colonies were formed, respectively. However, no primary colony was formed on the PUEC or in feeder-free condition. In Experiment 4, ICMs from IVF blastocysts were cultured in DMEM + Ham's F10 (D/H medium), DMEM + NCSU-23 (D/N medium) or DMEM alone. When D/H medium or D/N medium was used, 21.7 or 44.4% of primary colony were formed, respectively, while no primary colony was formed in DMEM alone. These cells showed alkaline phosphatase activity and could be maintained for up to five passages. In suspension culture, cells formed embryoid bodies. These results demonstrate that porcine ICM could be isolated and cultured primarily from in vitro-produced blastocysts with a suitable culture system.

  9. Single-stage reconstruction of flexor tendons with vascularized tendon transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, P C; Pérez-García, A; Thione, A; Lorca-García, C

    2015-03-01

    The reconstruction of finger flexor tendons with vascularized flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon grafts (flaps) based on the ulnar vessels as a single stage is not a popular technique. We reviewed 40 flexor tendon reconstructions (four flexor pollicis longus and 36 finger flexors) with vascularized FDS tendon grafts in 38 consecutive patients. The donor tendons were transferred based on the ulnar vessels as a single-stage procedure (37 pedicled flaps, three free flaps). Four patients required composite tendon and skin island transfer. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, and functional results were evaluated using a total active range of motion score. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factors that could be associated with the postoperative total active range of motion. The average postoperative total active range of motion (excluding the thumbs) was 178.05° (SD 50°). The total active range of motion was significantly lower for patients who were reconstructed with free flaps and for those who required composite tendon and skin island flap. Age, right or left hand, donor/motor tendon and pulley reconstruction had no linear effect on total active range of motion. Overall results were comparable with a published series on staged tendon grafting but with a lower complication rate. Vascularized pedicled tendon grafts/flaps are useful in the reconstruction of defects of finger flexor tendons in a single stage, although its role in the reconstructive armamentarium remains to be clearly established. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Technique tip: EDL-to-EHL double loop transfer for extensor hallucis longus reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Gonzalo F; Cuchacovich, Natalio; Schiff, Adam; Carcuro, Giovanni; Pellegrini, Manuel J

    2017-12-06

    Extensor hallucis longus (EHL) tendon injuries often occur in the setting of lacerations to the dorsum of the foot. End-to-end repair is advocated in acute lacerations, or in chronic cases when the tendon edges are suitable for tension free repair. Reconstruction with allograft or autograft is advocated for cases not amenable to a primary direct repair. This is often seen in cases with tendon retraction and more commonly in the chronic setting. In many countries the use of allograft is very limited or unavailable making reconstruction with autograft and tendon transfers the primary choice of treatment. Tendon diameter mismatch and diminished resistance are common issues in other previously described tendon transfers. We present the results of a new technique for reconstruction of non-reparable EHL lacerations in three patients using a dynamic double loop transfer of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of the second toe that addresses these issues. At one-year follow up, all patients recovered active/passive hallux extension with good functional (AOFAS Score) and satisfaction results. No reruptures or other complications were reported in this group of patients. No second toe deformities or dysfunction were reported. Second EDL-to-EHL Double Loop Transfer for Extensor Hallucis Longus reconstruction is a safe, reproducible and low-cost technique to address EHL ruptures when primary repair is not possible. IV (Case Series). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Reconstruction of complicated skull base defects utilizing free tissue transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalilian, Hamid R; Gapany, Markus; Levine, Samuel C

    2002-11-01

    We managed five patients with large skull base defects complicated by complex infections with microvascular free tissue transfer. The first patient developed an infection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and meningitis after undergoing a translabyrinthine resection of an acoustic neuroma. The second patient had a history of a gunshot wound to the temporal bone, with a large defect and an infected cholesteatoma that caused several episodes of meningitis. The third through the fifth patients had persistent CSF leakage and infection refractory to conventional therapy. In all cases prior attempts of closure with fat grafts or regional flaps had failed. Rectus abdominis myofascial free flap, radial forearm free flap or a gracilis muscle free flap was used after debridement of the infected cavities. The CSF leaks, local infections, and meningitis were controlled within a week. In our experience, microvascular free tissue provides the necessary bulk of viable, well-vascularized tissue, which not only assures a mechanical seal but also helps clear the local infection.

  12. Vitrification of bovine matured oocytes and blastocysts in a paper container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ashit Kumar; Liang, Yuanyuan; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Nagai, Takashi; Parnpai, Rangsun

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine the applicability of a paper container for the vitrification of in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes. In experiment 1, IVM oocytes were exposed to vitrification solution (20% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 20% ethylene glycol (EG), and 5 mol/L sucrose), using a two-step method, for 30 s; loaded onto either a paper container or Cryotop; and stored in liquid nitrogen. No significant difference (P container and Cryotop. In experiment 2, IVM oocytes were exposed to either a two- or three-step vitrification solution. The three-step vitrification solution was not significantly different from the two-step solution in terms of oocyte survival, cleavage and blastocyst rates. In experiment 3, in vitro produced blastocysts were graded according to the manual of the International Embryo Transfer Society (grades 1 and 2) and vitrified using the two- and three-step methods. For grade 2 blastocysts, the three-step method showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) survival and hatched blastocyst rates than the two-step method, whereas for grade 1 blastocysts, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, the paper device and three-step technique are suitable for oocytes and embryo vitrification. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. X-linked gene transcription patterns in female and male in vivo, in vitro and cloned porcine individual blastocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hun Park

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of sexual dimorphic transcription and how in vitro culture environments influence X-linked gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, we analyzed mRNA expression levels in in vivo-derived, in vitro-fertilized (IVF, and cloned porcine blastocysts. Our results clearly show that sex-biased expression occurred between female and male in vivo blastocysts in X-linked genes. The expression levels of XIST, G6PD, HPRT1, PGK1, and BEX1 were significantly higher in female than in male blastocysts, but ZXDA displayed higher levels in male than in female blastocysts. Although we found aberrant expression patterns for several genes in IVF and cloned blastocysts, similar sex-biased expression patterns (on average were observed between the sexes. The transcript levels of BEX1 and XIST were upregulated and PGK1 was downregulated in both IVF and cloned blastocysts compared with in vivo counterparts. Moreover, a remarkable degree of expression heterogeneity was observed among individual cloned embryos (the level of heterogeneity was similar in both sexes but only a small proportion of female IVF embryos exhibited variability, indicating that this phenomenon may be primarily caused by faulty reprogramming by the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT process rather than in vitro conditions. Aberrant expression patterns in cloned embryos of both sexes were not ameliorated by treatment with Scriptaid as a potent HDACi, although the blastocyst rate increased remarkably after this treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that female and male porcine blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro transcriptional sexual dimorphisms in the selected X-linked genes and compensation of X-linked gene dosage may not occur at the blastocyst stage. Moreover, altered X-linked gene expression frequently occurred in porcine IVF and cloned embryos, indicating that X-linked gene regulation is susceptible to in vitro culture and the SCNT process

  14. Mandibular reconstruction in the radiated patient: the role of osteocutaneous free tissue transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, M.J.; Manktelow, R.T.; Zuker, R.M.; Rosen, I.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses our experience with the second metatarsal and iliac crest osteocutaneous transfers for mandibular reconstruction. The prime indication for this type of reconstruction was for anterior mandibular defects when the patient had been previously resected. Midbody to midbody defects were reconstructed with the metatarsal and larger defects with the iliac crest. In most cases, an osteotomy was done to create a mental angle. The evaluation of speech, oral continence, and swallowing revealed good results in all patients unless lip or tongue resection compromised function. Facial contour was excellent in metatarsal reconstructions. The iliac crest cutaneous flap provided a generous supply of skin for both intraoral reconstruction and external skin coverage but tended to be bulky, particularly when used in the submental area. Thirty three of 36 flaps survived completely. Flap losses were due to anastomosis thrombosis (1), pedicle compression (1), and pedicle destruction during exploration for suspected carotid blowout (1). Ninety three percent of bone junctions developed a solid bony union despite the mandible having had a full therapeutic dose of preoperative radiation. Despite wound infections in 8 patients, and intraoral dehiscence with bone exposure in 12 patients, all but one of these transfers went on to good bony union without infection in the bone graft

  15. Mandibular reconstruction in the radiated patient: the role of osteocutaneous free tissue transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.J.; Manktelow, R.T.; Zuker, R.M.; Rosen, I.B.

    1985-12-01

    This paper discusses our experience with the second metatarsal and iliac crest osteocutaneous transfers for mandibular reconstruction. The prime indication for this type of reconstruction was for anterior mandibular defects when the patient had been previously resected. Midbody to midbody defects were reconstructed with the metatarsal and larger defects with the iliac crest. In most cases, an osteotomy was done to create a mental angle. The evaluation of speech, oral continence, and swallowing revealed good results in all patients unless lip or tongue resection compromised function. Facial contour was excellent in metatarsal reconstructions. The iliac crest cutaneous flap provided a generous supply of skin for both intraoral reconstruction and external skin coverage but tended to be bulky, particularly when used in the submental area. Thirty three of 36 flaps survived completely. Flap losses were due to anastomosis thrombosis (1), pedicle compression (1), and pedicle destruction during exploration for suspected carotid blowout (1). Ninety three percent of bone junctions developed a solid bony union despite the mandible having had a full therapeutic dose of preoperative radiation. Despite wound infections in 8 patients, and intraoral dehiscence with bone exposure in 12 patients, all but one of these transfers went on to good bony union without infection in the bone graft.

  16. Airway tree reconstruction in expiration chest CT scans facilitated by information transfer from corresponding inspiration scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christian; Eberlein, Michael; Beichel, Reinhard R

    2016-03-01

    Analysis and comparison of airways imaged in pairs of inspiration and expiration lung CT scans provides important information for quantitative assessment of lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, airway tree reconstruction in expiration CT scans is a challenging problem. Typically, only a low number of airway branches are found in expiration scans, compared to inspiration scans. To detect more airways in expiration CT scans, the authors introduce a novel airway reconstruction approach and assess its performance. The method requires a pair of inspiration and expiration CT scans and utilizes information from the inspiration scan to facilitate reconstructing the airway tree in the expiration lung CT scan. First, an initial airway tree (high confidence) and airway candidates (limited confidence) are reconstructed in the expiration scan by utilizing a 3D graph-based reconstruction method. Then, the 3D airway tree is reconstructed in the inspiration scan. Second, correspondences between expiration and inspiration tree structures are identified by utilizing a novel hierarchical tree matching algorithm that utilizes a local CT image-based similarity criterion. Third, the tree information from the inspiration airway tree is used to select expiration candidates, resulting in the final expiration tree structure. The approach was evaluated on a diverse set of 40 scan pairs and compared to the baseline method, which utilizes only the expiration CT scan. The proposed method produced a significant (p inspiration and expiration airway trees, which can facilitate label transfer between airway trees and quantitative assessment of change in airways. The approach can be adapted to facilitate airway reconstruction in several longitudinal lung CT scans by means of mutual information transfer.

  17. Optical properties reconstruction using the adjoint method based on the radiative transfer equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addoum, Ahmad; Farges, Olivier; Asllanaj, Fatmir

    2018-01-01

    An efficient algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the spatial distribution of optical properties in heterogeneous media like biological tissues. The light transport through such media is accurately described by the radiative transfer equation in the frequency-domain. The adjoint method is used to efficiently compute the objective function gradient with respect to optical parameters. Numerical tests show that the algorithm is accurate and robust to retrieve simultaneously the absorption μa and scattering μs coefficients for lowly and highly absorbing medium. Moreover, the simultaneous reconstruction of μs and the anisotropy factor g of the Henyey-Greenstein phase function is achieved with a reasonable accuracy. The main novelty in this work is the reconstruction of g which might open the possibility to image this parameter in tissues as an additional contrast agent in optical tomography.

  18. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Patterns of Bovine Blastocysts Developed In Vivo from Embryos Completed Different Stages of Development In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available Early embryonic loss and altered gene expression in in vitro produced blastocysts are believed to be partly caused by aberrant DNA methylation. However, specific embryonic stage which is sensitive to in vitro culture conditions to alter the DNA methylation profile of the resulting blastocysts remained unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the stage specific effect of in vitro culture environment on the DNA methylation response of the resulting blastocysts. For this, embryos cultured in vitro until zygote (ZY, 4-cell (4C or 16-cell (16C were transferred to recipients and the blastocysts were recovery at day 7 of the estrous cycle. Another embryo group was cultured in vitro until blastocyst stage (IVP. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of ZY, 4C, 16C and IVP blastocyst groups were then determined with reference to blastocysts developed completely under in vivo condition (VO using EmbryoGENE DNA Methylation Array. To assess the contribution of methylation changes on gene expression patterns, the DNA methylation data was superimposed to the transcriptome profile data. The degree of DNA methylation dysregulation in the promoter and/or gene body regions of the resulting blastocysts was correlated with successive stages of development the embryos advanced under in vitro culture before transfer to the in vivo condition. Genomic enrichment analysis revealed that in 4C and 16C blastocyst groups, hypermethylated loci were outpacing the hypomethylated ones in intronic, exonic, promoter and proximal promoter regions, whereas the reverse was observed in ZY blastocyst group. However, in the IVP group, as much hypermethylated as hypomethylated probes were detected in gene body and promoter regions. In addition, gene ontology analysis indicated that differentially methylated regions were found to affected several biological functions including ATP binding in the ZY group, programmed cell death in the 4C, glycolysis in 16C and genetic

  19. [Program optimization for bovine somatic cells nuclear transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Anmin; Ma, Xiaoling; Gao, Zhimin; Hu, Yongce; Sui, Jinqiang; Huang, Weiwei; Zan, Linsen; Dou, Zhongying

    2009-09-01

    To optimize program of bovine somatic nuclear transfer, we used two different enucleation procedures (by Spindle-view system & Hoechst 33342 staining), two different procedures to introduce donor nuclei (by ooplasm microinjection & electrofusion), and three different group electrofusion parameters (group 1: 1.9 kV/cm, 10 micros, two; group 2: 1.5 kV/cm, 25 micros, two; group 3: 0.6 kV/cm, 100 micros, one) to reconstruct bovine cloned embryos. The cleavation rates and blastocyst development rates of cloned embryos were used to assess the efficiency of different operational procedure. Finally, the best combination of operational procedure, that the spindle-viewer system was used for oocytes enucleating, and donor cell was electrofused into ooplasm by electrical pulse (1.9 kV/cm, 10 micros, two) to reconstruct bovine cloned embryos. Then the excellent blastocysts were transferred to fosters for producing cloned cattle 80 high-quality cloned blastocysts were transferred into 33 fosters, two cloned calves were produced. According to the results, the optimized program could be used to produce cloned cattle.

  20. [Transfer of trapezius muscle for reconstruction of abduction of the shoulder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, S; Fansa, H; Schneider, W

    2006-04-01

    After brachial plexus injuries, shoulder function is frequently impaired or lost. For reconstruction of the most important functions muscle transfers are indicated. To restore abduction and external rotation of the shoulder the trapezius muscle transfer is mainly used. We demonstrate 16 patients with insufficient abduction of the shoulder joint. All patients were treated with the transfer of trapezius muscle (pars horizontalis). We used a modification of the technique of Saha. After the operation, the arm was immobilized in 80 degrees abduction for 6 weeks followed by 10 degrees adduction of the shoulder per week. Afterwards physiotherapy was started. Evaluation was done by the DASH score and Gilbert score. In all cases, an improvement of shoulder mobility was seen, assessed clinically and individually by the patient. The average DASH score was 37.4. For ten patients the results of the operation were very good, good, or satisfactory. Active abduction increased from 15 degrees (0-30 degrees) to 54 degrees (35-80 degrees) postoperatively. The external rotation was 9 degrees (-20-40 degrees) preoperatively and 19 degrees (0-70 degrees ) postoperatively. Trapezius muscle transfer for reconstruction of abduction is an easy and practicable method without serious complications. We achieved good stability and functionality of the shoulder. Intensive pre- and postoperative physiotherapy may provide greater improvement of mobility.

  1. Increased blastocyst formation of cloned porcine embryos produced with donor cells pre-treated with Xenopus egg extract and/or digitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Østrup, Olga; Li, Juan

    2012-01-01

    SummaryPre-treating donor cells before somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, 'cloning') may improve the efficiency of the technology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early development of cloned embryos produced with porcine fibroblasts pre-treated with a permeabilizing agent and extract...... from Xenopus laevis eggs. In Experiment 1, fetal fibroblasts were permeabilized by digitonin, incubated in egg extract and, after re-sealing of cell membranes, cultured for 3 or 5 days before use as donor cells in handmade cloning (HMC). Controls were produced by HMC with non-treated donor cells....... The blastocyst rate for reconstructed embryos increased significantly when digitonin-permeabilized, extract-treated cells were used after 5 days of culture after re-sealing. In Experiment 2, fetal and adult fibroblasts were treated with digitonin alone before re-sealing the cell membranes, then cultured for 3...

  2. EXPLORING GOOD PRACTICE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER RELATED TO POST TSUNAMI HOUSING (RE-CONSTRUCTION IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingunath Ingirige

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka was badly affected by the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004. The tsunami destroyed about two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline and affected more than 1,000,000 people. It does not only affected the lives of the community, but also had a devastating effect on their housing and livelihoods. The overall loss of 100,000 or more houses due to the tsunami proved to be a major challenge to the emergency response teams and disaster planners. Although several major disasters of varying magnitudes have occurred in the world, the body of knowledge related to post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation appears fragmented and poorly integrated. This paper attempts to fill this theoretical gap by focusing on the extent to which good practice knowledge transfer helps in overcoming this problem for more effective and efficient delivery of post-tsunami housing in Sri Lanka. The paper applied knowledge transfer principles within the context of the two housing reconstruction strategies employed in post-tsunami housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka; namely donor-driven housing and owner driven housing. The results of this study reveal that the knowledge transfer within this context cannot be simply copied and inserted from one context without any localisation. Therefore, the paper proposes a high-level abstraction of the core principles of community engagement through participatory techniques associated with appropriate capacity and capability building techniques that will enable the various stakeholders to create a new application to suit the appropriate context of the transfer destination (post-tsunami context in Sri Lanka.

  3. Bivariate analysis of basal serum anti-Mullerian hormone measurements and human blastocyst development after IVF

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, E Scott

    2011-12-02

    Abstract Background To report on relationships among baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurements, blastocyst development and other selected embryology parameters observed in non-donor oocyte IVF cycles. Methods Pre-treatment AMH was measured in patients undergoing IVF (n = 79) and retrospectively correlated to in vitro embryo development noted during culture. Results Mean (+\\/- SD) age for study patients in this study group was 36.3 ± 4.0 (range = 28-45) yrs, and mean (+\\/- SD) terminal serum estradiol during IVF was 5929 +\\/- 4056 pmol\\/l. A moderate positive correlation (0.49; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65) was noted between basal serum AMH and number of MII oocytes retrieved. Similarly, a moderate positive correlation (0.44) was observed between serum AMH and number of early cleavage-stage embryos (95% CI 0.24 to 0.61), suggesting a relationship between serum AMH and embryo development in IVF. Of note, serum AMH levels at baseline were significantly different for patients who did and did not undergo blastocyst transfer (15.6 vs. 10.9 pmol\\/l; p = 0.029). Conclusions While serum AMH has found increasing application as a predictor of ovarian reserve for patients prior to IVF, its roles to estimate in vitro embryo morphology and potential to advance to blastocyst stage have not been extensively investigated. These data suggest that baseline serum AMH determinations can help forecast blastocyst developmental during IVF. Serum AMH measured before treatment may assist patients, clinicians and embryologists as scheduling of embryo transfer is outlined. Additional studies are needed to confirm these correlations and to better define the role of baseline serum AMH level in the prediction of blastocyst formation.

  4. Nerve Transfer versus Interpositional Nerve Graft Reconstruction for Posttraumatic, Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, John C; Agrawal, Nikhil A; Seruya, Mitchel

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare functional outcomes between nerve grafting and nerve transfer procedures in the setting of isolated, posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries. A systematic review was performed using the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases to identify all cases of isolated, posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries in patients aged 18 years or older. Patients who underwent axillary nerve reconstruction were included and categorized by technique: graft or transfer. Demographics were recorded, including age, time to operation, and presence of concomitant injuries. Functional outcomes were evaluated, including British Medical Research Council strength and range of motion for shoulder abduction. Ten retrospective studies met criteria, for a total of 66 patients (20 nerve grafts and 46 nerve transfers). Median time from injury to operation was equivalent across the nerve graft and nerve transfer groups (8.0 months versus 7.0 months; p = 0.41). Postoperative follow-up was 24.0 months for nerve grafting versus 18.5 months for nerve transfer (p = 0.13). Clinically useful shoulder abduction, defined as British Medical Research Council grade M3 or greater, was obtained in 100 percent of nerve graft patients versus 87 percent of nerve transfer patients (p = 0.09). Grade M4 or better strength was obtained in 85 percent of nerve graft patients and 73.9 percent of nerve transfer patients (p = 0.32). Significant differences in functional outcomes between nerve graft and transfer procedures for posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries are not apparent at this time. Prospective outcomes studies are needed to better elucidate whether functional differences do exist. Therapeutic, IV.

  5. Deep Learning- and Transfer Learning-Based Super Resolution Reconstruction from Single Medical Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiNan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical images play an important role in medical diagnosis and research. In this paper, a transfer learning- and deep learning-based super resolution reconstruction method is introduced. The proposed method contains one bicubic interpolation template layer and two convolutional layers. The bicubic interpolation template layer is prefixed by mathematics deduction, and two convolutional layers learn from training samples. For saving training medical images, a SIFT feature-based transfer learning method is proposed. Not only can medical images be used to train the proposed method, but also other types of images can be added into training dataset selectively. In empirical experiments, results of eight distinctive medical images show improvement of image quality and time reduction. Further, the proposed method also produces slightly sharper edges than other deep learning approaches in less time and it is projected that the hybrid architecture of prefixed template layer and unfixed hidden layers has potentials in other applications.

  6. Parthenogenic blastocysts derived from cumulus-free in vitro matured human oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohyun L McElroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of oocytes are classified as immature and discarded following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedures. These oocytes are obtained from gonadotropin-stimulated patients, and are routinely removed from the cumulus cells which normally would mature the oocytes. Given the ready access to these human oocytes, they represent a potential resource for both clinical and basic science application. However culture conditions for the maturation of cumulus-free oocytes have not been optimized. We aimed to improve maturation conditions for cumulus-free oocytes via culture with ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors identified by single cell analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Immature human oocytes were matured in vitro via supplementation with ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors that were selected based on expression of ligands in the cumulus cells and their corresponding receptors in oocytes. Matured oocytes were artificially activated to assess developmental competence. Gene expression profiles of parthenotes were compared to IVF/ICSI embryos at morula and blastocyst stages. Following incubation in medium supplemented with ovarian factors (BDNF, IGF-I, estradiol, GDNF, FGF2 and leptin, a greater percentage of oocytes demonstrated nuclear maturation and subsequently, underwent parthenogenesis relative to control. Similarly, cytoplasmic maturation was also improved as indicated by development to blastocyst stage. Parthenogenic blastocysts exhibited mRNA expression profiles similar to those of blastocysts obtained after IVF/ICSI with the exception for MKLP2 and PEG1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human cumulus-free oocytes from hormone-stimulated cycles are capable of developing to blastocysts when cultured with ovarian factor supplementation. Our improved IVM culture conditions may be used for obtaining mature oocytes for clinical purposes and/or for derivation of embryonic stem cells following parthenogenesis or nuclear

  7. Parthenogenic Blastocysts Derived from Cumulus-Free In Vitro Matured Human Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Sohyun L.; Byrne, James A.; Chavez, Shawn L.; Behr, Barry; Hsueh, Aaron J.; Westphal, Lynn M.; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 20% of oocytes are classified as immature and discarded following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures. These oocytes are obtained from gonadotropin-stimulated patients, and are routinely removed from the cumulus cells which normally would mature the oocytes. Given the ready access to these human oocytes, they represent a potential resource for both clinical and basic science application. However culture conditions for the maturation of cumulus-free oocytes have not been optimized. We aimed to improve maturation conditions for cumulus-free oocytes via culture with ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors identified by single cell analysis. Methodology/Principal Finding Immature human oocytes were matured in vitro via supplementation with ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors that were selected based on expression of ligands in the cumulus cells and their corresponding receptors in oocytes. Matured oocytes were artificially activated to assess developmental competence. Gene expression profiles of parthenotes were compared to IVF/ICSI embryos at morula and blastocyst stages. Following incubation in medium supplemented with ovarian factors (BDNF, IGF-I, estradiol, GDNF, FGF2 and leptin), a greater percentage of oocytes demonstrated nuclear maturation and subsequently, underwent parthenogenesis relative to control. Similarly, cytoplasmic maturation was also improved as indicated by development to blastocyst stage. Parthenogenic blastocysts exhibited mRNA expression profiles similar to those of blastocysts obtained after IVF/ICSI with the exception for MKLP2 and PEG1. Conclusions/Significance Human cumulus-free oocytes from hormone-stimulated cycles are capable of developing to blastocysts when cultured with ovarian factor supplementation. Our improved IVM culture conditions may be used for obtaining mature oocytes for clinical purposes and/or for derivation of embryonic stem cells following parthenogenesis or nuclear transfer. PMID

  8. Blastocyst rate of in vitro embryo production in sheep is affected by season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Casu, S; Dattena, M; Muñoz, I M Mayorga

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported that the number and quality of in vitro produced embryos is season related. This study was conducted to assess the effect of season on cleavage, blastocyst and lambing rates of in vitro produced ovine embryos during 3 years of collection data. Ovaries of Sarda sheep were collected from a slaughterhouse. In total, 5035 oocytes were recovered and matured in TCM-199 with 4 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA), 100 μM cysteamine, 0.3 mM Na pyruvate, 0.1 UI/ml recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH), 0.1 UI/ml recombinant luteinising hormone (r-LH), and 1 μg/ml estradiol-17β. Matured oocytes were fertilized with fresh semen in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) with 20% heat inactivated estrous sheep serum. The presumptive zygotes were cultured for 6-7 days (blastocyst stage) in SOF medium supplemented with 1% Basel Medium Eagle (BME), 1% Minimum Essential Medium, 1 mM glutamine and 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA. The embryos produced were vitrified and a total of 165 blastocysts (80 from the breeding season and 85 from the anoestrous season) were transferred in pairs into recipient ewes during the reproductive period. There were no significant differences in cleavage rates between seasons in any of the 3 years examined (84% versus 83%, 81% versus 80% and 80% versus 79%, respectively). The blastocyst rate varied significantly between seasons in 2005 and 2007 (P embryos during anoestrous versus during the breeding season. In conclusion, only the blastocyst rate appeared to have been affected by season, possibly due to variation in the number of developmentally competent oocytes.

  9. Cloning Endangered Felids by Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Martha C; Pope, C Earle

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the first wild felid was produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer. Since then other wild felid clone offspring have been produced by using the same technique with minor modifications. This chapter describes detailed protocols used in our laboratory for (1) the isolation, culture, and preparation of fibroblast cells as donor nucleus, and (2) embryo reconstruction with domestic cat enucleated oocytes to produce cloned embryos that develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro and, after transfer into synchronized recipients, establish successful pregnancies.

  10. Nerve transfer for sensory reconstruction of C8-T1 dermatomes in tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme A; Ghizoni, Marcos F

    2016-11-01

    Absence of sensation in C8-T1 dermatome is a common finding in midcervical spinal cord injury. The goal was to restore sensation on the C8-T1 dermatomes by transferring sensory nerves with afferents on C5-C6 roots. A mean 10 months post spinal cord injury, we operated on 10 upper limbs from 5 tetraplegics averaging 23 years old. Cutaneous branches of the median nerve were transferred to the palm to the ulnar proper digital nerve of the little finger. In two patients, the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve was also transferred to the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. At a mean 20 months after surgery, on the ulnar side of the hand and little finger, all patients were able to perceive 19.3 g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament pressure. Nociception was restored on the medial side of the elbow, forearm, and hand. Faulty location was a common finding, but not as a major complaint. Sensory nerve transfers should be incorporated into the reconstruction of the upper limb in tetraplegics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:637-641, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Toe Tissue Transfer for Reconstruction of Damaged Digits due to Electrical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Do Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical burns are one of the most devastating types of injuries, and can becharacterized by the conduction of electric current through the deeper soft tissue such asvessels, nerves, muscles, and bones. For that reason, the extent of an electric burn is veryfrequently underestimated on initial impression.Methods From July 1999 to June 2006, we performed 15 cases of toe tissue transfer for thereconstruction of finger defects caused by electrical burns. We performed preoperative rangeof motion exercise, early excision, and coverage of the digital defect with toe tissue transfer.Results We obtained satisfactory results in both functional and aesthetic aspects in all 15cases without specific complications. Static two-point discrimination results in the transferredtoe cases ranged from 8 to 11 mm, with an average of 9.5 mm. The mean range of motionof the transferred toe was 20° to 36° in the distal interphalangeal joint, 16° to 45° in theproximal interphalangeal joint, and 15° to 35° in the metacarpophalangeal joint. All of thepatients were relatively satisfied with the function and appearance of their new digits.Conclusions The strategic management of electrical injury to the hands can be both challengingand complex. Because the optimal surgical method is free tissue transfer, maintenance ofvascular integrity among various physiological changes works as a determining factor for thepostoperative outcome following the reconstruction.

  12. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction with coracoacromial ligament transfer using the docking technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobezie Reuben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptomatic Acromioclavicular (AC dislocations have historically been surgically treated with Coracoclavicular (CC ligament reconstruction with transfer of the Coracoacromial (CA ligament. Tensioning the CA ligament is the key to success. Methods Seventeen patients with chronic, symptomatic Type III AC joint or acute Type IV and V injuries were treated surgically. The distal clavicle was resected and stabilized with CC ligament reconstruction using the CA ligament. The CA ligament was passed into the medullary canal and tensioned, using a modified 'docking' technique. Average follow-up was 29 months (range 12–57. Results Postoperative ASES and pain significantly improved in all patients (p = 0.001. Radiographically, 16 (94% maintained reduction, and only 1 (6% had a recurrent dislocation when he returned to karate 3 months postoperatively. His ultimate clinical outcome was excellent. Conclusion The docking procedure allows for tensioning of the transferred CA ligament and healing of the ligament in an intramedullary bone tunnel. Excellent clinical results were achieved, decreasing the risk of recurrent distal clavicle instability.

  13. Development of sheep androgenetic embryos is boosted following transfer of male pronuclei into androgenetic hemizygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Turco, Margherita Yayoi; Scapolo, Pier Augusto; Reynolds, Lawrence; Ptak, Grazyna; Loi, Pasqualino

    2007-01-01

    Androgenetic embryos are useful model for investigating the contribution of the paternal genome to embryonic development. Little work has been done with androgenetic embryo production in domestic animals. The aim of this study was the production of diploid androgenetic sheep embryos. In vitro matured sheep oocytes were enucleated and fertilized in vitro; parthenogenetic and normally fertilized embryos were also produced as a control. Fifteen hours after in vitro fertilization (IVF), presumptive zygotes were centrifuged and scored for the number of pronucleus. IVF, parthenogenetic, and androgenetic embryos (haploid, diploid, and triploid) were cultured in SOFaa medium with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proportion of oocytes with polyspermic fertilization increased linearly with increasing sperm concentration. After IVF, there was no significant difference in early cleavage and morula formation rates between the groups, while there was a significant difference on blastocyst development between IVF, parthenogenetic, and androgenetic embryos, the last ones displaying poor developmental potential (IVF, parthenogenetic, and haploid, diploid, and triploid androgenetic embryos: 43%, 38%, 0%, 2%, and 2%, respectively). In order to boost androgenetic embryonic development, we produced diploid androgenetic embryos through pronuclear transfer. Single pronuclei were aspirated with a bevelled pipette from haploid or diploid embryos and transferred into the perivitelline space of other haploid embryos, and the zygotes were reconstructed by electrofusion. Fusion rates approached 100%. Pronuclear transfer significantly increased blastocyst development (IVF, parthenogenetic, androgenetic: Diploid into Haploid, and Haploid into Haploid: 42%, 42%, 19%, and 3%, respectively); intriguingly, the Haploid + Diploid group showed the highest development to blastocyst stage. The main findings of our study are: (1) sheep androgenetic embryos display poor developmental ability compared with

  14. TRAM Flap for Immediate Post Mastectomy Reconstruction: Comparison between Pedicled and Free Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouny, M.M.; Maamoun, S.I.; El-Shazly, S.M.; Youssef, O.Z

    2005-01-01

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is primarily carried out to improve the patients' quality of life. The most commonly used autologous tissue for reconstruction is the transverse rectums abdomens musculocutaneous flap (TRAM). The TRAM flap could be transferred either as pedicled or a free flap with microvascular anastomosis. The following work was carried out to evaluate the two techniques. Patients and Methods: Thirty-one female patients with operable breast cancer consented to immediate breast reconstruction during the period from June 1998 to December 2000. Fifteen patients had a free TRAM flap reconstruction. In sixteen patients, a pedicled TRAM flap was used. Three patients in the pedicled group underwent bilateral breast reconstruction. thus there were 19 pedicled flaps available for evaluation. Four patients in the pedicled flap group underwent reduction mammoplasty of the normal breast and in five other patients a bipedicled flap was used to achieve size matching with the reconstructed breast. Criteria for analysis included operative data, hospital stay, donor site morbidity. abdominal wall integrity, flap related complications, fat necrosis and final aesthetic result. There was no difference between the two groups as regards age and, operative time. The pedicled flap group had shorter hospital stay and less blood loss than the free flap group, which was statistically significant (ρ=0.007 and ρ=0.001, respectively). In the pedicled flap group, two patients (10.5%) experienced partial flap loss and fat necrosis was detected in two other patients. For the free flap group, two patients (13.3%) developed complete flap loss, but none suffered fat necrosis. Donor site morbidity was equal in both groups. The total number of complications was higher in the pedicled group (7/19) (36.8.8%) than in the free flap group (5/15) (33.3 degree 33.3 degree k) but this was not statistically significant (ρ=0.27). None of the patients in both groups developed abdominal

  15. High in vitro development after somatic cell nuclear transfer and trichostatin A treatment of reconstructed porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J.; Østrup, Olga; Villemoes, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal epigenetic modification is supposed to be one of factors accounting for inefficient reprogramming of the donor cell nuclei in ooplasm after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Trichostatin A (TSA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, potentially enhancing cloning efficiency. The aim...... of our present study was to establish the optimal TSA treatment in order to improve the development of handmade cloned (HMC) porcine embryos and examine the effect of TSA on their development. The blastocyst percentage of HMC embryos treated with 37.5 nM TSA for 22-24 h after activation increased up...

  16. Parthenogenesis and somatic cell nuclear transfer in sheep oocytes using Polscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandedkar, Pandit; Chohan, Parul; Patwardhan, Archana; Gaikwad, Santosh; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2009-07-01

    Parthenogenesis and Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) techniques, offer a unique approach to manipulate the genetic composition of derived human embryonic stem cells - an essential step if the full opportunities for disease modeling, drug discovery or individualized stem cell therapy are to be realized. The present study describes the use of sheep oocytes to acquire expertise and establish methods to reconstruct embryos for obtaining blastocysts before venturing into human SCNT where the oocytes are a very precious starting material. Maturation of sheep eggs in vitro for 20-24 hr resulted in 65% metaphase II (MII) eggs which were either parthenogenetically activated using calcium ionomycin or ethanol or subjected to SCNT using cumulus cell as somatic cell. Sixteen blastocysts were produced by parthenogenetic activation of 350 eggs whereas reconstructed embryos, after SCNT carried out in 139 eggs, progressed only up to morula stage. The procedure of parthenogenesis and SCNT will be useful to generate autologous ES cells using human eggs.

  17. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based do......We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon...... transfer. PFV cells supported Flp mediated cassette exchange for transgene substitution of eGFP with dsRED, and the dsRED transgenic PFV cells generated blastocysts with transgene expression. Hence, the PFV cell line constitutes a valuable pig equivalent to transformed cell lines from other mammalian...

  18. Nerve transfers for elbow and finger extension reconstruction in midcervical spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report the results of elbow, thumb, and finger extension reconstruction via nerve transfer in midcervical spinal cord injuries. Thirteen upper limbs from 7 patients with tetraplegia, with an average age of 26 years, were operated on an average of 7 months after a spinal cord injury. The posterior division of the axillary nerve was used to reinnervate the triceps long and upper medial head motor branches in 9 upper limbs. Both the posterior division and the branch to the middle deltoid were used in 2 upper limbs, and the anterior division of the axillary nerve in the final 2 limbs. For thumb and finger extension reconstruction, the nerve to the supinator was transferred to the posterior interosseous nerve. In 22 of the 27 recipient nerves, a peripheral type of palsy with muscle denervation was identified. At an average of 19 months follow-up, elbow strength scored M4 in 11 upper limbs and M3 in 2, according to the British Medical Research Council scale. Thumb extension scored M4 in 8 upper limbs and scored M3 in 4. Finger extension scored M4 in 12 hands. No donor-site deficits were reported or observed. Nerve transfers are effective at restoring elbow, thumb, and finger extension in patients with a midcervical spinal cord injury, which occurs in the majority of patients with a peripheral type of palsy with muscle denervation in their upper limbs. Efforts should be made to perform operations in these patients within 12 months of injury.

  19. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Talima; Giffard, Philip; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Auerbach, Raymond; Hornstra, Heidie; Tuanyok, Apichai; Price, Erin P; Glass, Mindy B; Leadem, Benjamin; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James S; Allan, Gerard J; Foster, Jeffrey T; Wagner, David M; Okinaka, Richard T; Sim, Siew Hoon; Pearson, Ofori; Wu, Zaining; Chang, Jean; Kaul, Rajinder; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Brettin, Thomas S; Robison, Richard A; Mayo, Mark; Gee, Jay E; Tan, Patrick; Currie, Bart J; Keim, Paul

    2009-11-18

    Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia. We describe an Australian origin for B

  20. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, T.; Giffard, P.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.; Auerbach, R.; Hornstra, H.; Tuanyok, A.; Price, E.P.; Glass, M.B.; Leadem, B.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, J. S.; Allan, G.J.; Foster, J.T.; Wagner, D.M.; Okinaka, R.T.; Sim, S.H.; Pearson, O.; Wu, Z.; Chang, J.; Kaul, R.; Hoffmaster, A.R.; Brettin, T.S.; Robison, R.A.; Mayo, M.; Gee, J.E.; Tan, P.; Currie, B.J.; Keim, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results: Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia. Conclusion: We describe an

  1. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaul Rajinder

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia

  2. Failed vascularized proximal fibular epiphyseal transfer for hip reconstruction following infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarge, Romain; Chotel, Franck; Gazarian, Aram; Viola, Jérémy; Berard, Jérôme

    2009-08-01

    Treatment of the sequellae of hip infection with epiphyseal destruction in children has had limited success to date. The aim of this study was to report mid-term results after hip epiphyseal reconstruction using a proximal vascularized fibular graft in three children presenting with massive epiphyseal destruction of the proximal femur following infection. Three children suffered from hip articular destruction type IVB according to the Choi classification after neonatal septic arthritis. The mean age at reconstruction was 4.3 years (range 3-6 years). The Hunka et al. criteria were used to evaluate the functional results, and the clinical evaluation was based on the Musculo-Skeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score. Growth and fusion of the graft and hip morphology were evaluated on simple X-rays and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A ratio between cephalic diameter and inter-acetabular gap was defined on the MRI scan as the "acetabular filling index". No intraoperative complication was reported. With a mean follow-up of 4.8 years (3-6 years), the MSTS score was 22.7/30 (range 20-26), while the average lower limb length discrepancy was 3 cm. Patient 1 required a secondary derotation osteotomy of the femur because of abnormal external rotation and a bad result due to the unexplained occurrence of a painful and stiff hip joint. A secondary distal transfer of the greater trochanter was performed in patient 2, and good results based on Hunka et al.'s criteria were achieved. The X-rays of patients 1 and 2 showed signs of bone growth and a major remodeling process; the MRI filling indices were 83 and 67%, respectively. Patient 3 developed an early slipped capital (fibular) epiphysis 1 month postoperatively, which was treated by percutaneous pinning; this early complication led to a bad result with full resorption of the graft. In contrast to its success in upper limb reconstruction, in this series of three patients with hip articular destruction, articular reconstruction

  3. Research on high-order approximation of radiative transfer equation for image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjuan; Gao, Feng; Wu, Linhui; Yi, Xi; Zhu, Pingping; Zhao, Huijuan

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we derive the two-dimensional spherical harmonics equations to three-order (P3) of Radiative Transfer Equation for anisotropic scattering. We also solved this equations using Galerkin finite element method and compared the solutions with the first-order diffusion equation and Monte Carlo simulation. the benchmark problems are tested, and we found that the developed three-order model with high absorb coefficient is able to significantly improve the diffusion solution in circle geometry, and the radiance distribution close to light source is more accurate. It is significant for accurate modeling of light propagation in small tissue geometries in small animal imaging. Then, the inverse model for the simultaneous reconstruction of the absorption images is proposed based on P3 equations, and the feasibility and effectiveness of this method are proved by the simulation.

  4. Knowledge transfer to builders in post-disaster housing reconstruction in West-Sumatra of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Benny; Afif, Zal

    2017-11-01

    Housing is the most affected sector by disasters as can be observed after the 2009 earthquake in West Sumatra province in Indonesia. As in Indonesian construction industry, the housing post-disaster reconstruction is influenced by knowledge and skills of builders or laborers, or locally known as `tukang'. After the earthquake there were trainings to transfer knowledge about earthquake-safe house structure for the builders in the post-disaster reconstruction. This study examined the effectiveness of the training in term of understanding of the builders and application of the new knowledge. Ten semi-structured interviews with the builders were conducted in this study. The results indicate that the builders with prior housing construction experience can absorb and understand the new knowledge about earthquake-safe house structure. Combination of lecturing and practice sessions also help the builders to understand the knowledge. However, findings of this research also suggest there is a problem in implementation of the new knowledge. Utilization of earthquake-safe house structure may leads to a rise in house cost. As a result, some house owners prefer to save money than to adopt the new knowledge.

  5. Transfer of anterolateral thigh flaps in elderly oral cancer patients: complications in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhen-Hu; Wu, Han-Jiang; Tan, Hong-Yu; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Although a promising approach, the use of anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flaps has been limited in the reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of postoperative complications and identify factors associated with complications. The authors designed and implemented a retrospective study on the frequency of postoperative complications in elderly patients. They enrolled a sample composed of patients who underwent ALT free flap transfers for the repair of defects created during oral and maxillofacial cancer surgery from February 2002 to March 2013. The χ(2) test, t test, and multivariate regression model were used. A total of 1,100 patients were studied (859 men and 241 women). One hundred four patients (9.5%) were at least 70 years old (elderly group) at the time of surgery; the other 996 patients were younger than 70 years (younger group). The overall success rate of ALT free flap transfer was 97.2% (97.0% in the younger group, 99.0% in the elderly group; P > .05). The overall complication rate was 27.5% (27.2% in the younger group, 29.8% in the elderly group; P = .572). Multivariate analysis showed that operation time, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and comorbidity were independent risk factors for postoperative complications in elderly patients. Oral and maxillofacial reconstruction using ALT free flaps in elderly patients can achieve outcomes similar to those obtained in younger patients. Limiting the operation time is important for improving surgical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vascularized proximal fibula epiphyseal transfer for distal radius reconstruction in children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldekhayel, Salah; Govshievich, Alexander; Neel, Omar Fouda; Luc, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Reconstruction of the distal radius in children is cumbersome, requiring simultaneous restoration of joint function and axial growth. Vascularized proximal fibular epiphyseal transfers (VFET) have been popularized over non-vascularized transfers and prosthesis. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of VFET and its associated complications. Electronic database of PubMed MEDLINE was searched between 1970 and 2014. Studies reporting VFET for distal radius reconstruction in children (<15 years old) with clear reporting of technique (vascular pedicle) and objective outcome measures were included. Outcomes of interest were rate of graft growth, bone union and complications. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare growth rates between pedicle types. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, representing 25 patients. Pedicles used were anterior tibial (44%), peroneal (16%), or bi-pedicled (40%) anastomosed in antegrade (64%) or reverse flow (36%) fashion. Among all pedicle types, best results were achieved using anterior tibial artery with reversed flow, yielding average growth rate of 0.83 cm/year (P = 0.01). Recipient complications included four premature epiphyseal plate closures, a flap loss, and six wrist radial deviations. Donor complications included six common peroneal nerve palsies (five temporary, a permanent), and a talocalcaneal instability. Overall complication rates between pedicle types were comparable (P = 0.062). VFET may be a surgical option capable of restoring joint function and axial growth potential in select patients. The reverse flow technique based on the anterior tibial artery may result in superior outcomes. However, the overall complication rate is high and permanent peroneal nerve palsy may result. IV © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:705-711, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Individual demands of human embryos on IVF culture medium: influence on blastocyst development and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirleitner, B; Vanderzwalmen, P; Stecher, A; Zech, M H; Zintz, M; Zech, N H

    2010-12-01

    The elucidation of the metabolic requirements of human embryos in vivo or in vitro remains, despite being intensively investigated, a work in progress. The adoption of extended embryo culture to the blastocyst stage during the last decade has entailed new challenges. With the increased attention to culture media formulations, more evidence on the sensitivity of embryos to their early environmental conditions is accumulating which might affect phenotype and developmental potential. A retrospective study was conducted that comprised 286 IVF cycles to evaluate the effect of two different culture media on blastocyst development and pregnancy outcome. Embryos were either cultured in a one step or a sequential medium. Higher fertilization rates and augmented blastocyst rates as well as higher implantation rates were observed when embryos were cultured in one step medium (Pcultured in either medium resulted in a significantly higher rate of twin pregnancies. Although multiple pregnancies should be avoided in assisted reproduction treatment to reduce risks for offspring and mother, this higher frequency of twin pregnancies resulting from the transfer of embryos derived from different culture media suggests that each embryo makes individual demands on its early environment. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Customizing Extensor Reconstruction in Vascularized Toe Joint Transfers to Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joints: A Strategic Approach for Correcting Extensor Lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Shih-Heng; Lien, Shwu-Huei; Lin, Chih-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan; Lin, Yu-Te

    2017-04-01

    Vascularized toe proximal interphalangeal joint transfer allows the restoration of damaged joints. However, extensor lag and poor arc of motion have been reported. The authors present their outcomes of treatment according to a novel reconstructive algorithm that addresses extensor lag and allows for consistent results postoperatively. Vascularized toe joint transfers were performed in a consecutive series of 26 digits in 25 patients. The average age was 30.5 years, with 14 right and 12 left hands. Reconstructed digits included eight index, 10 middle, and eight ring fingers. Simultaneous extensor reconstructions were performed and eight were centralization of lateral bands, five were direct extensor digitorum longus-to-extensor digitorum communis repairs, and 13 were central slip reconstructions. The average length of follow-up was 16.7 months. The average extension lag was 17.9 degrees. The arc of motion was 57.7 degrees (81.7 percent functional use of pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion). There was no significant difference in the reconstructed proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion for the handedness (p = 0.23), recipient digits (p = 0.37), or surgical experience in vascularized toe joint transfer (p = 0.25). The outcomes of different techniques of extensor mechanism reconstruction were similar in terms of extensor lag, arc of motion, and reconstructed finger arc of motion compared with the pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. With this treatment algorithm, consistent outcomes can be produced with minimal extensor lag and maximum use of potential toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. Therapeutic, IV.

  9. Proteomic analysis of human blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst and can differentiate into any cell type in the human body. These cells hold a great potential for regenerative medicine, but to obtain enough cells needed for medical treatment, culture is required...... spectrometry, 286 proteins were identified in the blastocoel fluid and 1,307 proteins in the corresponding cells of the blastocyst. Forty-two were previously uncharacterized proteins-8 of these originated from the blastocoel fluid. Furthermore, several heat shock proteins (Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsc70, and Hsp90) were......, the blastocoel fluid, which is in contact with all the cells in the blastocyst, including hESCs. Fifty-three surplus human blastocysts were donated after informed consent, and blastocoel fluid was isolated by micromanipulation. Using highly sensitive nano-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass...

  10. Ploidy of Bovine Nuclear Transfer Blastocysts Blastomere Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; VIUFF, D; THOMSEN, P D

    2000-01-01

    .2 (mean SD) nuclei/embryo were examined. Of these 16, 7 embryos (43.8 were potentially abnormal because in these, 1.1 1.4 5.3 7.5 26.3 30.4 and 66.2% % of the nuclei had a chromosome composition deviating from the diploid condition, indicating a wide degree of variation between embryos. These errors...

  11. The prevalence of chromosomal deletions relating to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability in human euploid blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenyin; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Li, Man; Jin, Hua; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy) and structural (deletion, duplication or others) anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s) is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s) using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34-149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s) are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision.

  12. A Preliminary List of Horizontally Transferred Genes in Prokaryotes Determined by Tree Reconstruction and Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonsoo Jeong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide global detection of genes involved in horizontal gene transfer (HGT remains an active area of research in medical microbiology and evolutionary genomics. Utilizing the explicit evolutionary method of comparing topologies of a total of 154,805 orthologous gene trees against corresponding 16S rRNA “reference” trees, we previously detected a total of 660,894 candidate HGT events in 2,472 completely-sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Here, we report an HGT-index for each individual gene-reference tree pair reconciliation, representing the total number of detected HGT events on the gene tree divided by the total number of genomes (taxa member of that tree. HGT-index is thus a simple measure indicating the sensitivity of prokaryotic genes to participate (or not participate in HGT. Our preliminary list provides HGT-indices for a total of 69,365 genes (detected in >10 and <50% available prokaryotic genomes that are involved in a wide range of biological processes such as metabolism, information, and bacterial response to environment. Identification of horizontally-derived genes is important to combat antibiotic resistance and is a step forward toward reconstructions of improved phylogenies describing the history of life. Our effort is thus expected to benefit ongoing research in the fields of clinical microbiology and evolutionary biology.

  13. Blastocyst utilization rates after continuous culture in two commercial single-step media: a prospective randomized study with sibling oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Lainas, George T; Venetis, Christos A; Petsas, George K; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether blastocyst utilization rates are different after continuous culture in two different commercial single-step media. This is a paired randomized controlled trial with sibling oocytes conducted in infertility patients, aged ≤40 years with ≥10 oocytes retrieved assigned to blastocyst culture and transfer. Retrieved oocytes were randomly allocated to continuous culture in either Sage one-step medium (Origio) or Continuous Single Culture (CSC) medium (Irvine Scientific) without medium renewal up to day 5 post oocyte retrieval. Main outcome measure was the proportion of embryos suitable for clinical use (utilization rate). A total of 502 oocytes from 33 women were randomly allocated to continuous culture in either Sage one-step medium (n = 250) or CSC medium (n = 252). Fertilization was performed by either in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and embryo transfers were performed on day 5. Two patients had all blastocysts frozen due to the occurrence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Fertilization and cleavage rates, as well as embryo quality on day 3, were similar in the two media. Blastocyst utilization rates (%, 95% CI) [55.4% (46.4-64.1) vs 54.7% (44.9-64.6), p = 0.717], blastocyst formation rates [53.6% (44.6-62.5) vs 51.9 (42.2-61.6), p = 0.755], and proportion of good quality blastocysts [36.8% (28.1-45.4) vs 36.1% (27.2-45.0), p = 0.850] were similar in Sage one-step and CSC media, respectively. Continuous culture of embryos in Sage one-step and CSC media is associated with similar blastocyst development and utilization rates. Both single-step media appear to provide adequate support during in vitro preimplantation embryo development. Whether these observations are also valid for other continuous single medium protocols remains to be determined. NCT02302638.

  14. Free-Tissue Transfer for the Reconstruction of War-Related Extremity Injuries: A Systematic Review of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Mason, Katrina A; Pafitanis, Georgios; Ghanem, Ali M; Myers, Simon; Iwuagwu, Fortune C

    2016-01-01

    Extremity injuries in combat zones have devastating sequelae. The increasing survival of war-zone casualties, combined with rapid advances in microsurgery, means that there is a growing role for free-tissue reconstruction. We systematically reviewed the current practices in microsurgical reconstruction of combat-related extremity injuries, focusing on free-flap types, timing of surgery, and outcomes. We conducted a PubMed search of the terms "War" and "Reconstruction," identifying 21st century studies on subacute/delayed free-flap repair, to reflect the idiosyncrasies of modern warfare. Case reports and studies exclusively describing craniofacial and thoracoabdominal injuries were excluded. A total of 11 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. In 9 studies, patients were repatriated/transferred to specialist facilities for treatment; in 2 studies, reconstruction was performed within combat/austere environments. The number of free-flaps described per study ranged from 6 to 233 (Total = 501). Latissimus dorsi flaps were most commonly used (43.7%). The average time to definitive reconstruction ranged from 9.6 days to 3 years, being delayed to address life-threatening injuries. The average free-flap success rate was 95.5% (range = 88.9%-100%). Combat-associated extremity injuries are characterized by extensive tissue loss and gross contamination. Despite this, microsurgical reconstruction results in minimal morbidity and successful outcomes. Large, multicenter studies are necessary to corroborate these findings and establish definitive management guidelines. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Free tissue transfer of digital food pads for reconstruction of the distal limb in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basher, A W; Fowler, J D; Bowen, C V

    1991-01-01

    Reconstructive procedures used in salvaging distal limb injuries in the dog are reviewed. Techniques employed to resurface the distal weight-bearing surface include local reconstruction using pedicle flap transposition of foot pads. The development of a previously described free microneurovascular digital foot pad flap is reviewed; the experimental results and potential for clinical use of the free flap are discussed.

  16. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    development, little information is available about the protein complement of early embryos. Modern, sensitive proteomic technology (nano HPLC tandem mass spectrometry) allowed us to describe the proteome of the scarce blastocoel fluid and cell material of expanded bovine blastocysts isolated......Abstract The understanding of the early mammalian development is a prerequisite for the advancement of in vitro fertilization and improvement of derivation and culturing of embryonic stem cells. While, whole genome transcriptomic analysis on bovine blastocysts has identified genes active in early...... proliferation, development, and reproduction could be derived. Proteins classified in these categories could be candidates for further functional studies to understand pluripotency and early mammalian development....

  17. The price of free tissue transfer after tongue reconstruction: quantifying the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohemmed N; Perez, Enrique; Goljo, Erden; Iloreta, Alfred; Park, Richard Chan Woo; Genden, Eric M; Miles, Brett A

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the preoperative variables, mean operative time, morbidity, and mortality associated with reconstruction of partial glossectomy defects. Retrospective data analysis. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for patients having undergone glossectomy procedures. The study sample was split into two groups based on the lack or presence of a flap reconstruction. A total of 1,012 glossectomy patients were identified, with 805 undergoing nonflap reconstruction and 207 undergoing free flap reconstruction. Variables evaluated included wound complications, major and minor morbidity, return to the operating room, mortality, and mean operative time. Patients undergoing free flap reconstruction experienced significantly longer mean operative times (482.1 vs. 183.0 minutes, P < .001), were more likely to return to the operating room (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-4.29, P = .003), and had higher likelihood of wound complications (OR = 5.78, 95% CI = 2.72-12.26, P < .001), major morbidity (OR = 12.39, 95% CI = 7.02-21.85, P < .001), and minor morbidity (OR = 4.20, 95% CI = 2.12-8.33, P < .001). There was no difference in mortality between groups (OR = 8.62, 95% CI = 0.53-141.7, P = .131). Free flap reconstruction of glossectomy defects involving up to half of the tongue is associated with increased morbidity and operative time when compared with nonflap reconstruction. Currently available functional outcomes data for tongue reconstruction are poor. Possible functional impairment must be weighed against the associated morbidity when deciding which defects require reconstruction, and the decision to reconstruct should not be taken lightly. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1551-1557, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Viability of permanent PMMA spacer with combined free fasciocutaneous tissue transfer for failed charcot reconstruction: A 38 month prospective case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammer Elmarsafi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The use of a permanent PMMA cement spacer does not preclude free tissue transfer in complex host lower extremity reconstruction. A multidisciplinary team approach is a vital component to successful salvage outcomes.

  19. Expression of proposed implantation marker genes CDX2 and HOXB7 in the blastocyst does not distinguish viable from non-viable human embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2012-01-01

    was to investigate the expression of selected genes in human blastocysts in relation to the outcome of implantation. Materials and methods: Embryos from 10 oatients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were included in the project. A single blastocyst was chosen for biopsy on the morning of day 5 after oocyte....... After 4-5 hours of continued culture 5-10 herniating TE cells were aspirated into a biopsy pipette and dissected free of the blastocyst mass using a laser (ZilosTM, Hamilton Thorne Research, wavelength 1480 nm). Biopsied embryos were cultured overnight prior to re-assessment and transfer early on day 6...... after oocyte retrieval. Immediately following biopsy, cells were lysed and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was carried out directly on the cell lysate using Superscript® III First Strand Synthesis kit (Invitrogen) thus avoiding introducing RNA amplification steps. As part of the study, the expression...

  20. Axillary nerve injury in young adults--an overlooked diagnosis? Early results of nerve reconstruction and nerve transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Lars B; Cöster, Marcus; Björkman, Anders; Backman, Clas

    2012-09-01

    An injury to the axillary nerve from a shoulder trauma can easily be overlooked. Spontaneous functional recovery may occur, but occasionally reconstructive surgery is required. The time frame for nerve reconstruction procedures is from a neurobiological view crucial for a good functional outcome. This study presents a group of operatively and non-operatively treated young adults with axillary nerve injuries caused by motorcycle accidents, where the diagnosis was set late. Ten young men (median age at trauma 13 years, range 9-24) with an axillary nerve injury were diagnosed by examination of shoulder function and electromyography (EMG). The patients had either a nerve reconstruction procedure or were treated conservatively and their recovery was monitored. The axillary nerve was explored and reconstructed at a median of 8 months (range 1-22 months) after trauma in 8/10 patients. Two patients were treated non-operatively. In 4/8 cases, a reconstruction with sural nerve graft was performed and in 1/8 case only exploration of the nerve was made (minor neuroma). In 3/8 cases a radial nerve branch transfer to the axillary nerve was chosen as the procedure. The shoulder was mobilised after 3 weeks with physiotherapy and the patients were monitored regularly. Functional recovery was observed in 9/10 cases (median follow up 11 months, range 7-64) with EMG signs of reinnervation in seven patients. Axillary nerve function should not be overlooked in young patients with a minor shoulder trauma. Nerve reconstruction can successfully recreate function.

  1. Gastric pull-up reconstruction combined with free jejunal transfer (FJT) following total pharyngolaryngo-oesophagectomy (PLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Song; Zhu, Yiming; Li, Dezhi; Li, Zhengjiang; Wu, Yuehuang; Xu, Zhengang; Liu, Shaoyan

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction following total pharyngolaryngo-oesophagectomy (PLE) still challenges surgeons because of the extreme length of removed tissue. Gastric pull-up reconstruction, one of the most common reconstructive methods after PLE, has many complications such as anastomotic fistula and gastric necrosis caused by the high anastomotic tension. However, modifications of gastric pull-up reconstruction aiming to reducing the high anastomotic tension have been less reported compared with other aspects with this technique. Here we report a modified gastric pull-up reconstruction combined with free jejunal transfer (FTJ) to reduce the anastomosis tension, and thus to reduce the risk of complications after PLE. Patients underwent a standard surgical procedure including total pharyngolaryngo-oesophagectomy and bilateral internal jugular lymph nodal clearance. A free jejunal graft about 10 cm was harvested and placed in the appropriate position between mobilized stomach and oropharynx. The anastomosis between the free jejunal graft and the gastric tube was created through a stapler. Vascular anastomosis was made between the jejunal artery and the transverse cervical artery, and between the jejunal vein and the internal jugular vein. Hand suturing technique was used in the anastomosis between jejunum and pharynx. None of the patients suffered from any complications such as anastomotic fistula. Both patients resumed early postoperative oral intake. So far, they remain free of tumor recurrence and are in good health for 46 and 18 months, respectively. Considering the tumor status and the patient condition, the gastric pull-up reconstruction combined with FJT after PLE could be a reliable choice. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphokinetics of cloned mouse embryos treated with epigenetic drugs and blastocyst prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallol, Anna; Piqué, Laia; Santaló, Josep; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Time-lapse monitoring of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos may help to predict developmental success and increase birth and embryonic stem cells (ESC) derivation rates. Here, the development of ICSI fertilized embryos and of SCNT embryos, non-treated or treated with either psammaplin A (PsA) or vitamin C (VitC), was monitored, and the ESC derivation rates from the resulting blastocysts were determined. Blastocyst rates were similar among PsA-treated and VitC-treated SCNT embryos and ICSI embryos, but lower for non-treated SCNT embryos. ESC derivation rates were higher in treated SCNT embryos than in non-treated or ICSI embryos. Time-lapse microscopy analysis showed that non-treated SCNT embryos had a delayed development from the second division until compaction, lower number of blastomeres at compaction and longer compaction and cavitation durations compared with ICSI ones. Treatment of SCNT embryos with PsA further increased this delay whereas treatment with VitC slightly reduced it, suggesting that both treatments act through different mechanisms, not necessarily related to their epigenetic effects. Despite these differences, the time of completion of the third division, alone or combined with the duration of compaction and/or the presence of fragmentation, had a strong predictive value for blastocyst formation in all groups. In contrast, we failed to predict ESC derivation success from embryo morphokinetics. Time-lapse technology allows the selection of SCNT embryos with higher developmental potential and could help to increase cloning outcomes. Nonetheless, further studies are needed to find reliable markers for full-term development and ESC derivation success. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  3. Image Reconstruction for Diffuse Optical Tomography Based on Radiative Transfer Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Bi

    2015-01-01

    L2 regularization. Results also show the competitive performance of the split Bregman algorithm for the DOT image reconstruction with sparsity regularization compared with other existing L1 algorithms.

  4. Latissimus Dorsi and Immediate Fat Transfer (LIFT for Complete Autologous Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Economides, MD

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion:. Autologous augmentation of the LD flap with lipotransfer has been used to avoid placement of an implant. We improve the technique by performing lipotransfer during index reconstruction. Furthermore, we perform lipotransfer prior to disorigination of the LD muscle to minimize trauma to the flap and increase the efficiency of fat grafting. Our experience demonstrates that this technique is a viable autologous alternative to microsurgical breast reconstruction.

  5. Cholesterol metabolism in rabbit blastocysts under maternal diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pendzialek, S. Mareike; Schindler, Maria; Plösch, Torsten; Guerke, Jacqueline; Haucke, Elisa; Hecht, Stefanie; Fischer, Bernd; Santos, Anne Navarrete

    In the rabbit reproductive model, maternal experimentally induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (expIDD) leads to accumulation of lipid droplets in blastocysts. Cholesterol metabolism is a likely candidate to explain such metabolic changes. Therefore, in the present study we analysed maternal

  6. An efficient and robust reconstruction method for optical tomography with the time-domain radiative transfer equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yaobin; Qi, Hong; Chen, Qin; Ruan, Liming; Tan, Heping

    2016-03-01

    An efficient and robust method based on the complex-variable-differentiation method (CVDM) is proposed to reconstruct the distribution of optical parameters in two-dimensional participating media. An upwind-difference discrete-ordinate formulation of the time-domain radiative transfer equation is well established and used as forward model. The regularization term using generalized Gaussian Markov random field model is added in the objective function to overcome the ill-posed nature of the radiative inverse problem. The multi-start conjugate gradient method was utilized to accelerate the convergence speed of the inverse procedure. To obtain an accurate result and avoid the cumbersome formula of adjoint differentiation model, the CVDM was employed to calculate the gradient of objective function with respect to the optical parameters. All the simulation results show that the CVDM is efficient and robust for the reconstruction of optical parameters.

  7. Nerve and Free Gracilis Muscle Transfers for Thumb and Finger Extension Reconstruction in Long-standing Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

    2016-11-01

    With spinal cord injuries, muscles below the level of the lesion remain innervated despite the absence of volitional control. This persistent innervation protects against denervation atrophy and may allow for nerve transfers to treat long-standing lesions within the spinal cord. We tested the hypothesis that in chronic spinal cord lesions, muscles remained viable for reinnervation. To test this hypothesis, we operated on 7 patients with tetraplegia to reconstruct thumb and finger extension after a mean interval of 5 years since injury. During surgery, if electrical stimulation of the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) produced muscle contraction, the nerve to the supinator (NS) was transferred to the PIN. If no contractions were demonstrated, the muscles of the extensor compartment of the forearm were replaced via a free gracilis transfer with innervation supplied by the NS. After an average of 26 months, M3 recovery of thumb and finger extension was observed in the 3 upper limbs from the 2 youngest patients who underwent a nerve transfer. None of the free gracilis-treated patients achieved scores above M2. In our youngest patients aged 27 and 34 years, who were operated on 6 years after spinal cord injury, transfer of the NS to the PIN partially restored hand span. Therapeutic V. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptomic difference in bovine blastocysts following vitrification and slow freezing at morula stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisha Gupta

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation is known for its marked deleterious effects on embryonic health. Bovine compact morulae were vitrified or slow-frozen, and post-warm morulae were cultured to the expanded blastocyst stage. Blastocysts developed from vitrified and slow-frozen morulae were subjected to microarray analysis and compared with blastocysts developed from unfrozen control morulae for differential gene expression. Morula to blastocyst conversion rate was higher (P < 0.05 in control (72% and vitrified (77% than in slow-frozen (34% morulae. Total 20 genes were upregulated and 44 genes were downregulated in blastocysts developed from vitrified morulae (fold change ≥ ± 2, P < 0.05 in comparison with blastocysts developed from control morulae. In blastocysts developed from slow-frozen morulae, 102 genes were upregulated and 63 genes were downregulated (fold change ≥ ± 1.5, P < 0.05. Blastocysts developed from vitrified morulae exhibited significant changes in gene expression mainly involving embryo implantation (PTGS2, CALB1, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species generation (HSD3B1, AKR1B1, APOA1 and cell differentiation (KRT19, CLDN23. However, blastocysts developed from slow-frozen morulae showed changes in the expression of genes related to cell signaling (SPP1, cell structure and differentiation (DCLK2, JAM2 and VIM, and lipid metabolism (PLA2R1 and SMPD3. In silico comparison between blastocysts developed form vitrified and slow-frozen morulae revealed similar changes in gene expression as between blastocysts developed from vitrified and control morulae. In conclusion, blastocysts developed form vitrified morulae demonstrated better post-warming survival than blastocysts developed from slow-frozen morulae but their gene expression related to lipid metabolism, steroidogenesis, cell differentiation and placentation changed significantly (≥ 2 fold. Slow freezing method killed more morulae than vitrification but those which survived up to

  9. Rhein Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mouse Blastocysts and Has Immunotoxic Effects during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsun Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhein, a glucoside chemical compound found in a traditional Chinese medicine derived from the roots of rhubarb, induces cell apoptosis and is considered to have high potential as an antitumor drug. Several previous studies showed that rhein can inhibit cell proliferation and trigger mitochondria-related or endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-dependent apoptotic processes. However, the side effects of rhein on pre- and post-implantation embryonic development remain unclear. Here, we show that rhein has cytotoxic effects on blastocyst-stage mouse embryos and induces oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in mouse fetuses. Blastocysts incubated with 5–20 μM rhein showed significant cell apoptosis, as well as decreases in their inner cell mass cell numbers and total cell numbers. An in vitro development assay showed that rhein affected the developmental potentials of both pre- and post-implantation embryos. Incubation of blastocysts with 5–20 μM rhein was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight in an embryo transfer assay. Importantly, in an in vivo model, intravenous injection of dams with rhein (1, 3, and 5 mg/kg body weight/day for four days resulted in apoptosis of blastocyst-stage embryos, early embryonic developmental injury, and decreased fetal weight. Intravenous injection of dams with 5 mg/kg body weight/day rhein significantly increased the total reactive oxygen species (ROS content of fetuses and the transcription levels of antioxidant proteins in fetal livers. Additional work showed that rhein induced apoptosis through ROS generation, and that prevention of apoptotic processes effectively rescued the rhein-induced injury effects on embryonic development. Finally, the transcription levels of the innate-immunity related genes, CXCL1, IL-1 β and IL-8, were down-regulated in the fetuses of dams that received intravenous injections of rhein. These results collectively show that rhein has

  10. Embryonic stem-like cells derived from in vitro produced bovine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Regina Leal de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the derivation of bovine embryonic stem-like (ES-like cells from the inner cell mass (ICM of in vitro produced blastocysts. The ICMs were mechanically isolated and six out of seventeen (35% ICMs could attach to a monolayer of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. Ten days after, primary outgrowths were mechanically dissected into several small clumps and transferred to a new MEF layer. Cells were further propagated and passaged by physical dissociation over a 60 days period. The pluripotency of the bovine ES-like cells was confirmed by RT-PCR of Oct-4 and STAT-3 gene markers. The colonies were weakly stained for alkaline phosphatase and the mesoderm and endoderm differentiation gene markers such as GATA-4 and Flk-1, respectively, were not expressed. Embryoid bodies were spontaneously formed at the seventh passage. Results showed that bovine ES-like cells could be obtained and passaged by mechanical procedures from the fresh in vitro produced blastocysts.

  11. Iterative reconstruction using a Monte Carlo based system transfer matrix for dedicated breast positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Krishnendu; Straus, Kenneth J.; Glick, Stephen J.; Chen, Yu.

    2014-01-01

    To maximize sensitivity, it is desirable that ring Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems dedicated for imaging the breast have a small bore. Unfortunately, due to parallax error this causes substantial degradation in spatial resolution for objects near the periphery of the breast. In this work, a framework for computing and incorporating an accurate system matrix into iterative reconstruction is presented in an effort to reduce spatial resolution degradation towards the periphery of the breast. The GATE Monte Carlo Simulation software was utilized to accurately model the system matrix for a breast PET system. A strategy for increasing the count statistics in the system matrix computation and for reducing the system element storage space was used by calculating only a subset of matrix elements and then estimating the rest of the elements by using the geometric symmetry of the cylindrical scanner. To implement this strategy, polar voxel basis functions were used to represent the object, resulting in a block-circulant system matrix. Simulation studies using a breast PET scanner model with ring geometry demonstrated improved contrast at 45% reduced noise level and 1.5 to 3 times resolution performance improvement when compared to MLEM reconstruction using a simple line-integral model. The GATE based system matrix reconstruction technique promises to improve resolution and noise performance and reduce image distortion at FOV periphery compared to line-integral based system matrix reconstruction

  12. Iterative reconstruction using a Monte Carlo based system transfer matrix for dedicated breast positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Krishnendu [Ohio Medical Physics Consulting, Dublin, Ohio 43017 (United States); Straus, Kenneth J.; Glick, Stephen J. [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Chen, Yu. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    To maximize sensitivity, it is desirable that ring Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems dedicated for imaging the breast have a small bore. Unfortunately, due to parallax error this causes substantial degradation in spatial resolution for objects near the periphery of the breast. In this work, a framework for computing and incorporating an accurate system matrix into iterative reconstruction is presented in an effort to reduce spatial resolution degradation towards the periphery of the breast. The GATE Monte Carlo Simulation software was utilized to accurately model the system matrix for a breast PET system. A strategy for increasing the count statistics in the system matrix computation and for reducing the system element storage space was used by calculating only a subset of matrix elements and then estimating the rest of the elements by using the geometric symmetry of the cylindrical scanner. To implement this strategy, polar voxel basis functions were used to represent the object, resulting in a block-circulant system matrix. Simulation studies using a breast PET scanner model with ring geometry demonstrated improved contrast at 45% reduced noise level and 1.5 to 3 times resolution performance improvement when compared to MLEM reconstruction using a simple line-integral model. The GATE based system matrix reconstruction technique promises to improve resolution and noise performance and reduce image distortion at FOV periphery compared to line-integral based system matrix reconstruction.

  13. A mini-invasive adductor magnus tendon transfer technique for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Petri J; Mäenpää, Heikki M; Mattila, Ville M; Visuri, Tuomo; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2009-05-01

    Patellar dislocations are associated with injuries to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Several techniques for MPFL reconstruction have been recently published with some disadvantages involved, including large skin incisions and donor site morbidity. Arthroscopic stabilizing techniques carry the potential of inadequate restoration of MPFL function. We present a minimally invasive technique for MPFL reconstruction using adductor magnus tendon autograft. This technique is easily performed, safe, and provides a stabilizing effect equal to current MPFL reconstructions. Skin incision of only 3-4 cm is located at the level of the proximal half of the patella. After identifying the distal insertion of the adductor magnus tendon, a tendon harvester is introduced to harvest the medial two-thirds of the tendon, while the distal insertion is left intact. The adductor magnus tendon is cut at 12-14 cm from its distal insertion and transferred into the patellar medial margin. Two suture anchors are inserted through the same incision at the superomedial aspect of the patella in the anatomic MPFL origin. The graft is tightened at 30 degrees knee flexion. Aftercare includes 4 weeks of brace treatment with restricted range of motion.

  14. First cloned Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus calf produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer: A step towards preserving the critically endangered wild Bactrian camels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad Wani

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to explore the possibility of employing dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT embryos using skin fibroblast cells of an adult Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus and Llama (Llama glama as donor nuclei. Also, the embryos reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred into the uterus of synchronized dromedary camel recipients to explore the possibility of using them as surrogate mothers. Serum-starved skin fibroblast cells were injected into the perivitelline space of enucleated mature oocytes, collected from super-stimulated dromedary camels, and fused using an Eppendorf electroporator. After activation with 5μM ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine, they were cultured at 38.5°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 in air. In experiment 1, Day 7 blastocysts were stained with Hoechst to count their cell numbers, while in experiment 2, they were transferred to synchronized dromedary recipients. A lower number (P < 0.05 of blastocysts were obtained from reconstructs utilizing fibroblast cells from Llama when compared with those reconstructed with dromedary and Bactrian fibroblast cells. However, no difference was observed in their cell numbers. In experiment 2, a higher (P < 0.05 proportion of blastocysts were obtained from the cleaved embryos reconstructed with Bactrian fibroblast cells when compared to those reconstructed with dromedary cells. Twenty-six Day 7 blastocysts reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred to 23 synchronized dromedary recipients with 5 pregnancies established on Day 30, however, only one of the pregnancies developed to term and a healthy calf weighing 33 kgs was born after completing 392 days of gestation. Unfortunately, the calf died on day 7 due to acute septicemia. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, birth of a cloned Bactrian calf by iSCNT using

  15. Recipient Vessel Selection in Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Free Abdominal Tissue Transfer after Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jun Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM is gaining popularity due to its superior aesthetic results. When reconstructing the breast with free abdominal tissue transfer, we must readdress the recipient vessel, because NSM can cause difficulty in access to the chest vessel.MethodsBetween June 2006 and March 2011, a total of 92 women underwent NSM with free abdominal tissue transfer. A lateral oblique incision was used for the nipple-sparing mastectomy. For recipient vessels, the internal mammary vessels were chosen if the mastectomy flap did not block access to the vessels. If it did, the thoracodorsal vessels were used. Age, degree of breast ptosis, weight of the mastectomy specimen, and related complications of the internal mammary vessel group and the thoracodorsal vessel group were compared.ResultsThoracodorsal vessels were used as recipient vessels in 59 cases, and internal mammary vessels in 33 cases including 4 cases with perforators of the internal mammary vessels. Breast reconstruction was successful in all cases except one case involving a total flap failure, which was replaced by a silicone gel implant. The internal mammary group and the thoracodorsal group were similar in terms of age, height, breast weight, and degree of ptosis. The flap related complications such as flap loss and take-back operation rates were not significantly different between the two groups. The rate of nipple necrosis was higher in the internal mammary group.ConclusionsThe thoracodorsal vessels could produce comparable outcomes in breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomies. If access to internal mammary vessels is difficult, the thoracodorsal vessel can be a better choice.

  16. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  17. Free tissue transfer versus pedicled flap reconstruction of head and neck malignancy defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: With the advent of microsurgery the pedicled flap is considered by many to be an outdated surgical option. AIMS: To explore the relationship between flap survival and pre-morbid risk factors, conduct a comparative analysis of flap and systemic morbidities and complete a cosmesis and functionality assessment for oral and oropharyngeal reconstruction patients. METHODS: 114 patients, over a 13-year period, who had a one-stage reconstructive procedure employing the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) or radial forearm-free flap (RFFF). RESULTS: Variables, including age, smoking and radiation exposure were not statistically significant predictors of flap survival probability. Atelectasis was a significant post-op finding of RFFF patients. Flap dehiscence of >50% was a significant morbidity of PMMF. No statistical difference in cosmetic deformity, diet and socialisation was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap remains an enduring and safe flap; however, the RFFF has markedly improved speech performance over the PMMF.

  18. Ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft transfer for reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gougoulias Nikolaos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many techniques have been developed for the reconstruction of the Achilles tendon in chronic tears. In presence of a large gap (greater than 6 centimetres, tendon augmentation is required. Methods We present our method of minimally invasive semitendinosus reconstruction for the Achilles tendon using one para-midline and one midline incision. Results The first incision is a 5 cm longitudinal incision, made 2 cm proximal and just medial to the palpable end of the residual tendon. The second incision is 3 cm long and is also longitudinal but is 2 cm distal and in the midline to the distal end of the tendon rupture. The distal and proximal Achilles tendon stumps are mobilised. After trying to reduce the gap of the ruptured Achilles tendon, if the gap produced is greater than 6 cm despite maximal plantar flexion of the ankle and traction on the Achilles tendon stumps, the ipsilateral semitendinosus tendon is harvested. The semitendinosus tendon is passed through small incisions in the substance of the proximal stump of the Achilles tendon, and it is sutured to the Achilles tendon. It is then passed beneath the intact skin bridge into the distal incision, and passed from medial to lateral through a transverse tenotomy in the distal stump. With the ankle in maximal plantar flexion, the semitendinosus tendon is sutured to the Achilles tendon at each entry and exit point Conclusion This minimally invasive technique allows reconstruction of the Achilles tendon using the tendon of semitendinosus preserving skin integrity over the site most prone to wound breakdown, and can be especially used to reconstruct the Achilles tendon in the presence of large gap (greater than 6 centimetres.

  19. Establishment of pregnancies with handmade cloning porcine embryos reconstructed with fibroblasts containing an Alzheimer's disease gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, P; Li, J; Du, Y

    2008-01-01

    the in vivo developmental capacity, blastocysts were transferred surgically to synchronized recipients. When using PDGF-APPsw-transgenic minipig fibroblasts, the rate of blastocyst formation (mean ± SEM) was 39 ± 3% (164/424). In comparison, non-transgenic fibroblasts resulted in a blastocyst development......Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) offers the possibility of pig transgenesis. Importantly, specific genetic manipulations can be performed in donor cells before SCNT to derive pig models for specific human genetic diseases, including the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD......). In the present study, we established pregnancies after transfer of SCNT blastocysts produced by the handmade cloning (HMC) technique. The blastocysts were transgenic for a human gene, amyloid precursor protein gene with the 'Swedish mutation' (APPsw), causing AD. For transgenesis, minipig fibroblasts were...

  20. Comparison of symmetry after smile reconstruction for flaccid facial paralysis with combined fascia lata grafts and functional gracilis transfer for static suspension or gracilis transfer alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Jurij; Braig, David; Thiele, Jan R; Bannasch, Holger; Stark, G Björn; Eisenhardt, Steffen U

    2018-03-30

    Facial paralysis has a profound impact on functionality and esthetics of the oral region. In patients with strong skin laxity and soft tissue ptosis, functional smile reconstruction is challenging due to the accentuated asymmetry at rest. Thus, the purpose of the study was to analyze facial symmetry in this patient clientele following a combination of dynamic reanimation with fascial strips for static suspension compared to functional gracilis transfer alone. In 2014, we altered the single-stage approach for microsurgical smile reconstruction in patients with significant soft tissue ptosis by adding fascia lata grafts for static support. We evaluated 6 patients (mean age 57.8 ± 5.2, group A) who underwent the combined procedure, and compared their results to 6 patients with flaccid facial paralysis who were treated before 2014 and received a functional gracilis transfer alone (mean age 52.5 ± 7.5, group B). To test the efficacy of the technique, we retrospectively analyzed the correction of the oral asymmetry as well as nasal and philtral deviation by computer-assisted photograph analysis 6 months postoperatively. The comparative analysis revealed a significant postoperative improvement of the oral asymmetry (A: 90.0 ± 5.0% relative correction at rest vs. B: 62.6 ± 17.2%, P < .05), nasal (A: 0.4 ± 0.2 vs. B: 0.7 ± 0.4 mm, P < .05), and philtral deviation (A: 0.5 ± 0.6 vs. B: 2.8 ± 1.8 mm, P < .05) in group A. The combined procedure for dynamic facial reanimation allows for immediate correction of the oral asymmetry and improves overall outcome in patients with advanced soft tissue ptosis and oral asymmetry at rest. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkasheva, Anastasiya G; Dolgushina, Nataliya V; Romanov, Andrey Yu; Burmenskaya, Olga V; Makarova, Nataliya P; Ibragimova, Espet O; Kalinina, Elena A; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to identify cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction programmes via a prospective case-control study. Blastocysts, donated by couples in assisted reproduction programmes were used. Hatching success assessment was performed after 144-146 h post-fertilization. The mRNA expression levels of cathepsin V (CTSV), GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) and human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 3, 5, 7 and 8 (CGB) genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The odds ratio (OR) of hatching due to zona pellucida (ZP) thickness, oocyte and sperm quality, embryo quality and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes in blastocysts was determined. From 62 blastocysts included in the study, 47 (75.8%) were unable to hatch spontaneously. The ZP thickening, and oocyte and sperm quality did not affect human blastocyst ability to hatch, except the combination of cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic oocyte dysmorphisms (OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 1.45). Hatching-capable blastocysts had higher Gardner scale grade and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes than hatching-incapable blastocysts. The human blastocyst hatching success depends on the blastocyst Gardner grade, but not on ZP and gamete quality. Blastocyst development was regulated by CTSV, GATA3 and CGB gene expression.

  2. A reconstruction problem for a class of phylogenetic networks with lateral gene transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Pons, Joan Carles; Rosselló, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Lateral, or Horizontal, Gene Transfers are a type of asymmetric evolutionary events where genetic material is transferred from one species to another. In this paper we consider LGT networks, a general model of phylogenetic networks with lateral gene transfers which consist, roughly, of a principal rooted tree with its leaves labelled on a set of taxa, and a set of extra secondary arcs between nodes in this tree representing lateral gene transfers. An LGT network gives rise in a natural way to a principal phylogenetic subtree and a set of secondary phylogenetic subtrees, which, roughly, represent, respectively, the main line of evolution of most genes and the secondary lines of evolution through lateral gene transfers. We introduce a set of simple conditions on an LGT network that guarantee that its principal and secondary phylogenetic subtrees are pairwise different and that these subtrees determine, up to isomorphism, the LGT network. We then give an algorithm that, given a set of pairwise different phylogenetic trees [Formula: see text] on the same set of taxa, outputs, when it exists, the LGT network that satisfies these conditions and such that its principal phylogenetic tree is [Formula: see text] and its secondary phylogenetic trees are [Formula: see text].

  3. Reassessing transfer-function performance in sea-level reconstruction based on benthic salt-marsh foraminifera from the Atlantic Coast of NE North America

    OpenAIRE

    EDWARDS, ROBIN JAMES

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED The need to increase the number and distribution of sea-level records spanning the last few hundred years has led to particular interest in developing high-precision, geologically based sea-level reconstructions that capture decimetre and multi-decadal scale changes. Transfer functions for tide level are statistical tools that quantify the vertical relationship between inter-tidal microfossils and elevation within the tidal frame and their use in sea-level reconstruction is growi...

  4. Outcome of triple-tendon transfer, an Eden-Lange variant, to reconstruct trapezius paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Bassem T; Wagner, Eric R

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the technique and evaluates the outcome of the triple-tendon (T3) transfer, an Eden-Lange variant, to the scapula to stabilize the scapulothoracic articulation in the treatment of symptomatic trapezius paralysis. T3 transfers were performed in 22 patients with a history of persistent trapezius paralysis secondary to spinal accessory nerve injury. The indications for surgery included shoulder pain and weakness and limited range of motion of the shoulder. The T3 transfer included transfer of the levator scapulae to the lateral aspect of the spine of the scapula, the rhomboid minor to the spine of the scapula just medial to the levator scapulae insertion, and the rhomboid major to the medial spine of the scapula, including all muscles bony insertions. At an average follow-up of 35 months, winging was corrected in all patients, with improvement of shoulder asymmetry. All patients had significant improvement of pain (P paralysis. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Nuclear Envelope Architecture Using Dual-Color Metal-Induced Energy Transfer Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhik, Anna M; Ruhlandt, Daja; Pfaff, Janine; Karedla, Narain; Chizhik, Alexey I; Gregor, Ingo; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-12-26

    The nuclear envelope, comprising the inner and the outer nuclear membrane, separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm and plays a key role in cellular functions. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are embedded in the nuclear envelope, control transport of macromolecules between the two compartments. Here, using dual-color metal-induced energy transfer (MIET), we determine the axial distance between Lap2β and Nup358 as markers for the inner nuclear membrane and the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, respectively. Using MIET imaging, we reconstruct the 3D profile of the nuclear envelope over the whole basal area, with an axial resolution of a few nanometers. This result demonstrates that optical microscopy can achieve nanometer axial resolution in biological samples and without recourse to complex interferometric approaches.

  6. Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin; Sun, Xiaofang

    2009-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

  7. Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Sun, Xiaofang, E-mail: xiaofangsun@hotmail.com [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2009-04-24

    The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

  8. Dendroclimatic transfer functions revisited: Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period summer temperatures reconstructed using artificial neural networks and linear algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Helama

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Tree-rings tell of past climates. To do so, tree-ring chronologies comprising numerous climate-sensitive living-tree and subfossil time-series need to be "transferred" into palaeoclimate estimates using transfer functions. The purpose of this study is to compare different types of transfer functions, especially linear and nonlinear algorithms. Accordingly, multiple linear regression (MLR, linear scaling (LSC and artificial neural networks (ANN, nonlinear algorithm were compared. Transfer functions were built using a regional tree-ring chronology and instrumental temperature observations from Lapland (northern Finland and Sweden. In addition, conventional MLR was compared with a hybrid model whereby climate was reconstructed separately for short- and long-period timescales prior to combining the bands of timescales into a single hybrid model. The fidelity of the different reconstructions was validated against instrumental climate data. The reconstructions by MLR and ANN showed reliable reconstruction capabilities over the instrumental period (AD 1802–1998. LCS failed to reach reasonable verification statistics and did not qualify as a reliable reconstruction: this was due mainly to exaggeration of the low-frequency climatic variance. Over this instrumental period, the reconstructed low-frequency amplitudes of climate variability were rather similar by MLR and ANN. Notably greater differences between the models were found over the actual reconstruction period (AD 802–1801. A marked temperature decline, as reconstructed by MLR, from the Medieval Warm Period (AD 931–1180 to the Little Ice Age (AD 1601–1850, was evident in all the models. This decline was approx. 0.5°C as reconstructed by MLR. Different ANN based palaeotemperatures showed simultaneous cooling of 0.2 to 0.5°C, depending on algorithm. The hybrid MLR did not seem to provide further benefit above conventional MLR in our sample. The robustness of the conventional MLR over the

  9. Consistent and reproducible outcomes of blastocyst biopsy and aneuploidy screening across different biopsy practitioners: a multicentre study involving 2586 embryo biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Cimadomo, Danilo; Maggiulli, Roberta; Patassini, Cristina; Dusi, Ludovica; Sanges, Federica; Buffo, Laura; Venturella, Roberta; Rienzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Is blastocyst biopsy and quantitative real-time PCR based comprehensive chromosome screening a consistent and reproducible approach across different biopsy practitioners? The blastocyst biopsy approach provides highly consistent and reproducible laboratory and clinical outcomes across multiple practitioners from different IVF centres when all of the embryologists received identical training and use similar equipment. Recently there has been a trend towards trophectoderm (TE) biopsy in preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)/preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) programmes. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the reproducibility that can be obtained from multiple biopsy practitioners in different IVF centres in relation also to blastocysts of different morphology. Although it has been demonstrated that biopsy at the blastocyst stage has no impact on embryo viability, it remains a possibility that less experienced individual biopsy practitioners or laboratories performing TE biopsy may affect certain outcomes. We investigated whether TE biopsy practitioners can have an impact on the quality of the genetic test and the subsequent clinical outcomes. This longitudinal cohort study, between April 2013 and December 2014, involved 2586 consecutive blastocyst biopsies performed at three different IVF centres and the analysis of 494 single frozen euploid embryo transfer cycles (FEET). Seven biopsy practitioners performed the blastocyst biopsies in the study period and quantitative PCR was used for comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS). The same practitioner performed both the biopsy and tubing procedures for each blastocyst they biopsied. To investigate the quality of the biopsied samples, the diagnostic rate, sample-specific concurrence and the cell number retrieved in the biopsy were evaluated for each biopsy operator. Clinical outcomes following FEET cycles were stratified by biopsy operator and compared. Cellularity of the biopsy sample was also

  10. Free function muscle transfers for upper extremity reconstruction: a review of indications, techniques, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John P; Elliott, River M; Kozin, Scott H; Levin, L Scott

    2013-12-01

    Free functional muscle transfer (FFMT) replaces destroyed, denervated, or resected skeletal muscle units in the upper extremity with functioning skeletal muscle from other locations in the body. Common indications for FFMT include brachial plexus injuries, ischemic contracture, tumor resection, and extensive direct muscle trauma. Recent studies have focused on improving patient outcomes through refinements in muscle flap harvest and inset, donor nerve selection, and postoperative management. In this review, we assess and summarize the current literature on FFMT, with emphasis on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, postoperative management, and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Abductor Reconstruction with Gluteus Maximus Transfer in Primary Abductor Deficiency during Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Se Ang; Cho, Young Ho; Byun, Young Soo; Gu, Tae Hoe

    2016-09-01

    Abductor deficiency in native hip joint may cause severe limping and pain. It is more serious situation in case of arthroplasty due to instability and recurrent dislocation. Well-known causes of abductor deficiency are repeated surgery, chronic trochanteric bursitis, superior gluteal nerve injury, failure of repair of abductor tendon insertion to the greater trochanter. Author had experienced primary abductor deficiency during total hip replacement and treated successfully with the transfer of gluteus maximus. We'd like to introduce the operation technique with the review of literature.

  12. Cellular and genetic analysis of mouse blastocyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, R A; Spindle, A I

    1979-01-01

    The development of mouse embryos was studied by both cellular and genetic approaches. In the cellular analysis, determination of cell fate in blastocysts and in cell populations derived from them was studied in an attempt to estimate the time that these cells become committed to their fate. In the genetic analysis, existing mutations that are lethal to mouse embryos were used to discern essential features of early development. In this review, the timing of cell determination in the inner cell mass and the primary ectoderm, and the manifestation of defects in mouse embryos that are homozygous for the A/sup y/ allele of the agouti locus were considered.

  13. Reassessing transfer-function performance in sea-level reconstruction based on benthic salt-marsh foraminifera from the Atlantic coast of NE North America.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, A.; Edwards, R.J.; van de Plassche, O.

    2011-01-01

    The need to increase the number and distribution of sea-level records spanning the last few hundred years has led to particular interest in developing high-precision, geologically based sea-level reconstructions that capture decimetre and multi-decadal scale changes. Transfer functions for tide

  14. PET/CT (and CT) instrumentation, image reconstruction and data transfer for radiotherapy planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattler, Bernhard; Lee, John A; Lonsdale, Markus

    2010-01-01

    , especially when transferring data across the (network-) borders of different hospitals. Overall, the most important precondition for successful integration of functional imaging in RT treatment planning is the goal orientated as well as close and thorough communication between nuclear medicine......The positron emission tomography in combination with CT in hybrid, cross-modality imaging systems (PET/CT) gains more and more importance as a part of the treatment-planning procedure in radiotherapy. Positron emission tomography (PET), as a integral part of nuclear medicine imaging and non......-invasive imaging technique, offers the visualization and quantification of pre-selected tracer metabolism. In combination with the structural information from CT, this molecular imaging technique has great potential to support and improve the outcome of the treatment-planning procedure prior to radiotherapy...

  15. Untangling hybrid phylogenetic signals: horizontal gene transfer and artifacts of phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiko, Robert G; Ragan, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenomic methods can be used to investigate the tangled evolutionary relationships among genomes. Building 'all the trees of all the genes' can potentially identify common pathways of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among taxa at varying levels of phylogenetic depth. Phylogenetic affinities can be aggregated and merged with the information about genetic linkage and biochemical function to examine hypotheses of adaptive evolution via HGT. Additionally, the use of many genetic data sets increases the power of statistical tests for phylogenetic artifacts. However, large-scale phylogenetic analyses pose several challenges, including the necessary abandonment of manual validation techniques, the need to translate inferred phylogenetic discordance into inferred HGT events, and the challenges involved in aggregating results from search-based inference methods. In this chapter we describe a tree search procedure to recover the most parsimonious pathways of HGT, and examine some of the assumptions that are made by this method.

  16. An expanded ostracod-based conductivity transfer function for climate reconstruction in the Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Steffen; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Al-Saqarat, Bety; Rosenfeld, Arik; Elyashiv, Hadar; Boomer, Ian; Stein, Mordechai; Lev, Lilach; Ito, Emi

    2014-06-01

    We present the first modern calibration dataset linking ostracod assemblage composition to water chemistry, and other site-specific variables, in the hydrologically and geopolitically sensitive southern Levant region. A total of 42 ostracod taxa were recorded from the 178 sampled sites in Israel and Jordan. Ilyocypris spp., Heterocypris salina and Cypridopsis vidua are the most abundant taxa. Species strictly confined to freshwater conditions are Prionocypris zenkeri, Gomphocythere ortali and Prionocypris olivaceus. In contrast, H. salina, Bradleytriebella lineata and Cyprideis torosa show high frequencies in brackish waters (waters with higher conductivity). Humphcypris subterranea, G. ortali, P. olivaceus and Cypridopsis elongata apparently prefer flowing waters. Specific conductivity optima and tolerance ranges were calculated for the recorded ostracod species and may be used for the palaeoenvironmental assessment of fossil ostracod assemblages. In addition, a transfer-function for quantitative specific conductivity estimation based on 141 samples was established with weighted averaging partial least squares regression (WA-PLS). The resulting coefficient of determination r2 between observed and predicted conductivity values (0.72) and the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) in % gradient length (13.1) indicate that conductivity may be reliably estimated from ostracod assemblage data. The transfer function was first applied to last glacial ostracod assemblage data from an archaeological trench in the Sea of Galilee (northern Israel). Relatively large conductivity fluctuations between ca 1 and 7 mS cm-1 were inferred for the period 24-20 cal ka BP. In addition, four episodes of freshwater influx near the site of the trench were identified from the presence of shells of freshwater and stream-dwelling species intermingled with very abundant shells of Cyprideis torosa. The results of our study allow a better use of Quaternary ostracods from the Levant as

  17. PET/CT (and CT) instrumentation, image reconstruction and data transfer for radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Bernhard; Lee, John A.; Lonsdale, Markus; Coche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    computed tomography (CT) are used to communicate the actual image data created by the modalities. Care must be taken for data security, especially when transferring data across the (network-) borders of different hospitals. Overall, the most important precondition for successful integration of functional imaging in RT treatment planning is the goal orientated as well as close and thorough communication between nuclear medicine and radiotherapy departments on all levels of interaction (personnel, imaging protocols, GTV delineation, and selection of the data transfer method).

  18. Uterine micro-environment and estrogen-dependent regulation of osteopontin expression in mouse blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing-Zhen; Qi, Qian-Rong; Chen, Ying-Xian; Xu, Wang-Ming; Liu, Qian; Yang, Jing

    2013-07-11

    Embryo implantation is a highly synchronized bioprocess between an activated blastocyst and a receptive uterus. In mice, successful implantation relies on the dynamic interplay of estrogen and progesterone; however, the key mediators downstream of these hormones that act on blastocyst competency and endometrium receptivity acquisition are largely unknown. In this study, we showed that the expression of osteopontin (OPN) in mouse blastocysts is regulated by ovarian estrogen and uterine micro-environment. OPN mRNA is up-regulated in mouse blastocyst on day 4 of pregnancy, which is associated with ovarian estrogen secretion peak. Hormone treatment in vivo demonstrated that OPN expression in a blastocyst is regulated by estrogen through an estrogen receptor (ER). Our results of the delayed and activated implantation model showed that OPN expression is induced after estrogen injection. While estrogen treatment during embryo culture in vitro showed less effect on OPN expression, the tubal ligation model on day 3 of pregnancy confirmed that the regulation of estrogen on OPN expression in blastocyst might, through some specific cytokines, have existed in a uterine micro-environment. Collectively, our study presents that estrogen regulates OPN expression and it may play an important role during embryo implantation by activating blastocyst competence and facilitating the endometrium acceptable for active blastocyst.

  19. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on lamb oocyte blastocyst rate, ultrastructure, and mitochondrial DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Karen L; Cox, Neil R; Stanton, Jo-Ann L; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    Viable lambs can be produced after transfer of in vitro-derived embryos from oocytes harvested from prepubertal lambs. However, this occurs at a much lower efficiency than from adult ewe oocyte donors. The reduced competence of prepubertal oocytes is believed to be due, at least in part, to deficiencies in cytoplasmic maturation. Differences in the cytoplasmic ultrastructure between prepubertal and adult oocytes have been described in the sheep, pig, and cow. Prepubertal lamb oocytes have been shown to have a different distribution of mitochondria and lipid droplets, and less mitochondria and storage vesicles than their adult counterparts. L-carnitine plays a role in supplying energy to the cell by transporting long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for β-oxidation to produce ATP. Both L-carnitine and its derivative acetyl-L-carnitine have been reported to increase the blastocyst rate of oocytes from mice, cows, and pigs, treated during IVM. L-carnitine has also been shown to increase mitochondrial biogenesis in adipose cells. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine if treatment of oocytes from prepubertal lambs with acetyl-L-carnitine during IVM could increase the blastocyst rate and alter mitochondria, vesicle, or lipid droplet number, volume, or distribution. The blastocyst rate was doubled in prepubertal lamb oocytes treated with acetyl-L-carnitine when compared to untreated oocytes (10.0% and 4.6%, respectively; P = 0.028). Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and stereology techniques were used to quantify organelles in untreated and acetyl-L-carnitine-treated lamb oocytes, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods were used to measure the mitochondrial DNA copy number. There were no differences in mitochondrial volume, number, or mitochondrial DNA copy number. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment increased the cytoplasmic volume (P = 0.015) of the oocytes, and there were trends toward an increase in the vesicle volume (P = 0

  20. Phylogeny Reconstruction with Alignment-Free Method That Corrects for Horizontal Gene Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bromberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing have generated a large number of complete genomes. Traditionally, phylogenetic analysis relies on alignments of orthologs, but defining orthologs and separating them from paralogs is a complex task that may not always be suited to the large datasets of the future. An alternative to traditional, alignment-based approaches are whole-genome, alignment-free methods. These methods are scalable and require minimal manual intervention. We developed SlopeTree, a new alignment-free method that estimates evolutionary distances by measuring the decay of exact substring matches as a function of match length. SlopeTree corrects for horizontal gene transfer, for composition variation and low complexity sequences, and for branch-length nonlinearity caused by multiple mutations at the same site. We tested SlopeTree on 495 bacteria, 73 archaea, and 72 strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella. We compared our trees to the NCBI taxonomy, to trees based on concatenated alignments, and to trees produced by other alignment-free methods. The results were consistent with current knowledge about prokaryotic evolution. We assessed differences in tree topology over different methods and settings and found that the majority of bacteria and archaea have a core set of proteins that evolves by descent. In trees built from complete genomes rather than sets of core genes, we observed some grouping by phenotype rather than phylogeny, for instance with a cluster of sulfur-reducing thermophilic bacteria coming together irrespective of their phyla. The source-code for SlopeTree is available at: http://prodata.swmed.edu/download/pub/slopetree_v1/slopetree.tar.gz.

  1. Phylogeny Reconstruction with Alignment-Free Method That Corrects for Horizontal Gene Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Nick V.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek

    2016-01-01

    Advances in sequencing have generated a large number of complete genomes. Traditionally, phylogenetic analysis relies on alignments of orthologs, but defining orthologs and separating them from paralogs is a complex task that may not always be suited to the large datasets of the future. An alternative to traditional, alignment-based approaches are whole-genome, alignment-free methods. These methods are scalable and require minimal manual intervention. We developed SlopeTree, a new alignment-free method that estimates evolutionary distances by measuring the decay of exact substring matches as a function of match length. SlopeTree corrects for horizontal gene transfer, for composition variation and low complexity sequences, and for branch-length nonlinearity caused by multiple mutations at the same site. We tested SlopeTree on 495 bacteria, 73 archaea, and 72 strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella. We compared our trees to the NCBI taxonomy, to trees based on concatenated alignments, and to trees produced by other alignment-free methods. The results were consistent with current knowledge about prokaryotic evolution. We assessed differences in tree topology over different methods and settings and found that the majority of bacteria and archaea have a core set of proteins that evolves by descent. In trees built from complete genomes rather than sets of core genes, we observed some grouping by phenotype rather than phylogeny, for instance with a cluster of sulfur-reducing thermophilic bacteria coming together irrespective of their phyla. The source-code for SlopeTree is available at: http://prodata.swmed.edu/download/pub/slopetree_v1/slopetree.tar.gz. PMID:27336403

  2. Recipient Vessel Selection in Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Free Abdominal Tissue Transfer after Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jun Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM is gaining popularity due to its superioraesthetic results. When reconstructing the breast with free abdominal tissue transfer, we mustreaddress the recipient vessel, because NSM can cause difficulty in access to the chest vessel.Methods Between June 2006 and March 2011, a total of 92 women underwent NSM withfree abdominal tissue transfer. A lateral oblique incision was used for the nipple-sparingmastectomy. For recipient vessels, the internal mammary vessels were chosen if the mastectomyflap did not block access to the vessels. If it did, the thoracodorsal vessels were used. Age,degree of breast ptosis, weight of the mastectomy specimen, and related complications of theinternal mammary vessel group and the thoracodorsal vessel group were compared.Results Thoracodorsal vessels were used as recipient vessels in 59 cases, and internal mammaryvessels in 33 cases including 4 cases with perforators of the internal mammary vessels. Breastreconstruction was successful in all cases except one case involving a total flap failure, whichwas replaced by a silicone gel implant. The internal mammary group and the thoracodorsalgroup were similar in terms of age, height, breast weight, and degree of ptosis. The flap relatedcomplications such as flap loss and take-back operation rates were not significantly differentbetween the two groups. The rate of nipple necrosis was higher in the internal mammary group.Conclusions The thoracodorsal vessels could produce comparable outcomes in breastreconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomies. If access to internal mammary vessels isdifficult, the thoracodorsal vessel can be a better choice.

  3. Sequential evaluation for bone union of transferred fibula flaps in reconstructed mandibles: panoramic X-ray versus computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, M; Hashikawa, K; Kakei, Y; Sakakibara, A; Hasegawa, T; Minamikawa, T; Komori, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to sequentially evaluate bone union of fibular grafts in mandibular reconstruction. Patients who underwent routine follow-up computed tomography (CT) and panoramic X-ray imaging during a period of ≥2 years were enrolled. On panoramic X-ray images, bone union was scored as 0 (absent callus formation) or 1 (complete callus formation). On CT images, a scale of 0 to 2 was used (0, absent callus formation; 1, complete callus formation only on the labial side; 2, complete callus formation on both the labial and lingual side). A total of 56 bone junctions were evaluated in 20 patients. Five of 56 junctions (9%) in four of 20 patients (20%) showed radiological non-union (panoramic X-ray score=0, CT score=0 or 1) at 2 years after surgery. All bone junctions with radiological non-union were located at the mandibular angle. No categorical values, including diabetes mellitus and radiation therapy, were significantly associated with radiological non-union. In conclusion, assessing at least two sides (i.e. labial and lingual sides) on CT images is adequate to evaluate bone union in transferred fibula flaps. Careful fixation at the mandibular angle may improve the rate of bone union. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In-straw cryoprotectant dilution of IVP bovine blastocysts vitrified in hand-pulled glass micropipettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A D; Forell, F; Feltrin, C; Rodrigues, J L

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of two ethylene glycol-based vitrification solutions on in vitro and in vivo survival after in-straw cryoprotectant dilution of vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Day-7 expanded blastocysts were selected according to diameter (> or = 180 microm) and osmotic characteristics and randomly assigned to one of three groups (i) VSa: vitrification in 40% EG+17.1% SUC+0.1% PVA; (ii) VSb: vitrification in 20% EG+20% DMSO; (iii) control: non-vitrified embryos. Vitrification was performed in hand-pulled glass micropipettes (GMP) and cryoprotectant dilution in 0.25 ml straws after warming in a plastic tube. Embryo viability was assessed by re-expansion and hatching rates after 72 h of IVC and by pregnancy rates after direct transfer of vitrified embryos. No differences in re-expansion rates were observed between vitrified groups after 24 h in culture (VSa=84.5%; VSb=94.8%). However, fewer VSa embryos (55.2%, Pstraw cryoprotectant dilution and direct embryo transfer.

  5. Two-staged nuclear transfer can enhance the developmental ability of goat-sheep interspecies nuclear transfer embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Bing; Cai, Lu; Li, Jia-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Li; Ji, Feng-Yu

    2011-02-01

    The technique of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which interspecies cloned embryos can be reconstructed by using domestic animal oocytes as nuclear recipients and endangered animal or human somatic cells as nuclear donors, can afford more opportunities in endangered animal rescue and human tissue transplantation, but the application of this technique is limited by extremely low efficiency which may be attributed to donor nucleus not fully reprogrammed by xenogenic cytoplasm. In this study, goat fetal fibroblasts (GFFs) were used as nuclear donors, in vitro-matured sheep oocytes were used as nuclear recipients, and a two-stage nuclear transfer procedure was performed to improve the developmental ability of goat-sheep interspecies clone embryos. In the first stage nuclear transfer (FSNT), GFFs were injected into the ooplasm of enucleated sheep metaphase-II oocytes, then non-activated reconstructed embryos were cultured in vitro, so that the donor nucleus could be exposed to the ooplasm for a period of time. Subsequently, in the second stage nuclear transfer, FSNT-derived non-activated reconstructed embryo was centrifuged, and the donor nucleus was then transferred into another freshly enucleated sheep oocyte. Compared with the one-stage nuclear transfer, two-stage nuclear transfer could significantly enhance the blastocyst rate of goat-sheep interspecies clone embryos, and this result indicated that longtime exposure to xenogenic ooplasm benefits the donor nucleus to be reprogrammed. The two-stage nuclear transfer procedure has two advantages, one is that the donor nucleus can be exposed to the ooplasm for a long time, the other is that the problem of oocyte aging can be solved.

  6. Recent sea-level changes in the southern Bay of Biscay: transfer function reconstructions from salt-marshes compared with instrumental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leorri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the accuracy and regional significance of salt-marsh reconstructions of former sea level based on foraminiferal transfer functions, we compared the calibration of the foraminiferal assemblages of two salt-marsh cores from two estuaries using the regional transfer function constructed for the southern Bay of Biscay. The foraminifera-based reconstructions were placed into a temporal framework using 137Cs, heavy metal concentrations, and 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates. The resulting relative sea-level (RSL curves were compared with the nearest tide-gauge data (Santander. The two RSL trends from core sediments show excellent agreement and are in very good agreement with instrumental data, providing a regional relative sea-level rise of 1.9 mm yr-1 for the 20th century.

  7. Distinct differences in global gene expression profiles in non-implanted blastocysts and blastocysts resulting in live birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Villesen, Palle; Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2015-01-01

    Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related to clini......Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related...... to clinical outcome. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the global gene expression profiles of human blastocysts. Next Generation Sequencing was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in non-implanted embryos and embryos resulting in live birth. Three trophectoderm...

  8. RNA-Seq analysis uncovers transcriptomic variations between morphologically similar in vivo- and in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driver Ashley M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A valuable tool for both research and industry, in vitro fertilization (IVF has applications range from gamete selection and preservation of traits to cloning. Although IVF has achieved worldwide use, with approximately 339,685 bovine embryos transferred in 2010 alone, there are still continuing difficulties with efficiency. It is rare to have more than 40% of fertilized in vitro cattle oocytes reach blastocyst stage by day 8 of culture, and pregnancy rates are reported as less than 45% for in vitro produced embryos. To investigate potential influences in-vitro fertilization (IVF has on embryonic development, this study compares in vivo- and in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts at a similar stage and quality grade (expanded, excellent quality to determine the degree of transcriptomic variation beyond morphology using RNA-Seq. Results A total of 26,906,451 and 38,184,547 fragments were sequenced for in vitro and in vivo embryo pools, respectively. We detected expression for a total of 17,634 genes, with 793 genes showing differential expression between the two embryo populations with false discovery rate (FDR Conclusions Thus, our results support that IVF may influence at the transcriptomic level and that morphology is limited in full characterization of bovine preimplantation embryos.

  9. Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrick Jason R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cats offers a useful tool for the generation of valuable research models. However, low birth rates after nuclear transfer hamper exploitation of the full potential of the technology. Poor embryo development after activation of the reconstructed oocytes seems to be responsible, at least in part, for the low efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the response of cat oocytes to various stimuli in order to fine-tune existing and possibly develop new activation methods for the generation of cat disease models by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Methods First, changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in the oocytes induced by a number of artificial stimuli were characterized. The stimuli included electroporation, ethanol, ionomycin, thimerosal, strontium-chloride and sodium (Na+-free medium. The potential of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then evaluated. Finally, the most effective methods were selected to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer with fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis I- and alpha-mannosidosis-affected cats. Results All treatments were able to elicit a [Ca2+]i elevation in the ooplasm with various characteristics. Pronuclear formation and development up to the blastocyst stage was most efficiently triggered by electroporation (60.5 +/- 2.9 and 11.5 +/- 1.7% and the combined thimerosal/DTT treatment (67.7 +/- 1.8 and 10.6 +/- 1.9%; incubation of the stimulated oocytes with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B had a positive effect on embryo development. When these two methods were used to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer, up to 84.9% of the reconstructed oocytes cleaved. When the 2 to 4-cell embryos (a total of 220 were

  10. Accumulation of RNA in blastocysts during embryonic diapause and the periimplantation period in the western spotted skunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, R.A.; Rourke, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The in vivo incorporation of 3 H-uridine into RNA was studied in delayed implanting and activated blastocysts obtained from 33 western spotted skunks. 3 H-uridine was incorporated into RNA by all blastocysts; however, significantly more label was incorporated as blastocyst diameter increased. Activated blastocysts with diameters of 1.6 mm or greater on average incorporated 65 times more 3 H-precursor in 5 hr than diapausing blastocysts with diameters of 1.1 mm or less. Polyadenylated RNA was likewise synthesized by delayed implanting and activated skunk blastocysts; however, the proportion of polyadenylated RNA synthesized by the former was greater than in the latter. The data suggest that the transition from embryonic diapause to fully activated blastocysts first occurs gradually for several days before entering a 1-2-day period of rapid development characterized by an abrupt increase in RNA accumulation

  11. The transfer of diatoms from freshwater to footwear materials: An experimental study assessing transfer, persistence, and extraction methods for forensic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E A; Morgan, R M; Scott, K R; Jones, V J

    2017-09-01

    . However, some samples produced slides with no valves, and the earliest time after which no diatom valves were found was 4h after the transfer. Analysis of the particle size distributions over time, by image analysis, suggests that the retention of diatoms may be size-selective; after 168h, no particles larger than 200μm 2 could be found on the samples of canvas, and >95% of the particles on the samples of suede were less than or equal to 200μm 2 . A pilot investigation into the effects of immersion interval was carried out upon samples of canvas. Greater numbers of valves were extracted from the samples with longer immersion intervals, but even after 30s, >500 valves could be recovered per cm 2 , suggesting that footwear may be sampled for diatoms even if the contact with a water body may have been brief. These findings indicate that, if the variability within and between experimental runs can be addressed, there is significant potential for diatoms to be incorporated into the trace analysis of footwear and assist forensic reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of two activation treatments and age of blastomere karyoplasts on in vitro development of bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; Holm, P; Vajta, G

    2001-01-01

    The yield and quality of (a) parthenogenetic blastocysts produced by two activation treatments (cycloheximide [CHX] or 6-dimethylaminopurine [DMAP]) and (b) nuclear transfer blastocysts generated using these two activation treatments and three different ages of karyoplast derived from day 3, 4, o...

  13. Automatized image processing of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro for quantitative variable determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, José Celso; Passalia, Felipe José; Matos, Felipe Delestro; Takahashi, Maria Beatriz; Maserati, Marc Peter, Jr.; Alves, Mayra Fernanda; de Almeida, Tamie Guibu; Cardoso, Bruna Lopes; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Nogueira, Marcelo Fábio Gouveia

    2017-12-01

    There is currently no objective, real-time and non-invasive method for evaluating the quality of mammalian embryos. In this study, we processed images of in vitro produced bovine blastocysts to obtain a deeper comprehension of the embryonic morphological aspects that are related to the standard evaluation of blastocysts. Information was extracted from 482 digital images of blastocysts. The resulting imaging data were individually evaluated by three experienced embryologists who graded their quality. To avoid evaluation bias, each image was related to the modal value of the evaluations. Automated image processing produced 36 quantitative variables for each image. The images, the modal and individual quality grades, and the variables extracted could potentially be used in the development of artificial intelligence techniques (e.g., evolutionary algorithms and artificial neural networks), multivariate modelling and the study of defined structures of the whole blastocyst.

  14. The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocyst-endometrial interacttions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A; tin-Ley, U; Ravn, V

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the anti-P Org 31710 on human blastocyst attachment to cultured endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Eleven fertile endometrial donors. INTERVENTION(S): Timed endometrial biopsy for cell......(3) on endometrial epithelial cells examined by immunohistochemistry. Endometrial pinopodes visualized by scanning electron microscopy. RESULT(S): Eleven of 16 human blastocysts attached to control cultures, whereas none of 10 blastocysts attached when Org 31710 was added to the culture medium (P...... statistical significance. The presence of swollen microvilli, precursors of endometrial pinopodes, was significantly reduced on cultures with Org 31710 (P=.03). CONCLUSION(S): The study presents a model for human blastocyst-endometrial interactions responding to an anti-P drug. The exact mechanism...

  15. Human Blastocyst Secreted microRNA Regulate Endometrial Epithelial Cell Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Cuman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Successful embryo implantation requires synchronous development and communication between the blastocyst and the endometrium, however the mechanisms of communication in humans are virtually unknown. Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRs are present in bodily fluids and secreted by cells in culture. We have identified that human blastocysts differentially secrete miRs in a pattern associated with their implantation outcome. miR-661 was the most highly expressed miR in blastocyst culture media (BCM from blastocysts that failed to implant (non-implanted compared to blastocysts that implanted (implanted. Our results indicate a possible role for Argonaute 1 in the transport of miR-661 in non-implanted BCM and taken up by primary human endometrial epithelial cells (HEECs. miR-661 uptake by HEEC reduced trophoblast cell line spheroid attachment to HEEC via PVRL1. Our results suggest that human blastocysts alter the endometrial epithelial adhesion, the initiating event of implantation, via the secretion of miR, abnormalities in which result in implantation failure.

  16. Axillary nerve injury in young adults-An overlooked diagnosis? Early results of nerve reconstruction and nerve transfers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlin, Lars; Cöster, Marcus; Björkman, Anders; Backman, Clas

    2012-01-01

    An injury to the axillary nerve from a shoulder trauma can easily be overlooked. Spontaneous functional recovery may occur, but occasionally reconstructive surgery is required. The time frame for nerve reconstruction procedures is from a neurobiological view crucial for a good functional outcome. This study presents a group of operatively and non-operatively treated young adults with axillary nerve injuries caused by motorcycle accidents, where the diagnosis was set late. Ten young men (media...

  17. Reconstruction of LPS Transfer Cascade Reveals Structural Determinants within LBP, CD14, and TLR4-MD2 for Efficient LPS Recognition and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Je-Kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Rah, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Ji In; Jung, Hi Eun; Lee, Dongsun; Lee, Heung Kyu; Lee, Jie-Oh; Park, Beom Seok; Yoon, Tae-Young; Kim, Ho Min

    2017-01-17

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, binds Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MD2 complex and activates innate immune responses. LPS transfer to TLR4-MD2 is catalyzed by both LPS binding protein (LBP) and CD14. To define the sequential molecular interactions underlying this transfer, we reconstituted in vitro the entire LPS transfer process from LPS micelles to TLR4-MD2. Using electron microscopy and single-molecule approaches, we characterized the dynamic intermediate complexes for LPS transfer: LBP-LPS micelles, CD14-LBP-LPS micelle, and CD14-LPS-TLR4-MD2 complex. A single LBP molecule bound longitudinally to LPS micelles catalyzed multi-rounds of LPS transfer to CD14s that rapidly dissociated from LPB-LPS complex upon LPS transfer via electrostatic interactions. Subsequently, the single LPS molecule bound to CD14 was transferred to TLR4-MD2 in a TLR4-dependent manner. The definition of the structural determinants of the LPS transfer cascade to TLR4 may enable the development of targeted therapeutics for intervention in LPS-induced sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Free microvascular transfer of the vermiform appendix for creation of a tracheo-oesophageal fistula: A new method of voice reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-C; Mardini, S; Salgado, C J; Ozkan, O; Yang, C-W; Hou, W H

    2006-01-01

    Voice rehabilitation following laryngectomy can take many forms. As its basic premise, vibrating air must be transferred to the mouth where articulation takes place and speech can be produced. It requires a source of air, a conduit for transfer, and a mechanism for prevention of regurgitation and aspiration. Creating a tracheo-oesophageal fistula and maintaining it with a vascularised appendix has been the intention of this report. Three patients with an average age of 53 years underwent the procedure of free transfer of the appendix for voice restoration during the months of September 2004 through December 2004. All patients had laryngectomies and one had total cervical oesophageal reconstruction with a pedicled pectoralis major flap. Voice evaluation, swallowing function, and presence of aspiration were evaluated. All flaps survived without complications. The results of swallowing function were unaltered from preoperative levels. All flaps remained patent at an average follow-up period of 8 months. All three patients could produce loud voice, which was intelligible at a reasonable distance. Maximal phonation time was 4s in two patients and 5s in one patient. Voice rehabilitation using the free appendix flap can achieve a phonation time which is low and words and short phrases that are intelligible but limited so far to this level. The donor site morbidity is low and aspiration was not present. The results of this study indicate that this method may have a potential role in voice reconstruction but requires more experience and refinement of this technique.

  19. Computed tomography angiographic study of internal mammary perforators and their use as recipient vessels for free tissue transfer in breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoi, Aditya V; Panchal, Karnav B; Sen, Saugata; Biswas, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    The internal mammary artery perforator vessels (IMPV) as a recipient in free flap breast reconstruction offer advantages over the more commonly used thoracodorsal vessels and the internal mammary vessels (IMV). This study was designed to assess the anatomical consistency of the IMPV and the suitability of these vessels for use as recipients in free flap breast reconstruction. Data from ten randomly selected female patients who did not have any chest wall or breast pathology but had undergone a computed tomography angiography (CTA) for unrelated diagnostic reasons from April 2013 to October 2013 were analysed. Retrospective data of seven patients who had undergone mastectomy for breast cancer and had been primarily reconstructed with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator free flap transfer using the IMPV as recipient vessels were studied. The CTA findings showed that the internal mammary perforator was consistently present in all cases bilaterally. In all cases, the dominant perforator arose from the upper four intercostal spaces (ICS) with the majority (55%) arising from the 2 nd ICS. The mean distance of the perforators from the sternal border at the level of pectoralis muscle surface on the right side was 1.86 cm (range: 0.9-2.5 cm) with a mode value of 1.9 cm. On the left side, a mean of 1.77 cm (range: 1.5-2.1 cm) and a mode value of 1.7 cm were observed. Mean perforator artery diameters on the right and left sides were 2.2 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively. Though the internal mammary perforators are anatomically consistent, their use as recipients in free tissue transfer for breast reconstruction eventually rests on multiple variables.

  20. Computed tomography angiographic study of internal mammary perforators and their use as recipient vessels for free tissue transfer in breast reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya V Kanoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The internal mammary artery perforator vessels (IMPV as a recipient in free flap breast reconstruction offer advantages over the more commonly used thoracodorsal vessels and the internal mammary vessels (IMV. Aims: This study was designed to assess the anatomical consistency of the IMPV and the suitability of these vessels for use as recipients in free flap breast reconstruction. Patients and Methods: Data from ten randomly selected female patients who did not have any chest wall or breast pathology but had undergone a computed tomography angiography (CTA for unrelated diagnostic reasons from April 2013 to October 2013 were analysed. Retrospective data of seven patients who had undergone mastectomy for breast cancer and had been primarily reconstructed with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator free flap transfer using the IMPV as recipient vessels were studied. Results: The CTA findings showed that the internal mammary perforator was consistently present in all cases bilaterally. In all cases, the dominant perforator arose from the upper four intercostal spaces (ICS with the majority (55% arising from the 2nd ICS. The mean distance of the perforators from the sternal border at the level of pectoralis muscle surface on the right side was 1.86 cm (range: 0.9–2.5 cm with a mode value of 1.9 cm. On the left side, a mean of 1.77 cm (range: 1.5–2.1 cm and a mode value of 1.7 cm were observed. Mean perforator artery diameters on the right and left sides were 2.2 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Though the internal mammary perforators are anatomically consistent, their use as recipients in free tissue transfer for breast reconstruction eventually rests on multiple variables.

  1. A predictive model for high-quality blastocyst based on blastomere number, fragmentation, and symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-He; Zhang, Ruo-Peng; Li, Juan; A, Zhou-Cun

    2018-03-03

    The aim of this study was to create a predictive model for high-quality blastocyst progression based on the traditional morphology parameters of embryos. A total of 1564 embryos from 234 women underwent conventional in vitro fertilization and were involved in the present study. High-quality blastocysts were defined as having a grade of at least 3BB, and all embryos were divided based on the development of high-quality blastocysts (group HQ) or the failure to develop high-quality blastocysts (group NHQ). A retrospective analysis of day-3 embryo parameters, focused on blastomere number, fragmentation, the presence of a vacuole, symmetry, and the presence of multinucleated blastomeres was conducted. All parameters were related to high-quality blastocysts (p quality blastocysts. Parameters are indicated by s_bn (blastomere number), s_f (fragmentation), s_pv (presence of a vacuole), s_s (symmetry), and s_MNB (multinucleated blastomeres). Subsequently, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore their relationship. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a predictive model was constructed, and a parameter Hc was created based on the s_bn, s_f, and s_s parameters and their corresponding odds ratios. The value of Hc in group HQ was significantly higher than that in group NHQ. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to test the effectiveness of the model. An area under the curve of 0.790, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.766-0.813, was calculated. A dataset was used to validate the predictive utility of the model. Moreover, another dataset was used to ensure that the model can be applied to predict the implantation of day-3 embryos. A predictive model for high-quality blastocysts was created based on blastomere number, fragmentation, and symmetry. This model provides novel information on the selection of potential embryos.

  2. Superoxide dismutase and taurine supplementation improves in vitro blastocyst yield from poor-quality feline oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochota, Małgorzata; Pasieka, Anna; Niżański, Wojciech

    2016-03-15

    Blastocyst production in vitro seems to be crucial part of assisted reproduction techniques in feline species. However, the results of cats' oocyte maturation and embryo development are still lower than those in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and taurine during maturation or culture would improve the blastocyst yield obtained from lower grades of oocytes, that are usually discarded, as not suitable for further in vitro purposes. To investigate the effect of antioxidants' addition, the good- and poor-quality oocytes, were cultured with the addition of 10-mmol taurine and 600 UI/mL SOD. The nuclear maturity, embryo development, and blastocyst quality were subsequently assessed. In control group, without antioxidant supplementation, significantly less poor-quality oocytes matured (42% vs. 62%) and more degenerated (35% vs. 20%), comparing to the experimental group supplemented with SOD and taurine. The amount of obtained blastocyst was much higher, when poor quality oocytes were supplemented with SOD and taurine (supplementation to IVM-4%; supplementation to IVC-5.5%; supplementation to IVM and IVC-5.9% of blastocyst), comparing to not supplemented control group (1.3%). The best blastocysts were obtained when poor oocytes had antioxidants added only during embryo culture (185 ± 13.4 blastomeres vs. 100 ± 1.5 in control). In the present study, we reported that the lower grades of oocytes can better mature and form significantly more blastocysts with better quality, when cultured with addition of SOD and taurine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of next-generation sequencing technology for comprehensive aneuploidy screening of blastocysts in clinical preimplantation genetic screening cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Francesco; Bono, Sara; Biricik, Anil; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Cotroneo, Ettore; Cottone, Giuliano; Kokocinski, Felix; Michel, Claude-Edouard; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Greco, Ermanno

    2014-12-01

    Can next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques be used reliably for comprehensive aneuploidy screening of human embryos from patients undergoing IVF treatments, with the purpose of identifying and selecting chromosomally normal embryos for transfer? Extensive application of NGS in clinical preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cycles demonstrates that this methodology is reliable, allowing identification and transfer of euploid embryos resulting in ongoing pregnancies. The effectiveness of PGS is dependent upon the biology of the early embryo and the limitations of the technology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, used to test for a few chromosomes, has largely been superseded by microarray techniques that test all 24 chromosomes. Array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) has been demonstrated to be an accurate PGS method and has become the de facto gold standard, but new techniques, such as NGS, continue to emerge. The study consisted of a prospective trial involving a double blind parallel evaluation, with both NGS and array-CGH techniques, of 192 blastocysts obtained from 55 consecutive clinical PGS cycles undertaken during the period of September to October 2013. Consistency of NGS-based aneuploidy detection was assessed by matching the results obtained with array-CGH-based diagnoses. Primary outcome measure was accuracy of the chromosomal analysis; secondary outcome measures were clinical outcomes. Fifty-five patients (median age 39.3 years, range 32-46) undergoing PGS were enrolled in the study. All embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage; trophectoderm biopsy was performed on Day 5 of development or Day 6/7 for slower growing embryos. The method involved whole genome amplification followed by both NGS and array-CGH. The MiSeq control software, real-time analysis and reporter performed on-board primary and secondary bioinformatics analysis. Copy number variation analysis was accomplished with BlueFuse Multi software. A total of 192

  4. The carbon transfer in karst areas - an application to the study of environmental changes and paleoclimatic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Karst areas constitute a large part of Slovenia, with several thousands of caves located in the limestone formations. The karstic caves provide valuable resources for reconstruction of environmental conditions on the continent in the past. This is possible due to the great stability of climatic conditions within a cave. Secondary minerals deposited in caves, known as speleothems, preserve records of long-term climatic and environmental changes at the site of their deposition and in the vicinity. The purity of speleothems and their chemical and physical stability make them exceptionally well suited for detailed geochemical and isotopic analysis.To understand the processes influencing the speleothem isotopic composition, monitoring of cave waters as well as springs and underground rivers is very important for at least one hydrological cycle. In this way we can observe the influence of seasonal changes on the cave waters feeding stalagmite growth laminae. Chemical and environmental parameters which influence speleothem formation are the temperature of air and water, as well as the properties of the water such as pH, electrical conductivity, Ca 2+ , HCO 3 - and Mg 2+ ion concentrations and drip rate. The thickness of the roof above the cave and the types of cave water may also determine the water properties. During one year monthly water samples were collected at three locations in Postojna cave to characterise different types of cave waters (pool, fast and stalactite drip water), and also from the river Pivka and spring Mocilnik. Rainwater samples were also collected and analysed. Dissolved CO 2 and carbonate in cave seepage waters originate from various sources: atmospheric CO 2 , organic matter that decomposes in soil, CO 2 from respiration of plants in the soil, and the dissolution of old layers of limestone. The isotopic composition of speleothems is directly linked with the isotopic composition of CO 2 produced in the soil above the cave. Production of CO 2 in

  5. Free microvascular transfer of the vermiform appendix and colon for creation of a uterovaginal fistula: a new technique for cervicovaginal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuan-Fei; Wang, Chin-Jung; Lee, Chyi-Long; Chen, Hung-Chi; Soong, Yung-Kuei

    2008-01-01

    To report a new technique for creating a uterovaginal fistula in a patient with vaginal dysgenesis, an atretic cervix, and a functional endometrium. Case report. University tertiary care hospital. A patient with an atretic cervix, dysplastic vagina, and a functional uterus. Creation of a neocervix by partial resection of the septum within a didelphic uterus and an uterovaginal fistula by the free microvascular transfer of a vermiform appendix and an 8-cm segment of ascending colon. Clinical follow-up examination to verify restoration of the outflow of menstrual blood and patency of the uterovaginal fistula. The patient commenced menstrual bleeding 8 weeks postoperatively, after which she had regular menstrual cycles. The uterovaginal fistula was patent at the 3-year follow-up examination. Free microvascular transfer of the appendix and ascending colon for creation of an uterovaginal fistula is an improved and superior technique for cervicovaginal reconstruction, with excellent long-term results.

  6. Testing the applicability of a benthic foraminiferal-based transfer function for the reconstruction of paleowater depth changes in Rhodes (Greece) during the early Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milker, Yvonne; Weinkauf, Manuel F G; Titschack, Jürgen; Freiwald, Andre; Krüger, Stefan; Jorissen, Frans J; Schmiedl, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    We present paleo-water depth reconstructions for the Pefka E section deposited on the island of Rhodes (Greece) during the early Pleistocene. For these reconstructions, a transfer function (TF) using modern benthic foraminifera surface samples from the Adriatic and Western Mediterranean Seas has been developed. The TF model gives an overall predictive accuracy of ~50 m over a water depth range of ~1200 m. Two separate TF models for shallower and deeper water depth ranges indicate a good predictive accuracy of 9 m for shallower water depths (0-200 m) but far less accuracy of 130 m for deeper water depths (200-1200 m) due to uneven sampling along the water depth gradient. To test the robustness of the TF, we randomly selected modern samples to develop random TFs, showing that the model is robust for water depths between 20 and 850 m while greater water depths are underestimated. We applied the TF to the Pefka E fossil data set. The goodness-of-fit statistics showed that most fossil samples have a poor to extremely poor fit to water depth. We interpret this as a consequence of a lack of modern analogues for the fossil samples and removed all samples with extremely poor fit. To test the robustness and significance of the reconstructions, we compared them to reconstructions from an alternative TF model based on the modern analogue technique and applied the randomization TF test. We found our estimates to be robust and significant at the 95% confidence level, but we also observed that our estimates are strongly overprinted by orbital, precession-driven changes in paleo-productivity and corrected our estimates by filtering out the precession-related component. We compared our corrected record to reconstructions based on a modified plankton/benthos (P/B) ratio, excluding infaunal species, and to stable oxygen isotope data from the same section, as well as to paleo-water depth estimates for the Lindos Bay Formation of other sediment sections of Rhodes. These comparisons

  7. Blastocyst classification systems used in Latin America: is a consensus possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga-Torres, Tatiana; Blum-Rojas, Xavier; Blum-Narváez, Medardo

    2017-09-01

    To identify different blastocyst classification systems used by embryologists in Latin American countries and evaluate the possibility of establishing a consensus among these countries. An E-mail survey was carried out through the Latin American Network of Assisted Reproduction (REDLARA) aimed at embryologists from assisted reproduction centers in Latin countries. Sixty surveys were collected from 12 Latin American countries, of which 66.7% had >10years of professional practice as embryologists. Seven different blastocyst classification systems were reported, of which 5 have previously been described in the literature. Although the group of embryologists surveyed use different blastocyst classification systems, most in this group consider that the embryo score system should be unified in their countries as well as in the region.

  8. Next generation sequencing for preimplantation genetic testing of blastocysts aneuploidies in women of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lukaszuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current preimplantation genetic screening of aneuploidies tests are based on the low quality and low density comparative genomic hybridization arrays. The results are based on fewer than 2,700 probes. Our main outcome was the association of aneuploidy rates and the women’s age. Between August–December 2013, 198 blastocysts from women (mean age 36.3+-4.6 undergoing in vitro fertilization underwent routine trophectoderm biopsy. NGS was performed on Ion Torrent PGM (Life Technologies. The results were analyzed in five age groups ( 40. 85 blastocysts were normal according to NGS results. The results in the investigated groups were (% of normal blastocyst in each group: 40 (38.5%. Our study suggests that NGS PGD is applicable for routine preimplantation genetic testing. It allows also for easy customization of the procedure for each individual patient making personalized diagnostics a reality.

  9. 309 proteomic analysis of the blastocoel fluid and remaining cells of bovine blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P L; Groendahl, M L; Beck, Helle

    2012-01-01

    such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and spinal cord injury. One of today's challenges in regenerative medicine is to define proper culture conditions for hESC. The natural milieu in the blastocyst may provide clues on how to improve culture conditions, and the aim of the present study was to determine......Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are derived from the human blastocyst and possess the potential to differentiate into any cell type present in the adult human body. Human ESC are considered to have great potential in regenerative medicine for the future treatment of severe diseases and conditions...

  10. Identification and expression analysis of genes associated with bovine blastocyst formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zeveren Alex

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal preimplantation embryo development encompasses a series of events including first cleavage division, activation of the embryonic genome, compaction and blastocyst formation. First lineage differentiation starts at the blastocyst stage with the formation of the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass. The main objective of this study was the detection, identification and expression analysis of genes associated with blastocyst formation in order to help us better understand this process. This information could lead to improvements of in vitro embryo production procedures. Results A subtractive cDNA library was constructed enriched for transcripts preferentially expressed at the blastocyst stage compared to the 2-cell and 8-cell stage. Sequence information was obtained for 65 randomly selected clones. The RNA expression levels of 12 candidate genes were determined throughout 3 stages of preimplantation embryo development (2-cell, 8-cell and blastocyst and compared with the RNA expression levels of in vivo "golden standard" embryos using real-time PCR. The RNA expression profiles of 9 (75% transcripts (KRT18, FN1, MYL6, ATP1B3, FTH1, HINT1, SLC25A5, ATP6V0B, RPL10 were in agreement with the subtractive cDNA cloning approach, whereas for the remaining 3 (25% (ACTN1, COPE, EEF1A1 the RNA expression level was equal or even higher at the earlier developmental stages compared to the blastocyst stage. Moreover, significant differences in RNA expression levels were observed between in vitro and in vivo produced embryos. By immunofluorescent labelling, the protein expression of KRT18, FN1 and MYL6 was determined throughout bovine preimplantation embryo development and showed the same pattern as the RNA expression analyses. Conclusion By subtractive cDNA cloning, candidate genes involved in blastocyst formation were identified. For several candidate genes, important differences in gene expression were observed between in vivo and in

  11. Embryo aggregation does not improve the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Andrés; De Stéfano, Adrián; Jarazo, Javier; Buemo, Carla; Karlanian, Florencia; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) makes it necessary to investigate new strategies to improve embryonic developmental competence. Embryo aggregation has been successfully applied to improve cloning efficiency in mammals, but it remains unclear whether it could also be beneficial for iSCNT. In this study, we first compared the effect of embryo aggregation over in vitro development and blastocyst quality of porcine, bovine, and feline zona-free (ZF) parthenogenetic (PA) embryos to test the effects of embryo aggregation on species that were later used as enucleated oocytes donors in our iSCNT study. We then assessed whether embryo aggregation could improve the in vitro development of ZF equine iSCNT embryos after reconstruction with porcine, bovine, and feline ooplasm. Bovine- and porcine-aggregated PA blastocysts had significantly larger diameters compared with nonaggregated embryos. On the other hand, feline- and bovine-aggregated PA embryos had higher blastocyst cell number. Embryo aggregation of equine-equine SCNT was found to be beneficial for embryo development as we have previously reported, but the aggregation of three ZF reconstructed embryos did not improve embryo developmental rates on iSCNT. In vitro embryo development of nonaggregated iSCNT was predominantly arrested around the stage when transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome is reported to start on the embryo of the donor species. Nevertheless, independent of embryo aggregation, equine blastocyst-like structures could be obtained in our study using domestic feline-enucleated oocytes. Taken together, these results reported that embryo aggregation enhance in vitro PA embryo development and embryo quality but effects vary depending on the species. Embryo aggregation also improves, as expected, the in vitro embryo development of equine-equine SCNT embryos; however, we did not observe positive effects on equine iSCNT embryo development. Among oocytes

  12. The 'GO' system--a novel method of microculture for in vitro development of mouse zygotes to the blastocyst stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouas, G A; Jones, G M; Trounson, A O

    2003-08-01

    A novel system of in vitro culture termed the 'glass oviduct' or 'GO' culture system is described. Mouse zygotes were cultured in pairs to the blastocyst stage in open-ended 1 microl glass capillaries. 'GO' culture supported the development of significantly more hatching or hatched blastocysts than did a standard microdroplet (10 zygotes per 20 microl) control culture (48.3 versus 3.3%, respectively). 'GO' bslastocysts contained significantly larger populations of cells (92+/-3 versus 75+/-3), and inner cell mass (25+/-1 versus 21+/-1) and trophectoderm (68+/-2 versus 53+/-3) subpopulations, compared with microdroplet-derived blastocysts. Before blastulation, 'GO'-derived morulae were found to contain significantly more cells than microdroplet-derived morulae (27+/-0.7 versus 14+/-0.5). After implantation, 'GO' blastocysts formed fetuses at a similar rate to microdroplet-derived blastocysts (55 versus 62%), but at a lower rate than blastocysts derived in vivo (80%). 'GO'- and microdroplet-derived fetuses were similar in wet weight to each other (0.412 and 0.415 g, respectively) but were heavier than fetuses derived from flushed blastocysts (0.390 g). An additional experiment investigated whether the beneficial effect of 'GO' culture was due to the significantly increased embryo density. Proportions of hatching or hatched blastocysts after 'GO' culture (50%) were higher than after standard microdroplet culture (7.6%), but were not different from culture in high embryo density microdroplets (20 zygotes per 10 microl; 42%). 'GO' blastocysts contained more cells (79.6+/-2.1) than did standard microdroplet-derived blastocysts (68.7+/-2.0), but were similar to high density microdroplet-derived blastocysts (85.8+/-2.7). Similarly, 'GO' blastocysts contained more trophectoderm cells (62.2+/-2.0) than did standard microdroplet-derived blastocysts (52.7+/-1.7), but were similar to the high density microdroplet blastocysts (68.8+/-2.5). Numbers of inner cell mass cells ('GO

  13. Cryo-survival and development of bovine blastocysts are enhanced by culture with recombinant albumin and hyaluronan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Maybach, Jeffrey M; Hooper, Kathy; Hasler, John F; Gardner, David K

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant albumin can be used to supplement culture medium for the maturation and fertilization of bovine oocytes and subsequent embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Recombinant albumin was able to support blastocyst development at rates equivalent to that of bovine serum albumin (BSA) supplemented media. Supplementation of media containing recombinant albumin and citrate stimulated blastocyst expansion. Culture with recombinant albumin and citrate significantly increased the ability of the resultant blastocysts to re-expand and hatch following cryopreservation. The further addition of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan to the culture medium containing either BSA or recombinant albumin also increased the ability of blastocysts to survive cryopreservation. Inclusion of recombinant albumin and hyaluronan in culture media facilitates the development of physiological defined culture conditions. For bovine embryos this has implications for both research and commercial applications where defined reproducible conditions are desirable. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A diatom–conductivity transfer function for reconstructing past changes in the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds over the Southern Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders Krystyna; Hodgson Dominic; McMurtrie Shelley; Grosjean; Martin

    2015-01-01

    Sub Antarctic islands are ideally placed to reconstruct past changes in Southern Hemisphere westerly wind behaviour. They lie within their core belt (50–60°S) and the strong winds deliver sea salt ions to the islands resulting in a west to east conductivity gradient in their water bodies. This means that the stronger (or weaker) the winds the higher (or lower) the conductivity values measured in the water bodies. A survey of the water chemistry and diatom assemblages of lakes and ponds on sub...

  15. Reconstruction of mandibular defects after radiation, using a free, living bone, graft transferred by microvascular anastomoses. An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrup, L.T.; Fredrickson, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The replacement of a mandibular defect by a free, composite rib graft, transferred by microvascular anastomoses of the posterior intercostal vessels to donor vessels in the neck was described previously. We now present data which demonstrate that successful results can be achieved even after radical mandibular radiation. This technique, done in dogs, has obvious implications in the management of oral cancer in man

  16. Chromosomal analysis of blastocyst derived from monopronucleated ICSI zygotes: approach by double trophectoderm biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Silvia; Vidal, Francesca; Coll, Lluc; Veiga, Anna; Boada, Montserrat

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to increase the knowledge about monopronucleated ICSI-derived blastocysts, analyzing trophectoderm biopsies by aCGH and FISH to evaluate their chromosome constitution. Fifteen monopronucleated ICSI-derived blastocysts were studied. Double trophectoderm biopsy was performed and analyzed by FISH and aCGH. The blastocysts were classified according to chromosome constitution. Disagreements between the two techniques were assessed. Results obtained after FISH and aCGH analyses showed the following: 20% (3/15) and 60% (9/15) diploid females, respectively; 26.7% (4/15) and 26.7% (4/15) diploid males, respectively; and 53.3% (8/15) and 13.3% (2/15) mosaics, respectively. No mosaic male embryos were found using FISH or aCGH. There were disagreements in 40% (6/15) of the cases due to the higher detection of mosaicism by FISH compared to aCGH. The combination of FISH and aCGH has been shown to be a suitable approach to increase the knowledge about monopronucleated ICSI-derived embryos. FISH analysis of blastocysts derived from monopronucleated ICSI zygotes enabled us to conclude that aCGH underestimates haploidy. Some diploid embryos diagnosed by aCGH are in fact mosaic. In cases where these embryos would be used for reproductive purposes, extra analysis of parental genome origin is recommended.

  17. Experimental vitrification of human compacted morulae and early blastocysts using fine diameter plastic micropipettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, N; Sousa, M; Silva, J; Viana, P; Sousa, S; Oliveira, C; Teixeira da Silva, J; Barros, A

    2004-02-01

    Vitrification of human blastocysts has been successfully applied using grids, straws and cryoloops. We assessed the survival rate of human compacted morulae and early blastocysts vitrified in pipette tips with a smaller inner diameter and solution volume than the previously described open pulled straw (OPS) method. Excess day 5 human embryos (n = 63) were experimentally vitrified in vessels. Embryos were incubated at 37 degrees C with sperm preparation medium (SPM) for 1 min, SPM + 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG)/dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) for 3 min, and SPM + 16.5% EG + 16.5% DMSO + 0.67 mol/l sucrose for 25 s. They were then aspirated (0.5 microl) into a plastic micropipette tip (0.36 mm inner diameter), exposed to liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapour for 2 min before being placed into a pre-cooled cryotube, which was then closed and plunged into LN(2). Embryos were warmed and diluted using 0.33 mol/l and 0.2 mol/l sucrose. The survival rate for compacted morulae was 73% (22/30) and 82% (27/33) for early blastocysts. The survival rates of human compacted morulae and early blastocysts after vitrification with this simple technique are similar to those reported in the literature achieved by slow cooling and other vitrification protocols.

  18. Susceptibility of in vitro produced hatched bovine blastocysts to infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandaele Leen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8, which caused an epidemic in ruminants in central Western Europe in 2006 and 2007, seems to differ from other bluetongue serotypes in that it can spread transplacentally and has been associated with an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive problems. For these reasons, and also because BTV-8 is threatening to spread to other parts of the world, there is a need for more information on the consequences of infection during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hatched (i.e. zona pellucida-free in vitro produced bovine blastocysts at 8-9 days post insemination are susceptible to BTV-8 and whether such infection induces cell death as indicated by apoptosis. Exposure of hatched in vitro produced bovine blastocysts for 1 h to a medium containing 103.8 or 104.9 TCID50 of the virus resulted in active viral replication in between 25 and 100% of the cells at 72 h post exposure. The infected blastocysts also showed growth arrest as evidenced by lower total cell numbers and a significant level of cellular apoptosis. We conclude from this in vitro study that some of the reproductive problems that are reported when cattle herds are infected with BTV-8 may be attributed to direct infection of blastocysts and other early-stage embryos in utero.

  19. The Comparison of One and Two Steps Equilibration in Vitrification Process on The Morphology and Viability of Mouse Blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Djuwita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the effect of one and two steps equilibration method of vitrificationon the morphology and viability of mouse blastocysts. Blastocysts were firstly exposed to modified PhosphateBuffered saline (mPBS containing 1% Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA proceeded by exposure in mPBSrespectively containing 0.25M sucrose (S for 2 minutes . Blastocysts were then exposed for 2 minutesrespectively to mPS+0.5M S (one step method or in mPBS+0.5M S+10% ethylene glycol (EG (two stepmethod.. Blastocysts were then exposed in mPBS+0.5M S+30% EG for 60 second, loaded into 0.25 mlplastic straw, and exposed immediately in vapor of liquid nitrogen for 10 second before they were and thenplunged into liquid nitrogen. The blastocysts were reconstituted by diluting with mPBS+0.5M S followedby mPBS+0.25M S for each 3 min and washed in mPBS without sucrose. The viability of cells was assessedby fluorescent vital staining, by re-expansion for 24 hours in vitro culture, and by implantation into therecipient oviduct. The percentages of morphologically normal blastocysts following recovery fromvitrification were higher (p<0.05 in one step equilibration than in those of two steps methods (89.6%. vs82.6%. The viability of blastocysts examined under light microscope after staining with biz-benzimidizepropidiumiodine and 24 hours in vitro culture in one step methods (64.0%; 57.8% were higher (p<0.05compared with two steps methods (40.0%; 35.6%, respectively. The implantation rate of vitrifiedblastocysts (23.1% was not significantly different to that of fresh blastocysts (33.4%. These resultsshowed that the one and two step equilibration methods are effective for vitrification and maintaining theviability of the mouse blastocysts.

  20. Reconstruction of shoulder abduction and external rotation with latissimus dorsi and teres major transfer in obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Kahraman; Bülbül, Murat; Demir, Bilal Birkan; Büyükkurt, Cem Dinçay; Ayanoğlu, Semih; Esenyel, Cem Zeki

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the results of latissimus dorsi and teres major tendon transfer to the rotator cuff together with musculotendinous lengthening of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis major muscles in patients with internal rotation contracture and decreased external rotation and abduction secondary to obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Thirty patients (18 boys, 12 girls; mean age 9 years; range 4 to 15 years) with internal rotation contracture and loss of external rotation and abduction of the shoulder secondary to obstetrical brachial plexus palsy underwent transfer of the latissimus dorsi/teres major tendons to the rotator cuff. In addition, musculotendinous lengthening of the subscapularis and pectoralis major (n=15), pectoralis major (n=9), and subscapularis (n=6) were performed. Nine patients had upper plexus involvement (C5-6), 14 had C5-7 involvement, and seven had complete plexus involvement (C5-T1). According to the Waters and Peljovich classification, all the patients had a congruent glenohumeral joint, which was classified as type 1 in one patient, type 2 in 15 patients, and type 3 in 14 patients. Pre- and postoperative range of motion values of the patients were measured and their motor functions were evaluated with the Mallet scoring system. The mean follow-up period was 47.8 months (range 9 to 84 months). Preoperatively, the mean active abduction was 75.8°, and the mean active external rotation was 25.2°. Postoperatively, the mean abduction and external rotation increased to 138.3° (by 62.5°, 82.5%) and 76.4 degrees (by 51.2°, 203.2%), respectively. Improvements in the degrees of abduction and external rotation were significant (p=0.000). According to the Mallet scoring system, the mean preoperative global abduction and global external rotation scores were 2.97 and 2.43, respectively; the mean Mallet scores for the ability to move the hand to the mouth, neck, and back were 2.50, 2.17, and 2.67, respectively. Postoperatively, the mean global abduction

  1. Reconstrucción tibial: transferencia sóleo-peroné ipsilateral. Tibialización peroneal Tibial reconstruction: ipsilateral soleus-fibula transfer. Fibular tibialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Revelo Jiron

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las transferencias óseas peroneales en forma libre o ipsilateral han sido propuestas para la reconstrucción de grandes defectos tibiales. Están también descritas varias modificaciones al respecto, siendo una de ellas la constitución de un colgajo compuesto soleo-peroné realizado como transferencia libre. En este estudio presentamos nuestra experiencia con esta variante, pero en forma ipsilateral. logrando la reconstrucción del defecto tibial por medio de la tibialización peroneal. Escogimos realizar un colgajo compuesto soleo-peroné ipsilateral a flujo anterógrado o retrogrado para la reconstrucción de una serie personal de 14 pacientes consecutivos, 13 hombre y 1 mujer, con edad media de 30 años, y con amplios defectos tibiales y de tejidos blandos causados por accidentes de transito en 12 casos, 1 por proyectil balístico y 1 por artefacto explosivo artesanal. El promedio de tamaño del defecto tibial fue de 9.4 cm. Elegimos la forma ipsilateral por no disponer de infraestructura adecuada para realizar una transferencia libre. La serie de estudio se realizó durante el periodo comprendido entre Abril de 1995 y Abril del 2005. Todos los colgajos sobrevivieron. Dos pacientes desarrollaron pseudoartrosis. El apoyo completo y la marcha en 12 pacientes, se logró en un periodo promedio de 9 meses. El seguimiento postoperatorio ha sido de 3 a 6 años. Doce pacientes se han incorporado a la vida activa. Discutimos algunos aspectos prácticos de la técnica como resultado de la experiencia quirúrgica obtenida de esta serie personal. Consideramos que el método es fiable, fácil de realizar y proporciona excelentes resultados.Fibular flaps such as in there free form or as ipsilateral transfers have been proposed for reconstruction of large tibial defects. Several modifications have been described for the use of this flap. In this study we will present our experience using the ipsilateral transfer of an osteomuscular soleous fibular flap

  2. Blastocyst recovery and multifactorial gene expression analysis in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribal, Romy; Guenther, Anja; Rübensam, Kathrin; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2016-09-15

    The expression of specific developmentally important genes in preimplantation embryos is an accepted marker for unraveling the influence of single factors in studies that are mostly related to artificial reproduction techniques. Such studies, however, often reveal high levels of heterogeneity between single embryos, independently of the influence of factors of interest. A possible explanation for this variation could be the large variety of physiological and environmental factors to which early embryos are exposed and their ability to react to them. Here, we investigated several potentially important parameters of development at the same time, in blastocysts of the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) generated in vivo after natural mating. The optimal time for flushing fully developed blastocysts was between 123 and 126 hours after mating. The abundance of POU5F1 (P = 0.042), BAX (P multifactorial environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of Vitamin A administration on the development of vitrified-warmed mouse blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, H; Nematallahi-Mahani, S N; Kheradmand, A

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of vitrified-warmed mouse blastocysts following a period of Vitamin A administration. Four to six weeks old BALB/c mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of either 0.1 ml paraffin oil alone (control, Con) or paraffin oil containing 250IU of Vitamin A (experiment, Exp). Ten days later the mice were given second paraffin or paraffin Vitamin A injection and an injection of 10IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed 48 h later by 10IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Blastocysts were collected from both groups and randomly divided into non-vitrified (Con 1, Exp 1) and vitrified (Con 2, Exp 2) subgroups. Embryos in the vitrified group were exposed sequentially to two solutions (10% ethylene glycol, 10% DMSO in holding medium (HM: DMEMF(12)+10% FBS) and 20% ethylene glycol, 20% DMSO in HM) before plunging into liquid nitrogen. After warming at 37 degrees C, cryoprotectants were diluted serially with 0.25 and 0.15M sucrose solution in HM. The vitrified-warmed and the fresh embryos of the control and the experiment groups were cultured in DMEMF(12) with 10% FBS for 72 h. Although, on the first day of culture, the rate of development to the hatched blastocyst was nearly identical between the two vitrified groups (15.8% versus 13%) but after 48 h, the rate of plated embryos was statistically higher in the vitrified Vitamin A than the vitrified control group (63.1% versus 19.6%, Pembryos was also significantly higher in the Vitamin A than the control group (70.5% versus 49.3%, PVitamin A may enhance the potential development of blastocysts in culture and is capable to reduce the adverse effects of vitrification at least during the first 2 days of cultivation.

  4. Unique regulation of CYP17 expression in the trophectoderm of the preattachment porcine blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X; Corbin, C J; Kaminski, M A; Conley, A J

    1999-02-01

    Expression of the gene encoding cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase, CYP17, is necessary for adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis in most species. However, some animals, such as the pig, express CYP17 in the trophectoderm of the preattachment blastocyst, an event associated with estrogen synthesis and the establishment of pregnancy. How trophoblastic expression of CYP17 is regulated in the porcine blastocyst remains unknown and forms the basis of the following studies. The porcine CYP17 gene, including the complete coding and several kilobases of 5'-flanking regions, was cloned and sequenced. Blastocysts were examined by Northern analysis to verify the level of CYP17 transcript, and tissue-specific expression in the trophectoderm was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Primer extension, S1 nuclease protection, and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends confirmed a common proximal transcription start site in adrenals and gonads (-48 bp) but identified a unique distal start site used in porcine trophectoderm (-182 bp). Additionally, reporter analysis of the CYP17 regulatory region demonstrated that constructs (-27 to -718 bp) were unresponsive to forskolin when expressed in porcine trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast may not be able to respond to cAMP induction of this gene. The identification of this distal, previously undescribed, transcriptional start site suggests that unique mechanisms control the expression of CYP17 in porcine trophectoderm and possibly other genes important in implantation and early placental development.

  5. Melatonin promotes the in vitro development of pronuclear embryos and increases the efficiency of blastocyst implantation in murine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhang, Lu; Tan, DunXian; Reiter, Russel J; Liu, GuoShi

    2013-10-01

    When a defect occurs in the in vitro development of a pronuclear embryo, the interruption of the subsequent implantation limits the success of assisted conception. This common problem remains to be solved. In this study, we observed that melatonin at its physiological concentration (10(-7)  m) significantly promoted the in vitro development of murine pronuclear embryos. This was indicated by the increased blastocyst rate, hatching blastocyst rate, and blastocyst cell number with melatonin treatment. In addition, when these blastocysts were implanted into female recipient mice, the pregnancy rates (95.0% versus control 67.8%), litter sizes (4.1 pups/litter versus control 2.7 pups/litter), and postnatal survival rates of offspring (96.84% versus control 81.24%) were significantly improved compared with their non-melatonin-treated counterparts. Mechanistic studies revealed that melatonin treatment upregulates gene expression of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the anti-apoptotic factor bcl-2 while downregulating the expression of pro-apoptotic genes p53 and caspase-3. Due to these changes, melatonin treatment reduces ROS production and cellular apoptosis during in vitro embryo development and improves the quality of blastocysts. The implantation of blastocysts with higher quality leads to more healthy offspring and increased pup survival. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Occurrence of amitotic division of trophoblast cell nuclei in blastocysts of the western spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius latifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Galina K; Mead, Rodney A

    2004-01-01

    A cytogenetic examination of spreaded cells of diapausing and early activated blastocysts obtained from 7 female western spotted skunks was performed. Mitosis was not observed in 1626 cells obtained from 9 diapausing blastocysts; however, 12 (1.5%) figures of diploid mitosis were seen in 851 cells from 5 early activated embryos. Diameter of the cell nuclei varied from 4 to 29 microm during diapause, and from 5 to 40 microm in activated blastocyst, and the heterogeneity in nuclear size was significantly different between diapausing and activated embryos (Pskunk and suggests the polytene organization of chromosomes in enlarged nuclei. About 10% of large interphase nuclei were observed to undergo amitosis, i.e. direct division by constriction. The resulting nuclear fragments in diapausing blastocysts usually had normal morphology and active nucleoli. In activated embryos, nearly 15% of amitotically divided nuclei appeared to be dividing into fragments of unequal size, one of which had normal cell nuclear morphology and extremely large silver positive nucleoli, and the other fragment exhibited signs of cell death. We interpret these data as indicating that 1) amitotic division of trophoblast endopolyploid cell nuclei in the skunk blastocysts may generate new trophoblast cells which contribute to increased cell number during both diapause and activation stages, and 2) activation of blastocysts after diapause is related to the production of trophoblast cells with enhanced synthetic capabilities.

  7. The piggyBac-Based Gene Delivery System Can Confer Successful Production of Cloned Porcine Blastocysts with Multigene Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of multigene constructs into single cells is important for improving the performance of domestic animals, as well as understanding basic biological processes. In particular, multigene constructs allow the engineering and integration of multiple genes related to xenotransplantation into the porcine genome. The piggyBac (PB transposon system allows multiple genes to be stably integrated into target genomes through a single transfection event. However, to our knowledge, no attempt to introduce multiple genes into a porcine genome has been made using this system. In this study, we simultaneously introduced seven transposons into a single porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF. PEFs were transfected with seven transposons containing genes for five drug resistance proteins and two (red and green fluorescent proteins, together with a PB transposase expression vector, pTrans (experimental group. The above seven transposons (without pTrans were transfected concomitantly (control group. Selection of these transfected cells in the presence of multiple selection drugs resulted in the survival of several clones derived from the experimental group, but not from the control. PCR analysis demonstrated that approximately 90% (12/13 tested of the surviving clones possessed all of the introduced transposons. Splinkerette PCR demonstrated that the transposons were inserted through the TTAA target sites of PB. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT using a PEF clone with multigene constructs demonstrated successful production of cloned blastocysts expressing both red and green fluorescence. These results indicate the feasibility of this PB-mediated method for simultaneous transfer of multigene constructs into the porcine cell genome, which is useful for production of cloned transgenic pigs expressing multiple transgenes.

  8. Maternal selenium-supplementation at various stages of periconception period: influence on murine blastocyst morphology and implantation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony C. Mamon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is one of the trace minerals whose deficiency is known to lead to complications of female reproduction. The identified gaps in researches regarding selenium and pregnancy include optimizing the dosage of selenium supplementation, timing of supplementation, finding the best form and type of selenium, and selenium administration combined with other antioxidants. Hence, this study was conceptualized to address one of the identified gaps, that is, to find out the best timing of selenium administration around the time of pregnancy. Specifically, this study aimed to assess the effects of maternal Selenium-supplementation, administered at various stages of periconception period, on murine blastocyst morphology, percent occurrence of good quality blastocysts, and implantation status. Methods ICR female mice were randomly assigned into the unsupplemented group (Group I receiving basal diet without selenium, and treatment groups given with 3.0 μg selenium-supplement per day during pregestation only (Group II, pregestation-throughout-gestation (Group III and gestation only (Group IV. Both blastocyst morphology and implantation status were assessed. Results The morphometric measurements of blastocysts appeared to be unaffected by selenium-supplementation at different stages of periconception. Selenium-supplementation at pregestation only (Group II and gestation only (Group IV produced higher percent occurrence of good quality blastocysts and lower percent pre-implantation loss than Group III. Among all the treatment groups, Group III (Selenium-supplementation during pregestation-to-gestation yielded the lowest quality blastocysts and highest percent pre-implantation loss. Conclusion Maternal selenium-supplementation during pregestation and gestation stages of the periconception period yielded a high percent occurrence of good quality blastocysts and pre-implantation success.

  9. Nuclear genome transfer in human oocytes eliminates mitochondrial DNA variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Daniel; Emmanuele, Valentina; Weiss, Keren A; Treff, Nathan; Stewart, Latoya; Hua, Haiqing; Zimmer, Matthew; Kahler, David J; Goland, Robin S; Noggle, Scott A; Prosser, Robert; Hirano, Michio; Sauer, Mark V; Egli, Dieter

    2013-01-31

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations transmitted maternally within the oocyte cytoplasm often cause life-threatening disorders. Here we explore the use of nuclear genome transfer between unfertilized oocytes of two donors to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial mutations. Nuclear genome transfer did not reduce developmental efficiency to the blastocyst stage, and genome integrity was maintained provided that spontaneous oocyte activation was avoided through the transfer of incompletely assembled spindle-chromosome complexes. Mitochondrial DNA transferred with the nuclear genome was initially detected at levels below 1%, decreasing in blastocysts and stem-cell lines to undetectable levels, and remained undetectable after passaging for more than one year, clonal expansion, differentiation into neurons, cardiomyocytes or β-cells, and after cellular reprogramming. Stem cells and differentiated cells had mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities and oxygen consumption rates indistinguishable from controls. These results demonstrate the potential of nuclear genome transfer to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial disorders in humans.

  10. Expression of the human Dp 71 (apo-dystrophin 1) gene from a 760 kb reconstructed human distal DMD YAC transferred to mouse cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ommen, G.J.B. van; Heikoop, J.C.; Hogervorst, F.B.L. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    In a program to re-introduce and study the 2.5 mb human DMD gene in a mouse background, we have first reconstructed the gene on a single YAC by homologous recombination. We are now testing pilot gene transfer of a 760 kb YAC generated during the process and covering the 3{prime} region of the gene. This YAC contains exons 52-79 and thus includes the internal genes of Dp 71 (apo-dystrophin 1) and Dp 116 (apo-dystrophin 2). To facilitate selection in mammalian cells, the YAC was modified by recombinational insertion (retrofitting) of a neomycin-resistance gene in the right vector-arm. This YAC, yneo(18-25)C, was introduced in mouse LA-9 cells by PEG-mediated cell fusion. G418 resistant transformants were characterized by DMD-exon-PCR and Southern blotting. One of the six clones analyzed accommodated the entire intact YAC-DNA. Expression of the human DMD gene was studied by RT-PCR and revealed expression of the human Dp 71 gene but not of the Dp 116 gene in the full-length clone LA-9/3A. Remarkably, differences were observed in the 3{prime} region of the mouse and the human mRNAs, due to alternative splicing of exons 71 (absent in the human mRNA, present in the mouse mRNA) and 78 (present in the human mRNA, absent in the mouse mRNA). The splicing pattern of the human transcript mirrors that of the major product in human blood cells, suggesting that in this murine cell line processing of the human and the mouse DMD transcripts maintains the exon selectivity of the original species.

  11. Postthaw survival of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts loaded onto the inner surface of a plastic vitrification straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, A-Na; Park, Han-Seul; Jin, Jong-In; Lee, Sang-Ho; Ko, Dae-Hwan; Lee, Dong-Suk; White, Kenneth L; Kong, Il-Keun

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated whether vitrification of an embryo by attachment to the inner surface of a plastic straw, which requires a small volume of vitrification solution, improves the survival of thawed embryos. In vitro-produced Korean native cattle blastocysts were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) blastocysts attached to the inner surface of a plastic straw (aV); (2) blastocysts loaded into the column of a plastic straw (cV); (3) blastocysts directly dropped into liquid nitrogen (dV); and (4) nonvitrified blastocysts (control). The postthaw recovery rate did not significantly differ among the aV, dV, and cV groups (98.3% vs. 81.5% vs. 91.4%). The postthaw survival rate was greater in the control, aV, and dV groups than in the cV group (100%, 87.7%, and 81.8% vs. 26.4%, P < 0.05), but did not significantly differ among the control, aV, and dV groups. The total number of cells per blastocyst did not significantly differ among the groups (134.4 ± 38.9 in control vs. 114 ± 48.1 in aV, 105.6 ± 33.9 in dV, and 102 ± 35.1 in cV group). However, the number of apoptotic cells per blastocyst was higher in the dV and cV groups than in the control group (10.9 ± 9.6 and 14.5 ± 9.5 vs. 0.4 ± 1.4; P < 0.05), but did not significantly differ between the control and aV groups (0.4 ± 1.4 vs. 6.6 ± 9.5). In addition, the blastocoel of each blastocyst was left intact or was mechanically punctured to reduce its volume, and the blastocysts were then vitrified using the aV method. At 12 hours after thawing, the re-expansion rate did not significantly differ among the control, punctured aV, and nonpunctured aV groups (93.3% vs. 85.2% vs. 82.8%). However, at 24 hours after thawing, the hatching rate was greater in the control and punctured aV groups than in the nonpunctured aV group (75% and 62.9% vs. 37.1%; P < 0.05). The total number of cells per blastocyst was greater in the control group than in the nonpunctured aV group (143 ± 37.2 vs. 94.5 ± 18.6; P < 0

  12. Sperm DNA fragmentation index does not correlate with blastocyst aneuploidy or morphological grading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Gat

    Full Text Available High DNA fragmentation index (DFI may be associated with poor outcome after IVF. Our aim was to determine whether DFI impacts blastocyst quality or clinical outcome. This retrospective study included 134 couples who underwent 177 IVF-ICSI and pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS cycles during January 1st, 2014-March 31st, 2016 and had documented previous DFI. Group 1 (DFI>30% encompassed 25 couples who underwent 36 cycles; Group 2 (DFI 15-30% included 45 couples and 57 cycles; group 3 (DFI<15% included 64 couples and 83 cycles. Male partners within group 1 were older (45.1 compared to 40.6 and 38.3 years, respectively, p<0.05, had higher BMI (32.4 compared to 26.6 and 25.8 respectively, p<0.05 and lower sperm count and motility (46*106/ml and 35.5%, respectively compared to groups 2 (61.8*106/ml and 46.6%, respectively and 3 (75.8*106/ml and 55.1%, respectively, p<0.05. Female parameters including ovarian reserve and response and embryo development were similar. Total numbers of biopsied blastocysts were 116, 175 and 259 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. PGS for 24 chromosomes revealed comparable euploidy rate of 46-50.4%, with a similar morphological classification. No significant differences were found regarding pregnancy rates or pregnancy loss. It seems that DFI doesn't correlate with blastocyst aneuploidy or morphological grading.

  13. Cloning of an endangered species (Bos gaurus) using interspecies nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, R P; Cibelli, J B; Diaz, F; Moraes, C T; Farin, P W; Farin, C E; Hammer, C J; West, M D; Damiani, P

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 100 species become extinct a day. Despite increasing interest in using cloning to rescue endangered species, successful interspecies nuclear transfer has not been previously described, and only a few reports of in vitro embryo formation exist. Here we show that interspecies nuclear transfer can be used to clone an endangered species with normal karyotypic and phenotypic development through implantation and the late stages of fetal growth. Somatic cells from a gaur bull (Bos gaurus), a large wild ox on the verge of extinction, (Species Survival Plan animals) were electrofused with enucleated oocytes from domestic cows. Twelve percent of the reconstructed oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage, and 18% of these embryos developed to the fetal stage when transferred to surrogate mothers. Three of the fetuses were electively removed at days 46 to 54 of gestation, and two continued gestation longer than 180 (ongoing) and 200 days, respectively. Microsatellite marker and cytogenetic analyses confirmed that the nuclear genome of the cloned animals was gaurus in origin. The gaur nuclei were shown to direct normal fetal development, with differentiation into complex tissue and organs, even though the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within all the tissue types evaluated was derived exclusively from the recipient bovine oocytes. These results suggest that somatic cell cloning methods could be used to restore endangered, or even extinct, species and populations.

  14. Source of protein supplementation during in vitro culture does not affect the quality of resulting blastocysts in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, E; Graves-Herring, J; Keefer, C; Comizzoli, P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the quality of cat blastocysts produced in vitro using commercial blastocyst growth media supplemented with different sources of proteins (serum protein substitute from in vitro maturation through embryo development vs 4 mg/ml of bovine serum albumin for maturation and 5% foetal calf serum for fertilization and embryo development). Impact was specifically examined on the proportion of blastocyst formation, total number of blastomeres, proportion of inner cell mass and expression of pluripotency marker proteins NANOG and OCT-4. Blastocyst formation per total cleaved embryos was similar (p > 0.05) regardless of the protein supplementation. There were no differences (p > 0.05) between culture conditions regarding average number of blastomeres and proportion of inner cell mass in each embryo. Presence of OCT-4 protein was detected in nuclei of both trophectoderm and inner cell mass region, with a stronger signal in the latter regardless of the culture medium. NANOG protein also was present in the inner cell mass regardless of the in vitro culture condition. We therefore demonstrated that serum protein substitute was as good as semi-defined protein sources for the production of good-quality blastocysts and embryonic stem cells. In addition, a single defined medium could be successfully used for cat oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization and embryo development. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effect of Hyaluronan on Developmental Competence and Quality of Oocytes and Obtained Blastocysts from In Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Opiela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hyaluronan (HA during IVM on meiotic maturation, embryonic development, and the quality of oocytes, granulosa cells (GC, and obtained blastocysts. COCs were matured in vitro in control medium and medium with additional 0.035% or 0.07% of exogenous HA. The meiotic maturity did not differ between the analysed groups. The best rate and the highest quality of obtained blastocysts were observed when 0.07% HA was used. A highly significant difference (P<0.001 was noted in the mean number of apoptotic nuclei per blastocyst and in the DCI between the 0.07% HA and the control blastocysts (P<0.01. Our results suggest that addition of 0.035% HA and 0.07% HA to oocyte maturation media does not affect oocyte nuclear maturation and DNA fragmentation. However, the addition of 0.07% HA during IVM decreases the level of blastocysts DNA fragmentation. Finally, our results suggest that it may be risky to increase the HA concentration during IVM above 0.07% as we found significantly higher Bax mRNA expression levels in GC cultured with 0.07% HA. The final concentration of HA being supplemented to oocyte maturation media is critical for the success of the IVP procedure.

  16. Generation of human embryonic stem cells from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Jing; Du, Juan; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge; Sun, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line chHES-480 was derived from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed that chHES-480 cell line carried a hemizygous missense mutation c.1825G>A(p.Glu609Lys) of ABCD1 gene. Characteristic tests proved that the chHES-480 cell line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Michael Boutros, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Four simple rules that are sufficient to generate the mammalian blastocyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Silas Boye; Perera Pérez, Marta; Martin Gonzalez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    requiring any initial transcriptional variation. It also suggests that a fixed time point for the cells’ competence of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/extracellular signal—regulated kinase (ERK) sets an embryonic clock that enables certain scaling phenomena, a concept that we evaluate quantitatively......Early mammalian development is both highly regulative and self-organizing. It involves the interplay of cell position, predetermined gene regulatory networks, and environmental interactions to generate the physical arrangement of the blastocyst with precise timing. However, this process occurs...

  18. Effect of Culture System on Developmental Competence, Cryosurvival and DNA-Fragmentation of In Vitro Bovine Blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the effect of two in vitro embryo culture systems (co-culturesystem versus cell-free sequential-media on developmental competence, cryosurvival and DNAfragmentationof in vitro developed bovine blastocysts.Materials and Methods: Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured in Ménézo's B2 (B2 plusvero-cells or sequential synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF for eight days. Subsequently, half of theexpanded blastocysts developed in both groups were vitrified, warmed within 30 minutes and postwarmingembryos along with their corresponding non-vitrified embryos were cultured for twoadditional days in the same medium used before vitrification. Embryo development, cryosurvivaland apoptosis were compared between the groups.Results: For non-vitrified embryos, culture in SOF significantly promoted the potency of embryosto develop into blastocysts compared with the co-culture system. The difference in post vitrificationsurvival rate of SOF blastocysts (83.3% was insignificant compared with co-culture (84.3%.However, while total cell number of warmed blastocysts in the co-culture system was significantlyhigher in the co-culture versus the sequential system (215.4 vs. 170.4, the quality of survived embryosin terms of hatching ability and apoptosis was adversely affected by co-culture compared with SOF(65.0% vs. 74.3%, and 13.5% vs. 10.0%, respectively; p<0.05.Conclusion: Although co-culture system may increase the viability of embryos followingcryopreservation, the potency and dynamics of blastocyst formation significantly increased withsequential media compared to the co-culture system which can compensate for the lower efficiency ofsequential media for vitrification/warming purposes.

  19. Improved Murine Blastocyst Quality and Development in a Single Culture Medium Compared to Sequential Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Justin M; Zimmer, Randall L; Nabli, Henda; Davis, J Wade; Sutovsky, Peter; Sutovsky, Miriam; Sharpe-Timms, Kathy L

    2016-03-01

    Validate single versus sequential culture media for murine embryo development. Prospective laboratory experiment. Assisted Reproduction Laboratory. Murine embryos. Thawed murine zygotes cultured for 3 or 5 days (d3 or d5) in single or sequential embryo culture media developed for human in vitro fertilization. On d3, zygotes developing to the 8 cell (8C) stage or greater were quantified using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and quality was assessed by morphological analysis. On d5, the number of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage was counted. DAPI was used to quantify total nuclei and inner cell mass nuclei. Localization of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3) was reference points for evaluating cell quality. Comparing outcomes in single versus to sequential media, the odds of embryos developing to the 8C stage on d3 were 2.34 time greater (P = .06). On d5, more embryos reached the blastocyst stage (P = culture. Human embryo studies are needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Blastocysts production and collection in albino Syrian hamster using superovulation and intrauterine artificial insemination in non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amiri Divani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo blastocyst production and collection using superovulation and intrauterine insemination was established in albino Syrian hamsters. Twenty female albino hamsters were injected pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 25 IU in non-breeding season and 48 h or 56 h later, 25 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG were injected. Both groups were divided into two subgroups of natural mating and artificial insemination. The former group was mated with a fertile male (1 male for 2 fe-males after hCG injection and in the next morning, the hamsters with vaginal plug were regarded as pregnant. In the artificial insemination group, intrauterine artificial insemination of 1×108 sperms was done 12 h after hCG injection. Blastocysts were counted at 3.5 days after mating or insemination. However, 48 h and 56 h hCG and natural mating and 48 h hCG and artificial insemination were without blastocyst; however the method of 56 h hCG and artificial insemination produced of 15±5 (mean and standard deviation blastocysts in each albino hamster in the winter.

  1. A feasible strategy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for carriers with chromosomal translocation: Using blastocyst biopsy and array comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Chun Huang

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrates an effective PGD strategy with promising outcomes. Blastocyst biopsy can retrieve more genetic material and may provide more reliable results, and aCGH offers not only detection of chromosomal translocation but also more comprehensive analysis of 24 chromosomes than traditional FISH. More cases are needed to verify our results and this strategy might be considered in general clinical practice.

  2. Xenogeneic chimera-Generated by blastocyst complementation-As a potential unlimited source of recipient-tailored organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Graziano; Peloso, Andrea; Lacotte, Stéphanie; Meier, Raphael; Toso, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Blastocyst complementation refers to the injection of cells into a blastocyst. The technology allows for the creation of chimeric animals, which have the potential to be used as an unlimited source of organ donors. Pluripotent stem cells could be generated from a patient in need of a transplantation and injected into a large animal blastocyst (potentially of a pig), leading to the creation of organ(s) allowing immunosuppression-free transplantation. Various chimera combinations have already been generated, but one of the most recent steps leads to the creation of human-pig chimeras, which could be studied at an embryo stage. Although still far from clinical reality, the potential application is almost unlimited. The present review illustrates the historical steps of intra- and interspecific blastocyst complementation in rodents and large animals, specifically looking at its potential for generation of organ grafts. We also speculate on how it could change transplant indications, on its economic impact, and on the linked ethical concerns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Na--dependent transport of basic, zwitterionic, and bicyclic amino acids by a broad-scope system in mouse blastocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, L.J.; Christensen, H.N.; Campione, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse blastocysts which had been activated from diapause in utero appeared to take up amino acids via a Na - -dependent transport system with novel characteristics. In contrast to other cell types, uptake of 3-aminoendobicyclo [3,2,1]octane-3-carboxylic acid (BCO) by blastocysts was largely Na - dependent. Moreover, L-alanine and BCO met standard criteria for mutual competitive inhibition of the Na - -dependent transport of each other. The Ki for each of these amino acids as an inhibitor of transport of the other had a value similar to the value of its Km for transport. In addition, both 2-aminoendobicyclo [2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid and L-valine appeared to inhibit Na - -dependent transport of alanine and BCO competitively. Finally, alanine and L-lysine appeared to compete for the same Na+-dependent transport sites in blastocysts. For these reasons, the authors conclude that lysine, alanine, and BCO are transported by a common Na+-dependent system in blastocysts. In addition, the apparent interaction of the system with other basic amino acids, such as 1-dimethylpiperidine-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid, which has a nondissociable positive charge on its side chain, and L-arginine and L-homoarginine, whose cationic forms are highly predominant at neutral pH, suggests that the cationic forms of basic amino acids are transported by the wide-scope system

  4. Generation of human embryonic stem cells from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Jing; Du, Juan; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge; Ouyang, Qi

    2016-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line chHES-478 was derived from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with albinism after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed that chHES-478 cell line carried a compound heterozygous mutation, c.896G>A(p.Arg299His) and c.929_930insC(p.Pro310Glnfs*9), of TYR gene. Characteristic tests proved that the chHES-478 cell line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Michael Boutros, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Achievements in scalp reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Nicole M; Futran, Neal D

    2014-04-01

    Reconstruction of scalp defects remains a challenge. This article reviews the reconstructive options and provides recommendations for scalp restoration based on current literature. It is difficult to apply the standard reconstructive ladder to scalp defects due to the scalp's unique properties and paucity of adjacent tissue. Because of the frequency of large resections and the limited local tissue options microvascular free tissue transfer is a mainstay in scalp reconstruction and has been shown to be well tolerated and reliable with acceptable cosmetic and functional results. With advances in both surgery and anesthesia, increasing numbers of patients are candidates for free tissue transfer. The latissimus dorsi flap is a fundamental flap in scalp reconstruction. Recently, use of the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has risen. The radial forearm (RFF) free flap is also an extremely reliable, thin flap with great pedicle length well suited for the restoration of scalp contouring. Microvascular free tissue transfer provides well tolerated, reliable, functional and cosmetically pleasing scalp restoration in a single surgery. The latissimus dorsi flap, ALT flap and RFF are the three most utilized free tissue options.

  6. Maternal obesity promotes a proinflammatory signature in rat uterus and blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Kartik; Zhong, Ying; Kang, Ping; Lau, Franchesca; Blackburn, Michael L; Chen, Jin-Ran; Borengasser, Sarah J; Ronis, Martin J J; Badger, Thomas M

    2011-11-01

    Maternal obesity at conception increases the risk of offspring obesity, thus propagating an intergenerational vicious cycle. Male offspring born to obese dams are hyperresponsive to high fat-diets, gaining greater body weight, fat mass, and additional metabolic sequelae compared to lean controls. In this report, we identify the impact of maternal obesity before conception, on the embryo, and intrauterine milieu during the periimplantation period. We conducted global transcriptomic profiling in the uterus and periimplantation blastocyst, gene/protein expression analyses of inflammatory pathways in conjunction with endocrine and metabolic characterization in the dams at implantation. Uterine gene expression profiles of lean and obese dams revealed distinct signatures for genes regulating inflammation and lipid metabolism. Both pathway and gene-set enrichment analysis revealed uterine nuclear factor-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling to be up-regulated in the uterus of obese dams, which was confirmed via immunoblotting. Obese uteri also evidenced an inflammatory secretome with higher chemokine mRNA abundance (CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, and CxCL10) and related regulators (TLR2, CD14, and Ccr1). Increased inflammation in the uterus was associated with ectopic lipid accumulation and expression of lipid metabolic genes. Gene expression in sex-identified male periimplantation blastocyst at day postcoitum 4.5 was clearly influenced by maternal obesity (359 transcripts, ±1.4-fold), including changes in developmental and epigenetic regulators. Akin to the uterus, nuclear factor-κB-regulated proinflammatory genes (CCL4 and CCL5) increased and expression of antioxidant (GPx3) and mitochondrial (TFAM and NRF1) genes decreased in the obese embryos. Our results suggest that ectopic lipid and inflammation may link maternal obesity to increased predisposition of offspring to obesity later in life.

  7. Over-expression of CXCR4, a stemness enhancer, in human blastocysts by low level laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Tahmasbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The key role of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in the maintenance of stemness property of stem cells has been shown recently. The low level laser irradiation (LLLI is being used currently in a wide variety of clinical cases as a therapeutic tool for wound healing, relieving pain and destroying tumor cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI mimicking low level laser therapy (LLLT on the expression level of CXCR4 gene a few hours after irradiation on human blastocysts. After the development of human embryos to the first grade blastocyst stage, they were irradiated with a low power Ga-Al-As laser at a continuous wavelength of 650 nm and a power output of 30 mW. The total RNA of the irradiated blastocysts and control groups were isolated in groups of 1x2 J/cm2, 2x2 J/cm2, 1x4 J/cm2 and 2x4 J/cm2 LLLI. Specific Real-Time PCR primers were designed to amplify all the two CXCR4 isoforms yet identified. RNA amplifications were done for all the groups. We showed for the first time that LLLI makes the human blastocysts to increase the expression level of CXCR4 a few hours after irradiation. Moreover, it was shown that two irradiation doses with one day interval can cause a significant increase in CXCR4 expression level in human blastocysts. This study revealed that LLLI could be a proliferation motivator for embryonic cell divisions through enhanced over-expression of CXCR4 level.

  8. Ouabain stimulates a Na+/K+-ATPase-mediated SFK-activated signalling pathway that regulates tight junction function in the mouse blastocyst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Giannatselis

    Full Text Available The Na(+/K(+-ATPase plays a pivotal role during preimplantation development; it establishes a trans-epithelial ionic gradient that facilitates the formation of the fluid-filled blastocyst cavity, crucial for implantation and successful pregnancy. The Na(+/K(+-ATPase is also implicated in regulating tight junctions and cardiotonic steroid (CTS-induced signal transduction via SRC. We investigated the expression of SRC family kinase (SFK members, Src and Yes, during preimplantation development and determined whether SFK activity is required for blastocyst formation. Embryos were collected following super-ovulation of CD1 or MF1 female mice. RT-PCR was used to detect SFK mRNAs encoding Src and Yes throughout preimplantation development. SRC and YES protein were localized throughout preimplantation development. Treatment of mouse morulae with the SFK inhibitors PP2 and SU6656 for 18 hours resulted in a reversible blockade of progression to the blastocyst stage. Blastocysts treated with 10(-3 M ouabain for 2 or 10 minutes and immediately immunostained for phosphorylation at SRC tyr418 displayed reduced phosphorylation while in contrast blastocysts treated with 10(-4 M displayed increased tyr418 fluorescence. SFK inhibition increased and SFK activation reduced trophectoderm tight junction permeability in blastocysts. The results demonstrate that SFKs are expressed during preimplantation development and that SFK activity is required for blastocyst formation and is an important mediator of trophectoderm tight junction permeability.

  9. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CNTF to schwann cells within reconstructed peripheral nerve grafts enhances adult retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Ying; Leaver, Simone G; Plant, Giles W; Hendriks, William T J; Niclou, Simone P; Verhaagen, J.; Harvey, Alan R; Cui, Qi

    We recently described a method for reconstituting peripheral nerve (PN) sheaths using adult Schwann cells (SCs). Reconstructed PN tissue grafted onto the cut optic nerve supports the regeneration of injured adult rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. To determine whether genetic manipulation of

  10. The retrograde transverse cervical artery as a recipient vessel for free tissue transfer in complex head and neck reconstruction with a vessel-depleted neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, Pedro; Agko, Mouchammed; Manrique, Oscar J; Date, Shivprasad; Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Chang, Wei Ling; Nicoli, Fabio; Lo Torto, Federico; Maruccia, Michele; Orfaniotis, Georgios; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2017-11-01

    Reconstruction in a vessel-depleted neck is challenging. The success rates can be markedly decreased because of unavailability of suitable recipient vessels. In order to obtain a reliable flow, recipient vessels away from the zone of fibrosis, radiation, or infection need to be explored. The aim of this report is to present our experience and clinical outcomes using the retrograde flow coming from the distal transverse cervical artery (TCA) as a source for arterial inflow for complex head and neck reconstruction in patients with a vessel-depleted neck. Between July 2010 and June 2016, nine patients with a vessel-depleted neck underwent secondary head and neck reconstruction using the retrograde TCA as recipient vessel for microanastomosis. The mean age was 49.6 years (range, 36 to 68 years). All patients had previous bilateral neck dissections and all, except one, had also received radiotherapy. Indications included neck contracture release (n = 3), oral (n = 1), mandibular (n = 3) and pharyngoesophageal (n = 2) reconstruction necessitating free anterolateral thigh (n = 3) and medial sural artery (n = 1) perforator flaps, fibula (n = 3) and ileocolon (n = 2) flaps respectively. There was 100% flap survival rate with no re-exploration or any partial flap loss. One case of intra-operative arterial vasospasm at the anastomotic suture line was managed intra-operatively with vein graft interposition. There were no other complications or donor site morbidity during the follow-up period. In a vessel-depleted neck, the reverse flow of the TCA may be a reliable option for complex secondary head and neck reconstruction in selected patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Testing of environmental transfer models using data from the atmospheric release of Iodine-131 from the Hanford site, USA, in 1963. Report of the Dose Reconstruction Working Group of the Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Programme, Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The IAEA Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment (BIOMASS) was launched in Vienna in October 1996. The programme was concerned with developing and improving capabilities to predict the transfer of radionuclides in the environment. The programme had three themes: Theme 1: Radioactive Waste Disposal. The objective was to develop the concept of a standard or reference biosphere for application to the assessment of the long term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. Theme 2: Environmental Releases. BIOMASS provided an international forum for activities aimed at increasing the confidence in methods and models for the assessment of radiation exposure related to environmental releases. Two Working Groups addressed issues concerned with the reconstruction of radiation doses received by people from past releases of radionuclides to the environment and the evaluation of the efficacy of remedial measures. Theme 3: Biosphere Processes. The aim of this Theme was to improve capabilities for modelling the transfer of radionuclides in particular parts of the biosphere identified as being of potential radiological significance and where there were gaps in modelling approaches. This topic was explored using a range of methods including reviews of the literature, model inter-comparison exercises and, where possible, model testing against independent sources of data. Three Working Groups were established to examine the modelling of: (1) long term tritium dispersion in the environment; (2) radionuclide uptake by fruits; and (3) radionuclide migration and accumulation in forest ecosystems. This report describes results of the studies undertaken by the Dose Reconstruction Working Group under Theme 2

  12. Multi-label multi-instance transfer learning for simultaneous reconstruction and cross-talk modeling of multiple human signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Suyu; Zhu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background Signaling pathways play important roles in the life processes of cell growth, cell apoptosis and organism development. At present the signal transduction networks are far from complete. As an effective complement to experimental methods, computational modeling is suited to rapidly reconstruct the signaling pathways at low cost. To our knowledge, the existing computational methods seldom simultaneously exploit more than three signaling pathways into one predictive model for the disc...

  13. Fusion of blastomeres in mouse embryos under the action of femtosecond laser radiation. Efficiency of blastocyst formation and embryo development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osychenko, A A; Zalesskii, A D; Krivokharchenko, A S; Zhakhbazyan, A K; Nadtochenko, V A [N N Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabova, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    Using the method of femtosecond laser surgery we study the fusion of two-cell mouse embryos under the action of tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with the fusion efficiency reaching 60%. The detailed statistical analysis of the efficiency of blastomere fusion and development of the embryo up to the blastocyst stage after exposure of the embryos from different mice to a femtosecond pulse is presented. It is shown that the efficiency of blastocyst formation essentially depends on the biological characteristics of the embryo, namely, the strain and age of the donor mouse. The possibility of obtaining hexaploid embryonal cells using the methods of femtosecond laser surgery is demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  14. PRODUCTION OF EMBBRYONIC STEM CELLS FROM INNER CELL MASS OF BLASTOCYST ISOLATED BY ENZYMATIC AND IMMUNOSURGERY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mata Hine

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is determining the ICM isolation method to produce ESC. Blastocyst stage of DDy mice embryos were used in this study. Zona pellucida of blastocysts were removed by 0.25% pronase, the ICM isolation were done by enzimatic or immunosurgery method, and then they were cultured in DMEM-high glucose supplemented with mercaptoethanol, gentamycin, fetal bovine serum, and cumulus cells as feeder layer. The result of the research indicated that immunosurgery method yielding attachment rate and number ESC colony 93.85% and 43.08%, respectively, higher (P<0.05 than enzimatic method that weree 79.63% and 18.52%, respectively, but the viability of ICM cells were equal (P >0.05 that are 93.59% in enzymatic method and 98.56% in immunosurgery method. This research concluded that immunosurgery more effective method for isolation of ICM and ESC production than enzymatic method.

  15. The impact of food intake and social habits on embryo quality and the likelihood of blastocyst formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira; Halpern, Gabriela; Setti, Amanda S; Figueira, Rita Cássia S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of patients' lifestyle factors and eating habits on embryo development. A total of 2659 embryos recovered from 269 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included. The frequency of intake of food items and social habits were registered and its influences on embryo development evaluated. The consumption of cereals, vegetables and fruits positively influenced the embryo quality at the cleavage stage. The quality of the embryo at the cleavage stage was also negatively correlated with the consumption of alcoholic drinks and smoking habits. The consumption of fruits influenced the likelihood of blastocyst formation, which was also positively affected by the consumption of fish. Being on a weight-loss diet and consumption of red meat had a negative influence on the likelihood of blastocyst formation. The likelihood of blastocyst formation was also negatively influenced by the consumption of alcoholic drinks and by smoking habits. The consumption of red meat and body mass index had a negative effect on the implantation rate and the likelihood of pregnancy. In addition, being on a weight-loss diet had a negative influence on implantation rate. Our evidence suggests a possible relationship between environmental factors and ovary biology. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. H2O2-induced mild stress in relation with in vitro ovine oocyte developmental competence: implications for blastocyst apoptosis and related genes expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikdel, K; Aminafshar, M; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, A; EmamJomeh-Kashan, N; Seyedjafari, E

    2017-05-20

    In this study, in vitro maturation was performed in presence of various concentrations (0, 10, 100, or 1000 µM) of H2O2. The intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates, total cell number, and apoptotic cell number and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 genes in blastocyst-stage embryos were studied. At 10 μM H2O2 concentration, a higher GSH level was detected in comparison to the other groups while oocytes exposed to 1000 μM H2O2 had the lowest GSH level. Treatment of oocytes with 1000 μM H2O2 decreased the rate of two pronuclei formation as compared with other groups. A higher rate of blastocyst formation was seen in 100 μM H2O2 group as compared with the control group. However, exogenous H2O2 in maturation medium did not affect total cell numbers and apoptotic cell ratio at the blastocyst stage. Moreover, mRNA transcript abundance of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 genes was similar between blastocysts derived from H2O2-induced oocytes and control blastocysts. Treatment of oocytes with H2O2 at mild level during in vitro maturation had a positive effect on GSH level and this, in turn, may lead to improvement in preimplantation embryonic development.

  17. Reconstructive Surgery in the Thermally Injured Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    the same or Conflicts of interest: The authors disclose no conflicts. a Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , Dental and Trauma Research...Reconstructive Surgery in the Thermally Injured Patient Davin Mellus, DMDa,* Rodney K. Chan, MDb KEYWORDS • Microvascular free-tissue transfer...Pedicle flaps • Reconstructive Surgery • Thermal injury • Z-plasties • Skin grafting AN INCREASED NEED FOR RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Reconstruction is a

  18. Synthesis and Blastocyst Implantation Inhibition Potential of Lupeol Derivatives in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mahapatra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Blastocyst implantation which is analogous to pro-inflammatory response, mediated by different inflammatory mediators and ovarian hormones found to be an effective target for the development of emergency contraceptives. In the present study, a series of derivatives an anti-inflammatory natural scaffold, lupeol were synthesized under mild reaction conditions and good yield. All the compounds were evaluated for acute anti-inflammation. The three active compounds with 62-92% edema protection were screened for chronic anti-inflammation. The analogue 3-(p-chlorocinnamoyl lupeol ( 2 with potent anti-inflammatory activity (85% protection was evaluated for t he anti-implantation activity by studying changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD and lipid peroxidation (LPO levels, visualization of implantation site and anti-estrogenic activity. As expected, a sharp decrease in superoxide anion radical and increase in SOD activity was seen in the endometrium of treated animals. Also no implantation sites were observed in the uterus of treated animals. The active compound also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity.

  19. Improved blastocyst development of single cow OPU-derived presumptive zygotes by group culture with agarose-embedded helper embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Shukla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The in vitro culture of presumed zygotes derived from single cow ovum pick-up (OPU is important for the production of quality blastocysts maintaining pedigree. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the agar chip-embedded helper embryo coculture system for single cow OPU-derived zygotes by assessing embryo quality. Methods Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were collected from Hanwoo cows with high genetic merit twice a week using the ultra-sound guided OPU technique and from slaughterhouse ovaries. The Hanwoo cow COCs and slaughterhouse ovaries were matured in vitro, fertilized in vitro with thawed Hanwoo sperm and cultured for 24 h. The presumed zygotes were subsequently placed in three different culture systems: (1 control OPU (controlOPU with single cow OPU-derived presumed zygotes (2~8; (2 agar chip-embedded slaughterhouse helper embryo coculture (agarOPU with ten presumed zygotes including all presumed zygotes from a cow (2~8 and the rest from agar chip-embedded slaughterhouse presumed zygotes (8~2; and (3 slaughterhouse in vitro embryo production (sIVP with ten slaughterhouse ovary-derived presumed zygotes, each in 50 μL droplets. Day 8 blastocysts were assayed for apoptosis and gene expression using real time PCR. Results The coculture system promoted higher blastocyst development in OPU zygotes compared to control OPU zygotes cultured alone (35.2 vs. 13.9%; P CD9, 0.4-fold; AKRAB1, 0.3-fold and in cocultured zygotes (CD9, 0.3-fold; AKRAB1, 0.3-fold compared to sIVP blastocysts (1.0-fold. Moreover, genes involved in implantation and/or normal calf delivery were up-regulated (P PGSH2, 5.0-fold; TXN, 4.3-fold; PLAU, 1.7-fold and cocultured zygotes (PGSH2, 14.5-fold; TXN, 3.2-fold; PLAU, 6.8-fold compared to sIVP (1.0-fold blastocysts. However, the expression of PLAC8, TGF-β1, ODC1, ATP5A1 and CASP3 did not differ between the three culture groups. Conclusions Results show that the agar chip-embedded helper embryo

  20. TallyHO obese female mice experience poor reproductive outcomes and abnormal blastocyst metabolism that is reversed by metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Erica D; Luzzo, Kerri M; Jimenez, Patricia T; Chi, Tiffany; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H

    2014-12-01

    Obese women experience worse reproductive outcomes than normal weight women, specifically infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal malformations and developmental delay of offspring. The aim of the present study was to use a genetic mouse model of obesity to recapitulate the human reproductive phenotype and further examine potential mechanisms and therapies. New inbred, polygenic Type 2 diabetic TallyHO mice and age-matched control C57BL/6 mice were superovulated to obtain morula or blastocyst stage embryos that were cultured in human tubal fluid (HTF) medium. Deoxyglucose uptake was determined for individual insulin-stimulated blastocysts. Apoptosis was detected by confocal microscopy using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and Topro-3 nuclear dye. Embryos were scored for TUNEL-positive as a percentage of total nuclei. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression and adiponectin expression were analysed by western immunoblot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. Lipid accumulation was assayed by BODIPY. Comparisons were made between TallyHO morulae cultured to blastocyst embryos in either HTF medium or HTF medium with 25 μg mL(-1) metformin. TallyHO mice developed whole body abnormal insulin tolerance, had decreased litter sizes and increased non-esterified fatty acid levels. Blastocysts from TallyHO mice exhibited increased apoptosis, decreased insulin sensitivity and decreased AMPK. A possible cause for the insulin resistance and abnormal AMPK phosphorylation was the increased TNF-α expression and lipid accumulation, as detected by BODIPY, in TallyHO blastocysts and decreased adiponectin. Culturing TallyHO morulae with the AMPK activator metformin led to a reversal of all the abnormal findings, including increased AMPK phosphorylation, improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and normalisation of lipid accumulation. Women with obesity and

  1. Effect of vitrification on number of inner cell mass in mouse blastocysts in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem, S.; Negar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of using open and closed carriers on count of inner cell mass in vitrified mouse blastocyst after warming. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, from April to September 2010. Forty female NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute, USA) mice were injected with pregnant mares serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin in order to induce super ovulation. Following the latter injection, two or three females were caged with the same-breed male mice. The presence of vaginal plug was examined the following morning. To collect blastocyst embryos, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 88-90 hours after the injection and dissected. Blastocysts were collected in phosphate-buffered saline and allocated to four groups: vitrification in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop. The vitrification solution was ethylene glycol, Ficol and sucrose (EFS) 20% and 40%. After storage for 1 month in liquid nitrogen, the blastocysts were thawed in 0.5 M sucrose then cultured in M16 medium. After 6 hours of culture, the number of expanded blastocysts was recorded and stained by double-dye technique. After staining, the number of total cell and inner cell mass was calculated. Results: The re-expansion rate of blastocysts in the cryoloop group (n=90; 78.26%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than open pulled straw (n=83; 69.16%), closed pulled straw (n=68; 54.83%) and conventional straws (n=63; 51.21%) groups. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the number of inner cell mass in blastocysts vitrified in open pulled straws, closed straws and cryoloop with blastocysts cryopreserved in conventional straws. Conclusion: The re-expansion rate and total cell number of mouse blastocysts vitrified using open system had a better result compared with the closed system. The value of cryoloop and open pulled straws as carriers in

  2. Reconstructive challenges in war wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    War wounds are devastating with extensive soft tissue and osseous destruction and heavy contamination. War casualties generally reach the reconstructive surgery centre after a delayed period due to additional injuries to the vital organs. This delay in their transfer to a tertiary care centre is responsible for progressive deterioration in wound conditions. In the prevailing circumstances, a majority of war wounds undergo delayed reconstruction, after a series of debridements. In the recent m...

  3. [Association of fertilization strategy and embryo transfer time with the incidence of ectopic pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-zhao; Zhao, Wan-qiu; Ren, An-qi; Shi, Juan-zi

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the correlation of the fertilization strategy and embryo transfer (ET) time with the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. We selected 3,331 fresh and 2,706 frozen-thawed ET cycles for the patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The fresh transfers included 2 546 IVF-ET and 785 ICSI-ET cycles and 2,220 day-3 embryo and 1,111 day-5 blastocyst transfers, while the frozen-thawed transfers included 2,080 IVF-ET and 626 ICSI-ET cycles and 741 day-3 embryo and 1 965 day-5 or -6 blastocyst transfers. We compared the incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy associated with different fertilization strategies and ET time. The incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy was 1. 41% (36/2 546) in the IVF-ET cycles and 3.44% (27/785) in the ICSI-ET cycles of the fresh transfers, significantly lower in the IVF-ET than in the ICSI-ET cycles (P 0.05). The IVF-ET and ICSI-ET cycles included 2,220 fresh day-3 (F-D3) embryos, 1,111 F-D5 blastocysts, 741 frozen-thawed day-3 (T-D3) embryos, and 1,965 T-D5/6 blastocysts. The incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy was 1.71% (n = 38) in the F-D3, 2.25% (n = 25) in the F-D5, 1.35% (n = 10) in the T-D3, and 0.81% (n = 16) in the T-D5/6 group, respectively, significantly lower in the T-D5/6 than in the other three groups (P ectopic pregnancy is associated with fertilization strategies, which is significantly lower in frozen-thawed than in fresh embryo transfers.

  4. Climate Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  5. INFLUENCE OF THE SEASONAL VARIATION ON THE BLASTOCYST YIELD OF C57BL/6NCrl MOUSE STRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALENA BENCSIK

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Routine generation of chimeras relies on the production of large numbers ofblastocysts in a constant and reproducible manner and on the quality of the targetedES (embryonal stem cells used for microinjection. We have focussed this work onthe production of large numbers of blastocysts by superovulation, in standardizedconditions. The efficiency of superovulation in mice is affected by several factors.These factors depend on the animal, on the environment and on the operator. Theeffect of seasonal variation as environmental impact was assessed. For this purpose360 prepubescent C57BL6/NCrl females were superovulated with 5 IU of PMSG(Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin and 5 IU hCG (Human ChorionicGonadotropin and mated with fertile C57BL/6NCrl males. The distribution of theexperiments over the seasons was as following: 8 experiments were performed inspring, 12 in summer, 12 in autumn and 4 in winter. The influence of the seasonalvariation on the efficiency of superovulation in two age categories (23 day old and26 day old females was compared. The results show that the overall vaginal plugpositive rate (VP+% of the 23 day old females (90% is higher in comparison tothat of the 26 day old females (86,4%, whereas the blastocyst rate (B% of 26 dayold females (45,4% is higher compared to the 23 day old females (41%. Theinfluence of the seasonal variation on the yield of embryos and the rate ofblastocysts is relatively constant in each season. These results suggest that housingof the mice in our artificial conditions and the hormonal induction of superovulationlead to a reproducible number of blastocysts over the seasonal variation of the year.

  6. Addition of L-ascorbic acid to culture and vitrification media of IVF porcine blastocysts improves survival and reduces HSPA1A levels of vitrified embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Martín, Miriam; Yeste, Marc; Soler, Albert; Morató, Roser; Bonet, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid on embryo quality and gene expression of porcine blastocysts after supplementations of in vitro culture medium and/or vitrification-warming media. Embryo quality, in terms of total cell number (TCN), DNA fragmentation and peroxide levels, together with the relative transcript abundance of BCL-2 associated X protein (BAX), BCL2-like 1 (BCL2L1), POU class 5 homeobox 1 (POU5F1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A), was analysed. In Experiment 1, gene expression and embryo quality of fresh blastocysts were evaluated after culture with or without L-ascorbic acid; no significant differences were observed between the groups. In Experiment 2, blastocysts cultured with or without L-ascorbic acid were vitrified using two different vitrification solutions, supplemented or not with L-ascorbic acid. Supplementation of culture and vitrification media significantly enhanced survival rates and reduced peroxide levels. No significant differences in TCN, DNA fragmentation and BAX, BCL2L1 and POU5F1 expression were found in vitrified blastocysts among experimental groups. Vitrification procedures increase HSPA1A transcript abundance, but this increase was significantly lower in embryos cultured and/or vitrified with L-ascorbic acid. Thus, supplementing culture and/or vitrification media with L-ascorbic acid enhances survival rates of porcine blastocysts, suggesting a relationship with HSPA1A expression.

  7. Effects of retinol on the in vitro development of Bos indicus embryos to blastocysts in two different culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, P F; Oliveira, M A L; Gonçalves, P B D; Montagner, M M; Reichenbach, H-D; Weppert, M; Neto, C C C; Pina, V M R; Santos, M H B

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of retinol on the in vitro development of early embryos of cultured Bos indicus (Expt 1) to the blastocyst stage in medium simplex of optimization (KSOM) or sintetic fluid of oviduct (SOF) or co-cultured (Expt 2) with an oviduct cell monolayer (OCM) in KSOM or SOF. A total of 3149 cumulus-oocyte complexes obtained by aspirating follicles (2-5 mm diameter) from ovaries of slaughtered animals were selected for IVM and incubated in TCM 199 supplemented with 25 mM HEPES at 39 degrees C in air with 5% CO(2) and maximum humidity for 24 h. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed in modified defined medium (mDM) medium. Eighteen hours after IVF, cumulus cells were removed and presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated to the experimental groups. Zygotes cultured (Expt 1) in KSOM + retinol, KSOM, SOF + retinol and SOF were incubated in maximum humidity at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2), 5% O(2) and 90% N(2). Zygotes co-cultured (Expt 2) in KSOM + retinol + OCM, KSOM + OCM, SOF + retinol + OCM and SOF + OCM were incubated at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2). In both experiments media were partially changed 48 h after IVF and unfertilized ova were removed. Afterwards embryos were kept in culture or co-culture for further 9 days. In Expt 1, blastocyst rates (day 7) were 14.6% (KSOM + retinol), 15.8% (KSOM), 16.4% (SOF + retinol) and 15.9% (SOF). In Expt 2, the blastocyst rates (day 7) were 25.4% (KSOM + retinol + OCM) 14.2% (KSOM + OCM), 24.3% (SOF + retinol + OCM) and 15.9% (SOF + OCM). The same influence profile of retinol was observed in the formation of the expanded (day 9) and hatched (day 11) blastocysts. The results obtained in Expt 2 demonstrated that the addition of 0.28 microg/ml retinol to the embryo culture media used in this study had a significant (p < 0.05) positive effect on bovine early embryonic development, under the conditions tested, and can be used to enhance in vitro embryo production.

  8. Elucidation of the CCR1- and CCR5-binding modes of MIP-1α by application of an NMR spectra reconstruction method to the transferred cross-saturation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Chie; Ueda, Takumi; Kofuku, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Masahiko; Okude, Junya; Kondo, Keita; Shiraishi, Yutaro; Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: shimada@iw-nmr.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    C–C chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) and CCR5 are involved in various inflammation and immune responses, and regulate the progression of the autoimmune diseases differently. However, the number of residues identified at the binding interface was not sufficient to clarify the differences in the CCR1- and CCR5-binding modes to MIP-1α, because the NMR measurement time for CCR1 and CCR5 samples was limited to 24 h, due to their low stability. Here we applied a recently developed NMR spectra reconstruction method, Conservation of experimental data in ANAlysis of FOuRier, to the amide-directed transferred cross-saturation experiments of chemokine receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, embedded in lipid bilayers of the reconstituted high density lipoprotein, and MIP-1α. Our experiments revealed that the residues on the N-loop and β-sheets of MIP-1α are close to both CCR1 and CCR5, and those in the C-terminal helix region are close to CCR5. These results suggest that the genetic influence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms of MIP-1α that accompany substitution of residues in the C-terminal helix region, E57 and V63, would provide clues toward elucidating how the CCR5–MIP-1α interaction affects the progress of autoimmune diseases.

  9. Effects of electric field strengths on fusion and in vitro development of domestic cat embryos derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karja, Ni Wayan Kurniani; Otoi, Takeshige; Wongsrikeao, Pimprapar; Shimizu, Ryohei; Murakami, Masako; Agung, Budiyanto; Fahrudin, Mokhamad; Nagai, Takashi

    2006-09-15

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of electric field strength on the rate of membrane fusion between the somatic cell and cytoplast and on subsequent in vitro development of reconstructed embryos. Additionally, the in vitro developmental competence of cat oocytes artificially activated after 44 h of maturation culture was examined. An efficient fusion rate (64.2%) was obtained by applying a single pulse of 1.5 kV/cm for 50 micros, and the fusion rate remained almost constant at the higher field intensity (59.8 and 54.9% at 1.7 and 2.0 kV/cm, respectively). Although the cleavage rate of fused embryos increased with an increase of the electric field strength, there were no differences among the groups with respect to the proportion of development to the morula and blastocyst stages. In the additional experiment, oocytes at the metaphase II stage after culture for 44 h were activated by the combination of calcium ionophore (CaI) with cycloheximide (CHX). Some (11.8%) of activated oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage. Results from this study indicated that electric field strength affects the rates of fusion and cleavage but has no significant effects on the development to the blastocyst stage of reconstructed embryos. Prolonged maturation culture of cat oocytes (up to 44 h) decreased their ability to develop to the blastocyst stage.

  10. Production of transgenic dairy goat expressing human α-lactalbumin by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiujing; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Huili; Meng, Chunhua; Li, Jingxin; Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yong; Su, Lei; He, Qiang; Zhang, Qingxiao

    2015-02-01

    Production of human α-lactalbumin (hα-LA) transgenic cloned dairy goats has great potential in improving the nutritional value and perhaps increasing the yield of dairy goat milk. Here, a mammary-specific expression vector 5A, harboring goat β-lactoglobulin (βLG) promoter, the hα-LA gene, neo(r) and EGFP dual markers, was constructed. Then, it was effectively transfected into goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and the expression of hα-LA was investigated. Both the hα-LA transcript and protein were detected in the transfected GMECs after the induction of hormonal signals. In addition, the 5A vector was introduced into dairy goat fetal fibroblasts (transfection efficiency ≈60-70%) to prepare competent transgenic donor cells. A total of 121 transgenic fibroblast clones were isolated by 96-well cell culture plates and screened with nested-PCR amplification and EGFP fluorescence. After being frozen for 8 months, the transgenic cells still showed high viabilities, verifying their ability as donor cells. Dairy goat cloned embryos were produced from these hα-LA transgenic donor cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the rates of fusion, cleavage, and the development to blastocyst stages were 81.8, 84.4, and 20.0%, respectively. A total of 726 reconstructed embryos derived from the transgenic cells were transferred to 74 recipients and pregnancy was confirmed at 90 days in 12 goats. Of six female kids born, two carried hα-LA and the hα-LA protein was detected in their milk. This study provides an effective system to prepare SCNT donor cells and transgenic animals for human recombinant proteins.

  11. ACL Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in moderate exercise and recreational activities, or play sports that put less stress on the knees. ACL reconstruction is generally recommended if: You're an athlete and want to continue in your sport, especially if the sport involves jumping, cutting or ...

  12. Project Reconstruct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  13. Significant improvement of mouse cloning technique by treatment with trichostatin A after somatic nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Mizutani, Eiji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Thuan, Nguyen Van; Wakayama, Sayaka; Bui, Hong-Thuy; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2006-01-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors including abnormal DNA hypermethylation. Recently, we elucidated by using round spermatids that, after nuclear transfer, treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can remarkably reduce abnormal DNA hypermethylation depending on the origins of transferred nuclei and their genomic regions [S. Kishigami, N. Van Thuan, T. Hikichi, H. Ohta, S. Wakayama. E. Mizutani, T. Wakayama, Epigenetic abnormalities of the mouse paternal zygotic genome associated with microinsemination of round spermatids, Dev. Biol. (2005) in press]. Here, we found that 5-50 nM TSA-treatment for 10 h following oocyte activation resulted in more efficient in vitro development of somatic cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage from 2- to 5-fold depending on the donor cells including tail tip cells, spleen cells, neural stem cells, and cumulus cells. This TSA-treatment also led to more than 5-fold increase in success rate of mouse cloning from cumulus cells without obvious abnormality but failed to improve ES cloning success. Further, we succeeded in establishment of nuclear transfer-embryonic stem (NT-ES) cells from TSA-treated cloned blastocyst at a rate three times higher than those from untreated cloned blastocysts. Thus, our data indicate that TSA-treatment after SCNT in mice can dramatically improve the practical application of current cloning techniques

  14. On Stack Reconstruction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Аkeliev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes analytical investigations that study relation of fuel combustion regimes with concentration values of sulphur anhydride in flue gases and acid dew point. Coefficients of convective heat transfer at internal and external surfaces of stacks have been determined in the paper. The paper reveals the possibility to reconstruct stacks while using gas discharging channel made of composite material on the basis of glass-reinforced plastic which permits to reduce thermo-stressed actions on reinforced concrete and increase volume of released gases due to practically two-fold reduction of gas-dynamic pressure losses along the pipe length.

  15. The new data on the seasonal distribution of diatoms in the Southern Baltic coastal lakes as a basis for diatom-based transfer functions to reconstruct past environmental changes in the Baltic coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Woszczyk, Michał; Suchińska, Anita; Burchardt, Lubomira; Messyasz, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Lakes ecosystems are very sensitive to climate and environment changes. In lake sediments there are preserved remains of plant and animals that lived in the lake and its surroundings in the past. The species composition of past assemblages is a basis for quantitative and qualitative reconstruction of the past environmental changes (climate changes). One of the most commonly used bio-proxy for the reconstruction of lake development are subfossil diatoms which are sensitive to lake water pH, nutrient status, salinity and temperature. In this poster we present the new data from the coastal lakes on the Southern Baltic coast. The main goal of this research was to quantify the relationships between modern diatom assemblages and present-day environmental conditions. These relationships will be used to develop diatom-based transfer functions that will be applied to future studies of environmental change on the Polish Baltic coast. Water samples for diatom and chemical analyses were collected a few times per year between 2012 and 2014 from 12 coastal lakes located along the Polish Baltic coast as well as from the Baltic Sea. We analysed the whole phytoplankton composition. However the special focus was put on diatoms. At each site, a suite of important water quality parameters was collected, including chemical (e.g., chlorides, phosphorous and sulphur) and physical (e.g., Secchi depth) variables. Diatom assemblages from each site were counted and identified to the most specific taxonomic level possible. Diatom data were compiled for comparison to corresponding environmental data and development of indicator models. The results of the analysis show seasonal changes in diatom distribution as well as the chemical and physical water propertieswhich are mainly related to saltwater ingressions to the lakes. Lake Koprowo, Lake Resko Przymorskie, Lake Bukowo and Lake Łebsko are under the constant of seawater influence, which makes them similar to lagoons. In Lake Gardno seawater

  16. Effect of oocyte quality on blastocyst development after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, Maria G; Izquierdo, Dolors; Rodríguez-Prado, Maria; Hammami, Sondes; Paramio, Maria-Teresa

    2012-04-01

    To compare blastocyst production, after IVF and ICSI, from sheep oocytes of various quality. Sham-injected oocytes and parthenogenetic activated oocyte groups were considered as control. Prospective experimental study. University. Three- to 6-month-old sheep. Oocyte quality was assessed with the use of brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) stain. Adenosine triphosphate content was measured. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection and IVF were performed and blastocyst development and cell numbers were analyzed. Adenosine triphosphate content, embryo development and blastomere numbers. After IVF, BCB-stained (BCB+) oocytes developed up to the blastocyst stage at higher percentages and with more cells per embryo (24.1% vs 4.0% and 69.7 vs 43.9, respectively) than unstained (BCB-) oocytes. Using intracytoplasmic sperm injection, no differences were found in blastocyst production (14.3% vs 11.8%) and number of cells per embryo (71.1 vs 54.3) between BCB+ and BCB- oocytes. Adenosine triphosphate content was higher before in vitro maturation than after in both types of oocytes. Brilliant cresyl blue-stained oocytes had more adenosine triphosphate content than BCB- oocytes. Brilliant cresyl blue-stained oocytes show more adenosine triphosphate content than BCB- oocytes. Results from IVF were affected by the oocyte quality while ICSI did not produce differences in embryo development or blastomere numbers. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a modified straw method for vitrification of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts and various genes expression in between the methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, A-Na; Lee, Sang-Ryeul; Jeon, Jeong-Seon; Park, Han-Seul; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jin, Jong-In; Sessions, Benjamin R; Wang, Zhongde; White, Kenneth L; Kong, Il-Keun

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated a modified plastic straw loading method for vitrification of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts. A modified straw was used with a depressed area on its inner surface to which embryos attach. In vitro-produced blastocysts were randomly assigned into three groups: (i) blastocysts attached to the inner surface of a plastic straw (aV), (ii) blastocysts attached to the inner surface of a modified plastic straw (maV), and (iii) non-vitrified blastocysts (control). The recovery rates were not significantly different between aV and maV groups (95.8% vs. 94.3%). The post-thaw survival rate did not significantly differ between aV and maV groups (86.4% vs. 88.2%). The total cell numbers of blastocyst was higher in control than in aV and maV groups (142 ± 21.8 vs. 117 ± 29.7 and 120 ± 25.2; P < 0.05), but not significantly differ between aV and maV groups. The mRNA levels of pro-apoptosis related genes Bax and Caspase-3 were higher in aV and maV than in control (P < 0.05). By contrast, the mRNA levels of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and of antioxidant-related genes MnSOD and Prdx5 were lower in aV and maV than in control (P < 0.05). Confocal microscopy analysis of Golgi apparatus and mitochondria showed that the fluorescence intensity of Golgi apparatus and mitochondria was higher in control than in aV and maV groups. In conclusion, both aV and maV methods can be used to successfully vitrify IVP blastocysts, with maV method to be preferable because of its easiness in embryo loading. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2017-12-01

    We present a direct approach to nonparametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed nonlinear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the nonlinear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to the nonlinear scale (rδrδL>0.5 for k ≲1 h /Mpc ) with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully nonlinear fields, potentially substantially expanding the baryon acoustic oscillations and redshift space distortions information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21 cm intensity mapping initiatives.

  19. Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer in Asiatic cheetah using nuclei derived from post-mortem frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulavi, F; Hosseini, S M; Tanhaie-Vash, N; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S H; Hajinasrollah, M; Asghari, M H; Gourabi, H; Shahverdi, A; Vosough, A D; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2017-03-01

    Recent accomplishments in the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) hold tremendous promise to prevent rapid loss of animal genetic resources using ex situ conservation technology. Most of SCNT studies use viable cells for nuclear transfer into recipient oocytes. However, preparation of live cells in extreme circumstances, in which post-mortem material of endangered/rare animals is improperly retained frozen, is difficult, if not impossible. This study investigated the possibility of interspecies-SCNT (iSCNT) in Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), a critically endangered subspecies, using nuclei derived from frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant at -20 °C and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes. No cells growth was detected in primary culture of skin and tendon pieces or following culture of singled cells prepared by enzymatic digestion. Furthermore, no live cells were detected following differential viable staining and almost all cells had ruptured membrane. Therefore, direct injection of donor nuclei into enucleated cat oocytes matured in vitro was carried out for SCNT experiments. Early signs of nuclear remodeling were observed as early as 2 h post-iSCNT and significantly increased at 4 h post-iSCNT. The percentages of iSCNT reconstructs that cleaved and developed to 4-16 cell and morula stages were 32.3 ± 7.3, 18.2 ± 9.8 and 5.9 ± 4.3%, respectively. However, none of the iSCNT reconstructs developed to the blastocyst stage. When domestic cat somatic and oocytes were used for control SCNT and parthenogenetic activation, the respective percentages of oocytes that cleaved (51.3 ± 13.9 and 77.3 ± 4.0%) and further developed to the blastocyst stage (11.3 ± 3.3 and 16.8 ± 3.8%) were comparable. In summary, this study demonstrated that enucleated cat oocytes can partially remodel and reactivate non-viable nuclei of Asiatic cheetah and support its reprogramming back to the embryonic stage. To our knowledge, this is

  20. Extended Culture of Encapsulated Human Blastocysts in Alginate Hydrogel Containing Decidualized Endometrial Stromal Cells in the Presence of Melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Fatemeh; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Arasteh, Shaghayegh; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Extended in vitro culture of human embryos beyond blastocyst stage could serve as a tool to explore the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying embryo development and to identify factors regulating pregnancy outcomes. This study presents the first report on the maintenance of human embryo in vitro by alginate co-encapsulation of human blastocyst and decidualized endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) under melatonin-fortified culture conditions. The effectiveness of the 3D culture system was studied through monitoring of embryo development in terms of survival time, viability, morphological changes, and production of the two hormones of 17b-oestradiol and human chorionic gonadotropin. The embryo structural integrity was preserved during alginate encapsulation; however, only 23 % of the encapsulated embryos could retain in the hydrogels over time and survived until day 4 post-encapsulation. The culture medium fortification with melatonin significantly elevated the maintenance rate of expanded embryos in alginate beads by 65 % and prolonged survival time of human embryos to day 5. Furthermore, embryo co-culture with EnSCs using melatonin-fortified medium increased the survival time of encapsulated embryos to 44 %. The levels of two measured hormones significantly rose at day 4 in comparison with day 2 post-encapsulation especially in the group co-encapsulated with EnSCs and cultivated in melatonin-fortified culture medium. These data are the first evidence representing in vitro development of human embryos until day 10 post-fertilization. This achievement can facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms regulating human embryo development.

  1. Nuclear transfer of synchronized African wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Giraldo, A.; Harris, R.F.; King, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The African wild cat is one of the smallest wild cats and its future is threatened by hybridization with domestic cats. Nuclear transfer, a valuable tool for retaining genetic variability, offers the possibility of species continuation rather than extinction. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the African wild cat (AWC) to dedifferentiate within domestic cat (DSH) cytoplasts and to support early development after nuclear transplantation. In experiment 1, distributions of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in each cell-cycle phase were assessed by flow cytometry using cells cultured to confluency and disaggregated with pronase, trypsin, or mechanical separation. Trypsin (89.0%) and pronase (93.0%) yielded higher proportions of AWC nuclei in the G0/G1 phase than mechanical separation (82.0%). In contrast, mechanical separation yielded higher percentages of DSH nuclei in the G0/G1 phase (86.6%) than pronase (79.7%) or trypsin (74.2%) treatments. In both species, pronase induced less DNA damage than trypsin. In experiment 2, the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluency, and exposure to roscovitine on the distribution of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in various phases of the cell cycle were determined. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that the dynamics of the cell cycle varied as culture conditions were modified. Specifically, a higher percentage of AWC and DSH nuclei were in the G0/G1 phase after cells were serum starved (83% vs. 96%) than were present in cycling cells (50% vs. 64%), after contact inhibition (61% vs. 88%), or after roscovitine (56% vs. 84%) treatment, respectively. In experiment 3, we evaluated the effects of cell synchronization and oocyte maturation (in vivo vs. in vitro) on the reconstruction and development of AWC-DSH- and DSH-DSH-cloned embryos. The method of cell synchronization did not affect the fusion and cleavage rate because only a slightly higher percentage of fused couplets cleaved when donor nuclei

  2. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are an Attractive Donor Cell Type for Production of Cloned Pigs As Well As Genetically Modified Cloned Pigs by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zicong; He, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liwen; Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique has been widely applied to clone pigs or to produce genetically modified pigs. Currently, this technique relies mainly on using terminally differentiated fibroblasts as donor cells. To improve cloning efficiency, only partially differentiated multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thought to be more easily reprogrammed to a pluripotent state, have been used as nuclear donors in pig SCNT. Although in vitro–cultured embryos cloned from porcine MSCs (MSCs-embryos) were shown to have higher preimplantation developmental ability than cloned embryos reconstructed from fibroblasts (Fs-embryos), the difference in in vivo full-term developmental rate between porcine MSCs-embryos and Fs-embryos has not been investigated so far. In this study, we demonstrated that blastocyst total cell number and full-term survival abilities of MSCs-embryos were significantly higher than those of Fs-embryos cloned from the same donor pig. The enhanced developmental potential of MSCs-embryos may be associated with their nuclear donors' DNA methylation profile, because we found that the methylation level of imprinting genes and repeat sequences differed between MSCs and fibroblasts. In addition, we showed that use of transgenic porcine MSCs generated from transgene plasmid transfection as donor cells for SCNT can produce live transgenic cloned pigs. These results strongly suggest that porcine bone marrow MSCs are a desirable donor cell type for production of cloned pigs and genetically modified cloned pigs via SCNT. PMID:24033142

  3. Embryo transfer day does not affect the initial maternal serum β-hCG levels: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Mona; Rupani, Karishma; Yu, Su Ling; Fook-Chong, Stephanie M C; Siew Fui, Diana Chia; Rajesh, Hemashree

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the serum β-hCG values post transfer of a cleavage stage embryo versus a blastocyst stage embryo at equal time intervals post oocyte retrieval (OR) in clinically pregnant patients, and to ascertain a β-hCG value to predict pregnancy outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study of 560 women with clinical pregnancy who underwent an embryo transfer performed at either the cleavage stage or the blastocyst stage of embryo development between January 2003 and June 2014 at the Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARE), Singapore General Hospital. The serum β-hCG level was measured on day 17 post OR. The β-hCG values were not significantly different in the cleavage stage versus the blastocyst stage embryos (mean±SD: 387±486IU/L D3 vs. 352±268IU/L D5, p=0.96, median value 297 in both groups). Our study suggests that the initial maternal serum β-hCG values were not affected by the day of transfer of the embryos since assessing the β-hCG at equivalent points after transfer should not lead to a significant difference assuming the progress and development of the embryos occurred as expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of human blastocysts andcytotrophoblasts by multi-color FISH and Spectra Imaging analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Jingly F.; Ferlatte, Christy; Baumgartner, Adolf; Jung,Christine J.; Nguyen, Ha-Nam; Chu, Lisa W.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fisher,Susan J.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-02-08

    Numerical chromosome aberrations in gametes typically lead to failed fertilization, spontaneous abortion or a chromosomally abnormal fetus. By means of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we now can screen human embryos in vitro for aneuploidy before transferring the embryos to the uterus. PGD allows us to select unaffected embryos for transfer and increases the implantation rate in in vitro fertilization programs. Molecular cytogenetic analyses using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of blastomeres have become the major tool for preimplantation genetic screening of aneuploidy. However, current FISH technology can test for only a small number of chromosome abnormalities and hitherto failed to increase the pregnancy rates as expected. We are in the process of developing technologies to score all 24 chromosomes in single cells within a 3 day time limit, which we believe is vital to the clinical setting. Also, human placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) at the fetal-maternal interface acquire aneuploidies as they differentiate to an invasive phenotype. About 20-50% of invasive CTB cells from uncomplicated pregnancies were found aneuploidy, suggesting that the acquisition of aneuploidy is an important component of normal placentation, perhaps limiting the proliferative and invasive potential of CTBs. Since most invasive CTBs are interphase cells and possess extreme heterogeneity, we applied multi-color FISH and repeated hybridizations to investigate individual CTBs. In summary, this study demonstrates the strength of Spectral Imaging analysis and repeated hybridizations, which provides a basis for full karyotype analysis of single interphase cells.

  5. Progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration adversely affects the outcome of IVF with transferred embryos at different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, En-Yin; Du, Qing-Yun; Xiong, Yu-Jing; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Yu, Yi-Ping; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-08-04

    The effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles is a matter of ongoing debate. The replacement of cleavage-stage embryos with blastocyst-stage embryos for transfer was proposed to avoid the possible impairment of PE in fresh cycles. This study aimed to assess the association between PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in IVF/ICSI cycles with embryos transferred at different developmental stages (cleavage and blastocyst). Moreover, a secondary aim was to determine the thresholds at which PE has a detrimental effect on CPRs. This single-center retrospective cohort study included more than 10,000 patients undergoing day 3 cleavage-stage embryo transfer (ET) and 1146 patients undergoing day 5 blastocyst-stage embryo transfer (ET) using gonadotropin and GnRH agonist for controlled ovarian stimulation. Serum PE was inversely associated with CPRs in both cleavage- and blastocyst-stage ET cycles. In the day 3 ET cycles, CPRs (progesterone levels < 0.5 ng/ml, 49.2 %) significantly declined when the progesterone concentration reached 1.0 ng/ml (45.5 %) and decreased further when the progesterone concentration increased to 1.5 ng/ml (36.2 %). In the day 5 blastocyst-stage ET cycles, patients with serum progesterone levels ≥1.75 ng/ml had significantly lower CPRs (31.3 % VS. 41.4 %, p < 0.001) compared to patients with serum progesterone levels <1.75 ng/ml. The negative association of PE with CPRs was noted in both ET groups, even after adjusting for confounders. Furthermore, the developmental stage of the transferred embryos was not linked to the effect of PE on CPRs because the interaction between the developmental stage of the transferred embryos and PE was not significant. PE on the day of hCG administration is associated with

  6. Influence of irradiation (Co60) in pre-implant rabbits embryos: effect on blastocyst diameters and embryos smaller than 2 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approbato, Mario S.; Oliveira Moura, Katia K.V. de; Souza Florencio, Rodopiano de; Cunha Junior, Carlos; Garcia, Ricardo; Faria, Renato S.; Benedetti, Leonardo N.; Goulart, Flamarion B.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), in three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses, 5 c Gy and 10 c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. The matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after (± 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. The embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryos parameters were studied: diameter growth; percentage of embryos smaller than 2 mm. We observed that only the irradiation time influenced the blastocysts diameter (no irradiation dose). There was no relation between percentage of embryos smaller than 2 mm and the irradiation. (author)

  7. Optimization of three-dimensional imaging on in vitro produced porcine blastocysts and chimeras for stem cell testing: A technology report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Jan; Freude, Karla; Li, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Differential staining is an immunocytochemical staining that visualizes trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocysts. It is used to determine the blastocyst quality, but could also be a useful tool to assess the integration site of injected cells into the early embryo....... This is relevant for testing of presumed pluripotent stem cells. The gold standard for pluripotent stem cells is to test if the cells are capable of contributing to germline chimeras. Differential staining can be used to evaluate the possibility of chimeric contribution; if the cells are located in the area...... of the ICM they are likely to contribute to the fetus and if they are located in the area of the TE they are likely to contribute to the fetal membranes. In this article, we optimize on methods for embryo staining and mounting so that the exact location of injected stem cells within preimplantation porcine...

  8. Could monopronucleated ICSI zygotes be considered for transfer? Analysis through time-lapse monitoring and PGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, S; Vidal, F; Parriego, M; Rodríguez, I; Montalvo, V; Veiga, A; Boada, M

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the chromosomal constitution and the developmental potential of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) deriving embryos displaying a single pronucleus at the zygote stage. Eighty-eight embryos from single pronucleus (1PN) two polar bodies (2PB) ICSI zygotes from 64 preimplantational genetic screening (PGS) cycles (October 2012-December 2014), were retrospectively analyzed. Zygotes were cultured in a time-lapse incubator. Embryo biopsy was performed on day 3 and genetic analysis approached by array comparative genomic hybridization. Chromosomal analysis revealed that 17% (15/88) of embryos derived from 1PN 2PB zygotes were diagnosed as euploid. After blastomere biopsy at day 3, the blastocyst rate at day 5 was 3.4% (3/88). Only 2.3% (2/88) euploid blastocysts were obtained. In two couples and after counseling and patient agreement, the transfer of a euploid blastocyst from a 1PN 2PB ICSI zygote was performed resulting in the birth of a healthy child. These results open the possibility to consider embryos coming from 1PN 2PB ICSI zygotes for transfer when no other embryos from 2PN 2PB ICSI zygotes are available and if a PGS diagnosis of euploidy is obtained. Confirmation of biparental inheritance is strongly recommended.

  9. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... to close the skin flaps. Breast reconstruction with implants is usually done in two stages, or surgeries. ...

  10. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What you can expect Breast reconstruction begins with placement of a breast implant or tissue expander, either at the time of your mastectomy surgery (immediate reconstruction) or during a later procedure (delayed reconstruction). ...

  11. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.

  12. Live embryo imaging to follow cell cycle and chromosomes stability after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbach, Sebastian T; Boiani, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transfer (NT) into mouse oocytes yields a transcriptionally and functionally heterogeneous population of cloned embryos. Most studies of NT embryos consider only embryos at predefined key stages (e.g., morula or blastocyst), that is, after the bulk of reprogramming has taken place. These retrospective approaches are of limited use to elucidate mechanisms of reprogramming and to predict developmental success. Observing cloned embryo development using live embryo cinematography has the potential to reveal otherwise undetectable embryo features. However, light exposure necessary for live cell cinematography is highly toxic to cloned embryos. Here we describe a protocol for combined bright-field and fluorescence live-cell imaging of histone H2b-GFP expressing mouse embryos, to record cell divisions up to the blastocyst stage. This protocol, which can be adapted to observe other reporters such as Oct4-GFP or Nanog-GFP, allowed us to quantitatively analyze cleavage kinetics of cloned embryos.

  13. Reconstructive Urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Fatih Önol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of urethral stricture, Buccal Mucosa Graft (BMG and reconstruction is applied with different patch techniques. Recently often prefered, this approach is, in bulber urethra strictures of BMG’s; by “ventral onley”, in pendulous urethra because of thinner spingiosis body, which provides support and nutrition of graft; by means of “dorsal inley” being anastomosis. In the research that Cordon et al. did, they compared conventional BMJ “onley” urethroplast and “pseudo-spongioplasty” which base on periurethral vascular tissues to be nourished by closing onto graft. In repairment of front urethras that spongiosis supportive tissue is insufficient, this method is defined as peripheral dartos [çevre dartos?] and buck’s fascia being mobilized and being combined on BMG patch. Between the years 2007 and 2012, assessment of 56 patients with conventional “ventral onley” BMG urethroplast and 46 patients with “pseudo-spongioplasty” were reported to have similar success rates (80% to 84% in 3.5 year follow-up on average. While 74% of the patients that were applied pseudo-spongioplasty had disease present at distal urethra (pendulous, bulbopendulous, 82% of the patients which were applied conventional onley urethroplast had stricture at proximal (bulber urethra yet. Also lenght of the stricture at the pseudo-spongioplasty group was longer in a statistically significant way (5.8 cm to 4.7 cm on average, p=0.028. This study which Cordon et al. did, shows that conditions in which conventional sponjiyoplasti is not possible, periurethral vascular tissues are adequate to nourish BMG. Even it is an important technique in terms of bringing a new point of view to today’s practice, data especially about complications that may show up after pseudo-spongioplasty usage on long distal strictures (e.g. appearance of urethral diverticulum is not reported. Along with this we think that, providing an oppurtinity to patch directly

  14. Effect of vitamin A supplementation at different gaseous environments on in vitro development of pre-implantation sheep embryos to the blastocyst stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, N; Shankar, M B; Deecaraman, M

    2010-11-01

    Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is an important antioxidant whose role in embryo development in vitro and in vivo is well established. Oxidative stress is a major cause of defective embryo development. This study evaluated the effects of all-trans retinol supplementation to maturation and embryo culture media under different gaseous environments on the development of ovine oocytes and embryos in vitro. The percentages of cleavage, morula and blastocyst, total cell count and comet assay were taken as indicators of developmental competence of embryos. In experiments I and II, all-trans retinol at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 μM were supplemented to the oocyte maturation medium and cultured in an environment of 5% or 20% O2 respectively. All-trans retinol supplementation (6 μM) to the maturation medium at 5% O2 levels significantly increased blastocyst yield and total cell number (P embryo culture media under a 5% or 20% O2 environment, respectively. All-trans retinol supplementation to the embryo culture medium at 5% O2 levels did not yield any significant result whereas the culture at 20% O2 levels gave significantly higher blastocyst yield in the 6 μM supplemented group compared with the control group (P < 0.01).

  15. Characterization of secreted proteins of 2-cell mouse embryos cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage with and without protein supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tanya; Yu, Liang; Nyalwidhe, Julius; Horcajadas, Jose A; Bocca, Silvina; Swanson, R James; Oehninger, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    To identify the secreted proteins of murine embryos grown in vitro. Two-cell mouse embryos (n=432) were randomly allocated to culture to the blastocyst stage in protein-free and in protein-supplemented (3 % BSA) media. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE; bands were visualized by coomassie staining, followed by in-gel trypsin digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RT-PCR and confocal microscopy were used to confirm gene/protein expression in blastocysts. Of all individually identified proteins, 34 and 23 were found in embryos cultured without and with BSA, respectively, and 20 were common. Identified proteins having an N-terminal secretory sequence or transmembrane domains located on the extracellular backbone were postulated as secreted proteins. Gene and protein expression for two selected molecules were confirmed. Functional analysis revealed over-represented processes related to lipid metabolism, cyclase activity, and cell adhesion/membrane functions. This study provided evidence to further characterize secreted proteins by mouse embryos grown from the 2-cell to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Because of homology between murine and human, these results may provide information to be translated to the clinical setting.

  16. Cryopreservation of human oocytes, zygotes, embryos and blastocysts: A comparison study between slow freezing and ultra rapid (vitrification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani Al-Azawi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of female genetics is currently done primarily by means of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation. The field has seen much progress during its four-decade history, progress driven predominantly by research in humans. It can also be done by preservation of ovarian tissue or entire ovary for transplantation, followed by oocyte harvesting or natural fertilization. Two basic cryopreservation techniques rule the field, slow-rate freezing, the first to be developed and vitrification which in recent years, has gained a foothold. The slow-rate freezing method previously reported had low survival and pregnancy rates, along with the high cost of cryopreservation. Although there are some recent data indicating better survival rates, cryopreservation by the slow freezing method has started to discontinue. Vitrification of human embryos, especially at early stages, became a more popular alternative to the slow rate freezing method due to reported comparable clinical and laboratory outcomes. In addition, vitrification is relatively simple, requires no expensive programmable freezing equipment, and uses a small amount of liquid nitrogen for freezing. Moreover, oocyte cryopreservation using vitrification has been proposed as a solution to maintain women’s fertility by serving and freezing their oocytes at the optimal time. The aim of this research is to compare slow freezing and vitrification in cryopreservation of oocytes, zygotes, embryos and blastocysts during the last twelve years. Therefore, due to a lot of controversies in this regard, we tried to achieve an exact idea about the subject and the best technique used.

  17. Blastocyst culture using single versus sequential media in clinical IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Martins, Wellington P; Nastri, Carolina O; Viana, Iara G R; Navarro, Paula A; Raine-Fenning, Nick; van der Poel, Sheryl; Rienzi, Laura; Racowsky, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to undertake a review of the available evidence comparing the use of a single medium versus sequential media for embryo culture to the blastocyst stage in clinical IVF. We searched the Cochrane Central, PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to identify randomized controlled trials comparing single versus sequential media for blastocyst culture and ongoing pregnancy rate. Included studies randomized either oocytes/zygotes or women. Eligible oocyte/zygote studies were analyzed to assess the risk difference (RD) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) between the two media systems; eligible woman-based studies were analyzed to assess the risk ratio (RR) and 95 % CI for clinical pregnancy rate. No differences were observed between single and sequential media for either ongoing pregnancy per randomized woman (relative risk (RR) = 0.9, 95 % CI = 0.7 to 1.3, two studies including 246 women, I 2  = 0 %) or clinical pregnancy per randomized woman (RR = 1.0, 95 % CI = 0.7 to 1.4, one study including 100 women); or miscarriage per clinical pregnancy: RR = 1.3, 95 % CI = 0.4 to 4.3, two studies including 246 participants, I 2  = 0 %). Single media use was associated with an increase blastocyst formation per randomized oocyte/zygote (relative distribution (RD) = +0.06, 95 % CI = +0.01 to +0.12, ten studies including 7455 oocytes/zygotes, I 2  = 83 %) but not top/high blastocyst formation (RD = +0.05, 95 % CI = -0.01 to +0.11, five studies including 3879 oocytes/zygotes, I 2  = 93 %). The overall quality of the evidence was very low for all these four outcomes. Although using a single medium for extended culture has some practical advantages and blastocyst formation rates appear to be higher, there is insufficient evidence to recommend either sequential or single-step media as being superior for the culture of

  18. Simplification of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer by application of a zona-free manipulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; Tan, S J; Reipurth, R

    2001-01-01

    , and (c) establish any potential embryotoxic effects of PHA-P. The initial data indicated that, of calcium ionophore A23187, ionomycin, and electropulse treatments as primary activation agents, the two former were equally efficient even with reduced exposure times. WOW-culture of zona-free versus zona...... months after transfer. These results suggest that the zona-free nuclear transfer technique generates blastocysts of equivalent quantity and quality compared to conventional micromanipulation methods, requires less technical expertise, is less time consuming and can double the daily output...

  19. Significant improvement of pig cloning efficiency by treatment with LBH589 after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Li, Suo; Gao, Qing-Shan; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Yan, Chang-Guo; Kang, Jin-Dan; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) associates with epigenetic aberrancy, including the abnormal acetylation of histones. Altering the epigenetic status by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) enhances the developmental potential of SCNT embryos. In the current study, we examined the effects of LBH589 (panobinostat), a novel broad-spectrum HDACi, on the nuclear reprogramming and development of pig SCNT embryos in vitro. In experiment 1, we compared the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with different concentrations of LBH589. Embryos treated with 50 nM LBH589 for 24 hours showed a significant increase in the rate of blastocyst formation compared with the control or embryos treated with 5 or 500 nM LBH589 (32.4% vs. 11.8%, 12.1%, and 10.0%, respectively, P < 0.05). In experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with 50 nM LBH589 for various intervals after activation and 6-dimethylaminopurine. Embryos treated for 24 hours had higher rates of blastocyst formation than the other groups. In experiment 3, when the acetylation of H4K12 was examined in SCNT embryos treated for 6 hours with 50 nM LBH589 by immunohistochemistry, the staining intensities of these proteins in LBH589-treated SCNT embryos were significantly higher than in the control. In experiment 4, LBH589-treated nuclear transfer and control embryos were transferred into surrogate mothers, resulting in three (100%) and two (66.7%) pregnancies, respectively. In conclusion, LBH589 enhances the nuclear reprogramming and developmental potential of SCNT embryos by altering the epigenetic status and expression, and increasing blastocyst quality. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transgenesis and nuclear transfer using porcine embryonic germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Yang, Hong Seok; Shim, Hosup

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic germ (EG) cells are undifferentiated stem cells isolated from cultured primordial germ cells (PGC). Porcine EG cell lines with capacities of both in vitro and in vivo differentiation have been established. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may be more suitable for nuclear donor cells in nuclear transfer (NT) than somatic cells that have limited lifespan in primary culture. Use of EG cells could be particularly advantageous to provide an inexhaustible source of transgenic cells for NT. In this study the efficiencies of transgenesis and NT using porcine fetal fibroblasts and EG cells were compared. The rate of development to the blastocyst stage was significantly higher in EG cell NT than somatic cell NT (94 of 518, 18.2% vs. 72 of 501, 14.4%). To investigate if EG cells can be used for transgenesis in pigs, green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was introduced into porcine EG cells. Nuclear transfer embryos using transfected EG cells gave rise to blastocysts (29 of 137, 21.2%) expressing GFP based on observation under fluorescence microscope. The results obtained from the present study suggest that EG cell NT may have advantages over somatic cell NT, and transgenic pigs may be produced using EG cells.

  1. Y-27632 enhances differentiation of blastocyst like cystic human embryoid bodies to endocrinologically active trophoblast cells on a biomimetic platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totey Satish M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trophoblast differentiation and formation of the placenta are important events linked to post-implantation embryonic development. Models mimicking the biology of trophoblast differentiation in a post-implantation maternal microenvironment are needed for understanding disorders like placental-ischemia or for applications in drug-screening, and would help in overcoming the ethical impasse on using human embryos for such research. Here we attempt to create such a model by using embryoid bodies (EBs and a biomimetic platform composed of a bilayer of fibronectin and gelatin on top of low-melting agarose. Using this model we test the hypothesis that cystic-EBs (day 30 that resemble blastocysts morphologically, are better sources as compared to noncytic EBs (day 10, for functional trophoblast differentiation; and that the Rho kinases inhibitor Y27632 can enhance this differentiation. Non/cytic EBs with/out Y27632 were grown on this platform for 28 days, and screened from secretion and expression of trophoblast and other lineage markers using ECLIA, RT-PCR, and Immunofluorescence. All EBs attached on this surface and rapidly proliferated into hCG and progesterone (P2 secreting functional trophoblast cells. However, the cells derived from cytic-EBs and cytic-EBs+ Y27632 showed the maximum secretion of these hormones and expressed IGF2, supporting our hypothesis. Also Y27632 reduced extraembryonic endoderm and trophoblast lineage differentiation from early noncystic-EBs, whereas, it specifically enhanced the induction of trophoblast and multinucleated syncitiotrophoblast differentiation from late cystic-EBs. In vivo trophoblast differentiation can be replicated in fibronectin based biomaterials, using cytic-EBs and by maneuvering the Rho-ROCK pathways. Response of EBs to a compound may vary temporally, and determination of their right stage is crucial for applications in directed-differentiation or drug-screening.

  2. Dual innervation method using one-stage reconstruction with free latissimus dorsi muscle transfer for re-animation of established facial paralysis: simultaneous reinnervation of the ipsilateral masseter motor nerve and the contralateral facial nerve to improve the quality of smile and emotional facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Akizuki, Tanetaka; Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Kei; Agawa, Kaori; Ota, Tomoyuki

    2009-12-01

    One-stage microneurovascular free muscle transfer is a common surgical procedure for re-animation of established facial paralysis. However, innervation of the transferred muscle by the contralateral facial nerve prevents smile and other facial expressions on one side, and reinnervation requires about 7 months. To overcome these drawbacks, we report a dual innervation method using one-stage reconstruction with free latissimus dorsi muscle transfer. Three patients were treated with the dual innervation method, which is based on the one-stage method with some modifications: the soft tissue present over the ipsilateral masseter muscle and the hilum where the thoracodorsal nerve proceeds into the muscle segment is removed; the muscle is harvested to locate the hilum in the cranial one-third of the segment; and the muscle is transferred to the malar pocket of the paralysed face such that the hilum contacts the masseter muscle. On average, muscle movement was recognised on voluntary biting at 3.4 months and on spontaneous smiling at 5.9 months after surgery. A dual innervation sign was recorded on electromyographs 6.4 months after surgery. The patients developed a spontaneous symmetrical smile and facial expressions on one side with minimum synkinesis after postoperative mirror rehabilitation. The advantages of the dual innervation method include faster reinnervation of the transferred muscle compared to one-stage options; achievement of spontaneous smile and voluntary smile on each side; augmentation of neural signals to the muscle for more symmetrical smiling; minimum synkinesis of the transferred muscle on biting for eyelid closure and emotional facial re-animation through a learning program to enhance cerebral cortical reorganisation.

  3. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in-vivo or produced by in-vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben

    2011-01-01

    ), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome......DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV....... Embryos produced under in vitro conditions had higher levels of DNA methylation than IV. A lineage-specific DNA methylation (hypermethylation of the inner cell mass and hypomethylation of the trophectoderm) was observed in porcine IV late blastocysts, but was absent in PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts...

  4. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo and produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben

    2011-01-01

    ), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome......DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV....... Embryos produced under in vitro conditions had higher levels of DNA methylation than IV. A lineage-specific DNA methylation (hypermethylation of the inner cell mass and hypomethylation of the trophectoderm) was observed in porcine IV late blastocysts, but was absent in PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts...

  5. Efficient generation of GGTA1-null Diannan miniature pigs using TALENs combined with somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenmin Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GGTA1 is essential for the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and therefore a simple and effective target for disrupting the expression of galactose α-1,3-galactose epitopes, which mediate hyperacute rejection (HAR in xenotransplantation. Miniature pigs are considered to have the greatest potential as xenotransplantation donors. A GGTA1-knockout (GTKO miniature pig might mitigate or prevent HAR in xenotransplantation. Methods Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs were designed to target exon 6 of porcine GGTA1 gene. The targeting activity was evaluated using a luciferase SSA recombination assay. Biallelic GTKO cell lines were established from single-cell colonies of fetal fibroblasts derived from Diannan miniature pigs following transfection by electroporation with TALEN plasmids. One cell line was selected as donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT for the generation of GTKO pigs. GTKO aborted fetuses, stillborn fetuses and live piglets were obtained. Genotyping of the collected cloned individuals was performed. The Gal expression in the fibroblasts and one piglet was analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS, confocal microscopy, immunohistochemical (IHC staining and western blotting. Results The luciferase SSA recombination assay revealed that the targeting activities of the designed TALENs were 17.1-fold higher than those of the control. Three cell lines (3/126 showed GGTA1 biallelic knockout after modification by the TALENs. The GGTA1 biallelic modified C99# cell line enabled high-quality SCNT, as evidenced by the 22.3 % (458/2068 blastocyst developmental rate of the reconstructed embryos. The reconstructed GTKO embryos were subsequently transferred into 18 recipient gilts, of which 12 became pregnant, and six miscarried. Eight aborted fetuses were collected from the gilts that miscarried. One live fetus was obtained from one surrogate by caesarean

  6. Interspecies embryo reconstruction in Tibetan antelope Pantholops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... improves the development of interspecies reconstructed giant panda. (Aluropoda melanoleuca) embryos. Chin. Sci. Bull. 47: 467-469. Li Y, Dai Y, Du W, Zhao C, Wang H, Wang L, Li R, Liu Y, Wan R, Li N. (2006). Cloned endangered species takin (Budorcas taxicolor) by inter-species nuclear transfer and ...

  7. Interspecies embryo reconstruction in Tibetan antelope Pantholops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) offers the possibility of preserving endangered species. Handmade cloning (HMC) has proved to be an efficient alternative to the traditional micromanipulator-based technique in some domestic animal species. This study investigates the possibility of reconstructing the ...

  8. The RPMI-1640 vitamin mixture promotes bovine blastocyst development in vitro and downregulates gene expression of TXNIP with epigenetic modification of associated histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S; Sugimoto, M; Kume, S

    2018-02-01

    Diverse environmental conditions surrounding preimplantation embryos, including available nutrients, affect their metabolism and development in both short- and long-term manner. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is a possible marker for preimplantation stress that is implicated in in vitro fertilization- (IVF) induced long-term DOHaD effects. B vitamins, as participants in one-carbon metabolism, may affect preimplantation embryos by epigenetic alterations of metabolically and developmentally important genes. In vitro-produced bovine embryos were cultured with or without Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 vitamin mixture, containing B vitamins and B vitamin-like substances, from day 3 after IVF and we evaluated blastocyst development and TXNIP messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the blastocysts by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The degree of trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at TXNIP promoter was examined semi-quantitatively by chromatin immunoprecipitation polymerase chain reaction. Total H3K27me3 were also compared between the groups by Western blot analysis. The vitamin treatment significantly increased the rates of blastocyst development (Pvitamin-mixture-treated group concomitant with higher (Pvitamin-mixture-treated group was also higher (P<0.01) than that in the control group. The epigenetic control of genes related to important metabolic processes during the periconceptional period by nutritional conditions in utero and/or in vitro may have possible implication for the developmental programming during this period that may impact the welfare and production traits of farm animals.

  9. Morbidity and cost differences between free flap reconstruction and pedicled flap reconstruction in oral and oropharyngeal cancer: Matched control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeele, Ludwig E.; Goldstein, David; Tsai, Vance; Gullane, Patrick J.; Neligan, Peter; Brown, Dale H.; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2006-01-01

    To compare morbidity and cost in patients who underwent primary reconstruction with free tissue transfer with those with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) reconstructions after ablation of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Over a 6-year period, 36 patients had PMMF

  10. Conceptus-endometrial interactions and reproductive hormone profiles during embryonic diapause and reactivation of the blastocyst in the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger T. Lambert

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Roe deer blastocysts exhibit obligate embryonic diapause between early August and late December. The blastocyst then expands and elongates rapidly before implantation. The objective of this study was to ascertain the cues for reactivation of the diapausing blastocyst. Blood samples and reproductive tracts were collected from roe does during diapause, blastocyst expansion and subsequent implantation. Peripheral concentrations of oestradiol-17/3, progesterone and prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassay. Luteal progesterone release was determined following in vitro incubation. Conceptuses and endometrial tissue were cultured with 3H-leucine for 24 hours to measure de novo synthesis of secretory proteins. Endometrial secretory proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Results showed that peripheral progesterone concentrations declined by 55% just prior to expansion and did not rise until a 3-fold increase after implantation. Luteal progesterone release remained constant until expansion when it declined by 50% before increasing 2-fold at elongation and implantation. Concentrations of oestradiol-17/3 remained at a consistently low level during diapause and expansion until a 30-fold increase at elongation with concentrations remaining elevated after implantation. Plasma prolactin levels remained at basal concentrations during late diapause and then increased marginally at reactivation before decreasing again at elongation and implantation. Incorporation of radiolabel into both conceptus and endometrial secretory proteins was low during diapause, but incorporation in the conceptus increased 4¬fold at expansion and by 24-fold at the expanded trophoblast stage. Incorporation into endometrial secretoty proteins remained constant until the expanded trophoblast stage and implantation when a 2-fold increase was recorded. Furthermore, the profile of endometrial secretory proteins was constant during diapause and expansion but

  11. The Principal Forces of Oocyte Polarity Are Evolutionary Conserved but May Not Affect the Contribution of the First Two Blastomeres to the Blastocyst Development in Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed-Morteza Hosseini

    Full Text Available Oocyte polarity and embryonic patterning are well-established features of development in lower species. Whether a similar form of pre-patterning exists in mammals is currently under hot debate in mice. This study investigated this issue for the first time in ovine as a large mammal model. Microsurgical trisection of unfertilized MII-oocytes revealed that cortical cytoplasm around spindle (S contained significant amounts of total maternal mRNAs and proteins compared to matched cytoplast hemispheres that were located either near (NS or far (FS -to-spindle. RT-qPCR provided striking examples of maternal mRNA localized to subcellular substructures S (NPM2, GMNN, H19, PCAF, DNMT3A, DNMT1, and STELLA, NS (SOX2, NANOG, POU5F1, and TET1, and FS (GCN of MII oocyte. Immunoblotting revealed that specific maternal proteins DNMT3A and NANOG were asymmetrically enriched in MII-spindle-half of the oocytes. Topological analysis of sperm entry point (SEP revealed that sperm preferentially entered via the MII-spindle-half of the oocytes. Even though, the topological position of first cleavage plane with regard to SEP was quite stochastic. Spatial comparison of lipid content revealed symmetrical distribution of lipids between 2-cell blastomeres. Lineage tracing using Dil, a fluorescent dye, revealed that while the progeny of leading blastomere of 2-cell embryos contributed to more cells in the developed blastocysts compared to lagging counterpart, the contributions of leading and lagging blastomeres to the embryonic-abembryonic parts of the developed blastocysts were almost unbiased. And finally, separated sister blastomeres of 2-cell embryos had an overall similar probability to arrest at any stage before the blastocyst (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, and morula or to achieve the blastocyst stage. It was concluded that the localization of maternal mRNAs and proteins at the spindle are evolutionarily conserved between mammals unfertilized ovine oocyte could be considered

  12. Transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression in bovine somatic cell chromatin transfer embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Grier P

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reprogramming of a somatic genome to produce a healthy clone by somatic cells nuclear transfer (SCNT is a rare event and the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly defined. When serial or successive rounds of cloning are performed, blastocyst and full term development rates decline even further with the increasing rounds of cloning. Identifying the "cumulative errors" could reveal the epigenetic reprogramming blocks in animal cloning. Results Bovine clones from up to four generations of successive cloning were produced by chromatin transfer (CT. Using Affymetrix bovine microarrays we determined that the transcriptomes of blastocysts derived from the first and the fourth rounds of cloning (CT1 and CT4 respectively have undergone an extensive reprogramming and were more similar to blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF than to the donor cells used for the first and the fourth rounds of chromatin transfer (DC1 and DC4 respectively. However a set of transcripts in the cloned embryos showed a misregulated pattern when compared to IVF embryos. Among the genes consistently upregulated in both CT groups compared to the IVF embryos were genes involved in regulation of cytoskeleton and cell shape. Among the genes consistently upregulated in IVF embryos compared to both CT groups were genes involved in chromatin remodelling and stress coping. Conclusion The present study provides a data set that could contribute in our understanding of epigenetic errors in somatic cell chromatin transfer. Identifying "cumulative errors" after serial cloning could reveal some of the epigenetic reprogramming blocks shedding light on the reprogramming process, important for both basic and applied research.

  13. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchmauss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction, as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue, the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction.

  14. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002980.htm Head and face reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or ...

  15. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge Mastectomy and breast reconstruction - what to ask ...

  16. Full-term development of gaur-bovine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos: effect of trichostatin A treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Laowtammathron, Chuti; Sangmalee, Anawat; Tunwattana, Wanchai; Thongprapai, Thamnoon; Chaimongkol, Chockchai; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena; Parnpai, Rangsun

    2012-06-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) has previously been used in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to improve the cloning efficiency in several species, which led our team to investigate the effects of TSA on the full-term development of bovine SCNT and gaur-bovine interspecies SCNT (gaur iSCNT; gaur somatic cells as donors and bovine oocytes as recipients) embryos. Treatment with 50 nM TSA for 10 h after fusion had no positive effects on the rates of fusion, cleavage, or the development to eight-cell or morula stages in both bovine SCNT and gaur iSCNT embryos. However, TSA treatment significantly enhanced the blastocyst formation rate in bovine SCNT embryos (44 vs. 32-34% in the TSA-treated and TSA-untreated groups, respectively), but had no effects on gaur iSCNT embryos. The fresh blastocysts derived from bovine SCNT and gaur iSCNT embryos (fresh groups), as well as vitrified bovine SCNT blastocysts (vitrified group), were transferred to bovine recipients. We found that TSA treatment increased the pregnancy rates only in recipients receiving fresh bovine SCNT embryos. In recipients receiving TSA-treated bovine SCNT embryos, three cloned calves from the fresh group and twin cloned calves from the vitrified group were delivered; however, no calf was born from the TSA-untreated bovine SCNT embryos. In contrast, one gaur iSCNT calf was born from a recipient receiving blastocysts from the TSA-untreated group. In summary, TSA improved the preimplantation development and pregnancy rates of bovine SCNT embryos, but did not have any beneficial effect on gaur iSCNT embryos. However, one gaur iSCNT calf reached full-term development.

  17. Image reconstruction using neutrongraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispim, V.R.; Lopes, R.T.; Borges, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Many factors influence the projections determination in the process of image reconstruction utilizing neutrongraphy technique. In this work it was used the Wiener filter in the projections obtained from one object, in order to minimize the effect of the factors in the quality of the imagem reconstructed. The MART (Multiplicative - Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) algorithim was used. Qualitative and quantitative comparison were done with the original images and the one reconstructed using MART algotithim with and without filter. (Author) [pt

  18. Comparison of the Efficacy of Two Vaginal Progesterone Formulations, Crinone 8% Gel and Utrogestan Capsules, Used for Luteal Support in Blastocyst Stage Embryo Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jung Wang

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: Luteal phase support with Crinone 8% vaginal gel (90 mg daily resulted in better clinical pregnancy and implantation rates than Utrogestan vaginal capsules (200 mg, 4 times daily in IVF/ICSI–BT cycles.

  19. The effect of prefreezing the diluent portion of the straw in a step-wise vitrification process using ethylene glycol and polyvinylpyrrolidone to preserve bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtango, N R; Varisanga, M D; Dong, Y J; Otoi, T; Suzuki, T

    2001-03-01

    A total of 678 bovine blastocysts, which had been produced by in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture, were placed into plastic straws and were vitrified in various solutions of ethylene glycol (EG) + polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Part of the straw was loaded with TCM199 medium + 0.3 M trehalose as a diluent; the diluent portions of the straw were prefrozen to either -30 or -196 degrees C. Then, the embryos suspended in the vitrification solution were pipetted into the balance of the straw and vitrified by direct immersion into liquid nitrogen. For thawing, the straws were warmed for 3 s in air and 20 s in a water bath at 39 degrees C and then agitated to mix the diluent and cryoprotectant solution for 5 min followed by culture in TCM199 + 10% FCS + 5 + microg/ml insulin + 50 microg/ml gentamycin sulfate for 72 h. Variables that were examined were the time of exposure to EG prior to vitrification, the PVP concentration, and the temperature of exposure to EG + PVP prior to vitrification. Survival and hatching rates of the blastocysts exposed to 40% EG in four steps at 4 degrees C were higher than those of embryos exposed in two steps (81.3 +/- 4.3% and 80.2 +/- 3.4% vs 67.6 +/- 4.5% and 71.5 +/- 4.7%, respectively; P straws do favor developmental competence of in vitro produced embryos.

  20. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in equine in vivo and fresh and frozen-thawed in vitro blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli Cesare

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is very well suited to reveal differences in gene expression between in vivo and in vitro produced embryos. Ultimately, this may lead to optimized equine assisted reproductive techniques. However, for a correct interpretation of the real-time PCR results, all data must be normalized, which is most reliably achieved by calculating the geometric mean of the most stable reference genes. In this study a set of reliable reference genes was identified for equine in vivo and fresh and frozen-thawed in vitro embryos. Findings The expression stability of 8 candidate reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, H2A/I, HPRT1, RPL32, SDHA, TUBA4A, UBC was determined in 3 populations of equine blastocysts (fresh in vivo, fresh and frozen-thawed in vitro embryos. Application of geNorm indicated UBC, GAPDH, ACTB and HPRT1 as the most stable genes in the in vivo embryos and UBC, RPL32, GAPDH and ACTB in both in vitro populations. When in vivo and in vitro embryos were combined, UBC, ACTB, RPL32 and GAPDH were found to be the most stable. SDHA and H2A/I appeared to be highly regulated. Conclusions Based on these results, the geometric mean of UBC, ACTB, RPL32 and GAPDH is to be recommended for accurate normalization of quantitative real-time PCR data in equine in vivo and in vitro produced blastocysts.

  1. Enhancing effects of serum-rich and cytokine-supplemented culture conditions on developing blastocysts and deriving porcine parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Chan-Lan; Lee, Joo-Hyeong; You, Jin-Young; Lee, Eun-Song; Lim, Jeong-Mook; Yun, Seon Jong; Song, Jae-Young; Cha, Sang-Ho

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to develop an effective method for establishment of porcine parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (ppESCs) from parthenogenetically activated oocyte-derived blastocysts. The addition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the medium on the 3rd day of oocyte culturing improved the development of blastocysts, attachment of inner cell masses (ICMs) onto feeder cells, and formation of primitive ppESC colonies. ICM attachment was further enhanced by basic fibroblast growth factor, stem cell factor, and leukemia inhibitory factor. From these attached ICMs, seven ppESC lines were established. ppESC pluripotency was verified by strong enzymatic alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotent markers OCT3/4, Nanog, and SSEA4. Moreover, the ppESCs were induced to form an embryoid body and teratoma. Differentiation into three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) was confirmed by the expression of specific markers for the layers and histological analysis. In conclusion, data from the present study suggested that our modified culture conditions using FBS and cytokines are highly useful for improving the generation of pluripotent ppESCs.

  2. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun, E-mail: yinxj33@msn.com

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.

  3. Reconstruction of periodic signals using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Danilo Rairán Antolines

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we reconstruct a periodic signal by using two neural networks. The first network is trained to approximate the period of a signal, and the second network estimates the corresponding coefficients of the signal's Fourier expansion. The reconstruction strategy consists in minimizing the mean-square error via backpro-pagation algorithms over a single neuron with a sine transfer function. Additionally, this paper presents mathematical proof about the quality of the approximation as well as a first modification of the algorithm, which requires less data to reach the same estimation; thus making the algorithm suitable for real-time implementations.

  4. Application of the zona-free manipulation technique to porcine somatic nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; Tan, S J; Holm, P

    2001-01-01

    The recent demonstration of a successful zona-free manipulation technique for bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) that is both simpler and less labor intensive is of considerable benefit to advance the applications of this technology. Here, we describe that this method is also applicable...... 53.5 +/- 6.6% of the blastomeres in such embryos. In conclusion, blastocyst yield was independent of activation efficiency and was likely reduced by insufficient nuclear remodeling, reprogramming, imprinting, or other effects. The data also suggest that fragmentation was a considerable problem...

  5. Non-invasive assessment of in-vitro embryo quality to improve transfer success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    embryos before the transfer to a recipient still remains challenging. Presently, the predominant non-invasive technique for selecting viable embryos is based on morphology, where parameters such as rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation as well as developmental kinetics are evaluated mostly...... subjectively. The simple morphological approach is, however, inadequate for the prediction of embryo quality, and several studies have focused on developing new non-invasive methods using molecular approaches based particularly on proteomics, metabolomics and most recently small non-coding RNA, including micro......RNA. This review outlines the potential of several non-invasive in-vitro methods based on analysis of spent embryo culture medium....

  6. Modeling oxygen transport in surgical tissue transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Matzavinos, Anastasios; Kao, Chiu-Yen; Green, J. Edward F.; Sutradhar, Alok; Miller, Michael; Friedman, Avner

    2009-01-01

    Reconstructive microsurgery is a clinical technique used to transfer large amounts of a patient's tissue from one location used to another in order to restore physical deformities caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. The trend in this field is to transfer tissue using increasingly smaller blood vessels, which decreases problems associated with tissue harvest but increases the possibility that blood supply to the transferred tissue may not be adequate for healing. It would th...

  7. Rapamycin treatment during in vitro maturation of oocytes improves embryonic development after parthenogenesis and somatic cell nuclear transfer in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyeong; Park, Jong-Im; Yun, Jung Im; Lee, Yongjin; Yong, Hwanyul; Lee, Seung Tae; Park, Choon-Keun; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Geun-Shik; Lee, Eunsong

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rapamycin treatment during in vitro maturation (IVM) on oocyte maturation and embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pigs. Morphologically good (MGCOCs) and poor oocytes (MPCOCs) were untreated or treated with 1 nM rapamycin during 0-22 h, 22-42 h, or 0-42 h of IVM. Rapamycin had no significant effects on nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation after PA of MGCOCs. Blastocyst formation after PA was significantly increased by rapamycin treatment during 22-42 h and 0-42 h (46.6% and 46.5%, respectively) relative to the control (33.3%) and 0-22 h groups (38.6%) in MPCOCs. In SCNT, blastocyst formation tended to increase in MPCOCs treated with rapamycin during 0-42 h of IVM relative to untreated oocytes (20.3% vs. 14.3%, 0.05 < p < 0.1), while no improvement was observed in MGCOCs. Gene expression analysis revealed that transcript abundance of Beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 mRNAs was significantly increased in MPCOCs by rapamycin relative to the control. Our results demonstrated that autophagy induction by rapamycin during IVM improved developmental competence of oocytes derived from MPCOCs.

  8. Combination of oocyte and zygote selection by brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test enhanced prediction of developmental potential to the blastocyst in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshamsi, S M; Karamishabankareh, H; Ahmadi-Hamedani, M; Soltani, L; Hajarian, H; Abdolmohammadi, A R

    2013-01-30

    The cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from local abattoir. After aspiration, the COCs were allotted into four treatments to evaluation of brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test. Control treatment (C): oocytes were cultured directly (without exposure to BCB) after recovery in in vitro production (IVP) process. Oocyte treatment (OBCB): immediately after aspiration, COCs were incubated in modified Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (mDPBS) supplemented with 26μM of BCB for 90min and classified into two classes: oocytes with blue cytoplasm coloration (OBCB+: more competent oocytes) and oocytes without blue cytoplasm coloration (OBCB-: low competent oocytes). Directly after classification, the oocytes were maintained undisrupted in the IVP process. Zygote treatment (ZBCB): After oocyte collection, maturation and fertilization, zygotes were stained with BCB for 10min and categorized into three ways, according to whether they were highly stained (ZBCB++: low competent zygotes), moderately stained (ZBCB+: moderate competent zygotes) and unstained (ZBCB-: more competent zygotes). Directly after classification, the zygotes were maintained undisrupted in the culture process. Oocyte and zygote treatments (OBCB/ZBCB): COCs were stained with BCB after recovery and classified into two classes (OBCB+ and OBCB-). After fertilization, the zygotes produced from OBCB+ and OBCB- oocytes were further stained with BCB for 10min and categorized six ways (OBCB+/ZBCB++, OBCB+/ZBCB+, OBCB+/ZBCB-, OBCB-/ZBCB++, OBCB-/ZBCB+ and OBCB-/ZBCB-). Directly after classification, the zygotes were maintained undisrupted in the culture process. The selection rate produced from OBCB treatment (OBCB+; 54.3%) was greater (PBCB test (OBCB+/ZBCB-: 28.8%) was less (PBCB test (ZBCB-: 44.3%or OBCB+: 54.3%). The percentage of blastocyst production from OBCB+ oocytes (35.7%) and ZBCB- zygotes (36.6%) were greater (P0.05) in the percentages of blastocyst production between OBCB+ oocytes (35.7%) and ZBCB

  9. Developmental competence of HMC(TM) derived bovine cloned embryos obtained from somatic cell nuclear transfer of adult fibroblasts and granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojwani, Sanjay; Vajta, Gabor; Callesen, Henrik; Roschlau, Knut; Kuwer, Andreas; Becker, Frank; Alm, Hannelore; Torner, Helmut; Kanitz, Wilhelm; Poehland, Ralf

    2005-08-01

    To enable us to handle a large number of oocytes at a given time and to have an increased throughput of cloned embryos, we attempted the Handmade cloning (HMC) technique, a zona-free method of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer. Our objective was to study the developmental competence of the HMC derived embryos obtained using different types of somatic cells. A total of 6,874 cumulus-oocyte-complexes were used with either 7th or 11th passage fibroblasts (1st and 2nd groups, respectively), which were prepared from male animals, or granulosa cells (3rd group) as nuclei donors. The average cleavage rate was 65%, accompanied by a blastocyst rate of just 2% for the cleaved products and 5% for the >8-cell embryos, and there was no significant difference between the three groups. Out of 27 blastocysts recovered, 22 blastocysts were transferred to 22 recipients, resulting in two pregnancies. One pregnancy was lost after the fourth week while the other progressed to full term with the birth of a male calf. This first successful cloning of a male calf with the HMC technique in Europe indicates the successful adoption and establishment of this technique in our laboratory, and that this technique can be successful in producing viable embryos.

  10. Surgical Anatomy of the Radial Nerve at the Elbow and in the Forearm: Anatomical Basis for Intraplexus Nerve Transfer to Reconstruct Thumb and Finger Extension in C7 - T1 Brachial Plexus Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Dong, Zhen; Zhang, Chun-Lin; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2016-11-01

    Background  C7 - T1 palsy results in complete loss of finger motion and poses a surgical challenge. This study investigated the anatomy of the radial nerve in the elbow and forearm and the feasibility of intraplexus nerve transfer to restore thumb and finger extension. Methods  The radial nerves were dissected in 28 formalin-fixed upper extremities. Branching pattern, length, diameter, and number of myelinated fibers were recorded. Results  Commonly, the branching pattern (from proximal to distal) was to the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, superficial sensory proximal to the lateral epicondyle, extensor carpi radialis brevis, supinator, extensor digitorum communis, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor indicis distal to the lateral epicondyle. Conclusions  Branches to the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, and supinator can be transferred to the posterior interosseous nerve to restore hand movement in patients with C7 - T1 brachial plexus palsies; the supinator branch is probably the best choice in this regard. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. [Electroacupuncture Combined with Clomiphene Promotes Pregnancy and Blastocyst Implantation Possibly by Up-regulating Expression of Insulin Receptor and Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 Proteins in Endometrium in Rats with PCOS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mao-Hua; Ma, Hong-Xia; Song, Xing-Hua

    2016-10-25

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) intervention combined with clomiphene critate (CC) on the blastocyst implantation and pregnancy rate and expression of insulin receptor (INSR) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS 1) proteins in the endometrium in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying improvement of PCOS. One hundred and twenty-five female SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, PCOS model, medication (CC), EA and EA+CC groups ( n =25 in each group, 15 for checking blastocyst implantation, and 10 for Western blot). The PCOS model was established by subcutaneous injection of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and fed with high-fat diet. Rats of the normal control group were treated by subcutaneous injection of sesame oil and fed with the normal forage. EA stimulation was applied to "Zhongwan" (CV 12), "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and bilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25) for 30 min, 3 times a week, 5 weeks altogether. Rats of the CC and EA+CC groups were fed with CC (100 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ) for 2 days after regular restriction (30 min, 3 times a week, 5 weeks altogether). The pregnancy was determined by vaginal smear tests and the number of blastocyst implantation determined by examination of the uterus after execution. The expression of INSR and IRS 1 proteins in the endometrium was detected by Western blot. The pregnancy rate and the number of blastocyst implantation were significantly lower in the model group than in the normal control group ( P 0.05). The relative expression levels of both INSR and IRS 1 proteins were markedly lower in the model group than in the normal control group ( P 0.05). EA intervention can improve pregnancy rate and the number of blastocyst implantation in PCOS rats, which may be related to its effects in up-regulating the expression of INSR and IRS 1 proteins in the endometrium.

  12. In vitro development of OPU-derived bovine embryos cultured either individually or in groups with the silk protein sericin and the viability of frozen-thawed embryos after transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Tomohiro; Ikebata, Yoshihisa; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Tanihara, Fuminori; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Otoi, Takeshige

    2015-07-01

    The optimization of single-embryo culture conditions is very important, particularly in the in vitro production of bovine embryos using the ovum pick-up (OPU) procedure. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of embryos derived from oocytes obtained by OPU that were cultured either individually or in groups in medium supplemented with or without sericin and to investigate the viability of the frozen-thawed embryos after a direct transfer. When two-cell-stage embryos were cultured either individually or in groups for 7 days in CR1aa medium supplemented with or without 0.5% sericin, the rates of development to blastocysts and freezable blastocysts were significantly lower for the embryos cultured individually without sericin than for the embryos cultured in groups with or without sericin. Moreover, the rate of development to freezable blastocysts of the embryos cultured individually with sericin was significantly higher than that of the embryos cultured without sericin. When the frozen-thawed embryos were transferred directly to recipients, the rates of pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth and normal calving in the recipients were similar among the groups, irrespective of the culture conditions and sericin supplementation. Our findings indicate that supplementation with sericin during embryo culture improves the quality of the embryos cultured individually but not the viability of the frozen-thawed embryos after transfer to recipients. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Mads Grenaa; Nørgaard, Mads Frid; Hansen, Manjarita

    2013-01-01

    This project seeks to highlight some of the criticisms given towards the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines and the challenges Danish companies experience by pricing their goods and the problems this causes for trade. The project is based on a series of interviews that represent the different agents who are operating in Transfer Pricing business. These interviews, combined with the Transfer Pricing Guidelines, gives us the basis to analyse the challenges we want to clarify based on the hypothes...

  14. An inverse modeling approach for tree-ring-based climate reconstructions under changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    É. Boucher; J. Guiot; C. Hatté; V. Daux; P.-A. Danis; P. Dussouillez

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, dendroclimatologists have relied upon linear transfer functions to reconstruct historical climate. Transfer functions need to be calibrated using recent data from periods where CO2 concentrations reached unprecedented levels (near 400 ppm – parts per million). Based on these transfer functions, dendroclimatologists must then reconstruct a different past, a past where CO2 concentrations were far below 300 ppm. However, relying upon transfer functions ca...

  15. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  16. Functional reconstruction of ischemic contracture in the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Hao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To discuss the method of functional reconstruction of ischemic contracture in the lower limb and propose a classification protocol for ischemic contracture in the lower limb based on its severity and prognosis. Methods: A total of 42 patients with ischemic contracture in the lower limb were included in this study. According to different types of disturbance and degrees of severity, surgical reconstructions consisting of nerve decompression, tendon lengthening or transfer, intrinsic foot muscle release and sural-tibial nerve anastomosis were performed in every patient. Results: Postoperatively, all patients were able to walk on flat ground. Drop foot was corrected in 10 patients, and 5 patients still felt some difficulty during stair activity. Split Achilles tendon transfer to flexor hallucis longus tendon was performed in 12 patients, and their walking stability was improved. Seven patients accepted ipsilateral suraltibial nerve anastomosis, and sensitivity recovery reached to S2 in 2 patients and S3 in 5 patients. Conclusions: Ischemic contracture in the lower limb is a devastating complication after lower limb trauma. The prevention of contracture is much more important than the treatment of an established contracture. Split Achilles tendon transfer to flexor hallucis longus tendon and sural-tibial nerve anastomosis, which was initially implemented by us, could improve the functional recovery of ischemic contracture in lower limbs, and thus provides a new alternative for functional reconstruction of ischemic contracture in the lower limb. Key words: Ischemic contracture; Classification; Recovery of function

  17. Iterative reconstruction of volumetric particle distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieneke, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    For tracking the motion of illuminated particles in space and time several volumetric flow measurement techniques are available like 3D-particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) recording images from typically three to four viewing directions. For higher seeding densities and the same experimental setup, tomographic PIV (Tomo-PIV) reconstructs voxel intensities using an iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm (e.g. multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, MART) followed by cross-correlation of sub-volumes computing instantaneous 3D flow fields on a regular grid. A novel hybrid algorithm is proposed here that similar to MART iteratively reconstructs 3D-particle locations by comparing the recorded images with the projections calculated from the particle distribution in the volume. But like 3D-PTV, particles are represented by 3D-positions instead of voxel-based intensity blobs as in MART. Detailed knowledge of the optical transfer function and the particle image shape is mandatory, which may differ for different positions in the volume and for each camera. Using synthetic data it is shown that this method is capable of reconstructing densely seeded flows up to about 0.05 ppp with similar accuracy as Tomo-PIV. Finally the method is validated with experimental data. (paper)

  18. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    all three cell cycles. In the eight-cell stage embryo, a primary vacuole appeared as an electron lucid area originating in the centre of the nucleolar precursor body. In nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed from nonactivated cytoplasts, the nuclear envelope was fragmented or completely broken down...... vacuoles. A nucleolar precursor body typical for the two-cell stage control embryos was never observed. None of the reconstructed embryos of this group reached the eight-cell stage. Nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed from activated cytoplasts, in contrast, exhibited a complete nuclear envelope at all...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  19. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...

  20. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  1. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  2. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE has...... a production subsidiary in one country, from where it sells the produced good locally as well as to a sales subsidiary in a second country. The latter subsidiary is engaged in duopolistic competition with a local competitor. The MNE has two aims in setting the transfer price: strategic delegation and tax...... minimization. We examine the extent to which the four transfer pricing regimes we set up allow the MNE to pursue these aims. While neither strategic delegation nor tax minimization will be eliminated, trade-offs are inevitable, albeit to varying degree....

  3. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    a production subsidiary in one country, from where it sells the produced good locally as well as to a sales subsidiary in a second country. The latter subsidiary is engaged in duopolistic competition with a local competitor. The MNE has two aims in setting the transfer price: strategic delegation and tax......Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE has...... minimization. We examine the extent to which the four transfer pricing regimes we set up allow the MNE to pursue these aims. While neither strategic delegation nor tax minimization will be eliminated, trade-offs are inevitable, albeit to varying degree....

  4. Correlation Reconstruction Tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Foy, Roderick; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2017-11-01

    A new volumetric Particle Image Velocimetry technique was developed that outputs accurate velocity measurements up to very high seeding densities while requiring lower computational expenditure. This technique combines the tomographic and cross-correlation steps by directly reconstructing the 3D cross-correlation volumes. Since many particles contribute to a single correlation peak, this decreases the noise contributions from ghost reconstructions, allowing accurate velocity measurements to be made at exceptionally high seeding densities. Additionally the overall computational cost is lowered by combining the reconstruction and cross-correlation steps. Results comparing the errors of the new technique applied to both simulated and experimental data will be presented.

  5. [Ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects reconstruction with free flaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Mao, Chi; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Lei; An, Jin-gang; Yu, Guang-yan

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the application, indications and outcomes of free flaps for ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects reconstruction. Twenty consecutive cases of ora-maxillofacial the traumatic defects reconstruction with free flaps were reviewed. All clinical data including causes of injuries, the type of defects, selection of free flaps, perioperative complications and the follow-up were analyzed. All the cases underwent free flap reconstruction for ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects: 8 cases with soft tissue defects, 12 cases with soft and hard tissue defects. Fifteen patients received two-stage operation and 5 patients underwent primary reconstruction at the time of debridement or fracture reduction. Twenty free flaps were applied for the reconstruction, 11 cases with fibula flap, 1 case with iliac crest free flap, 7 cases with radial forearm flap and 1 case with scapula flap. No flap failure occurred. The successful rate of free flaps transfer was 100%. The free flaps transfer is reliable and can reconstruct the ora-maxillofacial traumatic soft and hard tissue defects. Fibula and radial forearm free flap are the most common used flaps. Early aggressive surgery with free flaps transfer for traumatic defects can prevent the scar contracture and tissue displace, which can shorten the treatment period and improve the final outcome.

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  7. Development of a generally applicable morphokinetic algorithm capable of predicting the implantation potential of embryos transferred on Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Boel, Mikkel; Montag, Markus; Gardner, David K.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can a generally applicable morphokinetic algorithm suitable for Day 3 transfers of time-lapse monitored embryos originating from different culture conditions and fertilization methods be developed for the purpose of supporting the embryologist's decision on which embryo to transfer back to the patient in assisted reproduction? SUMMARY ANSWER The algorithm presented here can be used independently of culture conditions and fertilization method and provides predictive power not surpassed by other published algorithms for ranking embryos according to their blastocyst formation potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Generally applicable algorithms have so far been developed only for predicting blastocyst formation. A number of clinics have reported validated implantation prediction algorithms, which have been developed based on clinic-specific culture conditions and clinical environment. However, a generally applicable embryo evaluation algorithm based on actual implantation outcome has not yet been reported. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Retrospective evaluation of data extracted from a database of known implantation data (KID) originating from 3275 embryos transferred on Day 3 conducted in 24 clinics between 2009 and 2014. The data represented different culture conditions (reduced and ambient oxygen with various culture medium strategies) and fertilization methods (IVF, ICSI). The capability to predict blastocyst formation was evaluated on an independent set of morphokinetic data from 11 218 embryos which had been cultured to Day 5. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The algorithm was developed by applying automated recursive partitioning to a large number of annotation types and derived equations, progressing to a five-fold cross-validation test of the complete data set and a validation test of different incubation conditions and fertilization methods. The results were expressed as receiver operating characteristics curves using the area under the

  8. The effect of the number of transferred embryos, the interval between nuclear transfer and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern on pig cloning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Chol Ho; Fu, Zhixin; Bao, Lei; Chen, Haide; Zhang, Dan; Luo, Qiong; Ri, Hak Chol; Huang, Hefeng; Luan, Zhidong; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Chun; Xiao, Lei; Jong, Ui Myong

    2013-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of producing cloned pigs, we investigated the influence of the number of transferred embryos, the culturing interval between nuclear transfer (NT) and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern (single oviduct or double oviduct) on cloning efficiency. The results demonstrated that transfer of either 150-200 or more than 200NT embryos compared to transfer of 100-150 embryos resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (48 ± 16, 50 ± 16 vs. 29 ± 5%, pcloning efficiency is achieved by adjusting the number and in vitro culture time of reconstructed embryos as well as the embryo transfer pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Advances in tracheal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykal, Siba; Salna, Michael; Waddell, Thomas K; Hofer, Stefan O

    2014-07-01

    A recent revival of global interest for reconstruction of long-segment tracheal defects, which represents one of the most interesting and complex problems in head and neck and thoracic reconstructive surgery, has been witnessed. The trachea functions as a conduit for air, and its subunits including the epithelial layer, hyaline cartilage, and segmental blood supply make it particularly challenging to reconstruct. A myriad of attempts at replacing the trachea have been described. These along with the anatomy, indications, and approaches including microsurgical tracheal reconstruction will be reviewed. Novel techniques such as tissue-engineering approaches will also be discussed. Multiple attempts at replacing the trachea with synthetic scaffolds have been met with failure. The main lesson learned from such failures is that the trachea must not be treated as a "simple tube." Understanding the anatomy, developmental biology, physiology, and diseases affecting the trachea are required for solving this problem.

  10. Overview of image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, R.B.

    1980-04-01

    Image reconstruction (or computerized tomography, etc.) is any process whereby a function, f, on R/sup n/ is estimated from empirical data pertaining to its integrals, ∫f(x) dx, for some collection of hyperplanes of dimension k < n. The paper begins with background information on how image reconstruction problems have arisen in practice, and describes some of the application areas of past or current interest; these include radioastronomy, optics, radiology and nuclear medicine, electron microscopy, acoustical imaging, geophysical tomography, nondestructive testing, and NMR zeugmatography. Then the various reconstruction algorithms are discussed in five classes: summation, or simple back-projection; convolution, or filtered back-projection; Fourier and other functional transforms; orthogonal function series expansion; and iterative methods. Certain more technical mathematical aspects of image reconstruction are considered from the standpoint of uniqueness, consistency, and stability of solution. The paper concludes by presenting certain open problems. 73 references

  11. Reconstructions of eyelid defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important.

  12. Forging Provincial Reconstruction Teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Honore, Russel L; Boslego, David V

    2007-01-01

    The Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) training mission completed by First U.S. Army in April 2006 was a joint Service effort to meet a requirement from the combatant commander to support goals in Afghanistan...

  13. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It also does not involve cutting of the abdominal muscle and is a free flap. This type of ... figure out the safest ways to perform everyday activities. Does breast reconstruction affect the ability to check ...

  14. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two......-stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during...... of reoperation was significantly higher following the one-stage procedure. For both procedures, the majority of reoperations were due to asymmetry or displacement of the implant. In conclusion, non-radiated one- and two-stage delayed breast implant reconstructions are associated with substantial risks...

  15. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized...... for oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery and will certainly become an invaluable addition to breast reconstructive methods....

  16. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti......Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...... likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex...

  17. Station Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ixed rail transit external system transfers for systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of...

  18. A new direct transfer protocol for cryopreserved IVF embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Bruno Valente; Lunardelli, Paula Alvares; Tannura, Juliana Hayashi; Cardoso, Bruna Lopes; Pereira, Marcos Henrique Colombo; Gaitkoski, Douglas; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Arnold, Daniel Robert; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes

    2016-04-01

    The global demand for in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos of determined sex has greatly increased over the last decade. Efficient protocols for the direct transfer of IVP embryos are lacking. This study aimed to compare the pregnancy rates for fresh, vitrified, or frozen/directly transferred IVP dairy cow embryos. Oocytes (n = 3171) recovered by ovum pickup (n = 112) from Girolando (Holstein-Gir) females (n = 36) were selected and submitted to IVM for 24 hours at 38.5 °C with 5% CO2 in air with saturated humidity. In vitro fertilization was performed with the thawed, sexed semen from 5 Holstein bulls. After IVF, presumptive zygotes were denuded and cultured for 7 days under the same IVM and IVF conditions of temperature and humidity, except with 5% CO2 and 5% O2. Grade I blastocysts were randomly assigned for either the transferred fresh, vitrified/thawing, or frozen/directly embryo transfer into previously synchronized recipient females. Conception rates were analyzed by binomial logistic regression, and a probability level of P < 0.05 was considered significant. The conception rates were 51.35 ± 1.87% (133/259) for the fresh embryos, 35.89 ± 3.87% (84/234) for the vitrified embryos, and 40.19 ± 4.65% (125/311) for the frozen directly transferred embryos. These data demonstrate that IVP embryos with sexed semen could be directly transferred into recipient cows with similar conception rates to vitrified embryos. The comparison found that the use of frozen embryos in direct transfer provides easier logistics and a more practical approach for the transfer of IVP embryos on dairy farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Pang, Daxin, E-mail: pdx@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Ouyang, Hongsheng, E-mail: ouyh@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. {yields} The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. {yields} A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 {mu}g/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  20. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue; Pang, Daxin; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. → The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. → A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 μg/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  1. Industrial dynamic tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eric Ferreira de

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art methods applied to industrial processes is currently based on the principles of classical tomographic reconstructions developed for tomographic patterns of static distributions, or is limited to cases of low variability of the density distribution function of the tomographed object. Noise and motion artifacts are the main problems caused by a mismatch in the data from views acquired in different instants. All of these add to the known fact that using a limited amount of data can result in the presence of noise, artifacts and some inconsistencies with the distribution under study. One of the objectives of the present work is to discuss the difficulties that arise from implementing reconstruction algorithms in dynamic tomography that were originally developed for static distributions. Another objective is to propose solutions that aim at reducing a temporal type of information loss caused by employing regular acquisition systems to dynamic processes. With respect to dynamic image reconstruction it was conducted a comparison between different static reconstruction methods, like MART and FBP, when used for dynamic scenarios. This comparison was based on a MCNPx simulation as well as an analytical setup of an aluminum cylinder that moves along the section of a riser during the process of acquisition, and also based on cross section images from CFD techniques. As for the adaptation of current tomographic acquisition systems for dynamic processes, this work established a sequence of tomographic views in a just-in-time fashion for visualization purposes, a form of visually disposing density information as soon as it becomes amenable to image reconstruction. A third contribution was to take advantage of the triple color channel necessary to display colored images in most displays, so that, by appropriately scaling the acquired values of each view in the linear system of the reconstruction, it was possible to imprint a temporal trace into the regularly

  2. Alternative reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooperman Avram M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the procedure of choice for tumors of the head of the pancreas and periampulla. Despite advances in surgical technique and postoperative care, the procedure continues to carry a high morbidity rate. One of the most common morbidities is delayed gastric emptying with rates of 15%–40%. Following two prolonged cases of delayed gastric emptying, we altered our reconstruction to avoid this complication altogether. Subsequently, our patients underwent a classic pancreaticoduodenectomy with an undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction. Methods We reviewed the charts of our last 13 Whipple procedures evaluating them for complications, specifically delayed gastric emptying. We compared the outcomes of those patients to a control group of 15 patients who underwent the Whipple procedure with standard reconstruction. Results No instances of delayed gastric emptying occurred in patients who underwent an undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction. There was 1 wound infection (8%, 1 instance of pneumonia (8%, and 1 instance of bleeding from the gastrojejunal staple line (8%. There was no operative mortality. Conclusion Use of the undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction following the Whipple procedure may decrease the incidence of delayed gastric emptying. In addition, it has the added benefit of eliminating bile reflux gastritis. Future randomized control trials are recommended to further evaluate the efficacy of the procedure.

  3. Maintenance ofMestimprinted methylation in blastocyst-stage mouse embryos is less stable than other imprinted loci following superovulation or embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velker, Brenna A M; Denomme, Michelle M; Krafty, Robert T; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2017-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies are fertility treatments used by subfertile couples to conceive their biological child. Although generally considered safe, these pregnancies have been linked to genomic imprinting disorders, including Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell Syndromes. Silver-Russell Syndrome is a growth disorder characterized by pre- and post-natal growth retardation. The Mest imprinted domain is one candidate region on chromosome 7 implicated in Silver-Russell Syndrome. We have previously shown that maintenance of imprinted methylation was disrupted by superovulation or embryo culture during pre-implantation mouse development. For superovulation, this disruption did not originate in oogenesis as a methylation acquisition defect. However, in comparison to other genes, Mest exhibits late methylation acquisition kinetics, possibly making Mest more vulnerable to perturbation by environmental insult. In this study, we present a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of superovulation and in vitro culture on genomic imprinting at the Mest gene. Superovulation resulted in disruption of imprinted methylation at the maternal Mest allele in blastocysts with an equal frequency of embryos having methylation errors following low or high hormone treatment. This disruption was not due to a failure of imprinted methylation acquisition at Mest in oocytes. For cultured embryos, both the Fast and Slow culture groups experienced a significant loss of maternal Mest methylation compared to in vivo -derived controls. This loss of methylation was independent of development rates in culture. These results indicate that Mest is more susceptible to imprinted methylation maintenance errors compared to other imprinted genes.

  4. Herpes Zoster Lesions on Reconstructed Breast Skin: Rare Objective Proof of Reinervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenz Weitgasser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Blazed up Herpes zoster lesions have been described in very few patients after free and pedicled flap transfer for reconstructive purpose. Although sensory recovery after flap reconstructions has been studied extensively most studies addressed subjective perceptions of sensation. Objective investigations of spontaneous reinervation of free and pedicled flaps are rare. We would like to present a witnessed herpes zoster infection of a latissimus dorsi skin flap 2 years after breast reconstruction.

  5. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  6. DOT1L inhibitor improves early development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Zuo, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    inhibitor EPZ004777 (EPZ), significantly improved reprogramming efficiency during the generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the roles of DOT1L in porcine nuclear transfer-mediated cellular reprogramming are not yet known. Here we showed that DOT1L inhibition via 0.5 nM EPZ treatment......Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming of the genome of donor cells causes poor early and full-term developmental efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Previous research indicate that inhibition of the histone H3 K79 methyltransferase DOT1L, using a selective pharmacological...... for 12 or 24 h significantly enhanced the blastocyst rate of SCNT embryos and dramatically reduced the level of H3K79me2 during SCNT 1-cell embryonic development. Additionally, H3K79me2 level in the EPZ-treated SCNT embryos was similar to that in in vitro fertilized embryos, suggesting that DOT1L...

  7. Transfer of stem cells carrying engineered chromosomes with XY clone laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, Ildiko; Katona, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Current transgenic technologies for gene transfer into the germline of mammals cause a random integration of exogenous naked DNA into the host genome that can generate undesirable position effects as well as insertional mutations. The vectors used to generate transgenic animals are limited by the amount of foreign DNA they can carry. Mammalian artificial chromosomes have large DNA-carrying capacity and ability to replicate in parallel with, but without integration into, the host genome. Hence they are attractive vectors for transgenesis, cellular protein production, and gene therapy applications as well. ES cells mediated chromosome transfer by conventional blastocyst injection has a limitation in unpredictable germline transmission. The demonstrated protocol of laser-assisted microinjection of artificial chromosome containing ES cells into eight-cell mouse embryos protocol described here can solve the problem for faster production of germline transchromosomic mice.

  8. Vertex Reconstruction in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chabanat, E; D'Hondt, J; Vanlaer, P; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Frühwirth, R; Waltenberger, W

    2005-01-01

    Because of the high track multiplicity in the final states expected in proton collisions at the LHC experiments, novel vertex reconstruction algorithms are required. The vertex reconstruction problem can be decomposed into a pattern recognition problem ("vertex finding") and an estimation problem ("vertex fitting"). Starting from least-square methods, ways to render the classical algorithms more robust are discussed and the statistical properties of the novel methods are shown. A whole set of different approaches for the vertex finding problem is presented and compared in relevant physics channels.

  9. Vertex reconstruction in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanat, E.; D'Hondt, J.; Estre, N.; Fruehwirth, R.; Prokofiev, K.; Speer, T.; Vanlaer, P.; Waltenberger, W.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the high track multiplicity in the final states expected in proton collisions at the LHC experiments, novel vertex reconstruction algorithms are required. The vertex reconstruction problem can be decomposed into a pattern recognition problem ('vertex finding') and an estimation problem ('vertex fitting'). Starting from least-squares methods, robustifications of the classical algorithms are discussed and the statistical properties of the novel methods are shown. A whole set of different approaches for the vertex finding problem is presented and compared in relevant physics channels

  10. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...

  11. Scrotal Reconstruction with a Pedicled Gracilis Muscle Flap after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several scrotal reconstructive options are available including split thickness skin grafts, scrotal advancement flaps, local fasciocutaneous, muscle or myocutaneous flaps, and free tissue transfer. We report a case of a 34 year old African male who presented as a referral from a district hospital with a scrotal defect and ...

  12. Ultrastructural changes in goat interspecies and intraspecies reconstructed early embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Yong; Gheng, Lizi; Zhang, Meiling

    2008-01-01

    The low efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer may be related to the ultrastructural deviations of reconstructed embryos. The present study investigated ultrastructural differences between in vivo-produced and cloned goat embryos, including intra- and interspecies embryos. Goat ear fibroblas...

  13. Successful non-surgical deep uterine transfer of porcine morulae after 24 hour culture in a chemically defined medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A Martinez

    Full Text Available Excellent fertility and prolificacy have been reported after non-surgical deep uterine transfers of fresh in vivo-derived porcine embryos. Unfortunately, when this technology is used with vitrified embryos, the reproductive performance of recipients is low. For this reason and because the embryos must be stored until they are transferred to the recipient farms, we evaluated the potential application of non-surgical deep uterine transfers with in vivo-derived morulae cultured for 24 h in liquid stage. In Experiment 1, two temperatures (25 °C and 37 °C and two media (one fully defined and one semi-defined were assessed. Morulae cultured in culture medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum at 38.5 °C in 5% CO2 in air were used as controls. Irrespective of medium, the embryo viability after 24 h of culture was negatively affected (P<0.05 at 25 °C but not at 37 °C compared with the controls. Embryo development was delayed in all experimental groups compared with the control group (P<0.001. Most of the embryos (95.7% cultured at 37 °C achieved the full or expanded blastocyst stage, and unlike the controls, none of them hatched at the end of culture. In Experiment 2, 785 morulae were cultured in the defined medium at 37 °C for 24 h, and the resulting blastocysts were transferred to the recipients (n = 24. Uncultured embryos collected at the blastocyst stage (n = 750 were directly transferred to the recipients and used as controls (n = 25. No differences in farrowing rates (91.7% and 92.0% or litter sizes (9.0 ± 0.6 and 9.4 ± 0.8 were observed between the groups. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that high reproductive performance can be achieved after non-surgical deep uterine transfers with short-term cultured morulae in a defined medium, which opens new possibilities for the sanitary, safe national and international trade of porcine embryos and the commercial use of embryo transfer in pigs.

  14. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boury, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  15. Position reconstruction in LUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2018-02-01

    The (x, y) position reconstruction method used in the analysis of the complete exposure of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is presented. The algorithm is based on a statistical test that makes use of an iterative method to recover the photomultiplier tube (PMT) light response directly from the calibration data. The light response functions make use of a two dimensional functional form to account for the photons reflected on the inner walls of the detector. To increase the resolution for small pulses, a photon counting technique was employed to describe the response of the PMTs. The reconstruction was assessed with calibration data including 83mKr (releasing a total energy of 41.5 keV) and 3H (β- with Q = 18.6 keV) decays, and a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron beam (2.45 MeV) . Within the detector's fiducial volume, the reconstruction has achieved an (x, y) position uncertainty of σ = 0.82 cm and σ = 0.17 cm for events of only 200 and 4,000 detected electroluminescence photons respectively. Such signals are associated with electron recoils of energies ~0.25 keV and ~10 keV, respectively. The reconstructed position of the smallest events with a single electron emitted from the liquid surface (22 detected photons) has a horizontal (x, y) uncertainty of 2.13 cm.

  16. Reconstructing Community History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Amy

    2004-01-01

    History is alive and well in Lebanon, Missouri. Students in this small town in the southwest region of the state went above and beyond the community's expectations on this special project. This article describes this historical journey which began when students in a summer mural class reconstructed a mural that was originally created by a…

  17. 'grass roots' reconstructive action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses a two year action research investigation of conceptual, evaluation and adoption tensions that led to a revised approach to environmental ... a sustained dialogue around the prevailing science curriculum, local environmental issues and everyday classroom activities fostered reconstructive change at a ...

  18. Simulation and reconstruction frameworks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    defined entities exist which represent the different objects needed in simulation, reconstruction and analysis. ... an API exist for the Monte Carlo information, for hits from tracker and calorimeter detectors, and for first ... uses a mysql-based database to store those parameters of a geometry, which a user might want to change.

  19. Coupling sperm mediated gene transfer and sperm sorting techniques: a new perspective for swine transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Marco; Spinaci, Marcella; Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; Seren, Eraldo; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2010-09-15

    Flow cytometric separation of X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa has been demonstrated to be effective in pigs, allowing the use of boar sexed semen in in vitro trials. Sperm Mediated Gene Transfer (SMGT) is a widely used and efficient technique for the creation of transgenic animals. The present research intended to prove that it is possible to associate sperm sexing with the SMGT technique in order to speed up the assessment of homozygous lines of transgenic pigs. In the first experiment, the sorting protocol was modified in order to obtain the highest DNA uptake by sorted spermatozoa. In the second experiment, spermatozoa that had undergone only sperm sorting, only SMGT, or both procedures (Sorted-SMGT) were used for in in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured oocytes. In the third experiment, transformed blastocysts of the desired gender (male) were obtained with Sorted-SMGT in an in vitro fertilization trial. The method we developed here allowed us to produce transgenic swine blastocysts of pre-determined gender, giving a positive answer at the aim to couple SMGT and sperm sorting in swine, obtaining fertile spermatozoa able to produce transgenic embryos of pre-determined gender. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue; Pang, Daxin; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2011-07-29

    The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50μg/mL vitamin C 15h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thoracic wall reconstruction after tumor resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran eHarati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical treatment of malignant thoracic wall tumors represents a formidable challenge. In particular, locally advanced tumors that have already infiltrated critical anatomic structures are associated with a high surgical morbidity and can result in full thickness defects of the thoracic wall. Plastic surgery can reduce this surgical morbidity by reconstructing the thoracic wall through various tissue transfer techniques. Sufficient soft tissue reconstruction of the thoracic wall improves life quality and mitigates functional impairment after extensive resection. The aim of this article is to illustrate the various plastic surgery treatment options in the multimodal therapy of patients with malignant thoracic wall tumors.Material und methods: This article is based on a review of the current literature and the evaluation of a patient database.Results: Several plastic surgical treatment options can be implemented in the curative and palliative therapy of patients with malignant solid tumors of the chest wall. Large soft tissue defects after tumor resection can be covered by local, pedicled or free flaps. In cases of large full-thickness defects, flaps can be combined with polypropylene mesh to improve chest wall stability and to maintain pulmonary function. The success of modern medicine has resulted in an increasing number of patients with prolonged survival suffering from locally advanced tumors that can be painful, malodorous or prone to bleeding. Resection of these tumors followed by thoracic wall reconstruction with viable tissue can substantially enhance the life quality of these patients. Discussion: In curative treatment regimens, chest wall reconstruction enables complete resection of locally advanced tumors and subsequent adjuvant radiotherapy. In palliative disease treatment, stadium plastic surgical techniques of thoracic wall reconstruction provide palliation of tumor-associated morbidity and can therefore improve

  2. Results of latissimus dorsi transfer in obstetrical brachial plexus injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, E.O.; Fortuin, S.; Winters, H.A.H.; Ritt, M.J.P.F.; Sluijs, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on 9 patients with obstetrical brachial plexus injury who underwent a latissimus dorsi (LD) transfer to reconstruct external rotation of the upper extremity. Transfer of the LD to the rotator cuff is widely used for restoring shoulder abduction and external rotation in patients

  3. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de

  4. Anatomy Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Dicko, Ali Hamadi; Liu, Tiantian; Gilles, Benjamin; Kavan, Ladislav; Faure, François; Palombi, Olivier; Cani, Marie-Paule

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Characters with precise internal anatomy are important in film and visual effects, as well as in medical applications. We propose the first semi-automatic method for creating anatomical structures, such as bones, muscles, viscera and fat tissues. This is done by transferring a reference anatomical model from an input template to an arbitrary target character, only defined by its boundary representation (skin). The fat distribution of the target character needs to be sp...

  5. Transfer Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daniel; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The technique described here, transfer zymography, was developed to overcome two limitations of conventional zymography. When proteolytic enzymes are resolved by nonreducing SDS-PAGE into a polyacrylamide gel with copolymerized protein substrate, the presence of the protein substrate can result in anomalous, often slower, migration of the protease and an estimated mass higher than its actual mass. A further drawback is that the presence of a high background of substrate protein interferes with proteomic analysis of the protease band by excision, tryptic digestion, and LC-MS/MS analysis. In transfer zymography, the proteolytic enzymes are resolved by conventional nonreducing SDS-PAGE, without protein substrate in the gel. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel that contains the protein substrate, by a process similar to western blotting. The receiving gel is then processed in a manner similar to conventional zymography. SDS is removed by Triton X-100 and incubated in conditions suitable for the proteolytic activity. After protein staining, followed by destaining, bands representing regions with active protease are visualized as clear bands in a darkly stained background. For proteomic analysis, electrophoresis is carried out simultaneously on a second resolving gel, and the bands corresponding to the clear regions in the receiving gel after zymogram development are excised for proteomic analysis.

  6. Photogrammetric 3D reconstruction using mobile imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Dieter; Syll, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    In our paper we demonstrate the development of an Android Application (AndroidSfM) for photogrammetric 3D reconstruction that works on smartphones and tablets likewise. The photos are taken with mobile devices, and can thereafter directly be calibrated using standard calibration algorithms of photogrammetry and computer vision, on that device. Due to still limited computing resources on mobile devices, a client-server handshake using Dropbox transfers the photos to the sever to run AndroidSfM for the pose estimation of all photos by Structure-from-Motion and, thereafter, uses the oriented bunch of photos for dense point cloud estimation by dense image matching algorithms. The result is transferred back to the mobile device for visualization and ad-hoc on-screen measurements.

  7. Increasing options in autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction: four free flaps for ‘stacked’ bilateral breast reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.

    2016-01-01

    For autologous breast reconstruction, there are cases where one free flap cannot provide the volume of tissue required, and the concept of ‘stacked’ bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) flaps was developed, in which hemi-abdominal flaps are raised on each deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), and both flaps transferred to the chest. In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction, stacked flaps may be required to achieve volume replacement, however options are not described. We demonstrate the use of stacked free flaps for bilateral breast reconstruction, using one DIEP flap stacked with one transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap for each side. A 49-year-old woman, with BRCA1 mutation, presented for risk reduction mastectomies. Flap design was planned to achieve maximal projection and primary nipple reconstruction. This was able to be achieved by using the DIEP flap de-epithelialised and completely buried, with the flap orientated with the pedicle on its superficial surface, and the TUG flap lying superficially with its skin paddle used for nipple reconstruction and able to be monitored clinically. There were no flap or donor related complications and good aesthetic outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a further option in microsurgical breast reconstruction for patients in whom there is a paucity of abdominal tissue for reconstruction. PMID:27047791

  8. Interspecies nuclear transfer using fibroblasts from leopard, tiger, and lion ear piece collected postmortem as donor cells and rabbit oocytes as recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelisetti, Uma Mahesh; Komjeti, Suman; Katari, Venu Charan; Sisinthy, Shivaji; Brahmasani, Sambasiva Rao

    2016-06-01

    Skin fibroblast cells were obtained from a small piece of an ear of leopard, lion, and tiger collected postmortem and attempts were made to synchronize the skin fibroblasts at G0/G1 of cell cycle using three different approaches. Efficiency of the approaches was tested following interspecies nuclear transfer with rabbit oocytes as recipient cytoplasm. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that the proportion of G0/G1 cells increased significantly (P lion, and tiger were successfully synchronized and used for the development of blastocysts using rabbit oocytes as recipient cytoplasm.

  9. Electron reconstruction in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Baffioni, Stephanie; Ferri, Federico; Futyan, David; Meridiani, Paolo; Puljak, Ivica; Rovelli, Chiara; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves

    2006-01-01

    The reconstruction of the energy and momentum of isolated electrons in CMS combining tracking and electromagnetic calorimetry information is described. The emphasis is put on primary electrons with transverse momentum below 50 GeV/c. The energy deposited in the electromagnetic calorimeter is measured in superclusters which collect bremsstrahlung photons emitted along the electron trajectory in the tracker volume. The electron tracks are built from seeds in the pixel detector found via a cluster-driven pixel hit matching algorithm, followed by a reconstruction of trajectories in the silicon strip tracker with a Gaussian Sum Filter. Electrons are classified using observables sensitive to the pattern of bremsstrahlung emission and electromagnetic showering in the tracker material. Energy scale corrections depending on the electron class are applied to the supercluster and estimates of associated errors are obtained. The electron energy is deduced from a weighted combination of the corrected supercluster energy a...

  10. Reconstructing warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The reconstruction of a warm inflationary universe model from the scalar spectral index n_S(N) and the tensor to scalar ratio r( N) as a function of the number of e-folds N is studied. Under a general formalism we find the effective potential and the dissipative coefficient in terms of the cosmological parameters n_S and r considering the weak and strong dissipative stages under the slow roll approximation. As a specific example, we study the attractors for the index n_S given by nS-1∝ N^{-1} and for the ratio r∝ N^{-2}, in order to reconstruct the model of warm inflation. Here, expressions for the effective potential V(φ ) and the dissipation coefficient Γ (φ ) are obtained.

  11. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea-level...

  12. Representation Without Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, Shimon

    1994-01-01

    According to the paradigmatic reconstructionist approach to vision, a visual system must first reconstruct the world internally, then extract from the resulting representation whatever features are necessary for the task at hand. Recent developments in computational vision and visual neuroscience show that many of the features needed for tasks ranging from spatial discrimination to object recognition can be extracted from the image directly, much as in Gibson's hypothesis of direct perception...

  13. CMS RPC tracker muon reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Qian, S.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D.; Choi, S.; Hong, B.; Kang, J. W.; Kang, M.; Kwon, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Pant, L. M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Chudasama, R.; Singh, J. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Mehta, A.; Kumar, R.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Costantini, S.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Ocampo, A.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Doninck, W. V.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro, L.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Avila, C.; Ahmad, A.; Muhammad, S.; Shoaib, M.; Hoorani, H.; Awan, I.; Ali, I.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M. I.; Shahzad, H.; Sayed, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Ali, S.; Ali, R.; Radi, A.; Elkafrawy, T.; Sharma, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Paolucci, P.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Merola, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, O. M.; Braghieri, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Vai, I.; Magnani, A.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Stoykova, S.; Hadjiiska, R.; Ibargüen, H. S.; Morales, M. I. P.; Bernardino, S. C.; Bagaturia, I.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Crotty, I.

    2014-10-01

    A new muon reconstruction algorithm is introduced at the CMS experiment. This algorithm reconstructs muons using only the central tracker and the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC). The aim of this work is to study how a muon reconstructed only with tracker and RPC information would perform compared to the standard muon reconstruction of the CMS detector. The efficiencies to reconstruct and identify a RPC muon with a transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV/c are measured. The probabilities to misidentify hadrons as muons at low transverse momentum are also reported. These probabilities are compared to the standard muon identification used at CMS.

  14. The effect on human sex ratio at birth by assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures--an assessment of babies born following single embryo transfers, Australia and New Zealand, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J H; Chapman, M G; Sullivan, E A

    2010-12-01

    To assess the effect on the human sex ratio at birth by assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures. Retrospective population-based study. Fertility clinics in Australia and New Zealand. The study included 13,368 babies by 13,165 women who had a single embryo transfer (SET) between 2002 and 2006. Logistic regression was used to model the effect on the sex ratio at birth of ART characteristics [in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI) SET, cleavage-stage or blastocyst SET, and fresh or thawed SET] and biological characteristics (woman's and partner's age and cause of infertility). Proportion of male births. The crude sex ratio at birth was 51.3%. Individual ART procedures had a significant effect on the sex ratio at birth. More males were born following IVF SET (53.0%) than ICSI SET (50.0%), and following blastocyst SET (54.1%) than cleavage-stage SET (49.9%). For a specific ART regimen, IVF blastocyst SET produced more males (56.1%) and ICSI cleavage-stage SET produced fewer males (48.7%). The change in the sex ratio at birth of SET babies is associated with the ART regimen. The mechanism of these effects remains unclear. Fertility clinics and patients should be aware of the bias in the sex ratio at birth when using ART procedures. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2010 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  15. Prosthetics in Facial Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, Jaclyn; Helman, Samuel; Kadakia, Sameep; Sawhney, Raja; Abraham, Manoj; Vest, Allison K; Ducic, Yadranko

    2018-03-01

    Reconstruction of the head and neck can be a challenging undertaking owing to numerous considerations for successful rehabilitation. Although head and neck defects were once considered irretrievably morbid and associated with a poor quality of life, advances in surgical technique has immensely contributed to the well-being of these patients. However, all patients are not suitable surgical candidates and many have sought nonsurgical options for functional and cosmetic restoration. As such, the advent of prostheses has ameliorated those concerns and provided a viable alternative for select patient populations. Prosthetic reconstruction has evolved significantly over the past decade. Advances in biocompatible materials and imaging adjuncts have spurred further discovery and forward progress. A multidisciplinary approach to head and neck reconstruction focused on appropriate expectations and patient-centered goals is most successfully coordinated by a team of head and neck surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, and prosthetic specialists. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the current trends for prosthetic rehabilitation of head and neck defects, and further elaborate on the limitations and advancements in the field.

  16. [Surgery guided by customized devices: reconstruction with a free fibula flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouman, T; Bertolus, C; Chaine, C; Ceccaldi, J; Goudot, P

    2014-02-01

    The reconstruction of jaws with a free fibula flap can be anticipated virtually. The simulation can be transferred to the operating theater using customized devices obtained from computer-assisted design and manufacturing in a complete digital workflow. Several alternatives are available, from cutting guides to customized titanium osteosynthesis plates, to obtain the best accuracy and reproducibility of reconstruction. Moreover, these new processes allow integrating prosthetic planning concomitantly with reconstruction. We present the virtual three-dimensional planning method for jaw reconstruction with a free fibula flap and the various alternatives of surgery guided by customized devices provided by this planning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Reconstructive methods after Fournier gangrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, C; Behr, B; Ring, A; Mikhail, B D; Lehnhardt, M; Daigeler, A

    2016-04-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a variant of the necrotizing fasciitis restricted to the perineal and genital region. It presents as an acute life-threatening disease and demands rapid surgical debridement, resulting in large soft tissue defects. Various reconstructive methods have to be applied to reconstitute functionality and aesthetics. The objective of this work is to identify different reconstructive methods in the literature and compare them to our current concepts for reconstructing defects caused by Fournier gangrene. Analysis of the current literature and our reconstructive methods on Fournier gangrene. The Fournier gangrene is an emergency requiring rapid, calculated antibiotic treatment and radical surgical debridement. After the acute phase of the disease, appropriate reconstructive methods are indicated. The planning of the reconstruction of the defect depends on many factors, especially functional and aesthetic demands. Scrotal reconstruction requires a higher aesthetic and functional reconstructive degree than perineal cutaneous wounds. In general, thorough wound hygiene, proper pre-operative planning, and careful consideration of the patient's demands are essential for successful reconstruction. In the literature, various methods for reconstruction after Fournier gangrene are described. Reconstruction with a flap is required for a good functional result in complex regions as the scrotum and penis, while cutaneous wounds can be managed through skin grafting. Patient compliance and tissue demand are crucial factors in the decision-making process.

  18. Internal mammary artery and vein as recipient vessels in head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Adam S; Smith, Mark; Urken, Mark L

    2013-06-01

    Free-tissue transfer for head and neck reconstruction has evolved since the mid-1950s. A variety of different recipient arteries and veins have been described for use in head and neck reconstruction. In our experience, the internal mammary artery (IMA) and internal mammary vein (IMV) have become increasingly important for achieving successful microvascular reconstruction. To illustrate the efficacy of the IMA and IMV recipient vessels in head and neck reconstruction, highlighting the different techniques used to harvest these vessels and outline decision making when approaching a neck where commonly used vessels are unavailable. Retrospective medical record review. Outpatient clinic setting. All free-tissue transfers performed between 2005 and 2011. All patients in whom the IMA or IMV recipient vessels were used were included. Twelve cases were performed with IMA and IMV harvest. Donor site, flap used, recipient artery and vein, success of transfer, flap survival, and presence of donor site complications. The IMA and IMV were harvested in 12 patients, with 11 successful free-tissue transfers. In 1 patient, the vessels were unusable, and a regional tissue transfer was performed. The IMA and IMV are excellent recipient vessels for use in head and neck reconstruction and should be considered for use in challenging reconstructive cases.

  19. Reconstructing phylogenetic networks using maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Luay; Jin, Guohua; Zhao, Fengmei; Mellor-Crummey, John

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenies - the evolutionary histories of groups of organisms - are one of the most widely used tools throughout the life sciences, as well as objects of research within systematics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, etc. Almost every tool devised to date to reconstruct phylogenies produces trees; yet it is widely understood and accepted that trees oversimplify the evolutionary histories of many groups of organims, most prominently bacteria (because of horizontal gene transfer) and plants (because of hybrid speciation). Various methods and criteria have been introduced for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Parsimony is one of the most widely used and studied criteria, and various accurate and efficient heuristics for reconstructing trees based on parsimony have been devised. Jotun Hein suggested a straightforward extension of the parsimony criterion to phylogenetic networks. In this paper we formalize this concept, and provide the first experimental study of the quality of parsimony as a criterion for constructing and evaluating phylogenetic networks. Our results show that, when extended to phylogenetic networks, the parsimony criterion produces promising results. In a great majority of the cases in our experiments, the parsimony criterion accurately predicts the numbers and placements of non-tree events.

  20. Racial disparities in the type of postmastectomy reconstruction chosen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offodile, Anaeze C; Tsai, Thomas C; Wenger, Julia B; Guo, Lifei

    2015-05-01

    Racial disparities remain for women undergoing immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after mastectomy. Understanding patterns of racial disparities in IBR utilization may present opportunities to tailor policies aimed at optimizing care across racial groups. The aim of this study was to determine if racial disparities exist for types of IBR chosen. A national, retrospective cohort study used the 2005-2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to detect the odds by race for receiving each subtype of IBR after mastectomy-prosthetic, pedicled-transfer autologous tissue, or free-transfer autologous tissue. Secondary outcome was trends in IBR rates over time. There were 44,597 women identified in the data set who underwent mastectomy. Thirty-seven percent of women (N = 16, 642) were noted to undergo IBR after mastectomy. Prosthetic reconstruction (84.4%, n = 37, 640) was the most common form of IBR compared with pedicled-autologous reconstruction (15.4%, n = 6868) and free transfer autologous reconstruction (4.9%, n = 2185), P Racial disparities persisted from 2005-2011; as minority patients were less likely to undergo IBR than whites (P disparities in access to high-quality care and underlying cultures. Strategies aimed at reducing racial disparities in IBR should be tailored to specific patterns of disparities among Asian, black, and Hispanic women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinyoung; Lee, Joohyeong; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Eunsong

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of post-fusion treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos. Immediately after electrofusion, SCNT oocytes were treated with MG132 and/or caffeine for 2 hr, vanadate for 0.5 hr, or vanadate for 0.5 hr followed by MG132 for 1.5 hr. Of the MG132 concentrations tested (0-5 microM), the 1 microM concentration showed a higher rate of blastocyst formation (25.9%) than 0 (14.2%), 0.5 (16.9%), and 5 microM (16.9%). Post-fusion treatment with MG132, caffeine, and both MG132 and caffeine improved blastocyst formation (22.1%, 21.4%, and 24.4%, respectively), whereas vanadate treatment inhibited blastocyst formation (6.5%) compared to the control (11.1%). When examined 2 hr after fusion and 1 hr after activation, MPF activity remained at a higher (P fusion with caffeine and/or MG132, but it was decreased by vanadate. The rate of oocytes showing premature chromosome condensation was not altered by MG132 but was decreased by vanadate treatment. In addition, formation of single pronuclei was increased by MG132 compared to control and vanadate treatment. MG132-treated embryos showed increased expression of POU5F1, DPPA2, DPPA3, DPPA5, and NDP52l1 genes compared to control embryos. Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Characterization of the altered gene expression profile in early porcine embryos generated from parthenogenesis and somatic cell chromatin transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi; Dobrinsky, John; Tsoi, Stephen; Foxcroft, George R; Dixon, Walter T; Stothard, Paul; Verstegen, John; Dyck, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro production of early porcine embryos is of particular scientific and economic interest. In general, embryos produced from in vitro Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) manipulations, such as somatic cell chromatin transfer (CT) and parthenogenetic activation (PA), are less developmentally competent than in vivo-derived embryos. The mechanisms underlying the deficiencies of embryos generated from PA and CT have not been completely understood. To characterize the altered genes and gene networks in embryos generated from CT and PA, comparative transcriptomic analyses of in vivo (IVV) expanded blastocysts (XB), IVV hatched blastocyst (HB), PA XB, PA HB, and CT HB were performed using a custom microarray platform enriched for genes expressed during early embryonic development. Differential expressions of 1492 and 103 genes were identified in PA and CT HB, respectively, in comparison with IVV HB. The "eIF2 signalling", "mitochondrial dysfunction", "regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signalling", "protein ubiquitination", and "mTOR signalling" pathways were down-regulated in PA HB. Dysregulation of notch signalling-associated genes were observed in both PA and CT HB. TP53 was predicted to be activated in both PA and CT HB, as 136 and 23 regulation targets of TP53 showed significant differential expression in PA and CT HB, respectively, in comparison with IVV HB. In addition, dysregulations of several critical pluripotency, trophoblast development, and implantation-associated genes (NANOG, GATA2, KRT8, LGMN, and DPP4) were observed in PA HB during the blastocyst hatching process. The critical genes that were observed to be dysregulated in CT and PA embryos could be indicative of underlying developmental deficiencies of embryos produced from these technologies.

  3. Important aspects of placental-specific gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Melissa R; Albers, Renee E; Keoni, Chanel; Kulkarni-Datar, Kashmira; Natale, David R; Brown, Thomas L

    2014-10-15

    The placenta is a unique and highly complex organ that develops only during pregnancy and is essential for growth and survival of the developing fetus. The placenta provides the vital exchange of gases and wastes, the necessary nutrients for fetal development, acts as immune barrier that protects against maternal rejection, and produces numerous hormones and growth factors that promote fetal maturity to regulate pregnancy until parturition. Abnormal placental development is a major underlying cause of pregnancy-associated disorders that often result in preterm birth. Defects in placental stem cell propagation, growth, and differentiation are the major factors that affect embryonic and fetal well-being and dramatically increase the risk of pregnancy complications. Understanding the processes that regulate placentation is important in determining the underlying factors behind abnormal placental development. The ability to manipulate genes in a placenta-specific manner provides a unique tool to analyze development and eliminates potentially confounding results that can occur with traditional gene knockouts. Trophoblast stem cells and mouse embryos are not overly amenable to traditional gene transfer techniques. Most viral vectors, however, have a low infection rate and often lead to mosaic transgenesis. Although the traditional method of embryo transfer is intrauterine surgical implantation, the methodology reported here, combining lentiviral blastocyst infection and nonsurgical embryo transfer, leads to highly efficient and placental-specific gene transfer. Numerous advantages of our optimized procedures include increased investigator safety, a reduction in animal stress, rapid and noninvasive embryo transfer, and higher a rate of pregnancy and live birth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transferring embryos with indeterminate PGD results: the ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insogna, Iris G; Ginsburg, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) are becoming increasingly common techniques to select embryos that are unaffected by a known genetic disorder. Though IVF-PGD has high success rates, 7.5 % of blastocysts have inconclusive results after testing. A recent case involving a known BRCA-1 carrier was brought before our Assisted Reproductive Technology Ethics Committee in order to gain a better appreciation for the ethical implications surrounding the transfer of embryos with indeterminate testing. Thirty-nine year old G0 BRCA-1 carrier requiring IVF for male factor infertility. The couple elected for PGD to select against BRCA-1 gene carrier embryos. However, several embryos were returned with inconclusive results. The couple wished to proceed with the transfer of embryos with an unknown carrier status. The case was presented before our Assisted Reproductive Technology Ethics Committee. Many considerations were explored, including the physician's duty to protect patient autonomy, the physician's duty to act in the best interest of the future child, and the physician's duty towards society. Transferring both embryos with unknown carrier status and known-carrier status was debated. Ultimately, the transfer of inconclusive embryos was felt to be ethically permissible in most cases if patients had been adequately counseled. However, the re-biopsy of embryos with inconclusive testing results was encouraged. The transfer of known-carrier embryos was felt to be unethical for certain disease-states, depending on the severity of illness and timing of disease onset. We strongly encourage physicians to create an action plan in advance with their patients, prior to testing, in the event that embryos are returned with inconclusive PGD results. The committee's decision, though helpful in guiding practice, should not overshadow the individual physician-patient relationship, and the need for thorough counseling.

  5. Assisted reproduction technique outcomes for fresh versus deferred cryopreserved day-2 embryo transfer: a retrospective matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Mathilde; Santulli, Pietro; Gayet, Vanessa; Maignien, Chloé; Marcellin, Louis; Pocate-Cheriet, Khaled; Chapron, Charles

    2017-03-01

    Ovarian stimulation could adversely affect endometrial receptivity and consequently embryo implantation. One emerging strategy is the 'freeze-all' approach. Most studies have focused on blastocyst transfers, with limited research on day-2 deferred cryopreserved embryo transfers. In this large retrospective cohort study, outcomes were compared between day-2 fresh versus deferred cryopreserved embryo transfers. After matching by age and number of previous cycles, 325 cycles were included in the fresh group and 325 in the deferred cryopreserved embryo transfers group: no significant differences were found between groups in implantation (0.20 ± 0.33 versus 0.17 ± 0.31, respectively) and ongoing pregnancy rates (21.85% versus 18.46%). Independent predictors for ongoing pregnancy after a multiple logistic regression analysis were the women's age (OR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97), body mass index (OR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99), the number of two pronuclei embryos (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.40) and at least one grade 1 embryo transferred (OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.26 to 3.05). In the case of a day-2 embryo transfer, outcomes after treatment with assisted reproduction techniques are similar for fresh versus deferred cryopreserved embryo transfers when pre-transfer progesterone exposures are similar in the two groups. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Perforator Flap for Dorsalis Pedis Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Tashiro, Kensuke; Yamashita, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Reconstruction of dorsalis pedis with soft tissue is challenging because it needs to preserve thin structure to ensure that the patient will be able to wear shoes. Here, we report the use of a thin superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap in dorsalis pedis reconstruction. A 67-year-old man presented with a third-degree burn, which exposed his extensor tendons. A thin SCIP flap from the left inguinal region measuring 15???4?cm was transferred to the dorsalis pedis re...

  7. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nehete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.

  8. Total variation superiorization schemes in proton computed tomography image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, S N; Schulte, R W; Censor, Y; Rosenfeld, A B

    2010-11-01

    Iterative projection reconstruction algorithms are currently the preferred reconstruction method in proton computed tomography (pCT). However, due to inconsistencies in the measured data arising from proton energy straggling and multiple Coulomb scattering, the noise in the reconstructed image increases with successive iterations. In the current work, the authors investigated the use of total variation superiorization (TVS) schemes that can be applied as an algorithmic add-on to perturbation-resilient iterative projection algorithms for pCT image reconstruction. The block-iterative diagonally relaxed orthogonal projections (DROP) algorithm was used for reconstructing GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulated pCT data sets. Two TVS schemes added on to DROP were investigated; the first carried out the superiorization steps once per cycle and the second once per block. Simplifications of these schemes, involving the elimination of the computationally expensive feasibility proximity checking step of the TVS framework, were also investigated. The modulation transfer function and contrast discrimination function were used to quantify spatial and density resolution, respectively. With both TVS schemes, superior spatial and density resolution was achieved compared to the standard DROP algorithm. Eliminating the feasibility proximity check improved the image quality, in particular image noise, in the once-per-block superiorization, while also halving image reconstruction time. Overall, the greatest image quality was observed when carrying out the superiorization once per block and eliminating the feasibility proximity check. The low-contrast imaging made possible with TVS holds a promise for its incorporation into future pCT studies.

  9. Genome Transfer Prevents Fragmentation and Restores Developmental Potential of Developmentally Compromised Postovulatory Aged Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Yamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in oocyte quality can have great impact on the developmental potential of early embryos. Here we test whether nuclear genome transfer from a developmentally incompetent to a developmentally competent oocyte can restore developmental potential. Using in vitro oocyte aging as a model system we performed nuclear transfer in mouse oocytes at metaphase II or at the first interphase, and observed that development to the blastocyst stage and to term was as efficient as in control embryos. The increased developmental potential is explained primarily by correction of abnormal cytokinesis at anaphase of meiosis and mitosis, by a reduction in chromosome segregation errors, and by normalization of the localization of chromosome passenger complex components survivin and cyclin B1. These observations demonstrate that developmental decline is primarily due to abnormal function of cytoplasmic factors involved in cytokinesis, while the genome remains developmentally fully competent.

  10. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context, qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  11. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by order, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  12. LHCb; LHCb Jet Reconstruction

    CERN Multimedia

    Augusto, O

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than $4 \\times 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1.02 $fb^{-1}$ on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test pertubative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space $\\eta \\times \\phi$ and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the calo...

  13. Effect of asynchronous transfer on bovine embryonic development and relationship with early cycle uterine proteome profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgard, A M; Berg, M C; McMillan, W H; Smolenski, G; Peterson, A J

    2012-01-01

    The uterus provides the nurturing environment that supports the growth of the early preimplantation bovine conceptus. To determine critical time points of uterine influence, in vitro-produced Day 7 blastocysts were transferred into synchronous (Day 7) uteri and asynchronous uteri (Days 5 or 9). Embryo growth was evaluated 7 and 15 days after transfer and compared with that of embryos generated by AI. Conceptuses recovered from asynchronous Day 9 transfers were fourfold larger than synchronous transfer or gestational Day 14 AI conceptuses; by 15 days after transfer, differences were less marked. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to compare the histotroph protein composition of uterine luminal flushings (ULF) on Days 5 and 9 after oestrous to determine any protein differences that would promote embryo growth. The ULF were collected by serially flushing the uteri of the same heifers and mature cows at different times of the cycle. Ten proteins that differed in abundance between Day 5 and 9 were identified by mass spectrometry. Three, namely phosphoserine aminotransferase 1, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and aldose reductase, were verified by western blot analysis as more abundant on Day 9 (Pembryo growth-enhancing environment on Day 9 was associated with temporal changes in the expression of several proteins of the histotroph.

  14. Kebuntingan Hasil Transfer Blastosis Mencit yang Dibekukan dengan Metode Vitrifikasi Kriolup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Batan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the viability of vitrified embryo using cryoloop as a carrier ofembryo. The blastocyst stage embryos were collected from superovulated mice. Embryos were frozenusing vitrification method and vitrified embryos were loaded on copper filament cryoloop before dipped inliquid nitrogen. The viability of vitrified embryos was assess in vitro by medium cultered and in vivo bytransfered them to recipient mice. The result shows the viability of vitrified embryos was 85,7% after 24hours cultured and the embryos were born from two pregnant recipient mice out of nine (22% or fouroffspring out of 63 trasfered embryos (6%. In conclusion, vitrified blatocyst stage embryos using cryoloopas a carrier could keep the viability of the embryos and they could be transfered to the recipient mice andwere born normally.

  15. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  16. Entropy and transverse section reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A new approach to the reconstruction of a transverse section using projection data from multiple views incorporates the concept of maximum entropy. The principle of maximizing information entropy embodies the assurance of minimizing bias or prejudice in the reconstruction. Using maximum entropy is a necessary condition for the reconstructed image. This entropy criterion is most appropriate for 3-D reconstruction of objects from projections where the system is underdetermined or the data are limited statistically. This is the case in nuclear medicine time limitations in patient studies do not yield sufficient projections

  17. Effect of Cardiac Phases and Conductivity Inhomogeneities of the Thorax Models on ECG Lead Selection and Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takano, Noriyuki

    2001-01-01

    ECG lead selection and reconstruction were investigated in the present study using ECG source-to-measurement transfer matrices computed in inhomogeneous and homogeneous conductor thorax-heart models...

  18. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2007-01-01

    nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  19. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Kimberly R.

    1995-01-01

    The development and application of new technologies in the United States has always been important to the economic well being of the country. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been an important source of these new technologies for almost four decades. Recently, increasing global competition has emphasized the importance of fully utilizing federally funded technologies. Today NASA must meet its mission goals while at the same time, conduct research and development that contributes to securing US economic growth. NASA technologies must be quickly and effectively transferred into commercial products. In order to accomplish this task, NASA has formulated a new way of doing business with the private sector. Emphasis is placed on forming mutually beneficial partnerships between NASA and US industry. New standards have been set in response to the process that increase effectiveness, efficiency, and timely customer response. This summer I have identified potential markets for two NASA inventions: including the Radially Focused Eddy Current Sensor for Characterization of Flaws in Metallic Tubing and the Radiographic Moire. I have also worked to establish a cooperative program with TAG, private industry, and a university known as the TAG/Industry/Academia Program.

  20. Using the Retrograde Internal Mammary System for Stacked Perforator Flap Breast Reconstruction: 71 Breast Reconstructions in 53 Consecutive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Mark W; Lam, Jonathan; Allen, Robert J; Sadeghi, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal tissue is the preferred donor source for autologous breast reconstruction, but in select patients with inadequate tissue, additional volume must be recruited to achieve optimal outcomes. Stacked flaps are an effective approach in these cases, but can be limited by the need for adequate recipient vessels. This article reports outcomes for the use of the retrograde internal mammary system for stacked flap breast reconstruction in a large number of consecutive patients. Fifty-three patients underwent stacked autologous tissue breast reconstruction with a total of 142 free flaps. Thirty patients underwent unilateral stacked deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap reconstruction, five had unilateral stacked profunda artery perforator flap reconstruction, one had bilateral stacked DIEP/superior gluteal artery perforator flap reconstruction, and 17 underwent bilateral stacked DIEP/profunda artery perforator flap reconstruction. In all cases, the antegrade and retrograde internal mammary vessels were used for anastomoses. In situ manometry studies were also conducted comparing the retrograde internal mammary arteries in 10 patients to the corresponding systemic pressures. There were three total flap losses (97.9 percent flap survival rate), two partial flap losses, four reexplorations for venous congestion, and three patients with operable fat necrosis. The mean weight of the stacked flaps for each reconstructed breast was 622.8 g. The retrograde internal mammary mean arterial pressures were on average 76.6 percent of the systemic mean arterial pressures. The results demonstrate that the retrograde internal mammary system is capable of independently supporting free tissue transfer. These vessels provide for convenient dissection and improved efficiency of these cases, with successful postsurgical outcomes. Therapeutic, IV.

  1. The overlaying oil type influences in vitro embryo production: differences in composition and compound transfer into incubation medium between oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina A; Nohalez, Alicia; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Motas, Miguel; Roca, Jordi; Romero, Inmaculada; García-Gonza Lez, Diego L; Cuello, Cristina; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Martinez, Emilio A; Gil, Maria A

    2017-09-05

    The oil overlay micro-drop system is widely used for cultures of mammalian gametes and embryos. We evaluated hereby the effects of two unaltered commercial oils- Sigma mineral oil (S-MO) and Nidoil paraffin oil (N-PO)-on in vitro embryo production (IVP) outcomes using a pig model. The results showed that while either oil apparently did not affect oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, S-MO negatively affected embryo cleavage rates, blastocyst formation rates, and, consequently, total blastocyst efficiency of the system. No differences in the oxidation state were found between the oils or culture media incubated under S-MO or N-PO. Although both oils slightly differed in elemental composition, there were no differences in the concentrations of elements between fresh media and media incubated under oils. By contrast, we demonstrated clear oil-type differences in both the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and the transfer of some of these VOC´s (straight-chain alkanes and pentanal and 1,3-diethyl benzene) to the culture medium, which could have influenced embryonic development.

  2. Day-3 Medium Changes can Affect Developmental Potential of Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer and Parthenogenesis Embryos In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Biswas and Sang Hwan Hyun*

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the developmental competence of porcine parthenotes and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos after day-3 medium change with fresh embryo culture medium to that of embryos that did not have a medium change (monoculture system. The parthenogenetic and SCNT blastocyst formation rates were significantly (P<0.05 higher in the no-medium-change group (43.3±2.3, 18.5±1.1%, respectively compared with the day-3 medium-change group (35.9±2.4, 7.9±0.9%, respectively. Total cell number in parthenotes and SCNT blastocysts was also significantly (P<0.05 higher in the no-media-change group (92.0±4.2, 66.9±7.7, respectively compared with the media-change group (81.5±3.1, 46.6±4.9, respectively. No significant difference in cleavage rate was found in either group for parthenotes or SCNT embryos. This result suggests that day-3 medium changes have negative effects on porcine parthenotes and SCNT embryos in vitro.

  3. Urogenital Reconstructive Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte Kaasgaard

    Urogenital reconstructive surgery Lotte Kaasgaard Jakobsen1 Professor Henning Olsen1 Overlæge Gitte Hvistendahl1 Professor Karl-Erik Andersson2 1 – Dept. of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital 2 – Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University hospital Background: Congenital obstruction...... 3, and intermittent unloading by urethrostomy in group 4. Group 2 will not be unloaded and serve as continously obstructed controls, whilst group 1 serves as sham-operated, non-obstructed controls. Urodynamic assessment will be performed and samples of urine, blood and bladder tissue...... or intermittent means, we hope to make it easier to choose which treatment to offer the patients. By establishing a solid animal model of congenital infravesical obstruction, we expect to make way for development of better treatments of a rare, but serious condition....

  4. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.

    1979-07-01

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  5. Reconstruction Using Witness Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudot, Steve Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel reconstruction algorithm that, given an input point set sampled from an object S, builds a one-parameter family of complexes that approximate S at different scales. At a high level, our method is very similar in spirit to Chew’s surface meshing algorithm, with one notable difference though: the restricted Delaunay triangulation is replaced by the witness complex, which makes our algorithm applicable in any metric space. To prove its correctness on curves and surfaces, we highlight the relationship between the witness complex and the restricted Delaunay triangulation in 2d and in 3d. Specifically, we prove that both complexes are equal in 2d and closely related in 3d, under some mild sampling assumptions. PMID:21643440

  6. Reconstructing the Alcatraz escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Hoes, O.; Hut, R.; Donchyts, G.; van Leeuwen, E.

    2014-12-01

    In the night of June 12, 1962 three inmates used a raft made of raincoatsto escaped the ultimate maximum security prison island Alcatraz in SanFrancisco, United States. History is unclear about what happened tothe escapees. At what time did they step into the water, did theysurvive, if so, where did they reach land? The fate of the escapees has been the subject of much debate: did theymake landfall on Angel Island, or did the current sweep them out ofthe bay and into the cold pacific ocean? In this presentation, we try to shed light on this historic case using avisualization of a high-resolution hydrodynamic simulation of the San Francisco Bay, combined with historical tidal records. By reconstructing the hydrodynamic conditions and using a particle based simulation of the escapees we show possible scenarios. The interactive model is visualized using both a 3D photorealistic and web based visualization. The "Escape from Alcatraz" scenario demonstrates the capabilities of the 3Di platform. This platform is normally used for overland flooding (1D/2D). The model engine uses a quad tree structure, resulting in an order of magnitude speedup. The subgrid approach takes detailed bathymetry information into account. The inter-model variability is tested by comparing the results with the DFlow Flexible Mesh (DFlowFM) San Francisco Bay model. Interactivity is implemented by converting the models from static programs to interactive libraries, adhering to the Basic ModelInterface (BMI). Interactive models are more suitable for answeringexploratory research questions such as this reconstruction effort. Although these hydrodynamic simulations only provide circumstantialevidence for solving the mystery of what happened during the foggy darknight of June 12, 1962, it can be used as a guidance and provides aninteresting testcase to apply interactive modelling.

  7. CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korolev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of meniscal repair during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction.Materials and methods: 45 patients who underwent meniscal repair during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction between 2007 and 2013 by the same surgeon were included in the study. In total, fifty meniscus were repaired (26 medial and 24 lateral. Procedures included use of one up to four Fast-Fix implants (Smith & Nephew. In five cases both medial and lateral meniscus were repaired. Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scales were used for long-term outcome analysis.Results: 19 male and 26 female patients were included in the study aging from 15 to 59 years (mean age 33,2±1,5. Median time from injury to surgical procedure was zero months (ranging zero to one. Mean time from surgery to scale analysis was 55,9±3 months (ranged 20-102. Median Cincinnati score was 97 (ranged 90-100, with excellent results in 93% of cases (43 patients and good results in 7% (3 patients. Median IKDC score was 90,8 (ranged 86,2-95,4, with excellent outcomes in 51% of cases (23 patients, good in 33% (15 patients and satisfactory in 16% (7 patients. Median Lysholm score was 95 (ranged 90-100, with excellent outcomes in 76% of cases (34 patients and good in 24% (11 patients. Authors identified no statistical differences when comparing survey results in age, sex and time from trauma to surgery.Conclusions: Results of the present study match the data from orthopedic literature that prove meniscal repair as a safe and efficient procedure with good and excellent outcomes. All-inside meniscal repair can be used irrespectively of patients' age and is efficient even in case of delayed procedures.

  8. Prefabricated fibula free flap with dental implants for mandibular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchet, D; Pigot, J-L; Chabolle, F; Bach, C-A

    2018-03-02

    Free fibula transplant is routinely used for mandibular reconstruction in head and neck cancer. Dental rehabilitation, the objective of mandibular reconstruction, requires the use of dental implants as supports for fixed or removable dentures. Positioning of fibular bone grafts and implants determines implant osseointegration and the possibilities of dental rehabilitation. Prefabrication of a fibula free flap with dental implants prior to harvesting as a free flap can promote implant osseointegration. The position of the implants must then be precisely planned. Virtual surgery and computer-assisted design and prefabrication techniques are used to plan the reconstruction and then reproduce this planning by means of tailored fibula and mandible cutting guides, thereby ensuring correct positioning of fibular bone fragments and implants. The prefabricated fibula free flap technique requires two surgical procedures (prefabrication and flap transfer) and precise preoperative planning. Prefabricated fibula free flap with dental implants, by improving the quality of osseointegration of the implants before flap transfer, extends the possibilities of prosthetic rehabilitation in complex secondary mandibular reconstructions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Markov Random Field Surface Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    A method for implicit surface reconstruction is proposed. The novelty in this paper is the adaption of Markov Random Field regularization of a distance field. The Markov Random Field formulation allows us to integrate both knowledge about the type of surface we wish to reconstruct (the prior) and...

  10. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P fusion (P fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Active Rehabilitation After Grip Reconstructive Surgery in Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdell, Johanna; Bunketorp-Käll, Lina; Koch-Borner, Sabrina; Fridén, Jan

    2016-06-01

    To describe and evaluate the concept of early active rehabilitation after tendon transfer to restore grip function in tetraplegia. Retrospective cohort study. Two nonprofit rehabilitation units in Sweden and Switzerland. All patients with tetraplegia who underwent tendon transfer to restore grip ability during 2009 to 2013 (N=49). Reconstructive tendon transfer surgery with early active rehabilitation to restore grip ability in tetraplegia. Grip and pinch strength, grip ability test, and outcome of prioritized activities. In the 49 surgeries performed, postoperative complications included 2 patients with bleeding and 2 infections related to the surgery. There were no reported ruptures or lengthening of transferred tendons. Within 24 hours after surgery, all 47 patients (100%) with finger flexion reconstruction succeeded to activate their finger flexion. All but 1 patient with reconstructed thumb flexion sucessfully activated their thumb flexion (n=40). Three weeks after surgery, all patients (100%) were able to perform basic activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living were achieved by 74%. One year after surgery, the maximum grip strength in restored finger flexion was on average 6.9kg (range, 1.5-15kg; n=29). The maximum pinch strength in restored thumb flexion was on average 3.7kg (range, 1-20; n=29). On average, grip ability improved from 33 to 101 (n=19) according to the COPM. Prioritized activity limitations, as measured with the COPM, equated to an average of 3.5 steps (2.5 steps preoperatively to 6 steps postoperatively). Patients' perceived satisfaction with this improvement was 4 steps (increasing from 2 steps preoperatively to 6 steps postoperatively). Grip reconstructive surgery followed by early active rehabilitation can be considered a reliable procedure that leads to substantial improvements in grip and pinch strength and activity performance among patients with tetraplegia. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of

  12. Breast Reconstruction Following Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernd; Marx, Mario; Untch, Michael; Faridi, Andree

    2015-08-31

    About 8000 breast reconstructions after mastectomy are per - formed in Germany each year. It has become more difficult to advise patients because of the wide variety of heterologous and autologous techniques that are now available and because of changes in the recommendations about radiotherapy. This article is based on a review of pertinent articles (2005-2014) that were retrieved by a selective search employing the search terms "mastectomy" and "breast reconstruction." The goal of reconstruction is to achieve an oncologically safe and aestically satisfactory result for the patient over the long term. Heterologous, i.e., implant-based, breast reconstruction (IBR) and autologous breast reconstruction (ABR) are complementary techniques. Immediate reconstruction preserves the skin of the breast and its natural form and prevents the psychological trauma associated with mastectomy. If post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is not indicated, implant-based reconstruction with or without a net/acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is a common option. Complications such as seroma formation, infection, and explantation are significantly more common when an ADM is used (15.3% vs. 5.4% ). If PMRT is performed, then the complication rate of implant-based breast reconstruction is 1 to 48% ; in particular, Baker grade III/IV capsular fibrosis occurs in 7 to 22% of patients, and the prosthesis must be explanted in 9 to 41% . Primary or, preferably, secondary autologous reconstruction is an alternative. The results of ABR are more stable over the long term, but the operation is markedly more complex. Autologous breast reconstruction after PMRT does not increase the risk of serious complications (20.5% vs. 17.9% without radiotherapy). No randomized controlled trials have yet been conducted to compare the reconstructive techniques with each other. If radiotherapy will not be performed, immediate reconstruction with an implant is recommended. On the other hand, if post-mastectomy radiotherapy

  13. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    ), the classical reconstruction methods suffer from their inability to handle limited and/ or corrupted data. Form any analysis tasks computationally demanding segmentation methods are used to automatically segment an object, after using a simple reconstruction method as a first step. In the literature, methods...... problem. The tests showed a clear improvement for realistic materials simulations and that the one-stage method was clearly more robust toward noise. The noise-robustness result could be a step toward making this method more applicable for lab-scale experiments. We have introduced a segmentation...... that completely combine reconstruction and segmentation have been suggested, but these are often non-convex and have very high computational demand. We propose to move the computational effort from the segmentation process to the reconstruction process, and instead design reconstruction methods...

  14. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Jeffrey; Bedi, Asheesh; Altchek, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common surgical procedures, with more than 200,000 ACL tears occurring annually. Although primary ACL reconstruction is a successful operation, success rates still range from 75% to 97%. Consequently, several thousand revision ACL reconstructions are performed annually and are unfortunately associated with inferior clinical outcomes when compared with primary reconstructions. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database (1988-2013) as well as from textbook chapters and surgical technique papers. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The clinical outcomes after revision ACL reconstruction are largely based on level IV case series. Much of the existing literature is heterogenous with regard to patient populations, primary and revision surgical techniques, concomitant ligamentous injuries, and additional procedures performed at the time of the revision, which limits generalizability. Nevertheless, there is a general consensus that the outcomes for revision ACL reconstruction are inferior to primary reconstruction. Conclusion: Excellent results can be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability but are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction. A staged approach with autograft reconstruction is recommended in any circumstance in which a single-stage approach results in suboptimal graft selection, tunnel position, graft fixation, or biological milieu for tendon-bone healing. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): Good results may still be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability, but results are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction: Level B. PMID:25364483

  15. Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrafast Dynamics of Chemical Reactions in Condensed Phase: Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond. Dipak K. Palit Radaition & Photochemistry Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Mumbai 400 085, India.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction in electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grano, D.A.

    1979-05-01

    The development and implementation of a versatile system of image processing programs for electron microscopy is described. Both high-dose, negatively stained specimens and low-dose, unstained specimens can be analyzed by this system. The theory behind image analysis in electron microscopy is described together with the practical aspects of computer processing of electron micrographs. The Fourier transform of cylindrically symmetric objects is studied in some detail. The range of structural deductions that may be made from the Fourier transforms of projections of such objects is discussed. The methods of 2-D image filtering are applied to high-dose images of negatively stained gap junction membranes and to frozen, hydrated, low-dose images of the hexagonally packed protein component of Spirillum serpens cell wall. The computer processed Spirillum specimen reveals the presence of Y-linkers similar to those seen in negatively stained preparations. Computer processing of the gap junction images makes the presence of a central staining pit more obvious. The techniques of 3-D helical reconstruction are applied to high-dose images of negatively stained T4 bacteriophage tails, to demonstrate the successful transfer of the IBM-based MRC helical reconstruction programs to our Control Data corporation computer system. Finally, the tubular structures found in preparations of Spirillum serpens cell wall are analyzed by Fourier methods.

  17. Review of methods used in the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the maxillofacial region.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Fearraigh, Pádraig

    2010-04-23

    Maxillofacial and dental defects often have detrimental effects on patient health and appearance. A holistic approach of restoring lost dentition along with bone and soft tissue is now the standard treatment of these defects. Recent improvements in reconstructive techniques, especially osseointegration, microvascular free tissue transfer, and improvements in bone engineering, have yielded excellent functional and aesthetic outcomes. This article reviews the literature on these modern reconstructive and rehabilitation techniques.

  18. Evidence-Based ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carlos RODRIGUEZ-MERCHAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the literature regarding a number of topics related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACLreconstruction. The purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: 1 Bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB reconstruction or hamstring reconstruction (HR; 2 Double bundle or single bundle; 3 Allograft or authograft; 4 Early or late reconstruction; 5 Rate of return to sports after ACL reconstruction; 6 Rate of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE search of systematic reviews and meta-analysis related to ACL reconstruction was performed. The key words were: ACL reconstruction, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The main criteria for selection were that the articles were systematic reviews and meta-analysesfocused on the aforementioned questions. Sixty-nine articles were found, but only 26 were selected and reviewed because they had a high grade (I-II of evidence. BPTB-R was associated with better postoperative knee stability but with a higher rate of morbidity. However, the results of both procedures in terms of functional outcome in the long-term were similar. The double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique showed better outcomes in rotational laxity, although functional recovery was similar between single-bundle and double-bundle. Autograft yielded better results than allograft. There was no difference between early and delayed reconstruction. 82% of patients were able to return to some kind of sport participation. 28% of patients presented radiological signs of osteoarthritis with a follow-up of minimum 10 years.

  19. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  20. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  1. Scriptaid Treatment Decreases DNA Methyltransferase 1 Expression by Induction of MicroRNA-152 Expression in Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liang

    Full Text Available Abnormal epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is thought to be the main cause of low cloning efficiencies. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated a positive role of Scriptaid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi that belongs to an existing class of hydroxamic acid-containing HDACis, on the development competence of cloned embryos in many species. The present study investigated the effects of Scriptaid on the development of porcine SCNT embryos in vitro and its mechanism. Treatment with 300 or 500 nM Scriptaid for 20 h after activation significantly increased the percentage of SCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and the total number of cells per blastocyst and significantly decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. Scriptaid treatment significantly increased the level of histone H3 acetylated at K9 and the conversion of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and significantly decreased the level of histone H3 trimethylated at K9 at the pronuclear stage. As a potential mechanism for the DNA methylation changes, our results showed that the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 was frequently down-regulated in Scriptaid-treated embryos in comparison with untreated embryos and was inversely correlated to endogenous microRNA-152 (miR-152. Taken together, these findings illustrated a crucial functional crosstalk between miR-152 and DNMT1. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein levels of POU5F1 and CDX2 were increased in Scriptaid-treated embryos. mRNA levels of Caspase3, and Bax were significantly decreased and that of Bcl-xL was significantly increased in Scriptaid-treated embryos. In conclusion, these observations would contribute to uncover the nuclear reprogramming mechanisms underlying the effects of Scriptaid on the improvement of porcine SCNT embryos.

  2. Expression profile of genes as indicators of developmental competence and quality of in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cánepa

    Full Text Available Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit β5, PSMB5 and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3 in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART.

  3. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  4. Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne T. S. Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction is becoming an increasingly common urinary diversion following cystectomy for bladder cancer. This is in recognition of the potential benefits of neobladder surgery over creation of an ileal conduit related to quality of life (QoL, such as avoiding the need to form a stoma with its cosmetic, psychological and other potential complications. The PubMed database was searched using relevant search terms for articles published electronically between January 1994 and April 2014. Full-text articles in English or with English translation were assessed for relevance to the topic before being included in the review. Patients with neobladders have comparable or better post-operative sexual function than those with ileal conduits. They also have comparable QoL to those with ileal conduits. Orthotopic neobladder is a good alternative to ileal conduit in suitable patients who do not want a stoma and are motivated to comply with neobladder training. However, the selection of a neobladder as the urinary diversion of choice requires that patients have good renal and liver functions and are likely to be compliant with neobladder training. With benefits also come potential risks of neobladder formation. These include electrolyte abnormalities and nocturnal incontinence. This short review highlights current aspects of neobladder formation and its potential advantages.

  5. Reconstructing human evolution

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074069

    1999-01-01

    One can reconstruct human evolution using modern genetic data and models based on the mathematical theory of evolution and its four major factors : mutation, natural selection, statistical fluctuations in finite populations (random genetic drift), and migration. Archaeology gives some help on the major dates and events of the process. Chances of studying ancient DNA are very limited but there have been a few successful results. Studying DNA instead of proteins, as was done until a few years ago, and in particular the DNA of mitochondria and of the Y chromosome which are transmitted, respectively, by the maternal line and the paternal line, has greatly simplified the analysis. It is now possible to carry the analysis on individuals, while earlier studies were of necessity based on populations. Also the evolution of ÒcultureÓ (i.e. what we learn from others), in particular that of languages, gives some help and can be greatly enlightened by genetic studies. Even though it is largely based on mechanisms of mut...

  6. History of reconstructive rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Isabella C; Mazzola, Riccardo F

    2014-06-01

    Amputation of the nose was practiced as a sign of humiliation to adulterers, thieves, and prisoners of war by certain ancient populations. To erase this disfigurement, numerous techniques were invented over the centuries. In India, where this injury was common, advancement cheek flaps were performed (around 600 BC). The forehead flap was introduced much later, probably around the 16th century. The Venetian adventurer Manuzzi, in writing a report about the Mughal Empire in the second half of the 17th century gave the description of the forehead rhinoplasty. Detailed information concerning the Indian forehead flap reached the Western world in 1794, thanks to a letter to the editor that appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine. From this episode, one can date the beginning of a widespread interest in rhinoplasty and in plastic surgery in general. In Europe, nasal reconstruction started in the 15th century in Sicily with the Brancas, initially with cheek flaps and then with arm flaps. At the beginning of the 16th century, rhinoplasty developed in Calabria (Southern Italy) with the Vianeos. In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi, Professor of Surgery at Bologna, improved the arm flap technique and published a book entirely devoted to this art. He is considered the founder of plastic surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Assessing value in breast reconstruction: A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheckter, Clifford C; Matros, Evan; Momeni, Arash

    2018-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons and is achieved through various choices in both technology and method. Cost-effectiveness analyses are increasingly important in assessing differences in value between treatment options, which is relevant in a world of confined resources. A thorough evaluation of the cost-effectiveness literature can assist surgeons and health systems evaluate high-value care models. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry was conducted. Two reviewers independently evaluated all publications up until August 17, 2017. After removal of duplicates, 1996 records were screened, from which 53 studies underwent full text review. All the 13 studies included for final analysis mention an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Five studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of technologies including acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in staged prosthetic reconstruction, ADM in direct-to-implant (DTI) reconstruction, preoperative computed tomography angiography in autologous reconstruction, indocyanine green dye angiography in evaluating anastomotic patency, and abdominal mesh reinforcement in abdominal tissue transfer. The remaining eight studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different reconstruction methods. Cost-effective strategies included free vs. pedicled abdominal tissue transfer, DTI vs. staged prosthetic reconstruction, and fascia-sparing variants of free abdominal tissue transfer. Current evidence demonstrates multiple cost-effective technologies and methods in accomplishing successful breast reconstruction. Plastic surgeons should be well informed of such economic models when engaging payers and policymakers in discussions regarding high-value breast reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Impact on quality of life with breast reconstructive surgery after mastectomy for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Ochoa, José Luis; Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Said-Lemus, Francisco Miguel; Dominguez-Reyes, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Hernández, Betsabé; Villegas-Carlos, Felipe; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer treatment leads mutilation and destruction of breast shape, with negative effects on body image and self-esteem. Assessment on quality of life after breast reconstruction surgery, impact on sexuality, the cosmetic outcome experienced by the patient, and compare result with patients who refused breast reconstruction. Retrospective, observational, descriptive, analytic study. We included breast cancer patients treated between April 15 2010 to April 15, 2011. Application of "The Survey Questionnaire short form Health 36" (SF-36) with valid use on Mexican population was conducted to measure quality of life, which uses 8 concepts: physical functioning, physical role, body pain, general health, vitality, social function, emotional role and mental health, the results are transferred to a scale 0 (worst health) to 100 (best health). 37 patients whit breast reconstruction had the inclusion criteria, mean age was 48.4 years. The score of SF-36 questionnaire in reconstructed patients was 76.8, in control group was 85.19 and mastectomy patients without reconstruction was 72.6. Among the items studied those with the greatest difference was the mental health, emotional role and social function, this means that patients with breast reconstruction are less affected in their social and sexual interaction. The reconstructed patients have a positive impact on quality of life slightly higher, sexuality is significantly worse in patients without breast reconstruction, it is important to inform and offer breast reconstruction because many do not require these procedures for fear or lack of information.

  9. Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.

  10. Reconstruction tomography from incomplete projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    In some instances, reconstruction radionuclide tomography must be carried out from projections that do not include projection values for all portions of the object to be reconstructed. This may occur, for example, when the field of view of the detector is limited, or when an opaque foreign body is present within the object. The effects of such incomplete projections upon reconstructions of computer-simulated phantoms were studied, using iterative and convolution methods. Several methods for reducing the resulting artifacts and inaccuracies are discussed

  11. Piglets produced by transfer of vitrified porcine embryos after stepwise dilution of cryoprotectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Takei, M; Kano, M; Tomita, M; Leibo, S P

    1998-02-01

    A total of 498 porcine embryos at various stages of development collected from superovulated gilts was used to investigate cryopreservation. First, blastocysts (BL), expanded blastocysts (ExB), and hatched blastocysts (HB) were used to determine the effect of exposure to concentrated solutions of ethylene glycol as cryoprotective additives (CPAs) on embryo survival. Then, survival of other embryos after vitrification by rapid cooling was determined. Based on their development after 48 h in culture, embryos were not injured by being exposed to 2.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) for 15 min or to 2.0 M EG for 5 min and then to a solution of 8.0 M EG in 7% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) for 1 min. The CPAs were removed from the embryos by diluting them with 1.7 M galactose. To vitrify the embryos, they were exposed to 2.0 M EG for 5 min and then were pipetted directly into short columns of 8.0 M EG-PVP contained within (1.25-ml plastic straws and separated from long columns of 1.7 M galactose by an air bubble. The straws were plunged directly into LN2. After the straws were warmed rapidly in a 25 degrees C water bath, the embryos were immediately mixed with galactose within the straws by shaking them vigorously to mix the contents. In sequential experiments, three methods were used to dilute the CPA solutions. Method 1: Embryos in the EG-PVP-galactose mixture were expelled from the straws and rinsed and cultured in modified CZB medium (mCZB). Method II: Embryos in the mixture were placed briefly into 1.5 M EG and then rinsed and cultured in mCZB. Method III: Embryos in the mixture were rinsed in 1.0 M EG and then in 0.5 M EG and finally rinsed with mCZB and cultured. After 48 h in culture, the respective percentages of survival of embryos vitrified as BL, ExB, or HB were: Method I, 21, 32, and 13%; Method II, 9, 40, and 24%; Method III, 35, 85, and 71%. Of 20 additional ExB vitrified embryos diluted by Method III and transferred into a recipient, four developed into live piglets

  12. Image quality transfer and applications in diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Daniel C.; Zikic, Darko; Ghosh, Aurobrata

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new computational imaging technique called image quality transfer (IQT). IQT uses machine learning to transfer the rich information available from one-off experimental medical imaging devices to the abundant but lower-quality data from routine acquisitions. The procedure u......, highlighting IQT's benefits even when the training set does not directly represent the application domain. The concept extends naturally to many other imaging modalities and reconstruction problems....

  13. T-shaped Pectoralis Major Musculocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction of an Extensive Circumferential Pharyngeal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei Miyamoto, MD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In the era of free-flap transfer, the pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap still plays a unique role in head and neck reconstruction. We report on a patient with a recurrent hypopharyngeal carcinoma after total pharyngolaryngectomy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in whom defects included a circumferential defect of the oropharynx and the entire tongue. The defects were successfully reconstructed with a T-shaped pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap whose skin island included multiple intercostal perforators from the internal mammary vessels. This flap design is effective for reconstructing circumferential pharyngeal defects in vessel-depleted neck.

  14. Tissue Engineering in Vesical Reconstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt. ABSTRACT. Objectives: This review summarizes the basic principles of tissue engineering (TE) and describes the possible future clinical application in bladder reconstruction. Material and Methods: This review ...

  15. Breast Reconstruction with Flap Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid the need for using a form (external prosthesis) inside your bra What breast reconstruction might do: Improve your self-esteem and body image Partially erase the physical reminders of your ...

  16. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

  17. VP Simulation and Track Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, T; Callot, O; Coco, V; Collins, P; Evans, T; Head, T; Hennessy, K; Hulsbergen, W; Hynds, D; Jalocha, P; John, M; Ketel, T; Kucharczyk, M; Martinez-Santos, D; Qian, W; Rinnert, K; Schindler, H; Skwarnicki, T; Snoek, H; Tsopelas, P; Vieira, D

    2013-01-01

    This note provides a comprehensive overview of the material description, event model, and the digitisation and track reconstruction algorithms used for simulating the upgraded pixel-based Vertex Locator.

  18. Petz recovery versus matrix reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzäpfel, Milan; Cramer, Marcus; Datta, Nilanjana; Plenio, Martin B.

    2018-04-01

    The reconstruction of the state of a multipartite quantum mechanical system represents a fundamental task in quantum information science. At its most basic, it concerns a state of a bipartite quantum system whose subsystems are subjected to local operations. We compare two different methods for obtaining the original state from the state resulting from the action of these operations. The first method involves quantum operations called Petz recovery maps, acting locally on the two subsystems. The second method is called matrix (or state) reconstruction and involves local, linear maps that are not necessarily completely positive. Moreover, we compare the quantities on which the maps employed in the two methods depend. We show that any state that admits Petz recovery also admits state reconstruction. However, the latter is successful for a strictly larger set of states. We also compare these methods in the context of a finite spin chain. Here, the state of a finite spin chain is reconstructed from the reduced states of a few neighbouring spins. In this setting, state reconstruction is the same as the matrix product operator reconstruction proposed by Baumgratz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 020401 (2013)]. Finally, we generalize both these methods so that they employ long-range measurements instead of relying solely on short-range correlations embodied in such local reduced states. Long-range measurements enable the reconstruction of states which cannot be reconstructed from measurements of local few-body observables alone and hereby we improve existing methods for quantum state tomography of quantum many-body systems.

  19. Equilibrium Reconstruction in EAST Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jinping; Wan Baonian; Shen Biao; Sun Youwen; Liu Dongmei; Xiao Bingjia; Ren Qilong; Gong Xianzu; Li Jiangang; Lao, L. L.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstruction of experimental axisymmetric equilibria is an important part of tokamak data analysis. Fourier expansion is applied to reconstruct the vessel current distribution in EFIT code. Benchmarking and testing calculations are performed to evaluate and validate this algorithm. Two cases for circular and non-circular plasma discharges are presented. Fourier expansion used to fit the eddy current is a robust method and the real time EFIT can be introduced to the plasma control system in the coming campaign. (magnetically confined plasma)

  20. Umbilicus reconstruction after melanoma excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Costa-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old woman was admitted with a nodular cutaneous melanoma of the abdominal wall involving the umbilicus. After performing wide excision with 2 cm margin of the melanoma, umbilical reconstruction and defect closure were planned. After careful consideration, we decided to use an island pedicle flap which allowed closure of the defect and reconstruction of the umbilicus.

  1. Costal Grafting in Mandibular Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Jean-Thomas; Bourlet, Jerôme; Château, Joseph; Jacquemart, Mathieu; Dufour, Clémence; Mojallal, Ali; Gleizal, Arnaud

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of mandibular bone defect is a common indication in craniomaxillofacial surgery, and free fibular flap is the gold standard for this indication. However, there are alternatives; nonvascular bone grafting is one of them, and we present the costal grafting for mandibular reconstruction, a classic technique that is reliable, efficient, and produced less morbidity than the technique of using composite free flaps. A 9-year retrospective review of 54 patients treated surgically for mandibular reconstruction was performed. The criterion mainly analyzed was graft survival. The surgical technique was described in detail. A total of 54 patients with mandibular bone defect were identified. Five symphysis, 46 corpus, and 20 ramus defects were considered. These patients underwent reconstruction by costal grafting, and the engrafting was successful in 92.6% of cases. Dental rehabilitation with dental implants was realized in 70% of cases. The approach described in this article allowed the authors to obtain good results with costal grafting for mandibular reconstruction and dental rehabilitation. Costal grafting is a good alternative for fibula free flap in specific indications. Reconstruction of mandibular bone defect is a common indication in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Since the 1980s, the gold standard for these defects is the use of free fibular flap.(1) In some cases, this technique is contradicted; the surgeon then has several possibilities for the use of free osteomyocutaneous flaps (iliac crest, scapula, and serrato-costal flaps).(2-8).

  2. Technical basis for dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied

  3. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also p...

  4. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  5. Facial rejuvenation: Serial fat graft transfer | Saad Ibrahiem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autologous fat transfer is a century-old method for both aesthetic and reconstructive purposes. It is considered by many plastic surgeons the ideal body filler. The only disadvantage is its variable degree of resorption, which ranged from 45% to 80%. Various groups have studied the effects of cryo-preservation for fat storage, ...

  6. Secondary shoulder reconstruction in patients with brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Barmpitsioti, Antonia

    2011-07-01

    Restoration of shoulder stability in post-traumatic plexopathy patients is very important because more distal functions depend on a stable and functioning shoulder. The purpose of this study is to present our experience with secondary surgeries in patients with devastating paralysis. Functional outcomes were analyzed in relation to age, severity score and type of reconstruction. The medical records of 55 post-traumatic plexopathy patients who underwent secondary shoulder reconstruction, by a single surgeon, between 1978 and 2006, were reviewed. 55 patients had 73 procedures, 44 for shoulder abduction and 29 for external rotation. 38 patients underwent secondary surgery to augment shoulder abduction. Trapezius advancement was performed in 14 patients, double free muscle transfer in 18, free latissimus dorsi in 4 and triceps muscle transfer in 2 patients. 26 patients had secondary procedures for enhancement of shoulder external rotation. Dynamic rerouting of latissimus dorsi and teres major was carried out in 18 patients and rotational humerus osteotomy in 11 patients. All patients had improvement of shoulder stability and function. Shoulder abduction reached 40.80 ± 15.93 and external rotation at 24.28 ± 17.90°. Trapezius advancement yielded 41.81 ± 9.02° of abduction. Latissimus dorsi yielded stronger shoulder abduction than adductor longus. Rerouting of latissimus dorsi and teres major attained 22.33 ± 20.31° of dynamic external rotation while humerus osteotomy produced 26.87 ± 10.32 of external rotation. Secondary procedures such as pedicle and free muscles transfers, tendon transfers, and rotational humerus osteotomy augment shoulder stability and function in patients with irreparable paralysis. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effective Bayesian Transfer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Classes: cougar, car, butterfly, rooster, bass, buddha •!Transferred knowledge: •!Keypoints (landmarks) that define the shape •!Location of...keypoints TL5 Raw Curves for Buddha Class Cartoons to real images Transfer No Transfer 27 TL5 Raw Curves for all classes Cartoons to real images...bass buddha butterfly car cougar rooster TL5 Average Curve for Butterfly class Cartoons to real images Transfer No Transfer TL5 Average Curves for

  8. A model, and the fidelity of climate reconstructions from speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. J.; Treble, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    The use of multiple tracers to provide quantitative estimates of environment variables is well-known from other paleoclimate archives eg. in corals Mg, Sr, 13C and 18O are used jointly to separate and provide quantitative estimates for variables such as SST, salinity and precipitation amount. From speleothems, however, high-resolution quantitative climate reconstructions over the last millennia are still rare. There is no well-established theory on how to use multiple proxies to separate distinct environmental signals (precipitation, temperature, water balance), and it is not understood how the joint stochastic properties of climate variables- for a range of climate conditions- affect the fidelity of specific climate variable reconstructions from speleothems. In this presentation, a preliminary model of an environment+speleothem system is introduced, and investigated using modern statistical techniques. A soil+hydrology model is forced using gridded observed climate data (with a high spatial and temporal resolution) for Australia for the last century. Precipitation isotopes are reconstructed for the pre-1960 period using climate-isotope transfer functions. Soil carbon isotope variation is reconstructed using a recent hydrobiotic parameterisation. A speleothem is simulated using a growth rate model, and trace elements (Ba, Mg) are simulated based on growth-rate plus hydrological effects. All these parameterisations are linked together to form a speleothem multi-proxy model, that is forced by real climate data. Using the statistical method of canonical correlations with a split validation scheme, we show how climate signal reconstruction, and its fidelity, differs under different regional climates in Australia. This model provides a tool for understanding the science of regional climate reconstructions from speleothems over the last few millennia.

  9. Reconstruction of nasal tip and columella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Callum; Vuyk, Hade D

    2011-02-01

    Reconstruction of nasal tip and columella defects is demanding area with a range of reconstructive options, varying in complexity depending on requirements from simple skin grafting to multiple stage reconstruction with regional flaps. A framework is suggested to aid the reader in choice of reconstruction by classifying the defect based on size and the requirements of one to three layer (full thickness) reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stepwise in-straw dilution and direct transfer using open pulled straws (OPS) in the mouse: a potential model for field manipulation of vitrified embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi-En; Hou, Yun-Peng; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Yang, Zhong-Qiang; Zhu, Shi-En

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, mouse blastocysts were employed to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of stepwise in-straw dilution and direct transfer using the open pulled straw (OPS) method. In experiment I, the effects of various vitrification solutions (VS) on embryo survival were examined. After thawing, the expanded blastocyst rates (97.59 and 95.05%) and hatching rates (80.48 and 78.95%) achieved in the EDFS30 [15% ethylene glycol (EG), 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Ficoll, and sucrose] and EFS40 [40% EG, Ficoll, and sucrose] groups were no different from those (96.15% and 83.33%) of the control group. However, the rates in the EFS30 [30% EG, Ficoll, and sucrose] (87.80 and 55.43%) and EDFS40 [20% EG, 20% DMSO, Ficoll, and sucrose] (95.69 and 70.97%) groups were significantly lower than those (96.15 and 83.33%) of the control group (Pcontrol groups. The embryos could be successfully thawed by immersing the OPS in 0.5 M sucrose for 3 min and then 0.25 M sucrose for 2 min. In experiment III, the effect of immersion time of the OPS in diluent (PBS) on the viability of vitrified embryos was investigated. After in-straw thawing, OPSs were immersed immediately in 1 ml PBS for 0 to 30 min. When the immersion time of the OPSs in PBS was less than 12 min, in vitro development of the in-straw thawed embryos was no different from that of the controls. In experiment IV, in-straw thawed blastocysts were directly transferred to pseudopregnant mice to examine their in vivo developmental viability. The pregnancy (91.67%) and birth rates (42.42%) of embryos in-straw thawed and directly transferred were no different from those of the unvitrified controls (90.90 and 40%) and embryos thawed by the conventional method (84.61 and 46.94%). These results demonstrate that mouse embryos vitrified with OPS could be successfully thawed by stepwise in-straw dilution and transferred directly to a recipient and that this method might be a model for field manipulation of vitrified embryos

  11. Head and neck reconstruction with pedicled flaps in the free flap era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, R; Colletti, G; Bonomo, P; Parrinello, G; Iavarone, A; Dolivet, G; Livi, L; Deganello, A

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, the transposition of microvascular free flaps is the most popular method for management of head and neck defects. However, not all patients are suitable candidates for free flap reconstruction. In addition, not every defect requires a free flap transfer to achieve good functional results. The aim of this study was to assess whether pedicled flap reconstruction of head and neck defects is inferior to microvascular free flap reconstruction in terms of complications, functionality and prognosis. The records of consecutive patients who underwent free flap or pedicled flap reconstruction after head and neck cancer ablation from 2006 to 2015, from a single surgeon, in the AOUC Hospital, Florence Italy were analysed. A total of 93 patients, the majority with oral cancer (n = 59), were included, of which 64 were pedicled flap reconstructions (69%). The results showed no significant differences in terms of functional outcome, flap necrosis and complications in each type of reconstruction. Multivariate regression analysis of flap necrosis and functional impairments showed no associated factors. Multivariate regression analysis of complicated flap healing showed that only comorbidities remained an explaining factor (p = 0.019). Survival analysis and proportional hazard regression analysis regarding cancer relapse or distant metastasis, showed no significant differences in prognosis of patients concerning both types of reconstruction. In this retrospective, non-randomised study cohort, pedicled flaps were not significantly inferior to free flaps for reconstruction of head and neck defects, considering functionality, complications and prognosis. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  12. A Maximum Parsimony Model to Reconstruct Phylogenetic Network in Honey Bee Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Usha Chouhan; K. R. Pardasani

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenies ; The evolutionary histories of groups of species are one of the most widely used tools throughout the life sciences, as well as objects of research with in systematic, evolutionary biology. In every phylogenetic analysis reconstruction produces trees. These trees represent the evolutionary histories of many groups of organisms, bacteria due to horizontal gene transfer and plants due to process of hybridization. The process of gene transfer in bacteria and hyb...

  13. [Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using a computer-assisted techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X

    2017-02-18

    The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate

  14. DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohammed; Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the terms "DIEP", "deep inferior epigastric", "TRAM", "transverse rectus abdominis", "perforator" and "laparotomy", "abdominal wall", "liposuction", "liposculpture", "fat graft", "pfannenstiel", with subsequent appraisal of relevant papers by the first and second authors. Patient 1 had 3 episodes of liposuction from the abdomen for fat grafting to a reconstructed breast. Subsequent revision reconstruction of the same breast with DIEP flap was preceded by CT angiography, which demonstrated normal perforator anatomy. The reconstruction healed well with no ischaemic complications. Patient 2 had 5 liposuction procedures from the abdomen to graft fat to a wide local excision defect. Recurrence of cancer led to mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with free DIEP flap. Preoperative MR angiography demonstrated a large perforator right of the umbilicus, with which the intraoperative findings were consistent. The patient had an uneventful recovery and good healing with no fat necrosis or wound dehiscence. We demonstrate that DIEP flaps can safely be raised without perfusion-related complications following multiple liposuction procedures to the abdomen. The safe interval between procedures is difficult to quantify, but we demonstrate successful free flap after 16 months.

  15. Spectrotemporal CT data acquisition and reconstruction at low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Darin P.; Badea, Cristian T., E-mail: cristian.badea@duke.edu [Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Lee, Chang-Lung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: X-ray computed tomography (CT) is widely used, both clinically and preclinically, for fast, high-resolution anatomic imaging; however, compelling opportunities exist to expand its use in functional imaging applications. For instance, spectral information combined with nanoparticle contrast agents enables quantification of tissue perfusion levels, while temporal information details cardiac and respiratory dynamics. The authors propose and demonstrate a projection acquisition and reconstruction strategy for 5D CT (3D + dual energy + time) which recovers spectral and temporal information without substantially increasing radiation dose or sampling time relative to anatomic imaging protocols. Methods: The authors approach the 5D reconstruction problem within the framework of low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. Unlike previous work on rank-sparsity constrained CT reconstruction, the authors establish an explicit rank-sparse signal model to describe the spectral and temporal dimensions. The spectral dimension is represented as a well-sampled time and energy averaged image plus regularly undersampled principal components describing the spectral contrast. The temporal dimension is represented as the same time and energy averaged reconstruction plus contiguous, spatially sparse, and irregularly sampled temporal contrast images. Using a nonlinear, image domain filtration approach, the authors refer to as rank-sparse kernel regression, the authors transfer image structure from the well-sampled time and energy averaged reconstruction to the spectral and temporal contrast images. This regularization strategy strictly constrains the reconstruction problem while approximately separating the temporal and spectral dimensions. Separability results in a highly compressed representation for the 5D data in which projections are shared between the temporal and spectral reconstruction subproblems, enabling substantial undersampling. The authors solved the 5D reconstruction

  16. Immediate breast reconstruction with a myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap and implant following skin-sparing salvage mastectomy after irradiation as part of breast-conserving therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huizum, Martine A.; Hage, J. Joris; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Hoornweg, Marije J.

    2016-01-01

    Local relapse after breast-conserving therapy including whole breast irradiation is typically treated by salvage mastectomy. Immediate reconstruction by pedicled transfer of a latissimus dorsi flap in combination with implantation of a definitive prosthesis or temporary tissue expander following

  17. Reconstructing a general inflationary action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Geshnizjani, Ghazal

    2008-01-01

    If inflation is to be considered in an unbiased way, as possibly originating from one of a wide range of underlying theories, then observations need not be simply applied to reconstructing the inflaton potential V(φ) or a specific kinetic term, as in Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation, but rather to reconstruct the inflationary action in its entirety. We discuss the constraints that can be placed on a general single field action from measurements of the primordial scalar and tensor fluctuation power spectra and non-Gaussianities. The analytic form of the action that is consistent with data turns out to be surprisingly simple and easy to categorize. We also present the flow equation formalism for reconstructing a general inflationary Lagrangian L(X,φ), with X=(1/2)∂ μ φ∂ μ φ, in a general gauge, that reduces to canonical and DBI inflation in the specific gauge L X =c s -1 .

  18. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie H. Fu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Current Concepts in ACL Reconstruction is a complete reference text composed of the most thorough collection of topics on the ACL and its surgical reconstruction compiled, with contributions from some of the world's experts and most experienced ACL surgeons. Various procedures mentioned throughout the text are also demonstrated in an accompanying video CD-ROM. PURPOSE Composing a single, comprehensive and complete information source on ACL including basic sciences, clinical issues, latest concepts and surgical techniques, from evaluation to outcome, from history to future, editors and contributors have targeted to keep the audience pace with the latest concepts and techniques for the evaluation and the treatment of ACL injuries. FEATURES The text is composed of 27 chapters in 6 sections. The first section is mostly about basic sciences, also history of the ACL, imaging, clinical approach to adolescent and pediatric patients are subjected. In the second section, Graft Choices and Arthroscopy Portals for ACL Reconstruction are mentioned. The third section is about the technique and the outcome of the single-bundle ACL reconstruction. The fourth chapter includes the techniques and outcome of the double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In the fifth chapter revision, navigation technology, rehabilitation and the evaluation of the outcome of ACL reconstruction is subjected. The sixth/the last chapter is about the future advances to reach: What We Have Learned and the Future of ACL Reconstruction. AUDIENCE Orthopedic residents, sports traumatology and knee surgery fellows, orthopedic surgeons, also scientists in basic sciences or clinicians who are studying or planning a research on ACL forms the audience group of this book. ASSESSMENT This is the latest, the most complete and comprehensive textbook of ACL reconstruction produced by the editorial work up of two pioneer and masters "Freddie H. Fu MD and Steven B. Cohen MD" with the contribution of world

  19. Endoscope-assisted breast reconstruction. 1. Immediate breast reconstruction after lateral quadrantectomy with endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi muscle flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Takamitsu; Kurihara, Kazunao; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kim, Shiei; Wakamatsu, Shingo.

    1996-01-01

    Breast conserving therapy (BCT) now is widely accepted in Japan. Quadrantectomy has been chosen from among the several available breast conserving operations for its minimal recurrence rate. Quadrantectomy, or excision of one-quarter volume of the breast, leaves a moderate degree of deformity which diminishes the quality of life. The authors have introduced immediate post-ectomy breast reconstruction utilizing an endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle flap which results in a minimal donor site scar. Five cases of endoscope-assisted LD muscle reconstruction of a quadrantectomized breast have been followed by irradiation therapy. Prior to reconstruction, with the patient in the supine position, quadrantectomy and dissection of axillary lymphnodes are performed through an incision extending from the anterior axillary to the inflamammary line. The patient then is placed in the lateral supine position. LD muscle flap dissection by electrocautery begins through the initial incision. Dissections of posterior portions of the muscle continue, under endoscopic visualization, through one or two ports along the anterior margin of the muscle. Moderate amount of adipose tissue is left attached to the muscle to obtain full augmentation. The raised flap then is transferred and secured to the post-quandrantectomy defect. Some post-irradiation shrinkage of the inserted LD muscle has been a common occurrence of breast reconstruction. An ample amount of adipose tissue left attached to the muscle margin will solve this matter since fatty tissue is more resistant to post-irradiation atrophy. (J.P.N.)

  20. Shape reconstruction from gradient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Svenja; Kaminski, Jürgen; Knauer, Markus C; Häusler, Gerd

    2008-04-20

    We present a generalized method for reconstructing the shape of an object from measured gradient data. A certain class of optical sensors does not measure the shape of an object but rather its local slope. These sensors display several advantages, including high information efficiency, sensitivity, and robustness. For many applications, however, it is necessary to acquire the shape, which must be calculated from the slopes by numerical integration. Existing integration techniques show drawbacks that render them unusable in many cases. Our method is based on an approximation employing radial basis functions. It can be applied to irregularly sampled, noisy, and incomplete data, and it reconstructs surfaces both locally and globally with high accuracy.

  1. Rational Reconstructions of Modern Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of modern physics, such as the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of relativity as well as quantum mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results.

  2. Internal Mammary Vessels: Alternate Recipient Vessels in Microvascular Head and Neck Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Paul M; Wax, Mark K; Petrisor, Daniel I

    2016-09-01

    The application of microvascular free tissue transfer for reconstruction of the head and neck is well established. Improved outcomes, as well as surgical and technologic advances, have broadened the applications of microvascular free flaps in these defects. Postoperative complications such as pharyngocutaneous fistulas, tracheal or esophageal stenoses, or recurrent pathology may occasionally require secondary or even tertiary reconstruction with free tissue transfers. The disrupted anatomy and fibrotic changes resulting from primary reconstruction, neck dissection, and irradiation present the surgeon with a high risk of provoking vascular or nervous injury when dissecting in previously operated or irradiated sites. This prompts a search for alternative recipient vessels for microvascular anastomosis. The transverse cervical, inferior thyroid, and thyrocervical trunk arteries have all been proposed as alternative recipient vessels. The internal mammary vessels (IMVs) have a proven record in breast reconstruction, but recently have been found to have an application in special circumstances in head and neck reconstruction. This investigation describes the advantages of the IMVs as suitable recipient vessels for head and neck reconstruction when access to traditional vasculature is unavailable. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  4. Soil life in reconstructed ecosystems: initial soil food web responses after rebuilding a forest soil profile for a climate change experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul T. Rygiewicz; Vicente J. Monleon; Elaine R. Ingham; Kendall J. Martin; Mark G. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Disrupting ecosystem components, while transferring and reconstructing them for experiments can produce myriad responses. Establishing the extent of these biological responses as the system approaches a new equilibrium allows us more reliably to emulate comparable native systems. That is, the sensitivity of analyzing ecosystem processes in a reconstructed system is...

  5. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J; Maidment, Andrew D A

    2013-11-01

    In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes. In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., "pitches") relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system. Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest detectable frequency on pitch

  6. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  7. Head and neck reconstruction with pedicled flaps in the free flap era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahieu, R.; Colletti, G.; Bonomo, P.; Parrinello, G.; Iavarone, A.; Dolivet, G.; Livi, L.; Deganello, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the transposition of microvascular free flaps is the most popular method for management of head and neck defects. However, not all patients are suitable candidates for free flap reconstruction. In addition, not every defect requires a free flap transfer to achieve good functional results.

  8. Assessment of ipsilateral versus contralateral proximal fibula for use in distal radius osteoarticular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Oluwaseun; Shamash, Steven; Strauch, Robert J

    2011-12-01

    Which fibula to harvest for distal radius reconstruction, ipsilateral or contralateral, is subject to debate. In this study, we investigated which proximal fibula is better suited for distal radius osteoarticular reconstruction based on radiographic parameters. Twenty-one proximal fibulas were harvested from adult cadavers. Radiographic fibular inclination angle (coronal plane) and radiographic fibular articular tilt (sagittal plane) were measured, and these parameters were compared with corresponding radius parameters. Mean radiographic fibular inclination angles were 25° (right) and 26° (left), and mean radiographic fibular articular tilts were 13° (right) and 13° (left). The native volar tilt of the radius is re-created when the ipsilateral proximal fibula (with proper styloid placement) is transferred to the ipsilateral wrist; conversely, a dorsal tilt is created when the contralateral proximal fibula is transferred. The ipsilateral proximal fibula is therefore a better radiographic match for distal radius osteoarticular reconstruction in the group we studied.

  9. Free vascularized fibula grafts for salvage of failed oncologic long bone reconstruction and pathologic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Moran, Stephen L; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2009-01-01

    Vascularized bone grafts, particularly the free fibula transfer, have incited revolutionary changes in the field of skeletal reconstruction. In no place has this been more evident than in oncologic reconstruction. The free vascularized fibula graft has been used to good effect for primary long-bone reconstruction, long-bone allograft complication salvage, and pathologic fracture salvage of the long bones. Although many of these procedures often entail significant complications, limb salvage has been made possible in a majority of patients using transfers of free vascularized fibula grafts. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the technique of onlay free vascularized fibula grafts for salvage of allograft complications and pathologic fractures of the long bones. This will be accomplished by reviewing the problem of allograft complications and pathologic fractures, the current treatment modalities available, the outcomes of these treatments, and future directions of treatment for this particular problem.

  10. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    SUNDÉN, B

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  11. Poethical: Breaking Ground for Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krojer, Jo; Holge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2008-01-01

    Departing from a methodological experiment performed by the authors, this article reflects on and discusses issues of ethics and politics in poetic strategies of "representation". In relation to the experiment the article questions how to conceive the notion of connectedness between empirical time and the reconstruction of it in poststructuralist…

  12. Ulysses S. Grant and Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role played by Ulysses S. Grant during the four years of Reconstruction before he became President of the United States. Describes the dynamics of the relationship between Grant and Andrew Johnson. Points out that Grant's attitude of service to the laws created by Congress submerged his desire to create a new South. (KO)

  13. Fourier reconstruction with sparse inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    In seismic exploration an image of the subsurface is generated from seismic data through various data processing algorithms. When the data is not acquired on an equidistantly spaced grid, artifacts may result in the final image. Fourier reconstruction is an interpolation technique that can reduce

  14. Reconstructing Death in Postmodern Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Examines interaction between emerging thanatological movement and its sociohistorical context. Notes that thanatology will take on new shape as individuals and society attempt to cope with postmodernistic forces and deconstructive mentality. Considers prospect for authentic solidarity against distress in reconstructed death system. (Author/NB)

  15. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

    contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...

  16. A Survey of Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Musialski, P.

    2013-05-10

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Trajectory Auto-Corrected image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Julianna D; Grissom, William A

    2016-09-01

    To estimate k-space trajectory errors in non-Cartesian acquisitions and reconstruct distortion-free images, without trajectory measurements or gradient calibrations. The Trajectory Auto-Corrected image Reconstruction method jointly estimates k-space trajectory errors and images, based on SENSE and SPIRiT parallel imaging reconstruction. The underlying idea is that parallel imaging and oversampling in the center of k-space provides data redundancy that can be exploited to simultaneously reconstruct images and correct trajectory errors. Trajectory errors are represented as weighted sums of trajectory-dependent error basis functions, the coefficients of which are estimated using gradient-based optimization. Trajectory Auto-Corrected image Reconstruction was applied to reconstruct images and errors in golden angle radial, center-out radial, and spiral in vivo 7 Tesla brain acquisitions in five subjects. Compared to reconstructions using nominal trajectories, Trajectory auto-corrected image reconstructions contained considerably less blurring and streaking and were of similar quality to images reconstructed using measured k-space trajectories in the center-out radial and spiral cases. Reconstruction cost function reductions and improvements in normalized image gradient squared were also similar to those for images reconstructed using measured trajectories. Trajectory Auto-Corrected image Reconstruction enables non-Cartesian image reconstructions free from trajectory errors without the need for separate gradient calibrations or trajectory measurements. Magn Reson Med 76:757-768, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Versatility of radial forearm free flap for intraoral reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Jelena V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The radial forearm free flap has an important role in reconstruction of the oncologic defects in the region of head and neck. Objective. The aim was to present and evaluate clinical experience and results in the radial forearm free transfer for intraoral reconstructions after resections due to malignancies. Methods. This article illustrates the versatility and reliability of forearm single donor site in 21 patients with a variety of intraoral oncologic defects who underwent immediate (19 patients, 90.5% or delayed (2 patients, 9.5% reconstruction using free flaps from the radial forearm. Fascio-cutaneous flaps were used in patients with floor of the mouth (6 cases, buccal mucosa (5 cases, lip (1 case and a retromolar triangle (2 cases defects, or after hemiglossectomy (7 cases. In addition, the palmaris longus tendon was included with the flap in 2 patients that required oral sphincter reconstruction. Results. An overall success rate was 90.5%. Flap failures were detected in two (9.5% patients, in one patient due to late ischemic necrosis, which appeared one week after the surgery, and in another patient due to venous congestion, which could not be salvaged after immediate re-exploration. Two patients required re-exploration due to vein thrombosis. The donor site healed uneventfully in all patients, except one, who had partial loss of skin graft. Conclusion. The radial forearm free flap is, due to multiple advantages, an acceptable method for reconstructions after resection of intraoral malignancies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41006

  19. Clinical outcome in MPFL reconstruction with and without tuberositas transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliez, A; Lambrecht, D; Verbruggen, D; Van Der Straeten, C; Verdonk, P; Victor, J

    2017-09-01

    There are several surgical options for recurrent patella dislocations. As the reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been proven to restore stability, it has become more accepted. Aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome after MPFL reconstruction as an isolated procedure or in association with a transposition of the tibial tubercle (in case of patella alta or an excessive TT-TG) in a large prospective cohort study. Additionally, the effect on patellar height was analysed radiographically using the Caton-Deschamps index. In a large prospective cohort study of 129 knees in 124 patients (81 females, 48 males, mean age 22.8 ± 7.7 years), 91 knees received primary MPFL reconstruction (group 1) and 38 were a combination with a transposition of the tibial tubercle (group 2). The clinical follow-up was evaluated using KOOS and Kujala scores preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. Patient satisfaction, complications and revision surgery were recorded. Overall, Kujala improved significantly from 53.5 (SD 22.7) preoperatively to 74.7 (SD 20.5) postoperatively (p < 0.01). All KOOS subdomains improved significantly (p < 0.01). No significant difference for Kujala score between groups was noticed. Revision rate was (5/129) 3.9 %. Reconstruction was supplemented with a transfer of the tibial tuberosity in (38/129) 29.4 % of the cases and shows a comparable outcome. MPFL reconstruction is a viable treatment option for episodic patellar dislocation. A concomitant tuberositas transposition is useful in selected patients. I.

  20. Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrafast Dynamics of Chemical Reactions in Condensed Phase: Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  1. Stability indicators in network reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filosi

    Full Text Available The number of available algorithms to infer a biological network from a dataset of high-throughput measurements is overwhelming and keeps growing. However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a 'gold standard' is available to measure how close the reconstructed network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is the stability of these predictions to data resampling approaches. We introduce NetSI, a family of Network Stability Indicators, to assess quantitatively the stability of a reconstructed network in terms of inference variability due to data subsampling. In order to evaluate network stability, the main NetSI methods use a global/local network metric in combination with a resampling (bootstrap or cross-validation procedure. In addition, we provide two normalized variability scores over data resampling to measure edge weight stability and node degree stability, and then introduce a stability ranking for edges and nodes. A complete implementation of the NetSI indicators, including the Hamming-Ipsen-Mikhailov (HIM network distance adopted in this paper is available with the R package nettools. We demonstrate the use of the NetSI family by measuring network stability on four datasets against alternative network reconstruction methods. First, the effect of sample size on stability of inferred networks is studied in a gold standard framework on yeast-like data from the Gene Net Weaver simulator. We also consider the impact of varying modularity on a set of structurally different networks (50 nodes, from 2 to 10 modules, and then of complex feature covariance structure, showing the different behaviours of standard reconstruction methods based on Pearson correlation, Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC and False Discovery Rate (FDR strategy. Finally, we demonstrate a strong combined effect of different reconstruction methods and phenotype subgroups on a hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA microarray dataset (240 subjects, and we

  2. Genital reconstruction in exstrophy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgery for bladder exstrophy has been evolving over the last four to five decades. Because survival has become almost universal, the focus has changed in the exstrophy-epispadias complex to improving quality of life. The most prevalent problem in the long-term function of exstrophy patients is the sexual activity of the adolescent and adult males. The penis in exstrophy patients appears short because of marked congenital deficiency of anterior corporal tissue. Many patients approach for genital reconstruction to improve cosmesis as well as to correct chordee. We report our series of male patients seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescent/adult male patients attended urology services during the period January 2000-December 2009 seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Results: Three patients underwent epispadias repair, four patients had chordee correction with cosmetic excision of skin tags and seven patients underwent chordee correction with penile lengthening. All patients reported satisfaction in the answered questionnaire. Patients undergoing penile lengthening by partial corporal dissection achieved a mean increase in length of 1.614 ± 0.279 cm dorsally and 1.543 ± 0.230 cm ventrally. The satisfactory rate assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 showed that irrespective of the different genital reconstructive procedures done, the patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusions: Surgical procedures have transformed the management in these patients with bladder exstrophy. Bladders can be safely placed within the pelvis, with most patients achieving urinary continence and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia. Genital reconstruction in the form of correction of chordee, excision of ugly skin tags and lengthening of penis can be performed to give the patients a satisfactory cosmetic and functional

  3. Fuel transfer machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, I.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel transfer machine for transferring fuel assemblies through the fuel transfer tube of a nuclear power generating plant containment structure is described. A conventional reversible drive cable is attached to the fuel transfer carriage to drive it horizontally through the tube. A shuttle carrying a sheave at each end is arranged in parallel with the carriage to also travel into the tube. The cable cooperating with the sheaves permit driving a relatively short fuel transfer carriage a large distance without manually installing sheaves or drive apparatus in the tunnel. 8 claims, 3 figures

  4. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  5. Timing of first embryonic cleavage is a positive indicator of the in vitro developmental potential of porcine embryos derived from in vitro fertilization, somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isom, S Clay; Li, Rong Feng; Whitworth, Kristin M; Prather, Randall S

    2012-03-01

    Evidence in many species has suggested that those embryos that cleave earliest after fertilization are more developmentally competent than those that cleave relatively later after fertilization. Herein we document this phenomenon in porcine in vitro-fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and parthenogenetic (PA) embryos. In vitro-matured pig oocytes were used to generate IVF, SCNT, and PA embryos. At 24 hr post-activation (or insemination; hpa/hpi), embryos were visually assessed, and cleaved embryos were moved into a new culture well. This process was repeated at 30 and 48 hpa/hpi. All embryos were allowed to develop 7 days in culture. For IVF embryos, 39.9%, 24.6%, and 10.5% of fast-, intermediate-, or slow-cleaving embryos, respectively, developed into blastocysts by day 7. For SCNT embryos, 31.8% of fast-, 5.7% of intermediate-, and 2.9% of late-cleaving embryos achieved the blastocyst stage of development. For PA embryos, the percentages of those cleaved embryos that developed to blastocyst were 59.3%, 36.7%, and 7.5% for early-, intermediate-, and late-cleaving embryos, respectively. Using RNA collected from early-, intermediate-, and late-cleaving embryos, real-time PCR was performed to assess the transcript levels of 14 different genes of widely varied function. The qPCR results suggest that maternal mRNA degradation may not proceed in an appropriate pattern in slow-cleaving embryos. These findings (1) confirm that, as observed in other species, earlier-cleaving porcine embryos are more successful at developing in culture than are slower-cleaving embryos, and (2) implicate mechanisms of maternal transcript destruction as potential determinants of oocyte/embryo quality. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reconstruction of mandible with pedicle bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, S

    1980-02-01

    Three cases of pedicle bone grafts used to reconstruct the mandible are presented. The grafts were taken from the shoulder blade, rib and clavicle. In two patients partial and in one patient total mandibles were reconstructed. Good results were obtained.

  7. Track reconstruction in BES barrel shower counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haiwen; Wang Taijie; Mao Zepu; Li Jin; Li Weiguo; Yan Wuguang; Chen Guangpei; Liu Jing; Li Peiqin; Rong Gang; Yuan Ye; Liu Hongtao

    1999-01-01

    The track reconstruction of BES barrel shower counter was presented and the shower finding, pattern recognition technique were described. The reconstruction results from experimental data were presented and discussed

  8. Muon Reconstruction and Identification in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the design strategies and status of the CMS muon reconstruction and identification identification software. Muon reconstruction and identification is accomplished through a variety of complementary algorithms. The CMS muon reconstruction software is based on a Kalman filter technique and reconstructs muons in the standalone muon system, using information from all three types of muon detectors, and links the resulting muon tracks with tracks reconstructed in the silicon tracker. In addition, a muon identification algorithm has been developed which tries to identify muons with high efficiency while maintaining a low probability of misidentification. The muon identification algorithm is complementary by design to the muon reconstruction algorithm that starts track reconstruction in the muon detectors. The identification algorithm accepts reconstructed tracks from the inner tracker and attempts to quantify the muon compatibility for each track using associated calorimeter and muon detector hit information. The performance status is based on detailed detector simulations as well as initial studies using cosmic muon data.

  9. Heat transfer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasatani, Masanobu; Itaya, Yoshinori

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop energy-saving techniques and new energy techniques, and also most advanced techniques by making industrial equipment with high performance, heat transfer performance frequently becomes an important problem. In addition, the improvement of conventional heat transfer techniques and the device of new heat transfer techniques are often required. It is most proper that chemical engineers engage in the research and development for enhancing heat transfer. The research and development for enhancing heat transfer are important to heighten heat exchange efficiency or to cool equipment for preventing overheat in high temperature heat transfer system. In this paper, the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer and the improvement of radiative heat transfer characteristics are reported. Radiative heat transfer is proportional to fourth power of absolute temperature, and it does not require any heat transfer medium, but efficient heat-radiation converters are necessary. As the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer, the increase of emission and absorption areas, the installation of emissive structures and the improvement of radiative characteristics are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  10. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. 3D Volumetric Modeling and Microvascular Reconstruction of Irradiated Lumbosacral Defects after Oncologic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Tutor, Emilio; Romeo, Marco; Chae, Michael P; Hunter-Smith, David J; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Locoregional flaps are sufficient in most sacral reconstructions. However, large sacral defects due to malignancy necessitate a different reconstructive approach, with local flaps compromised by radiation and regional flaps inadequate for broad surface areas or substantial volume obliteration. In this report, we present our experience using free muscle transfer for volumetric reconstruction, in such cases, and demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) haptic models of the sacral defect to aid preoperative planning. Five consecutive patients with irradiated sacral defects secondary to oncologic resections were included, surface area ranging from 143-600 cm 2 . Latissimus dorsi (LD)-based free flap sacral reconstruction was performed in each case, between 2005 and 2011. Where the superior gluteal artery was compromised, the subcostal artery (SA) was used as a recipient vessel. Microvascular technique, complications, and outcomes are reported. The use of volumetric analysis and 3D printing is also demonstrated, with imaging data converted to 3D images suitable for 3D printing with Osirix software (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland). An office-based, desktop 3D printer was used to print 3D models of sacral defects, used to demonstrate surface area and contour and produce a volumetric print of the dead space needed for flap obliteration. The clinical series of LD free flap reconstructions is presented, with successful transfer in all cases, and adequate soft-tissue cover and volume obliteration achieved. The original use of the SA as a recipient vessel was successfully achieved. All wounds healed uneventfully. 3D printing is also demonstrated as a useful tool for 3D evaluation of volume and dead space. Free flaps offer unique benefits in sacral reconstruction where local tissue is compromised by irradiation and tumor recurrence, and dead space requires accurate volumetric reconstruction. We describe for the first time the use of the SA as a recipient in free flap sacral

  12. Influence of irradiation (Co{sub 6}0) in pre-implant rabbits embryos: effect on blastocyst diameters and embryos smaller than 2 mm; Influencia da radiacao ionizante (bomba de cobalto) em embrioes de coelha na fase de pre-implantacao: efeito no diametro das blastulas e embrioes com menos de 2mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Approbato, Mario S.; Oliveira Moura, Katia K.V. de; Souza Florencio, Rodopiano de; Cunha Junior, Carlos; Garcia, Ricardo; Faria, Renato S.; Benedetti, Leonardo N.; Goulart, Flamarion B.

    1995-06-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), in three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses, 5 c Gy and 10 c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. The matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after ({+-} 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. The embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryos parameters were studied: diameter growth; percentage of embryos smaller than 2 mm. We observed that only the irradiation time influenced the blastocysts diameter (no irradiation dose). There was no relation between percentage of embryos smaller than 2 mm and the irradiation. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Galeal flap based on superficial temporal vessels for oral cavity and pharynx reconstruction: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Despite the advances in microvascular free tissue transfer for intraoral reconstruction, this surgery is not recommended for all patients. In specific cases, the pedicled temporoparietal galeal flap may be an option for reconstructive procedures in the head and neck regions. The objective of this paper is to present the anatomical aspects of a galeal flap based on the superficial temporal vessels and to test its potential for reconstructing diverse sites of the oral cavity and pharynx. METHODS: We performed 40 dissections on 34 fresh adult cadavers. The flap vascular anatomy was studied by injecting latex into the superficial temporal vessels. A standardized square-shape flap measuring 10 x 10 cm², pedicled on the superficial temporal vessels, was raised. Oral cavity and oropharynx reconstruction simulations were performed after flap transposition into the mouth by passing it under the zygomatic arch. Hypopharyngeal reconstruction was tested by transposing the flap to the neck under the facial nerve. RESULTS: After latex injection, a rich vascular network over the temporoparietal galea was observed directly from the superficial temporal artery, and a well-vascularized flap based on this vessel was raised. In the reconstruction simulations, the flap was shown to be suitable for the coverage of hypothetical defects in most oral cavity and pharyngeal sites, mainly the retromolar trigone, tonsil area, and buccal mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: A galeal flap based on the superficial temporal vessels presents favorable anatomical characteristics for oral cavity and pharyngeal reconstruction.

  14. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied,...

  15. Graft infections after surgical aortic reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, P.

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular grafts are frequently used to reconstruct (part) of the aorta. Every surgical procedure caries a certain risk for infection and when a prosthetic aortic graft is implanted, this may lead to an aortic graft infection (AGI). Endovascular techniques have gradually replaced open surgical reconstructions as first line of treatment for aorto-iliac diseases. Nowadays, open reconstructions are primarily reserved for patients unsuitable for endovascular reconstructions or for redo ...

  16. Craniofacial Reconstruction Evaluation by Geodesic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Junli; Liu, Cuiting; Wu, Zhongke; Duan, Fuqing; Wang, Kang; Jia, Taorui; Liu, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction is to estimate an individual’s face model from its skull. It has a widespread application in forensic medicine, archeology, medical cosmetic surgery, and so forth. However, little attention is paid to the evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction. This paper proposes an objective method to evaluate globally and locally the reconstructed craniofacial faces based on the geodesic network. Firstly, the geodesic networks of the reconstructed craniofacial face and the or...

  17. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Kuan; Heath, Lenwood S.; Setubal, João C.

    2012-01-01

    Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deleti...

  18. Top reconstruction and boosted top experimental overview

    CERN Document Server

    Skinnari, Louise

    2015-01-01

    An overview of techniques used to reconstruct resolved and boosted top quarks is presented. Techniques for resolved top quark reconstruction include kinematic likelihood fitters and pseudo- top reconstruction. Many tools and methods are available for the reconstruction of boosted top quarks, such as jet grooming techniques, jet substructure variables, and dedicated top taggers. Different techniques as used by ATLAS and CMS analyses are described and the performance of different variables and top taggers are shown.

  19. Autologous Fat Transfer: An Aesthetic and Functional Refinement for Parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre G. Vico

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parotidectomy is a surgical procedure associated to functional (Frey’s syndrome as well as aesthetic (facial asymmetry complications that can be very disturbing for the patient. Several procedures have been described to primarily avoid or secondarily reconstruct the facial defect and treat the neurological iatrogenic syndrome. Autologous fat transfer was primarily used in 10 cases to avoid such complications. It is an easy technique widely used in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery. This technique gives very satisfying long-term results on the cosmetic as well as on the physiological point of view.

  20. Schlieren and Shadowgraph Methods in Heat and Mass Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Pradipta Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Schlieren and Shadowgraph Methods in Heat and Mass Transfer lays out the fundamentals of refractive index based imaging techniques, optical configurations, image analysis, and three dimensional reconstructions. The present monograph aims at temperature and concentration measurements in transparent media using ray bending effects in a variable refractive index field. Data analysis procedure for three-dimensional reconstruction of temperature and concentration field using images at different view angles is presented. Test cases illustrating the validation of the quantitative analysis procedure are presented.  

  1. Vertex Reconstruction in ATLAS Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Matt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Vertex reconstruction is the process of taking reconstructed tracks and using them to determine the locations of proton collisions. In this poster we present the performance of our current vertex reconstruction algorithm, and look at investigations into potential improvements from a new seed finding method.

  2. Bony Reconstruction of the Anterior Glenoid Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemot, Laurent B; Elhassan, Bassem T; Verborgt, Olivier

    2018-04-13

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability is associated with glenohumeral bone loss. Glenoid deficiency compromises the concavity-compression mechanism. Medial Hill-Sachs lesions can result in an off-track humeral position. Anterior glenoid reconstruction or augmentation prevents recurrence by addressing the pathomechanics. In Bristow and Latarjet procedures, the coracoid process is harvested for conjoint tendon transfer, capsular reinforcement, and glenoid rim restoration. Complications and the nonanatomic nature of the procedure have spurred research on graft sources. The iliac crest is preferred for autogenous structural grafts. Tricortical, bicortical, and J-bone grafts have shown promising results despite the historical association of Eden-Hybinette procedures with early degenerative joint disease. Allogeneic osteochondral grafts may minimize the risk of arthropathy and donor site morbidity. Tibial plafond and glenoid allografts more closely match the native glenoid geometry and restore the articular chondral environment, compared with conventional grafts. Graft availability, cost, risk of disease transmission, and low chondrocyte viability have slowed the acceptance of osteochondral allografts.

  3. Mandibular reconstruction using bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Joon Yim

    1999-01-01

    Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate

  4. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines

  5. Fingerprint reconstruction: from minutiae to phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2011-02-01

    Fingerprint matching systems generally use four types of representation schemes: grayscale image, phase image, skeleton image, and minutiae, among which minutiae-based representation is the most widely adopted one. The compactness of minutiae representation has created an impression that the minutiae template does not contain sufficient information to allow the reconstruction of the original grayscale fingerprint image. This belief has now been shown to be false; several algorithms have been proposed that can reconstruct fingerprint images from minutiae templates. These techniques try to either reconstruct the skeleton image, which is then converted into the grayscale image, or reconstruct the grayscale image directly from the minutiae template. However, they have a common drawback: Many spurious minutiae not included in the original minutiae template are generated in the reconstructed image. Moreover, some of these reconstruction techniques can only generate a partial fingerprint. In this paper, a novel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the phase image, which is then converted into the grayscale image. The proposed reconstruction algorithm not only gives the whole fingerprint, but the reconstructed fingerprint contains very few spurious minutiae. Specifically, a fingerprint image is represented as a phase image which consists of the continuous phase and the spiral phase (which corresponds to minutiae). An algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the continuous phase from minutiae. The proposed reconstruction algorithm has been evaluated with respect to the success rates of type-I attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against the original fingerprint) and type-II attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against different impressions of the original fingerprint) using a commercial fingerprint recognition system. Given the reconstructed image from our algorithm, we show that both types of attacks can be successfully launched against

  6. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1990-09-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, food habits, environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

  7. Septal graft in laryngeal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahannan, Abdulrahman; Slavicek, A.; Taudy, M.; Chovanec, M.

    2006-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dyspnea. Ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed mass extending from the cricoid cartilage to the left lobe of thyroid gland and thyroid cartilage. Cytology revealed possibility of cartilaginous origin, which was proven to be chondrosarcoma (Grade 1) from the biopsy specimen obtained during panendosopy. She underwent one stage radical resection and immediate reconstruction of laryngeal skeleton defect by mucocartilaginous graft from the nasal septum. Her postoperative course was optimal with preservation of the laryngeal functions. Twenty-eight months postoperatively, she had to undergo total laryngectomy as a salvage procedure for the advanced local recurrence. We report on the relatively easy technique for functional reconstruction of the large laryngeal defect with the employment cartilage graft from the nasal septum. (author)

  8. Scrotal reconstruction and testicular prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jacob W; Lester, Kyle M; Chen, Andrew; Simhan, Jay

    2017-08-01

    Scrotal surgery encompasses a wide-variety of surgical techniques for an even wider variety of indications. In this manuscript, we review our indications, techniques, and pit-falls for various reconstructive scrotal surgeries as-well-as surgical tips for placement of testicular prostheses. Penoscrotal webbing (PSW) is an abnormal, often-problematic distal insertion of scrotal skin onto the ventral penile shaft. There are several effective and straightforward techniques used to revise this condition, which include simple scrotoplasty, single- or double-Z-plasty, or the VY-flap scrotoplasty. Reconstruction is also commonly indicated following scrotal skin loss caused by infection, trauma, lymphedema, hidradenitis, and cancer. Although initial management of these conditions often involves scrotal skin removal, repair of expansive scrotal skin loss can be technically difficult and can be accomplished by using one of several skin flaps or skin grafting. Split-thickness skin grafting of scrotal defects can be accomplished easily, and provides durable results.

  9. Phylogenetic reconstruction methods: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Alexandre; Martin, Darren P; Lefeuvre, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Initially designed to infer evolutionary relationships based on morphological and physiological characters, phylogenetic reconstruction methods have greatly benefited from recent developments in molecular biology and sequencing technologies with a number of powerful methods having been developed specifically to infer phylogenies from macromolecular data. This chapter, while presenting an overview of basic concepts and methods used in phylogenetic reconstruction, is primarily intended as a simplified step-by-step guide to the construction of phylogenetic trees from nucleotide sequences using fairly up-to-date maximum likelihood methods implemented in freely available computer programs. While the analysis of chloroplast sequences from various Vanilla species is used as an illustrative example, the techniques covered here are relevant to the comparative analysis of homologous sequences datasets sampled from any group of organisms.

  10. Atmospheric muons reconstruction with Antares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melissas, M.

    2007-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector contains 900 photomultiplier tubes, dispatched on 12 lines, in order to detect Cerenkov light from muon induced by neutrino interactions in the the vicinity of the detector. Currently the first 5 lines have been deployed. A first task consists in studying the stability of the detector calibration, which is a necessary step to understand the detector response. Then we studied optical properties of water, for this we developed a reconstruction method dedicated to LED Beacon. The extracted parameters are compatible with earlier measurements. A quality criteria to reject badly reconstructed track has been developed based on the likelihood of the tracks fit versus point fit. This has been applied to real data and a preliminary analysis of atmospheric muons with a 5-lines detector is performed. (author)

  11. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.; Kponou, A.

    1997-01-01

    Projections of charged particle beam current density (profiles) are frequently used as a measure of beam position and size. In conventional practice only two projections, usually horizontal and vertical, are measured. This puts a severe limit on the detail of information that can be achieved. A third projection provides a significant improvement. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) uses three or more projections to reconstruct 3-dimensional density profiles. At the 200 MeV H-linac, we have used this technique to measure beam density, and it has proved very helpful, especially in helping determine if there is any coupling present in x-y phase space. We will present examples of measurements of current densities using this technique

  12. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  13. Direct reconstruction of dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

    2010-05-28

    An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z≲1 using just SNAP-quality data.

  14. Fresh versus frozen embryo transfers in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kai Mee; van Wely, Madelon; Mol, Femke; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    2017-03-28

    In general, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) implies a single fresh and one or more frozen-thawed embryo transfers. Alternatively, the 'freeze-all' strategy implies transfer of frozen-thawed embryos only, with no fresh embryo transfers. In practice, both strategies can vary technically including differences in freezing techniques and timing of transfer of cryopreservation, that is vitrification versus slow freezing, freezing of two pro-nucleate (2pn) versus cleavage-stage embryos versus blastocysts, and transfer of cleavage-stage embryos versus blastocysts.In the freeze-all strategy, embryo transfers are disengaged from ovarian stimulation in the initial treatment cycle. This could avoid a negative effect of ovarian hyperstimulation on the endometrium and thereby improve embryo implantation. It could also reduce the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in the ovarian stimulation cycle by avoiding a pregnancy.We compared the benefits and risks of the two treatment strategies. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the freeze-all strategy compared to the conventional IVF/ICSI strategy in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and two registers of ongoing trials in November 2016 together with reference checking and contact with study authors and experts in the field to identify additional studies. We included randomised clinical trials comparing a freeze-all strategy with a conventional IVF/ICSI strategy which includes fresh transfer of embryos in women undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. The primary review outcomes were cumulative live birth and OHSS. Secondary outcomes included other adverse effects (miscarriage rate). We included four randomised clinical trials analysing a total

  15. Fourier reconstruction with sparse inversions

    OpenAIRE

    Zwartjes, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    In seismic exploration an image of the subsurface is generated from seismic data through various data processing algorithms. When the data is not acquired on an equidistantly spaced grid, artifacts may result in the final image. Fourier reconstruction is an interpolation technique that can reduce these artifacts by generating uniformly sampled data from such non-uniformly sampled data. The method works by estimating via least-squares inversion the Fourier coefficients that describe the non-un...

  16. Computed laminography and reconstruction algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que Jiemin; Cao Daquan; Zhao Wei; Tang Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Computed laminography (CL) is an alternative to computed tomography if large objects are to be inspected with high resolution. This is especially true for planar objects. In this paper, we set up a new scanning geometry for CL, and study the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) for CL imaging. We compare the results of ART with variant weighted functions by computer simulation with a digital phantom. It proves that ART algorithm is a good choice for the CL system. (authors)

  17. Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Y.; Agostini, P.; Breger, P.; Carre, B.; Merdji, A.; Monchicourt, P.; Salieres, P.; Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.; Johnsson, P.; Mauritsson, J.; Remetter, T.; L'Huillier, A.; Frasinski, L. J.

    2006-11-01

    We show that it is possible to completely reconstruct the intensity profile of the attosecond bursts emitted as a superposition of high harmonics from a series of RABBIT measurements carried out at different infrared intensities. The electric field can be recovered from a measurement of the central harmonic chirp. Timing, chirp and variations of the carrier-to-envelope phase of the attosecond bursts are accessible to the proposed method.

  18. Unsupervised learning of SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciunescu, T.; Constantinescu, C.

    1998-01-01

    An approach of image reconstruction from projection in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), based on an unsupervised learning artificial neural network, is reported. A kind of random sampling technique is used to generate sensory input from tomographic projections. It is proved that an adequate interpretation and representation of the synaptic strengths of the network can be used to obtain the tomographic image. A relevant numerical experiment is reported. (author)

  19. Jet Reconstruction with Pileup Subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, V; Oulianov, A; Vardanian, I N

    2003-01-01

    At nominal design luminosity LHC is expected to deliver on average about 17 proton-proton interactions per beam crossing. Pileup of particles from different interactions will produce energy clusters in the calorimeters which can be misidentified as jets. In addition the energy scale of real jets will be affected in a luminosity dependent way. Methods to reduce pileup effects on the jet reconstruction are analyse