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Sample records for transcriptase inhibitor resistance

  1. Structure-based methods to predict mutational resistance to diarylpyrimidine non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Syeda Maryam; Muwonge, Alecia N; Thakkar, Nehaben; Lam, Kristina W; Frey, Kathleen M

    2018-01-01

    Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) is a leading cause of HIV treatment failure. Often included in antiviral therapy, NNRTIs are chemically diverse compounds that bind an allosteric pocket of enzyme target reverse transcriptase (RT). Several new NNRTIs incorporate flexibility in order to compensate for lost interactions with amino acid conferring mutations in RT. Unfortunately, even successful inhibitors such as diarylpyrimidine (DAPY) inhibitor rilpivirine are affected by mutations in RT that confer resistance. In order to aid drug design efforts, it would be efficient and cost effective to pre-evaluate NNRTI compounds in development using a structure-based computational approach. As proof of concept, we applied a residue scan and molecular dynamics strategy using RT crystal structures to predict mutations that confer resistance to DAPYs rilpivirine, etravirine, and investigational microbicide dapivirine. Our predictive values, changes in affinity and stability, are correlative with fold-resistance data for several RT mutants. Consistent with previous studies, mutation K101P is predicted to confer high-level resistance to DAPYs. These findings were further validated using structural analysis, molecular dynamics, and an enzymatic reverse transcription assay. Our results confirm that changes in affinity and stability for mutant complexes are predictive parameters of resistance as validated by experimental and clinical data. In future work, we believe that this computational approach may be useful to predict resistance mutations for inhibitors in development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. [Computational prediction of human immunodeficiency resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors].

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    Tarasova, O A; Filimonov, D A; Poroikov, V V

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and leads to over one million of deaths annually. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a gold standard in the HIV/AIDS therapy. Nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) are important component of HAART, but their effect depends on the HIV susceptibility/resistance. HIV resistance mainly occurs due to mutations leading to conformational changes in the three-dimensional structure of HIV RT. The aim of our work was to develop and test a computational method for prediction of HIV resistance associated with the mutations in HIV RT. Earlier we have developed a method for prediction of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) resistance; it is based on the usage of position-specific descriptors. These descriptors are generated using the particular amino acid residue and its position; the position of certain residue is determined in a multiple alignment. The training set consisted of more than 1900 sequences of HIV RT from the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance database; for these HIV RT variants experimental data on their resistance to ten inhibitors are presented. Balanced accuracy of prediction varies from 80% to 99% depending on the method of classification (support vector machine, Naive Bayes, random forest, convolutional neural networks) and the drug, resistance to which is obtained. Maximal balanced accuracy was obtained for prediction of resistance to zidovudine, stavudine, didanosine and efavirenz by the random forest classifier. Average accuracy of prediction is 89%.

  3. HIV-1 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanangamudi, Murugesan; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Design of inhibitors for HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition (HIV-1 RT) is one of the successful chemotherapies for the treatment of HIV infection. Among the inhibitors available for HIV-1 RT, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have shown to be very promising......: The conformation dependent-alignment based (CoMFA and CoMSIA) methods have been proven very successful ligand based strategy in the drug design. Here, CoMFA and CoMSIA studies reported for structurally distinct NNRTIs including thiazolobenzimidazole, dipyridodiazepinone, 1,1,3-trioxo [1,2,4]-thiadiazine...

  4. The structure of FIV reverse transcriptase and its implications for non-nucleoside inhibitor resistance.

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    Meytal Galilee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase (RT is the target for the majority of anti-HIV-1 drugs. As with all anti-AIDS treatments, continued success of RT inhibitors is persistently disrupted by the occurrence of resistance mutations. To explore latent resistance mechanisms potentially accessible to therapeutically challenged HIV-1 viruses, we examined RT from the related feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV. FIV closely parallels HIV-1 in its replication and pathogenicity, however, is resistant to all non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTI. The intrinsic resistance of FIV RT is particularly interesting since FIV harbors the Y181 and Y188 sensitivity residues absent in both HIV-2 and SIV. Unlike RT from HIV-2 or SIV, previous efforts have failed to make FIV RT susceptible to NNRTIs concluding that the structure or flexibility of the feline enzyme must be profoundly different. We report the first crystal structure of FIV RT and, being the first structure of an RT from a non-primate lentivirus, enrich the structural and species repertoires available for RT. The structure demonstrates that while the NNRTI binding pocket is conserved, minor subtleties at the entryway can render the FIV RT pocket more restricted and unfavorable for effective NNRTI binding. Measuring NNRTI binding affinity to FIV RT shows that the "closed" pocket configuration inhibits NNRTI binding. Mutating the loop residues rimming the entryway of FIV RT pocket allows for NNRTI binding, however, it does not confer sensitivity to these inhibitors. This reveals a further layer of resistance caused by inherent FIV RT variances that could have enhanced the dissociation of bound inhibitors, or, perhaps, modulated protein plasticity to overcome inhibitory effects of bound NNRTIs. The more "closed" conformation of FIV RT pocket can provide a template for the development of innovative drugs that could unlock the constrained pocket, and the resilient mutant version of the enzyme can offer a fresh model for the study

  5. Interaction of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H with an acylhydrazone inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qingguo; Menon, Lakshmi; Ilina, Tatiana; Miller, Lena G; Ahn, Jinwoo; Parniak, Michael A; Ishima, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is a bifunctional enzyme, having both DNA polymerase (RNA- and DNA-dependent) and ribonuclease H activities. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase has been an exceptionally important target for antiretroviral therapeutic development, and nearly half of the current clinically used antiretrovirals target reverse transcriptase DNA polymerase. However, no inhibitors of reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H are on the market or in preclinical development. Several drug-like small molecule inhibitors of reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H have been described, but little structural information is available about the interactions between reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H and inhibitors that exhibit antiviral activity. In this report, we describe NMR studies of the interaction of a new ribonuclease H inhibitor, BHMP07, with a catalytically active HIV-1 reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H domain fragment. We carried out solution NMR experiments to identify the interaction interface of BHMP07 with the ribonuclease H domain fragment. Chemical shift changes of backbone amide signals at different BHMP07 concentrations clearly demonstrate that BHMP07 mainly recognizes the substrate handle region in the ribonuclease H fragment. Using ribonuclease H inhibition assays and reverse transcriptase mutants, the binding specificity of BHMP07 was compared with another inhibitor, dihydroxy benzoyl naphthyl hydrazone. Our results provide a structural characterization of the ribonuclease H inhibitor interaction and are likely to be useful for further improvements of the inhibitors. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. The emerging profile of cross-resistance among the nonnucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

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    Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

    2014-07-31

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are widely used to treat HIV-1-infected individuals; indeed most first-line antiretroviral therapies typically include one NNRTI in combination with two nucleoside analogs. In 2008, the next-generation NNRTI etravirine was approved for the treatment of HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-experienced individuals, including those with prior NNRTI exposure. NNRTIs are also increasingly being included in strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection. For example: (1) nevirapine is used to prevent mother-to-child transmission; (2) the ASPIRE (MTN 020) study will test whether a vaginal ring containing dapivirine can prevent HIV-1 infection in women; (3) a microbicide gel formulation containing the urea-PETT derivative MIV-150 is in a phase I study to evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and acceptability; and (4) a long acting rilpivirine formulation is under-development for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Given their widespread use, particularly in resource-limited settings, as well as their low genetic barriers to resistance, there are concerns about overlapping resistance between the different NNRTIs. Consequently, a better understanding of the resistance and cross-resistance profiles among the NNRTI class is important for predicting response to treatment, and surveillance of transmitted drug-resistance.

  7. In vitro cross-resistance profile of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) BMS-986001 against known NRTI resistance mutations.

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    Li, Zhufang; Terry, Brian; Olds, William; Protack, Tricia; Deminie, Carol; Minassian, Beatrice; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Sun, Yongnian; Dicker, Ira; Hwang, Carey; Lataillade, Max; Hanna, George J; Krystal, Mark

    2013-11-01

    BMS-986001 is a novel HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). To date, little is known about its resistance profile. In order to examine the cross-resistance profile of BMS-986001 to NRTI mutations, a replicating virus system was used to examine specific amino acid mutations known to confer resistance to various NRTIs. In addition, reverse transcriptases from 19 clinical isolates with various NRTI mutations were examined in the Monogram PhenoSense HIV assay. In the site-directed mutagenesis studies, a virus containing a K65R substitution exhibited a 0.4-fold change in 50% effective concentration (EC50) versus the wild type, while the majority of viruses with the Q151M constellation (without M184V) exhibited changes in EC50 versus wild type of 0.23- to 0.48-fold. Susceptibility to BMS-986001 was also maintained in an L74V-containing virus (0.7-fold change), while an M184V-only-containing virus induced a 2- to 3-fold decrease in susceptibility. Increasing numbers of thymidine analog mutation pattern 1 (TAM-1) pathway mutations correlated with decreases in susceptibility to BMS-986001, while viruses with TAM-2 pathway mutations exhibited a 5- to 8-fold decrease in susceptibility, regardless of the number of TAMs. A 22-fold decrease in susceptibility to BMS-986001 was observed in a site-directed mutant containing the T69 insertion complex. Common non-NRTI (NNRTI) mutations had little impact on susceptibility to BMS-986001. The results from the site-directed mutants correlated well with the more complicated genotypes found in NRTI-resistant clinical isolates. Data from clinical studies are needed to determine the clinically relevant resistance cutoff values for BMS-986001.

  8. Role of the K101E substitution in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in resistance to rilpivirine and other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

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    Xu, Hong-Tao; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Huang, Wei; Oliveira, Maureen; Han, Yingshan; Quan, Yudong; Petropoulos, Christos J; Wainberg, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to the recently approved nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) rilpivirine (RPV) commonly involves substitutions at positions E138K and K101E in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), together with an M184I substitution that is associated with resistance to coutilized emtricitabine (FTC). Previous biochemical and virological studies have shown that compensatory interactions between substitutions E138K and M184I can restore enzyme processivity and the viral replication capacity. Structural modeling studies have also shown that disruption of the salt bridge between K101 and E138 can affect RPV binding. The current study was designed to investigate the impact of K101E, alone or in combination with E138K and/or M184I, on drug susceptibility, viral replication capacity, and enzyme function. We show here that K101E can be selected in cell culture by the NNRTIs etravirine (ETR), efavirenz (EFV), and dapivirine (DPV) as well as by RPV. Recombinant RT enzymes and viruses containing K101E, but not E138K, were highly resistant to nevirapine (NVP) and delavirdine (DLV) as well as ETR and RPV, but not EFV. The addition of K101E to E138K slightly enhanced ETR and RPV resistance compared to that obtained with E138K alone but restored susceptibility to NVP and DLV. The K101E substitution can compensate for deficits in viral replication capacity and enzyme processivity associated with M184I, while M184I can compensate for the diminished efficiency of DNA polymerization associated with K101E. The coexistence of K101E and E138K does not impair either viral replication or enzyme fitness. We conclude that K101E can play a significant role in resistance to RPV.

  9. Viral resuppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Zoe; Phillips, Andrew; Cohen, Cal

    2008-01-01

    the NRTIs, or by replacing the NNRTI with another drug before interruption. Simultaneous interruption of all antiretrovirals was discouraged. Resuppression rates 4-8 months after reinitiating NNRTI-therapy were assessed, as was the detection of drug-resistance mutations within 2 months of the treatment...... regimen. NNRTI drug-resistance mutations were observed in a relatively high proportion of patients. These data provide additional support for a staggered or switched interruption strategy for NNRTI drugs.......BACKGROUND: Interruption of a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-regimen is often necessary, but must be performed with caution because NNRTIs have a low genetic barrier to resistance. Limited data exist to guide clinical practice on the best interruption strategy to use...

  10. Review The Emerging Profile of Cross-Resistance among the Nonnucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Sluis-Cremer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs are widely used to treat HIV-1-infected individuals; indeed most first-line antiretroviral therapies typically include one NNRTI in combination with two nucleoside analogs. In 2008, the next-generation NNRTI etravirine was approved for the treatment of HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-experienced individuals, including those with prior NNRTI exposure. NNRTIs are also increasingly being included in strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection. For example: (1 nevirapine is used to prevent mother-to-child transmission; (2 the ASPIRE (MTN 020 study will test whether a vaginal ring containing dapivirine can prevent HIV-1 infection in women; (3 a microbicide gel formulation containing the urea-PETT derivative MIV-150 is in a phase I study to evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and acceptability; and (4 a long acting rilpivirine formulation is under-development for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Given their widespread use, particularly in resource-limited settings, as well as their low genetic barriers to resistance, there are concerns about overlapping resistance between the different NNRTIs. Consequently, a better understanding of the resistance and cross-resistance profiles among the NNRTI class is important for predicting response to treatment, and surveillance of transmitted drug-resistance.

  11. A randomized trial comparing initial HAART regimens of nelfinavir/nevirapine and ritonavir/saquinavir in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D; Pedersen, Court

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A triple-class HAART regimen may be associated with a better virological effect than conventional regimens, but may also lead to toxicity and more profound resistance. METHODS: Randomized, controlled, open-label trial of 233 protease inhibitor- and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase...... inhibitor-naive HIV-infected patients allocated to a regimen of nelfinavir and nevirapine (1250/200 mg twice daily; n = 118) or ritonavir and saquinavir (400/400 mg twice daily; n = 115), both in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The primary end-point was HIV RNA ... the long-term consequences of triple class HAART regimens, including the development of broad drug resistance....

  12. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

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    Lucianna Helene Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase (RT is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted.

  13. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors as microbicides.

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    Lewi, Paul; Heeres, Jan; Ariën, Kevin; Venkatraj, Muthusamy; Joossens, Jurgen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Augustyns, Koen; Vanham, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The CAPRISA 004 study in South Africa has accelerated the development of vaginal and rectal microbicides containing antiretrovirals that target specific enzymes in the reproduction cycle of HIV, especially reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI). In this review we discuss the potential relevance of HIV-1 RTIs as microbicides, focusing in the nucleotide RTI tenofovir and six classes of nonnucleoside RTIs (including dapivirine, UC781, urea and thiourea PETTs, DABOs and a pyrimidinedione). Although tenofovir and dapivirine appear to be most advanced in clinical trials as potential microbicides, several issues remain unresolved, e.g., the importance of nonhuman primates as a "gatekeeper" for clinical trials, the emergence and spread of drug-resistant mutants, the combination of microbicides that target different phases of viral reproduction and the accessibility to microbicides in low-income countries. Thus, here we discuss the latest research on RTI as microbicides in the light of the continuing spread of the HIV pandemic from the point of view of medicinal chemistry, virological, and pharmaceutical studies.

  14. Development of elvitegravir resistance and linkage of integrase inhibitor mutations with protease and reverse transcriptase resistance mutations.

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    Mark A Winters

    Full Text Available Failure of antiretroviral regimens containing elvitegravir (EVG and raltegravir (RAL can result in the appearance of integrase inhibitor (INI drug-resistance mutations (DRMs. While several INI DRMs have been identified, the evolution of EVG DRMs and the linkage of these DRMs with protease inhibitor (PI and reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI DRMs have not been studied at the clonal level. We examined the development of INI DRMs in 10 patients failing EVG-containing regimens over time, and the linkage of INI DRMs with PI and RTI DRMs in these patients plus 6 RAL-treated patients. A one-step RT-nested PCR protocol was used to generate a 2.7 kB amplicon that included the PR, RT, and IN coding region, and standard cloning and sequencing techniques were used to determine DRMs in 1,277 clones (mean 21 clones per time point. Results showed all patients had multiple PI, NRTI, and/or NNRTI DRMs at baseline, but no primary INI DRM. EVG-treated patients developed from 2 to 6 strains with different primary INI DRMs as early as 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, predominantly as single mutations. The prevalence of these strains fluctuated and new strains, and/or strains with new combinations of INI DRMs, developed over time. Final failure samples (weeks 14 to 48 typically showed a dominant strain with multiple mutations or N155H alone. Single N155H or multiple mutations were also observed in RAL-treated patients at virologic failure. All patient strains showed evidence of INI DRM co-located with single or multiple PI and/or RTI DRMs on the same viral strand. Our study shows that EVG treatment can select for a number of distinct INI-resistant strains whose prevalence fluctuates over time. Continued appearance of new INI DRMs after initial INI failure suggests a potent, highly dynamic selection of INI resistant strains that is unaffected by co-location with PI and RTI DRMs.

  15. Etravirine and Rilpivirine Drug Resistance Among HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Children Failing Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Regimens in South India.

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    Saravanan, Shanmugam; Kausalya, Bagavathi; Gomathi, Selvamurthi; Sivamalar, Sathasivam; Pachamuthu, Balakrishnan; Selvamuthu, Poongulali; Pradeep, Amrose; Sunil, Solomon; Mothi, Sarvode N; Smith, Davey M; Kantor, Rami

    2017-06-01

    We have analyzed reverse transcriptase (RT) region of HIV-1 pol gene from 97 HIV-infected children who were identified as failing first-line therapy that included first-generation non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (Nevirapine and Efavirenz) for at least 6 months. We found that 54% and 65% of the children had genotypically predicted resistance to second-generation non-nucleoside RT inhibitors drugs Etravirine (ETR) and Rilpivirine, respectively. These cross-resistance mutations may compromise future NNRTI-based regimens, especially in resource-limited settings. To complement these investigations, we also analyzed the sequences in Stanford database, Monogram weighted score, and DUET weighted score algorithms for ETR susceptibility and found almost perfect agreement between the three algorithms in predicting ETR susceptibility from genotypic data.

  16. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors as potential colorectal microbicides.

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    Herrera, Carolina; Cranage, Martin; McGowan, Ian; Anton, Peter; Shattock, Robin J

    2009-05-01

    We investigated whether reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (RTI) can be combined to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of colorectal tissue ex vivo as part of a strategy to develop an effective rectal microbicide. The nucleotide RTI (NRTI) PMPA (tenofovir) and two nonnucleoside RTI (NNRTI), UC-781 and TMC120 (dapivirine), were evaluated. Each compound inhibited the replication of the HIV isolates tested in TZM-bl cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and colorectal explants. Dual combinations of the three compounds, either NRTI-NNRTI or NNRTI-NNRTI combinations, were more active than any of the individual compounds in both cellular and tissue models. Combinations were key to inhibiting infection by NRTI- and NNRTI-resistant isolates in all models tested. Moreover, we found that the replication capacities of HIV-1 isolates in colorectal explants were affected by single point mutations in RT that confer resistance to RTI. These data demonstrate that colorectal explants can be used to screen compounds for potential efficacy as part of a combination microbicide and to determine the mucosal fitness of RTI-resistant isolates. These findings may have important implications for the rational design of effective rectal microbicides.

  17. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors as Potential Colorectal Microbicides▿ †

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    Herrera, Carolina; Cranage, Martin; McGowan, Ian; Anton, Peter; Shattock, Robin J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (RTI) can be combined to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of colorectal tissue ex vivo as part of a strategy to develop an effective rectal microbicide. The nucleotide RTI (NRTI) PMPA (tenofovir) and two nonnucleoside RTI (NNRTI), UC-781 and TMC120 (dapivirine), were evaluated. Each compound inhibited the replication of the HIV isolates tested in TZM-bl cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and colorectal explants. Dual combinations of the three compounds, either NRTI-NNRTI or NNRTI-NNRTI combinations, were more active than any of the individual compounds in both cellular and tissue models. Combinations were key to inhibiting infection by NRTI- and NNRTI-resistant isolates in all models tested. Moreover, we found that the replication capacities of HIV-1 isolates in colorectal explants were affected by single point mutations in RT that confer resistance to RTI. These data demonstrate that colorectal explants can be used to screen compounds for potential efficacy as part of a combination microbicide and to determine the mucosal fitness of RTI-resistant isolates. These findings may have important implications for the rational design of effective rectal microbicides. PMID:19258271

  18. In Vitro Cross-Resistance Profiles of Rilpivirine, Dapivirine, and MIV-150, Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Microbicides in Clinical Development for the Prevention of HIV-1 Infection.

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    Giacobbi, Nicholas S; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    Rilpivirine (RPV), dapivirine (DPV), and MIV-150 are in development as microbicides. It is not known whether they will block infection of circulating nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of DPV and MIV-150 is compromised by many resistant viruses containing single or double substitutions. High DPV genital tract concentrations from DPV ring use may block replication of resistant viruses. However, MIV-150 genital tract concentrations may be insufficient to inhibit many resistant viruses, including those harboring K103N or Y181C. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Computational Analysis of Molecular Interaction Networks Underlying Change of HIV-1 Resistance to Selected Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

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    Kierczak, Marcin; Dramiński, Michał; Koronacki, Jacek; Komorowski, Jan

    2010-12-12

    Despite more than two decades of research, HIV resistance to drugs remains a serious obstacle in developing efficient AIDS treatments. Several computational methods have been developed to predict resistance level from the sequence of viral proteins such as reverse transcriptase (RT) or protease. These methods, while powerful and accurate, give very little insight into the molecular interactions that underly acquisition of drug resistance/hypersusceptibility. Here, we attempt at filling this gap by using our Monte Carlo feature selection and interdependency discovery method (MCFS-ID) to elucidate molecular interaction networks that characterize viral strains with altered drug resistance levels. We analyzed a number of HIV-1 RT sequences annotated with drug resistance level using the MCFS-ID method. This let us expound interdependency networks that characterize change of drug resistance to six selected RT inhibitors: Abacavir, Lamivudine, Stavudine, Zidovudine, Tenofovir and Nevirapine. The networks consider interdependencies at the level of physicochemical properties of mutating amino acids, eg,: polarity. We mapped each network on the 3D structure of RT in attempt to understand the molecular meaning of interacting pairs. The discovered interactions describe several known drug resistance mechanisms and, importantly, some previously unidentified ones. Our approach can be easily applied to a whole range of problems from the domain of protein engineering. A portable Java implementation of our MCFS-ID method is freely available for academic users and can be obtained at: http://www.ipipan.eu/staff/m.draminski/software.htm.

  20. Review The Emerging Profile of Cross-Resistance among the Nonnucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Sluis-Cremer

    2014-01-01

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are widely used to treat HIV-1-infected individuals; indeed most first-line antiretroviral therapies typically include one NNRTI in combination with two nucleoside analogs. In 2008, the next-generation NNRTI etravirine was approved for the treatment of HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-experienced individuals, including those with prior NNRTI exposure. NNRTIs are also increasingly being included in strategies to prevent HIV-1 infectio...

  1. High Potency of Indolyl Aryl Sulfone Nonnucleoside Inhibitors towards Drug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase Mutants Is Due to Selective Targeting of Different Mechanistic Forms of the Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Reynel; Silvestri, Romano; Ragno, Rino; Artico, Marino; De Martino, Gabriella; La Regina, Giuseppe; Crespan, Emmanuele; Zanoli, Samantha; Hübscher, Ulrich; Spadari, Silvio; Maga, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Indolyl aryl sulfone (IAS) nonnucleoside inhibitors have been shown to potently inhibit the growth of wild-type and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but their exact mechanism of action has not been elucidated yet. Here, we describe the mechanism of inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) by selected IAS derivatives. Our results showed that, depending on the substitutions introduced in the IAS common pharmacophore, these compounds can be made selective for different enzyme-substrate complexes. Moreover, we showed that the molecular basis for this selectivity was a different association rate of the drug to a particular enzymatic form along the reaction pathway. By comparing the activities of the different compounds against wild-type RT and the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant mutant Lys103Asn, it was possible to hypothesize, on the basis of their mechanism of action, a rationale for the design of drugs which could overcome the steric barrier imposed by the Lys103Asn mutation. PMID:16251294

  2. Etravirine and rilpivirine resistance in HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE-infected adults failing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens.

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    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Kantipong, Pacharee; Jirajariyavej, Supunnee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Munsakul, Warangkana; Prasithsirikul, Wisit; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Bowonwattanuwong, Chureeratana; Klinbuayaem, Virat; Petoumenos, Kathy; Hirschel, Bernard; Bhakeecheep, Sorakij; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2011-01-01

    We studied prevalence of etravirine (ETR) and rilpivirine (RPV) resistance in HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE infection with first-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) failure. A total of 225 adults failing two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus 1 NNRTI in Thailand with HIV RNA>1,000 copies/ml were included. Genotypic resistance results and HIV-1 subtype were interpreted by Stanford DR database. ETR resistance was calculated by the new Monogram weighted score (Monogram WS; ≥ 4 indicating high-level ETR resistance) and by DUET weighted score (DUET WS; 2.5-3.5 and ≥ 4 resulted in intermediate and reduce ETR response, respectively). RPV resistance interpretation was based on previous reports. Median (IQR) age was 38 (34-42) years, 41% were female and CDC A:B:C were 22%:21%:57%. HIV subtypes were 96% CRF01_AE and 4% B. Antiretrovirals at failure were lamivudine (100%), stavudine (93%), nevirapine (90%) and efavirenz (10%) with a median (IQR) duration of 3.4 (1.8-4.5) years. Median (IQR) CD4(+) T-cell count and HIV RNA were 194 (121-280) cells/mm³ and 4.1 (3.6-4.6) log₁₀ copies/ml, respectively. The common NNRTI mutations were Y181C (41%), G190A (22%) and K103N (19%). The proportion of patients with Monogram WS score ≥ 4 was 61.3%. By DUET WS, 49.8% and 7.5% of patients were scored 2.5-3.5 and ≥4, respectively. Only HIV RNA ≥ 4 log₁₀ copies/ml at failure was associated with both Monogram WS ≥ 4 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.9; P=0.003) and DUET WS ≥ 2.5 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3; P=0.02). The RVP resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) detected were K101P (1.8%), Y181I (2.7%) and Y181V (3.6%). All patients with RPV mutation had ETR resistance. No E138R/E138K mutations were detected. Approximately 60% of patients had high-level ETR resistance. The role of ETR in second-line therapy is limited in late NNRTI failure settings. RVP RAMs were uncommon, but cross-resistance between ETR and RVP was high.

  3. Nonnucleoside Reverse-transcriptase Inhibitor- vs Ritonavir-boosted Protease Inhibitor-based Regimens for Initial Treatment of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Lundh, Andreas; Tendal, Britta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) cause faster virologic suppression, while ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) recover more CD4 cells. However, individual trials have not been powered to compare clinical outcomes. METHODS: ...

  4. Antitumor effect of combination of the inhibitors of two new oncotargets: proton pumps and reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugini, Luana; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Fais, Stefano

    2017-01-17

    Tumor therapy needs new approaches in order to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity of the current treatments. The acidic microenvironment and the expression of high levels of endogenous non-telomerase reverse transcriptase (RT) are common features of malignant tumor cells. The anti-acidic proton pump inhibitor Lansoprazole (LAN) and the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor Efavirenz (EFV) have shown independent antitumor efficacy. LAN has shown to counteract drug tumor resistance. We tested the hypothesis that combination of LAN and EFV may improve the overall antitumor effects. We thus pretreated human metastatic melanoma cells with LAN and then with EFV, both in 2D and 3D spheroid models. We evaluated the treatment effect by proliferation and cell death/apoptosis assays in classical and in pulse administration experiments. The action of EFV was negatively affected by the tumor microenvironmental acidity, and LAN pretreatment overcame the problem. LAN potentiated the cytotoxicity of EFV to melanoma cells and, when administered during the drug interruption period, prevented the replacement of tumor cell growth.This study supports the implementation of the current therapies with combination of Proton Pumps and Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors.

  5. Do non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors contribute to lipodystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, David

    2005-01-01

    Lipodystrophy complications, including lipoatrophy (pathological fat loss) and metabolic complications, have emerged as important long-term toxicities associated with antiretroviral therapy in the current era. The wealth of data that has accumulated over the past 6 years has now clarified the contribution of specific antiretroviral drugs to the risk of these clinical endpoints, with evidence that lipoatrophy is strongly associated with the choice of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy (specifically, stavudine and to a lesser extent zidovudine). The aetiological basis of metabolic complications of antiretroviral therapy has proven to be complex, in that the risk appears to be modulated by a number of lifestyle factors that have made the metabolic syndrome highly prevalent in the general population, with additional contributions from HIV disease status itself, as well as from individual drugs within the HIV protease inhibitor class. The currently licensed non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs, efavirenz and nevirapine, have been proven to have a favourable safety profile in terms of lipodystrophy complications. However, it must be noted that NNRTI drugs also have individual toxicity profiles that must be accounted for when considering and/or monitoring their use in the treatment of HIV infection.

  6. Rilpivirine: a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Saravolatz, Louis D

    2013-02-01

    Rilpivirine is a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that is approved for HIV-1 treatment-naive adult patients in combination with other antiretroviral agents. The recommended dose is a 25 mg tablet once daily taken orally with a meal. Due to cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme induction or gastric pH increase, rilpivirine cannot be coadministered with a number of other drugs (anticonvulsants, rifabutin, rifampicin, rifapentine, proton pump inhibitors, systemic dexamethasone and St John's wort). Rilpivirine should be used with caution when coadministered with a drug with a known risk for torsade de pointes. Rilpivirine has a better tolerability than a comparative NNRTI, efavirenz, in clinical trials, with fewer central nervous system adverse effects, rashes, lipid abnormalities and discontinuation rates. Virological failure occurs more commonly with higher baseline viral loads (>100,000 copies/mL) and lower baseline CD4 counts (<50 cells/mm(3)). Seventeen NNRTI mutations have been associated with decreased susceptibility to rilpivirine: K101E/P, E138A/G/K/Q/R, V179L, Y181C/I/V, H221Y, F227C, M230I/L, Y188L and the combination L100I + K103N. Resistance to rilpivirine largely excludes future use of the NNRTI class.

  7. Crystal structures of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: N-benzyl-4-methyl-benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2009-07-01

    HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are potentially specific and effective drugs in AIDS therapy. The presence of two aromatic systems with an angled orientation in the molecule of the inhibitor is crucial for interactions with HIV-1 RT. The inhibitor drives like a wedge into the cluster of aromatic residues of RT HIV-1 and restrains the enzyme in a conformation that blocks the chemical step of nucleotide incorporation. Structural studies provide useful information for designing new, more active inhibitors. The crystal structures of four NNRTIs are presented here. The investigated compounds are derivatives of N-benzyl-4-methyl-benzimidazole with various aliphatic and aromatic substituents at carbon 2 positions and a 2,6-dihalogeno-substituted N-benzyl moiety. Structural data reported here show that the conformation of the investigated compounds is relatively rigid. Such feature is important for the nonnucleoside inhibitor binding to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  8. Potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors target HIV-1 Gag-Pol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Figueiredo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT by binding to a pocket in RT that is close to, but distinct, from the DNA polymerase active site and prevent the synthesis of viral cDNA. NNRTIs, in particular, those that are potent inhibitors of RT polymerase activity, can also act as chemical enhancers of the enzyme's inter-subunit interactions. However, the consequences of this chemical enhancement effect on HIV-1 replication are not understood. Here, we show that the potent NNRTIs efavirenz, TMC120, and TMC125, but not nevirapine or delavirdine, inhibit the late stages of HIV-1 replication. These potent NNRTIs enhanced the intracellular processing of Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins, and this was associated with a decrease in viral particle production from HIV-1-transfected cells. The increased polyprotein processing is consistent with premature activation of the HIV-1 protease by NNRTI-enhanced Gag-Pol multimerization through the embedded RT sequence. These findings support the view that Gag-Pol multimerization is an important step in viral assembly and demonstrate that regulation of Gag-Pol/Gag-Pol interactions is a novel target for small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 production. Furthermore, these drugs can serve as useful probes to further understand processes involved in HIV-1 particle assembly and maturation.

  9. Cancer risk and use of protease inhibitor or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination antiretroviral therapy: the D: A: D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyand, M.; Ryom, L.; Shepherd, L.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Grulich, A.; Reiss, P.; Wit, S. de; Monforte, A.M.; Furrer, H.; Pradier, C.; Lundgren, J.; Sabin, C.; Warris, A.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and cancer risk, especially regimens containing protease inhibitors (PIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), is unclear. METHODS: Participants were followed from the latest of D:A:D study entry or

  10. Cancer risk and use of protease inhibitor or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination antiretroviral therapy : the D: A: D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyand, Mathias; Ryom, Lene; Shepherd, Leah; Fatkenheuer, Gerd; Grulich, Andrew; Reiss, Peter; de Wit, Stéphane; D Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Furrer, Hansjakob; Pradier, Christian; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and cancer risk, especially regimens containing protease inhibitors (PIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), is unclear. METHODS: Participants were followed from the latest of D:A:D study entry or

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of "AZT-HEPT", "AZT-pyridinone", and "ddC-HEPT" conjugates as inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontikis, R; Dollé, V; Guillaumel, J; Dechaux, E; Note, R; Nguyen, C H; Legraverend, M; Bisagni, E; Aubertin, A M; Grierson, D S; Monneret, C

    2000-05-18

    To test the concept that HIV reverse transcriptase could be effectively inhibited by "mixed site inhibitors", a series of seven conjugates containing both a nucleoside analogue component (AZT 1, ddC 2) and a nonnucleoside type inhibitor (HEPT analogue 12, pyridinone 27) were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to block HIV replication. The (N-3 and C-5)AZT-HEPT conjugates 15, 22, and 23 displayed 2-5 microM anti-HIV activity, but they had no effect on the replication of HIV-2 or the HIV-1 strain with the Y181C mutation. The (C-5)AZT-pyridinone conjugates 34-37 were found to be inactive. In marked contrast, the ddC-HEPT molecule 26 displayed the same potency (EC(50) = 0.45 microM) against HIV-1 (wild type and the Y181C nevirapine-resistant strain) and HIV-2 in cell culture. No synergistic effect was observed for these bis-substrate inhibitors, suggesting that the two individual inhibitor components in these molecules do not bind simultaneously in their respective sites. Interestingly, however, the results indicate that the AZT-HEPT conjugates and the ddC-HEPT derivative 26 inhibit reverse transcriptase (RT) in an opposite manner. One explanation for this difference is that the former compounds interact preferentially with the hydrophobic pocket in RT, whereas 26 (after supposed triphosphorylation) inhibits RT through binding in the catalytic site.

  12. Fragment Based Strategies for Discovery of Novel HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Integrase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Catherine F; La, Jennifer; Tinetti, Ricky N; Chalmers, David K; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global health problem. While combined antiretroviral therapy has been successful in controlling the virus in patients, HIV can develop resistance to drugs used for treatment, rendering available drugs less effective and limiting treatment options. Initiatives to find novel drugs for HIV treatment are ongoing, although traditional drug design approaches often focus on known binding sites for inhibition of established drug targets like reverse transcriptase and integrase. These approaches tend towards generating more inhibitors in the same drug classes already used in the clinic. Lack of diversity in antiretroviral drug classes can result in limited treatment options, as cross-resistance can emerge to a whole drug class in patients treated with only one drug from that class. A fresh approach in the search for new HIV-1 drugs is fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), a validated strategy for drug discovery based on using smaller libraries of low molecular weight molecules (FBDD is aimed at not only finding novel drug scaffolds, but also probing the target protein to find new, often allosteric, inhibitory binding sites. Several fragment-based strategies have been successful in identifying novel inhibitory sites or scaffolds for two proven drug targets for HIV-1, reverse transcriptase and integrase. While any FBDD-generated HIV-1 drugs have yet to enter the clinic, recent FBDD initiatives against these two well-characterised HIV-1 targets have reinvigorated antiretroviral drug discovery and the search for novel classes of HIV-1 drugs.

  13. Active methamphetamine use is associated with transmitted drug resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in individuals with HIV infection of unknown duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachay, Edward R; Moini, Niousha; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Pesano, Rick; Lie, Yolanda S; Aiem, Heidi; Butler, David M; Letendre, Scott; Mathews, Wm Christopher; Smith, Davey M

    2007-01-01

    Frequent methamphetamine use among recently HIV infected individuals is associated with transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI); however, the reversion time of TDR to drug susceptible HIV may exceed 3 years. We assessed whether recreational substance use is associated with detectable TDR among individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection of unknown duration. Cross-sectional analysis. Subjects were enrolled at the University California, San Diego Early Intervention Program. Demographic, clinical and substance use data were collected using structured interviews. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using GeneSeq, Monogram Biosciences. We analyzed the association between substance use and TDR using bivariate analyses and the corresponding transmission networks using phylogenetic models. Between April 2004 and July 2006, 115 individuals with genotype data were enrolled. The prevalence of alcohol, marijuana and methamphetamine use were 98%, 71% and 64% respectively. Only active methamphetamine use in the 30 days prior to HIV diagnosis was independently associated with TDR to NNRTI (OR: 6.6; p=0.002). Despite not knowing the duration of their HIV infection, individuals reporting active methamphetamine use in the 30 days prior to HIV diagnosis are at an increased risk of having HIV strains that are resistant to NNRTI.

  14. Trends of drug-resistance-associated mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV type 1 isolates from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohd; Malik, Abida; Rizvi, Meher; Rai, Arvind

    2014-04-01

    A major cause of failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the presence of drug-resistance-associated mutations in the polymerase gene of HIV-1. The paucity of data regarding potential drug resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) prompted us to carry out this study. This information will shed light on the extent of drug resistance already present in HIV strains and will give future directions in patient treatment and in drug design. Drug resistance genotyping of a partial reverse transcriptase gene was done in 103 HIV-1-infected patients, including the ART-naive and ART-experienced population. The drug resistance pattern was analyzed using the Stanford HIV-DR database, the IAS-USA mutation list and the REGA algorithm-v8.0. Subtyping was done using the REGA HIV-1 subtyping tool-v2.01. The majority of our sequences (96 %) were found to be subtype C, and four (3.8 %) were subtype A1. Significant prevalence of DR mutations (28 %) was observed in the RT gene. Major amino acid substitutions were seen at positions 41, 90, 98, 103, 106, 108, 138, 181, 184, 190, 215, and 219, which confer high/intermediate levels of resistance to most RTIs, independently or together. Our results show that there is an urgent need to tailor ART drug regimens to the individual to achieve optimum therapeutic outcome in North India.

  15. Active Methamphetamine Use is Associated with Transmitted Drug Resis-tance to Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors in Individuals with HIV Infection of Unknown Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachay, Edward R; Moini, Niousha; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Pesano, Rick; Lie, Yolanda S; Aiem, Heidi; Butler, David M; Letendre, Scott; Mathews, Wm. Christopher; Smith, Davey M

    2007-01-01

    Background: Frequent methamphetamine use among recently HIV infected individuals is associated with transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI); however, the reversion time of TDR to drug susceptible HIV may exceed 3 years. We assessed whether recreational substance use is associated with detectable TDR among individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection of unknown duration. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Methods: Subjects were enrolled at the University California, San Diego Early Intervention Program. Demographic, clinical and substance use data were collected using structured interviews. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using GeneSeq™, Monogram Biosciences. We analyzed the association between substance use and TDR using bivariate analyses and the corresponding transmission networks using phylogenetic models. Results: Between April 2004 and July 2006, 115 individuals with genotype data were enrolled. The prevalence of alcohol, marijuana and methamphetamine use were 98%, 71% and 64% respectively. Only active methamphetamine use in the 30 days prior to HIV diagnosis was independently associated with TDR to NNRTI (OR: 6.6; p=0.002). Conclusion: Despite not knowing the duration of their HIV infection, individuals reporting active methamphetamine use in the 30 days prior to HIV diagnosis are at an increased risk of having HIV strains that are resistant to NNRTI. PMID:18923691

  16. Prevalence of genotypic HIV-1 drug resistance in Thailand, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watitpun Chotip

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prices of reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitors in Thailand have been reduced since December 1, 2001. It is expected that reduction in the price of these inhibitors may influence the drug resistance mutation pattern of HIV-1 among infected people. This study reports the frequency of HIV-1 genetic mutation associated with drug resistance in antiretroviral-treated patients from Thailand. Methods Genotypic resistance testing was performed on samples collected in 2002 from 88 HIV-1 infected individuals. Automated DNA sequencing was used to genotype the HIV-1 polymerase gene isolated from patients' plasma. Results Resistance to protease inhibitors, nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were found in 10 (12%, 42 (48% and 19 (21% patients, respectively. The most common drug resistance mutations in the protease gene were at codon 82 (8%, 90 (7% and 54 (6%, whereas resistant mutations at codon 215 (45%, 67 (40%, 41 (38% and 184 (27% were commonly found in the RT gene. This finding indicates that genotypic resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was prevalent in 2002. The frequency of resistant mutations corresponding to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was three times higher-, while resistant mutation corresponding to protease inhibitors was two times lower than those frequencies determined in 2001. Conclusion This study shows that the frequencies of RT inhibitor resistance mutations have been increased after the reduction in the price of RT inhibitors since December 2001. We believe that this was an important factor that influenced the mutation patterns of HIV-1 protease and RT genes in Thailand.

  17. Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)--abacavir and didanosine--may each be associated with excess risk of myocardial infarction. The reproducibility of this finding in an independent dataset was explored and plausible biological mechanisms were sought. METHODS...

  18. Structural investigation of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: 2-Aryl-substituted benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2009-11-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most destructive epidemics in history. Inhibitors of HIV enzymes are the main targets to develop drugs against that disease. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of HIV-1 (NNRTIs) are potentially effective and nontoxic. Structural studies provide information necessary to design more active compounds. The crystal structures of four NNRTI derivatives of 2-aryl-substituted N-benzyl-benzimidazole are presented here. Analysis of the geometrical parameters shows that the structures of the investigated inhibitors are rigid. The important geometrical parameter is the dihedral angle between the planes of the π-electron systems of the benzymidazole and benzyl moieties. The values of these dihedral angles are in a narrow range for all investigated inhibitors. There is no significant difference between the structure of the free inhibitor and the inhibitor in the complex with RT HIV-1. X-ray structures of the investigated inhibitors are a good basis for modeling enzyme-inhibitor interactions in rational drug design.

  19. Biophysical Insights into the Inhibitory Mechanism of Non-Nucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Sluis-Cremer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT plays a central role in HIV infection. Current United States Federal Drug Administration (USFDA-approved antiretroviral therapies can include one of five approved non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs, which are potent inhibitors of RT activity. Despite their crucial clinical role in treating and preventing HIV-1 infection, their mechanism of action remains elusive. In this review, we introduce RT and highlight major advances from experimental and computational biophysical experiments toward an understanding of RT function and the inhibitory mechanism(s of NNRTIs.

  20. Molecular docking and 3D-QSAR studies on triazolinone and pyridazinone, non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2010-06-01

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are allosteric inhibitors of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Recently a series of Triazolinone and Pyridazinone were reported as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 wild type reverse transcriptase. In the present study, docking and 3D quantitative structure activity relationship (3D QSAR) studies involving comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed on 31 molecules. Ligands were built and minimized using Tripos force field and applying Gasteiger-Hückel charges. These ligands were docked into protein active site using GLIDE 4.0. The docked poses were analyzed; the best docked poses were selected and aligned. CoMFA and CoMSIA fields were calculated using SYBYL6.9. The molecules were divided into training set and test set, a PLS analysis was performed and QSAR models were generated. The model showed good statistical reliability which is evident from the r2 nv, q2 loo and r2 pred values. The CoMFA model provides the most significant correlation of steric and electrostatic fields with biological activities. The CoMSIA model provides a correlation of steric, electrostatic, acceptor and hydrophobic fields with biological activities. The information rendered by 3D QSAR model initiated us to optimize the lead and design new potential inhibitors.

  1. Structural studies of series HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors 1-(2,6-difluorobenzyl)-2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-benzimidazoles with different 4-substituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2010-03-01

    Over the past 10 years, several anti-viral drugs have become available to fight the HIV infection. Antiretroviral treatment reduces the mortality of AIDS. Nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase are specific and potentially nontoxic drugs against AIDS. The crystal structures of five nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase are presented here. The structural parameters, especially those describing the angular orientation of the π-electron systems and influencing biological activity, were determined for all of the investigated inhibitors. The chemical character and orientation of the substituent at C4 position of the benzimidazole moiety substantially influences the anti-viral activity. The structural data of the investigated inhibitors is a good basis for modeling enzyme-inhibitor interactions for structure-assisted drug design.

  2. Evolving uses of oral reverse transcriptase inhibitors in the HIV-1 epidemic: From treatment to prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.K. Gupta (Ravindra); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); S. Manicklal (Sheetal); M.A. Wainberg (Mark)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe HIV epidemic continues unabated, with no highly effective vaccine and no cure. Each new infection has significant economic, social and human costs and prevention efforts are now as great a priority as global antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale up. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the

  3. Antitumor Activity and Mechanism of a Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Dapivirine, in Glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weiwen; Song, Xian-lu; Zhao, Shan-chao; He, Minyi; Wang, Hai; Chen, Ziyang; Xiang, Wei; Yi, Guozhong; Qi, Songtao; Liu, Yawei

    2018-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Dapivirine is one of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs). It is the prototype of diarylpyrimidines (DAPY), formerly known as TMC120 or DAPY R147681 (IUPAC name: 4- [[4-(2, 4, 6-trimethylphenyl) amino]-2-pyrimidinyl] amino]-benzonitrile; CAS no.244767-67-7). Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of dapivirine, one of the RTIs, on U87 glioblastoma (GBM) cells in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: U87 GBM cells were cul...

  4. Structure of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Q151M mutant: insights into the inhibitor resistance of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the structure of the nucleotide-binding pocket of Hepatitis B virus polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tamura, Noriko; Yasutake, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Q151M mutant was determined at a resolution of 2.6 Å in space group P321. Hepatitis B virus polymerase (HBV Pol) is an important target for anti-HBV drug development; however, its low solubility and stability in vitro has hindered detailed structural studies. Certain nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) such as tenofovir and lamivudine can inhibit both HBV Pol and Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RT, leading to speculation on structural and mechanistic analogies between the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP)-binding sites of these enzymes. The Q151M mutation in HIV-1 RT, located at the dNTP-binding site, confers resistance to various NRTIs, while maintaining sensitivity to tenofovir and lamivudine. The residue corresponding to Gln151 is strictly conserved as a methionine in HBV Pol. Therefore, the structure of the dNTP-binding pocket of the HIV-1 RT Q151M mutant may reflect that of HBV Pol. Here, the crystal structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M, determined at 2.6 Å resolution, in a new crystal form with space group P321 is presented. Although the structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M superimposes well onto that of HIV-1 RT in a closed conformation, a slight movement of the β-strands (β2–β3) that partially create the dNTP-binding pocket was observed. This movement might be caused by the introduction of the bulky thioether group of Met151. The structure also highlighted the possibility that the hydrogen-bonding network among amino acids and NRTIs is rearranged by the Q151M mutation, leading to a difference in the affinity of NRTIs for HIV-1 RT and HBV Pol

  5. Structure of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Q151M mutant: insights into the inhibitor resistance of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the structure of the nucleotide-binding pocket of Hepatitis B virus polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tamura, Noriko; Yasutake, Yoshiaki, E-mail: y-yasutake@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2-17-2-1 Tsukisamu-Higashi, Toyohira, Sapporo, Hokkaido 062-8517 (Japan)

    2015-10-23

    The structure of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Q151M mutant was determined at a resolution of 2.6 Å in space group P321. Hepatitis B virus polymerase (HBV Pol) is an important target for anti-HBV drug development; however, its low solubility and stability in vitro has hindered detailed structural studies. Certain nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) such as tenofovir and lamivudine can inhibit both HBV Pol and Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RT, leading to speculation on structural and mechanistic analogies between the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP)-binding sites of these enzymes. The Q151M mutation in HIV-1 RT, located at the dNTP-binding site, confers resistance to various NRTIs, while maintaining sensitivity to tenofovir and lamivudine. The residue corresponding to Gln151 is strictly conserved as a methionine in HBV Pol. Therefore, the structure of the dNTP-binding pocket of the HIV-1 RT Q151M mutant may reflect that of HBV Pol. Here, the crystal structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M, determined at 2.6 Å resolution, in a new crystal form with space group P321 is presented. Although the structure of HIV-1 RT Q151M superimposes well onto that of HIV-1 RT in a closed conformation, a slight movement of the β-strands (β2–β3) that partially create the dNTP-binding pocket was observed. This movement might be caused by the introduction of the bulky thioether group of Met151. The structure also highlighted the possibility that the hydrogen-bonding network among amino acids and NRTIs is rearranged by the Q151M mutation, leading to a difference in the affinity of NRTIs for HIV-1 RT and HBV Pol.

  6. 4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine, MK-8591: a novel HIV-1 reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Martin; Sarafianos, Stefan G

    2018-07-01

    4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with a novel mechanism of action, unique structure, and amongst NRTIs, unparalleled anti-HIV-1 activity. We will summarize its structure and function, antiviral activity, resistance profile, and potential as an antiretroviral for use in the treatment and preexposure prophylaxis of HIV-1 infection. EFdA is active against wild-type (EC50 as low as 50 pmol/l) and most highly NRTI-resistant viruses. The active metabolite, EFdA-triphosphate, has been shown to have a prolonged intracellular half-life in human and rhesus (Rh) blood cells. As a result, single drug doses tested in simian immunodeficiency virus mac251-infected Rh macaques and HIV-1-infected individuals exhibited robust antiviral activity of 7-10 days duration. Preclinical studies of EFdA as preexposure prophylaxis in the Rh macaque/simian/human immunodeficiency virus low-dose intrarectal challenge model have shown complete protection when given in clinically relevant doses. EFdA is a novel antiretroviral with activity against both wild-type and NRTI-resistant viruses. As a result of the prolonged intracellular half-life of its active moiety, it is amenable to flexibility in dosing of at least daily to weekly and perhaps longer.

  7. Polyurethane intravaginal ring for controlled delivery of dapivirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kavita M; Pearce, Serena M; Poursaid, Azadeh E; Aliyar, Hyder A; Tresco, Patrick A; Mitchnik, Mark A; Kiser, Patrick F

    2008-10-01

    Women-controlled methods for prevention of male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV-1 are urgently needed. Providing inhibitory concentrations of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors to impede the replication of the virus in the female genital tissue offers a mechanism for prophylaxis of HIV-1. To this end, an intravaginal ring device that can provide long duration delivery of dapivirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV-1, was developed utilizing a medical-grade polyether urethane. Monolithic intravaginal rings were fabricated and sustained release with cumulative flux linear with time was demonstrated under sink conditions for a period of 30 days. The release rate was directly proportional to the amount of drug loaded. Another release study conducted for a week utilizing liposome dispersions as sink conditions, to mimic the partitioning of dapivirine into vaginal tissue, also demonstrated release rates constant with time. These results qualify polyether urethanes for development of intravaginal rings for sustained delivery of microbicidal agents. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  8. The development of HEPT-type HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and its implications for DABO family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenmin; Zhan, Peng; Wu, Jingde; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Xinyong

    2012-01-01

    1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT) was discovered as the first HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in 1989. The research on HEPT derivatives (HEPTs) has been lasted for more than 20 years and HEPT family is probably the most investigated NNRTI. Extensive molecular modifications on HEPT have led to many highly potent compounds with broad-resistance spectrum and optimal pharmacokinetic profiles. Moreover, X-crystallographic studies of HEPTs/RT complexes revealed the binding mode of HEPTs and the action mechanism of NNRTI, which has greatly facilitated the design of novel NNRTIs. Recently, the development of HEPTs was accelerated by the application of the "follow-on"-based chemical evolution strategies, such as designed multiple ligands (DMLs) and molecular hybridization (MH). Herein, this article will provide an insight into the development of HEPTs, including structural modifications, crystal structure of RT complexed with HEPTs and its structure-activity relationship (SAR). Additionally, this review also covers the emerging HEPT related dual inhibitors and HEPT-pyridinone hybrids, as well as the contributions of HEPTs to the development of dihydro-alkoxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidine (DABO) family, thus highlighting the importance of HEPTs on the development of NNRTIs.

  9. Evaluation of nevirapine and/or hydroxyurea with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckenberg, Daniel H.; Wood, Robin; Horban, Andrzej; Beniowski, Marek; Boron-Kaczmarska, Anna; Trocha, Hanna; Halota, Waldemar; Schmidt, Reinhold E.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Jessen, Heiko; Lange, Joep M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of adding nevirapine (NVP) and/or hydroxyurea (HU) to a triple nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) regimen in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Methods: HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive adults were randomized, using a factorial design, to add

  10. Update on HIV-1 acquired and transmitted drug resistance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Lihana, Raphael W; Ugoji, Chinenye; Abimiku, Alash'le; Nkengasong, John; Dakum, Patrick; Ndembi, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The last ten years have witnessed a significant scale-up and access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa, which has improved patient quality of life and survival. One major challenge associated with increased access to antiretroviral therapy is the development of antiretroviral resistance due to inconsistent drug supply and/or poor patient adherence. We review the current state of both acquired and transmitted drug resistance in Africa over the past ten years (2001-2011) to identify drug resistance associated with the different drug regimens used on the continent and to help guide affordable strategies for drug resistance surveillance. A total of 161 references (153 articles, six reports and two conference abstracts) were reviewed. Antiretroviral resistance data was available for 40 of 53 African countries. A total of 5,541 adult patients from 99 studies in Africa were included in this analysis. The pooled prevalence of drug resistance mutations in Africa was 10.6%, and Central Africa had the highest prevalence of 54.9%. The highest prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations was in the west (55.3%) and central (54.8%) areas; nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations were highest in East Africa (57.0%) and protease inhibitors mutations highest in Southern Africa (16.3%). The major nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation in all four African regions was M184V. Major nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor as well as protease inhibitor mutations varied by region. The prevalence of drug resistance has remained low in several African countries although the emergence of drug resistance mutations varied across countries. Continued surveillance of antiretroviral therapy resistance remains crucial in gauging the effectiveness of country antiretroviral therapy programs and strategizing on effective and affordable strategies for successful treatment.

  11. Design, synthesis and antiviral evaluation of novel heteroarylcarbothioamide derivatives as dual inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-associated RNase H and RDDP functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Angela; Onnis, Valentina; Deplano, Alessandro; Bianco, Giulia; Demurtas, Monica; Distinto, Simona; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Alcaro, Stefano; Esposito, Francesca; Tramontano, Enzo

    2017-08-31

    In the continuous effort to identify new HIV-1 inhibitors endowed with innovative mechanisms, the dual inhibition of different viral functions would provide a significant advantage against drug-resistant variants. The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) is the only viral-encoded enzymatic activity that still lacks an efficient inhibitor. We synthesized a library of 3,5-diamino-N-aryl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbothioamide and 4-amino-5-benzoyl-N-phenyl-2-(substituted-amino)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbothioamide derivatives and tested them against RNase H activity. We identified the pyrazolecarbothioamide derivative A15, able to inhibit viral replication and both RNase H and RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP) RT-associated activities in the low micromolar range. Docking simulations hypothesized its binding to two RT pockets. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that, with respect to wt RT, V108A substitution strongly reduced A15 IC50 values (12.6-fold for RNase H inhibition and 4.7-fold for RDDP), while substitution A502F caused a 9.0-fold increase in its IC50 value for RNase H, not affecting the RDDP inhibition, reinforcing the hypothesis of a dual-site inhibition. Moreover, A15 retained good inhibition potency against three non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant enzymes, confirming a mode of action unrelated to NNRTIs and suggesting its potential as a lead compound for development of new HIV-1 RT dual inhibitors active against drug-resistant viruses. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Diaryltriazine non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are potent candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis in the prevention of sexual HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariën, Kevin K; Venkatraj, Muthusamy; Michiels, Johan; Joossens, Jurgen; Vereecken, Katleen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Abdellati, Saïd; Cuylaerts, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Heyndrickx, Leo; Heeres, Jan; Augustyns, Koen; Lewi, Paul J; Vanham, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis and topical microbicides are important strategies in the prevention of sexual HIV transmission, especially since partial protection has been shown in proof-of-concept studies. In search of new candidate drugs with an improved toxicity profile and with activity against common non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant HIV, we have synthesized and investigated a library of 60 new diaryltriazine analogues. From this library, 15 compounds were evaluated in depth using a broad armamentarium of in vitro assays that are part of a preclinical testing algorithm for microbicide development. Antiviral activity was assessed in a cell line, and in primary human cells, against both subtype B and subtype C HIV-1 and against viruses resistant to therapeutic NNRTIs and the candidate NNRTI microbicide dapivirine. Toxicity towards primary blood-derived cells, cell lines originating from the female reproductive tract and female genital microflora was also studied. We identified several compounds with highly potent antiviral activity and toxicity profiles that are superior to that of dapivirine. In particular, compound UAMC01398 is an interesting new candidate that warrants further investigation because of its superior toxicity profile and potent activity against dapivirine-resistant viruses.

  13. Susceptibility of recombinant porcine endogenous retrovirus reverse transcriptase to nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, M; Fishman, J A; Pontikis, R; Aubertin, A M; Wilhelm, F X

    2002-12-01

    Transplantation of organs, tissues or cells from pigs to humans could be a potential solution to the shortage of human organs for transplantation. Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) remain a major safety concern for porcine xenotransplantation. Thus, finding drugs that could be used as virological prophylaxis (or therapy) against PERV replication would be desirable. One of the most effective ways to block retroviral multiplication is to inhibit the enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) which catalyzes the reverse transcription of viral RNA to proviral double-stranded DNA. We report here the cloning and expression of PERV RT and its susceptibility to several inhibitors. Our data demonstrate PERV susceptibility in vitro to the triphosphorylated nucleoside analog of zidovudine (AZT) and to ddGTP and to a lesser extent to ddTTP but almost no susceptibility to the non-nucleoside RT inhibitors tested.

  14. Resistance Analyses of Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors within Phase 3 Clinical Trials of Treatment-Naive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L. White

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The integrase (IN strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs, raltegravir (RAL, elvitegravir (EVG and dolutegravir (DTG, comprise the newest drug class approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, which joins the existing classes of reverse transcriptase, protease and binding/entry inhibitors. The efficacy of first-line regimens has attained remarkably high levels, reaching undetectable viral loads in 90% of patients by Week 48; however, there remain patients who require a change in regimen due to adverse events, virologic failure with emergent resistance or other issues of patient management. Large, randomized clinical trials conducted in antiretroviral treatment-naive individuals are required for drug approval in this population in the US, EU and other countries, with the primary endpoint for virologic success at Week 48. However, there are differences in the definition of virologic failure and the evaluation of drug resistance among the trials. This review focuses on the methodology and tabulation of resistance to INSTIs in phase 3 clinical trials of first-line regimens and discusses case studies of resistance.

  15. Structural and Preclinical Studies of Computationally Designed Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors for Treating HIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudalkar, Shalley N.; Beloor, Jagadish; Chan, Albert H.; Lee, Won-Gil; Jorgensen, William L.; Kumar, Priti; Anderson, Karen S.

    2017-02-06

    The clinical benefits of HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) are hindered by their unsatisfactory pharmacokinetic (PK) properties along with the rapid development of drug-resistant variants. However, the clinical efficacy of these inhibitors can be improved by developing compounds with enhanced pharmacological profiles and heightened antiviral activity. We used computational and structure-guided design to develop two next-generation NNRTI drug candidates, compounds I and II, which are members of a class of catechol diethers. We evaluated the preclinical potential of these compounds in BALB/c mice because of their high solubility (510 µg/ml for compound I and 82.9 µg/ml for compound II), low cytotoxicity, and enhanced antiviral activity against wild-type (WT) HIV-1 RT and resistant variants. Additionally, crystal structures of compounds I and II with WT RT suggested an optimal binding to the NNRTI binding pocket favoring the high anti-viral potency. A single intraperitoneal dose of compounds I and II exhibited a prolonged serum residence time of 48 hours and concentration maximum (Cmax) of 4000- to 15,000-fold higher than their therapeutic/effective concentrations. These Cmax values were 4- to 15-fold lower than their cytotoxic concentrations observed in MT-2 cells. Compound II showed an enhanced area under the curve (0–last) and decreased plasma clearance over compound I and efavirenz, the standard of care NNRTI. Hence, the overall (PK) profile of compound II was excellent compared with that of compound I and efavirenz. Furthermore, both compounds were very well tolerated in BALB/c mice without any detectable acute toxicity. Taken together, these data suggest that compounds I and II possess improved anti-HIV-1 potency, remarkable in vivo safety, and prolonged in vivo circulation time, suggesting strong potential for further development as new NNRTIs for the potential treatment of HIV infection.

  16. Standardized comparison of the relative impacts of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on nucleoside RT inhibitor susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikian, George L; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Taylor, Jonathan; Fessel, W Jeffrey; Kaufman, David; Towner, William; Troia-Cancio, Paolo V; Zolopa, Andrew; Robbins, Gregory K; Kagan, Ron; Israelski, Dennis; Shafer, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Determining the phenotypic impacts of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on individual nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) has remained a statistical challenge because clinical NRTI-resistant HIV-1 isolates usually contain multiple mutations, often in complex patterns, complicating the task of determining the relative contribution of each mutation to HIV drug resistance. Furthermore, the NRTIs have highly variable dynamic susceptibility ranges, making it difficult to determine the relative effect of an RT mutation on susceptibility to different NRTIs. In this study, we analyzed 1,273 genotyped HIV-1 isolates for which phenotypic results were obtained using the PhenoSense assay (Monogram, South San Francisco, CA). We used a parsimonious feature selection algorithm, LASSO, to assess the possible contributions of 177 mutations that occurred in 10 or more isolates in our data set. We then used least-squares regression to quantify the impact of each LASSO-selected mutation on each NRTI. Our study provides a comprehensive view of the most common NRTI resistance mutations. Because our results were standardized, the study provides the first analysis that quantifies the relative phenotypic effects of NRTI resistance mutations on each of the NRTIs. In addition, the study contains new findings on the relative impacts of thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) on susceptibility to abacavir and tenofovir; the impacts of several known but incompletely characterized mutations, including E40F, V75T, Y115F, and K219R; and a tentative role in reduced NRTI susceptibility for K64H, a novel NRTI resistance mutation.

  17. Comparative analysis of drug resistance mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase gene in patients who are non-responsive, responsive and naive to antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misbah, Mohammad; Roy, Gaurav; Shahid, Mudassar; Nag, Nalin; Kumar, Suresh; Husain, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Drug resistance mutations in the Pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) are one of the critical factors associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure in HIV-1 patients. The issue of resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) in HIV infection has not been adequately addressed in the Indian subcontinent. We compared HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) gene sequences to identify mutations present in HIV-1 patients who were ART non-responders, ART responders and drug naive. Genotypic drug resistance testing was performed by sequencing a 655-bp region of the RT gene from 102 HIV-1 patients, consisting of 30 ART-non-responding, 35 ART-responding and 37 drug-naive patients. The Stanford HIV Resistance Database (HIVDBv 6.2), IAS-USA mutation list, ANRS_09/2012 algorithm, and Rega v8.02 algorithm were used to interpret the pattern of drug resistance. The majority of the sequences (96 %) belonged to subtype C, and a few of them (3.9 %) to subtype A1. The frequency of drug resistance mutations observed in ART-non-responding, ART-responding and drug-naive patients was 40.1 %, 10.7 % and 20.58 %, respectively. It was observed that in non-responders, multiple mutations were present in the same patient, while in responders, a single mutation was found. Some of the drug-naive patients had more than one mutation. Thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), however, were found in non-responders and naive patients but not in responders. Although drug resistance mutations were widely distributed among ART non-responders, the presence of resistance mutations in the viruses of drug-naive patients poses a big concern in the absence of a genotyping resistance test.

  18. Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugach, Pavel; Ketas, Thomas J.; Michael, Elizabeth; Moore, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The small molecule CCR5 inhibitors are a new class of drugs for treating infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). They act by binding to the CCR5 co-receptor and preventing its use during HIV-1-cell fusion. Escape mutants can be raised against CCR5 inhibitors in vitro and will arise when these drugs are used clinically. Here, we have assessed the responses of CCR5 inhibitor-resistant viruses to other anti-retroviral drugs that act by different mechanisms, and their sensitivities to neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The rationale for the latter study is that the resistance pathway for CCR5 inhibitors involves changes in the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env), which are also targets for NAbs. The escape mutants CC101.19 and D1/85.16 were selected for resistance to AD101 and vicriviroc (VVC), respectively, from the primary R5 HIV-1 isolate CC1/85. Each escape mutant was cross-resistant to other small molecule CCR5 inhibitors (aplaviroc, maraviroc, VVC, AD101 and CMPD 167), but sensitive to protein ligands of CCR5: the modified chemokine PSC-RANTES and the humanized MAb PRO-140. The resistant viruses also retained wild-type sensitivity to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) zidovudine, the non-nucleoside RTI nevirapine, the protease inhibitor atazanavir and other attachment and fusion inhibitors that act independently of CCR5 (BMS-806, PRO-542 and enfuvirtide). Of note is that the escape mutants were more sensitive than the parental CC1/85 isolate to a subset of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and to some sera from HIV-1-infected people, implying that sequence changes in Env that confer resistance to CCR5 inhibitors can increase the accessibility of some NAb epitopes. The need to preserve NAb resistance may therefore be a constraint upon how escape from CCR5 inhibitors occurs in vivo

  19. Discovery of dapivirine, a nonnucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor, as a broad-spectrum antiviral against both influenza A and B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanmei; Zhang, Jiantao; Musharrafieh, Rami Ghassan; Ma, Chunlong; Hau, Raymond; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant influenza viruses poses a persistent threat to public health. The current prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions for influenza virus infection have limited efficacy due to the continuous antigenic drift and antigenic shift of influenza viruses. As part of our ongoing effort to develop the next generation of influenza antivirals with broad-spectrum antiviral activity and a high genetic barrier to drug resistance, in this study we report the discovery of dapivirine, an FDA-approved HIV nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, as a broad-spectrum antiviral against multiple strains of influenza A and B viruses with low micromolar efficacy. Mechanistic studies revealed that dapivirine inhibits the nuclear entry of viral ribonucleoproteins at the early stage of viral replication. As a result, viral RNA and protein synthesis were inhibited. Furthermore, dapivirine has a high in vitro genetic barrier to drug resistance, and its antiviral activity is synergistic with oseltamivir carboxylate. In summary, the in vitro antiviral results of dapivirine suggest it is a promising candidate for the development of the next generation of dual influenza and HIV antivirals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural optimization of N1-aryl-benzimidazoles for the discovery of new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors active against wild-type and mutant HIV-1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Anna Maria; De Luca, Laura; Buemi, Maria Rosa; Agharbaoui, Fatima E; Pannecouque, Christophe; Ferro, Stefania

    2018-02-01

    Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are recommended components of preferred combination antiretroviral therapies used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These regimens are extremely effective in suppressing virus replication. Recently, our research group identified some N 1 -aryl-2-arylthioacetamido-benzimidazoles as a novel class of NNRTIs. In this research work we report the design, the synthesis and the structure-activity relationship studies of new compounds (20-34) in which some structural modifications have been introduced in order to investigate their effects on reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition and to better define the features needed to increase the antiviral activity. Most of the new compounds proved to be highly effective in inhibiting both RT enzyme at nanomolar concentrations and HIV-1 replication in MT4 cells with minimal cytotoxicity. Among them, the most promising N 1 -aryl-2-arylthioacetamido-benzimidazoles and N 1 -aryl-2-aryloxyacetamido-benzimidazoles were also tested toward a panel of single- and double-mutants strain responsible for resistance to NNRTIs, showing in vitro antiviral activity toward single mutants L100I, K103N, Y181C, Y188L and E138K. The best results were observed for derivatives 29 and 33 active also against the double mutants F227L and V106A. Computational approaches were applied in order to rationalize the potency of the new synthesized inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel (2,6-difluorophenyl)(2-(phenylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl) methanones with restricted conformation as potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors against HIV-1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Petr; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Šaman, David; Stepan, G.; Hu, E.; Lansdon, E. B.; Jansa, P.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, Oct 21 (2016), s. 185-195 ISSN 0223-5234 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : diarylpyrimidine (DAPY) * etravirine * human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) * non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors * NNRTIs * rilpivirine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.519, year: 2016

  2. Comparison of single and boosted protease inhibitor versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing cART regimens in antiretroviral-naïve patients starting cART after January 1, 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Horban, A; Clumeck, N

    2006-01-01

    increase) response in antiretroviral-naïve patients starting either a single protease inhibitor (PI; n = 183), a ritonavir-boosted PI regimen (n = 197), or a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based cART regimen (n = 447) after January 1, 2000, and the odds of lack of virologic...... or immunologic response at 3 years after starting cART. METHOD: Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression. RESULTS: After adjustment, compared to patients taking an NNRTI-regimen, patients taking a single-PI regimen were significantly less likely to achieve a viral load (VL)

  3. Characterization of Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Associated Mutations in the RNase H Region of HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcapu, Sinaye; Theys, Kristof; Libin, Pieter; Marconi, Vincent C; Sunpath, Henry; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Gordon, Michelle L

    2017-11-08

    The South African national treatment programme includes nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in both first and second line highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens. Mutations in the RNase H domain have been associated with resistance to NRTIs but primarily in HIV-1 subtype B studies. Here, we investigated the prevalence and association of RNase H mutations with NRTI resistance in sequences from HIV-1 subtype C infected individuals. RNase H sequences from 112 NRTI treated but virologically failing individuals and 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals were generated and analysed. In addition, sequences from 359 subtype C ART-naive sequences were downloaded from Los Alamos database to give a total of 387 sequences from ART-naive individuals for the analysis. Fisher's exact test was used to identify mutations and Bayesian network learning was applied to identify novel NRTI resistance mutation pathways in RNase H domain. The mutations A435L, S468A, T470S, L484I, A508S, Q509L, L517I, Q524E and E529D were more prevalent in sequences from treatment-experienced compared to antiretroviral treatment naive individuals, however, only the E529D mutation remained significant after correction for multiple comparison. Our findings suggest a potential interaction between E529D and NRTI-treatment; however, site-directed mutagenesis is needed to understand the impact of this RNase H mutation.

  4. Complete inactivation of HIV-1 using photo-labeled non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Adan; Quesada, Jorge; Anderson, Dallas; Goldstein, Allan; Fossum, Theresa; Colby-Germinario, Susan; Wainberg, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that a photo-labeled derivative of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) dapivirine termed DAPY, when used together with exposure to ultraviolet light, was able to completely and irreversibly inactivate both HIV-1 RT activity as well as infectiousness in each of a T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Control experiments using various concentrations of DAPY revealed that a combination of exposure to ultraviolet light together with use of the specific, high affinity photo-labeled compound was necessary for complete inactivation to occur. This method of HIV RT inactivation may have applicability toward preservation of an intact viral structure and warrants further investigation in regard to the potential of this approach to elicit a durable, broad protective immune response. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutation V111I in HIV-2 reverse transcriptase increases the fitness of the nucleoside analogue-resistant K65R and Q151M viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Deuzing (Ilona); C. Charpentier (Charlotte); D.J. Wright (David Justin); S. Matheron (Sophie); J. Paton (Jack); D. Frentz (Dineke); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); P.V. Coveney (Peter); D. Descamps (Diane); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); N. Beerens (Nancy)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractInfection with HIV-2 can ultimately lead to AIDS, although disease progression is much slower than with HIV-1. HIV-2 patients are mostly treated with a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) and protease inhibitors designed for HIV-1. Many studies have

  6. N348I in the connection domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confers zidovudine and nevirapine resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Huey Yap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The catalytically active 66-kDa subunit of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT consists of DNA polymerase, connection, and ribonuclease H (RNase H domains. Almost all known RT inhibitor resistance mutations identified to date map to the polymerase domain of the enzyme. However, the connection and RNase H domains are not routinely analysed in clinical samples and none of the genotyping assays available for patient management sequence the entire RT coding region. The British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (the Centre genotypes clinical isolates up to codon 400 in RT, and our retrospective statistical analyses of the Centre's database have identified an N348I mutation in the RT connection domain in treatment-experienced individuals. The objective of this multidisciplinary study was to establish the in vivo relevance of this mutation and its role in drug resistance.The prevalence of N348I in clinical isolates, the time taken for it to emerge under selective drug pressure, and its association with changes in viral load, specific drug treatment, and known drug resistance mutations was analysed from genotypes, viral loads, and treatment histories from the Centre's database. N348I increased in prevalence from below 1% in 368 treatment-naïve individuals to 12.1% in 1,009 treatment-experienced patients (p = 7.7 x 10(-12. N348I appeared early in therapy and was highly associated with thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs M41L and T215Y/F (p < 0.001, the lamivudine resistance mutations M184V/I (p < 0.001, and non-nucleoside RTI (NNRTI resistance mutations K103N and Y181C/I (p < 0.001. The association with TAMs and NNRTI resistance mutations was consistent with the selection of N348I in patients treated with regimens that included both zidovudine and nevirapine (odds ratio 2.62, 95% confidence interval 1.43-4.81. The appearance of N348I was associated with a significant increase in viral load (p < 0.001, which

  7. Molecular Phylogenetics of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 Individuals in Denmark, a Nation-Wide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...... resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V...

  8. Molecular phylogenetics of transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV Type 1 individuals in Denmark: a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...... resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V...

  9. Low prevalence of primary HIV resistance in western Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarikov, Dmitri E; Irizarry-Acosta, Melina; Martorell, Claudia; Hoffman, Robert P; Skiest, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of primary antiretroviral (ARV) resistance have been conducted in large metropolitan areas with reported rates of 8% to 25%. We collected data on 99 HIV-1-infected antiretroviral-naive patients from several sites in Springfield, MA, who underwent genotypic resistance assay between 2004 and 2008. Only major resistance mutations per International AIDS Society-USA (IAS-USA) drug resistance mutations list were considered. The prevalence of resistance was 5% (5 of 99). Three patients had one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation: 103N, 103N, and 190A, 1 patient had a protease inhibitor (PI) mutation: 90M; and 1 patient had 3-class resistance with NNRTI: 181C, 190A, PI: 90M, and nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI): 41L, 210W. Mean time from HIV diagnosis to resistance testing was shorter in patients with resistance versus those without: 9 (range 0.3-42 months) versus 27 (range 0.1-418 months), P = .11. There was a trend to lower mean CD4 count in those with resistance, 170 versus 318 cells/mm(3), P = .06. No differences were noted in gender, age, HIV risk category, or HIV RNA level. The low prevalence of primary resistance may be explained by differences in demographic and risk factors or may reflect the time from infection to resistance testing. Our findings emphasize the importance of continued resistance surveillance.

  10. Dideoxynucleoside HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors and drug-related hepatotoxicity: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapadula Giuseppe

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report regards the case of a 43 year-old HIV-positive woman who developed an episode of serious transaminase elevation during stavudine-including antiretroviral therapy. Diagnostic assessment ruled out hepatitis virus co-infection, alcohol abuse besides other possible causes of liver damage. No signs of lactic acidosis were present. Liver biopsy showed portal inflammatory infiltrate, spotty necrosis, vacuoles of macro- and micro-vesicular steatosis, acidophil and foamy hepatocytes degeneration with organelles clumping, poorly formed Mallory bodies and neutrophil granulocytes attraction (satellitosis. A dramatic improvement in liver function tests occurred when stavudine was discontinued and a new antiretroviral regimen with different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was used. The importance of considering hepatotoxicity as an adverse event of HAART including stavudine, even in absence of other signs of mitochondrial toxicity should therefore be underlined. Liver biopsy may provide further important information regarding patients with severe transaminase elevation, for a better understanding of the etiology of liver damage.

  11. Prediction of the binding mode and resistance profile for a dual-target pyrrolyl diketo acid scaffold against HIV-1 integrase and reverse-transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengyuan; Zheng, Guoxun; Fu, Tingting; Li, Xiaofeng; Tu, Gao; Li, Ying Hong; Yao, Xiaojun; Xue, Weiwei; Zhu, Feng

    2018-06-27

    The rapid emergence of drug-resistant variants is one of the most common causes of highly active antiretroviral therapeutic (HAART) failure in patients infected with HIV-1. Compared with the existing HAART, the recently developed pyrrolyl diketo acid scaffold targeting both HIV-1 integrase (IN) and reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) is an efficient approach to counteract the failure of anti-HIV treatment due to drug resistance. However, the binding mode and potential resistance profile of these inhibitors with important mechanistic principles remain poorly understood. To address this issue, an integrated computational method was employed to investigate the binding mode of inhibitor JMC6F with HIV-1 IN and RNase H. By using per-residue binding free energy decomposition analysis, the following residues: Asp64, Thr66, Leu68, Asp116, Tyr143, Gln148 and Glu152 in IN, Asp443, Glu478, Trp536, Lys541 and Asp549 in RNase H were identified as key residues for JMC6F binding. And then computational alanine scanning was carried to further verify the key residues. Moreover, the resistance profile of the currently known major mutations in HIV-1 IN and 2 mutations in RNase H against JMC6F was predicted by in silico mutagenesis studies. The results demonstrated that only three mutations in HIV-1 IN (Y143C, Q148R and N155H) and two mutations in HIV-1 RNase H (Y501R and Y501W) resulted in a reduction of JMC6F potency, thus indicating their potential role in providing resistance to JMC6F. These data provided important insights into the binding mode and resistance profile of the inhibitors with a pyrrolyl diketo acid scaffold in HIV-1 IN and RNase H, which would be helpful for the development of more effective dual HIV-1 IN and RNase H inhibitors.

  12. A trypsin inhibitor from rambutan seeds with antitumor, anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, and nitric oxide-inducing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-04-01

    Nephelium lappaceum L., commonly known as "rambutan," is a typical tropical tree and is well known for its juicy and sweet fruit which has an exotic flavor. Chemical studies on rambutan have led to the identification of various components such as monoterpene lactones and volatile compounds. Here, a 22.5-kDa trypsin inhibitor (N . lappaceum trypsin inhibitor (NLTI)) was isolated from fresh rambutan seeds using liquid chromatographical techniques. NLTI reduced the proteolytic activities of both trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. Dithiothreitol reduced the trypsin inhibitory activity of NLTI at a concentration of 1 mM, indicating that an intact disulfide bond is essential to the activity. NLTI inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 0.73 μM. In addition, NLTI manifested a time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on growth in many tumor cells. NLTI is one of the few trypsin inhibitors with nitric oxide-inducing activity and may find application in tumor therapy.

  13. High Levels of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in a Study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavu, Evelyn; Kave, Ellan; Mosoro, Euodia; Markby, Jessica; Aleksic, Eman; Gare, Janet; Elsum, Imogen A; Nano, Gideon; Kaima, Petronia; Dala, Nick; Gurung, Anup; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Crowe, Suzanne M; Myatt, Mark; Hearps, Anna C; Jordan, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is a Pacific Island nation of 7.3 million people with an estimated HIV prevalence of 0.8%. ART initiation and monitoring are guided by clinical staging and CD4 cell counts, when available. Little is known about levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in recently infected individuals in Papua New Guinea. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a total of 123 individuals recently infected with HIV and aged less than 30 years was implemented in Port Moresby (n = 62) and Mount Hagen (n = 61) during the period May 2013-April 2014. HIV drug resistance testing was performed using dried blood spots. Transmitted HIV drug resistance was defined by the presence of one or more drug resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance drug resistance mutations list. The prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 16.1% (95% CI 8.8%-27.4%) and 8.2% (95% CI 3.2%-18.2%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 3.2% (95% CI 0.2%-11.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI 0.2%-11.8%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. No protease inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was observed. The level of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance in antiretroviral drug naïve individuals recently infected with HIV in Port Moresby is amongst the highest reported globally. This alarming level of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a young sexually active population threatens to limit the on-going effective use of NNRTIs as a component of first-line ART in Papua New Guinea. To support the choice of nationally recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy, representative surveillance of HIV drug resistance among antiretroviral therapy initiators in Papua New Guinea should be urgently implemented.

  14. TNF α is involved in neuropathic pain induced by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuexing; Ouyang, Handong; Liu, Shue; Mata, Marina; Fink, David J.; Hao, Shuanglin

    2011-01-01

    In patients with HIV/AIDS, neuropathic pain is a common neurological complication. Infection with the HIV itself may lead to neuropathic pain, and painful symptoms are enhanced when patients are treated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). The mechanisms by which NRTIs contribute to the development of neuropathic pain are not known. In the current studies, we tested the role of TNFα in antiretroviral drug-induced neuropathic pain. We administered 2′,3′-dideoxycytidine (ddC, one of the NRTIs) systemically to induce mechanical allodynia. We found that ddC induced overexpression of both mRNA and proteins of GFAP and TNFα in the spinal dorsal horn. TNFα was colocalized with GFAP in the spinal dorsal horn and with NeuN in the DRG. Knockdown of TNFα with siRNA blocked the mechanical allodynia induced by ddC. Intrathecal administration of glial inhibitor or recombinant TNF soluble receptor, reversed mechanical allodynia induced by ddC. These results suggest that TNFα is involved in NRTI-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:21741472

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors UC-781 and TMC120-R147681 as Human Immunodeficiency Virus Microbicides†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herrewege, Yven; Michiels, Jo; Van Roey, Jens; Fransen, Katrien; Kestens, Luc; Balzarini, Jan; Lewi, Paul; Vanham, Guido; Janssen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors UC-781 and TMC120-R147681 (Dapivirine) effectively prevented human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in cocultures of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and T cells, representing primary targets in sexual transmission. Both drugs had a favorable therapeutic index. A 24-h treatment with 1,000 nM UC-781 or 100 nM TMC120-R147681 prevented cell-free HIV infection, whereas 10-fold-higher concentrations blocked cell-associated HIV. PMID:14693562

  16. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by the candidate microbicide dapivirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, P; Harman, S; Azijn, H; Armanasco, N; Manlow, P; Perumal, D; de Bethune, M-P; Nuttall, J; Romano, J; Shattock, R

    2009-02-01

    Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains the major route of infection worldwide; thus, there is an urgent need for additional prevention strategies, particularly strategies that could be controlled by women, such as topical microbicides. Potential microbicide candidates must be both safe and effective. Using cellular and tissue explant models, we have evaluated the activity of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) dapivirine as a vaginal microbicide. In tissue compatibility studies, dapivirine was well tolerated by epithelial cells, T cells, macrophages, and cervical tissue explants. Dapivirine demonstrated potent dose-dependent inhibitory effects against a broad panel of HIV type 1 isolates from different clades. Furthermore, dapivirine demonstrated potent activity against a wide range of NNRTI-resistant isolates. In human cervical explant cultures, dapivirine was able not only to inhibit direct infection of mucosal tissue but also to prevent the dissemination of the virus by migratory cells. Activity was retained in the presence of semen or a cervical mucus simulant. Furthermore, dapivirine demonstrated prolonged inhibitory effects: it was able to prevent both localized and disseminated infection for as long as 6 days posttreatment. The prolonged protection observed following pretreatment of genital tissue and the lack of observable toxicity suggest that dapivirine has considerable promise as a potential microbicide candidate.

  17. Lower genetic variability of HIV-1 and antiretroviral drug resistance in pregnant women from the state of Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Costa, Iran Barros; Folha, Maria Nazaré; da Luz, Anderson Levy Bessa; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Ishak, Ricardo; Ishak, Marluisa Oliveira Guimarães

    2017-04-12

    The present study aimed to describe the genetic diversity of HIV-1, as well as the resistance profile of the viruses identified in HIV-1 infected pregnant women under antiretroviral therapy in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 45 HIV-1 infected pregnant to determine the virus subtypes according to the HIV-1 protease (PR) gene and part of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) gene by sequencing the nucleotides of these regions. Drug resistance mutations and susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs were analyzed by the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. Out of 45 samples, only 34 could be amplified for PR and 30 for RT. Regarding the PR gene, subtypes B (97.1%) and C (2.9%) were identified; for the RT gene, subtypes B (90.0%), F (6.7%), and C (3.3%) were detected. Resistance to protease inhibitors (PI) was identified in 5.8% of the pregnant, and mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were found in 3.3%, while mutations conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were found in 3.3%. These results showed a low frequency of strains resistant to antiretroviral drugs, the prevalence of subtypes B and F, and the persistent low transmission of subtype C in pregnant of the state of Pará, Brazil.

  18. HIV drug resistance in infants increases with changing prevention of mother-to-child transmission regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lisa K; Chunda-Liyoka, Catherine; Kwon, Eun H; Gondwe, Clement; West, John T; Kankasa, Chipepo; Ndongmo, Clement B; Wood, Charles

    2017-08-24

    The objectives of this study were to determine HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) prevalence in Zambian infants upon diagnosis, and to determine how changing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) drug regimens affect drug resistance. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples from infants in the Lusaka District of Zambia, obtained during routine diagnostic screening, were collected during four different years representing three different PMTCT drug treatment regimens. DNA extracted from dried blood spot samples was used to sequence a 1493 bp region of the reverse transcriptase gene. Sequences were analyzed via the Stanford HIVDRdatabase (http://hivdb.standford.edu) to screen for resistance mutations. HIVDR in infants increased from 21.5 in 2007/2009 to 40.2% in 2014. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance increased steadily over the sampling period, whereas nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance and dual class resistance both increased more than threefold in 2014. Analysis of drug resistance scores in each group revealed increasing strength of resistance over time. In 2014, children with reported PMTCT exposure, defined as infant prophylaxis and/or maternal treatment, showed a higher prevalence and strength of resistance compared to those with no reported exposure. HIVDR is on the rise in Zambia and presents a serious problem for the successful lifelong treatment of HIV-infected children. PMTCT affects both the prevalence and strength of resistance and further research is needed to determine how to mitigate its role leading to resistance.

  19. K70Q adds high-level tenofovir resistance to "Q151M complex" HIV reverse transcriptase through the enhanced discrimination mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Hachiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 carrying the "Q151M complex" reverse transcriptase (RT mutations (A62V/V75I/F77L/F116Y/Q151M, or Q151Mc is resistant to many FDA-approved nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs, but has been considered susceptible to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TFV-DF or TDF. We have isolated from a TFV-DF-treated HIV patient a Q151Mc-containing clinical isolate with high phenotypic resistance to TFV-DF. Analysis of the genotypic and phenotypic testing over the course of this patient's therapy lead us to hypothesize that TFV-DF resistance emerged upon appearance of the previously unreported K70Q mutation in the Q151Mc background. Virological analysis showed that HIV with only K70Q was not significantly resistant to TFV-DF. However, addition of K70Q to the Q151Mc background significantly enhanced resistance to several approved NRTIs, and also resulted in high-level (10-fold resistance to TFV-DF. Biochemical experiments established that the increased resistance to tenofovir is not the result of enhanced excision, as K70Q/Q151Mc RT exhibited diminished, rather than enhanced ATP-based primer unblocking activity. Pre-steady state kinetic analysis of the recombinant enzymes demonstrated that addition of the K70Q mutation selectively decreases the binding of tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP, resulting in reduced incorporation of TFV into the nascent DNA chain. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that changes in the hydrogen bonding pattern in the polymerase active site of K70Q/Q151Mc RT may contribute to the observed changes in binding and incorporation of TFV-DP. The novel pattern of TFV-resistance may help adjust therapeutic strategies for NRTI-experienced patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR mutations.

  20. Susceptibility of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type K to Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Dube, Derek; Fujinaga, Koh; Kaplan, Mark H; Markovitz, David M

    2017-12-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV type K (HERV-K) HML-2 (HK2) family contains proviruses that are the most recent entrants into the human germ line and are transcriptionally active. In HIV-1 infection and cancer, HK2 genes produce retroviral particles that appear to be infectious, yet the replication capacity of these viruses and potential pathogenicity has been difficult to ascertain. In this report, we screened the efficacy of commercially available reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) at inhibiting the enzymatic activity of HK2 RT and HK2 genomic replication. Interestingly, only one provirus, K103, was found to encode a functional RT among those examined. Several nucleoside analogue RTIs (NRTIs) blocked K103 RT activity and consistently inhibited the replication of HK2 genomes. The NRTIs zidovudine (AZT), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), and lamivudine (3TC), and the nucleotide RTI inhibitor tenofovir (TDF), show efficacy in blocking K103 RT. HIV-1-specific nonnucleoside RTIs (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), and integrase inhibitors (IIs) did not affect HK2, except for the NNRTI etravirine (ETV). The inhibition of HK2 infectivity by NRTIs appears to take place at either the reverse transcription step of the viral genome prior to HK2 viral particle formation and/or in the infected cells. Inhibition of HK2 by these drugs will be useful in suppressing HK2 infectivity if these viruses prove to be pathogenic in cancer, neurological disorders, or other diseases associated with HK2. The present studies also elucidate a key aspect of the life cycle of HK2, specifically addressing how they do, and/or did, replicate. IMPORTANCE Endogenous retroviruses are relics of ancestral virus infections in the human genome. The most recent of these infections was caused by HK2. While HK2 often remains silent in the genome, this group of viruses is activated in HIV-1-infected and cancer cells. Recent evidence suggests that these

  1. HIV Salvage Therapy Does Not Require Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Karen T; Smeaton, Laura M; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Andrade, Adriana; Eron, Joseph J; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Johnson, Victoria A; Klingman, Karin L; Ritz, Justin; Hodder, Sally; Santana, Jorge L; Wilkin, Timothy; Haubrich, Richard H

    2015-12-15

    Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are often included in antiretroviral regimens in treatment-experienced patients in the absence of data from randomized trials. To compare treatment success between participants who omit versus those who add NRTIs to an optimized antiretroviral regimen of 3 or more agents. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00537394). Outpatient HIV clinics. Treatment-experienced patients with HIV infection and viral resistance. Open-label optimized regimens (not including NRTIs) were selected on the basis of treatment history and susceptibility testing. Participants were randomly assigned to omit or add NRTIs. The primary efficacy outcome was regimen failure through 48 weeks using a noninferiority margin of 15%. The primary safety outcome was time to initial episode of a severe sign, symptom, or laboratory abnormality before discontinuation of NRTI assignment. 360 participants were randomly assigned, and 93% completed a 48-week visit. The cumulative probability of regimen failure was 29.8% in the omit-NRTIs group versus 25.9% in the add-NRTIs group (difference, 3.2 percentage points [95% CI, -6.1 to 12.5 percentage points]). No significant between-group differences were found in the primary safety end points or the proportion of participants with HIV RNA level less than 50 copies/mL. No deaths occurred in the omit-NRTIs group compared with 7 deaths in the add-NRTIs group. Unblinded study design, and the study may not be applicable to resource-poor settings. Treatment-experienced patients with HIV infection starting a new optimized regimen can safely omit NRTIs without compromising virologic efficacy. Omitting NRTIs will reduce pill burden, cost, and toxicity in this patient population. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, Merck, ViiV Healthcare, Roche, and Monogram Biosciences (LabCorp).

  2. The Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Individuals in Croatia: The Role of Transmission Clusters of Men Who Have Sex with Men Carrying the T215S Surveillance Drug Resistance Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Ivana; Lunar, Maja M.; Poljak, Mario; Vince, Adriana; Vrakela, Ivana Baca; Planinic, Ana; Seme, Katja; Begovac, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in newly diagnosed and treatment-naive HIV-infected patients from Croatia and evaluate a possible contribution of transmission clusters to the spread of resistant virus. The study enrolled treatment-naive HIV-infected patients that entered clinical care at the Croatian Reference Center for HIV/AIDS between 2006 and 2008. The protease gene and a part of the reverse transcriptase gene of the HIV-1 genome were sequenced by using the Trugene HIV-1 Genotyping System. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was analyzed by using the surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) list recommended by the WHO in 2009. We report findings for 118 of 180 eligible patients (65.6% coverage). SDRM were detected in 26 of 118 patients (22.0%) who were infected with subtype B and belonged mostly to the men having sex with men (MSM). The majority of patients with primary resistance carried SDRM associated with resistance to nucleoside analogues reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, 23 of 118 patients, 19.5%). The most frequently found NRTI SDRM was T215S (17 of 118 patients, 14.4%). SDRM associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were detected in three (2.5%) patients and primary resistance to protease inhibitors was not detected. Non-B subtypes were detected in 13/118 patients (11%). A total of 12 transmission pairs and eight distinct transmission clusters were identified with the largest cluster harboring sequences from 19 patients; among them all but two were carrying the T215S mutation. This study showed a high prevalence of TDR in newly diagnosed MSM from Croatia and is an important contribution concerning the relationship between local transmission clusters and the spread of resistant virus. PMID:22906365

  3. Natural Plant Alkaloid (Emetine Inhibits HIV-1 Replication by Interfering with Reverse Transcriptase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Chaves Valadão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipecac alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced in the medicinal plant Psychotria ipecacuanha. Emetine is the main alkaloid of ipecac and one of the active compounds in syrup of Ipecac with emetic property. Here we evaluated emetine’s potential as an antiviral agent against Human Immunodeficiency Virus. We performed in vitro Reverse Transcriptase (RT Assay and Natural Endogenous Reverse Transcriptase Activity Assay (NERT to evaluate HIV RT inhibition. Emetine molecular docking on HIV-1 RT was also analyzed. Phenotypic assays were performed in non-lymphocytic and in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC with HIV-1 wild-type and HIV-harboring RT-resistant mutation to Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (M184V. Our results showed that HIV-1 RT was blocked in the presence of emetine in both models: in vitro reactions with isolated HIV-1 RT and intravirion, measured by NERT. Emetine revealed a strong potential of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in both cellular models, reaching 80% of reduction in HIV-1 infection, with low cytotoxic effect. Emetine also blocked HIV-1 infection of RT M184V mutant. These results suggest that emetine is able to penetrate in intact HIV particles, and bind and block reverse transcription reaction, suggesting that it can be used as anti-HIV microbicide. Taken together, our findings provide additional pharmacological information on the potential therapeutic effects of emetine.

  4. Convergent Akt activation drives acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirstine; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Molina, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations typically benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. However, virtually all patients succumb to acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance that occurs via diverse mechanisms....... The diversity and unpredictability of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms presents a challenge for developing new treatments to overcome EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Here, we show that Akt activation is a convergent feature of acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance......, across a spectrum of diverse, established upstream resistance mechanisms. Combined treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and Akt inhibitor causes apoptosis and synergistic growth inhibition in multiple EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer models. Moreover...

  5. HIV drug resistance following a decade of the free antiretroviral therapy programme in India: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karade, Santosh; Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Sen, Sourav; Joshi, Rajneesh K; Kulkarni, Smita S; Shankar, Subramanian; Gangakhedkar, Raman R

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this review was to assess the burden of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRM) in Indian adults exposed to first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) as per national guidelines. An advanced search of the published literature on HIV drug resistance in India was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases. Data pertaining to age, sex, CD4 count, viral load, and prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)/non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) DRM were extracted from each publication. Year-wise Indian HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were retrieved from the Los Alamos HIV database and mutation analyses were performed. A time trend analysis of the proportion of sequences showing NRTI resistance mutations among individuals exposed to first-line ART was conducted. Overall, 23 studies (1046 unique RT sequences) were identified indicating a prevalence of drug resistance to NRTI and NNRTI. The proportion of RT sequences with any DRM, any NRTI DRM, and any NNRTI DRM was 78.39%, 68.83%, and 73.13%, respectively. The temporal trend analysis of individual DRM from sequences retrieved during 2004-2014 indicated a rising trend in K65R mutations (p=0.013). Although the overall burden of resistance against first-line ART agents remained steady over the study decade, periodic monitoring is essential. There is the need to develop an HIV-1 subtype C-specific resistance database in India. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease and the Emergence of Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Rødtness

    in multi-drug-resistant PRs. Computational analysis of a vast number of inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 PR variants can broaden the knowledge of how and why the mutations arise, which would be a great advantage in the design on resistance-evading inhibitors. Here we present a diverse system to select...... in the virus life cycle has made it a major target for drug development and active site competitive inhibitors have been successful in the battle against HIV. Unfortunately, the massive drug pressure along with high-level replication and lack of proofreading by the viral reverse transcriptase have resulted...... for catalytically active HIV-1 PR in the presence of inhibitor. The system is based on the protein AraC, which regulates transcription of the araA, araB and araD genes necessary for arabinose catabolism in Escherichia coli, and its effectiveness was demonstrated by the isolation of both known and unknown inhibitor-resistant...

  7. Probing the molecular mechanism of action of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) using pre-steady-state kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuoglu, Yagmur; Sohl, Christal D; Mislak, Andrea C; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Sarafianos, Stefan G; Anderson, Karen S

    2014-06-01

    The novel antiretroviral 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a potent nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI). Unlike other FDA-approved NRTIs, EFdA contains a 3'-hydroxyl. Pre-steady-state kinetics showed RT preferred incorporating EFdA-TP over native dATP. Moreover, RT slowly inserted nucleotides past an EFdA-terminated primer, resulting in delayed chain termination with unaffected fidelity. This is distinct from KP1212, another 3'-hydroxyl-containing RT inhibitor considered to promote viral lethal mutagenesis. New mechanistic features of RT inhibition by EFdA are revealed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Rough Set-Based Model of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Resistome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kierczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase (RT is a viral enzyme crucial for HIV-1 replication. Currently, 12 drugs are targeted against the RT. The low fidelity of the RT-mediated transcription leads to the quick accumulation of drug-resistance mutations. The sequence-resistance relationship remains only partially understood. Using publicly available data collected from over 15 years of HIV proteome research, we have created a general and predictive rule-based model of HIV-1 resistance to eight RT inhibitors. Our rough set-based model considers changes in the physicochemical properties of a mutated sequence as compared to the wild-type strain. Thanks to the application of the Monte Carlo feature selection method, the model takes into account only the properties that significantly contribute to the resistance phenomenon. The obtained results show that drug-resistance is determined in more complex way than believed. We confirmed the importance of many resistance-associated sites, found some sites to be less relevant than formerly postulated and— more importantly—identified several previously neglected sites as potentially relevant. By mapping some of the newly discovered sites on the 3D structure of the RT, we were able to suggest possible molecular-mechanisms of drug-resistance. Importantly, our model has the ability to generalize predictions to the previously unseen cases. The study is an example of how computational biology methods can increase our understanding of the HIV-1 resistome.

  9. Molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for inhibiting ribonuclease in reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaotong; Ashley, Jon; Zhou, Tongchang

    2018-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) are synthesized via a solid-phase approach using RNase as the template. The feasibility of employing the nanoMIPs as RNase inhibitor is successfully demonstrated in reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, suggesting the tailor...

  10. Prevalence of Drug-Resistance Mutations and Non–Subtype B Strains Among HIV-Infected Infants From New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchava, Marine; Pulver, Wendy; Smith, Lou; Philpott, Sean; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Wethers, Judith; Parker, Monica M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Prevalence studies indicate that transmission of drug-resistant HIV has been rising in the adult population, but data from the perinatally infected pediatric population are limited. In this retrospective study, we sequenced the pol region of HIV from perinatally infected infants diagnosed in New York State in 2001–2002. Analyses of drug resistance, subtype diversity, and perinatal antiretroviral exposure were conducted, and the results were compared with those from a previous study of HIV-infected infants identified in 1998–1999. Eight of 42 infants (19.1%) had provirus carrying at least 1 drug-resistance mutation, an increase of 58% over the 1998–1999 results. Mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors were detected in 7.1%, 11.9%, and 2.4% of specimens, respectively. Consistent with previous results, perinatal antiretroviral exposure was not associated with drug resistance (P = 0.70). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 16.7% of infants were infected with a non–subtype B strain of HIV. It seems that drug-resistant and non–subtype B strains of HIV are becoming increasingly common in the perinatally infected population. Our results highlight the value of resistance testing for all HIV-infected infants upon diagnosis and the need to consider subtype diversity in diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:16868498

  11. Comparison of genotypic resistance profiles and virological response between patients starting nevirapine and efavirenz in EuroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Ruiz, Lidia; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare virological outcome and genotypic resistance profiles in HIV-1-infected patients starting non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing regimens. METHODS: NNRTI-naive patients were included who started treatment with nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV) wi...

  12. Probing the molecular mechanism of action of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor 4′-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) using pre-steady-state kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuoglu, Yagmur; Sohl, Christal D.; Mislak, Andrea C.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Anderson, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    The novel antiretroviral 4′-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a potent nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI). Unlike other FDA-approved NRTIs, EFdA contains a 3′-hydroxyl. Pre-steady-state kinetics showed RT preferred incorporating EFdA-TP over native dATP. Moreover, RT slowly inserted nucleotides past an EFdA-terminated primer, resulting in delayed chain termination with unaffected fidelity. This is distinct from KP1212, another 3′-hydroxyl-containing RT inhibitor considered to promote viral lethal mutagenesis. New mechanistic features of RT inhibition by EFdA are revealed. PMID:24632447

  13. Diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy, and emergence of resistance to antiretroviral agents in HIV-2 infection: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Hightower

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and type 2 (HIV-2 are the causative agents of AIDS. HIV-2 is prevalent at moderate to high rates in West African countries, such as Senegal, Guinea, Gambia, and Cape Verde. Diagnosis of HIV-2 is made with a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 ELISA or simple/rapid assay, followed by one or two confirmatory tests specific for HIV-2. Following CD4+ T cell counts, HIV-2 viral burden and clinical signs and symptoms of immunodeficiency are beneficial in monitoring HIV-2 disease progression. Although non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are ineffective in treating HIV-2, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors can be effective in dual and triple antiretroviral regimens. Their use can decrease HIV-2 viral load, increase CD4+ T cell counts and improve AIDS-related symptoms. HIV-2 resistance to various nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, including zidovudine, lamivudine, ritonavir and indinavir, has been identified in some HIV-2 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. The knowledge of HIV-2 peculiarities, when compared to HIV-1, is crucial to helping diagnose and guide the clinician in the choice of the initial antiretroviral regimen and for monitoring therapy success.

  14. Antitumor Activity and Mechanism of a Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Dapivirine, in Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwen; Song, Xian-Lu; Zhao, Shan-Chao; He, Minyi; Wang, Hai; Chen, Ziyang; Xiang, Wei; Yi, Guozhong; Qi, Songtao; Liu, Yawei

    2018-01-01

    Dapivirine is one of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs). It is the prototype of diarylpyrimidines (DAPY), formerly known as TMC120 or DAPY R147681 (IUPAC name: 4- [[4-(2, 4, 6-trimethylphenyl) amino]-2-pyrimidinyl] amino]-benzonitrile; CAS no.244767-67-7). The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of dapivirine, one of the RTIs, on U87 glioblastoma (GBM) cells in vitro and in vivo . U87 GBM cells were cultured and treated with or without dapivirine. Cell viability was evaluated by CCK-8 (Cell Counting Kit 8, CCK-8) assay; apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry; cell migration was evaluated by Boyden Chamber assay; Western blotting was performed to detect proteins related to apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and autophagy. PathScan intracellular signaling array kit was used to detect important and well-characterized signaling molecules. Tumor xenograft model in nude mice was used to evaluate the antitumorigenic effect in vivo . Dapivirine weakened proliferation of glioma cells and induced the apoptosis of U87 glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, dapivirine regulated autophagy and induced Akt, Bad and SAPK/JNK activations. Moreover, the inhibition of glioma cell growth by dapivirine was also observed in nude mice in vivo . In summary, in our study dapivirine exposure induces stress, resulting in JNK and PI3K/Akt pathway activation through diminished inhibition of the apoptosis and autophagy cascade in U87 GBM cells, which inhibits cell growth in vitro and in vivo .

  15. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance and genetic diversity among patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Maria Edileuza Soares; da Guarda Reis, Mônica Nogueira; Lima, Yanna Andressa Ramos; Eulálio, Kelsen Dantas; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2015-05-01

    HIV-1 transmitted-drug-resistance and genetic diversity are dynamic and may differ in distinct locations/risk groups. In Brazil, increased AIDS incidence and related mortality have been detected in the Northeast region, differently from the epicenter in the Southeast. This cross-sectional study describes transmitted-dru- resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in protease/PR and reverse transcriptase/RT regions among antiretroviral naïve patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil. Among 96 patients recruited 89 (92.7%) had HIV-1 PR/RT regions sequenced: 44 females and 45 males, 22 self-declared as men who have sex with men. Transmitted-drug-resistance was investigated by CPR tool (Stanford HIV-1 Drug Resistance/SDRM). HIV-1 subtypes were assigned by REGA and phylogenetic inference. Overall, transmitted-drug-resistance rate was 11.2% (10/89; CI 95%: 5.8-19.1%); 22.7% among men who have sex with men (5/22; CI 95%: 8.8-43.4%), 10% in heterosexual men (2/20; CI 95%: 1.7-29.3%) and 6.8% in women (3/44; CI 95%: 1.8-17.4%). Singleton mutations to protease-inhibitor/PI, nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor/NRTI or non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor/NNRTI predominated (8/10): PI mutations (M46L, V82F, L90M); NRTI mutations (M41L, D67N) and NNRTI mutations (K103N/S). Dual class resistance mutations to NRTI and NNRTI were observed: T215L (NRTI), Y188L (NNRTI) and T215N (NRTI), F227L (NNRTI). Subtype B prevailed (86.6%; 77/89), followed by subtype F1 (1.1%, 1/89) and subtype C (1.1%, 1/89). B/F1 and B/C intersubtype recombinants represented 11.2% (10/89). In Piauí State extensive testing of incidence and transmitted-drug-resistance in all populations with risk behaviors may help control AIDS epidemic locally. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. ERK mutations confer resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Eva M; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Treacy, Daniel J; Wagle, Nikhil; Garraway, Levi A

    2014-12-01

    The use of targeted therapeutics directed against BRAF(V600)-mutant metastatic melanoma improves progression-free survival in many patients; however, acquired drug resistance remains a major medical challenge. By far, the most common clinical resistance mechanism involves reactivation of the MAPK (RAF/MEK/ERK) pathway by a variety of mechanisms. Thus, targeting ERK itself has emerged as an attractive therapeutic concept, and several ERK inhibitors have entered clinical trials. We sought to preemptively determine mutations in ERK1/2 that confer resistance to either ERK inhibitors or combined RAF/MEK inhibition in BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma. Using a random mutagenesis screen, we identified multiple point mutations in ERK1 (MAPK3) and ERK2 (MAPK1) that could confer resistance to ERK or RAF/MEK inhibitors. ERK inhibitor-resistant alleles were sensitive to RAF/MEK inhibitors and vice versa, suggesting that the future development of alternating RAF/MEK and ERK inhibitor regimens might help circumvent resistance to these agents. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 isolates from naive patients eligible for first line antiretroviral therapy in JJ Hospital, Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Alake; Karki, Surendra; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Fleury, Herve J

    2011-12-01

    More than 50 HIV-1-infected patients, naive of antiretroviral therapy (ART) but eligible for first line ART in JJ Hospital, Mumbai, India were investigated for surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs); all but one virus belonged to subtype C; we could observe SDRMs to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors in 9.6% of the patients.

  18. Long-term analysis of resistance development in HIV-1 positive patients treated with protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Correlation of the genotype and disease progression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prejdová, Jana; Weber, Jan; Machala, L.; Reiniš, Milan; Linka, M.; Brůčková, M.; Vandasová, M.; Staňková, M.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2005), 29-36 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NI6339 Grant - others:5th Framework(XE) QLK2-CT-2001-02360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : HIV * protease inhibitors * resistance development Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2005

  19. Cost-effectiveness of public-health policy options in the presence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: A modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Phillips (Andrew); V. Cambiano (Valentina); F. Nakagawa (Fumiyo); P. Revill (Paul); M.R. Jordan (Michael); T.B. Hallett (Timothy); M.C. Doherty (Meg); A. de Luca (Andrea); Lundgren, J.D. (Jens D.); Mhangara, M. (Mutsa); Apollo, T. (Tsitsi); J.W. Mellors (John W.); B.E. Nichols (Brooke); Parikh, U. (Urvi); D. Pillay (Deenan); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); K.C. Sigaloff (Kim); Havlir, D. (Diane); D.R. Kuritzkes (Daniel); A. Pozniak (Anton); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); M. Vitoria (Marco); Wainberg, M.A. (Mark A.); E. Raizes (Elliot); S. Bertagnolio (Silvia)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: There is concern over increasing prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance in people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative

  20. Lack of integrase inhibitors associated resistance mutations among HIV-1C isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Andargachew; Maier, Melanie; Liebert, Uwe Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Although biochemical analysis of HIV-1 integrase enzyme suggested the use of integrase inhibitors (INIs) against HIV-1C, different viral subtypes may favor different mutational pathways potentially leading to varying levels of drug resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to search for the occurrence and natural evolution of integrase polymorphisms and/or resistance mutations in HIV-1C Ethiopian clinical isolates prior to the introduction of INIs. Plasma samples from chronically infected drug naïve patients (N = 45), of whom the PR and RT sequence was determined previously, were used to generate population based sequences of HIV-1 integrase. HIV-1 subtype was determined using the REGA HIV-1 subtyping tool. Resistance mutations were interpreted according to the Stanford HIV drug resistance database ( http://hivdb.stanford.edu ) and the updated International Antiviral Society (IAS)-USA mutation lists. Moreover, rates of polymorphisms in the current isolates were compared with South African and global HIV-1C isolates. All subjects were infected with HIV-1C concordant to the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions. Neither major resistance-associated IN mutations (T66I/A/K, E92Q/G, T97A, Y143HCR, S147G, Q148H/R/K, and N155H) nor silent mutations known to change the genetic barrier were observed. Moreover, the DDE-catalytic motif (D64G/D116G/E152 K) and signature HHCC zinc-binding motifs at codon 12, 16, 40 and 43 were found to be highly conserved. However, compared to other South African subtype C isolates, the rate of polymorphism was variable at various positions. Although the sample size is small, the findings suggest that this drug class could be effective in Ethiopia and other southern African countries where HIV-1C is predominantly circulating. The data will contribute to define the importance of integrase polymorphism and to improve resistance interpretation algorithms in HIV-1C isolates.

  1. HIV multi-drug resistance at first-line antiretroviral failure and subsequent virological response in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Law, Matthew; Kantor, Rami; Praparattanapan, Jutarat; Li, Patrick CK; Phanuphak, Praphan; Merati, Tuti; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Lee, Christopher KC; Ditangco, Rossana; Mustafa, Mahiran; Singtoroj, Thida; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure often results from the development of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs). Three patterns, including thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), 69 Insertion (69Ins) and the Q151M complex, are associated with resistance to multiple-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and may compromise treatment options for second-line ART. Methods: We investigated patterns and factors associated with multi-NRTI RAMs at first-line failu...

  2. In vitro resistance profile of the candidate HIV-1 microbicide drug dapivirine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schader, Susan M; Oliveira, Maureen; Ibanescu, Ruxandra-Ilinca; Moisi, Daniela; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Wainberg, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Antiretroviral-based microbicides may offer a means to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV-1. Suboptimal use of a microbicide may, however, lead to the development of drug resistance in users that are already, or become, infected with HIV-1. In such cases, the efficacy of treatments may be compromised since the same (or similar) antiretrovirals used in treatments are being developed as microbicides. To help predict which drug resistance mutations may develop in the context of suboptimal use, HIV-1 primary isolates of different subtypes and different baseline resistance profiles were used to infect primary cells in vitro in the presence of increasing suboptimal concentrations of the two candidate microbicide antiretrovirals dapivirine (DAP) and tenofovir (TFV) alone or in combination. Infections were ongoing for 25 weeks, after which reverse transcriptase genotypes were determined and scrutinized for the presence of any clinically recognized reverse transcriptase drug resistance mutations. Results indicated that suboptimal concentrations of DAP alone facilitated the emergence of common nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations, while suboptimal concentrations of DAP plus TFV gave rise to fewer mutations. Suboptimal concentrations of TFV alone did not frequently result in the development of resistance mutations. Sensitivity evaluations for stavudine (d4T), nevirapine (NVP), and lamivudine (3TC) revealed that the selection of resistance as a consequence of suboptimal concentrations of DAP may compromise the potential for NVP to be used in treatment, a finding of potential relevance in developing countries.

  3. Impact of Nevirapine (NVP) Plasma Concentration on Selection of Resistant Virus in Mothers Who Received Single-Dose NVP To Prevent Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transmission and Persistence of Resistant Virus in Their Infected Children▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chaix, Marie-Laure; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Peytavin, Gilles; Rouet, François; Tonwe-Gold, Besigin; Viho, Ida; Bequet, Laurence; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Menan, Hervé; Leroy, Valériane; Rouzioux, Christine; Dabis, François

    2006-01-01

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance following the use of single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) remains a concern. In the ANRS-1201/1202 Ditrame study, conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a short-course regimen of zidovudine was associated with sdNVP for PMTCT. In this study, we estimate the frequency of NVP resistance and its relationship with NVP concentration in mothers. Genotypic resistance analysis was performed on ...

  4. High Rates of Baseline Drug Resistance and Virologic Failure Among ART-naive HIV-infected Children in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Claudia S; Maiga, Almoustapha I; Sylla, Mariam; Taiwo, Babafemi; Kone, Niaboula; Oron, Assaf P; Murphy, Robert L; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Traore, Ban; Fofana, Djeneba B; Peytavin, Gilles; Chadwick, Ellen G

    2017-11-01

    Limited data exist on drug resistance and antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes in HIV-1-infected children in West Africa. We determined the prevalence of baseline resistance and correlates of virologic failure (VF) in a cohort of ART-naive HIV-1-infected children baseline (before ART) and at 6 months. Resistance was defined according to the Stanford HIV Genotypic Resistance database. VF was defined as viral load ≥1000 copies/mL after 6 months of ART. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with VF or death >1 month after enrollment. Post hoc, antiretroviral concentrations were assayed on baseline samples of participants with baseline resistance. One-hundred twenty children with a median age 2.6 years (interquartile range: 1.6-5.0) were included. Eighty-eight percent reported no prevention of mother-to-child transmission exposure. At baseline, 27 (23%), 4 (3%) and none had non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or protease inhibitor resistance, respectively. Thirty-nine (33%) developed VF and 4 died >1 month post-ART initiation. In multivariable analyses, poor adherence [odds ratio (OR): 6.1, P = 0.001], baseline NNRTI resistance among children receiving NNRTI-based ART (OR: 22.9, P baseline NNRTI resistance (OR: 5.8, P = 0.018) were significantly associated with VF/death. Ten (38%) with baseline resistance had detectable levels of nevirapine or efavirenz at baseline; 7 were currently breastfeeding, but only 2 reported maternal antiretroviral use. Baseline NNRTI resistance was common in children without reported NNRTI exposure and was associated with increased risk of treatment failure. Detectable NNRTI concentrations were present despite few reports of maternal/infant antiretroviral use.

  5. Canine osteosarcoma cells exhibit resistance to aurora kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, C M; Pozniak, J; Scott, M C; Ito, D; Gorden, B H; Graef, A J; Modiano, J F

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Aurora kinase inhibitors AZD1152 and VX680 on canine osteosarcoma cells. Cytotoxicity was seen in all four cell lines; however, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations were significantly higher than in human leukaemia and canine lymphoma cells. AZD1152 reduced Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, indicating resistance was not because of failure of target recognition. Efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters is one known mechanism of resistance against these drugs and verapamil enhanced AZD1152-induced apoptosis; however, these transporters were only expressed by a small percentage of cells in each line and the effects of verapamil were modest, suggesting other mechanisms contribute to resistance. Our results indicate that canine osteosarcoma cells are resistant to Aurora kinase inhibitors and suggest that these compounds are unlikely to be useful as single agents for this disease. Further investigation of these resistance mechanisms and the potential utility of Aurora kinase inhibitors in multi-agent protocols is warranted. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Short communication: high prevalence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected children born in Honduras and Belize 2001 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Leda; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Murillo, Wendy; Naver, Lars; Largaespada, Natalia; Albert, Jan; Karlsson, Annika C

    2011-10-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has had a great impact on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. However, development of drug resistance, which could be subsequently transmitted to the child, is a major concern. In Honduras and Belize the prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected children remains unknown. A total of 95 dried blood spot samples was obtained from HIV-1-infected, untreated children in Honduras and Belize born during 2001 to 2004, when preventive antiretroviral therapy was often suboptimal and consisted of monotherapy with nevirapine or zidovudine. Partial HIV-1 pol gene sequences were successfully obtained from 66 children (Honduras n=55; Belize n=11). Mutations associated with drug resistance were detected in 13% of the Honduran and 27% of the Belizean children. Most of the mutations detected in Honduras (43%) and all mutations detected in Belize were associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which was expected from the wide use of nevirapine to prevent MTCT during the study period. In addition, although several mothers reported that they had not received antiretroviral therapy, mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were found in Honduras. This suggests prior and unreported use of these drugs, or that these women had been infected with resistant virus. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected Honduran and Belizean children.

  7. Perinatal acquisition of drug-resistant HIV-1 infection: mechanisms and long-term outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollfus Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary-HIV-1-infection in newborns that occurs under antiretroviral prophylaxis that is a high risk of drug-resistance acquisition. We examine the frequency and the mechanisms of resistance acquisition at the time of infection in newborns. Patients and Methods We studied HIV-1-infected infants born between 01 January 1997 and 31 December 2004 and enrolled in the ANRS-EPF cohort. HIV-1-RNA and HIV-1-DNA samples obtained perinatally from the newborn and mother were subjected to population-based and clonal analyses of drug resistance. If positive, serial samples were obtained from the child for resistance testing. Results Ninety-two HIV-1-infected infants were born during the study period. Samples were obtained from 32 mother-child pairs and from another 28 newborns. Drug resistance was detected in 12 newborns (20%: drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was seen in 10 cases, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in two cases, and protease inhibitors in one case. For 9 children, the detection of the same resistance mutations in mothers' samples (6 among 10 available and in newborn lymphocytes (6/8 suggests that the newborn was initially infected by a drug-resistant strain. Resistance variants were either transmitted from mother-to-child or selected during subsequent temporal exposure under suboptimal perinatal prophylaxis. Follow-up studies of the infants showed that the resistance pattern remained stable over time, regardless of antiretroviral therapy, suggesting the early cellular archiving of resistant viruses. The absence of resistance in the mother of the other three children (3/10 and neonatal lymphocytes (2/8 suggests that the newborns were infected by a wild-type strain without long-term persistence of resistance when suboptimal prophylaxis was stopped. Conclusion This study confirms the importance of early resistance genotyping of HIV-1-infected newborns. In most cases (75%, drug

  8. Detecting and treating breast cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonlee, Sun-Young; Bissell, Mina J.; Furuta, Saori; Meier, Roland; Kenny, Paraic A.

    2016-04-05

    The application describes therapeutic compositions and methods for treating cancer. For example, therapeutic compositions and methods related to inhibition of FAM83A (family with sequence similarity 83) are provided. The application also describes methods for diagnosing cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors. For example, a method of diagnosing cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors by detecting increased FAM83A levels is described.

  9. 3D QSAR Studies of DAMNI Analogs as Possible Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganguly

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1-reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs are an important class of drugs employed in antiviral therapy. Recently, a novel family of NNRTIs commonly referred to as 1-[2-diarylmethoxy] ethyl 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazoles (DAMNI derivatives have been discovered. The 3D-QSAR studies on DAMNI derivatives as NNRTIs was performed by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA methods to determine the factors required for the activity of these compounds. The global minimum energy conformer of the template molecule 15, the most active molecule of the series, was obtained by simulated annealing method and used to build the structures of the molecules in the dataset. The combination of steric and electrostatic fields in CoMSIA gave the best results with cross-validated and conventional correlation coefficients of 0.654 and 0.928 respectively. The predictive ability of CoMFA and CoMSIA were determined using a test set of ten DAMNI derivatives giving predictive correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.98 respectively indicating good predictive power. Further, the robustness of the models was verified by bootstrapping analysis. The information obtained from CoMFA and CoMSIA 3D contour maps may be of utility in the design of more potent DAMNI analogs as NNRTIs in future.

  10. Measuring enzymatic HIV-1 susceptibility to two reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a rapid and simple approach to HIV-1 drug-resistance testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Simple and cost-effective approaches for HIV drug-resistance testing are highly desirable for managing increasingly expanding HIV-1 infected populations who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART, particularly in resource-limited settings. Non-nucleoside reverse trancriptase inhibitor (NNRTI-based regimens with an NRTI backbone containing lamivudine (3TC or emtricitabine (FTC are preferred first ART regimens. Failure with these drug combinations typically involves the selection of NNRTI- and/or 3TC/FTC-resistant viruses. Therefore, the availability of simple assays to measure both types of drug resistance is critical. We have developed a high throughput screening test for assessing enzymatic resistance of the HIV-1 RT in plasma to 3TC/FTC and NNRTIs. The test uses the sensitive "Amp-RT" assay with a newly-developed real-time PCR format to screen biochemically for drug resistance in single reactions containing either 3TC-triphosphate (3TC-TP or nevirapine (NVP. Assay cut-offs were defined based on testing a large panel of subtype B and non-subtype B clinical samples with known genotypic profiles. Enzymatic 3TC resistance correlated well with the presence of M184I/V, and reduced NVP susceptibility was strongly associated with the presence of K103N, Y181C/I, Y188L, and G190A/Q. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting resistance were 97.0% and 96.0% in samples with M184V, and 97.4% and 96.2% for samples with NNRTI mutations, respectively. We further demonstrate the utility of an HIV capture method in plasma by using magnetic beads coated with CD44 antibody that eliminates the need for ultracentifugation. Thus our results support the use of this simple approach for distinguishing WT from NNRTI- or 3TC/FTC-resistant viruses in clinical samples. This enzymatic testing is subtype-independent and can assist in the clinical management of diverse populations particularly in resource-limited settings.

  11. Probing the molecular mechanism of action of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor 4′-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) using pre-steady-state kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Muftuoglu, Yagmur; Sohl, Christal D.; Mislak, Andrea C.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Anderson, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    The novel antiretroviral 4′-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a potent nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI). Unlike other FDA-approved NRTIs, EFdA contains a 3′-hydroxyl. Pre-steady-state kinetics showed RT preferred incorporating EFdA-TP over native dATP. Moreover, RT slowly inserted nucleotides past an EFdA-terminated primer, resulting in delayed chain termination with unaffected fidelity. This is distinct from KP1212, another 3′-hydroxyl-containing RT inh...

  12. Resistance to BET Inhibitor Leads to Alternative Therapeutic Vulnerabilities in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Aishwarya; Gollavilli, Paradesi Naidu; Wang, Shaomeng; Asangani, Irfan A

    2018-02-27

    BRD4 plays a major role in the transcription networks orchestrated by androgen receptor (AR) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Several BET inhibitors (BETi) that displace BRD4 from chromatin are being evaluated in clinical trials for CRPC. Here, we describe mechanisms of acquired resistance to BETi that are amenable to targeted therapies in CRPC. BETi-resistant CRPC cells displayed cross-resistance to a variety of BETi in the absence of gatekeeper mutations, exhibited reduced chromatin-bound BRD4, and were less sensitive to BRD4 degraders/knockdown, suggesting a BRD4-independent transcription program. Transcriptomic analysis revealed reactivation of AR signaling due to CDK9-mediated phosphorylation of AR, resulting in sensitivity to CDK9 inhibitors and enzalutamide. Additionally, increased DNA damage associated with PRC2-mediated transcriptional silencing of DDR genes was observed, leading to PARP inhibitor sensitivity. Collectively, our results identify the therapeutic limitation of BETi as a monotherapy; however, our BETi resistance data suggest unique opportunities for combination therapies in treating CRPC. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A376S in the connection subdomain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confers increased risk of virological failure to nevirapine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paredes, Roger; Puertas, Maria Carmen; Bannister, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Background. The clinical relevance of mutations in the connection subdomain and the ribonuclease (RNase) H domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is uncertain. Methods. The risk of virological failure to nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) was evaluated...... in NNRTI-naive patients who started NNRTIs in the EuroSIDA study after July 1997 according to preexisting substitutions in the connection subdomain and the RNase H domain of HIV-1 RT. An observed association between A376S and virological failure was further investigated by testing in vitro NNRTI...... = .013). A376S conferred selective low-level nevirapine resistance in vitro, and led to greater affinity for double-stranded DNA. Conclusions. The A376S substitution in the connection subdomain of HIV-1 RT causes selective nevirapine resistance and confers an increased risk of virological failure...

  14. HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping from antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve and first-line treatment failures in Djiboutian patients

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    Elmi Abar Aden

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we report the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistant HIV-1 genotypes of virus isolated from Djiboutian patients who failed first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART and from ART naïve patients. Patients and methods A total of 35 blood samples from 16 patients who showed first-line ART failure (>1000 viral genome copies/ml and 19 ART-naïve patients were collected in Djibouti from October 2009 to December 2009. Both the protease (PR and reverse transcriptase (RT genes were amplified and sequenced using National Agency for AIDS Research (ANRS protocols. The Stanford HIV database algorithm was used for interpretation of resistance data and genotyping. Results Among the 16 patients with first-line ART failure, nine (56.2% showed reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strains: two (12.5% were resistant to nucleoside (NRTI, one (6.25% to non-nucleoside (NNRTI reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and six (37.5% to both. Analysis of the DNA sequencing data indicated that the most common mutations conferring drug resistance were M184V (38% for NRTI and K103N (25% for NNRTI. Only NRTI primary mutations K101Q, K103N and the PI minor mutation L10V were found in ART naïve individuals. No protease inhibitor resistant strains were detected. In our study, we found no detectable resistance in ∼ 44% of all patients who experienced therapeutic failure which was explained by low compliance, co-infection with tuberculosis and malnutrition. Genotyping revealed that 65.7% of samples were infected with subtype C, 20% with CRF02_AG, 8.5% with B, 2.9% with CRF02_AG/C and 2.9% with K/C. Conclusion The results of this first study about drug resistance mutations in first-line ART failures show the importance of performing drug resistance mutation test which guides the choice of a second-line regimen. This will improve the management of HIV-infected Djiboutian patients. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found

  15. Prevalence of drug resistance and importance of viral load measurements in Honduran HIV-infected patients failing antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Wendy; de Rivera, I L; Parham, L; Jovel, E; Palou, E; Karlsson, A C; Albert, J

    2010-02-01

    The Honduran HIV/AIDS Program began to scale up access to HIV therapy in 2002. Up to May 2008, more than 6000 patients received combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). As HIV drug resistance is the major obstacle for effective treatment, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in Honduran HIV-1-infected individuals. We collected samples from 138 individuals (97 adults and 41 children) on cART with virological, immunological or clinical signs of treatment failure. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained using an in-house method. Resistance mutations were identified according to the 2007 International AIDS Society (IAS)-USA list and predicted susceptibility to cART was scored using the ANRS algorithm. Resistance mutations were detected in 112 patients (81%), 74% in adults and 98% in children. Triple-, dual- and single-class drug resistance was documented in 27%, 43% and 11% of the study subjects, respectively. Multiple logistic regression showed that resistance was independently associated with type of treatment failure [virological failure (odds ratio (OR) = 1) vs. immunological failure (OR = 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.030-0.43) vs. clinical failure (OR = 0.037; 95% CI 0.0063-0.22)], route of transmission (OR = 42.8; 95% CI 3.73-491), and years on therapy (OR = 1.81; 95% CI 1.11-2.93). The prevalence of antiretroviral resistance was high in Honduran HIV-infected patients with signs of treatment failure. A majority of study subjects showed dual- or triple-class resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. Virologically defined treatment failure was a strong predictor of resistance, indicating that viral load testing is needed to correctly identify patients with treatment failure attributable to resistance.

  16. Structural Insights into HIV Reverse Transcriptase Mutations Q151M and Q151M Complex That Confer Multinucleoside Drug Resistance

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    Das, Kalyan; Martinez, Sergio E.; Arnold, Eddy

    2017-04-10

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is targeted by multiple drugs. RT mutations that confer resistance to nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) emerge during clinical use. Q151M and four associated mutations, A62V, V75I, F77L, and F116Y, were detected in patients failing therapies with dideoxynucleosides (didanosine [ddI], zalcitabine [ddC]) and/or zidovudine (AZT). The cluster of the five mutations is referred to as the Q151M complex (Q151Mc), and an RT or virus containing Q151Mc exhibits resistance to multiple NRTIs. To understand the structural basis for Q151M and Q151Mc resistance, we systematically determined the crystal structures of the wild-type RT/double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)/dATP (complex I), wild-type RT/dsDNA/ddATP (complex II), Q151M RT/dsDNA/dATP (complex III), Q151Mc RT/dsDNA/dATP (complex IV), and Q151Mc RT/dsDNA/ddATP (complex V) ternary complexes. The structures revealed that the deoxyribose rings of dATP and ddATP have 3'-endo and 3'-exo conformations, respectively. The single mutation Q151M introduces conformational perturbation at the deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP)-binding pocket, and the mutated pocket may exist in multiple conformations. The compensatory set of mutations in Q151Mc, particularly F116Y, restricts the side chain flexibility of M151 and helps restore the DNA polymerization efficiency of the enzyme. The altered dNTP-binding pocket in Q151Mc RT has the Q151-R72 hydrogen bond removed and has a switched conformation for the key conserved residue R72 compared to that in wild-type RT. On the basis of a modeled structure of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase, the residues R72, Y116, M151, and M184 in Q151Mc HIV-1 RT are conserved in wild-type HBV polymerase as residues R41, Y89, M171, and M204, respectively; functionally, both Q151Mc HIV-1 and wild-type HBV are resistant to dideoxynucleoside analogs.

  17. A new strategy to inhibit the excision reaction catalysed by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: compounds that compete with the template–primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruchaga, Carlos; Anso, Elena; Font, María; Martino, Virginia S.; Rouzaut, Ana; Martinez-Irujo, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    Inhibitors of the excision reaction catalysed by HIV-1 RT (reverse transcriptase) represent a promising approach in the fight against HIV, because these molecules would interfere with the main mechanism of resistance of this enzyme towards chain-terminating nucleotides. Only a limited number of compounds have been demonstrated to inhibit this reaction to date, including NNRTIs (non-nucleoside RT inhibitors) and certain pyrophosphate analogues. We have found previously that 2GP (2-O-galloylpunicalin), an antiviral compound extracted from the leaves of Terminalia triflora, was able to inhibit both the RT and the RNase H activities of HIV-1 RT without affecting cell proliferation or viability. In the present study, we show that 2GP also inhibited the ATP- and PPi-dependent phosphorolysis catalysed by wild-type and AZT (3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine)-resistant enzymes at sub-micromolar concentrations. Kinetic and direct-binding analysis showed that 2GP was a non-competitive inhibitor against the nucleotide substrate, whereas it competed with the binding of RT to the template–primer (Kd=85 nM). As expected from its mechanism of action, 2GP was active against mutations conferring resistance to NNRTIs and AZT. The combination of AZT with 2GP was highly synergistic when tested in the presence of pyrophosphate, indicating that the inhibition of RT-catalysed phosphorolysis was responsible for the synergy found. Although other RT inhibitors that compete with the template–primer have been described, this is the first demonstration that these compounds can be used to block the excision of chain terminating nucleotides, providing a rationale for their combination with nucleoside analogues. PMID:17355225

  18. Deep sequencing analysis of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase at baseline and time of failure in patients receiving rilpivirine in the phase III studies ECHO and THRIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eygen, Veerle; Thys, Kim; Van Hove, Carl; Rimsky, Laurence T; De Meyer, Sandra; Aerssens, Jeroen; Picchio, Gaston; Vingerhoets, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Minority variants (1.0-25.0%) were evaluated by deep sequencing (DS) at baseline and virological failure (VF) in a selection of antiretroviral treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected patients from the rilpivirine ECHO/THRIVE phase III studies. Linkage between frequently emerging resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) was determined. DS (llIumina®) and population sequencing (PS) results were available at baseline for 47 VFs and time of failure for 48 VFs; and at baseline for 49 responders matched for baseline characteristics. Minority mutations were accurately detected at frequencies down to 1.2% of the HIV-1 quasispecies. No baseline minority rilpivirine RAMs were detected in VFs; one responder carried 1.9% F227C. Baseline minority mutations associated with resistance to other non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were detected in 8/47 VFs (17.0%) and 7/49 responders (14.3%). Baseline minority nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) RAMs M184V and L210W were each detected in one VF (none in responders). At failure, two patients without NNRTI RAMs by PS carried minority rilpivirine RAMs K101E and/or E138K; and five additional patients carried other minority NNRTI RAMs V90I, V106I, V179I, V189I, and Y188H. Overall at failure, minority NNRTI RAMs and NRTI RAMs were found in 29/48 (60.4%) and 16/48 VFs (33.3%), respectively. Linkage analysis showed that E138K and K101E were usually not observed on the same viral genome. In conclusion, baseline minority rilpivirine RAMs and other NNRTI/NRTI RAMs were uncommon in the rilpivirine arm of the ECHO and THRIVE studies. DS at failure showed emerging NNRTI resistant minority variants in seven rilpivirine VFs who had no detectable NNRTI RAMs by PS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Protease inhibitor associated mutations compromise the efficacy of therapy in human immunodeficiency virus – 1 (HIV-1 infected pediatric patients: a cross-sectional study

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    Petrova Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the introduction of combined therapy with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors has resulted in considerable decrease in HIV related mortality; it has also induced the development of multiple drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. The few studies on HIV-1 mutagenesis in HIV infected children have not evaluated the impact of HIV-1 mutations on the clinical, virological and immunological presentation of HIV disease that is fundamental to optimizing the treatment regimens for these patients. Results A cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate the impact of treatment regimens and resistance mutation patterns on the clinical, virological, and immunological presentation of HIV disease in 41 children (25 male and 16 female at the Robert Wood Johnson Pediatric AIDS Program in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The study participants were symptomatic and had preceding treatment history with combined ARV regimens including protease inhibitors (PIs, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs. Fifteen (36.6% children were treated with NRTI+NNRTI+ PI, 6 (14.6% with NRTI+NNRTIs, 13 (31.7% with NRTI+PIs, and the remaining 7 (17.1% received NRTIs only. Combined ARV regimens did not significantly influence the incidence of NRTI and NNRTI associated mutations. The duration of ARV therapy and the child's age had no significant impact on the ARV related mutations. The clinico-immunological presentation of the HIV disease was not associated with ARV treatment regimens or number of resistance mutations. However, primary mutations in the protease (PR gene increased the likelihood of plasma viral load (PVL ≥ 10,000 copies/mL irrespective of the child's age, duration of ARV therapy, presence of NRTI and NNRTI mutation. Viremia ≥ 10,000 copies/mL was recorded in almost all the children with primary mutations in the PR region (n = 12/13, 92.3% as compared with only 50.0% (n

  20. HIV-1 drug resistance before initiation or re-initiation of first-line antiretroviral therapy in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Ravindra K.; Gregson, John; Parkin, Neil; Haile-Selassie, Hiwot; Tanuri, Amilcar; Andrade Forero, Liliana; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Watera, Christine; Aghokeng, Avelin; Mutenda, Nicholus; Dzangare, Janet; Hone, San; Hang, Zaw Zaw; Garcia, Judith; Garcia, Zully; Marchorro, Paola; Beteta, Enrique; Giron, Amalia; Hamers, Raph; Inzaule, Seth; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Chung, Michael H.; de Oliveira, Tulio; Pillay, Deenan; Naidoo, Kogie; Kharsany, Ayesha; Kugathasan, Ruthiran; Cutino, Teresa; Hunt, Gillian; Avila Rios, Santiago; Doherty, Meg; Jordan, Michael R.; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Pretreatment drug resistance in people initiating or re-initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) might compromise HIV control in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the scale of this problem and whether

  1. [Mutations of resistance of HIV-1 in previously untreated patients at penitentiary centers of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. REPRICOVA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, Julio; Herrero, Agustín; Vera, Enrique; Almenara, José M; Araújo, Rosa; Saurí, Vicente V; Castellano, Juan C; Fernández-Clemente, Luis; Bedia, Miguel; Llorente, María I; González-Morán, Francisco

    2002-03-02

    Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of mutations of resistance to nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (NIRT) and protease inhibitors (PI) in the HIV-1 genotype of naïve infected subjects in the prisons of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study of prevalence including a systematic stratified and randomised sampling by centres. Demographic, clinical, virological and immunological data were collected. The HIV gene of protease and transcriptase was studied in peripheral blood plasma samples by means of double PCR amplification and subsequent automatic sequence. Reference: wild strain HXB2. Plasma was obtained from 133 individuals (119 men and 14 women). 117 samples were selected and the rest did not have enough copies for transcription. With regard to NIRT, 7 samples (5.2% of total) showed some mutation of resistance: M41L, D67N, L210W and K219Q, all them secondary to and associated with resistance to zidovudine, abacavir as well as group B multinucleoside-resistance. With regard to PI, only one sample showed a primary mutation, M46I, which was associated with resistance to indinavir. Moreover, a further 41 samples were found to express some secondary mutation. In our series, there was a low number of primary mutations of resistance. These results allow us to exclude the systematic use of resistance tests before an initiation antiretroviral therapy.

  2. Activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate in combination with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors against acute HIV-1 infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patick, A K; Boritzki, T J; Bloom, L A

    1997-10-01

    Nelfinavir mesylate (formerly AG1343) is a potent and selective, nonpeptidic inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that was discovered by protein structure-based design methodologies. We evaluated the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the clinically approved antiretroviral therapeutics zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), dideoxycytidine (ddC; zalcitabine), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir and a three-drug combination of nelfinavir with ZDV and 3TC against an acute HIV-1 strain RF infection of CEM-SS cells in vitro. Quantitative assessment of drug interaction was evaluated by a universal response surface approach (W. R. Greco, G. Bravo, and J. C. Parsons, Pharm. Rev. 47:331-385, 1995) and by the method of M. N. Prichard and C. Shipman (Antiviral Res. 14:181-206, 1990). Both analytical methods yielded similar results and showed that the two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors ZDV, 3TC, ddI, d4T, and ddC and the three-drug combination with ZDV and 3TC resulted in additive to statistically significant synergistic interactions. In a similar manner, the combination of nelfinavir with the three protease inhibitors resulted in additive (ritonavir and saquinavir) to slightly antagonistic (indinavir) interactions. In all combinations, minimal cellular cytotoxicity was observed with any drug alone and in combination. These results suggest that administration of combinations of the appropriate doses of nelfinavir with other currently approved antiretroviral therapeutic agents in vivo may result in enhanced antiviral activity with no associated increase in cellular cytotoxicity.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of the new second-generation nonnucleoside reverse- transcriptase inhibitor KM-023 in healthy subjects

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    Cha YJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jung Cha,1,* Kyoung Soo Lim,2,* Min-Kyu Park,1 Stephen Schneider,3 Brian Bray,3 Myung-Chol Kang,3 Jae-Yong Chung,1 Seo Hyun Yoon,1 Joo-Youn Cho,1 Kyung-Sang Yu11Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, CHA University School of Medicine and CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, South Korea; 3Kainos Medicine USA Inc., Morrisville, NC, USA *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: KM-023 is a new second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor that is under development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type 1 infection. Objective: This study determined KM-023 tolerability and pharmacokinetic characteristics in healthy subjects. Materials and methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study was conducted in 80 healthy South Korean male volunteers. The subjects were allocated to single- or multiple-dose (once daily for 7 days groups that received 75, 150, 300, or 600 mg drug or placebo in a 4:1 ratio. Safety and pharmacokinetic assessments were performed during the study. Plasma and urine concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The average maximum concentration (Cmax and area under the concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC∞ values of KM-023 for the 75–600 mg doses in the single-dose study ranged from 440.2 ng/mL to 1,245.4 ng/mL and 11,142.4 ng • h/mL to 33,705.6 ng • h/mL, respectively. Values of the mean Cmax at a steady state and AUC within the dosing interval ranged from 385.1 ng/mL to 1,096.7 ng/mL and 3,698.9 ng • h/mL to 10,232.6 ng • h/mL, respectively, following 75–600 mg doses in the multiple-dose study. Dose proportionality was not observed for KM-023. KM-023 showed a 0.6-fold accumulation after multiple doses in the 600

  4. Prevalence and patterns of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos R; García-Morales, Claudia; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Escobar, Ingrid; Mendizabal, Ricardo; Girón, Amalia; García, Leticia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Guatemala. One hundred forty-five antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients referred to the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City were enrolled from October 2010 to March 2011. Plasma HIV pol sequences were obtained and TDR was assessed with the Stanford algorithm and the World Health Organization (WHO) TDR surveillance mutation list. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Guatemala (96.6%, 140/145), and a 2.8% (4/145) prevalence of BF1 recombinants and 0.7% (1/145) prevalence of subtype C viruses were found. TDR prevalence for the study period was 8.3% (12/145) with the Stanford database algorithm (score > 15) and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. Most TDR cases were associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (83.3%, 10/12); a low prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors was observed in the cohort (Guatemala. TDR prevalence in Guatemala was at the intermediate level. Most TDR cases were associated with NNRTIs. Further and continuous TDR surveillance is necessary to gain more indepth knowledge about TDR spread and trends in Guatemala and to optimize treatment outcomes in the country.

  5. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  6. Chemotherapeutics-resistance "arms" race: An update on mechanisms involved in resistance limiting EGFR inhibitors in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Silakari, Om

    2017-10-01

    Clinical reports suggest that EGFR-mutated lung cancer usually respond significantly towards small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Same studies also report the eventual development of acquired resistance within a median time interval of 9 to 14months. One of the major mechanisms involved in this acquired resistance was found to be a secondary point mutation at gate-keeper residue, EGFR T790M. However, there are other recent studies which disclose the role of few other novel key players such as, ZEB1, TOPK etc., in the development of tolerance towards the EGFR TKI's, along with other commonly known mechanisms, such as amplification of signalling pathways such as, c-MET, Erbb2, AXL, additional acquired secondary mutations (PIK3CA, BRAF), or phenotypic transformation (small cell or epithelial to mesenchymal transitions). Interestingly, a recent study showed development of resistance via another point mutation, C797S, in case of tumors which were previously resistant and were administered agents capable of overcoming T790M gatekeeper mutation based resistance. Thus, raising serious concern over the direction of drug development involving tyrosine kinases such as EGFR. Current approaches focussing on development of third generation inhibitors, dual inhibitors or inhibitors of HSP90 have shown significant activity but do not answer the long term question of resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Second-Generation Maturation Inhibitor GSK3532795 Maintains Potent Activity Toward HIV Protease Inhibitor-Resistant Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Neelanjana; Li, Tianbo; Lin, Zeyu; Protack, Tricia; van Ham, Petronella Maria; Hwang, Carey; Krystal, Mark; Nijhuis, Monique; Lataillade, Max; Dicker, Ira

    2017-05-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant HIV-1 isolates with primary substitutions in protease (PR) and secondary substitutions in Gag could potentially exhibit cross-resistance to maturation inhibitors. We evaluated the second-generation maturation inhibitor, GSK3532795, for activity toward clinical isolates with genotypic and phenotypic characteristics associated with PI resistance (longitudinal). Longitudinal clinical isolates from 15 PI-treated patients and 7 highly PI-resistant (nonlongitudinal) viruses containing major and minor PI resistance-associated mutations were evaluated for GSK3532795 sensitivity. Phenotypic sensitivity was determined using the PhenoSense Gag/PR assay (Monogram Biosciences) or in-house single- and multiple-cycle assays. Changes from baseline [CFB; ratio of post- to pre-treatment FC-IC50 (fold-change in IC50 versus wild-type virus)] Monogram (11 patients)] and 1.5 (1.0-2.2) [single-cycle (4 patients)]. The 2 post-PI treatment samples showing GSK3532795 CFB >3 (Monogram) were retested using single- and multiple-cycle assays. Neither sample had meaningful sensitivity changes in the multiple-cycle assay. Gag changes were not associated with an increased GSK3532795 CFB. GSK3532795 maintained antiviral activity against PI-resistant isolates with emergent PR and/or Gag mutations. This finding supports continued development of GSK3532795 in treatment-experienced patients with or without previous PI therapy.

  8. 5-Hydroxypyrido[2,3-b]pyrazin-6(5H)-one derivatives as novel dual inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H and integrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Gao, Ping; Dong, Guanyu; Zhang, Xujie; Cheng, Xiqiang; Ding, Xiao; Wang, Xueshun; Daelemans, Dirk; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2018-06-18

    We reported herein the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of 5-hydroxypyrido[2,3-b]pyrazin-6(5H)-one derivatives as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) ribonuclease H (RNase H) inhibitors using a privileged structure-guided scaffold refining strategy. In view of the similarities between the pharmacophore model of RNase H and integrase (IN) inhibitors as well as their catalytic sites, we also performed IN inhibition assays. Notably, the majority of these derivatives inhibited RNase H and IN at micromolar concentrations. Among them, compound 7a exhibited similar inhibitory activity against RNase H and IN (IC 50 RNase H  = 1.77 μM, IC 50 IN  = 1.18 μM, ratio = 1.50). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported dual HIV-1 RNase H-IN inhibitor based on a 5-hydroxypyrido[2,3-b]pyrazin-6(5H)-one structure. Molecular modeling has been used to predict the binding mode of 7a in complex with the catalytic cores of HIV-1 RNase H and IN. Taken together these results strongly support the feasibility of developing HIV-1 dual inhibitors from analog-based optimization of divalent metal ion chelators. Recently, the identification of dual inhibitors proved to be a highly effective strategy for novel antivirals discovery. Therefore, these compounds appear to be useful leads that can be further modified to develop more valuable anti-HIV-1 molecules with suitable drug profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Substrate-induced stable enzyme-inhibitor complex formation allows tight binding of novel 2-aminopyrimidin-4(3H)-ones to drug-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuele, Alberta; Facchini, Marcella; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Artico, Marino; Armand-Ugón, Mercedes; Esté, José A; Maga, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    We recently reported the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of 5-alkyl-2-(N,N-disubstituted)amino-6-(2,6-difluorophenylalkyl)-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-4(3H)-ones (F(2)-N,N-DABOs). These compounds are highly active against both wild-type HIV-1 and the K103N, Y181C, and Y188L mutant strains. Herein we present novel 6-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenylalkyl)-N,N-DABO (2-Cl-6-F-N,N-DABO) derivatives and investigate the molecular basis for their high-affinity binding to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Our results show that the new compounds display higher association rates than the difluoro derivatives toward wild-type HIV-1 RT or drug-resistant RT mutant forms. We also show that they preferentially associate to either the free enzyme or the enzyme-nucleic acid binary complex, and that this binding is stabilized upon formation of the ternary complex between HIV-1 RT and both the nucleic acid and nucleotide substrates. Interestingly, one compound showed dissociation rates from the ternary complex with RT mutants K103N and Y181I 10-20-fold slower than from the corresponding complex with wild-type RT.

  10. Structural Mechanism of the Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor Ponatinib (AP24534): Lessons for Overcoming Kinase Inhibitor Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Thomas, Mathew; Keats, Jeff; Xu, Qihong; Rivera, Victor M.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Dalgarno, David C.; Zhu, Xiaotian (ARIAD)

    2012-01-20

    The BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, drug resistance caused by kinase domain mutations has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, most recently against the T315I gatekeeper residue mutation. Ponatinib (AP24534) inhibits both native and mutant BCR-ABL, including T315I, acting as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor. Here, we undertook a combined crystallographic and structure-activity relationship analysis on ponatinib to understand this unique profile. While the ethynyl linker is a key inhibitor functionality that interacts with the gatekeeper, virtually all other components of ponatinib play an essential role in its T315I inhibitory activity. The extensive network of optimized molecular contacts found in the DFG-out binding mode leads to high potency and renders binding less susceptible to disruption by single point mutations. The inhibitory mechanism exemplified by ponatinib may have broad relevance to designing inhibitors against other kinases with mutated gatekeeper residues.

  11. Potential mechanisms of resistance to microtubule inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallaris, Maria; Annereau, Jean-Philippe; Barret, Jean-Marc

    2008-06-01

    Antimitotic drugs targeting the microtubules, such as the taxanes and vinca alkaloids, are widely used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. Development of drug resistance over time, however, limits the efficacy of these agents and poses a clinical challenge to long-term improvement of patient outcomes. Understanding the mechanism(s) of drug resistance becomes paramount to allowing for alternative, if not improved, therapeutic options that might circumvent this challenge. Vinflunine, a novel microtubule inhibitor, has shown superior preclinical antitumor activity, and displays a different pattern of resistance, compared with other agents in the vinca alkaloid class.

  12. Structure-Based Design of Novel HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors to Combat Drug Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh,A.; Sridhar, P.; Leshchenko, S.; Hussain, A.; Li, J.; Kovalevsky, A.; Walters, D.; Wedelind, J.; Grum-Tokars, V.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Structure-based design and synthesis of novel HIV protease inhibitors are described. The inhibitors are designed specifically to interact with the backbone of HIV protease active site to combat drug resistance. Inhibitor 3 has exhibited exceedingly potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral potency. Furthermore, this inhibitor maintains impressive potency against a wide spectrum of HIV including a variety of multi-PI-resistant clinical strains. The inhibitors incorporated a stereochemically defined 5-hexahydrocyclopenta[b]furanyl urethane as the P2-ligand into the (R)-(hydroxyethylamino)sulfonamide isostere. Optically active (3aS,5R,6aR)-5-hydroxy-hexahydrocyclopenta[b]furan was prepared by an enzymatic asymmetrization of meso-diacetate with acetyl cholinesterase, radical cyclization, and Lewis acid-catalyzed anomeric reduction as the key steps. A protein-ligand X-ray crystal structure of inhibitor 3-bound HIV-1 protease (1.35 Angstroms resolution) revealed extensive interactions in the HIV protease active site including strong hydrogen bonding interactions with the backbone. This design strategy may lead to novel inhibitors that can combat drug resistance.

  13. A comparison of the ability of rilpivirine (TMC278 and selected analogues to inhibit clinically relevant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Barry C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recently approved anti-AIDS drug rilpivirine (TMC278, Edurant is a nonnucleoside inhibitor (NNRTI that binds to reverse transcriptase (RT and allosterically blocks the chemical step of DNA synthesis. In contrast to earlier NNRTIs, rilpivirine retains potency against well-characterized, clinically relevant RT mutants. Many structural analogues of rilpivirine are described in the patent literature, but detailed analyses of their antiviral activities have not been published. This work addresses the ability of several of these analogues to inhibit the replication of wild-type (WT and drug-resistant HIV-1. Results We used a combination of structure activity relationships and X-ray crystallography to examine NNRTIs that are structurally related to rilpivirine to determine their ability to inhibit WT RT and several clinically relevant RT mutants. Several analogues showed broad activity with only modest losses of potency when challenged with drug-resistant viruses. Structural analyses (crystallography or modeling of several analogues whose potencies were reduced by RT mutations provide insight into why these compounds were less effective. Conclusions Subtle variations between compounds can lead to profound differences in their activities and resistance profiles. Compounds with larger substitutions replacing the pyrimidine and benzonitrile groups of rilpivirine, which reorient pocket residues, tend to lose more activity against the mutants we tested. These results provide a deeper understanding of how rilpivirine and related compounds interact with the NNRTI binding pocket and should facilitate development of novel inhibitors.

  14. Prevalence of HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Its Impacts on HIV-1 Virological Failures in Jiangsu, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has been shown to improve survival of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and to reduce HIV-1 transmission. Therefore, the Chinese central government initiated a national program to provide ART free of charge to HIV-1 patients. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Jiangsu province to determine the level of drug resistance (DR in HIV-1 infected patients and the correlates of DR in virological failures in 2012. Approximately 10.4% of the HIV-1 patients in the study experienced virological failure after one year of ART and were divided into drug sensitive and drug resistant groups based on genotype determination. The viral loads (VLs in the drug resistant group were significantly lower than the drug sensitive group. There were two independent predictors of virological failure: male gender and increasing duration of treatment. The primary mutations observed in the study were against nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs which were M184V (79.45% and K103N (33.70% in nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs. The overall rate of DR in Jiangsu province is still relatively low among treated patients. However, close monitoring of drug resistance in male patients in the early stages of treatment is vital to maintaining and increasing the benefits of HIV ART achieved to date.

  15. Parallel screening of wild-type and drug-resistant targets for anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Cheng Hsu

    Full Text Available Infection with influenza virus is a major public health problem, causing serious illness and death each year. Emergence of drug-resistant influenza virus strains limits the effectiveness of drug treatment. Importantly, a dual H275Y/I223R mutation detected in the pandemic influenza A 2009 virus strain results in multidrug resistance to current neuraminidase (NA drugs. Therefore, discovery of new agents for treating multiple drug-resistant (MDR influenza virus infections is important. Here, we propose a parallel screening strategy that simultaneously screens wild-type (WT and MDR NAs, and identifies inhibitors matching the subsite characteristics of both NA-binding sites. These may maintain their potency when drug-resistant mutations arise. Initially, we analyzed the subsite of the dual H275Y/I223R NA mutant. Analysis of the site-moiety maps of NA protein structures show that the mutant subsite has a relatively small volume and is highly polar compared with the WT subsite. Moreover, the mutant subsite has a high preference for forming hydrogen-bonding interactions with polar moieties. These changes may drive multidrug resistance. Using this strategy, we identified a new inhibitor, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RB19, an anthraquinone dye, which inhibited WT NA and MDR NA with IC(50 values of 3.4 and 4.5 µM, respectively. RB19 comprises a rigid core scaffold and a flexible chain with a large polar moiety. The former interacts with highly conserved residues, decreasing the probability of resistance. The latter forms van der Waals contacts with the WT subsite and yields hydrogen bonds with the mutant subsite by switching the orientation of its flexible side chain. Both scaffolds of RB19 are good starting points for lead optimization. The results reveal a parallel screening strategy for identifying resistance mechanisms and discovering anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors. We believe that this strategy may be applied to other diseases with high

  16. Transcriptional changes associated with resistance to inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed using metaanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, Sidra; Javed, Qamar; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    EGFR is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in healthy cells, but in tumors it activates downstream signaling pathways, causing proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Consequently, EGFR is targeted in cancers using reversible, irreversible or antibody inhibitors. Unfortunately, tumors develop inhibitor resistance by mutations or overexpressing EGFR, or its ligand, or activating secondary, EGFR-independent pathways. Here we present a global metaanalysis comparing transcriptional profiles from matched pairs of EGFR inhibitor-sensitive vs. -resistant cell lines, using 15 datasets comprising 274 microarrays. We also analyzed separately pairs of cell lines derived using reversible, irreversible or antibody inhibitors. The metaanalysis identifies commonalities in cell lines resistant to EGFR inhibitors: in sensitive cell lines, the ontological categories involving the ErbB receptors pathways, cell adhesion and lipid metabolism are overexpressed; however, resistance to EGFR inhibitors is associated with overexpression of genes for ErbB receptors-independent oncogenic pathways, regulation of cell motility, energy metabolism, immunity especially inflammatory cytokines biosynthesis, cell cycle and responses to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. Specifically in Gefitinib-resistant cell lines, the immunity-associated genes are overexpressed, whereas in Erlotinib-resistant ones so are the mitochondrial genes and processes. Unexpectedly, lines selected using EGFR-targeting antibodies overexpress different gene ontologies from ones selected using kinase inhibitors. Specifically, they have reduced expression of genes for proliferation, chemotaxis, immunity and angiogenesis. This metaanalysis suggests that ‘combination therapies’ can improve cancer treatment outcomes. Potentially, use of mitochondrial blockers with Erlotinib, immunity blockers with Gefitinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors with antibody inhibitors, may have better chance of avoiding

  17. Towards discovering dual functional inhibitors against both wild type and K103N mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptases: molecular docking and QSAR studies on 4,1-benzoxazepinone analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenshan; Zheng, Mingyue; Du, Li; Shen, Jianhua; Luo, Xiaomin; Zhu, Weiliang; Jiang, Hualiang

    2006-05-01

    To find useful information for discovering dual functional inhibitors against both wild type (WT) and K103N mutant reverse transcriptases (RTs) of HIV-1, molecular docking and 3D-QSAR approaches were applied to a set of twenty-five 4,1-benzoxazepinone analogues of efavirenz (SUSTIVA®), some of them are active against the two RTs. 3D-QSAR models were constructed, based on their binding conformations determined by molecular docking, with r 2 cv values ranging from 0.656 to 0.834 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. The models were then validated to be highly predictive and extrapolative by inhibitors in two test sets with different molecular skeletons. Furthermore, CoMFA models were found to be well matched with the binding sites of both WT and K103N RTs. Finally, a reasonable pharmacophore model of 4,1-benzoxazepinones were established. The application of the model not only successfully differentiated the experimentally determined inhibitors from non-inhibitors, but also discovered two potent inhibitors from the compound database SPECS. On the basis of both the 3D-QSAR and pharmacophore models, new clues for discovering and designing potent dual functional drug leads against HIV-1 were proposed: (i) adopting positively charged aliphatic group at the cis-substituent of C3; (ii) reducing the electronic density at the position of O4; (iii) positioning a small branched aliphatic group at position of C5; (iv) using the negatively charged bulky substituents at position of C7.

  18. HIV-1 drug resistance in recently HIV-infected pregnant mother's naïve to antiretroviral therapy in Dodoma urban, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairo, Francesco; Nicastri, Emanuele; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Chaula, Zainab; Nguhuni, Boniface; Bevilacqua, Nazario; Forbici, Federica; Amendola, Alessandra; Fabeni, Lavinia; De Nardo, Pasquale; Perno, Carlo Federico; Cannas, Angela; Sakhoo, Calistus; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2013-09-21

    HIV resistance affects virological response to therapy and efficacy of prophylaxis in mother-to-child-transmission. The study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV primary resistance in pregnant women naïve to antiretrovirals. Cross sectional baseline analysis of a cohort of HIV + pregnant women (HPW) enrolled in the study entitled Antiretroviral Management of Antenatal and Natal HIV Infection (AMANI, peace in Kiswahili language). The AMANI study began in May 2010 in Dodoma, Tanzania. In this observational cohort, antiretroviral treatment was provided to all women from the 28th week of gestation until the end of the breastfeeding period. Baseline CD4 cell count, viral load and HIV drug-resistance genotype were collected. Drug-resistance analysis was performed on 97 naïve infected-mothers. The prevalence of all primary drug resistance and primary non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors resistance was 11.9% and 7.5%, respectively. K103S was found in two women with no M184V detection. HIV-1 subtype A was the most commonly identified, with a high prevalence of subtype A1, followed by C, D, C/D recombinant, A/C recombinant and A/D recombinant. HIV drug- resistance mutations were detected in A1 and C subtypes. Our study reports an 11.9% prevalence rate of primary drug resistance in naïve HIV-infected pregnant women from a remote area of Tanzania. Considering that the non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors are part of the first-line antiretroviral regimen in Tanzania and all of Africa, resistance surveys should be prioritized in settings where antiretroviral therapy programs are scaled up.

  19. Acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors: mechanisms and prevention strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viloria-Petit, Alicia M.; Kerbel, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Potent and specific, or relatively specific, inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecular weight compounds, have been successfully developed. Both types of agent have been found to have significant antitumor activity, especially when used in combination with radio- hormone- and chemotherapy in preclinical studies. Because of the potentiation of the conventional drug activity in these combination settings, inhibitors of EGFR signaling have often been referred to as sensitizers for chemotherapy or radiation, as well as drug resistance reversal agents. Phase II clinical trials in head-and-neck as well as lung cancer suggested this concept of chemosensitization might translate into the clinic, but this remains to be definitively proven in randomized, double-blind Phase III trials. Given the extensive preclinical literature on EGFR blocking drugs and the advanced clinical development of such agents, it is surprising that the possibility of development of acquired resistance to the EGFR inhibitors themselves, a common clinical problem with virtually all other currently used anticancer drugs, remains a largely unexplored subject of investigation. Here we summarize some of the possible mechanisms that can result in acquired resistance to EGFR-targeting drugs. Alternative combination therapies to circumvent and delay this problem are suggested

  20. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling of 2-Hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3-dione analogues as inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase associated ribonuclease H and polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Vernekar, Sanjeev Kumar V; Chen, Yue-Lei; Miller, Lena; Huber, Andrew D; Myshakina, Nataliya; Sarafianos, Stefan G; Parniak, Michael A; Wang, Zhengqiang

    2017-06-16

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) remains the only virally encoded enzymatic function not clinically validated as an antiviral target. 2-Hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3-dione (HID) is known to confer active site directed inhibition of divalent metal-dependent enzymatic functions, such as HIV RNase H, integrase (IN) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase. We report herein the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of a few C-5, C-6 or C-7 substituted HID subtypes as HIV RNase H inhibitors. Our data indicate that while some of these subtypes inhibited both the RNase H and polymerase (pol) functions of RT, potent and selective RNase H inhibition was achieved with subtypes 8-9 as exemplified with compounds 8c and 9c. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Convergent Akt activation drives acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirstine; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Molina, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations typically benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. However, virtually all patients succumb to acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance that occurs via diverse mechanisms....

  2. Intravaginal ring delivery of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor TMC 120 as an HIV microbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, A David; Malcolm, R Karl; Morrow, Ryan J; Toner, Clare F; McCullagh, Stephen D

    2006-11-15

    TMC 120 (Dapivirine) is a potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is presently being developed as a vaginal HIV microbicide. To date, most vaginal microbicides under clinical investigation have been formulated as single-dose semi-solid gels, designed for application to the vagina before each act of intercourse. However, a clear rationale exists for providing long-term, controlled release of vaginal microbicides in order to afford continuous protection against heterosexually transmitted HIV infection and to improve user compliance. In this study we report on the incorporation of various pharmaceutical excipients into TMC 120 silicone, reservoir-type intravaginal rings (IVRs) in order to modify the controlled release characteristics of the microbicide. The results demonstrate that TMC 120 is released in zero-order fashion from the rings over a 28-day period and that release parameters could be modified by the inclusion of release-modifying excipients in the IVR. The hydrophobic liquid excipient isopropyl myristate had little effect on steady-state daily release rates, but did increase the magnitude and duration of burst release in proportion to excipient loading in the IVR. By comparison, the hydrophobic liquid poly(dimethylsiloxane) had little effect on TMC 120 release parameters. A hydrophilic excipient, lactose, had the surprising effect of decreasing TMC 120 burst release while increasing the apparent steady-state daily release in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on previous cell culture data and vaginal physiology, TMC120 is released from the various ring formulations in amounts potentially capable of maintaining a protective vaginal concentration. It is further predicted that the observed release rates may be maintained for at least a period of 1 year from a single ring device. TMC 120 release profiles and the mechanical properties of rings could be modified by the physicochemical nature of hydrophobic and hydrophilic excipients

  3. HIV-1 integrase inhibitor resistance among treatment naïve patients in the West of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Stewart, A; Urcia, C; MacLean, A; Aitken, C; Gunson, R

    2017-07-01

    Transmitted integrase inhibitor resistance is rare, with only a small number of cases reported world-wide to date. The aim of this study was to assess whether transmitted integrase inhibitor resistance has occurred in Scotland and if so, could there be a case for performing genotypic integrase resistance testing at baseline. The study population consisted of 106 treatment naïve, newly diagnosed, HIV positive patients. The patient samples were collected between October 2015 and March 2016 at the time of HIV diagnosis and prior to initiation of anti-retroviral therapy. The integrase region was amplified and sequenced. We detected integrase inhibitor resistance (T66I/T) at baseline in one patient sample. This is a non-polymorphic mutation seen in patients receiving elvitegravir which confers high-level resistance to elvitegravir and intermediate resistance to raltegravir. A further 10 patients had accessory mutations which have minimal or no effect on susceptibility to integrase inhibitors. Transmitted integrase inhibitor resistance remains rare. The results of the present study do not support performing integrase resistance testing at baseline. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Perturbation biology nominates upstream-downstream drug combinations in RAF inhibitor resistant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Anil; Wang, Weiqing; Demir, Emek; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Jing, Xiaohong; Molinelli, Evan J; Babur, Özgün; Bemis, Debra L; Onur Sumer, Selcuk; Solit, David B; Pratilas, Christine A; Sander, Chris

    2015-08-18

    Resistance to targeted cancer therapies is an important clinical problem. The discovery of anti-resistance drug combinations is challenging as resistance can arise by diverse escape mechanisms. To address this challenge, we improved and applied the experimental-computational perturbation biology method. Using statistical inference, we build network models from high-throughput measurements of molecular and phenotypic responses to combinatorial targeted perturbations. The models are computationally executed to predict the effects of thousands of untested perturbations. In RAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma cells, we measured 143 proteomic/phenotypic entities under 89 perturbation conditions and predicted c-Myc as an effective therapeutic co-target with BRAF or MEK. Experiments using the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 affecting the level of c-Myc protein and protein kinase inhibitors targeting the ERK pathway confirmed the prediction. In conclusion, we propose an anti-cancer strategy of co-targeting a specific upstream alteration and a general downstream point of vulnerability to prevent or overcome resistance to targeted drugs.

  5. A376S in the connection subdomain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confers increased risk of virological failure to nevirapine therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes, Roger; Puertas, Maria Carmen; Bannister, Wendy; Kisic, Mónica; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Pou, Christian; Bellido, Rocío; Betancor, Gilberto; Bogner, Johannes; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Bánhegyi, Dénes; Clotet, Bonaventura; Lundgren, Jens; Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Losso, M.; Elias, C.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Suetnov, O.; Clumeck, N.; de Wit, S.; Poll, B.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Rozsypal, H.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Hansen, A.-B. E.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Oestergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J.-P.; Girard, P.-M.; Livrozet, J. M.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Staszewski, S.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Panos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Pollack, S.; Hassoun, G.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Chirianni, A.; Montesarchio, E.; Gargiulo, M.; Antonucci, G.; Iacomi, F.; Narciso, P.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Finazzi, R.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; d'Arminio, A.; Rozentale, B.; Aldins, P.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Reiss, P.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Brunn, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Prokopowicz, D.; Flisiak, R.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Pynka, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Valadas, E.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Vinogradova, E.; Buzunova, S.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokrás, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Soriano, V.; Martin-Carbonero, L.; Labarga, P.; Moreno, S.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miró, J. M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M. A.; Karlsson, A.; Persson, P. O.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Francioli, P.; Cavassini, M.; Hirschel, B.; Boffi, E.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Kravchenko, E.; Chentsova, N.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A. M.; Mercey, D.; Phillips, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Murphy, M.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Gatell, J.; Gazzard, B.; Lundgren, J.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Kirk, O.; Mocroft, A.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Grint, D.; Ellefson, M.; Podlekareva, D.; Kjaer, J.; Peters, L.; Reekie, J.; Kowalska, J.; Tverland, J.; Fischer, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical relevance of mutations in the connection subdomain and the ribonuclease (RNase) H domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is uncertain. The risk of virological failure to nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) was evaluated in NNRTI-naive patients who

  6. Coexistencia de variantes HIV-1 com insercao dipeptidica no gene da transcriptase reversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aki Tanikawa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta comunicação foi descrever a detecção de coexistência de variantes HIV-1 com inserções de dois aminoácidos entre os códons 69 e 70 da transcriptase reversa. Tais variantes foram isoladas de paciente do sexo masculino, 16 anos de idade, em tratamento no interior do estado de São Paulo. Após confirmação de falha terapêutica, foi realizado teste de resistência a antirretrovirais, a partir do qual foram detectadas duas variantes contendo inserções dos aminoácidos Ser-Gly/Ser-Ala no códon 69 da transcriptase reversa, além da mutação T69S. Tais inserções possuem baixa prevalência, não foram relatadas em caráter de coexistência no Brasil e estão relacionadas com a resistência a múltiplas drogas, tornando o achado relevante do ponto de vista epidemiológico.

  7. Efavirenz or nevirapine in three-drug combination therapy with two nucleoside or nucleotide-reverse transcriptase inhibitors for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-naïve individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Mursleen, Sara; Irlam, James H; Spaulding, Alicen B; Rutherford, George W; Siegfried, Nandi

    2016-12-10

    The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality due to HIV infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines focus on three classes of antiretroviral drugs, namely nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and protease inhibitors. Two of the most common medications given as first-line treatment are the NNRTIs, efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP). It is unclear which NNRTI is more efficacious for initial therapy. This systematic review was first published in 2010. To determine which non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, either EFV or NVP, is more effective in suppressing viral load when given in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as part of initial antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and children. We attempted to identify all relevant studies, regardless of language or publication status, in electronic databases and conference proceedings up to 12 August 2016. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov to 12 August 2016. We searched LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and the Web of Science from 1996 to 12 August 2016. We checked the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Gateway from 1996 to 2009, as it was no longer available after 2009. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared EFV to NVP in people with HIV without prior exposure to ART, irrespective of the dosage or NRTI's given in combination.The primary outcome of interest was virological success. Other primary outcomes included mortality, clinical progression to AIDS, severe adverse events, and discontinuation of therapy for any reason. Secondary outcomes were change in CD4 count, treatment failure

  8. Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecena, Helma; Tveit, Daniel; Wang, Zi; Farhat, Ahmed; Panchal, Parvita; Liu, Jing; Singh, Simar J; Sanghera, Amandeep; Bainiwal, Ajay; Teo, Shuan Y; Meyskens, Frank L; Liu-Smith, Feng; Filipp, Fabian V

    2018-04-04

    Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. However, the anti-tumorigenic effect and clinical benefit are only transient, and tumors are prone to treatment resistance and relapse. To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. The cellular model evolved in response to clinical dosage of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, PLX4032. We conducted transcriptomic expression profiling using RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR arrays. Pathways of melanogenesis, MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and metabolism were significantly enriched among the set of differentially expressed genes of vemurafenib-resistant cells vs control. The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. Downregulation of dual specific phosphatases, tumor suppressors, and negative MAPK regulators reengages mitogenic signaling. Upregulation of growth factors, cytokines, and cognate receptors triggers signaling pathways circumventing BRAF blockage. Further, changes in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism support cellular proliferation despite MAPK inhibitor treatment. In addition, treatment-resistant cells upregulate pigmentation and melanogenesis, pathways which partially overlap with MAPK signaling. Upstream regulator analysis discovered significant perturbation in oncogenic forkhead box and hypoxia inducible factor family transcription factors. The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance

  9. Fifteen years of HIV Protease Inhibitors: raising the barrier to resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, Annemarie M J; van Maarseveen, Noortje M; Nijhuis, Monique

    2010-01-01

    HIV protease plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle and is essential for the generation of mature infectious virus particles. Detailed knowledge of the structure of HIV protease and its substrate has led to the design of specific HIV protease inhibitors. Unfortunately, resistance to all protease inhibitors (PIs) has been observed and the genetic basis of resistance has been well documented over the past 15 years. The arrival of the early PIs was a pivotal moment in the development of antiretroviral therapy. They made possible the dual class triple combination therapy that became known as HAART. However, the clinical utility of the first generation of PIs was limited by low bioavailability and high pill burdens, which ultimately reduced adherence and limited long-term viral inhibition. When therapy failure occurred multiple protease resistance mutations were observed, often resulting in broad class resistance. To combat PI-resistance development, second-generation approaches have been developed. The first advance was to increase the level of existing PIs in the plasma by boosting with ritonavir. The second was to develop novel PIs with high potency against the known PI-resistant HIV protease variants. Both approaches increased the number of protease mutations required for clinical resistance, thereby raising the genetic barrier. This review provides an overview of the history of protease inhibitor therapy, its current status and future perspectives. It forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, vol. 85, issue 1, 2010. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the D:A:D study: a multi-cohort collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, Caroline A; Worm, Signe W; Weber, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    cohort of HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We used Poisson regression models to quantify the relation between cumulative, recent (currently or within the preceding 6 months), and past use of zidovudine, didanosine, stavudine, lamivudine, and abacavir and development of myocardial infarction in 33 347......BACKGROUND: Whether nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors increase the risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals is unclear. Our aim was to explore whether exposure to such drugs was associated with an excess risk of myocardial infarction in a large, prospective observational...... patients enrolled in the D:A:D study. We adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors that are unlikely to be affected by antiretroviral therapy, cohort, calendar year, and use of other antiretrovirals. FINDINGS: Over 157,912 person-years, 517 patients had a myocardial infarction. We found no associations...

  11. Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel pyrrolyl aryl sulfones: HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors active at nanomolar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Silvestri, R; Pagnozzi, E; Bruno, B; Novellino, E; Greco, G; Massa, S; Ettorre, A; Loi, A G; Scintu, F; La Colla, P

    2000-05-04

    Pyrrolyl aryl sulfones (PASs) have been recently reported as a new class of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors acting at the non-nucleoside binding site of this enzyme (Artico, M.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 1996, 39, 522-530). Compound 3, the most potent inhibitor within the series (EC(50) = 0.14 microM, IC(50) = 0.4 microM, and SI > 1429), was then selected as a lead compound for a synthetic project based on molecular modeling studies. Using the three-dimensional structure of RT cocrystallized with the alpha-APA derivative R95845, we derived a model of the RT/3 complex by taking into account previously developed structure-activity relationships. Inspection of this model and docking calculations on virtual compounds prompted the design of novel PAS derivatives and related analogues. Our computational approach proved to be effective in making qualitative predictions, that is in discriminating active versus inactive compounds. Among the compounds synthesized and tested, 20 was the most active one, with EC(50) = 0.045 microM, IC(50) = 0.05 microM, and SI = 5333. Compared with the lead 3, these values represent a 3- and 8-fold improvement in the cell-based and enzyme assays, respectively, together with the highest selectivity achieved so far in the PAS series.

  12. Binding of Dumbbell Oligonucleotides to MoMuLV Reverse Transcriptase: Inhibitory Properties of RNase H Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumbbell oligonucleotides with loops of various chemistry were synthesized. Incubation of dumbbell oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate bonds or trimethylene phosphate linkages in loops with S1 nuclease did not result in significant cleavage under conditions which led to the degradation of dumbbell oligonucleotide containing phophodiester bonds in the loops. The binding of reverse transcriptase of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV was evaluated with all the five oligonucleotides. The protein binds to all the dumbbell oligonucleotides with similar affinity. The dissociation constants evaluated using PAGE band mobility shift assays were of the order of 10-7. The inhibitory properties of the retroviral RNase H activity was evaluated using 3H –UTP-labeled RNA:RNA-DNA hybrid. It was found that the best dumbbell oligonucleotide, inhibitor contained phosphorothioate residues in both the loops. Our value studies demonstrated that this particularly designed oligonucleotide displays an IC50 of 18 nM in its inhibition on the reverse transcriptase RNase H activity, a magnitude lower than that of first nucleotide reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, tenofovir, introduced by Gilead Science in the market.

  13. Overcoming resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors: comparing sulbactam to novel inhibitors against clavulanate resistant SHV enzymes with substitutions at Ambler position 244.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jodi M; Distler, Anne M; Bonomo, Robert A

    2007-10-09

    Amino acid changes at Ambler position R244 in class A TEM and SHV beta-lactamases confer resistance to ampicillin/clavulanate, a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination used to treat serious infections. To gain a deeper understanding of this resistance phenotype, we investigated the activities of sulbactam and two novel penem beta-lactamase inhibitors with sp2 hybridized C3 carboxylates and bicyclic R1 side chains against a library of SHV beta-lactamase variants at the 244 position. Compared to SHV-1 expressed in Escherichia coli, all 19 R244 variants exhibited increased susceptibility to ampicillin/sulbactam, an important difference compared to ampicillin/clavulanate. Kinetic analyses of SHV-1 and three SHV R244 (-S, -Q, and -L) variants revealed the Ki for sulbactam was significantly elevated for the R244 variants, but the partition ratios, kcat/kinact, were markedly reduced (13 000 --> inhibitors effectively restored ampicillin susceptibility in vitro. Compared to that of sulbactam, the kcat/kinact values of penems for SHV-1 and R244S were low (resistance can be overcome by designing penem inhibitors with strategic chemical properties that improve affinity and impair turnover.

  14. Hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor-resistance mutations: our experience and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2013-12-21

    Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are one of the major advances in its medical treatment. The HCV protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir were the first approved DAAs in the United States, Europe, and Japan. When combined with peginterferon plus ribavirin, these agents increase sustained virologic response rates to 70%-80% in treatment-naïve patients and previous-treatment relapsers with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. Without peginterferon plus ribavirin, DAA mono-therapies increased DAA-resistance mutations. Several new DAAs for HCV are now in clinical development and are likely to be approved in the near future. However, it has been reported that the use of these drugs also led to the emergence of DAA-resistance mutations in certain cases. Furthermore, these mutations exhibit cross-resistance to multiple drugs. The prevalence of DAA-resistance mutations in HCV-infected patients who were not treated with DAAs is unknown, and it is as yet uncertain whether such variants are sensitive to DAAs. We performed a population sequence analysis to assess the frequency of such variants in the sera of HCV genotype 1-infected patients not treated with HCV protease inhibitors. Here, we reviewed the literature on resistance variants of HCV protease inhibitors in treatment naïve patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, as well as our experience.

  15. Resistance and cross-resistance profile of the diaryltriazine NNRTI and candidate microbicide UAMC01398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariën, Kevin K; Venkatraj, Muthusamy; Michiels, Johan; Joossens, Jurgen; Vereecken, Katleen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Heeres, Jan; De Winter, Hans; Heyndrickx, Leo; Augustyns, Koen; Vanham, Guido

    2016-05-01

    The resistance development, cross-resistance to other NNRTIs and the impact of resistance on viral replicative fitness were studied for the new and potent NNRTI UAMC01398. Resistance was selected by dose escalation and by single high-dose selection against a comprehensive panel of NNRTIs used as therapeutics and NNRTIs under investigation for pre-exposure prophylaxis of sexual HIV transmission. A panel of 27 site-directed mutants with single mutations or combinations of mutations involved in reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor-mediated resistance was developed and used to confirm resistance to UAMC01398. Cross-resistance to other NNRTIs was assessed, as well as susceptibility of UAMC01398-resistant HIV to diarylpyrimidine-resistant viruses. Finally, the impact of UAMC01398 resistance on HIV replicative fitness was studied. We showed that UAMC01398 has potent activity against dapivirine-resistant HIV, that at least four mutations in the RT are required in concert for resistance and that the resistance profile is similar to rilpivirine, both genotypically and phenotypically. Resistance development to UAMC01398 is associated with a severe fitness cost. These data, together with the enhanced safety profile and good solubility in aqueous gels, make UAMC01398 an excellent candidate for HIV topical prevention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Distinct apoptotic blocks mediate resistance to panHER inhibitors in HER2+ breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Bahriye; Ozmay, Yeliz; Basaga, Huveyda; Gul, Ozgur; Kutuk, Ozgur

    2018-05-04

    Despite the development of novel targeted therapies, de novo or acquired chemoresistance remains a significant factor for treatment failure in breast cancer therapeutics. Neratinib and dacomitinib are irreversible panHER inhibitors, which block their autophosphorylation and downstream signaling. Moreover, neratinib and dacomitinib have been shown to activate cell death in HER2-overexpressing cell lines. Here we showed that increased MCL1 and decreased BIM and PUMA mediated resistance to neratinib in ZR-75-30 and SKBR3 cells while increased BCL-XL and BCL-2 and decreased BIM and PUMA promoted neratinib resistance in BT474 cells. Cells were also cross-resistant to dacomitinib. BH3 profiles of HER2+ breast cancer cells efficiently predicted antiapoptotic protein dependence and development of resistance to panHER inhibitors. Reactivation of ERK1/2 was primarily responsible for acquired resistance in SKBR3 and ZR-75-30 cells. Adding specific ERK1/2 inhibitor SCH772984 to neratinib or dacomitinib led to increased apoptotic response in neratinib-resistant SKBR3 and ZR-75-30 cells, but we did not detect a similar response in neratinib-resistant BT474 cells. Accordingly, suppression of BCL-2/BCL-XL by ABT-737 was required in addition to ERK1/2 inhibition for neratinib- or dacomitinib-induced apoptosis in neratinib-resistant BT474 cells. Our results showed that different mitochondrial apoptotic blocks mediated acquired panHER inhibitor resistance in HER2+ breast cancer cell lines as well as highlighted the potential of BH3 profiling assay in prediction of panHER inhibitor resistance in breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV protease drug resistance and its impact on inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, P J; Rodgers, J D; Chang, C H

    1999-07-01

    The primary cause of resistance to the currently available HIV protease inhibitors is the accumulation of multiple mutations in the viral protease. So far more than 20 substitutions have been observed in the active site, dimer interface, surface loops and flaps of the homodimer. While many mutations reduce the protease's affinity for inhibitors, others appear to enhance its catalytic efficiency. This high degree of genetic flexibility has made the protease an elusive drug target. The design of the next generation of HIV protease inhibitors will be discussed in light of the current structural information.

  18. Perturbation biology nominates upstream–downstream drug combinations in RAF inhibitor resistant melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Anil; Wang, Weiqing; Demir, Emek; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Jing, Xiaohong; Molinelli, Evan J; Babur, Özgün; Bemis, Debra L; Onur Sumer, Selcuk; Solit, David B; Pratilas, Christine A; Sander, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to targeted cancer therapies is an important clinical problem. The discovery of anti-resistance drug combinations is challenging as resistance can arise by diverse escape mechanisms. To address this challenge, we improved and applied the experimental-computational perturbation biology method. Using statistical inference, we build network models from high-throughput measurements of molecular and phenotypic responses to combinatorial targeted perturbations. The models are computationally executed to predict the effects of thousands of untested perturbations. In RAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma cells, we measured 143 proteomic/phenotypic entities under 89 perturbation conditions and predicted c-Myc as an effective therapeutic co-target with BRAF or MEK. Experiments using the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 affecting the level of c-Myc protein and protein kinase inhibitors targeting the ERK pathway confirmed the prediction. In conclusion, we propose an anti-cancer strategy of co-targeting a specific upstream alteration and a general downstream point of vulnerability to prevent or overcome resistance to targeted drugs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04640.001 PMID:26284497

  19. Anti-HBV treatment induces novel reverse transcriptase mutations with reflective effect on HBV S antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cento, Valeria; van Hemert, Formijn; Neumann-Fraune, Maria; Mirabelli, Carmen; Di Maio, Velia-Chiara; Salpini, Romina; Bertoli, Ada; Micheli, Valeria; Gubertini, Guido; Romano, Sara; Visca, Michela; de Sanctis, Giuseppe-Maria; Berkhout, Ben; Marino, Nicoletta; Mazzotta, Francesco; Cappiello, Giuseppina; Spanò, Alberto; Sarrecchia, Cesare; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Andreoni, Massimo; Angelico, Mario; Verheyen, Jens; Perno, Carlo Federico; Svicher, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The identification of novel reverse-transcriptase (RT) drug-resistance mutations is critical in predicting the probability of success to anti-HBV treatment. Furthermore, due to HBV-RT/HBsAg gene-overlap, they can have an impact on HBsAg-detection and quantification. 356 full-length HBV-RT sequences

  20. Reverse Transcriptase drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 Subtype C infected patients on ART in Karonga District, Malawi

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bansode, Vijay B

    2011-10-13

    Abstract Background Drug resistance testing before initiation of, or during, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not routinely performed in resource-limited settings. High levels of viral resistance circulating within the population will have impact on treatment programs by increasing the chances of transmission of resistant strains and treatment failure. Here, we investigate Drug Resistance Mutations (DRMs) from blood samples obtained at regular intervals from patients on ART (Baseline-22 months) in Karonga District, Malawi. One hundred and forty nine reverse transcriptase (RT) consensus sequences were obtained via nested PCR and automated sequencing from blood samples collected at three-month intervals from 75 HIV-1 subtype C infected individuals in the ART programme. Results Fifteen individuals showed DRMs, and in ten individuals DRMs were seen from baseline samples (reported to be ART naïve). Three individuals in whom no DRMs were observed at baseline showed the emergence of DRMs during ART exposure. Four individuals who did show DRMs at baseline showed additional DRMs at subsequent time points, while two individuals showed evidence of DRMs at baseline and either no DRMs, or different DRMs, at later timepoints. Three individuals had immune failure but none appeared to be failing clinically. Conclusion Despite the presence of DRMs to drugs included in the current regimen in some individuals, and immune failure in three, no signs of clinical failure were seen during this study. This cohort will continue to be monitored as part of the Karonga Prevention Study so that the long-term impact of these mutations can be assessed. Documenting proviral population is also important in monitoring the emergence of drug resistance as selective pressure provided by ART compromises the current plasma population, archived viruses can re-emerge

  1. Taxane-Platin-Resistant Lung Cancers Co-develop Hypersensitivity to JumonjiC Demethylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithili P. Dalvi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients benefit from standard taxane-platin chemotherapy, many relapse, developing drug resistance. We established preclinical taxane-platin-chemoresistance models and identified a 35-gene resistance signature, which was associated with poor recurrence-free survival in neoadjuvant-treated NSCLC patients and included upregulation of the JumonjiC lysine demethylase KDM3B. In fact, multi-drug-resistant cells progressively increased the expression of many JumonjiC demethylases, had altered histone methylation, and, importantly, showed hypersensitivity to JumonjiC inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Increasing taxane-platin resistance in progressive cell line series was accompanied by progressive sensitization to JIB-04 and GSK-J4. These JumonjiC inhibitors partly reversed deregulated transcriptional programs, prevented the emergence of drug-tolerant colonies from chemo-naive cells, and synergized with standard chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. Our findings reveal JumonjiC inhibitors as promising therapies for targeting taxane-platin-chemoresistant NSCLCs.

  2. Sequence Quality Analysis Tool for HIV Type 1 Protease and Reverse Transcriptase

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Allison K.; Wu, Mingham; Bennett, Diane; Parkin, Neil; Wu, Zhijin; Hogan, Joseph W.; Kantor, Rami

    2012-01-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy is increasing globally and drug resistance evolution is anticipated. Currently, protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence generation is increasing, including the use of in-house sequencing assays, and quality assessment prior to sequence analysis is essential. We created a computational HIV PR/RT Sequence Quality Analysis Tool (SQUAT) that runs in the R statistical environment. Sequence quality thresholds are calculated from a large dataset (46,802...

  3. Prevalence of etravirine (ETR)-RAMs at NNRTI failure and predictors of resistance to ETR in a large Italian resistance database (ARCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, S; Adorni, F; Bruzzone, B; Di Biagio, A; Meini, G; Callegaro, A; Punzi, G; Boeri, E; Pecorari, M; Monno, L; Gianotti, N; Butini, L; Galli, L; Polilli, E; Galli, M

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of drug resistance associated with the failure of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens and the predictors of resistance to Etravirine (ETR) were assessed in 2854 subjects: 39 Monogram (MGR) >3, Tibotec (TBT) >2 and enhanced MGR (ENH) ≥4) emerged in the paediatric population. Multivariate analysis revealed an increased risk of developing TBT >2 for NNRTI exposure, ENH ≥4 for NNRTI and EFV exposure in paediatric subjects; NVP exposure and higher (≥3.5 log10) HIV-RNA values for all three algorithms in adult subjects, whereas CD4 ≥ 200/μL appeared to be protective. The risk of being ETR resistant was more than doubled for paediatric vs. adult subjects, probably due to a more extensive use of NNRTI and an incomplete virological control. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  4. The history of antiretrovirals: key discoveries over the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2009-09-01

    Within 25 years after zidovudine (3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine, AZT) was first described as an inhibitor of HIV replication, 25 anti-HIV drugs have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of HIV infections: seven nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine; one nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI): tenofovir [in its oral prodrug form: tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)]; four non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz and etravirine; ten protease inhibitors (PIs): saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir; one fusion inhibitor (FI): enfuvirtide; one co-receptor inhibitor (CRI): maraviroc and one integrase inhibitor (INI): raltegravir. These compounds are used in various drug combination (some at fixed dose) regimens so as to achieve the highest possible benefit and tolerability, and to diminish the risk of virus-drug resistance development. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Efficacy of ponatinib against ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Seiichi; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Yuko; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Efficacy of ponatinib against ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant leukemia cells okabe et al. •Imatinib or nilotinib resistance was involved Src family kinase. •The BCR-ABL point mutation (E334V) was highly resistant to imatinib or nilotinib. •Ponatinib was a powerful strategy against imatinib or nilotinib resistant Ph-positive cells. -- Abstract: Because a substantial number of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia acquire resistance to ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), their management remains a challenge. Ponatinib, also known as AP24534, is an oral multi-targeted TKI. Ponatinib is currently being investigated in a pivotal phase 2 clinical trial. In the present study, we analyzed the molecular and functional consequences of ponatinib against imatinib- or nilotinib-resistant (R) K562 and Ba/F3 cells. The proliferation of imatinib- or nilotinib-resistant K562 cells did not decrease after treatment with imatinib or nilotinib. Src family kinase Lyn was activated. Point mutation Ba/F3 cells (E334 V) were also highly resistant to imatinib and nilotinib. Treatment with ponatinib for 72 h inhibited the growth of imatinib- and nilotinib-resistant cells. The phosphorylation of BCR-ABL, Lyn, and Crk-L was reduced. This study demonstrates that ponatinib has an anti-leukemia effect by reducing ABL and Lyn kinase activity and this information may be of therapeutic relevance

  6. Efficacy of ponatinib against ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Seiichi, E-mail: okabe@tokyo-med.ac.jp; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Yuko; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Efficacy of ponatinib against ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant leukemia cells okabe et al. •Imatinib or nilotinib resistance was involved Src family kinase. •The BCR-ABL point mutation (E334V) was highly resistant to imatinib or nilotinib. •Ponatinib was a powerful strategy against imatinib or nilotinib resistant Ph-positive cells. -- Abstract: Because a substantial number of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia acquire resistance to ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), their management remains a challenge. Ponatinib, also known as AP24534, is an oral multi-targeted TKI. Ponatinib is currently being investigated in a pivotal phase 2 clinical trial. In the present study, we analyzed the molecular and functional consequences of ponatinib against imatinib- or nilotinib-resistant (R) K562 and Ba/F3 cells. The proliferation of imatinib- or nilotinib-resistant K562 cells did not decrease after treatment with imatinib or nilotinib. Src family kinase Lyn was activated. Point mutation Ba/F3 cells (E334 V) were also highly resistant to imatinib and nilotinib. Treatment with ponatinib for 72 h inhibited the growth of imatinib- and nilotinib-resistant cells. The phosphorylation of BCR-ABL, Lyn, and Crk-L was reduced. This study demonstrates that ponatinib has an anti-leukemia effect by reducing ABL and Lyn kinase activity and this information may be of therapeutic relevance.

  7. Molecular docking of (5E)-3-(2-aminoethyl)-5-(2- thienylmethylene)-1, 3-thiazolidine-2, 4-dione on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: novel drug acting on enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniya, Chandrabhan; Yadav, Ajay; Uchadia, Kuldeep; Kumar, Sanjay; Sagar, Nitin; Shrivastava, Priyanka; Shrivastava, Shilpi; Wadhwa, Gulshan

    2012-01-01

    The study of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and animal models in last 31 years suggested that it is a causative agent of AIDS. This causes serious pandemic public health concern globally. It was reported that the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) played a critical role in the life cycle of HIV. Therefore, inhibition of HIV-1RT enzyme is one of the major and potential targets in the treatment of AIDS. The enzyme (HIV-1RT) was successfully targeted by non nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). But frequent application of NNRTIs led drug resistance mutation on HIV infections. Therefore, there is a need to search new NNRTIs with appropriate pharmacophores. For the purpose, a virtually screened 3D model of unliganded HIV-1RT (1DLO) was explored. The unliganded HIV-1RT (1DLO) was docked with 4-thiazolidinone and its derivatives (ChemBank Database) by using AutoDock4. The best seven docking solutions complex were selected and analyzed by Ligplot. The analysis showed that derivative (5E)-3-(2- aminoethyl)-5-(2- thienylmethylene)-1, 3-thiazolidine-2, 4-dione (CID 3087795) has maximum potential against unliganded HIV-1RT (1DLO). The analysis was done on the basis of scoring and binding ability. The derivative (5E)-3-(2- aminoethyl)-5-(2- thienylmethylene)-1, 3-thiazolidine-2, 4-dione (CID 3087795) indicated minimum energy score and highest number of interactions with active site residue and could be a promising inhibitor for HIV-1 RT as Drug target.

  8. Sulfonamide-Based Inhibitors of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Eis Abolish Resistance to Kanamycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzan, Atefeh; Willby, Melisa J.; Green, Keith D.; Gajadeera, Chathurada S.; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Posey, James E.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-12-08

    A two-drug combination therapy where one drug targets an offending cell and the other targets a resistance mechanism to the first drug is a time-tested, yet underexploited approach to combat or prevent drug resistance. By high-throughput screening, we identified a sulfonamide scaffold that served as a pharmacophore to generate inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetyltransferase Eis, whose upregulation causes resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rational systematic derivatization of this scaffold to maximize Eis inhibition and abolish the Eis-mediated KAN resistance of M. tuberculosis yielded several highly potent agents. A crystal structure of Eis in complex with one of the most potent inhibitors revealed that the inhibitor bound Eis in the AG-binding pocket held by a conformationally malleable region of Eis (residues 28–37) bearing key hydrophobic residues. These Eis inhibitors are promising leads for preclinical development of innovative AG combination therapies against resistant TB.

  9. HIV type-1 genotypic resistance profiles in vertically infected patients from Argentina reveal an association between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulicino, Paula C; Rocco, Carlos A; Mecikovsky, Debora; Bologna, Rosa; Mangano, Andrea; Sen, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Patterns and pathways of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance-associated mutations in clinical isolates are conditioned by ARV history and factors such as viral subtype and fitness. Our aim was to analyse the frequency and association of ARV drug resistance mutations in a group of long-term vertically infected patients from Argentina. Plasma samples from 71 patients (38 children and 33 adolescents) were collected for genotypic HIV-1 ARV resistance testing during the period between February 2006 and October 2008. Statistically significant pairwise associations between ARV resistance mutations in pol, as well as associations between mutations and drug exposure, were identified using Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni and false discovery rate corrections. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for subtype assignment. In protease (PR), resistance-associated mutations M46I/L, I54M/L/V/A/S and V82A/F/T/S/M/I were associated with each other and with minor mutations at codons 10, 24 and 71. Mutations V82A/F/T/S/M/I were primarily selected by the administration of ritonavir (RTV) in an historical ARV regimen. In reverse transcriptase, thymidine analogue mutation (TAM)1 profile was more common than TAM2. The non-nucleoside K103N+L100I mutations were observed at high frequency (15.5%) and were significantly associated with the nucleoside mutation L74V in BF recombinants. Associations of mutations at PR sites reflect the frequent use of RTV at an early time in this group of patients and convergent resistance mechanisms driven by the high exposure to protease inhibitors, as well as local HIV-1 diversity. The results provide clinical evidence of a molecular interaction between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations at the reverse transcriptase gene in vivo, limiting the future use of second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as etravirine.

  10. A compensatory mutation provides resistance to disparate HIV fusion inhibitor peptides and enhances membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Wood

    Full Text Available Fusion inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to prevent entry of HIV into host cells. Many of the fusion inhibitors being developed, including the drug enfuvirtide, are peptides designed to competitively inhibit the viral fusion protein gp41. With the emergence of drug resistance, there is an increased need for effective and unique alternatives within this class of antivirals. One such alternative is a class of cyclic, cationic, antimicrobial peptides known as θ-defensins, which are produced by many non-human primates and exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral and antibacterial activity. Currently, the θ-defensin analog RC-101 is being developed as a microbicide due to its specific antiviral activity, lack of toxicity to cells and tissues, and safety in animals. Understanding potential RC-101 resistance, and how resistance to other fusion inhibitors affects RC-101 susceptibility, is critical for future development. In previous studies, we identified a mutant, R5-tropic virus that had evolved partial resistance to RC-101 during in vitro selection. Here, we report that a secondary mutation in gp41 was found to restore replicative fitness, membrane fusion, and the rate of viral entry, which were compromised by an initial mutation providing partial RC-101 resistance. Interestingly, we show that RC-101 is effective against two enfuvirtide-resistant mutants, demonstrating the clinical importance of RC-101 as a unique fusion inhibitor. These findings both expand our understanding of HIV drug-resistance to diverse peptide fusion inhibitors and emphasize the significance of compensatory gp41 mutations.

  11. Design, synthesis and biological evaluations of N-Hydroxy thienopyrimidine-2,4-diones as inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase-associated RNase H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankanala, Jayakanth; Kirby, Karen A; Huber, Andrew D; Casey, Mary C; Wilson, Daniel J; Sarafianos, Stefan G; Wang, Zhengqiang

    2017-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) is the only HIV enzymatic function not targeted by current antiviral drugs. Although various chemotypes have been reported to inhibit HIV RNase H, few have shown significant antiviral activities. We report herein the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel N-hydroxy thienopyrimidine-2,3-dione chemotype (11) which potently and selectively inhibited RNase H with considerable potency against HIV-1 in cell culture. Current structure-activity-relationship (SAR) identified analogue 11d as a nanomolar inhibitor of RNase H (IC 50  = 0.04 μM) with decent antiviral potency (EC 50  = 7.4 μM) and no cytotoxicity (CC 50  > 100 μM). In extended biochemical assays compound 11d did not inhibit RT polymerase (pol) while inhibiting integrase strand transfer (INST) with 53 fold lower potency (IC 50  = 2.1 μM) than RNase H inhibition. Crystallographic and molecular modeling studies confirmed the RNase H active site binding mode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Tenofovir-based regimens associated with less drug resistance in HIV-1-infected Nigerians failing first-line antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiebet, Mary-Ann A; Shepherd, James; Nowak, Rebecca G; Charurat, Man; Chang, Harry; Ajayi, Samuel; Elegba, Olufunmilayo; Ndembi, Nicaise; Abimiku, Alashle; Carr, Jean K; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay M; Blattner, William A

    2013-02-20

    In resource-limited settings, HIV-1 drug resistance testing to guide antiretroviral therapy (ART) selection is unavailable. We retrospectively conducted genotypic analysis on archived samples from Nigerian patients who received targeted viral load testing to confirm treatment failure and report their drug resistance mutation patterns. Stored plasma from 349 adult patients on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) regimens was assayed for HIV-1 RNA viral load, and samples with more than 1000 copies/ml were sequenced in the pol gene. Analysis for resistance mutations utilized the IAS-US 2011 Drug Resistance Mutation list. One hundred and seventy-five samples were genotyped; the majority of the subtypes were G (42.9%) and CRF02_AG (33.7%). Patients were on ART for a median of 27 months. 90% had the M184V/I mutation, 62% had at least one thymidine analog mutation, and 14% had the K65R mutation. 97% had an NNRTI resistance mutation and 47% had at least two etravirine-associated mutations. In multivariate analysis tenofovir-based regimens were less likely to have at least three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutations after adjusting for subtype, previous ART, CD4, and HIV viral load [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) 0.04]. 70% of patients on tenofovir-based regimens had at least two susceptible NRTIs to include in a second-line regimen compared with 40% on zidovudine-based regimens (P = 0.04, OR = 3.4). At recognition of treatment failure, patients on tenofovir-based first-line regimens had fewer NRTI drug-resistant mutations and more active NRTI drugs available for second-line regimens. These findings can inform strategies for ART regimen sequencing to optimize long-term HIV treatment outcomes in low-resource settings.

  13. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Casadellá; P.M. van Ham (Petra); M. Noguera-Julian; A. van Kessel; C. Pou; L.M. Hofstra (Marije); G.A. Metcalf (Ginger A.); F. Garcia; D. Struck (Daniel); I. Alexiev (Ivailo); A.M. Bakken Kran; A.I.M. Hoepelman; L.G. Kostrikis (Leondios); S. Somogyi; K. Liitsola (Kirsi); M. Linka (Marek); C. Nielsen; D. Otelea (Dan); D. Paraskevis (Dimitrios); M. Poljak (Mario); E. Puchhammer-Stöckl (Elisabeth); D. Stanekova (Danica); M. Stanojevic (Maja); K. Van Laethem (Kristel); S. Zidovec Lepej (Snjezana); B. Clotet; C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); R. Paredes (Roger); A.M.J. Wensing (Annemarie)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe objective of this study was to define the natural genotypic variation of the HIV-1 integrase gene across Europe for epidemiological surveillance of integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (InSTI) resistance. This was a multicentre, cross-sectional study within the European SPREAD

  14. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casadella, M.; van Ham, P. M.; Noguera-Julian, M.; van Kessel, A.; Pou, C.; Hofstra, L. M.; Santos, J. R.; Garcia, F.; Struck, D.; Alexiev, I.; Kran, A. M. Bakken; Hoepelman, A. I.; Kostrikis, L. G.; Somogyi, S.; Liitsola, K.; Linka, M.; Nielsen, C.; Otelea, D.; Paraskevis, D.; Poljak, M.; Puchhammer-Stoeckl, E.; Stanekova, D.; Stanojevic, M.; Van Laethem, K.; Lepej, S. Zidovec; Clotet, B.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Paredes, R.; Wensing, A. M. J.; Schuurman, R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to define the natural genotypic variation of the HIV-1 integrase gene across Europe for epidemiological surveillance of integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (InSTI) resistance. Methods: This was a multicentre, cross-sectional study within the European

  15. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasa, Justen; Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-08-01

    As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ(2) test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ(2) test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention.

  16. Protein-mediated antagonism between HIV reverse transcriptase ligands nevirapine and MgATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xunhai; Mueller, Geoffrey A; DeRose, Eugene F; London, Robert E

    2013-06-18

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) play a central role in the treatment of AIDS, but their mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. The interaction of the NNRTI nevirapine (NVP) with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is characterized by a preference for the open conformation of the fingers/thumb subdomains, and a reported variation of three orders of magnitude between the binding affinity of NVP for RT in the presence or absence of primer/template DNA. To investigate the relationship between conformation and ligand binding, we evaluated the use of methionine NMR probes positioned near the tip of the fingers or thumb subdomains. Such probes would be expected to be sensitive to changes in the local environment depending on the fractions of open and closed RT. Comparisons of the NMR spectra of three conservative mutations, I63M, L74M, and L289M, indicated that M63 showed the greatest shift sensitivity to the addition of NVP. The exchange kinetics of the M63 resonance are fast on the chemical shift timescale, but become slow in the presence of NVP due to the slow binding of RT with the inhibitor. The simplest model consistent with this behavior involves a rapid open/closed equilibrium coupled with a slow interaction of the inhibitor with the open conformation. Studies of RT in the presence of both NVP and MgATP indicate a strong negative cooperativity. Binding of MgATP reduces the fraction of RT bound to NVP, as indicated by the intensity of the NVP-perturbed M230 resonance, and enhances the dissociation rate constant of the NVP, resulting in an increase of the open/closed interconversion rate, so that the M63 resonance moves into the fast/intermediate-exchange regime. Protein-mediated interactions appear to explain most of the affinity variation of NVP for RT. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV Drug Resistance-Associated Mutations in Antiretroviral Naïve HIV-1-Infected Latin American Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Soto-Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to describe the presence of HIV drug resistance among HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral (ARV naïve children and adolescents in Latin America and to examine resistance in these children in relation to drug exposure in the mother. Genotyping was performed on plasma samples obtained at baseline from HIV-1-infected participants in a prospective cohort study in Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico (NISDI Pediatric Study. Of 713 HIV-infected children enrolled, 69 were ARV naïve and eligible for the analysis. At enrollment, mean age was 7.3 years; 81.2% were infected with HIV perinatally. Drug resistance mutations (DRMs were detected in 6 (8.7%; 95% confidence interval 3.1–18.2% ARV-naïve subjects; none of the mothers of these 6 received ARVs during their pregnancies and none of the children received ARV prophylaxis. Reverse transcriptase mutations K70R and K70E were detected in 3 and 2 subjects, respectively; protease mutation I50 V was detected in 1 subject. Three of the 6 children with DRMs initiated ARV therapy during followup, with a good response in 2. The overall rate of primary drug resistance in this pediatric HIV-infected population was low, and no subjects had more than 1 DRM. Mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most prevalent.

  18. PI3Kδ inhibitor idelalisib in combination with BTK inhibitor ONO/GS-4059 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma with acquired resistance to PI3Kδ and BTK inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anella Yahiaoui

    Full Text Available Activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma relies on B-cell receptor signaling to drive proliferation and survival. Downstream of the B-cell receptor, the key signaling kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention by agents such as ibrutinib, ONO/GS-4059, and idelalisib. Combination therapy with such targeted agents could provide enhanced efficacy due to complimentary mechanisms of action. In this study, we describe both the additive interaction of and resistance mechanisms to idelalisib and ONO/GS-4059 in a model of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Significant tumor regression was observed with a combination of PI3Kδ and Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the mouse TMD8 xenograft. Acquired resistance to idelalisib in the TMD8 cell line occurred by loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway upregulation, but not by mutation of PIK3CD. Sensitivity to idelalisib could be restored by combining idelalisib and ONO/GS-4059. Further evaluation of targeted inhibitors revealed that the combination of idelalisib and the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 inhibitor GSK2334470 or the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 could partially overcome resistance. Characterization of acquired Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance revealed a novel tumor necrosis factor alpha induced protein 3 mutation (TNFAIP3 Q143*, which led to a loss of A20 protein, and increased p-IκBα. The combination of idelalisib and ONO/GS-4059 partially restored sensitivity in this resistant line. Additionally, a mutation in Bruton's tyrosine kinase at C481F was identified as a mechanism of resistance. The combination activity observed with idelalisib and ONO/GS-4059, taken together with the ability to overcome resistance, could lead to a new therapeutic option in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A clinical trial is currently underway to

  19. Naringin Reverses Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Associated with HIV-1 Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Metabolic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafeyisetan O. Adebiyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin’s effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats, randomly allotted into seven groups (n = 7 were orally treated daily for 56 days with 100 mg/kg zidovudine (AZT (groups I, II III, 50 mg/kg stavudine (d4T (groups IV, V, VI and 3 mL/kg of distilled water (group VII. Additionally, rats in groups II and V were similarly treated with 50 mg/kg naringin, while groups III and VI were treated with 45 mg/kg vitamin E. AZT or d4T treatment significantly reduced body weight and plasma high density lipoprotein concentrations but increased liver weights, plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol compared to controls, respectively. Furthermore, AZT or d4T treatment significantly increased oxidative stress, adiposity index and expression of Bax protein, but reduced Bcl-2 protein expression compared to controls, respectively. However, either naringin or vitamin E significantly mitigated AZT- or d4T-induced weight loss, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis compared to AZT- or d4T-only treated rats. Our results suggest that naringin reverses metabolic complications associated with NRTIs by ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. This implies that naringin supplements could mitigate lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia associated with NRTI therapy.

  20. High Prevalence of HIV Drug Resistance Among Newly Diagnosed Infants Aged <18 Months: Results From a Nationwide Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzaule, Seth C; Osi, Samuels J; Akinbiyi, Gbenga; Emeka, Asadu; Khamofu, Hadiza; Mpazanje, Rex; Ilesanmi, Oluwafunke; Ndembi, Nicaise; Odafe, Solomon; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2018-01-01

    WHO recommends protease-inhibitor-based first-line regimen in infants because of risk of drug resistance from failed prophylaxis used in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). However, cost and logistics impede implementation in sub-Saharan Africa, and >75% of children still receive nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) used in PMTCT. We assessed the national pretreatment drug resistance prevalence of HIV-infected children aged resistance surveillance protocol. We used remnant dried blood spots collected between June 2014 and July 2015 from 15 early infant diagnosis facilities spread across all the 6 geopolitical regions of Nigeria. Sampling was through a probability proportional-to-size approach. HIV drug resistance was determined by population-based sequencing. Overall, in 48% of infants (205 of 430) drug resistance mutations (DRM) were detected, conferring resistance to predominantly NNRTIs (45%). NRTI and multiclass NRTI/NNRTI resistance were present at 22% and 20%, respectively, while resistance to protease inhibitors was at 2%. Among 204 infants with exposure to drugs for PMTCT, 57% had DRMs, conferring NNRTI resistance in 54% and multiclass NRTI/NNRTI resistance in 29%. DRMs were also detected in 34% of 132 PMTCT unexposed infants. A high frequency of PDR, mainly NNRTI-associated, was observed in a nationwide surveillance among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children in Nigeria. PDR prevalence was equally high in PMTCT-unexposed infants. Our results support the use of protease inhibitor-based first-line regimens in HIV-infected young children regardless of PMTCT history and underscore the need to accelerate implementation of the newly disseminated guideline in Nigeria.

  1. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection by the Candidate Microbicide Dapivirine, a Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, P.; Harman, S.; Azijn, H.; Armanasco, N.; Manlow, P.; Perumal, D.; de Bethune, M.-P.; Nuttall, J.; Romano, J.; Shattock, R.

    2008-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains the major route of infection worldwide; thus, there is an urgent need for additional prevention strategies, particularly strategies that could be controlled by women, such as topical microbicides. Potential microbicide candidates must be both safe and effective. Using cellular and tissue explant models, we have evaluated the activity of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) dapivirine as a vaginal micr...

  2. High prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug-resistance mutations from proviral DNA massively parallel sequencing data of therapy-naïve chronically infected Brazilian blood donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pessôa

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of the prevalence of low-abundance transmitted drug-resistance mutations (TDRM in therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected patients may help determine which patients are the best candidates for therapy. In this study, we aimed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the evolving HIV-1 TDRM across the massive parallel sequences (MPS of the viral entire proviral genome in a well-characterized Brazilian blood donor naïve to antiretroviral drugs.The MPS data from 128 samples used in the analysis were sourced from Brazilian blood donors and were previously classified by less-sensitive (LS or "detuned" enzyme immunoassay as non-recent or longstanding HIV-1 infections. The Stanford HIV Resistance Database (HIVDBv 6.2 and IAS-USA mutation lists were used to interpret the pattern of drug resistance. The minority variants with TDRM were identified using a threshold of ≥ 1.0% and ≤ 20% of the reads sequenced. The rate of TDRM in the MPS data of the proviral genome were compared with the corresponding published consensus sequences of their plasma viruses.No TDRM were detected in the integrase or envelope regions. The overall prevalence of TDRM in the protease (PR and reverse transcriptase (RT regions of the HIV-1 pol gene was 44.5% (57/128, including any mutations to the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI. Of the 57 subjects, 43 (75.4% harbored a minority variant containing at least one clinically relevant TDRM. Among the 43 subjects, 33 (76.7% had detectable minority resistant variants to NRTIs, 6 (13.9% to NNRTIs, and 16 (37.2% to PR inhibitors. The comparison of viral sequences in both sources, plasma and cells, would have detected 48 DNA provirus disclosed TDRM by MPS previously missed by plasma bulk analysis.Our findings revealed a high prevalence of TDRM found in this group, as the use of MPS drastically increased the detection of these

  3. Rapid emergence of hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor resistance is expected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Libin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Current therapy, consisting of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), leads to sustained viral elimination in only about 45% of patients treated. Telaprevir (VX-950), a novel HCV NS3-4A serine protease inhibitor, has demonstrated substantial antiviral activity in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection. However, some patients experience viral breakthrough during dosing, with drug resistant variants being 5%-20% of the virus population as early as day 2 after treatment initiation. Why viral variants appear such a short time after the start of dosing is unclear, especially since this has not been seen with monotherapy for either human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B virus. Here, using a viral dynamic model, we explain why such rapid emergence of drug resistant variants is expected when potent HCV protease inhibitors are used as monotherapy. Surprisingly, our model also shows that such rapid emergence need not be the case with some potent HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors. Examining the case of telaprevir therapy in detail, we show the model fits observed dynamics of both wild-type and drug-resistant variants during treatment, and supports combination therapy of direct antiviral drugs with PEG-IFN and/or RBV for hepatitis C.

  4. Population-based surveillance of HIV drug resistance emerging on treatment and associated factors at sentinel antiretroviral therapy sites in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Steven Y; Jonas, Anna; DeKlerk, Michael; Shiningavamwe, Andreas; Desta, Tiruneh; Badi, Alfons; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian M; Ledwaba, Johanna; Sheehan, Heidi B; Lau, Kiger; Trotter, Andrew; Tang, Alice M; Wanke, Christine; Jordan, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) prospective surveys of acquired HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) evaluate HIVDR emerging after the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and associated factors. Consecutive ART starters in 2009 were enrolled at 3 sentinel sites in Namibia. Genotyping was performed at start and after 12 months in patients with HIV viral load (VL) >1000 copies per mL. HIVDR outcomes were: HIVDR prevention (VL ≤1000 copies/mL), possible HIVDR (VL >1000 copies/mL without detectable HIVDR or loss to follow-up or ART stop), and HIVDR (VL >1000 copies/mL with detectable HIVDR). Adherence was assessed using medication possession ratio (MPR). Of 394 starters, at 12 months, 80% were on first-line ART, 1% died, 4% transferred out, 1% stopped ART, <1% switched to second-line, and 15% were lost to follow-up. Among patients on first-line, 77% had VL testing, and 94% achieved VL ≤1000 copies per mL. At baseline, 7% had HIVDR. After 12 months, among patients with VL testing, 5% had HIVDR. A majority of patients failing therapy had high-level resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors but none to protease inhibitors. All sites achieved the WHO target of ≥70% HIVDR prevention. Factors associated with not achieving HIVDR prevention were: baseline resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [odds ratio (OR) 3.0, P = 0.023], WHO stage 3 or 4 at baseline (OR 2.0, P = 0.012), and MPR <75% (OR 4.9, P = 0.021). Earlier ART initiation and removal of barriers to on-time drug pickups may help to prevent HIVDR. These data inform decisions at national and global levels on the effectiveness of first- and second-line regimens.

  5. A targeted enzyme approach to sensitization of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Courtney R; Mueller, Kelly L; Terlecky, Laura J; Krentz, Kendra A; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Terlecky, Stanley R; Boerner, Julie L

    2012-10-01

    Gefitinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of potential use in patients with breast cancer. Unfortunately, in clinical studies, gefitinib is often ineffective indicating that resistance to EGFR inhibitors may be a common occurrence in cancer of the breast. EGFR has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer, and in particular remains hyperphosphorylated in cell lines such as MDA-MB-468 that are resistant to EGFR inhibitors. Here, we investigate the cause of this sustained phosphorylation and the molecular basis for the ineffectiveness of gefitinib. We show that reactive oxygen species (ROS), known to damage cellular macromolecules and to modulate signaling cascades in a variety of human diseases including cancers, appear to play a critical role in mediating EGFR TKI-resistance. Furthermore, elimination of these ROS through use of a cell-penetrating catalase derivative sensitizes the cells to gefitinib. These results suggest a new approach for the treatment of TKI-resistant breast cancer patients specifically, the targeting of ROS and attendant downstream oxidative stress and their effects on signaling cascades. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Anhedonia Predicts Poorer Recovery among Youth with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L.; Olino, Thomas M.; Porta, Giovanna; Dietz, Laura J.; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Gregory; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan R.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Spirito, Anthony; Keller, Martin; Lynch, Frances L.; Dickerson, John F.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify symptom dimensions of depression that predict recovery among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment-resistant adolescents undergoing second-step treatment. Method: The Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial included 334 SSRI treatment-resistant youth randomized to a medication…

  7. Sensitization of multidrug-resistant human cancer cells to Hsp90 inhibitors by down-regulation of SIRT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Bong; Lee, Su-Hoon; Um, Jee-Hyun; Oh, Won Keun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kang, Chi-Dug; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Hsp90 inhibitors as anticancer agents was limited in multidrug-resistant (MDR) human cancer cells due to induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) such as Hsp70/Hsp27 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux. In the present study, we showed that resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors of MDR human cancer cells could be overcome with SIRT1 inhibition. SIRT1 knock-down or SIRT1 inhibitors (amurensin G and EX527) effectively suppressed the resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors (17-AAG and AUY922) in several MDR variants of human lymphoblastic leukemia and human breast cancer cell lines. SIRT1 inhibition down-regulated the expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and subsequently Hsps and facilitated Hsp90 multichaperone complex disruption via hyperacetylation of Hsp90/Hsp70. These findings were followed by acceleration of ubiquitin ligase CHIP-mediated mutant p53 (mut p53) degradation and subsequent down-regulation of P-gp in 17-AAG-treated MDR cancer cells expressing P-gp and mut p53 after inhibition of SIRT1. Therefore, combined treatment with Hsp90 inhibitor and SIRT1 inhibitor could be a more effective therapeutic approach for Hsp90 inhibitor-resistant MDR cells via down-regulation of HSF1/Hsps, mut p53 and P-gp. PMID:26416354

  8. Overcoming imatinib resistance using Src inhibitor CGP76030, Abl inhibitor nilotinib and Abl/Lyn inhibitor INNO-406 in newly established K562 variants with BCR-ABL gene amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Koji; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kimura, Shinya; Maekawa, Taira; Ueda, Takanori

    2008-06-01

    Because imatinib (IM) resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia is primarily caused by the re-establishment of Abl kinase, new inhibitors may be efficacious. We evaluated 3 new agents against 2 new K562 variants, IM-R1 and IM-R2 cells, which were developed having 7- and 27-fold greater IM resistance, respectively, than the parental K562 cells. Both variants possessed BCR-ABL gene amplification along with elevated levels of its transcript and protein. Greater BCR-ABL gene amplification was observed in IM-R2 cells than in IM-R1 cells, which was consistent with the higher mRNA and protein levels of Bcr-Abl, and ultimately correlated with the greater IM resistance in IM-R2 cells. No mutation in the Abl kinase domain was detected in either variant. Despite the absence of Lyn overexpression, the Src kinase inhibitor CGP76030 showed positive cooperability with IM in inhibiting cell growth of not only K562 cells but also these 2 variants. This might be because of the augmented inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation. The new Abl kinase inhibitor nilotinib was 10-fold more potent than IM in inhibiting the growth of K562 cells. Nilotinib inhibited the growth of IM-R1 and IM-R2 cells as potently as K562 cells. The combination of nilotinib with CGP76030 showed little additivity, because the potency of nilotinib masked the efficacy of CGP76030. The new dual Abl/Lyn inhibitor INNO-406 (formerly NS-187) was slightly more potent than nilotinib in inhibiting the growth of all 3 cell lines. Because BCR-ABL gene amplification occurs in blast crisis, these inhibitors might overcome IM resistance in such patients' leukemia. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The role of multikinase inhibitors target therapy in radioiodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P O Rumyantsev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available About 5-15% of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC primary or within follow-up have had distant metastases or inoperable tumor mass that are resistant to radioiodine therapy as well as dramatically deteriorate survival prognosis. Other treatment modalities (radiotherapy, chemotherapy etc. also ineffective. Certain expectances are associated with target therapy with multikinase inhibitors with are selectively blocking onco-kinase molecular pathways. This review is devoted to analysis of those multikinase inhibitors which have been implemented in patients with radioiodine DTC. Comparative analysis of two most perspective multikinase inhibitors (sorafenib and lenvatinib with evaluation of efficacy and adverse effects was conducted. Both of them successfully underwent 3 rd phase of clinical trial and were recommended as treatment of choice in progressive radioiodine-resistant DTC patients.

  10. Risk Factors for Incident Diabetes in a Cohort Taking First-Line Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamchand, Sumanth; Leisegang, Rory; Schomaker, Michael; Maartens, Gary; Walters, Lourens; Hislop, Michael; Dave, Joel A; Levitt, Naomi S; Cohen, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Efavirenz is the preferred nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in low- and middle-income countries, where the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Randomized control trials have shown mild increases in plasma glucose in participants in the efavirenz arms, but no association has been reported with overt diabetes. We explored the association between efavirenz exposure and incident diabetes in a large Southern African cohort commencing NNRTI-based first-line ART. Our cohort included HIV-infected adults starting NNRTI-based ART in a private sector HIV disease management program from January 2002 to December 2011. Incident diabetes was identified by the initiation of diabetes treatment. Patients with prevalent diabetes were excluded. We included 56,298 patients with 113,297 patient-years of follow-up (PYFU) on first-line ART. The crude incidence of diabetes was 13.24 per 1000 PYFU. Treatment with efavirenz rather than nevirapine was associated with increased risk of developing diabetes (hazard ratio 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.46)) in a multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline CD4 count, viral load, NRTI backbone, and exposure to other diabetogenic medicines. Zidovudine and stavudine exposure were also associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. We found that treatment with efavirenz, as well as stavudine and zidovudine, increased the risk of incident diabetes. Interventions to detect and prevent diabetes should be implemented in ART programs, and use of antiretrovirals with lower risk of metabolic complications should be encouraged.

  11. Evolution of inhibitor-resistant natural mutant forms of HIV-1 protease probed by pre-steady state kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Maria Yu; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Kaliberda, Elena N; Dronina, Maria A; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Kozyr, Arina V; Smirnov, Ivan V; Rumsh, Lev D; Fedorova, Olga S; Knorre, Dmitry G; Gabibov, Alexander G; Kuznetsov, Nikita A

    2017-11-01

    Pre-steady state kinetic analysis of mechanistic features of substrate binding and processing is crucial for insight into the evolution of inhibitor-resistant forms of HIV-1 protease. These data may provide a correct vector for rational drug design assuming possible intrinsic dynamic effects. These data should also give some clues to the molecular mechanism of protease action and resistance to inhibitors. Here we report pre-steady state kinetics of the interaction of wild type or mutant forms of HIV-1 protease with a FRET-labeled peptide. The three-stage "minimal" kinetic scheme with first and second reversible steps of substrate binding and with following irreversible peptide cleavage step adequately described experimental data. For the first time, a set of "elementary" kinetic parameters of wild type HIV-1 protease and its natural mutant inhibitor-resistant forms MDR-HM, ANAM-11 and prDRV4 were compared. Inhibitors of the first and second generation were used to estimate the inhibitory effects on HIV-1 protease activity. The resulting set of kinetic data supported that the mutant forms are kinetically unaffected by inhibitors of the first generation, proving their functional resistance to these compounds. The second generation inhibitor darunavir inhibited mutant forms MDR-HM and ANAM-11, but was ineffective against prDRV4. Our kinetic data revealed that these inhibitors induced different conformational changes in the enzyme and, thereby they have different mode of binding in the enzyme active site. These data confirmed hypothesis that the driving force of the inhibitor-resistance evolution is disruption of enzyme-inhibitor complex by changing of the contact network in the inhibitor binding site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. Transmitted drug resistance and type of infection in newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Wendy; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Morales, Sonia; Monterroso, Edgar; Paredes, Mayte; Dobbs, Trudy; Parekh, Bharat S; Albert, Jan; Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana de

    2010-12-01

    Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) reduces the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment and is a public health concern. To gain insight in the epidemiology of TDR in Honduras by evaluating the amount of TDR in a representative sample of newly diagnosed individuals and by determining whether these are recent or established infections. Two hundred treatment-naïve, newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals representing different population groups (general population, Garifunas ethnic group, female sex workers and men who have sex with men) and different geographic regions were enrolled during April 2004-April 2007. The HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced to identify drug-resistant mutations and TDR was scored as recommended by the WHO. Specimens were classified as recent or established infections using the BED assay. Among 200 samples analyzed from Honduran patients the prevalence of TDR was 7% (95% CI: 3.9-11.5%), 5% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), 3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and 0.5% for protease inhibitors (PIs). Testing of these samples with the BED assay revealed that 12% of the specimens were associated with recent infections. TDR was significantly more common in specimens with recent infection (21%) than established infection (5%) (p=0.016). The prevalence of TDR in Honduras was moderate (7%). The percentage of specimens who were recently infected was low (12%), suggesting that late HIV diagnosis is common. The TDR prevalence was higher in recent than in established infections, which may indicate that TDR is increasing over time. The higher prevalence of NNRTI and NRTI mutations as compared to PI mutations is probably due to a broader and longer use of these drugs in Honduras. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Population-based monitoring of emerging HIV-1 drug resistance on antiretroviral therapy and associated factors in a sentinel site in Cameroon: low levels of resistance but poor programmatic performance.

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    Serge C Billong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings has drastically reduced HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, challenges in long-term ART, adherence and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR itself, require monitoring to limit HIVDR emergence among ART-experienced populations, in order to ensure regimen efficacy. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted from 2009-2011 in a cohort of 141 HIV-infected adult patients (aged >21 at the national social insurance centre hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon. As per-WHO HIVDR protocol, HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase genotyping was performed at baseline and at endpoint (12 months on first-line ART using ViroSeq™ Genotyping kit. RESULTS: At baseline, a prevalence of 3.6% (5/139 HIVDR was observed [protease inhibitors M46I (1/5, G73A (1/5, L90LM (1/5; nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: M184V (1/5, T215F (1/5; non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: K103N (1/5, Y181Y/C (2/5, M230ML (1/5]. At endpoint, 54.0% (76 patients were followed-up, 9.2% (13 died, and 3.5% (5 transferred, 38.5% (47 lost to follow-up (LTFU. 69.7% (53/76 of those followed-up had viremia <40 copies/ml and 90.8% (69/76 <1000 copies/ml. 4/7 patients with viremia ≥1000 copies/ml harbored HIVDR (prevalence: 5.3%; 4/76, with M184V/I (4/4 and K103K/N (3/4 being the most prevalent mutations. LTFU was favored by costs for consultation/laboratory tests, drug shortages, workload (physician/patient ratio: 1/180 and community disengagement. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of HIVDR at baseline and at endpoint suggest a probable effectiveness of ART regimens used in Cameroon. However the possible high rate of HIVDR among LTFUs limited the strengths of our findings. Evaluating HIVDR among LTFU, improving adherence, task shifting, subsidizing/harmonizing costs for routine follow-up, are urgent measures to ensure an improved success of the country ART performance.

  14. Classification of Breast Cancer Resistant Protein (BCRP) Inhibitors and Non-Inhibitors Using Machine Learning Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belekar, Vilas; Lingineni, Karthik; Garg, Prabha

    2015-01-01

    The breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) is an important transporter and its inhibitors play an important role in cancer treatment by improving the oral bioavailability as well as blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability of anticancer drugs. In this work, a computational model was developed to predict the compounds as BCRP inhibitors or non-inhibitors. Various machine learning approaches like, support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to develop the models. The Matthews correlation coefficients (MCC) of developed models using ANN, k-NN and SVM are 0.67, 0.71 and 0.77, and prediction accuracies are 85.2%, 88.3% and 90.8% respectively. The developed models were tested with a test set of 99 compounds and further validated with external set of 98 compounds. Distribution plot analysis and various machine learning models were also developed based on druglikeness descriptors. Applicability domain is used to check the prediction reliability of the new molecules.

  15. Molecular Docking Studies of Marine Diterpenes as Inhibitors of Wild-Type and Mutants HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

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    Alessandra M. T. de Souza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIDS is a pandemic responsible for more than 35 million deaths. The emergence of resistant mutations due to drug use is the biggest cause of treatment failure. Marine organisms are sources of different molecules, some of which offer promising HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitory activity, such as the diterpenes dolabelladienotriol (THD, IC50 = 16.5 µM, (6R-6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (HDD, IC50 = 10 µM and (6R-6-acetoxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (ADD, IC50 = 35 µM, isolated from a brown algae of the genus Dictyota, showing low toxicity. In this work, we evaluated the structure-activity relationship (SAR of THD, HDD and ADD as anti HIV-1 RT, using a molecular modeling approach. The analyses of stereoelectronic parameters revealed a direct relationship between activity and HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital-LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital gap (ELUMO–EHOMO, where antiviral profile increases with larger HOMO-LUMO gap values. We also performed molecular docking studies of THD into HIV-1 RT wild-type and 12 different mutants, which showed a seahorse conformation, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds with important residues of the binding pocket. Based on in vitro experiments and docking studies, we demonstrated that mutations have little influence in positioning and interactions of THD. Following a rational drug design, we suggest a modification of THD to improve its biological activity.

  16. HIV-1 drug resistance prevalence, drug susceptibility and variant characterization in the Jacobi Medical Center paediatric cohort, Bronx, NY, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mulder, M; York, V A; Wiznia, A A; Michaud, H A; Nixon, D F; Holguin, A; Rosenberg, M G

    2014-03-01

    With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), perinatally HIV-infected children are surviving into adolescence and beyond. However, drug resistance mutations (DRMs) compromise viral control, affecting the long-term effectiveness of ART. The aims of this study were to detect and identify DRMs in a HIV-1 infected paediatric cohort. Paired plasma and dried blood spots (DBSs) specimens were obtained from HIV-1 perinatally infected patients attending the Jacobi Medical Center, New York, USA. Clinical, virological and immunological data for these patients were analysed. HIV-1 pol sequences were generated from samples to identify DRMs according to the International AIDS Society (IAS) 2011 list. Forty-seven perinatally infected patients were selected, with a median age of 17.7 years, of whom 97.4% were carrying subtype B. They had a mean viral load of 3143 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL and a mean CD4 count of 486 cells/μL at the time of sampling. Nineteen patients (40.4%) had achieved undetectable viraemia (40.5% had a CD4 count of > 500 cells/μL. Most of the patients (97.9%) had received cART, including protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens in 59.6% of cases. The DRM prevalence was 54.1, 27.6 and 27.0% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), PIs and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), respectively. Almost two-thirds (64.9%) of the patients harboured DRMs to at least one drug class and 5.4% were triple resistant. The mean nucleotide similarity between plasma and DBS sequences was 97.9%. Identical DRM profiles were present in 60% of plasma-DBS paired sequences. A total of 30 DRMs were detected in plasma and 26 in DBSs, with 23 present in both. Although more perinatally HIV-1-infected children are reaching adulthood as a result of advances in cART, our study cohort presented a high prevalence of resistant viruses, especially viruses resistant to NRTIs. DBS specimens can be used for DRM detection. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  17. Preclinical rationale for PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors as therapy for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgeel, Shirish M; Wozniak, Antoinette

    2013-07-01

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) are frequently observed in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), occurring in about 40% to 60% of never-smokers and in about 17% of patients with adenocarcinomas. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as gefitinib and erlotinib, have transformed therapy for patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and have proved superior to chemotherapy as first-line treatment for this patient group. Despite these benefits, there are currently 2 key challenges associated with EGFR inhibitor therapy for patients with NSCLC. First, only 85% to 90% of patients with the EGFR mutation derive clinical benefit from EGFR TKIs, with the remainder demonstrating innate resistance to therapy. Second, acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs inevitably occurs in patients who initially respond to therapy, with a median duration of response of about 10 months. Mutant EGFR activates various subcellular signaling cascades, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which demonstrates maintained activity in a variety of TKI-resistant cancers. Given the fundamental role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in tumor oncogenesis, proliferation, and survival, PI3K pathway inhibitors have emerged as a possible solution to the problem of EGFR TKI resistance. However resistance to EGFR TKIs is associated with considerable heterogeneity and complexity. Preclinical experiments investigating these phenomena suggest that in some patients, PI3K inhibitors will have to be paired with other targeted agents if they are to be effective. This review discusses the preclinical data supporting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitor combinations in EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC from the perspective of the various agents currently being investigated in clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efflux as a mechanism of antimicrobial drug resistance in clinical relevant microorganisms: the role of efflux inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Clarissa; Wentzel, Johannes Frederik; du Plessis, Lissinda Hester; Gouws, Chrisna; Hamman, Josias Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Microbial resistance against antibiotics is a serious threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases. Several mechanisms exist through which microorganisms can develop resistance against antimicrobial drugs, of which the overexpression of genes to produce efflux pumps is a major concern. Several efflux transporters have been identified in microorganisms, which infer resistance against specific antibiotics and even multidrug resistance. Areas covered: This paper focuses on microbial resistance against antibiotics by means of the mechanism of efflux and gives a critical overview of studies conducted to overcome this problem by combining efflux pump inhibitors with antibiotics. Information was obtained from a literature search done with MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, OneSearch and EBSCO host. Expert opinion: Efflux as a mechanism of multidrug resistance has presented a platform for improved efficacy against resistant microorganisms by co-administration of efflux pump inhibitors with antimicrobial agents. Although proof of concept has been shown for this approach with in vitro experiments, further research is needed to develop more potent inhibitors with low toxicity which is clinically effective.

  19. Activity of dual SRC-ABL inhibitors highlights the role of BCR/ABL kinase dynamics in drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Nardi, Valentina; Shakespeare, William C.; Metcalf, Chester A.; Bohacek, Regine S.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Sliz, Piotr; Veach, Darren R.; Bornmann, William G.; Clarkson, Bayard; Dalgarno, David C.; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Daley, George Q.

    2006-01-01

    Mutation in the ABL kinase domain is the principal mechanism of imatinib resistance in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Many mutations favor active kinase conformations that preclude imatinib binding. Because the active forms of ABL and SRC resemble one another, we tested two dual SRC-ABL kinase inhibitors, AP23464 and PD166326, against 58 imatinib-resistant (IMR) BCR/ABL kinase variants. Both compounds potently inhibit most IMR variants, and in vitro drug selection demonstrates that active (AP23464) and open (PD166326) conformation-specific compounds are less susceptible to resistance than imatinib. Combinations of inhibitors suppressed essentially all resistance mutations, with the notable exception of T315I. Guided by mutagenesis studies and molecular modeling, we designed a series of AP23464 analogues to target T315I. The analogue AP23846 inhibited both native and T315I variants of BCR/ABL with submicromolar potency but showed nonspecific cellular toxicity. Our data illustrate how conformational dynamics of the ABL kinase accounts for the activity of dual SRC-ABL inhibitors against IMR-mutants and provides a rationale for combining conformation specific inhibitors to suppress resistance. PMID:16754879

  20. Drug Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors in Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has dramatically changed the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. EGFR-targeted therapies show considerable promise, but drug resistance has become a substantial issue. We reviewed the literature to provide an overview of the drug resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in NSCLC. The mechanisms causing primary, acquired and persistent drug resistance to TKIs vary.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors Incorporating Flexible P2 Quinoxalines Target Drug Resistant Viral Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, Ashley N; Zephyr, Jacqueto; Hill, Caitlin J; Jahangir, Muhammad; Newton, Alicia; Petropoulos, Christos J; Huang, Wei; Kurt-Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A; Ali, Akbar

    2017-07-13

    A substrate envelope-guided design strategy is reported for improving the resistance profile of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors. Analogues of 5172-mcP1P3 were designed by incorporating diverse quinoxalines at the P2 position that predominantly interact with the invariant catalytic triad of the protease. Exploration of structure-activity relationships showed that inhibitors with small hydrophobic substituents at the 3-position of P2 quinoxaline maintain better potency against drug resistant variants, likely due to reduced interactions with residues in the S2 subsite. In contrast, inhibitors with larger groups at this position were highly susceptible to mutations at Arg155, Ala156, and Asp168. Excitingly, several inhibitors exhibited exceptional potency profiles with EC 50 values ≤5 nM against major drug resistant HCV variants. These findings support that inhibitors designed to interact with evolutionarily constrained regions of the protease, while avoiding interactions with residues not essential for substrate recognition, are less likely to be susceptible to drug resistance.

  2. A resurgence of β-lactamase inhibitor combinations effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Karen

    2015-11-01

    β-Lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) have played an important role in combatting β-lactam resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, but their effectiveness has diminished with the evolution of diverse and deleterious varieties of β-lactamases. In this review, a new generation of BLIs and inhibitor combinations is presented, describing epidemiological information, pharmacodynamic studies, resistance identification and current clinical status. Novel serine BLIs of major interest include the non-β-lactams of the diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octanone (DBO) series. The DBOs avibactam, relebactam and RG6080 inhibit most class A and class C β-lactamases, with selected inhibition of class D enzymes by avibactam. The novel boronic acid inhibitor RPX7009 has a similar inhibitory profile. All of these inhibitors are being developed in combinations that are targeting primarily carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative pathogens. Two BLI combinations (ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam) were recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the designation of a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP). Other inhibitor combinations that have at least completed phase 1 clinical trials are ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam, aztreonam/avibactam, imipenem/relebactam, meropenem/RPX7009 and cefepime/AAI101. Although effective inhibitor combinations are in development for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria with serine carbapenemases, better options are still necessary for pathogens that produce metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The aztreonam/avibactam combination demonstrates inhibitory activity against MBL-producing enteric bacteria owing to the stability of the monobactam to these enzymes, but resistance is still an issue for MBL-producing non-fermentative bacteria. Because all of the inhibitor combinations are being developed as parenteral drugs, an orally bioavailable combination would also be of interest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the

  3. An assessment of the relationship between the World Health Organization HIV drug resistance early warning indicators and HIV drug resistance acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, M; Harrigan, P R; Sereda, P; Montaner, Jsg; Lima, V D

    2017-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO)'s HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) measure antiretroviral therapy (ART)-site factors associated with HIVDR prevention, without HIVDR laboratory testing. We assessed the relationship between EWIs and HIVDR acquisition using data from British Columbia, Canada. Eligible patients were ART-naïve, were ≥ 19 years old, had initiated ART between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, had ≥ 15 months of follow-up, and were without transmitted HIVDR. Patients were followed for acquired HIVDR until 31 March 2014, the last contact date, or death. We built logistic regression models to assess the associations and predictive ability of individual indicators and of the EWI Score (the number of indicators for which a patient did not meet the criteria) on HIVDR acquisition (to any class of HIVDR, lamivudine (3TC)/emtricitabine (FTC), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs)]). All explored EWIs were associated with at least one class of HIVDR, with the exception of 'ART prescribing practices'. We observed a dose-response relationship between acquiring HIVDR to any antiretroviral class and an increasing EWI score in our predictive logistic regression model. The area under the curve was 0.848 (excellent discrimination). The adjusted odds ratios for acquiring any class of HIVDR for an EWI score of 1, 2 and ≥ 3 versus 0 were 2.30 [95% confidence Interval (CI) 1.21-4.38], 3.35 (95% CI: 1.86-6.03) and 7.26 (95% CI: 4.18-12.61), respectively. Several EWIs were associated with and predictive of HIVDR, supporting the WHO EWIs as a component of the HIVDR prevention method in settings where HIVDR testing is not routinely or widely available. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  4. The molecular basis of drug resistance against hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitors.

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    Keith P Romano

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infects over 170 million people worldwide and is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases, including cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. Available antiviral therapies cause severe side effects and are effective only for a subset of patients, though treatment outcomes have recently been improved by the combination therapy now including boceprevir and telaprevir, which inhibit the viral NS3/4A protease. Despite extensive efforts to develop more potent next-generation protease inhibitors, however, the long-term efficacy of this drug class is challenged by the rapid emergence of resistance. Single-site mutations at protease residues R155, A156 and D168 confer resistance to nearly all inhibitors in clinical development. Thus, developing the next-generation of drugs that retain activity against a broader spectrum of resistant viral variants requires a comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of drug resistance. In this study, 16 high-resolution crystal structures of four representative protease inhibitors--telaprevir, danoprevir, vaniprevir and MK-5172--in complex with the wild-type protease and three major drug-resistant variants R155K, A156T and D168A, reveal unique molecular underpinnings of resistance to each drug. The drugs exhibit differential susceptibilities to these protease variants in both enzymatic and antiviral assays. Telaprevir, danoprevir and vaniprevir interact directly with sites that confer resistance upon mutation, while MK-5172 interacts in a unique conformation with the catalytic triad. This novel mode of MK-5172 binding explains its retained potency against two multi-drug-resistant variants, R155K and D168A. These findings define the molecular basis of HCV N3/4A protease inhibitor resistance and provide potential strategies for designing robust therapies against this rapidly evolving virus.

  5. Introducing Catastrophe-QSAR. Application on Modeling Molecular Mechanisms of Pyridinone Derivative-Type HIV Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

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    Marius Lazea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The classical method of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR is enriched using non-linear models, as Thom’s polynomials allow either uni- or bi-variate structural parameters. In this context, catastrophe QSAR algorithms are applied to the anti-HIV-1 activity of pyridinone derivatives. This requires calculation of the so-called relative statistical power and of its minimum principle in various QSAR models. A new index, known as a statistical relative power, is constructed as an Euclidian measure for the combined ratio of the Pearson correlation to algebraic correlation, with normalized t-Student and the Fisher tests. First and second order inter-model paths are considered for mono-variate catastrophes, whereas for bi-variate catastrophes the direct minimum path is provided, allowing the QSAR models to be tested for predictive purposes. At this stage, the max-to-min hierarchies of the tested models allow the interaction mechanism to be identified using structural parameter succession and the typical catastrophes involved. Minimized differences between these catastrophe models in the common structurally influential domains that span both the trial and tested compounds identify the “optimal molecular structural domains” and the molecules with the best output with respect to the modeled activity, which in this case is human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 inhibition. The best molecules are characterized by hydrophobic interactions with the HIV-1 p66 subunit protein, and they concur with those identified in other 3D-QSAR analyses. Moreover, the importance of aromatic ring stacking interactions for increasing the binding affinity of the inhibitor-reverse transcriptase ligand-substrate complex is highlighted.

  6. HDAC Inhibitors Disrupt Programmed Resistance to Apoptosis During Drosophila Development

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    Yunsik Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the ability to respond to apoptotic triggers is regulated during Drosophila development, effectively dividing the fly life cycle into stages that are either sensitive or resistant to apoptosis. Here, we show that the developmentally programmed resistance to apoptosis involves transcriptional repression of critical proapoptotic genes by histone deacetylases (HDACs. Administration of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi, like trichostatin A or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, increases expression of proapoptotic genes and is sufficient to sensitize otherwise resistant stages. Conversely, reducing levels of proapoptotic genes confers resistance to otherwise sensitive stages. Given that resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer cells, and that HDACi have been recently added to the repertoire of FDA-approved agents for cancer therapy, our results provide new insights for how HDACi help kill malignant cells and also raise concerns for their potential unintended effects on healthy cells.

  7. 3D-QSAR CoMFA of a series of DABO derivatives as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Monique Araújo; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Cirino, José Jair Vianna; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; Castro, Helena Carla; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão

    2008-08-01

    A series of 74 dihydroalkoxybenzyloxopyrimidines (DABOs), a class of highly potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), was retrieved from the literature and studied by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) in order to derive three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models. The CoMFA study has been performed with a training set of 59 compounds, testing three alignments and four charge schemes (DFT, HF, AM1, and PM3) and using defaults probe atom (Csp (3), +1 charge), cutoffs (30 kcal.mol (-1) for both steric and electrostatic fields), and grid distance (2.0 A). The best model ( N = 59), derived from Alignment 1 and PM3 charges, shows q (2) = 0.691, SE cv = 0.475, optimum number of components = 6, r (2) = 0.930, SEE = 0.226, and F-value = 115.544. The steric and electrostatic contributions for the best model were 43.2% and 56.8%, respectively. The external predictive ability (r (2) pred = 0.918) of the resultant best model was evaluated using a test set of 15 compounds. In order to design more potent DABO analogues as anti-HIV/AIDS agents, attention should be taken in order to select a substituent for the 4-oxopyrimidine ring, since, as revealed by the best CoMFA model, there are a steric restriction at the C2-position, a electron-rich group restriction at the C6-position ( para-substituent of the 6-benzyl group), and a steric allowed region at the C5-position.

  8. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance using matched plasma and dried blood spot specimens from voluntary counseling and testing sites in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Bui; Hien, Bui Thu; Wagar, Nick; Tram, Tran Hong; Giang, Le Truong; Yang, Chunfu; Wolfe, Mitchell I; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2012-05-01

    During 2007-2008, surveillance of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (TDR) was performed following World Health Organization guidance among clients with newly diagnosed HIV infection attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Moderate (5%-15%) TDR to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was observed among VCT clients aged 18-21 years. Follow-up surveillance of TDR in HCMC and other geographic regions of Vietnam is warranted. Data generated will guide the national HIV drug resistance surveillance strategy and support selection of current and future first-line antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention programs.

  9. Postexposure protection of macaques from vaginal SHIV infection by topical integrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobard, Charles; Sharma, Sunita; Parikh, Urvi M; West, Rolieria; Taylor, Andrew; Martin, Amy; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hanson, Debra L; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Smith, James; Novembre, Francis; Hazuda, Daria; Garcia-Lerma, J Gerardo; Heneine, Walid

    2014-03-12

    Coitally delivered microbicide gels containing antiretroviral drugs are important for HIV prevention. However, to date, microbicides have contained entry or reverse transcriptase inhibitors that block early steps in virus infection and thus need to be given as a preexposure dose that interferes with sexual practices and may limit compliance. Integrase inhibitors block late steps after virus infection and therefore are more suitable for post-coital dosing. We first determined the kinetics of strand transfer in vitro and confirmed that integration begins about 6 hours after infection. We then used a repeat-challenge macaque model to assess efficacy of vaginal gels containing integrase strand transfer inhibitors when applied before or after simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. We showed that gel containing the strand transfer inhibitor L-870812 protected two of three macaques when applied 30 min before SHIV challenge. We next evaluated the efficacy of 1% raltegravir gel and demonstrated its ability to protect macaques when applied 3 hours after SHIV exposure (five of six protected; P infections showed no evidence of drug resistance in plasma or vaginal secretions despite continued gel dosing after infection. We documented rapid vaginal absorption reflecting a short pharmacological lag time and noted that vaginal, but not plasma, virus load was substantially reduced in the breakthrough infection after raltegravir gel treatment. We provide a proof of concept that topically applied integrase inhibitors protect against vaginal SHIV infection when administered shortly before or 3 hours after virus exposure.

  10. Genetically pyramiding protease-inhibitor genes for dual broad-spectrum resistance against insect and phytopathogens in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Rajendran; Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2010-01-01

    Protease inhibitors provide a promising means of engineering plant resistance against attack by insects and pathogens. Sporamin (trypsin inhibitor) from sweet potato and CeCPI (phytocystatin) from taro were stacked in a binary vector, using pMSPOA (a modified sporamin promoter) to drive both genes. Transgenic tobacco lines of T0 and T1 generation with varied inhibitory activity against trypsin and papain showed resistance to both insects and phytopathogens. Larvae of Helicoverpa armigera that ingested tobacco leaves either died or showed delayed growth and development relative to control larvae. Transgenic tobacco-overexpressing the stacked genes also exhibited strong resistance against bacterial soft rot disease caused by Erwinia carotovora and damping-off disease caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Thus, stacking protease-inhibitor genes, driven by the wound and pathogen responsive pMSPOA promoter, is an effective strategy for engineering crops to resistance against insects and phytopathogens.

  11. Selection of HIV resistance associated with antiretroviral therapy initiated due to pregnancy and suspended postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Giovanina M; Huang, Sharon; Hitti, Jane; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2011-11-01

    Compare the risk of HIV drug resistance in women stopping suppressive nelfinavir (NFV)-based or Nevirapine (NVP)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) after pregnancy. Specimens collected after stopping ART were tested for drug resistance by an oligonucleotide ligation assay and consensus sequencing. When postpartum drug resistance was detected, specimens obtained at study entry and during ART were evaluated. Sixteen of 38 women with ART-induced suppression of viral replication suspended ART postpartum. Resistance mutations were detected in 75% who stopped NFV-ART and in 50% who stopped NVP-ART. M184V, associated with Lamivudine resistance, was more frequent among those randomized to NFV-ART compared with NVP-ART (6 of 8 versus 1 of 8; P = 0.04), and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance was detected in 4 of 8 stopping NVP-ART. HIV drug resistance was frequently observed among women who stopped suppressive NVP-ART or NFV-ART postpartum. This suggests that NFV-ART may have suboptimal potency, that staggering discontinuation of NVP-ART may be warranted, and/or ART adherence may be lax in women who choose to stop ART postpartum.

  12. High HIV-1 Diversity and Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Pregnant Women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Silva-de-Jesus, Carlos; Couto-Fernandez, José Carlos; Pilotto, Jose H; Morgado, Mariza G

    2017-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may reduce the efficacy of prophylactic therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and future treatment options. This study evaluated the diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions of HIV-1 pol gene among 87 ARV-naive HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2012 and 2015. The viral diversity comprised HIV-1 subtypes B (67.8%), F1 (17.2%), and C (4.6%); the circulating recombinant forms 12_BF (2.3%), 28/29_BF, 39_BF, 02_AG (1.1% each) and unique recombinants forms (4.5%). The overall prevalence of any TDR was 17.2%, of which 5.7% for nucleoside RT inhibitors, 5.7% for non-nucleoside RT inhibitors, and 8% for PR inhibitors. The TDR prevalence found in this population may affect the virological outcome of the standard PMTCT ARV-regimens, reinforcing the importance of continuous monitoring.

  13. Epidemiological Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Spain in 2004-2012: Relevance of Transmission Clusters in the Propagation of Resistance Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Yolanda; Delgado, Elena; Fernández-García, Aurora; Cuevas, Maria Teresa; Thomson, Michael M; Montero, Vanessa; Sánchez, Monica; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Pérez-Álvarez, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Our objectives were to carry out an epidemiological surveillance study on transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among individuals newly diagnosed of HIV-1 infection during a nine year period in Spain and to assess the role of transmission clusters (TC) in the propagation of resistant strains. An overall of 1614 newly diagnosed individuals were included in the study from January 2004 through December 2012. Individuals come from two different Spanish regions: Galicia and the Basque Country. Resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) and protease inhibitors (PI) were analyzed according to mutations included in the surveillance drug-resistance mutations list updated in 2009. TC were defined as those comprising viruses from five or more individuals whose sequences clustered in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees with a bootstrap value ≥90%. The overall prevalence of TDR to any drug was 9.9%: 4.9% to nucleoside RTIs (NRTIs), 3.6% to non-nucleoside RTIs (NNRTIs), and 2.7% to PIs. A significant decrease of TDR to NRTIs over time was observed [from 10% in 2004 to 2% in 2012 (p=0.01)]. Sixty eight (42.2%) of 161 sequences with TDR were included in 25 TC composed of 5 or more individuals. Of them, 9 clusters harbored TDR associated with high level resistance to antiretroviral drugs. T215D revertant mutation was transmitted in a large cluster comprising 25 individuals. The impact of epidemiological networks on TDR frequency may explain its persistence in newly diagnosed individuals. The knowledge of the populations involved in TC would facilitate the design of prevention programs and public health interventions.

  14. Inhibition of bacterial multidrug resistance by celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Arunasree M; Rizvi, Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor celecoxib would not only inhibit COX-2 but also help in the reversal of drug resistance in cancers by inhibiting the MDR1 efflux pump. Here, we demonstrate that celecoxib increases the sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotics ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin by accumulating the drugs inside the cell, thus reversing MDR in bacteria.

  15. HIV genotype resistance testing in antiretroviral (ART) exposed Indian children--a need of the hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ira; Parikh, Shefali

    2013-04-01

    Development of drug resistance in HIV infected children with treatment failure is a major impediment to selection of appropriate therapy. HIV genotype resistance assays predict drug resistance on the basis of mutations in the viral genome. However, their clinical utility, especially in a resource limited setting is still a subject of debate. The authors report two cases in which both the children suffered from treatment failure of various antiretroviral therapy regimes. In both the cases, Genotype Resistance Testing (GRT) prompted a radical change from proposed failure therapy as per existing guidelines. GRT was specifically important for the selection of a new dual Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) component of failure regimen by identifying TAMS and M184V mutations in the HIV genome. These case reports highlight the importance of GRT in children failing multiple antiretroviral regimes; and emphasizes the need to recognize situations where GRT is absolutely essential to guide appropriate therapy, even in a resource limited setting.

  16. [Bacterial efflux pumps - their role in antibiotic resistance and potential inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricová, Kristýna; Kolář, Milan

    2014-12-01

    Efflux pumps capable of actively draining antibiotic agents from bacterial cells may be considered one of potential mechanisms of the development of antimicrobial resistance. The most important group of efflux pumps capable of removing several types of antibiotics include RND (resistance - nodulation - division) pumps. These are three proteins that cross the bacterial cell wall, allowing direct expulsion of the agent out from the bacterial cell. The most investigated efflux pumps are the AcrAB-TolC system in Escherichia coli and the MexAB-OprM system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, efflux pumps are able to export other than antibacterial agents such as disinfectants, thus decreasing their effectiveness. One potential approach to inactivation of an efflux pump is to use the so-called efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Potential inhibitors tested in vitro involve, for example, phenylalanyl-arginyl-b-naphthylamide (PAbN), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or agents of the phenothiazine class.

  17. Alternative signaling pathways as potential therapeutic targets for overcoming EGFR and c-Met inhibitor resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Fong

    Full Text Available The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs against EGFR/c-Met in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has been shown to be effective in increasing patient progression free survival (PFS, but their efficacy is limited due to the development of resistance and tumor recurrence. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying development of drug resistance in NSCLC is necessary for developing novel and effective therapeutic approaches to improve patient outcome. This study aims to understand the mechanism of EGFR/c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI resistance in NSCLC. H2170 and H358 cell lines were made resistant to SU11274, a c-Met inhibitor, and erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor, through step-wise increases in TKI exposure. The IC50 concentrations of resistant lines exhibited a 4-5 and 11-22-fold increase for SU11274 and erlotinib, respectively, when compared to parental lines. Furthermore, mTOR and Wnt signaling was studied in both cell lines to determine their roles in mediating TKI resistance. We observed a 2-4-fold upregulation of mTOR signaling proteins and a 2- to 8-fold upregulation of Wnt signaling proteins in H2170 erlotinib and SU11274 resistant cells. H2170 and H358 cells were further treated with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and the Wnt inhibitor XAV939. H358 resistant cells were inhibited by 95% by a triple combination of everolimus, erlotinib and SU11274 in comparison to 34% by a double combination of these drugs. Parental H2170 cells displayed no sensitivity to XAV939, while resistant cells were significantly inhibited (39% by XAV939 as a single agent, as well as in combination with SU11274 and erlotinib. Similar results were obtained with H358 resistant cells. This study suggests a novel molecular mechanism of drug resistance in lung cancer.

  18. The HDAC inhibitor SB939 overcomes resistance to BCR-ABL kinase Inhibitors conferred by the BIM deletion polymorphism in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rauzan

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML treatment has been improved by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs such as imatinib mesylate (IM but various factors can cause TKI resistance in patients with CML. One factor which contributes to TKI resistance is a germline intronic deletion polymorphism in the BCL2-like 11 (BIM gene which impairs the expression of pro-apoptotic splice isoforms of BIM. SB939 (pracinostat is a hydroxamic acid based HDAC inhibitor with favorable pharmacokinetic, physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties, and we investigated if this drug could overcome BIM deletion polymorphism-induced TKI resistance. We found that SB939 corrects BIM pre-mRNA splicing in CML cells with the BIM deletion polymorphism, and induces apoptotic cell death in CML cell lines and primary cells with the BIM deletion polymorphism. More importantly, SB939 both decreases the viability of CML cell lines and primary CML progenitors with the BIM deletion and restores TKI-sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that SB939 overcomes BIM deletion polymorphism-induced TKI resistance, and suggest that SB939 may be useful in treating CML patients with BIM deletion-associated TKI resistance.

  19. A novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth and overcomes gemcitabine resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Seung; Park, Soo Been; Kim, Sun A; Kwon, Sool Ki; Cha, Hyunju; Lee, Do Young; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, Joong Myung; Song, Si Young

    2017-01-30

    Pancreatic cancer is predominantly lethal, and is primarily treated using gemcitabine, with increasing resistance. Therefore, novel agents that increase tumor sensitivity to gemcitabine are needed. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging therapeutic agents, since HDAC plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression. We evaluated the antitumor effect of a novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, combined with gemcitabine/erlotinib on pancreatic cancer cells and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Three pancreatic cancer-cell lines were used to evaluate the antitumor effect of CG200745 combined with gemcitabine/erlotinib. CG200745 induced the expression of apoptotic proteins (PARP and caspase-3) and increased the levels of acetylated histone H3. CG200745 with gemcitabine/erlotinib showed significant growth inhibition and synergistic antitumor effects in vitro. In vivo, gemcitabine/erlotinib and CG200745 reduced tumor size up to 50%. CG200745 enhanced the sensitivity of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, and decreased the level of ATP-binding cassette-transporter genes, especially multidrug resistance protein 3 (MRP3) and MRP4. The novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, with gemcitabine/erlotinib had a synergistic anti-tumor effect on pancreatic cancer cells. CG200745 significantly improved pancreatic cancer sensitivity to gemcitabine, with a prominent antitumor effect on gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, improved clinical outcome is expected in the future.

  20. First line treatment response in patients with transmitted HIV drug resistance and well defined time point of HIV infection: updated results from the German HIV-1 seroconverter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Zu Knyphausen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 (TDR can impair the virologic response to antiretroviral combination therapy. Aim of the study was to assess the impact of TDR on treatment success of resistance test-guided first-line therapy in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort for patients infected with HIV between 1996 and 2010. An update of the prevalence of TDR and trend over time was performed. METHODS: Data of 1,667 HIV-infected individuals who seroconverted between 1996 and 2010 were analysed. The WHO drug resistance mutations list was used to identify resistance-associated HIV mutations in drug-naïve patients for epidemiological analysis. For treatment success analysis the Stanford algorithm was used to classify a subset of 323 drug-naïve genotyped patients who received a first-line cART into three resistance groups: patients without TDR, patients with TDR and fully active cART and patients with TDR and non-fully active cART. The frequency of virologic failure 5 to 12 months after treatment initiation was determined. RESULTS: Prevalence of TDR was stable at a high mean level of 11.9% (198/1,667 in the HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort without significant trend over time. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance was predominant (6.0% and decreased significantly over time (OR = 0.92, CI = 0.87-0.98, p = 0.01. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (2.4%; OR = 1.00, CI = 0.92-1.09, p = 0.96 and protease inhibitor resistance (2.0%; OR = 0.94, CI = 0.861.03, p = 0.17 remained stable. Virologic failure was observed in 6.5% of patients with TDR receiving fully active cART, 5,6% of patients with TDR receiving non-fully active cART and 3.2% of patients without TDR. The difference between the three groups was not significant (p = 0.41. CONCLUSION: Overall prevalence of TDR remained stable at a rather high level. No significant differences in the frequency of virologic failure were

  1. Microenvironment-Mediated Mechanisms of Resistance to HER2 Inhibitors Differ between HER2+ Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Spencer S; Dane, Mark; Chin, Koei; Tatarova, Zuzana; Liu, Moqing; Liby, Tiera; Thompson, Wallace; Smith, Rebecca; Nederlof, Michel; Bucher, Elmar; Kilburn, David; Whitman, Matthew; Sudar, Damir; Mills, Gordon B; Heiser, Laura M; Jonas, Oliver; Gray, Joe W; Korkola, James E

    2018-03-28

    Extrinsic signals are implicated in breast cancer resistance to HER2-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). To examine how microenvironmental signals influence resistance, we monitored TKI-treated breast cancer cell lines grown on microenvironment microarrays composed of printed extracellular matrix proteins supplemented with soluble proteins. We tested ∼2,500 combinations of 56 soluble and 46 matrix microenvironmental proteins on basal-like HER2+ (HER2E) or luminal-like HER2+ (L-HER2+) cells treated with the TKIs lapatinib or neratinib. In HER2E cells, hepatocyte growth factor, a ligand for MET, induced resistance that could be reversed with crizotinib, an inhibitor of MET. In L-HER2+ cells, neuregulin1-β1 (NRG1β), a ligand for HER3, induced resistance that could be reversed with pertuzumab, an inhibitor of HER2-HER3 heterodimerization. The subtype-specific responses were also observed in 3D cultures and murine xenografts. These results, along with bioinformatic pathway analysis and siRNA knockdown experiments, suggest different mechanisms of resistance specific to each HER2+ subtype: MET signaling for HER2E and HER2-HER3 heterodimerization for L-HER2+ cells. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. V3-independent competitive resistance of a dual-X4 HIV-1 to the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Maeda

    Full Text Available A CXCR4 inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 was isolated from a dual-X4 HIV-1 in vitro. The resistant variant displayed competitive resistance to the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100, indicating that the resistant variant had a higher affinity for CXCR4 than that of the wild-type HIV-1. Amino acid sequence analyses revealed that the resistant variant harbored amino acid substitutions in the V2, C2, and C4 regions, but no remarkable changes in the V3 loop. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the changes in the C2 and C4 regions were principally involved in the reduced sensitivity to AMD3100. Furthermore, the change in the C4 region was associated with increased sensitivity to soluble CD4, and profoundly enhanced the entry efficiency of the virus. Therefore, it is likely that the resistant variant acquired the higher affinity for CD4/CXCR4 by the changes in non-V3 regions. Taken together, a CXCR4 inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 can evolve using a non-V3 pathway.

  3. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent phosphoregulation of mitochondrial complex I is inhibited by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Kaleb C.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2008-01-01

    Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to directly inhibit mitochondrial complex I activity as well as various mitochondrial kinases. Recent observations that complex I activity and superoxide production are modulated through cAMP-dependent phosphorylation suggests a mechanism through which NRTIs may affect mitochondrial respiration via kinase-dependent protein phosphorylation. In the current study, we examine the potential for NRTIs to inhibit the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of complex I and the associated NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase activities and rates of superoxide production using HepG2 cells. Phosphoprotein staining of immunocaptured complex I revealed that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT; 10 and 50 μM), AZT monophosphate (150 μM), and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC; 1 μM) prevented the phosphorylation of the NDUFB11 subunit of complex I. This was associated with a decrease in complex I activity with AZT and AZT monophosphate only. In the presence of succinate, superoxide production was increased with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI; 10 μM) and ddC (1 μM). In the presence of succinate + cAMP, AZT showed an inverse dose-dependent effect on superoxide production. None of the NRTIs examined inhibit PKA activity suggesting that the observed effects are due to a direct interaction with complex I. These data demonstrate a direct effect of NRTIs on cAMP-dependent regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics independent of DNA polymerase-γ activity; in the case of AZT, these observations may provide a mechanism for the observed long-term toxicity with this drug

  4. Improving plasma resistance and lowering roughness in an ArF photoresist by adding a chemical reaction inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Uesugi, Takuji; Koyama, Koji; Samukawa, Seiji; Kato, Keisuke; Yasuda, Atsushi; Maeda, Shinichi; Momose, Hikaru

    2010-01-01

    Major challenges associated with 193 nm lithography using an ArF photoresist are low plasma resistance and roughness formation in the ArF photoresist during plasma processes. We have previously found decisive factors affecting the plasma resistance and roughness formation in an ArF photoresist: plasma resistance is determined by UV/VUV radiation, and roughness formation is dominated by chemical reactions. In this study, based on our findings on the interaction between plasma radiation species and ArF photoresist polymers, we proposed an ArF photoresist with a chemical reaction inhibitor, which can trap reactive species from the plasma, and characterized the performances of the resultant ArF photoresist through neutral beam experiments. Hindered amine light stabilizers, i.e. 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (HO-TEMPO), were used as the chemical reaction inhibitor. Etching rates of the ArF photoresist films were not dependent on the HO-TEMPO content in the irradiations without chemical reactions or under UV/VUV radiation. However, in the irradiation with chemical reactions, the etching rates of the ArF photoresist films decreased as the HO-TEMPO content increased. In addition, the surface roughness decreased with the increase in the additive amount of chemical reaction inhibitor. According to FTIR analysis, a chemical reaction inhibitor can inhibit the chemical reactions in ArF photoresist films through plasma radicals. These results indicate that a chemical reaction inhibitor is effective against chemical reactions, resulting in improved plasma resistance and less roughness in an ArF photoresist. These results also support our suggested mechanism of plasma resistance and roughness formation in an ArF photoresist.

  5. Chitosan as an effective inhibitor of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E M; Silva, S; Vicente, S; Veiga, M; Tavaria, F; Pintado, M M

    2017-12-15

    Over the last two decades worldwide levels of antibiotic resistance have risen leading to the appearance of multidrug resistant microorganisms. Acinetobacter baumannii is a known skin pathogen which has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks due to its capacity to colonize indwelling medical devices and natural antibiotic resistance. With chitosan being an effective antimicrobial agent against antibiotic resistant microorganisms, the aim of this work was to access its potential as an alternative to traditional antimicrobials in the management of A. baumannii growth. What the results showed was that both chitosan MW's tested were active upon A. baumannii's planktonic and sessile growth. For planktonic growth MICs and MBCs were obtained at relatively low concentrations (0.5-2mg/mL) while for sessile growth chitosan proved to be an effective inhibitor of A. baumannii's adhesion and biofilm formation. Considering these results chitosan shows a high potential for control of A. baumannii infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of public-health policy options in the presence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern over increasing prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance in people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative public health...... sources and considers specific drugs and resistance mutations. We used this model to generate multiple setting scenarios mimicking those in sub-Saharan Africa and considered the prevalence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in 2017. We then compared effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative...... policy options. We took a 20 year time horizon, used a cost effectiveness threshold of US$500 per DALY averted, and discounted DALYs and costs at 3% per year. FINDINGS: A transition to use of a dolutegravir as a first-line regimen in all new ART initiators is the option predicted to produce the most...

  7. Identification of Nevirapine-Resistant HIV-1 in the Latent Reservoir after Single-Dose Nevirapine to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind-Rotolo, Megan; Durand, Christine; Cranmer, Lisa; Reid, Alison; Martinson, Neil; Doherty, Meg; Jilek, Benjamin L.; Kagaayi, Joseph; Kizza, Allan; Pillay, Visva; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Reynolds, Steven J.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Lau, Bryan; Ray, Stuart C.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Intrapartum single-dose nevirapine decreases mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but promotes nevirapine resistance. Although resistant viruses fade to undetectable levels in plasma, they may persist as stably integrated proviruses within the latent reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells, potentially complicating future treatment. Methods Blood samples were collected from 60 women from South Africa and Uganda >6 months after they had received single-dose nevirapine. To selectively analyze the stable latent form of HIV-1, resting CD4+ T cells were isolated and activated in the presence of reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and integrase inhibitors, which allows for the specific isolation of viruses produced by cells with stably integrated proviral DNA. These viruses were then analyzed for nevirapine resistance. Results Although only a small number of latently infected cells were present in each blood sample (mean, 162 cells), nevirapine resistance mutations (K103N and G190A) were detected in the latent reservoir of 4 (8%) of 50 evaluable women. Conclusions A single dose of nevirapine can establish antiretroviral resistance within the latent reservoir. This results in a potentially lifelong risk of reemergence of nevirapine-resistant virus and highlights the need for strategies to prevent transmission that do not compromise successful future treatment. PMID:19338474

  8. Effects of sequence changes in the HIV-1 gp41 fusion peptide on CCR5 inhibitor resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassopoulou, Cleo G.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Johan Klasse, Per; Moore, John P.

    2012-01-01

    A rare pathway of HIV-1 resistance to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors such as Vicriviroc (VCV) involves changes solely in the gp41 fusion peptide (FP). Here, we show that the G516V change is critical to VCV resistance in PBMC and TZM-bl cells, although it must be accompanied by either M518V or F519I to have a substantial impact. Modeling VCV inhibition data from the two cell types indicated that G516V allows both double mutants to use VCV-CCR5 complexes for entry. The model further identified F519I as an independent determinant of preference for the unoccupied, high-VCV affinity form of CCR5. From inhibitor-free reversion cultures, we also identified a substitution in the inner domain of gp120, T244A, which appears to counter the resistance phenotype created by the FP substitutions. Examining the interplay of these changes will enhance our understanding of Env complex interactions that influence both HIV-1 entry and resistance to CCR5 inhibitors.

  9. ON012380: A Non-ATP Competitive Inhibitor of BCR-ABL for the Therapy of Imatinib-Resistant CMLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    imatinib resistance with a novel ABL kinase inhibitor. Science. 2004; 305(5682):399-401 3. Weisberg E, Manley PW, Breitenstein W, Bruggen J, Cowan-Jacob... Manley PW, Cowan-Jacob SW, Hochhaus A, Griffin JD. Second generation inhibitors of BCR-ABL for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid...araldehyde (5) (10 mmol), glacial acetic acid (5 mL), and a catalytic amount (100 lL ) of benzyl amine was re- fluxed for 5–8 h. After completion of

  10. Resistance Patterns Associated with HCV NS5A Inhibitors Provide Limited Insight into Drug Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moheshwarnath Issur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs have significantly improved the treatment of infection with the hepatitis C virus. A promising class of novel antiviral agents targets the HCV NS5A protein. The high potency and broad genotypic coverage are favorable properties. NS5A inhibitors are currently assessed in advanced clinical trials in combination with viral polymerase inhibitors and/or viral protease inhibitors. However, the clinical use of NS5A inhibitors is also associated with new challenges. HCV variants with decreased susceptibility to these drugs can emerge and compromise therapy. In this review, we discuss resistance patterns in NS5A with focus prevalence and implications for inhibitor binding.

  11. Endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and Chromatin remodeling in normal and transformed cells and early embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadafora, C.; Sciamanna, I.; Misteli, T.

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous Reverse Transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme encoded by two classes of genomic retro-elements: retro-transposons and endogenous retroviruses. Basal levels of RT are expressed in all non pathological, differentiated tissues while high RT expression levels characterize tumorigenic cells, germ cells and embryonic tissues. Preliminary studies carried out in our laboratory have shown that RT inhibition using pharmacological inhibitors (nevirapine and efavirenz, two drugs currently used in AIDS therapy) drastically reduces cell proliferation, promotes differentiation of tumorigenic cells in vitro, induces a reprogrammed gene expression and antagonizes tumor progression in nude mice inoculated with tumorigenic human cell lines, including melanoma, prostate and colon carcinoma and microcitoma

  12. Epidemiological Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Spain in 2004-2012: Relevance of Transmission Clusters in the Propagation of Resistance Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vega

    Full Text Available Our objectives were to carry out an epidemiological surveillance study on transmitted drug resistance (TDR among individuals newly diagnosed of HIV-1 infection during a nine year period in Spain and to assess the role of transmission clusters (TC in the propagation of resistant strains. An overall of 1614 newly diagnosed individuals were included in the study from January 2004 through December 2012. Individuals come from two different Spanish regions: Galicia and the Basque Country. Resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI and protease inhibitors (PI were analyzed according to mutations included in the surveillance drug-resistance mutations list updated in 2009. TC were defined as those comprising viruses from five or more individuals whose sequences clustered in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees with a bootstrap value ≥90%. The overall prevalence of TDR to any drug was 9.9%: 4.9% to nucleoside RTIs (NRTIs, 3.6% to non-nucleoside RTIs (NNRTIs, and 2.7% to PIs. A significant decrease of TDR to NRTIs over time was observed [from 10% in 2004 to 2% in 2012 (p=0.01]. Sixty eight (42.2% of 161 sequences with TDR were included in 25 TC composed of 5 or more individuals. Of them, 9 clusters harbored TDR associated with high level resistance to antiretroviral drugs. T215D revertant mutation was transmitted in a large cluster comprising 25 individuals. The impact of epidemiological networks on TDR frequency may explain its persistence in newly diagnosed individuals. The knowledge of the populations involved in TC would facilitate the design of prevention programs and public health interventions.

  13. Crystallographic Study of a Novel Sub-Nanomolar Inhibitor Provides Insight on the Binding Interactions of Alkenyldiarylmethanes with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) Reverse Transcriptase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Matthew D.; Ho, William C.; Bauman, Joseph D.; Das, Kalyan; Arnold, Eddy; Hartman, Tracy L.; Watson, Karen M.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Cushman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Two crystal structures have been solved for separate complexes of alkenyldiarylmethane (ADAM) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) 3 and 4 with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). The structures reveal inhibitor binding is exclusively hydrophobic in nature and the shape of the inhibitor-bound NNRTI binding pocket is unique among other reported inhibitor-RT crystal structures. Primarily, ADAMs 3 and 4 protrude from a large gap in the backside of the binding pocket, placing portions of the inhibitors unusually close to the polymerase active site and allowing 3 to form a weak hydrogen bond with Lys223. The lack of additional stabilizing interactions, beyond the observed hydrophobic surface contacts, between 4 and RT is quite perplexing given the extreme potency of the compound (IC50 ≤ nM). ADAM 4 was designed to be hydrolytically stable in blood plasma, and an investigation of its hydrolysis in rat plasma demonstrated it has a significantly prolonged half-life in comparison to ADAM lead compounds 1 and 2. PMID:19775161

  14. Oncogene Mimicry as a Mechanism of Primary Resistance to BRAF Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L. Sos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the development of potent RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway inhibitors, only a fraction of BRAF-mutant patients benefit from treatment with these drugs. Using a combined chemogenomics and chemoproteomics approach, we identify drug-induced RAS-RAF-MEK complex formation in a subset of BRAF-mutant cancer cells characterized by primary resistance to vemurafenib. In these cells, autocrine interleukin-6 (IL-6 secretion may contribute to the primary resistance phenotype via induction of JAK/STAT3 and MAPK signaling. In a subset of cell lines, combined IL-6/MAPK inhibition is able to overcome primary resistance to BRAF-targeted therapy. Overall, we show that the signaling plasticity exerted by primary resistant BRAF-mutant cells is achieved by their ability to mimic signaling features of oncogenic RAS, a strategy that we term “oncogene mimicry.” This model may guide future strategies for overcoming primary resistance observed in these tumors.

  15. Targeted Morphoproteomic Profiling of Ewing's Sarcoma Treated with Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) Inhibitors: Response/Resistance Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Vivek; Naing, Aung; Brown, Robert E.; Chen, Helen; Doyle, Laurence; LoRusso, Patricia; Benjamin, Robert; Anderson, Pete; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) targeted therapies have resulted in responses in a small number of patients with advanced metastatic Ewing's sarcoma. We performed morphoproteomic profiling to better understand response/resistance mechanisms of Ewing's sarcoma to IGF1R inhibitor-based therapy. Methodology/Principal Findings This pilot study assessed two patients with advanced Ewing's sarcoma treated with IGF1R antibody alone followed by combined IGF1R inhibitor plus mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor treatment once resistance to single-agent IGF1R inhibitor developed. Immunohistochemical probes were applied to detect p-mTOR (Ser2448), p-Akt (Ser473), p-ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), nestin, and p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in the original and recurrent tumor. The initial remarkable radiographic responses to IGF1R-antibody therapy was followed by resistance and then response to combined IGF1R plus mTOR inhibitor therapy in both patients, and then resistance to the combination regimen in one patient. In patient 1, upregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR in the tumor that relapsed after initial response to IGF1R antibody might explain the resistance that developed, and the subsequent response to combined IGF1R plus mTOR inhibitor therapy. In patient 2, upregulation of mTOR was seen in the primary tumor, perhaps explaining the initial response to the IGF1R and mTOR inhibitor combination, while the resistant tumor that emerged showed activation of the ERK pathway as well. Conclusion/Significance Morphoproteomic analysis revealed that the mTOR pathway was activated in these two patients with advanced Ewing's sarcoma who showed response to combined IGF1R and mTOR inhibition, and the ERK pathway in the patient in whom resistance to this combination emerged. Our pilot results suggests that morphoproteomic assessment of signaling pathway activation in Ewing's sarcoma merits further investigation as a guide to understanding response and resistance signatures. PMID

  16. A focused fragment library targeting the antibiotic resistance enzyme - Oxacillinase-48: Synthesis, structural evaluation and inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sundus; Lund, Bjarte Aarmo; Ismael, Aya; Langer, Manuel; Isaksson, Johan; Christopeit, Tony; Leiros, Hanna-Kirsti S; Bayer, Annette

    2018-02-10

    β-Lactam antibiotics are of utmost importance when treating bacterial infections in the medical community. However, currently their utility is threatened by the emergence and spread of β-lactam resistance. The most prevalent resistance mechanism to β-lactam antibiotics is expression of β-lactamase enzymes. One way to overcome resistance caused by β-lactamases, is the development of β-lactamase inhibitors and today several β-lactamase inhibitors e.g. avibactam, are approved in the clinic. Our focus is the oxacillinase-48 (OXA-48), an enzyme reported to spread rapidly across the world and commonly identified in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To guide inhibitor design, we used diversely substituted 3-aryl and 3-heteroaryl benzoic acids to probe the active site of OXA-48 for useful enzyme-inhibitor interactions. In the presented study, a focused fragment library containing 49 3-substituted benzoic acid derivatives were synthesised and biochemically characterized. Based on crystallographic data from 33 fragment-enzyme complexes, the fragments could be classified into R 1 or R 2 binders by their overall binding conformation in relation to the binding of the R 1 and R 2 side groups of imipenem. Moreover, binding interactions attractive for future inhibitor design were found and their usefulness explored by the rational design and evaluation of merged inhibitors from orthogonally binding fragments. The best inhibitors among the resulting 3,5-disubstituted benzoic acids showed inhibitory potential in the low micromolar range (IC 50  = 2.9 μM). For these inhibitors, the complex X-ray structures revealed non-covalent binding to Arg250, Arg214 and Tyr211 in the active site and the interactions observed with the mono-substituted fragments were also identified in the merged structures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The Second-Generation Maturation Inhibitor GSK3532795 Maintains Potent Activity Toward HIV Protease Inhibitor–Resistant Clinical Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Neelanjana; Li, Tianbo; Lin, Zeyu; Protack, Tricia; van Ham, Petronella Maria; Hwang, Carey; Krystal, Mark; Nijhuis, Monique; Lataillade, Max

    2017-01-01

    Background: Protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant HIV-1 isolates with primary substitutions in protease (PR) and secondary substitutions in Gag could potentially exhibit cross-resistance to maturation inhibitors. We evaluated the second-generation maturation inhibitor, GSK3532795, for activity toward clinical isolates with genotypic and phenotypic characteristics associated with PI resistance (longitudinal). Methods: Longitudinal clinical isolates from 15 PI-treated patients and 7 highly PI-resistant (nonlongitudinal) viruses containing major and minor PI resistance-associated mutations were evaluated for GSK3532795 sensitivity. Phenotypic sensitivity was determined using the PhenoSense Gag/PR assay (Monogram Biosciences) or in-house single- and multiple-cycle assays. Changes from baseline [CFB; ratio of post- to pre-treatment FC-IC50 (fold-change in IC50 versus wild-type virus)] Monogram (11 patients)] and 1.5 (1.0–2.2) [single-cycle (4 patients)]. The 2 post-PI treatment samples showing GSK3532795 CFB >3 (Monogram) were retested using single- and multiple-cycle assays. Neither sample had meaningful sensitivity changes in the multiple-cycle assay. Gag changes were not associated with an increased GSK3532795 CFB. Conclusions: GSK3532795 maintained antiviral activity against PI-resistant isolates with emergent PR and/or Gag mutations. This finding supports continued development of GSK3532795 in treatment-experienced patients with or without previous PI therapy. PMID:28234686

  18. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection by the Candidate Microbicide Dapivirine, a Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, P.; Harman, S.; Azijn, H.; Armanasco, N.; Manlow, P.; Perumal, D.; de Bethune, M.-P.; Nuttall, J.; Romano, J.; Shattock, R.

    2009-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains the major route of infection worldwide; thus, there is an urgent need for additional prevention strategies, particularly strategies that could be controlled by women, such as topical microbicides. Potential microbicide candidates must be both safe and effective. Using cellular and tissue explant models, we have evaluated the activity of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) dapivirine as a vaginal microbicide. In tissue compatibility studies, dapivirine was well tolerated by epithelial cells, T cells, macrophages, and cervical tissue explants. Dapivirine demonstrated potent dose-dependent inhibitory effects against a broad panel of HIV type 1 isolates from different clades. Furthermore, dapivirine demonstrated potent activity against a wide range of NNRTI-resistant isolates. In human cervical explant cultures, dapivirine was able not only to inhibit direct infection of mucosal tissue but also to prevent the dissemination of the virus by migratory cells. Activity was retained in the presence of semen or a cervical mucus simulant. Furthermore, dapivirine demonstrated prolonged inhibitory effects: it was able to prevent both localized and disseminated infection for as long as 6 days posttreatment. The prolonged protection observed following pretreatment of genital tissue and the lack of observable toxicity suggest that dapivirine has considerable promise as a potential microbicide candidate. PMID:19029331

  19. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in anatomical sanctuary sites: the male and female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Laura J; Taylor, Stephen; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H

    2011-01-01

    HIV resides within anatomical 'sanctuary sites', where local drug exposure and viral dynamics may differ significantly from the systemic compartment. Suboptimal antiretroviral concentrations in the genital tract may result in compartmentalized viral replication, selection of resistant mutations and possible re-entry of wild-type/resistant virus into the systemic circulation. Therefore, achieving adequate antiretroviral exposure in the genital tract has implications for the prevention of sexual and vertical transmission of HIV. Penetration of antiretrovirals in the genital tract is expressed by accumulation ratios derived from the measurement of drug concentrations in time-matched seminal plasma/cervicovaginal fluid and plasma samples. Penetration varies by gender and may be drug (as opposed to class) specific with high interindividual variability. Concentrations in seminal plasma are highest for nucleoside analogues and lowest for protease inhibitors and efavirenz. Seminal accumulation of newer agents, raltegravir and maraviroc, is moderate (rank order of accumulation is nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [lamivudine/zidovudine/tenofovir/didanosine > stavudine/abacavir] > raltegravir > indinavir/maraviroc/nevirapine > efavirenz/protease inhibitors [amprenavir/atazanavir/darunavir > lopinavir/ritonavir > saquinavir] > enfuvirtide). In the female genital tract, the nucleoside analogues exhibit high accumulation ratios, whereas protease inhibitors have limited penetration; however, substantial variability exists between individuals and study centres. Second generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor etravirine, and maraviroc and raltegravir, demonstrate effective accumulation in cervicovaginal secretions (rank order of accumulation is nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [zidovudine/lamivudine/didanosine > emtricitabine/tenofovir] > indinavir > maraviroc/raltegravir/darunavir/etravirine > nevirapine

  20. Use of resistant ACCase mutants to screen for novel inhibitors against resistant and susceptible forms of ACCase from grass weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Amit; Nycholat, Corwin; Subramanian, Mani V; Anderson, Richard J; Devine, Malcolm D

    2004-08-11

    The aryloxyphenoxypropionic acid (AOPP) and cyclohexanedione (CHD) herbicides inhibit the first committed enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase). The frequent use of AOPP and CHD herbicides has resulted in the development of resistance to these herbicides in many grass weed species. New herbicides that inhibit both the susceptible and resistant forms of ACCase in grass weeds would have obvious commercial appeal. In the present study, an attempt was made to identify molecules that target both the herbicide-sensitive and -resistant forms of ACCase. Seven experimental compounds, either CHD-like or AOPP-CHD hybrids, were synthesized and assayed against previously characterized susceptible and resistant forms of ACCase. All seven compounds inhibited ACCase from sensitive biotypes of Setaria viridis and Eleusine indica (I50 values from 6.4 to >100 microM) but were not particularly potent compared to some commercialized herbicides (I50 values of 0.08-5.6 microM). In almost all cases, the I50 values for each compound assayed against the resistant ACCases were higher than those against the corresponding sensitive ACCase, indicating reduced binding to the resistant ACCases. One compound, a CHD analogue, was almost equally effective against the resistant and susceptible ACCases, although it was not a very potent ACCase inhibitor per se (I50 of 51 and 76 microM against susceptible ACCase from S. viridis and E. indica, respectively). The AOPP-CHD hybrid molecules also inhibited some of the resistant ACCases, with I50 values ranging from 6.4 to 50 microM. These compounds may be good leads for developing ACCase inhibitors that target a wider range of ACCase isoforms, including those found in AOPP- and CHD-resistant weed biotypes.

  1. High-throughput screening using pseudotyped lentiviral particles: a strategy for the identification of HIV-1 inhibitors in a cell-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jean-Michel; Gao, Anhui; He, Pei-Lan; Choi, Joyce; Tang, Wei; Bruzzone, Roberto; Schwartz, Olivier; Naya, Hugo; Nan, Fa-Jun; Li, Jia; Altmeyer, Ralf; Zuo, Jian-Ping

    2009-03-01

    Two decades after its discovery the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still spreading worldwide and killing millions. There are 25 drugs formally approved for HIV currently on the market, but side effects as well as the emergence of HIV strains showing single or multiple resistances to current drug-therapy are causes for concern. Furthermore, these drugs target only 4 steps of the viral cycle, hence the urgent need for new drugs and also new targets. In order to tackle this problem, we have devised a cell-based assay using lentiviral particles to look for post-entry inhibitors of HIV-1. We report here the assay development, validation as well as confirmation of the hits using both wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 viruses. The screening was performed on an original library, rich in natural compounds and pure molecules from Traditional Chinese Medicine pharmacopoeia, which had never been screened for anti-HIV activity. The identified hits belong to four chemical sub-families that appear to be all non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Secondary tests with live viruses showed that there was good agreement with pseudotyped particles, confirming the validity of this approach for high-throughput drug screens. This assay will be a useful tool that can be easily adapted to screen for inhibitors of viral entry.

  2. Antiretroviral drug susceptibility among drug-naive adults with recent HIV infection in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Susan H; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Parkin, Neil; Huang, Wei; Chappey, Colombe; Paquet, Agnes C; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J; Kiwanuka, Noah; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria

    2009-04-27

    To analyze antiretroviral drug susceptibility in HIV from recently infected adults in Rakai, Uganda, prior to the availability of antiretroviral drug treatment. Samples obtained at the time of HIV seroconversion (1998-2003) were analyzed using the GeneSeq HIV and PhenoSense HIV assays (Monogram Biosciences, Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA). Test results were obtained for 104 samples (subtypes: 26A, 1C, 66D, 9A/D, 1C/D, 1 intersubtype recombinant). Mutations used for genotypic surveillance of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance were identified in six samples: three had nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) surveillance mutations (two had M41L, one had K219R), and three had protease inhibitor surveillance mutations (I47V, F53L, N88D); none had nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) surveillance mutations. Other resistance-associated mutations were identified in some samples. However, none of the samples had a sufficient number of mutations to predict reduced antiretroviral drug susceptibility. Ten (9.6%) of the samples had reduced phenotypic susceptibility to at least one drug (one had partial susceptibility to didanosine, one had nevirapine resistance, and eight had resistance or partial susceptibility to at least one protease inhibitor). Fifty-three (51%) of the samples had hypersusceptibility to at least one drug (seven had zidovudine hypersusceptibility, 28 had NNRTI hypersusceptibility, 34 had protease inhibitor hypersusceptibility). Delavirdine hypersusceptibility was more frequent in subtype A than D. In subtype D, efavirenz hypersusceptibility was associated with substitutions at codon 11 in HIV-reverse transcriptase. Phenotyping detected reduced antiretroviral drug susceptibility and hypersusceptibility in HIV from some antiretroviral-naive Ugandan adults that was not predicted by genotyping. Phenotyping may complement genotyping for analysis of antiretroviral drug susceptibility in populations with nonsubtype B

  3. Structural Basis for the Inhibition of RNase H Activity of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase by RNase H Active Site-Directed Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hua-Poo; Yan, Youwei; Prasad, G. Sridhar; Smith, Robert F.; Daniels, Christopher L.; Abeywickrema, Pravien D.; Reid, John C.; Loughran, H. Marie; Kornienko, Maria; Sharma, Sujata; Grobler, Jay A.; Xu, Bei; Sardana, Vinod; Allison, Timothy J.; Williams, Peter D.; Darke, Paul L.; Hazuda, Daria J.; Munshi, Sanjeev (Merck)

    2010-09-02

    HIV/AIDS continues to be a menace to public health. Several drugs currently on the market have successfully improved the ability to manage the viral burden in infected patients. However, new drugs are needed to combat the rapid emergence of mutated forms of the virus that are resistant to existing therapies. Currently, approved drugs target three of the four major enzyme activities encoded by the virus that are critical to the HIV life cycle. Although a number of inhibitors of HIV RNase H activity have been reported, few inhibit by directly engaging the RNase H active site. Here, we describe structures of naphthyridinone-containing inhibitors bound to the RNase H active site. This class of compounds binds to the active site via two metal ions that are coordinated by catalytic site residues, D443, E478, D498, and D549. The directionality of the naphthyridinone pharmacophore is restricted by the ordering of D549 and H539 in the RNase H domain. In addition, one of the naphthyridinone-based compounds was found to bind at a second site close to the polymerase active site and non-nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitor sites in a metal-independent manner. Further characterization, using fluorescence-based thermal denaturation and a crystal structure of the isolated RNase H domain reveals that this compound can also bind the RNase H site and retains the metal-dependent binding mode of this class of molecules. These structures provide a means for structurally guided design of novel RNase H inhibitors.

  4. A novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth and overcomes gemcitabine resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hee Seung; Park, Soo Been; Kim, Sun A; Kwon, Sool Ki; Cha, Hyunju; Lee, Do Young; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, Joong Myung; Song, Si Young

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is predominantly lethal, and is primarily treated using gemcitabine, with increasing resistance. Therefore, novel agents that increase tumor sensitivity to gemcitabine are needed. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging therapeutic agents, since HDAC plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression. We evaluated the antitumor effect of a novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, combined with gemcitabine/erlotinib on pancreatic cancer cells and gemcitabine-resis...

  5. Geographic and temporal trends in the molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance: an individual-patient- and sequence-level meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Blanco, Jose Luis; Jordan, Michael R; Taylor, Jonathan; Lemey, Philippe; Varghese, Vici; Hamers, Raph L; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Albert, Jan; Avi, Radko; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Bessong, Pascal O; Brooks, James I; Boucher, Charles A B; Brumme, Zabrina L; Busch, Michael P; Bussmann, Hermann; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Chin, Bum Sik; D'Aquin, Toni T; De Gascun, Cillian F; Derache, Anne; Descamps, Diane; Deshpande, Alaka K; Djoko, Cyrille F; Eshleman, Susan H; Fleury, Herve; Frange, Pierre; Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Harrigan, P Richard; Hattori, Junko; Holguin, Africa; Hunt, Gillian M; Ichimura, Hiroshi; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Katzenstein, David; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Kim, Jerome H; Kim, Sung Soon; Li, Yanpeng; Lutsar, Irja; Morris, Lynn; Ndembi, Nicaise; Ng, Kee Peng; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Peeters, Martine; Poljak, Mario; Price, Matt A; Ragonnet-Cronin, Manon L; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Rolland, Morgane; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Smith, Davey M; Soares, Marcelo A; Soriano, Vincent V; Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Stanojevic, Maja; Stefani, Mariane A; Sugiura, Wataru; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Tanuri, Amilcar; Tee, Kok Keng; Truong, Hong-Ha M; van de Vijver, David A M C; Vidal, Nicole; Yang, Chunfu; Yang, Rongge; Yebra, Gonzalo; Ioannidis, John P A; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Shafer, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and to identify the HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations responsible for TDR in different regions and virus subtypes. We reviewed all GenBank submissions of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences with or without protease and identified 287 studies published between March 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, with more than 25 recently or chronically infected ARV-naïve individuals. These studies comprised 50,870 individuals from 111 countries. Each set of study sequences was analyzed for phylogenetic clustering and the presence of 93 surveillance drug-resistance mutations (SDRMs). The median overall TDR prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), south/southeast Asia (SSEA), upper-income Asian countries, Latin America/Caribbean, Europe, and North America was 2.8%, 2.9%, 5.6%, 7.6%, 9.4%, and 11.5%, respectively. In SSA, there was a yearly 1.09-fold (95% CI: 1.05-1.14) increase in odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up attributable to an increase in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance. The odds of NNRTI-associated TDR also increased in Latin America/Caribbean (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25), North America (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26), Europe (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and upper-income Asian countries (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12-1.55). In SSEA, there was no significant change in the odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92-1.02). An analysis limited to sequences with mixtures at less than 0.5% of their nucleotide positions—a proxy for recent infection—yielded trends comparable to those obtained using the complete dataset. Four NNRTI SDRMs—K101E, K103N, Y181C, and G190A

  6. Antiviral drug resistance and helicase-primase inhibitors of herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hugh J; Biswas, Subhajit

    2011-02-01

    A new class of chemical inhibitors has been discovered that interferes with the process of herpesvirus DNA replication. To date, the majority of useful herpesvirus antivirals are nucleoside analogues that block herpesvirus DNA replication by targeting the DNA polymerase. The new helicase-primase inhibitors (HPI) target a different enzyme complex that is also essential for herpesvirus DNA replication. This review will place the HPI in the context of previous work on the nucleoside analogues. Several promising highly potent HPI will be described with a particular focus on the identification of drug-resistance mutations. Several HPI have good pharmacological profiles and are now at the outset of phase II clinical trials. Provided there are no safety issues to stop their progress, this new class of compound will be a major advance in the herpesvirus antiviral field. Furthermore, HPI are likely to have a major impact on the therapy and prevention of herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients alone or in combination with current nucleoside analogues. The possibility of acquired drug-resistance to HPI will then become an issue of great practical importance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two proteins with reverse transcriptase activities associated with hepatitis B virus-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavand, M.R.; Laub, O.

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV), despite being a DNA virus, replicates via an RNA intermediate. The HBV life cycle is therefore a permuted version of the RNA retroviral life cycle. Sequence homology between retroviral reverse transcriptase and the putative HBV polymerase gene product suggests the presence of an HBV reverse transcriptase. As yet, there has been no direct evidence that reverse transcriptase activity is present in the viral particle. The authors used activity gel analysis to detect the in situ catalytic activities of DNA polymerases after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophorsis. These studies demonstrated that HBV-like particles secreted by a differentiated human hepatoma cell line tranfected with genomic HBV DNA contain two major polymerase activities which migrate as ∼90- and ∼70-kilodalton (kDa) proteins. This demonstrated, for the first time, that HBV-like particles contain a novel DNA polymerase-reverse transcriptase activity. Furthermore, they propose that the 70-kDa reverse transcriptase may be produced by proteolytic self-cleavage of the 90-kDa precursor protein

  8. Resistance analysis and characterization of NITD008 as an adenosine analog inhibitor against hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Jie; Luo, Rui; Wang, Yaxin; Nong, Junxiu; Wu, Ming; Shao, Yan; Tang, Ruoyi; Yu, Xi; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis disease caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a severe threat to global public health, affecting approximately 3% of the world's population. Sofosbuvir (PSI-7977), a uridine nucleotide analog inhibitor targeting the HCV NS5B polymerase, was approved by FDA at the end of 2013 and represents a key step towards a new era in the management of HCV infection. Previous study identified NITD008, an adenosine nucleoside analog, as the specific inhibitor against dengue virus and showed good antiviral effect on other flaviviruses or enteroviruses. In this report, we systematically analyzed the anti-HCV profile of NITD008, which was discovered to effectively suppress the replication of different strains of HCV in human hepatoma cells with a low nanomolar activity. On genotype 2a virus, or 2a, 1a, and 1b replicon cells, EC50 values were 8.7 nM, 93.3 nM, 60.0 nM and 67.2 nM, and selective index values were >2298.9, >214.4, >333.3, >298.5 respectively. We demonstrated that resistance to NITD008 was conferred by mutation in NS5B (S282T) in the HCV infectious virus genotype 2a (JFH-1). Then, we compared the resistant profiles of NITD008 and PSI-7977, and found that the folds change of EC50 of NITD008 to full replicon cells containing mutation S282T was much bigger than PSI-7977(folds 76.50 vs. 4.52). Analysis of NITD008 cross-resistance against previously reported NS5B drug-selected mutations showed that the resistance pattern of NITD008 was not completely similar to PSI-7977, and meanwhile, S282T resistant mutation to NITD008 emerge more easily in cell culture than PSI-7977. Interestingly, NITD008 displayed significant synergistic effects with the NS5B polymerase inhibitor PSI-7977, however, only additive effects with alpha interferon (IFNα-2b), ribavirin, and an NS3 protease inhibitor. These results verify that NITD008 is an effective analog inhibitor against hepatitis C virus and a good research tool as a supplement to other types of nucleoside analogs. Copyright

  9. Differential Regulation of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Promoter Activation and Protein Degradation by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Hua; Aono, Jun; Findeisen, Hannes M; Jones, Karrie L; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) maintains telomeres and is rate limiting for replicative life span. While most somatic tissues silence TERT transcription resulting in telomere shortening, cells derived from cancer or cardiovascular diseases express TERT and activate telomerase. In the present study, we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition induces TERT transcription and promoter activation. At the protein level in contrast, HDAC inhibition decreases TERT protein abundance through enhanced degradation, which decreases telomerase activity and induces senescence. Finally, we demonstrate that HDAC inhibition decreases TERT expression during vascular remodeling in vivo. These data illustrate a differential regulation of TERT transcription and protein stability by HDAC inhibition and suggest that TERT may constitute an important target for the anti-proliferative efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prediction of mutational tolerance in HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase using flexible backbone protein design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Humphris-Narayanan

    Full Text Available Predicting which mutations proteins tolerate while maintaining their structure and function has important applications for modeling fundamental properties of proteins and their evolution; it also drives progress in protein design. Here we develop a computational model to predict the tolerated sequence space of HIV-1 protease reachable by single mutations. We assess the model by comparison to the observed variability in more than 50,000 HIV-1 protease sequences, one of the most comprehensive datasets on tolerated sequence space. We then extend the model to a second protein, reverse transcriptase. The model integrates multiple structural and functional constraints acting on a protein and uses ensembles of protein conformations. We find the model correctly captures a considerable fraction of protease and reverse-transcriptase mutational tolerance and shows comparable accuracy using either experimentally determined or computationally generated structural ensembles. Predictions of tolerated sequence space afforded by the model provide insights into stability-function tradeoffs in the emergence of resistance mutations and into strengths and limitations of the computational model.

  11. Efavirenz Has the Highest Anti-Proliferative Effect of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors against Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hecht

    Full Text Available Cancer prevention and therapy in HIV-1-infected patients will play an important role in future. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI Efavirenz and Nevirapine are cytotoxic against cancer cells in vitro. As other NNRTIs have not been studied so far, all clinically used NNRTIs were tested and the in vitro toxic concentrations were compared to drug levels in patients to predict possible anti-cancer effects in vivo.Cytotoxicity was studied by Annexin-V-APC/7AAD staining and flow cytometry in the pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and Panc-1 and confirmed by colony formation assays. The 50% effective cytotoxic concentrations (EC50 were calculated and compared to the blood levels in our patients and published data.The in vitro EC50 of the different drugs in the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells were: Efavirenz 31.5 μmol/l (= 9944 ng/ml, Nevirapine 239 μmol/l (= 63,786 ng/ml, Etravirine 89.0 μmol/l (= 38,740 ng/ml, Lersivirine 543 μmol/l (= 168,523 ng/ml, Delavirdine 171 μmol/l (= 78,072 ng/ml, Rilpivirine 24.4 μmol/l (= 8941 ng/ml. As Efavirenz and Rilpivirine had the highest cytotoxic potential and Nevirapine is frequently used in HIV-1 positive patients, the results of these three drugs were further studied in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells and confirmed with colony formation assays. 205 patient blood levels of Efavirenz, 127 of Rilpivirine and 31 of Nevirapine were analyzed. The mean blood level of Efavirenz was 3587 ng/ml (range 162-15,363 ng/ml, of Rilpivirine 144 ng/ml (range 0-572 ng/ml and of Nevirapine 4955 ng/ml (range 1856-8697 ng/ml. Blood levels from our patients and from published data had comparable Efavirenz levels to the in vitro toxic EC50 in about 1 to 5% of all patients.All studied NNRTIs were toxic against cancer cells. A low percentage of patients taking Efavirenz reached in vitro cytotoxic blood levels. It can be speculated that in HIV-1 positive patients having high Efavirenz blood levels pancreatic

  12. Synergism between demethylation inhibitor fungicides or gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a pyrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, D; Cowles, R S; Requintina, E; Alm, S R

    2010-10-01

    In 2007-2008, the "annual bluegrass weevil," Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a serious pest of Poa annua L. (Poales: Poaceae) on U.S. golf courses, was shown to be resistant to two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. In 2008, we showed that bifenthrin resistance was principally mediated by oxidase detoxification (cytochrome P450 [P450]). P450s can be inhibited by demethylation inhibitor fungicides and gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators, both of which are commonly used on golf courses. We tested these compounds for synergistic activity with bifenthin against a pyrethroid-resistant population of L. maculicollis. The LD50 value for bifenthrin was significantly reduced from 87 ng per insect (without synergists) to 9.6-40 ng per insect after exposure to the fungicides fenarimol, fenpropimorph, prochloraz, propiconazole, and pyrifenox and the plant growth regulators flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Simulated field exposure with formulated products registered for use on turf revealed enhanced mortality when adult weevils were exposed to bifenthrin (25% mortality, presented alone) combined with field dosages of propiconizole, fenarimol, flurprimidol, or trinexapac-ethyl (range, 49-70% mortality).

  13. Development and Characterization of a Vaginal Film Containing Dapivirine, a Non- nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI), for prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ayman; Parniak, Michael A; Dezzuitti, Charlene S; Moncla, Bernard J; Cost, Marilyn R; Li, Mingguang; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2011-06-01

    Dapivirine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is a potent and promising anti-HIV molecule. It is currently being investigated for use as a vaginal microbicide in two dosage forms, a semi-solid gel and a silicone elastomer ring. Quick-dissolving films are promising and attractive dosage forms that may provide an alternative platform for the vaginal delivery of microbicide drug candidates. Vaginal films may provide advantages such as discreet use, no product leakage during use, lack of requirement for an applicator for insertion, rapid drug release and minimal packaging and reduced wastage. Within this study the in vitro bioactivity of dapivirine as compared to the NNRTI UC781 was further established and a quick dissolve film was developed for vaginal application of dapivirine for prevention of HIV infection. The developed film was characterized with respect to its physical and chemical attributes including water content, mechanical strength, drug release profile, permeability, compatibility with lactobacilli and bioactivity. The anti-HIV activity of the formulated dapivirine film was confirmed in in vitro and ex vivo models. Importantly the physical and chemical properties of the film as well as its bioactivity were maintained for a period of 18 months. In conclusion, a vaginal film containing dapivirine was developed and characterized. The film was shown to prevent HIV-1 infection in vitro and ex vivo and have acceptable characteristics which make this film a promising candidate for testing as vaginal microbicide.

  14. Short communication: prevalence of HIV type 1 transmitted drug resistance in Slovenia: 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunar, Maja M; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Abecasis, Ana B; Tomažič, Janez; Vidmar, Ludvik; Karner, Primož; Vovko, Tomaž D; Pečavar, Blaž; Maver, Polona J; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2013-02-01

    Slovenia is a small European country with a total of 547 HIV-infected individuals cumulatively reported by the end of 2011. However, the estimated incidence rate of HIV infections increased from 7.0 per million in 2003 to 26.8 per million in 2011. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the past 6 years (2005-2010) and analyzed the time trend of the proportion of men having sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 subtype B among newly diagnosed individuals in a 15-year period (1996-2010) in Slovenia. Among 150 patients included in the study, representing 63% of HIV-1 newly diagnosed patients in 2005-2010, TDR was found in seven patients (4.7%). The prevalence of TDR to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors was 2% (3/150), 2% (3/150), and 0.7% (1/150), respectively. The majority of patients were infected with subtype B (134/150, 89%), while subtype A was detected in 6.0% (9/150), subtype D in 1.3% (2/150), and subtype G and CRF02_AG in 0.7% (one patient each). Three of 150 sequences could not be typed. Infection with subtype B was found to be significantly associated with male gender, Slovenia being reported as the country of the patient's nationality and origin of the virus, CDC class A, mode of transmission with homosexual/bisexual contact, sex with an anonymous person, and a higher CD4(+) count. Among patients carrying the subtype B virus, an MSM transmission route was reported in 87% of patients. Although the prevalence of TDR in Slovenia is still below the European average, active surveillance should be continued, especially among MSM, the most vulnerable population for HIV-1 infection in this part of Europe.

  15. [Determination of drug resistance mutations of NS3 inhibitors in chronic hepatitis C patients infected with genotype 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlıdağ, Tamer; Sayan, Murat; Akçalı, Sinem; Kasap, Elmas; Buran, Tahir; Arıkan, Ayşe

    2017-04-01

    Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) such as NS3 protease inhibitors is the first class of drugs used for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment. NS3 inhibitors (PI) with low genetic barrier have been approved to be used in the CHC genotype 1 infections, and in the treatment of compensated liver disease including cirrhosis together with pegile interferon and ribavirin. Consequently, the development of drug resistance during DAA treatment of CHC is a major problem. NS3 resistant variants can be detected before treatment as they can occurnaturally. The aim of this study was to investigate new and old generation NS3 inhibitors resistance mutations before DAA treatment in hepatitis C virus (HCV) that were isolated from CHC. The present study was conducted in 2015 and included 97 naive DAA patients infected with HCV genotype 1, who were diagnosed in Manisa and Kocaeli cities of Turkey. Magnetic particle based HCV RNA extraction and than RNA detection and quantification were performed using commercial real-time PCR assay QIASypmhony + Rotorgene Q/ArtusHCV QS-RGQ and COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HCV Tests. HCV NS3 viral protease genome region was amplified with PCR and mutation analysis was performed by Sanger dideoxy sequencing technique of NS3 protease codons (codon 32-185). HCV NS3 protease inhibitors; asunaprevir, boceprevir, faldaprevir, grazoprevir, pariteprevir, simeprevir and telaprevir were analysed for resistant mutations by Geno2pheno-HCV resistance tool. HCV was genotyped in all patients and 88 patients (n= 88/97, 91%) had genotype 1. Eight (n= 8/97, 8.2%) and 80 (n= 80/97, 82.4%) HCC patients were subgenotyped as 1a and 1b, respectively. Many aminoacid substitutions and resistance mutations were determined in 39/88 (44%) patients in the study group. Q80L, S122C/N, S138W were defined as potential substitutions (6/88 patients; 7%); R109K, R117C, S122G, I132V, I170V, N174S were described as potential resistance (34/88 patients; 39%); V36L, T54S, V55A, Q80H were

  16. Small-molecule inhibition of HIV pre-mRNA splicing as a novel antiretroviral therapy to overcome drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bakkour

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises antiretroviral therapy efficacy and limits therapeutic options. Therefore, it is an ongoing task to identify new targets for antiretroviral therapy and to develop new drugs. Here, we show that an indole derivative (IDC16 that interferes with exonic splicing enhancer activity of the SR protein splicing factor SF2/ASF suppresses the production of key viral proteins, thereby compromising subsequent synthesis of full-length HIV-1 pre-mRNA and assembly of infectious particles. IDC16 inhibits replication of macrophage- and T cell-tropic laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and strains with high-level resistance to inhibitors of viral protease and reverse transcriptase. Importantly, drug treatment of primary blood cells did not alter splicing profiles of endogenous genes involved in cell cycle transition and apoptosis. Thus, human splicing factors represent novel and promising drug targets for the development of antiretroviral therapies, particularly for the inhibition of multidrug-resistant viruses.

  17. Replication-dependent 65R→K reversion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase double mutant K65R + L74V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prem L.; Nurpeisov, Viktoria; Lee, Kimberly; Skaggs, Sara; Di San Filippo, Christina Amat; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of the mechanisms of interaction among nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-selected mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) coding sequence is essential for the design of newer drugs and for enhancing our vision of the structure function relationship among amino acids of the polymerase domain of HIV-1. Although several nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors select RT mutations K65R and L74V, the combination of 65R + 74V is rare in clinics. A novel NRTI (-)-β-D-dioxolane-guanosine (DXG) is known to select in vitro either the 65R or 74V mutant virus (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44 (2000) 1783). These mutations were not selected together during repeated passaging of the HIV-1 in the presence of this drug. To analyze the impact of these RT mutations on viral replication, a double mutant containing K65R + L74V was created by site-directed mutagenesis in a pNL4-3 background. Replication kinetic assays revealed that the mutant K65R + L74V is unstable, and 65R→K reversion occurs during replication of virus in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells in the absence of selection pressure. Replication kinetic assays in MT-2 cells demonstrated that double mutant 65R + 74V is highly attenuated for replication and the initiation of reversion is related to the increase in RT activity. Additionally, the suppression of viral replication in the presence of DXG or under suboptimal human recombinant interleukin-2 leads to minimal or no 65R→K reversion. These observations provide evidence that 65R→K reversion in the double mutant 65R + 74V is dependent on a specific rate of viral replication in a pNL4-3 background. A similar phenomenon may occur in vivo, which may have implications for treatment management strategies

  18. Systematic review of influenza resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boivin Guy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antivirals play a critical role in the prevention and the management of influenza. One class of antivirals, neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs, is effective against all human influenza viruses. Currently there are two NAI drugs which are licensed worldwide: oseltamivir (Tamiflu® and zanamivir (Relenza®; and two drugs which have received recent approval in Japan: peramivir and laninamivir. Until recently, the prevalence of antiviral resistance has been relatively low. However, almost all seasonal H1N1 strains that circulated in 2008-09 were resistant to oseltamivir whereas about 1% of tested 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses were found to be resistant to oseltamivir. To date, no studies have demonstrated widespread resistance to zanamivir. It seems likely that the literature on antiviral resistance associated with oseltamivir as well as zanamivir is now sufficiently comprehensive to warrant a systematic review. The primary objectives were to systematically review the literature to determine the incidence of resistance to oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir in different population groups as well as assess the clinical consequences of antiviral resistance. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE without language restrictions in September 2010 to identify studies reporting incidence of resistance to oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir. We used forest plots and meta-analysis of incidence of antiviral resistance associated with the three NAIs. Subgroup analyses were done across a number of population groups. Meta-analysis was also performed to evaluate associations between antiviral resistance and clinical complications and symptoms. Results We identified 19 studies reporting incidence of antiviral resistance. Meta-analysis of 15 studies yielded a pooled incidence rate for oseltamivir resistance of 2.6% (95%CI 0.7% to 5.5%. The incidence rate for all zanamivir resistance studies was 0%. Only one study measured incidence of antiviral

  19. Overcoming chemotherapy drug resistance by targeting inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Rama; McCallum, Jennifer E; Varghese, Elizabeth; Florea, Ana-Maria; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-07-01

    Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) are a family of proteins that play a significant role in the control of programmed cell death (PCD). PCD is essential to maintain healthy cell turnover within tissue but also to fight disease or infection. Uninhibited, IAPs can suppress apoptosis and promote cell cycle progression. Therefore, it is unsurprising that cancer cells demonstrate significantly elevated expression levels of IAPs, resulting in improved cell survival, enhanced tumor growth and subsequent metastasis. Therapies to target IAPs in cancer has garnered substantial scientific interest and as resistance to anti-cancer agents becomes more prevalent, targeting IAPs has become an increasingly attractive strategy to re-sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapies, antibody based-therapies and TRAIL therapy. Antagonism strategies to modulate the actions of XIAP, cIAP1/2 and survivin are the central focus of current research and this review highlights advances within this field with particular emphasis upon the development and specificity of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) mimetics (synthetic analogs of endogenously expressed inhibitors of IAPs SMAC/DIABLO). While we highlight the potential of SMAC mimetics as effective single agent or combinatory therapies to treat cancer we also discuss the likely clinical implications of resistance to SMAC mimetic therapy, occasionally observed in cancer cell lines.

  20. Short Communication: Prevalence of HIV Type 1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Slovenia: 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunar, Maja M.; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Abecasis, Ana B.; Tomažič, Janez; Vidmar, Ludvik; Karner, Primož; Vovko, Tomaž D.; Pečavar, Blaž; Maver, Polona J.; Seme, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Slovenia is a small European country with a total of 547 HIV-infected individuals cumulatively reported by the end of 2011. However, the estimated incidence rate of HIV infections increased from 7.0 per million in 2003 to 26.8 per million in 2011. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the past 6 years (2005–2010) and analyzed the time trend of the proportion of men having sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 subtype B among newly diagnosed individuals in a 15-year period (1996–2010) in Slovenia. Among 150 patients included in the study, representing 63% of HIV-1 newly diagnosed patients in 2005–2010, TDR was found in seven patients (4.7%). The prevalence of TDR to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors was 2% (3/150), 2% (3/150), and 0.7% (1/150), respectively. The majority of patients were infected with subtype B (134/150, 89%), while subtype A was detected in 6.0% (9/150), subtype D in 1.3% (2/150), and subtype G and CRF02_AG in 0.7% (one patient each). Three of 150 sequences could not be typed. Infection with subtype B was found to be significantly associated with male gender, Slovenia being reported as the country of the patient's nationality and origin of the virus, CDC class A, mode of transmission with homosexual/bisexual contact, sex with an anonymous person, and a higher CD4+ count. Among patients carrying the subtype B virus, an MSM transmission route was reported in 87% of patients. Although the prevalence of TDR in Slovenia is still below the European average, active surveillance should be continued, especially among MSM, the most vulnerable population for HIV-1 infection in this part of Europe. PMID:22860694

  1. Transgenic rice plants harboring an introduced potato proteinase inhibitor II gene are insect resistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X; Li, X; Xue, Q; Abo-el-Saad, M; Xu, D; Wu, R

    1996-04-01

    We introduced the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PINII) gene (pin2) into several Japonica rice varieties, and regenerated a large number of transgenic rice plants. Wound-inducible expression of the pin2 gene driven by its own promoter, together with the first intron of the rice actin 1 gene (act1), resulted in high-level accumulation of the PINII protein in the transgenic plants. The introduced pin2 gene was stably inherited in the second, third, and fourth generations, as shown by molecular analyses. Based on data from the molecular analyses, several homozygous transgenic lines were obtained. Bioassay for insect resistance with the fifth-generation transgenic rice plants showed that transgenic rice plants had increased resistance to a major rice insect pest, pink stem borer (Sesamia inferens). Thus, introduction of an insecticidal proteinase inhibitor gene into cereal plants can be used as a general strategy for control of insect pests.

  2. Src mediates cigarette smoke-induced resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filosto, Simone; Baston, David S; Chung, Samuel; Becker, Cathleen R; Goldkorn, Tzipora

    2013-08-01

    The EGF receptor (EGFR) is a proto-oncogene commonly dysregulated in several cancers including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and, thus, is targeted for treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as erlotinib. However, despite the efficacy observed in patients with NSCLC harboring oncogenic variants of the EGFR, general ineffectiveness of TKIs in patients with NSCLC who are current and former smokers necessitates identification of novel mechanisms to overcome this phenomenon. Previously, we showed that NSCLC cells harboring either wild-type (WT) EGFR or oncogenic mutant (MT) L858R EGFR become resistant to the effects of TKIs when exposed to cigarette smoke, evidenced by their autophosphorylation and prolonged downstream signaling. Here, we present Src as a target mediating cigarette smoke-induced resistance to TKIs in both WT EGFR- and L858R MT EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells. First, we show that cigarette smoke exposure of A549 cells leads to time-dependent activation of Src, which then abnormally binds to the WT EGFR causing TKI resistance, contrasting previous observations of constitutive binding between inactive Src and TKI-sensitive L858R MT EGFR. Next, we show that Src inhibition restores TKI sensitivity in cigarette smoke-exposed NSCLC cells, preventing EGFR autophosphorylation in the presence of erlotinib. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of a dominant-negative Src (Y527F/K295R) restores TKI sensitivity to A549 exposed to cigarette smoke. Importantly, the TKI resistance that emerges even in cigarette smoke-exposed L858R EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells could be eliminated with Src inhibition. Together, these findings offer new rationale for using Src inhibitors for treating TKI-resistant NSCLC commonly observed in smokers.

  3. Cancer Cell Resistance to Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Identification of Novel Targets for Cancer Therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabáková, Rita; Kollaredy, M.; Tylečková, Jiřina; Halada, Petr; Hajdúch, M.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2013), s. 455-469 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aurora kinase inhibitors * resistance * p53 * apoptosis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.001, year: 2013

  4. Conjugation Inhibitors and Their Potential Use to Prevent Dissemination of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cabezón

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become one of the most challenging problems in health care. Bacteria conjugation is one of the main mechanisms whereby bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. Therefore, the search for specific conjugation inhibitors (COINs is of interest in the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistances in a variety of laboratory and natural environments. Several compounds, discovered as COINs, are promising candidates in the fight against plasmid dissemination. In this review, we survey the effectiveness and toxicity of the most relevant compounds. Particular emphasis has been placed on unsaturated fatty acid derivatives, as they have been shown to be efficient in preventing plasmid invasiveness in bacterial populations. Biochemical and structural studies have provided insights concerning their potential molecular targets and inhibitory mechanisms. These findings open a new avenue in the search of new and more effective synthetic inhibitors. In this pursuit, the use of structure-based drug design methods will be of great importance for the screening of ligands and binding sites of putative targets.

  5. Body composition and metabolic outcomes after 96 weeks of treatment with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus either nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors or raltegravir in patients with HIV with virological failure of a standard first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen: a substudy of the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority SECOND-LINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Mark A; Amin, Janaki; Mallon, Patrick W G; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Lombaard, Johan; Wood, Robin; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Phanuphak, Praphan; Mohapi, Lerato; Azwa, Iskandar; Belloso, Waldo H; Molina, Jean-Michel; Hoy, Jennifer; Moore, Cecilia L; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A

    2017-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is one of the most feared complications associated with the use of nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs). We aimed to assess soft-tissue changes in participants with HIV who had virological failure of a first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plus two N(t)RTIs and were randomly assigned to receive a second-line regimen containing a boosted protease inhibitor given with either N(t)RTIs or raltegravir. Of the 37 sites that participated in the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority SECOND-LINE study, eight sites from five countries (Argentina, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and Thailand) participated in the body composition substudy. All sites had a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner and all participants enrolled in SECOND-LINE were eligible for inclusion in the substudy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated allocation schedule, to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir (raltegravir group) or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus two or three N(t)RTIs (N[t]RTI group). Randomisation was stratified by site and screening HIV-1 RNA. Participants and investigators were not masked to group assignment, but allocation was concealed until after interventions were assigned. DXA scans were done at weeks 0, 48, and 96. The primary endpoint was mean percentage and absolute change in peripheral limb fat from baseline to week 96. We did intention-to-treat analyses of available data. This substudy is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01513122. Between Aug 1, 2010, and July 10, 2011, we recruited 211 participants into the substudy. The intention-to-treat population comprised 102 participants in the N(t)RTI group and 108 participants in the raltegravir group, of whom 91 and 105 participants, respectively, reached 96 weeks. Mean percentage change in limb fat from baseline to week 96 was 16·8% (SD 32·6) in the N

  6. Resistance profiles and adherence at primary virological failure in three different highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens: analysis of failure rates in a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, B T; Barfod, T S; Kirk, O

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interplay between resistance and adherence in the virological failure of three fundamentally different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 56 verified primary virological failures (viral load >400 HIV-1 RNA...... copies/mL) among 293 patients randomized to two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)+ritonavir+saquinavir (RS-arm) (n=115), two NRTIs+nevirapine+nelfinavir (NN-arm) (n=118), or abacavir+stavudine+didanosine (ASD-arm) (n=60) followed up for a median of 90 weeks. Data on adherence were...... collected from patient files, and genotyping was performed on plasma samples collected at time of failure. RESULTS: Treatment interruption or poor adherence was mainly caused by side effects and accounted for 74% of failures, and was associated with absence of resistance mutations. In the 30 failing...

  7. Activity of second-generation ALK inhibitors against crizotinib-resistant mutants in an NPM-ALK model compared to EML4-ALK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Diletta; Ceccon, Monica; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Mologni, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in both solid and hematological tumors. About 80% of ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) cases are characterized by the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation, encoding for the aberrant fusion protein nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK, whereas 5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carry the inv(2)(p21;p23) rearrangement, encoding for the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion. The ALK/c-MET/ROS inhibitor crizotinib successfully improved the treatment of ALK-driven diseases. However, several cases of resistance appeared in NSCLC patients, and ALK amino acid substitutions were identified as a leading cause of resistance to crizotinib. Second-generation ALK inhibitors have been developed in order to overcome crizotinib resistance. In this work, we profiled in vitro the activity of crizotinib, AP26113, ASP3026, alectinib, and ceritinib against six mutated forms of ALK associated with clinical resistance to crizotinib (C1156Y, L1196M, L1152R, G1202R, G1269A, and S1206Y) and provide a classification of mutants according to their level of sensitivity/resistance to the drugs. Since the biological activity of ALK mutations extends beyond the specific type of fusion, both NPM-ALK- and EML4-ALK-positive cellular models were used. Our data revealed that most mutants may be targeted by using different inhibitors. One relevant exception is represented by the G1202R substitution, which was highly resistant to all drugs (>10-fold increased IC 50 compared to wild type) and may represent the most challenging mutation to overcome. These results provide a prediction of cross-resistance of known crizotinib-resistant mutations against all second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) clinically available, and therefore could be a useful tool to help clinicians in the management of crizotinib-resistance cases

  8. Application of 3D-QSAR, Pharmacophore, and Molecular Docking in the Molecular Design of Diarylpyrimidine Derivatives as HIV-1 Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Genyan; Wang, Wenjie; Wan, Youlan; Ju, Xiulian; Gu, Shuangxi

    2018-05-11

    Diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs), acting as HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), have been considered to be one of the most potent drug families in the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To better understand the structural requirements of HIV-1 NNRTIs, three-dimensional quantitative structure⁻activity relationship (3D-QSAR), pharmacophore, and molecular docking studies were performed on 52 DAPY analogues that were synthesized in our previous studies. The internal and external validation parameters indicated that the generated 3D-QSAR models, including comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA, q 2 = 0.679, R 2 = 0.983, and r pred 2 = 0.884) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA, q 2 = 0.734, R 2 = 0.985, and r pred 2 = 0.891), exhibited good predictive abilities and significant statistical reliability. The docking results demonstrated that the phenyl ring at the C₄-position of the pyrimidine ring was better than the cycloalkanes for the activity, as the phenyl group was able to participate in π⁻π stacking interactions with the aromatic residues of the binding site, whereas the cycloalkanes were not. The pharmacophore model and 3D-QSAR contour maps provided significant insights into the key structural features of DAPYs that were responsible for the activity. On the basis of the obtained information, a series of novel DAPY analogues of HIV-1 NNRTIs with potentially higher predicted activity was designed. This work might provide useful information for guiding the rational design of potential HIV-1 NNRTI DAPYs.

  9. Rational Design of Novel Allosteric Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors Showing Antibacterial Effects on Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Escape Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Rodrigues, João V; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Shakhnovich, Eugene; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2017-07-21

    In drug discovery, systematic variations of substituents on a common scaffold and bioisosteric replacements are often used to generate diversity and obtain molecules with better biological effects. However, this could saturate the small-molecule diversity pool resulting in drug resistance. On the other hand, conventional drug discovery relies on targeting known pockets on protein surfaces leading to drug resistance by mutations of critical pocket residues. Here, we present a two-pronged strategy of designing novel drugs that target unique pockets on a protein's surface to overcome the above problems. Dihydrofolate reductase, DHFR, is a critical enzyme involved in thymidine and purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Several classes of compounds that are structural analogues of the substrate dihydrofolate have been explored for their antifolate activity. Here, we describe 10 novel small-molecule inhibitors of Escherichia coli DHFR, EcDHFR, belonging to the stilbenoid, deoxybenzoin, and chalcone family of compounds discovered by a combination of pocket-based virtual ligand screening and systematic scaffold hopping. These inhibitors show a unique uncompetitive or noncompetitive inhibition mechanism, distinct from those reported for all known inhibitors of DHFR, indicative of binding to a unique pocket distinct from either substrate or cofactor-binding pockets. Furthermore, we demonstrate that rescue mutants of EcDHFR, with reduced affinity to all known classes of DHFR inhibitors, are inhibited at the same concentration as the wild-type. These compounds also exhibit antibacterial activity against E. coli harboring the drug-resistant variant of DHFR. This discovery is the first report on a novel class of inhibitors targeting a unique pocket on EcDHFR.

  10. The Potent ALK Inhibitor Brigatinib (AP26113) Overcomes Mechanisms of Resistance to First- and Second-Generation ALK Inhibitors in Preclinical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen; Anjum, Rana; Squillace, Rachel; Nadworny, Sara; Zhou, Tianjun; Keats, Jeff; Ning, Yaoyu; Wardwell, Scott D; Miller, David; Song, Youngchul; Eichinger, Lindsey; Moran, Lauren; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Liu, Shuangying; Zou, Dong; Wang, Yihan; Mohemmad, Qurish; Jang, Hyun Gyung; Ye, Emily; Narasimhan, Narayana; Wang, Frank; Miret, Juan; Zhu, Xiaotian; Clackson, Tim; Dalgarno, David; Shakespeare, William C; Rivera, Victor M

    2016-11-15

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harboring ALK gene rearrangements (ALK + ) typically become resistant to the first-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib through development of secondary resistance mutations in ALK or disease progression in the brain. Mutations that confer resistance to second-generation ALK TKIs ceritinib and alectinib have also been identified. Here, we report the structure and first comprehensive preclinical evaluation of the next-generation ALK TKI brigatinib. A kinase screen was performed to evaluate the selectivity profile of brigatinib. The cellular and in vivo activities of ALK TKIs were compared using engineered and cancer-derived cell lines. The brigatinib-ALK co-structure was determined. Brigatinib potently inhibits ALK and ROS1, with a high degree of selectivity over more than 250 kinases. Across a panel of ALK + cell lines, brigatinib inhibited native ALK (IC 50 , 10 nmol/L) with 12-fold greater potency than crizotinib. Superior efficacy of brigatinib was also observed in mice with ALK + tumors implanted subcutaneously or intracranially. Brigatinib maintained substantial activity against all 17 secondary ALK mutants tested in cellular assays and exhibited a superior inhibitory profile compared with crizotinib, ceritinib, and alectinib at clinically achievable concentrations. Brigatinib was the only TKI to maintain substantial activity against the most recalcitrant ALK resistance mutation, G1202R. The unique, potent, and pan-ALK mutant activity of brigatinib could be rationalized by structural analyses. Brigatinib is a highly potent and selective ALK inhibitor. These findings provide the molecular basis for the promising activity being observed in ALK + , crizotinib-resistant patients with NSCLC being treated with brigatinib in clinical trials. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5527-38. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Differential effect of EGFR inhibitors on tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmin; Lee, Jeongmin; Oh, Soo Jin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2015-09-01

    Although tamoxifen is the most common and effective therapy for treatment of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) breast cancer patients, resistance of endocrine therapy occurs, either de novo or acquired during therapy. Here, we investigated the clinical value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) patients and the differential effect of EGFR inhibitors, neratinib and gefitinib, on TamR breast cancer cell model. The morphology of TamR MCF7 cells showed mesenchymal phenotypes and did not induce cell death by tamoxifen treatment compared with tamoxifen‑sensitive (TamS) MCF7 cells. In addition, mesenchymal marker proteins, including N-cadherin (N-cad), fibronectin (FN), and Slug, significantly increased in TamR cells. In contrast, ER-α and E-cadherin (E-cad) were greatly decreased. We also found that the levels of EGFR and HER2 expression were increased in TamR cells. Furthermore, we observed that EGFR expression was directly involved with poor prognosis of tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients using the GSE1378 date set. Thus, we treated TamR and TamS cells with EGFR inhibitors, neratinib and gefitinib, respectively. Interestingly, neratinib induced apoptotic cell death of TamR but not gefitinib. Cleaved PARP-1 expression was also increased by neratinib treatment in TamR cells. Therefore, we suggest that neratinib may be a potential therapeutic drug for treating TamR breast cancer.

  12. A nonlinear QSAR study using oscillating search and SVM as an efficient algorithm to model the inhibition of reverse transcriptase by HEPT derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferkous, F.; Saihi, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were constructed for 107 inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase that are derivatives of 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT). A combination of a support vector machine (SVM) and oscillating search (OS) algorithms for feature selection was adopted to select the most appropriate descriptors. The application was optimized to obtain an SVM model to predict the biological activity EC50 of the HEPT derivatives with a minimum number of descriptors (SpMax4 B h (e) MLOGP MATS5m) and high values of R2 and Q2 (0.8662, 0.8769). The statistical results showed good correlation between the activity and three best descriptors were included in the best SVM model. The values of R2 and Q2 confirmed the stability and good predictive ability of the model. The SVM technique was adequate to produce an effective QSAR model and outperformed those in the literature and the predictive stages for the inhibitory activity of reverse transcriptase by HEPT derivatives. (author)

  13. Immune pressure analysis of protease and reverse transcriptase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /dn) were analyzed for 33 HIV-1 subtype C protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) nucleotide sequences each from antiretroviral naïve South African chronically infected individuals. The ds/dn ratios were calculated using the ...

  14. Meta-analysis and time series modeling allow a systematic review of primary HIV-1 drug-resistant prevalence in Latin America and Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; De Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Da Silva, Ronaldo Celerino; Kamada, Anselmo Jiro; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Coelho, Hemílio Fernandes Campos; Crovella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Here we review the prevalence of HIV-1 primary drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean using meta-analysis as well as time-series modeling. We also discuss whether there could be a drawback to HIV/AIDS programs due to drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean in the next years. We observed that, although some studies report low or moderate primary drug resistance prevalence in Caribbean countries, this evidence needs to be updated. In other countries, such as Brazil and Argentina, the prevalence of drug resistance appears to be rising. Mutations conferring resistance against reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most frequent in the analyzed populations (70% of all mutational events). HIV-1 subtype B was the most prevalent in Latin America and the Caribbean, although subtype C and B/F recombinants have significant contributions in Argentina and Brazil. Thus, we suggest that primary drug resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean could have been underestimated. Clinical monitoring should be improved to offer better therapy, reducing the risk for HIV-1 resistance emergence and spread, principally in vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men transmission group, sex workers and intravenous drug users.

  15. Oncogenic Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Directly Phosphorylate Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) as a Resistance Mechanism to FAK-Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Timothy A; Lenzo, Felicia L; Figel, Sheila A; Grapes, Abigail T; Cance, William G

    2016-12-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a major drug target in cancer and current inhibitors targeted to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain have entered clinical trials. However, preliminary results have shown limited single-agent efficacy in patients. Despite these unfavorable data, the molecular mechanisms that drive intrinsic and acquired resistance to FAK-kinase inhibitors are largely unknown. We have demonstrated that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) can directly bypass FAK-kinase inhibition in cancer cells through phosphorylation of FAK's critical tyrosine 397 (Y397). We also showed that HER2 forms a direct protein-protein interaction with the FAK-FERM-F1 lobe, promoting direct phosphorylation of Y397. In addition, FAK-kinase inhibition induced two forms of compensatory RTK reprogramming: (i) the rapid phosphorylation and activation of RTK signaling pathways in RTK High cells and (ii) the long-term acquisition of RTKs novel to the parental cell line in RTK Low cells. Finally, HER2 +: cancer cells displayed resistance to FAK-kinase inhibition in 3D growth assays using a HER2 isogenic system and HER2 + cancer cell lines. Our data indicate a novel drug resistance mechanism to FAK-kinase inhibitors whereby HER2 and other RTKs can rescue and maintain FAK activation (pY397) even in the presence of FAK-kinase inhibition. These data may have important ramifications for existing clinical trials of FAK inhibitors and suggest that individual tumor stratification by RTK expression would be important to predict patient response to FAK-kinase inhibitors. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 3028-39. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Soft shell clams Mya arenaria with disseminated neoplasia demonstrate reverse transcriptase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, M.L.; Kim, C.H.; Reno, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Disseminated neoplasia (DN), a proliferative cell disorder of the circulatory system of bivalves, was first reported in oysters in 1969. Since that time, the disease has been determined to be transmissible through water-borne exposure, but the etiological agent has not been unequivocally identified. In order to determine if a viral agent, possibly a retrovirus, could be the causative agent of DN, transmission experiments were performed, using both a cell-free filtrate and a sucrose gradient-purified preparation of a cell-free filtrate of DN positive materials. Additionally, a PCR-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay was used to determine if reverse transcriptase was present in tissues or hemolymph from DN positive soft shell clams Mya arenaria. DN was transmitted to healthy clams by injection with whole DN cells, but not with cell-free flitrates prepared from either tissues from DN positive clams, or DN cells. The cell-free preparations from DN-positive tissues and hemolymph having high levels of DN cells in circulation exhibited positive reactions in the PCR-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay. Cell-free preparations of hemolymph from clams having low levels of DN (<0.1% of cells abnormal), hemocytes from normal soft shell clams, and normal soft shell clam tissues did not produce a positive reaction in the PCR enhanced reverse transcriptase assay.

  17. Calibrated user-friendly reverse transcriptase-PCR assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Rammer, P

    1998-01-01

    We report a competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay and a calibrated user-friendly RT-PCR assay (CURT-PCR) for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. A calibrator was prepared from isolated rat liver RNA, and the amount of EGFR mRNA was determined by competitive RT-PCR. In CUR...

  18. Occurrence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance among Drug-naïve pregnant women in selected HIV-care centres in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Odoom, Alexander; Adiku, Theophilus; Delgado, Elena; Lartey, Margaret; Ampofo, William K

    2017-03-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy in Ghana has been scaled up across the country over the last decade. This study sought to determine the occurrence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in pregnant HIV-1 positive women yet to initiate antiretroviral therapy at selected HIV Care Centres in Ghana. Plasma specimens from twenty-six (26) HIV seropositive pregnant women who were less than 28weeks pregnant with their first pregnancy and ART naïve were collected from selected HIV care centres in three (3) regions in Ghana. Genotypic testing was done for the reverse transcriptase gene and the sequences generated were analyzed for HIV-1 drug resistance mutations using the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. Resistance mutations associated with the reverse transcriptase gene were detected in 4 (15.4%) of the participants. At least one major drug resistance mutation in the reverse transcriptase gene was found in 3 (11.5%) of the women. The detection of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in this drug-naïve group in two regional HIV care sites is an indication of the need for renewed action in monitoring the emergence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Ghana. None declared.

  19. European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo J; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    , and other drug targets (integrase and envelope) if such drugs were part of the failing regimen; (iii) consider testing for CCR5 tropism at virologic failure or when a change of therapy has to be made in absence of detectable viral load, and in the latter case test DNA or last detectable plasma RNA; (iv...... the following recommendations concerning the indications for resistance testing: for HIV-1 (i) test earliest sample for protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance in drug-naive patients with acute or chronic infection; (ii) test protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance at virologic failure...... is needed after treatment failure. The Panel recommends genotyping in most situations, using updated and clinically evaluated interpretation systems. It is mandatory that laboratories performing HIV resistance tests take part regularly in external quality assurance programs, and that they consider storing...

  20. Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a highly specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that allows one to detect very low transcription levels of functional gene(s) in soil. RT-qPCR helps us to know the active members of the microbial community, and their activities can be ...

  1. Study on the Efficacy of Some Current Herbicides for Control of Resistant and Susceptible Canarygrass (Phalaris spp. Biotypes to Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACCase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    e Zand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two separate greenhouse experiments were conducted in the greenhouse facilities of the Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute, Tehran, to study the efficacy of some herbicides to control of resistant and susceptible P. minor and P. paradoxa biotypes. In each experiment, resistant and susceptible biotypes were treated separately by 19 herbicide treatments. Treatments included 10 ACCase inhibitors, 6 Acetolactate Synthase (ALS inhibitors, prosulfocarb, flamprop-M-isopropyl, isoproturon plus diflufenican and a non-sprayed control. To evaluate the effects of treatments, different characteristics including percent damage based on EWRC scores at 15 and 30 days after spraying, percentage of survived plants after spraying relative to before spraying, and percentage of dry weight and wet weight of individual plants relative to control were studied. Results showed that the susceptible biotypes of P. minor were best controlled by clodinafop propargyl and pinoxaden at 450 ml/ha while pinoxaden at 450 ml/ha and cycloxydim were best options for control of the resistant biotype. Among ALS inhibitors, iodosulfuron plus mesosulfuron could control susceptible and resistant biotypes of P. minor very effectively and semi-satisfactory, respectively. Iodosulfuron plus mesosulfuron and sulfosulfuron plus metsulfuron could remarkably reduce the wet weight of individual plants compared to control so that the plants were not damaging any more. Among other herbicides, isoproturon plus diflufenican could control the susceptible and resistant biotypes semi-satisfactory and very effectively, respectively. Keywords: Herbicide resistance, ACCase inhibitors, ALS inhibitors

  2. Phenotype, Genotype, and Drug Resistance in Subtype C HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derache, Anne; Wallis, Carole L; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Bartlett, John; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Katzenstein, David

    2016-01-15

    Virologic failure in subtype C is characterized by high resistance to first-line antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, including efavirenz, nevirapine, and lamivudine, with nucleoside resistance including type 2 thymidine analog mutations, K65R, a T69del, and M184V. However, genotypic algorithms predicting resistance are mainly based on subtype B viruses and may under- or overestimate drug resistance in non-B subtypes. To explore potential treatment strategies after first-line failure, we compared genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility of subtype C human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) following first-line ARV failure. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5230 evaluated patients failing an initial nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) regimen in Africa and Asia, comparing the genotypic drug resistance and phenotypic profile from the PhenoSense (Monogram). Site-directed mutagenesis studies of K65R and T69del assessed the phenotypic impact of these mutations. Genotypic algorithms overestimated resistance to etravirine and rilpivirine, misclassifying 28% and 32%, respectively. Despite K65R with the T69del in 9 samples, tenofovir retained activity in >60%. Reversion of the K65R increased susceptibility to tenofovir and other nucleosides, while reversion of the T69del showed increased resistance to zidovudine, with little impact on other NRTI. Although genotype and phenotype were largely concordant for first-line drugs, estimates of genotypic resistance to etravirine and rilpivirine may misclassify subtype C isolates compared to phenotype. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Development and customization of a color-coded microbeads-based assay for drug resistance in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lijun; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Shiino, Teiichiro; Nakamura, Hitomi; Koga, Michiko; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Adachi, Eisuke; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Ishida, Takaomi; Gao, George F; Matsushita, Masaki; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Hosoya, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance (DR) of HIV-1 can be examined genotypically or phenotypically. Although sequencing is the gold standard of the genotypic resistance testing (GRT), high-throughput GRT targeted to the codons responsible for DR may be more appropriate for epidemiological studies and public health research. We used a Japanese database to design and synthesize sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) for the detection of wild-type sequences and 6 DR mutations in the clade B HIV-1 reverse transcriptase region. We coupled SSOP to microbeads of the Luminex 100 xMAP system and developed a GRT based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-SSOP-Luminex method. Sixteen oligoprobes for discriminating DR mutations from wild-type sequences at 6 loci were designed and synthesized, and their sensitivity and specificity were confirmed using isogenic plasmids. The PCR-SSOP-Luminex DR assay was then compared to direct sequencing using 74 plasma specimens from treatment-naïve patients or those on failing treatment. In the majority of specimens, the results of the PCR-SSOP-Luminex DR assay were concordant with sequencing results: 62/74 (83.8%) for M41, 43/74 (58.1%) for K65, 70/74 (94.6%) for K70, 55/73 (75.3%) for K103, 63/73 (86.3%) for M184 and 68/73 (93.2%) for T215. There were a number of specimens without any positive signals, especially for K65. The nucleotide position of A2723G, A2747G and C2750T were frequent polymorphisms for the wild-type amino acids K65, K66 and D67, respectively, and 14 specimens had the D67N mutation encoded by G2748A. We synthesized 14 additional oligoprobes for K65, and the sensitivity for K65 loci improved from 43/74 (58.1%) to 68/74 (91.9%). We developed a rapid high-throughput assay for clade B HIV-1 DR mutations, which could be customized by synthesizing oligoprobes suitable for the circulating viruses. The assay could be a useful tool especially for public health research in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings.

  4. Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor RO 48-8071 suppresses growth of hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yayun Liang,1 Benford Mafuvadze,1 Johannes D Aebi,2 Salman M Hyder1 1Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA; 2Medicinal Chemistry, Roche Pharma Research and Early Development (pRED, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Standard treatment for primary prostate cancer includes systemic exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs that target androgen receptor or antihormone therapy (chemical castration; however, drug-resistant cancer cells generally emerge during treatment, limiting the continued use of systemic chemotherapy. Patients are then treated with more toxic standard therapies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel and more effective treatments for prostate cancer. The cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is an attractive therapeutic target for treating endocrine-dependent cancers because cholesterol is an essential structural and functional component of cell membranes as well as the metabolic precursor of endogenous steroid hormones. In this study, we have examined the effects of RO 48-8071 (4'-[6-(allylmethylaminohexyloxy]-4-bromo-2'-fluorobenzophenone fumarate; Roche Pharmaceuticals internal reference: RO0488071 (RO, which is an inhibitor of 2, 3-oxidosqualene cyclase (a key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, on prostate cancer cells. Exposure of both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant human prostate cancer cells to RO reduced prostate cancer cell viability and induced apoptosis in vitro. RO treatment reduced androgen receptor protein expression in hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells and increased estrogen receptor β (ERβ protein expression in both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines. Combining RO with an ERβ agonist increased its ability to reduce castration-resistant prostate cancer cell viability. In addition, RO effectively suppressed the

  5. Natural coagulation inhibitors and active protein c resistance in preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Demir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The etiology of preeclampsia is not fully established. A few studies have shown a relationship between natural coagulation inhibitors and preeclampsia. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of natural coagulation inhibitors and active protein C resistance (APC-R in preeclampsia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 70 women with preeclampsia recruited consecutively and 70 healthy pregnant and 70 nonpregnant women as controls. Plasma protein C (PC, free protein S (fPS, antithrombin III (ATIII and APC-R were evaluated. RESULTS: ATIII values were found to be significantly lower in preeclamptic patients than in the control groups (p< 0.001. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between the healthy pregnant and nonpregnant women groups (p=0.141. The fPS values of the preeclamptic and healthy pregnant groups were lower than that of the nonpregnant group (p< 0.001, and the fPS value of the preeclamptic pregnant women was lower than that of healthy pregnant women (p<0.001. The PC value of the preeclamptic pregnant women was lower than that of the control groups (p< 0.001. The PC value of the healthy pregnant women was lower than that of the nonpregnant women (p< 0.001. The mean APC activity values were lower in the preeclamptic patients than that of the control groups (p< 0.001, p< 0.001. The APC-R positivity rates of the preeclamptic groups were higher than that of the control groups (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that ATIII, fPS, PC values and APC resistance were lower and APC-R positivity was higher in preeclamptic women than in normal pregnant and nonpregnant women.

  6. High-throughput screening identifies Ceefourin 1 and Ceefourin 2 as highly selective inhibitors of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Leanna; Flemming, Claudia L; Watt, Fujiko; Masada, Nanako; Yu, Denise M T; Huynh, Tony; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Tivnan, Amanda; Polinsky, Alexander; Gudkov, Andrei V; Munoz, Marcia A; Vishvanath, Anasuya; Cooper, Dermot M F; Henderson, Michelle J; Cole, Susan P C; Fletcher, Jamie I; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, is an organic anion transporter capable of effluxing a wide range of physiologically important signalling molecules and drugs. MRP4 has been proposed to contribute to numerous functions in both health and disease; however, in most cases these links remain to be unequivocally established. A major limitation to understanding the physiological and pharmacological roles of MRP4 has been the absence of specific small molecule inhibitors, with the majority of established inhibitors also targeting other ABC transporter family members, or inhibiting the production, function or degradation of important MRP4 substrates. We therefore set out to identify more selective and well tolerated inhibitors of MRP4 that might be used to study the many proposed functions of this transporter. Using high-throughput screening, we identified two chemically distinct small molecules, Ceefourin 1 and Ceefourin 2, that inhibit transport of a broad range of MRP4 substrates, yet are highly selective for MRP4 over other ABC transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ABCG2 (Breast Cancer Resistance Protein; BCRP) and MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1; ABCC1). Both compounds are more potent MRP4 inhibitors in cellular assays than the most widely used inhibitor, MK-571, requiring lower concentrations to effect a comparable level of inhibition. Furthermore, Ceefourin 1 and Ceefourin 2 have low cellular toxicity, and high microsomal and acid stability. These newly identified inhibitors should be of great value for efforts to better understand the biological roles of MRP4, and may represent classes of compounds with therapeutic application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell-Specific Establishment of Poliovirus Resistance to an Inhibitor Targeting a Cellular Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, Ekaterina G.; Nchoutmboube, Jules; Ford-Siltz, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is hypothesized that targeting stable cellular factors involved in viral replication instead of virus-specific proteins may raise the barrier for development of resistant mutants, which is especially important for highly adaptable small (+)RNA viruses. However, contrary to this assumption, the accumulated evidence shows that these viruses easily generate mutants resistant to the inhibitors of cellular proteins at least in some systems. We investigated here the development of poliovirus resistance to brefeldin A (BFA), an inhibitor of the cellular protein GBF1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small cellular GTPase Arf1. We found that while resistant viruses can be easily selected in HeLa cells, they do not emerge in Vero cells, in spite that in the absence of the drug both cultures support robust virus replication. Our data show that the viral replication is much more resilient to BFA than functioning of the cellular secretory pathway, suggesting that the role of GBF1 in the viral replication is independent of its Arf activating function. We demonstrate that the level of recruitment of GBF1 to the replication complexes limits the establishment and expression of a BFA resistance phenotype in both HeLa and Vero cells. Moreover, the BFA resistance phenotype of poliovirus mutants is also cell type dependent in different cells of human origin and results in a fitness loss in the form of reduced efficiency of RNA replication in the absence of the drug. Thus, a rational approach to the development of host-targeting antivirals may overcome the superior adaptability of (+)RNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Compared to the number of viral diseases, the number of available vaccines is miniscule. For some viruses vaccine development has not been successful after multiple attempts, and for many others vaccination is not a viable option. Antiviral drugs are needed for clinical practice and public health emergencies. However, viruses are highly adaptable and can

  8. Characterization of HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance after second-line treatment failure in Mali, a limited-resources setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Almoustapha Issiaka; Fofana, Djeneba Bocar; Cisse, Mamadou; Diallo, Fodié; Maiga, Moussa Youssoufa; Traore, Hamar Alassane; Maiga, Issouf Alassane; Sylla, Aliou; Fofana, Dionke; Taiwo, Babafemi; Murphy, Robert; Katlama, Christine; Tounkara, Anatole; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We describe the outcomes of second-line drug resistance profiles and predict the efficacy of drugs for third-line therapy in patients monitored without the benefit of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) or resistance testing. Methods We recruited 106 HIV-1-infected patients after second-line treatment failure in Mali. VL was determined by the Abbott RealTime system and the resistance by the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. The resistance testing was interpreted using the latest version of the Stanford algorithm. Results Among the 106 patients, 93 had isolates successfully sequenced. The median age, VL and CD4 cells were respectively 35 years, 72 000 copies/mL and 146 cells/mm3. Patients were exposed to a median of 4 years of treatment and to six antiretrovirals. We found 20% of wild-type viruses. Resistance to etravirine was noted in 38%, to lopinavir in 25% and to darunavir in 12%. The duration of prior nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor exposure was associated with resistance to abacavir (P < 0.0001) and tenofovir (P = 0.0001), and duration of prior protease inhibitor treatment with resistance to lopinavir (P < 0.0001) and darunavir (P = 0.06). Conclusion Long duration of therapy prior to failure was associated with high levels of resistance and is directly related to limited access to VL monitoring and delayed switches to second-line treatment, precluding efficacy of drugs for third-line therapy. This study underlines the need for governments and public health organizations to recommend the use of VL monitoring and also the availability of darunavir and raltegravir for third-line therapies in the context of limited-resource settings. PMID:22888273

  9. HIV-1 drug resistance surveillance in antiretroviral treatment-naive individuals from a reference hospital in Guatemala, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; García-Morales, Claudia; Garrido-Rodríguez, Daniela; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Girón-Callejas, Amalia Carolina; Mendizábal-Burastero, Ricardo; Escobar-Urias, Ingrid Yessenia; García-González, Blanca Leticia; Navas-Castillo, Sabrina; Pinzón-Meza, Rodolfo; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos Rodolfo; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    The recent expansion of antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in middle/low-income countries has been associated with increasing prevalence of HIV pre-ART drug resistance (PDR). We assessed PDR prevalence, patterns, and trends in Guatemala. Blood samples from 1,084 ART-naive individuals, enrolled from October 2010 to December 2013 at the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City, were obtained. PDR was evaluated using the WHO mutation list for transmitted drug resistance (TDR) surveillance. An overall PDR prevalence of 7.3% (95% CI 5.8-9.0%) was observed for the whole study period. TDR to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) was the highest (4.9%, p500 and 350-500 CD4(+) T cells/μl (7.4% and 8.7%, respectively) compared to individuals with Guatemala remains at an intermediate level. Nevertheless, we have shown evidence suggesting increasing trends in NNRTI PDR, which need to be taken into account in national HIV management policies.

  10. Protease Inhibitors Drug Resistance Mutations in Turkish Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin Altunok, Elif; Sayan, Murat; Akhan, Sila; Aygen, Bilgehan; Yildiz, Orhan; Tekin Koruk, Suda; Mistik, Resit; Demirturk, Nese; Ural, Onur; Kose, Şükran; Aynioglu, Aynur; Korkmaz, Fatime; Ersoz, Gülden; Tuna, Nazan; Ayaz, Celal; Karakecili, Faruk; Keten, Derya; Inan, Dilara; Yazici, Saadet; Koculu, Safiye; Yildirmak, Taner

    2016-09-01

    Drug resistance development is an expected problem during treatment with protease inhibitors (PIs), this is largely due to the fact that Pls are low-genetic barrier drugs. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs) however may also occur naturally, and prior to treatment with Pls, the clinical impact of this basal resistance remains unknown. In Turkey, there is yet to be an investigation into the hepatitis C (HCV) drug associated resistance to oral antivirals. 178 antiviral-naïve patients infected with HCV genotype 1 were selected from 27 clinical centers of various geographical regions in Turkey and included in the current study. The basal NS3 Pls resistance mutations of these patients were analyzed. In 33 (18.5%) of the patients included in the study, at least one mutation pattern that can cause drug resistance was identified. The most frequently detected mutation pattern was T54S while R109K was the second most frequently detected. Following a more general examination of the patients studied, telaprevir (TVR) resistance in 27 patients (15.2%), boceprevir (BOC) resistance in 26 (14.6%) patients, simeprevir (SMV) resistance in 11 (6.2%) patients and faldaprevir resistance in 13 (7.3%) patients were detected. Our investigation also revealed that rebound developed in the presence of a Q80K mutation and amongst two V55A mutations following treatment with TVR, while no response to treatment was detected in a patient with a R55K mutation. We are of the opinion that drug resistance analyses can be beneficial and necessary in revealing which variants are responsible for pre-treatment natural resistance and which mutations are responsible for the viral breakthrough that may develop during the treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. HIV transmitted drug resistance in adult and pediatric populations in Panama Farmacorresistencia transmitida del VIH en poblaciones adultas y pediátricas en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV among adults in Panama by using a modified World Health Organization Threshold Survey (WHO-TS and to investigate rates of initial resistance among HIV-positive infants in Panama. METHODS: At the Gorgas Memorial Institute, 47 HIV-positive adults were genotyped for mutations associated with transmitted drug resistance (TDR in the reverse transcriptase and protease genes of HIV-1, according to WHO-TS guidelines, modified to include patients ≤ 26 years old. Prevalence rates for drug-resistance mutations against three classes of antiretroviral drugs-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, and protease inhibitors-were calculated as low ( 15.0%. Twenty-five infant patients were also geno-typed and prevalence rates for drug-resistance mutations were calculated. RESULTS: TDR among Panamanian adults was moderate: 6 of 47 HIV-positive adults showed one or more mutations associated with TDR. Horizontal TDR mutations were moderate for NRTIs and NNRTIs and low for protease inhibitors. Vertical transmission of HIV in Panama has decreased for 2002-2007, but vertical HIV TDR prevalence is moderate (12.0% and is emerging as a problem due to incomplete antiretroviral coverage in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HIV TDR indicated by this study, combined with known rates of HIV infection in Panama, suggests more extensive surveys are needed to identify risk factors associated with transmission of HIV drug resistance. Specific WHO-TS guidelines for monitoring vertical transmission of drug-resistant HIV should be established.OBJETIVO: Investigar la prevalencia de farmacorresistencia transmitida del VIH en adultos en Panamá mediante un estudio del umbral modificado de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS e investigar las tasas de resistencia inicial en lactantes seropositivos para el VIH en Panamá. M

  12. Inhibitors of the Hepatitis C Virus Polymerase; Mode of Action and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahla, Auda A; Luciani, Fabio; White, Peter A; Lloyd, Andrew R; Bull, Rowena A

    2015-09-29

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a pandemic human pathogen posing a substantial health and economic burden in both developing and developed countries. Controlling the spread of HCV through behavioural prevention strategies has met with limited success and vaccine development remains slow. The development of antiviral therapeutic agents has also been challenging, primarily due to the lack of efficient cell culture and animal models for all HCV genotypes, as well as the large genetic diversity between HCV strains. On the other hand, the use of interferon-α-based treatments in combination with the guanosine analogue, ribavirin, achieved limited success, and widespread use of these therapies has been hampered by prevalent side effects. For more than a decade, the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) has been targeted for antiviral development, and direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have been identified which bind to one of at least six RdRp inhibitor-binding sites, and are now becoming a mainstay of highly effective and well tolerated antiviral treatment for HCV infection. Here we review the different classes of RdRp inhibitors and their mode of action against HCV. Furthermore, the mechanism of antiviral resistance to each class is described, including naturally occurring resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in different viral strains and genotypes. Finally, we review the impact of these RAVs on treatment outcomes with the newly developed regimens.

  13. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Resistance Profile of the Next-Generation Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor Pibrentasvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Teresa I; Krishnan, Preethi; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Kati, Warren; Schnell, Gretja; Beyer, Jill; Reisch, Thomas; Lu, Liangjun; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Irvin, Michelle; Tripathi, Rakesh; Maring, Clarence; Randolph, John T; Wagner, Rolf; Collins, Christine

    2017-05-01

    Pibrentasvir (ABT-530) is a novel and pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor with 50% effective concentration (EC 50 ) values ranging from 1.4 to 5.0 pM against HCV replicons containing NS5A from genotypes 1 to 6. Pibrentasvir demonstrated similar activity against a panel of chimeric replicons containing HCV NS5A of genotypes 1 to 6 from clinical samples. Resistance selection studies were conducted using HCV replicon cells with NS5A from genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a, or 6a at a concentration of pibrentasvir that was 10- or 100-fold over its EC 50 for the respective replicon. With pibrentasvir at 10-fold over the respective EC 50 , only a small number of colonies (0.00015 to 0.0065% of input cells) with resistance-associated amino acid substitutions were selected in replicons containing genotype 1a, 2a, or 3a NS5A, and no viable colonies were selected in replicons containing NS5A from other genotypes. With pibrentasvir at 100-fold over the respective EC 50 , very few colonies (0.0002% of input cells) were selected by pibrentasvir in genotype 1a replicon cells while no colonies were selected in other replicons. Pibrentasvir is active against common resistance-conferring substitutions in HCV genotypes 1 to 6 that were identified for other NS5A inhibitors, including those at key amino acid positions 28, 30, 31, or 93. The combination of pibrentasvir with HCV inhibitors of other classes produced synergistic inhibition of HCV replication. In summary, pibrentasvir is a next-generation HCV NS5A inhibitor with potent and pan-genotypic activity, and it maintains activity against common amino acid substitutions of HCV genotypes 1 to 6 that are known to confer resistance to currently approved NS5A inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Ng et al.

  14. SGLT2-inhibitor and DPP-4 inhibitor improve brain function via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, inflammation, and apoptosis in HFD-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Tanajak, Pongpan; Kerdphoo, Sasiwan; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-10-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and neuroprotection in obese-insulin resistance. Recent studies demonstrated the neuroprotection of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) in diabetes. However, the comparative effects of both drugs and a combination of two drugs on metabolic dysfunction and brain dysfunction impaired by the obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and received either a normal-diet (ND, n=8) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n=32) for 16weeks. At week 13, the HFD-fed rats were divided into four subgroups (n=8/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle, vildagliptin (3mg/kg/day) dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or combined drugs for four weeks. ND rats were given a vehicle for four weeks. Metabolic parameters and brain function were investigated. The results demonstrated that HFD rats developed obese-insulin resistance and cognitive decline. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy on improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and reduced weight gain than vildagliptin. Single therapy resulted in equally improved brain mitochondrial function, insulin signaling, apoptosis and prevented cognitive decline. However, only dapagliflozin improved hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A combination of the drugs had greater efficacy in improving brain insulin sensitivity and reducing brain oxidative stress than the single drug therapy. These findings suggested that dapagliflozin and vildagliptin equally prevented cognitive decline in the obese-insulin resistance, possibly through some similar mechanisms. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy than vildagliptin for preserving synaptic plasticity, thus combined drugs could be the best therapeutic approach for neuroprotection in the obese-insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HIV-1 Variants and Drug Resistance in Pregnant Women from Bata (Equatorial Guinea): 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Patricia; Fernández McPhee, Carolina; Prieto, Luis; Martín, Leticia; Obiang, Jacinta; Avedillo, Pedro; Vargas, Antonio; Rojo, Pablo; Benito, Agustín; Ramos, José Tomás; Holguín, África

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study describing drug resistance mutations (DRM) and HIV-1 variants among infected pregnant women in Equatorial Guinea (GQ), a country with high (6.2%) and increasing HIV prevalence. Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from November 2012 to December 2013 from 69 HIV-1 infected women participating in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in the Hospital Regional of Bata and Primary Health Care Centre María Rafols, Bata, GQ. The transmitted (TDR) or acquired (ADR) antiretroviral drug resistance mutations at partial pol sequence among naive or antiretroviral therapy (ART)-exposed women were defined following WHO or IAS USA 2015 lists, respectively. HIV-1 variants were identified by phylogenetic analyses. A total of 38 of 69 HIV-1 specimens were successfully amplified and sequenced. Thirty (79%) belonged to ART-experienced women: 15 exposed to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) monotherapy, and 15 to combined ART (cART) as first regimen including two NRTI and one non-NRTI (NNRTI) or one protease inhibitor (PI). The TDR rate was only found for PI (3.4%). The ADR rate was 37.5% for NNRTI, 8.7% for NRTI and absent for PI or NRTI+NNRTI. HIV-1 group M non-B variants caused most (97.4%) infections, mainly (78.9%) recombinants: CRF02_AG (55.2%), CRF22_A101 (10.5%), subtype C (10.5%), unique recombinants (5.3%), and A3, D, F2, G, CRF06_cpx and CRF11_cpx (2.6% each). The high rate of ADR to retrotranscriptase inhibitors (mainly to NNRTIs) observed among pretreated pregnant women reinforces the importance of systematic DRM monitoring in GQ to reduce HIV-1 resistance transmission and to optimize first and second-line ART regimens when DRM are present.

  16. Overcoming multidrug resistance in Dox-resistant neuroblastoma cell lines via treatment with HPMA copolymer conjugates containing anthracyclines and P-gp inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koziolová, Eva; Janoušková, Olga; Cuchalová, Lucie; Hvězdová, Zuzana; Hraběta, J.; Eckschlager, T.; Sivák, Ladislav; Ulbrich, Karel; Etrych, Tomáš; Šubr, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 233, 10 July (2016), s. 136-146 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/12/1254; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymers * multidrug resistance * P-glycoprotein inhibitors Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry ; FD - Oncology ; Hematology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 7.786, year: 2016

  17. Overcoming Resistance of Cancer Cells to PARP-1 Inhibitors with Three Different Drug Combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Yalon

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARPis show promise for treatment of cancers which lack capacity for homologous recombination repair (HRR. However, new therapeutic strategies are required in order to overcome innate and acquired resistance to these drugs and thus expand the array of cancers that could benefit from them. We show that human cancer cell lines which respond poorly to ABT-888 (a PARPi, become sensitive to it when co-treated with vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi. Vorinostat also sensitized PARPis insensitive cancer cell lines to 6-thioguanine (6-TG-a drug that targets PARPis sensitive cells. The sensitizing effect of vorinostat was associated with increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 2α which in and of itself increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to ABT-888. Importantly, these drug combinations did not affect survival of normal fibroblasts and breast cells, and significantly increased the inhibition of xenograft tumor growth relative to each drug alone, without affecting the mice weight or their liver and kidney function. Our results show that combination of vorinostat and ABT-888 could potentially prove useful for treatment of cancer with innate resistance to PARPis due to active HRR machinery, while the combination of vorinostat and 6-TG could potentially overcome innate or acquired resistance to PARPis due to secondary or reversal BRCA mutations, to decreased PARP-1 level or to increased expression of multiple drug resistant proteins. Importantly, drugs which increase phosphorylation of eIF2α may mimic the sensitizing effect of vorinostat on cellular response to PARPis or to 6-TG, without activating all of its downstream effectors.

  18. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-01-01

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K i , 0.1 x 10 -9 M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  19. An overview of the molecular and epidemiological features of HIV-1 infection in two major cities of Bahia state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Amanda Gm; Oliveira, Isabele B; Carneiro, Diego C; Alcantara, Luiz Cj; Monteiro-Cunha, Joana P

    2017-06-01

    The high mutation rate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has created a public health challenge because the use of antiretroviral drugs can generate selective pressure that drives resistance in these viruses. The aim of this work was to characterise the molecular and epidemiological profile of HIV in Bahia, Brazil. DNA sequences from regions of HIV gag, pol, and env genes were obtained from previous studies performed in this area between 2002 and 2012. Their genotype and drug-resistance mutations were identified using bioinformatics tools. Clinical and epidemiological data were analysed. Among 263 individuals (46.4% male), 97.5% were asymptomatic and 49.1% were receiving treatment. Most of the individuals were 31 to 40 years old (36.9%) and infected through heterosexual contact (40.7%). The predominant genotype was B (68.1%) followed by BF recombinants (18.6%). Among the individuals infected with either F or BF genotypes, 68.4% were women and 76.8% were infected through heterosexual transmission. The prevalence of associated mutations conferring antiretroviral resistance was 14.2%, with 3.8% of all mutations conferring resistance to protease inhibitors, 9.43% to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 8.5% to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Drug resistance was higher in individuals receiving treatment (26.1%) than in the drug-naïve (4.3%) individuals. This study will contribute to the understanding and monitoring of HIV epidemic in this Brazilian region.

  20. Deciphering mechanisms of drug sensitivity and resistance to Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crochiere, Marsha; Kashyap, Trinayan; Kalid, Ori; Shechter, Sharon; Klebanov, Boris; Senapedis, William; Saint-Martin, Jean-Richard; Landesman, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    Exportin 1 (XPO1) is a well-characterized nuclear export protein whose expression is up-regulated in many types of cancers and functions to transport key tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs) from the nucleus. Karyopharm Therapeutics has developed a series of small-molecule Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds, which have been shown to block XPO1 function both in vitro and in vivo. The drug candidate, selinexor (KPT-330), is currently in Phase-II/IIb clinical trials for treatment of both hematologic and solid tumors. The present study sought to decipher the mechanisms that render cells either sensitive or resistant to treatment with SINE compounds, represented by KPT-185, an early analogue of KPT-330. Using the human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line, resistance to SINE was acquired over a period of 10 months of constant incubation with increasing concentration of KPT-185. Cell viability was assayed by MTT. Immunofluorescence was used to compare nuclear export of TSPs. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunoblots were used to measure effects on cell cycle, gene expression, and cell death. RNA from naïve and drug treated parental and resistant cells was analyzed by Affymetrix microarrays. Treatment of HT1080 cells with gradually increasing concentrations of SINE resulted in > 100 fold decrease in sensitivity to SINE cytotoxicity. Resistant cells displayed prolonged cell cycle, reduced nuclear accumulation of TSPs, and similar changes in protein expression compared to parental cells, however the magnitude of the protein expression changes were more significant in parental cells. Microarray analyses comparing parental to resistant cells indicate that a number of key signaling pathways were altered in resistant cells including expression changes in genes involved in adhesion, apoptosis, and inflammation. While the patterns of changes in transcription following drug treatment are similar in parental

  1. Contribution of HIV minority variants to drug resistance in an integrase strand transfer inhibitor-based therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weber, Jan; Gibson, R. M.; Meyer, A. M.; Winner, D.; Robertson, D. L.; Miller, M. D.; Quinones-Mateu, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl. 1 (2013), A66-A66 ISSN 1359-6535. [International Workshop on HIV & Hepatitis Virus Drug Resistance Curative Strategies. 04.06.2013-08.06.2013, Toronto] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV minority variants * integrase inhibitor * replicative fitness Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  2. Variability and resistance mutations in the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease in patients not treated with protease inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bonome Zeminian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis C is to achieve a sustained virological response, which is defined as exhibiting undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA levels in serum following therapy for at least six months. However, the current treatment is only effective in 50% of patients infected with HCV genotype 1, the most prevalent genotype in Brazil. Inhibitors of the serine protease non-structural protein 3 (NS3 have therefore been developed to improve the responses of HCV-infected patients. However, the emergence of drug-resistant variants has been the major obstacle to therapeutic success. The goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of resistance mutations and genetic polymorphisms in the NS3 genomic region of HCV from 37 patients infected with HCV genotype 1 had not been treated with protease inhibitors. Plasma viral RNA was used to amplify and sequence the HCV NS3 gene. The results indicate that the catalytic triad is conserved. A large number of substitutions were observed in codons 153, 40 and 91; the resistant variants T54A, T54S, V55A, R155K and A156T were also detected. This study shows that resistance mutations and genetic polymorphisms are present in the NS3 region of HCV in patients who have not been treated with protease inhibitors, data that are important in determining the efficiency of this new class of drugs in Brazil.

  3. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABLT315I mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and pre-clinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multi-targeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABLT315I-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML. PMID:19878872

  4. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, III, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim; (OHSU- Cancer Instit.); (ARIAD)

    2010-09-07

    Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL{sup T315I} mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL{sup T315I}-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.

  5. Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to ALK Inhibitors and the Rationale for Treating ALK-positive Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isozaki, Hideko [Department of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Takigawa, Nagio, E-mail: ntakigaw@gmail.com [Department of General Internal Medicine 4, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama 700-8505 (Japan); Kiura, Katsuyuki [Department of Allergy and Respiratory Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2015-04-30

    The discovery of an echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with lung cancer after the development of the first ALK-targeting agent, crizotinib. Some second-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which might be more potent than crizotinib or effective on crizotinib-resistant patients, have been developed. Although these ALK-TKIs show an excellent response initially, most patients eventually acquire resistance. Therefore, careful consideration of the resistance mechanisms might lead to superior therapeutic strategies. Here, we summarize the history of ALK-TKIs and their underlying resistance mechanisms in both the preclinical and clinical settings. In addition, we discuss potential future treatment strategies in ALK-TKI-naïve and -resistant patients with lung cancer harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene.

  6. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Carmine; Di Gennaro, Elena; Piro, Geny; Milone, Maria Rita; Pucci, Biagio; Caraglia, Michele; Budillon, Alfredo

    2017-03-01

    Vorinostat demonstrated preclinical and clinical efficacy in human cancers and is the first histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) approved for cancer treatment. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes a Ca 2+ dependent transamidating reaction resulting in covalent cross-links between proteins. TG2 acts also as G-protein in trans-membrane signaling and as a cell surface adhesion mediator. TG2 up-regulation has been demonstrated in several cancers and its expression levels correlate with resistance to chemotherapy and metastatic potential. We demonstrated that the anti-proliferative effect of the HDACi vorinostat is paralleled by the induction of TG2 mRNA and protein expression in cancer cells but not in ex vivo treated peripheral blood lymphocytes. This effect was also shared by other pan-HDACi and resulted in increased TG2 transamidating activity. Notably, high TG2 basal levels in a panel of cancer cell lines correlated with lower vorinostat antiproliferative activity. Notably, in TG2-knockdown cancer cells vorinostat anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were enhanced, whereas in TG2-full-length transfected cells were impaired, suggesting that TG2 could represent a mechanism of intrinsic or acquired resistance to vorinostat. In fact, co-treatment of tumor cells with inhibitors of TG2 transamidating activity potentiated the antitumor effect of vorinostat. Moreover, vorinostat-resistant MCF7 cells selected by stepwise increasing concentrations of the drug, significantly overexpressed TG2 protein compared to parental cells, and co-treatment of these cells with TG2 inhibitors reversed vorinostat-resistance. Taken together, our data demonstrated that TG2 is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to vorinostat, as well as to other HDACi.

  7. Acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG and increased metastatic potential are associated with MUC1 expression in colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Ban, Li-Li; Luo, Gang; Li, Zhi-Yao; Li, Yun-Feng; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Wang, Xi-Cai; Jin, Cong-Guo; Ye, Jia-Gui; Ma, Ding-Ding; Xie, Qing; Huang, You-Guang

    2016-06-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone required for the stability and function of many proteins. The chaperoning of oncoproteins by HSP90 enhances the survival, growth, and invasive potential of cancer cells. HSP90 inhibitors are promising new anticancer agents, in which the benzoquinone ansamycin 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is currently in clinical evaluation. However, the implications of acquired resistance to this class of drug remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we have generated isogenic human colon cancer cell lines that are resistant to 17-AAG by continued culturing in the compound. Cross-resistance was found with another HSP90 inhibitor 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin. The resistant cells showed obvious morphology changes with a metastatic phenotype and significant increases in migration and adhesion to collagens. Western blotting analysis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecular markers found that expression of E-cadherin downregulated, whereas expression of N-cadherin and β-catenin upregulated in the resistant cells. Mucin 1 (MUC1) has been reported to mediate metastasis as well as chemical resistance in many cancers. Here, we found that MUC1 expression was significantly elevated in the acquired drug resistance cells. 17-AAG treatment could decrease MUC1 more in parental cells than in acquired 17-AAG-resistant cells. Further study found that knockdown of MUC1 expression by small interfering RNA could obviously re-sensitize the resistant cells to 17-AAG treatment, and decrease the cell migration and adhesion. These were coupled with a downregulation in N-cadherin and β-catenin. The results indicate that HSP90 inhibitor therapies in colon carcinomas could generate resistance and increase metastatic potential that might mediated by upregulation of MUC1 expression. Findings from this study further our understanding of the potential clinical effects of HSP90-directed therapies in

  8. Novel Inhibitors of Staphyloxanthin Virulence Factor in Comparison with Linezolid and Vancomycin versus Methicillin-Resistant, Linezolid-Resistant, and Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shuaishuai; Wei, Hanwen; Li, Baoli; Chen, Feifei; Liu, Yifu; Chen, Wenhua; Xu, Yixiang; Qiu, Xiaoxia; Li, Xiaokang; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Wenwen; Hu, Linhao; Lin, Dazheng; Wang, Manjiong; Zheng, Xinyu; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Lan, Lefu; Li, Jian

    2017-10-12

    Our previous work ( Wang et al. J. Med. Chem. 2016 , 59 , 4831 - 4848 ) revealed that effective benzocycloalkane-derived staphyloxanthin inhibitors against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections were accompanied by poor water solubility and high hERG inhibition and dosages (preadministration). In this study, 92 chroman and coumaran derivatives as novel inhibitors have been addressed for overcoming deficiencies above. Derivatives 69 and 105 displayed excellent pigment inhibitory activities and low hERG inhibition, along with improvement of solubility by salt type selection. The broad and significantly potent antibacterial spectra of 69 and 105 were displayed first with normal administration in the livers and hearts in mice against pigmented S. aureus Newman, Mu50 (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus), and NRS271 (linezolid-resistant S. aureus), compared with linezolid and vancomycin. In summary, both 69 and 105 have the potential to be developed as good antibacterial candidates targeting virulence factors.

  9. Histological transformation after acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yi; Zhong, Dian-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor mutations generally respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, acquired resistance will eventually develop place after 8-16 months. Several mechanisms contribute to the resistance including T790M mutation, c-Met amplification, epithelial mesenchymal transformation and PIK3CA mutation; however, histological transformation is a rare mechanism. The patterns and mechanisms underlying histological transformation need to be explored. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and search engines Google Scholar, Medical Matrix for literature related to histological transformation. Case reports, cases series, and clinical and basic medical research articles were reviewed. Sixty-one articles were included in this review. Cases of transformation to small-cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and sarcoma after TKI resistance have all been reported. As the clinical course differed dramatically between cases, a new treatment scheme needs to be recruited. The mechanisms underlying histological transformation have not been fully elucidated and probably relate to cancer stem cells, driver genetic alterations under selective pressure or the heterogeneity of the tumor. When TKI resistance develops, we recommend that patients undergo a second biopsy to determine the reason, guide the next treatment and predict the prognosis.

  10. Natural Polymorphisms Conferring Resistance to HCV Protease and Polymerase Inhibitors in Treatment-Naïve HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali Zhou

    Full Text Available The advent of direct-acting agents (DAAs has improved treatment of HCV in HIV co-infection, but may be limited by primary drug resistance. This study reports the prevalence of natural polymorphisms conferring resistance to NS3/4A protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in China.Population based NS3/4A sequencing was completed for 778 treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected patients from twelve provinces. NS3 sequences were amplified by nested PCR using in-house primers for genotypes 1-6. NS5B sequencing was completed for genotyping in 350 sequences. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs were identified in positions associated with HCV resistance.Overall, 72.8% (566/778 of all HCV sequences had at least one RAV associated with HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance. Variants were found in 3.6% (7/193 of genotype 1, 100% (23/23 of genotype 2, 100% (237/237 of genotype 3 and 92% (299/325 of genotype 6 sequences. The Q80K variant was present in 98.4% of genotype 6a sequences. High-level RAVs were rare, occurring in only 0.8% of patients. 93% (64/69 patients with genotype 1b also carried the C316N variant associated with NS5B low-level resistance.The low frequency of high-level RAVs associated with primary HCV DAA resistance among all genotypes in HIV/HCV co-infected patients is encouraging. Further phenotypic studies and clinical research are needed.

  11. Neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in influenza: assessing the danger of its generation and spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Handel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuraminidase Inhibitors (NI are currently the most effective drugs against influenza. Recent cases of NI resistance are a cause for concern. To assess the danger of NI resistance, a number of studies have reported the fraction of treated patients from which resistant strains could be isolated. Unfortunately, those results strongly depend on the details of the experimental protocol. Additionally, knowing the fraction of patients harboring resistance is not too useful by itself. Instead, we want to know how likely it is that an infected patient can generate a resistant infection in a secondary host, and how likely it is that the resistant strain subsequently spreads. While estimates for these parameters can often be obtained from epidemiological data, such data is lacking for NI resistance in influenza. Here, we use an approach that does not rely on epidemiological data. Instead, we combine data from influenza infections of human volunteers with a mathematical framework that allows estimation of the parameters that govern the initial generation and subsequent spread of resistance. We show how these parameters are influenced by changes in drug efficacy, timing of treatment, fitness of the resistant strain, and details of virus and immune system dynamics. Our study provides estimates for parameters that can be directly used in mathematical and computational models to study how NI usage might lead to the emergence and spread of resistance in the population. We find that the initial generation of resistant cases is most likely lower than the fraction of resistant cases reported. However, we also show that the results depend strongly on the details of the within-host dynamics of influenza infections, and most importantly, the role the immune system plays. Better knowledge of the quantitative dynamics of the immune response during influenza infections will be crucial to further improve the results.

  12. Nelfinavir and Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Salvage Regimes in Heavily Hiv Pretreated Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Guy Baril

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of nelfinavir mesylate (NFV in combination with delavirdine mesylate(DLV or efavirenz (EFV and other antiretroviral agents following virological failure on other protease inhibitor (PI-based regimens.

  13. Multi-step inhibition explains HIV-1 protease inhibitor pharmacodynamics and resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, S. Alireza; Laird, Gregory M.; Durand, Christine M.; Laskey, Sarah; Shan, Liang; Bailey, Justin R.; Chioma, Stanley; Moore, Richard D.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) are among the most effective antiretroviral drugs. They are characterized by highly cooperative dose-response curves that are not explained by current pharmacodynamic theory. An unresolved problem affecting the clinical use of PIs is that patients who fail PI-containing regimens often have virus that lacks protease mutations, in apparent violation of fundamental evolutionary theory. Here, we show that these unresolved issues can be explained through analysis of the effects of PIs on distinct steps in the viral life cycle. We found that PIs do not affect virion release from infected cells but block entry, reverse transcription, and post–reverse transcription steps. The overall dose-response curves could be reconstructed by combining the curves for each step using the Bliss independence principle, showing that independent inhibition of multiple distinct steps in the life cycle generates the highly cooperative dose-response curves that make these drugs uniquely effective. Approximately half of the inhibitory potential of PIs is manifest at the entry step, likely reflecting interactions between the uncleaved Gag and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Sequence changes in the CT alone, which are ignored in current clinical tests for PI resistance, conferred PI resistance, providing an explanation for PI failure without resistance. PMID:23979165

  14. A kinase inhibitor screen identifies Mcl-1 and Aurora kinase A as novel treatment targets in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, S; Pedersen, A M; Thomsen, M B H

    2015-01-01

    Antiestrogen resistance is a major problem in breast cancer treatment. Therefore, the search for new therapeutic targets and biomarkers for antiestrogen resistance is crucial. In this study, we performed a kinase inhibitor screen on antiestrogen responsive MCF-7 cells and a panel of MCF-7-derived...

  15. Combined effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vATPase inhibitors in NSCLC cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Eun [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soon [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143–701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Bora [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: parkic@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung, E-mail: jklee@kirams.re.kr [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Despite excellent initial clinical responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), many patients eventually develop resistance. According to a recent report, vacuolar H + ATPase (vATPase) is overexpressed and is associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC. We investigated the combined effects of EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors and their underlying mechanisms in the regulation of NSCLC cell death. We found that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, or lapatinib) and vATPase inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A) enhanced synergistic cell death compared to treatments with each drug alone. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A led to the induction of Bnip3 expression in an Hif-1α dependent manner. Knock-down of Hif-1α or Bnip3 by siRNA further enhanced cell death induced by bafilomycin A1, suggesting that Hif-1α/Bnip3 induction promoted resistance to cell death induced by the vATPase inhibitors. EGFR TKIs suppressed Hif-1α and Bnip3 expression induced by the vATPase inhibitors, suggesting that they enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to these inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. Taken together, we conclude that EGFR TKIs enhance the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to vATPase inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. We suggest that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC. - Highlights: • Co-treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors induces synergistic cell death • EGFR TKIs enhance cell sensitivity to vATPase inhibitors via Hif-1α downregulation • Co-treatment of these inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC.

  16. Nationwide experience of treatment with protease inhibitors in chronic hepatitis C patients in Denmark: identification of viral resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sølund, Christina; Krarup, Henrik; Ramirez, Santseharay; Thielsen, Peter; Røge, Birgit T; Lunding, Suzanne; Barfod, Toke S; Madsen, Lone G; Tarp, Britta; Christensen, Peer B; Gerstoft, Jan; Laursen, Alex L; Bukh, Jens; Weis, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The first standard of care in treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 infection involving directly acting antivirals was protease inhibitors telaprevir or boceprevir combined with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin (triple therapy). Phase III studies include highly selected patients. Thus, treatment response and development of viral resistance during triple therapy in a routine clinical setting needs to be determined. The aims of this study were to investigate treatment outcome and identify sequence variations after triple therapy in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection in a routine clinical setting. 80 patients, who initiated and completed triple therapy in Denmark between May 2011 and November 2012, were included. Demographic data and treatment response were obtained from the Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C. Direct sequencing and clonal analysis of the RT-PCR amplified NS3 protease were performed in patients without cure following triple therapy. 38 (47%) of the patients achieved cure, 15 (19%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events and remained infected, and 27 (34%) experienced relapse or treatment failure of whom 15 of 21 analyzed patients had well-described protease inhibitor resistance variants detected. Most frequently detected protease variants were V36M and/or R155K, and V36M, in patients with genotype 1a and 1b infection, respectively. The cure rate after triple therapy in a routine clinical setting was 47%, which is substantially lower than in clinical trials. Resistance variants towards protease inhibitors were seen in 71% of patients failing therapy indicating that resistance could have an important role in treatment response.

  17. Everolimus downregulates estrogen receptor and induces autophagy in aromatase inhibitor-resistant breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, Asona; New, Jacob; Ogony, Joshua; Thomas, Sufi; Lewis-Wambi, Joan

    2016-01-01

    mTOR inhibition of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-resistant breast cancer is currently under evaluation in the clinic. Everolimus/RAD001 (Afinitor®) has had limited efficacy as a solo agent but is projected to become part of combination therapy for AI-resistant breast cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the anti-proliferative and resistance mechanisms of everolimus in AI-resistant breast cancer cells. In this study we utilized two AI-resistant breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7:5C and MCF-7:2A, which were clonally derived from estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells following long-term estrogen deprivation. Cell viability assay, colony formation assay, cell cycle analysis and soft agar anchorage-independent growth assay were used to determine the efficacy of everolimus in inhibiting the proliferation and tumor forming potential of MCF-7, MCF-7:5C, MCF-7:2A and MCF10A cells. Confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate LC3-II production and autophagosome formation, while ERE-luciferase reporter, Western blot, and RT-PCR analyses were used to assess ER expression and transcriptional activity. Everolimus inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7:5C and MCF-7:2A cells with relatively equal efficiency to parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of everolimus was due to G1 arrest as a result of downregulation of cyclin D1 and p21. Everolimus also dramatically reduced estrogen receptor (ER) expression (mRNA and protein) and transcriptional activity in addition to the ER chaperone, heat shock protein 90 protein (HSP90). Everolimus restored 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4OHT) sensitivity in MCF-7:5C cells and enhanced 4OHT sensitivity in MCF-7 and MCF-7:2A cells. Notably, we found that autophagy is one method of everolimus insensitivity in MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. This study provides additional insight into the mechanism(s) of action of everolimus that can be used to enhance the utility of mTOR inhibitors as

  18. Development and evaluation of a phenotypic assay monitoring resistance formation to protease inhibitors in HIV-1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, Heike; Von der Helm, Klaus; Seelmeir, Sigrid; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Eberle, Josef; Nitschko, Hans

    2003-05-01

    A novel phenotypic assay, based on recombinant expression of the HIV-1-protease was developed and evaluated; it monitors the formation of resistance to protease inhibitors. The HIV-1 protease-encoding region from the blood sample of patients was amplified, ligated into the expression vector pBD2, and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli TG1 cells. The resulting recombinant enzyme was purified by a newly developed one-step acid extraction protocol. The protease activity was determined in presence of five selected HIV protease inhibitors and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) to the respective protease inhibitors determined. The degree of resistance was expressed in terms of x-fold increase in IC(50) compared to the IC(50) value of an HIV-1 wild type protease preparation. The established test system showed a reproducible recombinant expression of each individual patients' HIV-1 protease population. Samples of nine clinically well characterised HIV-1-infected patients with varying degrees of resistance were analysed. There was a good correlation between clinical parameters and the results obtained by this phenotypic assay. For the majority of patients a blind genotypic analysis of the patients' protease domain revealed a fair correlation to the results of the phenotypic assay. In a minority of patients our phenotypic results diverged from the genotypic ones. This novel phenotypic assay can be carried out within 8-10 days, and offers a significant advantage in time to the current employed phenotypic tests.

  19. Parallel screening of drug-like natural compounds using Caco-2 cell permeability QSAR model with applicability domain, lipophilic ligand efficiency index and shape property: A case study of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rikin D.; Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Patel, Chirag N.; Shankar, Shetty Shilpa; Pandya, Himanshu A.; Solanki, Hitesh A.

    2017-10-01

    The traditional drug design strategy centrally focuses on optimizing binding affinity with the receptor target and evaluates pharmacokinetic properties at a later stage which causes high rate of attrition in clinical trials. Alternatively, parallel screening allows evaluation of these properties and affinity simultaneously. In a case study to identify leads from natural compounds with experimental HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition, we integrated various computational approaches including Caco-2 cell permeability QSAR model with applicability domain (AD) to recognize drug-like natural compounds, molecular docking to study HIV-1 RT interactions and shape similarity analysis with known crystal inhibitors having characteristic butterfly-like model. Further, the lipophilic properties of the compounds refined from the process with best scores were examined using lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) index. Seven natural compound hits viz. baicalien, (+)-calanolide A, mniopetal F, fagaronine chloride, 3,5,8-trihydroxy-4-quinolone methyl ether derivative, nitidine chloride and palmatine, were prioritized based on LLE score which demonstrated Caco-2 well absorption labeling, encompassment in AD structural coverage, better receptor affinity, shape adaptation and permissible AlogP value. We showed that this integrative approach is successful in lead exploration of natural compounds targeted against HIV-1 RT enzyme.

  20. Free Energy-Based Virtual Screening and Optimization of RNase H Inhibitors of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baofeng; D'Erasmo, Michael P; Murelli, Ryan P; Gallicchio, Emilio

    2016-09-30

    We report the results of a binding free energy-based virtual screening campaign of a library of 77 α-hydroxytropolone derivatives against the challenging RNase H active site of the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme of human immunodeficiency virus-1. Multiple protonation states, rotamer states, and binding modalities of each compound were individually evaluated. The work involved more than 300 individual absolute alchemical binding free energy parallel molecular dynamics calculations and over 1 million CPU hours on national computing clusters and a local campus computational grid. The thermodynamic and structural measures obtained in this work rationalize a series of characteristics of this system useful for guiding future synthetic and biochemical efforts. The free energy model identified key ligand-dependent entropic and conformational reorganization processes difficult to capture using standard docking and scoring approaches. Binding free energy-based optimization of the lead compounds emerging from the virtual screen has yielded four compounds with very favorable binding properties, which will be the subject of further experimental investigations. This work is one of the few reported applications of advanced-binding free energy models to large-scale virtual screening and optimization projects. It further demonstrates that, with suitable algorithms and automation, advanced-binding free energy models can have a useful role in early-stage drug-discovery programs.

  1. [Analysis on HIV-1 genetics and threshold of drug resistance in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanling; Wang, Jibao; Xing, Hui; Chen, Min; Yao, Shitang; Chen, Huichao; Yang, Jin; Li, Yanling; Duan, Song; Jia, Manhong

    2015-06-01

    To study the HIV-1 genotypes and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2013. Referring to the guidelines for HIV drug resistance threshold survey (HIVDR-TS), 54 plasma samples of recently reported HIV-infected individuals, aged between 16 and 25 years, were collected in Dehong prefecture from January to August 2013. Genotyping of partial pol gene was performed by using reverse transcriptional PCR. HIV-1 genotype. Prevalent levels of HIV-1 drug resistance transmission were analyzed. Forty-eight plasma samples were successfully sequenced and analyzed. Among them, 45.8% were Chinese and the rest 54.2% were all Burmese. Based on pol sequences, identified HIV genotypes included subtype C (41.7%), URF (31.3%), CRF01_AE (12.5%), CRF07_BC (10.4%), CRF08_BC (2.1%) and subtype B (2.1%), C subtype appeared dominated in Chinese while URF was dominated in Burmese. One drug resistant mutation to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was detected in one sequence from Burmese. Based on the statistical method of HIVDR-TS, the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance was adjusted as scientific management for people living with HIV/AIDS should be strictly followed. Meanwhile, relevant surveillance, including drug resistance surveillance should also be performed among cross-border migrant population.

  2. Murine leukemia virus pol gene products: analysis with antisera generated against reverse transcriptase and endonuclease fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.C.; Court, D.L.; Zweig, M.; Levin, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The organization of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) pol gene was investigated by expressing molecular clones containing AKR MuLV reverse transcriptase or endonuclease or both gene segments in Escherichia coli and generating specific antisera against the expressed bacterial proteins. Reaction of these antisera with detergent-disrupted virus precipitated and 80-kilodalton (kDa) protein, the MuLV reverse transcriptase, and a 46-kDa protein which we believe is the viral endonuclease. A third (50-kDa) protein, related to reverse transcriptase, was also precipitated. Bacterial extracts of clones expressing reverse transcriptase and endonuclease sequences competed with the viral 80- and 46-kDa proteins, respectively. These results demonstrate that the antisera are specific for viral reverse transcriptase and endonuclease. Immunoprecipitation of AKR MuLV with antisera prepared against a bacterial protein containing only endonuclease sequences led to the observation that reverse transcriptase and endonuclease can be associated as a complex involving a disulfide bond(s)

  3. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Bah, Clara Shui Fern [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand); Lin, Peng [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Tsao, Sai Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ng, Tzi Bun, E-mail: b021770@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  4. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: from isolation to potential medicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K(i), 0.1 x 10(-9)M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CyclinG1 Amplification Enhances Aurora Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Polyploid Resistance and Inhibition of Bcl-2 Pathway Reverses the Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: CyclinG1 (CycG1 is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors and overexpression of CycG1 promotes cell survival upon paclitaxel exposure by inducing polyploidy. Whether and how CycG1 regulates polyploidization caused by small molecular targeted inhibitors remains unclear. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were utilized to examine protein expression. Cell proliferation was measured by ATPlite assay, and cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry and/or DNA fragmentation assays. Results: Overexpression of CycG1 in breast cancer cells caused apoptosis-resistant polyploidy upon treatment with Aurora kinase inhibitor, ZM447439 (ZM. Addition of ABT-263, a small-molecule BH3 mimetic, to ZM, produced a synergistic loss of cell viability with greater sustained tumor growth inhibition in breast cancer cell lines. Decrease of Mcl-1 and increase of NOXA caused by ZM treatment, were responsible for the synergy. Furthermore, CycG1 was highly expressed in Triple-Negative-Breast-Cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and was paralleled by decreased cell survival. Conclusion: CycG1 is a crucial factor in ZM-induced polyploidy resistance, and ABT-263/ZM combination hold therapeutic utility in the CycG1-amplified subset of breast cancer and CycG1, thus, is a promising target in breast cancer.

  6. Emergence of Lamivudine-Resistant HBV during Antiretroviral Therapy Including Lamivudine for Patients Coinfected with HIV and HBV in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijia; Zhu, Ting; Song, Xiaojing; Huang, Ying; Yang, Feifei; Guan, Shuo; Xie, Jing; Gohda, Jin; Hosoya, Noriaki; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Liu, Wenjun; Gao, George Fu; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Li, Taisheng; Ishida, Takaomi

    2015-01-01

    In China, HIV-1-infected patients typically receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) that includes lamivudine (3TC) as a reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) (ART-3TC). Previous studies from certain developed countries have shown that, in ART-3TC, 3TC-resistant HBV progressively emerges at an annual rate of 15–20% in patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV. This scenario in China warrants investigation because >10% of all HIV-infected patients in China are HBV carriers. We measured the occurrence of 3TC-resistant HBV during ART-3TC for HIV-HBV coinfection and also tested the effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) used as an additional RTI (ART-3TC/TDF) in a cohort study in China. We obtained 200 plasma samples collected from 50 Chinese patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV (positive for hepatitis B surface antigen) and examined them for the prevalence of 3TC-resistant HBV by directly sequencing PCR products that covered the HBV reverse-transcriptase gene. We divided the patients into ART-3TC and ART-3TC/TDF groups and compared the efficacy of treatment and incidence of drug-resistance mutation between the groups. HIV RNA and HBV DNA loads drastically decreased in both ART-3TC and ART-3TC/TDF groups. In the ART-3TC group, HBV breakthrough or insufficient suppression of HBV DNA loads was observed in 20% (10/50) of the patients after 96-week treatment, and 8 of these patients harbored 3TC-resistant mutants. By contrast, neither HBV breakthrough nor treatment failure was recorded in the ART-3TC/TDF group. All of the 3TC-resistant HBV mutants emerged from the cases in which HBV DNA loads were high at baseline. Our results clearly demonstrated that ART-3TC is associated with the emergence of 3TC-resistant HBV in patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV and that ART-3TC/TDF reduces HBV DNA loads to an undetectable level. These findings support the use of TDF-based treatment regimens for patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV. PMID:26288093

  7. Mutations in the Nonstructural Protein 3A Confer Resistance to the Novel Enterovirus Replication Inhibitor TTP-8307

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Palma, Armando M.; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Lanke, Kjerstin; Heggermont, Ward; Ireland, Stephen; Andrews, Robert; Arimilli, Murty; Al-tel, Taleb H.; de Clercq, Erik; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Neyts, Johan

    2009-01-01

    A novel compound, TTP-8307, was identified as a potent inhibitor of the replication of several rhino- and enteroviruses. TTP-8307 inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting polyprotein synthesis and/or processing. Drug-resistant variants of coxsackievirus B3 were all

  8. Allosteric small-molecule kinase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Nielsen, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    current barriers of kinase inhibitors, including poor selectivity and emergence of drug resistance. In spite of the small number of identified allosteric inhibitors in comparison with that of inhibitors targeting the ATP pocket, encouraging results, such as the FDA-approval of the first small...

  9. PRACTICE OF USING VIRAL PROTEASE INHIBITORS IN CHILDREN WITH HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Denisenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of the most effective and safest high-active antiretroviral therapies is a critical issue faced by modern HIV medicine. Authors studied 28 children with HIV infection aged from 3 to 7 divided into two groups administered a combination of two HIV reverse transcriptase nucleoside inhibitors with viral protease nelfinavir inhibitors (n = 13 and lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 15. The subjects in both groups demonstrated a decreased frequency of HIV-associated symptoms and opportunistic infections, positive dynamics of immunological indicators, suppression of HIV replication. When lopinavir/ritonavir was administered, there was more even better dynamics in clinical, immunological and virologic parameters, which allows this medication to be recommended as a antiretroviral therapy for children. Key words: HIV infection, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:62-67

  10. The anti-apoptotic BAG3 protein is involved in BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Luana; Palmieri, Giuseppe; De Marco, Margot; Cossu, Antonio; Remondelli, Paolo; Capunzo, Mario; Turco, Maria Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra

    2017-10-06

    BAG3 protein, a member of BAG family of co-chaperones, has a pro-survival role in several tumour types. BAG3 anti-apoptotic properties rely on its characteristic to bind several intracellular partners, thereby modulating crucial events such as apoptosis, differentiation, cell motility, and autophagy. In human melanomas, BAG3 positivity is correlated with the aggressiveness of the tumour cells and can sustain IKK-γ levels, allowing a sustained activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, BAG3 is able to modulate BRAFV600E levels and activity in thyroid carcinomas. BRAFV600E is the most frequent mutation detected in malignant melanomas and is targeted by Vemurafenib, a specific inhibitor found to be effective in the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, patients with BRAF-mutated melanoma may result insensitive ab initio or, mostly, develop acquired resistance to the treatment with this molecule. Here we show that BAG3 down-modulation interferes with BRAF levels in melanoma cells and sensitizes them to Vemurafenib treatment. Furthermore, the down-modulation of BAG3 protein in an in vitro model of acquired resistance to Vemurafenib can induce sensitization to the BRAFV600E specific inhibition by interfering with BRAF pathway through reduction of ERK phosphorylation, but also on parallel survival pathways. Future studies on BAG3 molecular interactions with key proteins responsible of acquired BRAF inhibitor resistance may represent a promising field for novel multi-drugs treatment design.

  11. Targeting the Warburg effect with a novel glucose transporter inhibitor to overcome gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, I-Lu; Chou, Chih-Chien; Lai, Po-Ting; Fang, Chun-Sheng; Shirley, Lawrence A.; Yan, Ribai; Mo, Xiaokui; Bloomston, Mark; Kulp, Samuel K.; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Gemcitabine resistance remains a significant clinical challenge. Here, we used a novel glucose transporter (Glut) inhibitor, CG-5, as a proof-of-concept compound to investigate the therapeutic utility of targeting the Warburg effect to overcome gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer. The effects of gemcitabine and/or CG-5 on viability, survival, glucose uptake and DNA damage were evaluated in gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis of gemcitabine resistance and the mechanism of CG-5-induced sensitization to gemcitabine. The effects of CG-5 on gemcitabine sensitivity were investigated in a xenograft tumor model of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer. In contrast to gemcitabine-sensitive pancreatic cancer cells, the resistant Panc-1 and Panc-1GemR cells responded to gemcitabine by increasing the expression of ribonucleotide reductase M2 catalytic subunit (RRM2) through E2F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Acting as a pan-Glut inhibitor, CG-5 abrogated this gemcitabine-induced upregulation of RRM2 through decreased E2F1 expression, thereby enhancing gemcitabine-induced DNA damage and inhibition of cell survival. This CG-5-induced inhibition of E2F1 expression was mediated by the induction of a previously unreported E2F1-targeted microRNA, miR-520f. The addition of oral CG-5 to gemcitabine therapy caused greater suppression of Panc-1GemR xenograft tumor growth in vivo than either drug alone. Glut inhibition may be an effective strategy to enhance gemcitabine activity for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24879635

  12. Challenges in Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile L Tremblay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many clinical trials have shown that initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART at higher rather than lower CD4 T cell-positive counts results in survival benefit. Early treatment can help prevent end-organ damage associated with HIV replication and can decrease infectivity. The mainstay of treatment is either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. While effective at combating HIV, ART can produce adverse alterations of lipid parameters, with some studies suggesting a relationship between some anti-retroviral agents and cardiovascular disease. As the HIV-positive population ages, issues such as hypertension and diabetes must be taken into account when initiating ART. Adhering to ART can be difficult; however, nonoptimal adherence to ART can result in the development of resistance; thus, drug characteristics and the patient’s preparedness to begin therapy must be considered. Reducing the pill burden through the use of fixed-dose antiretroviral drug combinations can facilitate adherence.

  13. Genetic basis of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Antonio Rogério Bezerra; Farias, Juliano Ricardo; Bernardi, Daniel; Horikoshi, Renato Jun; Omoto, Celso

    2016-04-01

    An understanding of the genetic basis of insect resistance to insecticides is important for the establishment of insect resistance management (IRM) strategies. In this study we evaluated the inheritance pattern of resistance to the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron in Spodoptera frugiperda. The LC50 values (95% CI) were 0.23 µg lufenuron mL(-1) water (ppm) (0.18-0.28) for the susceptible strain (SUS) and 210.6 µg mL(-1) (175.90-258.10) for the lufenuron-resistant strain (LUF-R), based on diet-overlay bioassay. The resistance ratio was ≈ 915-fold. The LC50 values for reciprocal crosses were 4.89 µg mL(-1) (3.79-5.97) for female LUF-R and male SUS and 5.74 µg mL(-1) (4.70-6.91) for female SUS and male LUF-R, indicating that the inheritance of S. frugiperda resistance to lufenuron is an autosomal, incompletely recessive trait. Backcrosses of the progeny of reciprocal crosses with the parental LUF-R showed a polygenic effect. The estimated minimum number of independent segregations was in the 11.02 range, indicating that resistance to lufenuron is associated with multiple genes in S. frugiperda. Based on genetic crosses, the inheritance pattern of lufenuron resistance in S. frugiperda was autosomal, incompletely recessive and polygenic. Implications of this finding to IRM are discussed in this paper. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Docking and 3-D QSAR studies on indolyl aryl sulfones. Binding mode exploration at the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase non-nucleoside binding site and design of highly active N-(2-hydroxyethyl)carboxamide and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)carbohydrazide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragno, Rino; Artico, Marino; De Martino, Gabriella; La Regina, Giuseppe; Coluccia, Antonio; Di Pasquali, Alessandra; Silvestri, Romano

    2005-01-13

    Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3-D QSAR) studies and docking simulations were developed on indolyl aryl sulfones (IASs), a class of novel HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (Silvestri, et al. J. Med. Chem. 2003, 46, 2482-2493) highly active against wild type and some clinically relevant resistant strains (Y181C, the double mutant K103N-Y181C, and the K103R-V179D-P225H strain, highly resistant to efavirenz). Predictive 3-D QSAR models using the combination of GRID and GOLPE programs were obtained using a receptor-based alignment by means of docking IASs into the non-nucleoside binding site (NNBS) of RT. The derived 3-D QSAR models showed conventional correlation (r(2)) and cross-validated (q(2)) coefficients values ranging from 0.79 to 0.93 and from 0.59 to 0.84, respectively. All described models were validated by an external test set compiled from previously reported pyrryl aryl sulfones (Artico, et al. J. Med. Chem. 1996, 39, 522-530). The most predictive 3-D QSAR model was then used to predict the activity of novel untested IASs. The synthesis of six designed derivatives (prediction set) allowed disclosure of new IASs endowed with high anti-HIV-1 activities.

  15. Antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-1 therapy-naive patients in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lissette; Kourí, Vivian; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeisel; Correa, Consuelo; Aragonés, Carlos; Martínez, Orlando; Pérez, Jorge; Fonseca, Carlos; Campos, Jorge; Álvarez, Delmis; Schrooten, Yoeri; Dekeersmaeker, Nathalie; Imbrechts, Stijn; Beheydt, Gertjan; Vinken, Lore; Soto, Yudira; Álvarez, Alina; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Laethem, Kristel

    2013-06-01

    In Cuba, antiretroviral therapy rollout started in 2001 and antiretroviral therapy coverage has reached almost 40% since then. The objectives of this study were therefore to analyze subtype distribution, and level and patterns of drug resistance in therapy-naive HIV-1 patients. Four hundred and one plasma samples were collected from HIV-1 therapy-naive patients in 2003 and in 2007-2011. HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping was performed in the pol gene and drug resistance was interpreted according to the WHO surveillance drug-resistance mutations list, version 2009. Potential impact on first-line therapy response was estimated using genotypic drug resistance interpretation systems HIVdb version 6.2.0 and Rega version 8.0.2. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Neighbor-Joining. The majority of patients were male (84.5%), men who have sex with men (78.1%) and from Havana City (73.6%). Subtype B was the most prevalent subtype (39.3%), followed by CRF20-23-24_BG (19.5%), CRF19_cpx (18.0%) and CRF18_cpx (10.3%). Overall, 29 patients (7.2%) had evidence of drug resistance, with 4.0% (CI 1.6%-4.8%) in 2003 versus 12.5% (CI 7.2%-14.5%) in 2007-2011. A significant increase in drug resistance was observed in recently HIV-1 diagnosed patients, i.e. 14.8% (CI 8.0%-17.0%) in 2007-2011 versus 3.8% (CI 0.9%-4.7%) in 2003 (OR 3.9, CI 1.5-17.0, p=0.02). The majority of drug resistance was restricted to a single drug class (75.8%), with 55.2% patients displaying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 10.3% non-NRTI (NNRTI) and 10.3% protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations. Respectively, 20.7% and 3.4% patients carried viruses containing drug resistance mutations against NRTI+NNRTI and NRTI+NNRTI+PI. The first cases of resistance towards other drug classes than NRTI were only detected from 2008 onwards. The most frequent resistance mutations were T215Y/rev (44.8%), M41L (31.0%), M184V (17.2%) and K103N (13.8%). The median genotypic susceptibility score for the

  16. Evaluation of candidate biomarkers to predict cancer cell sensitivity or resistance to PARP-1 inhibitor treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oplustilova, L.; Wolanin, K.; Bartkova, J.

    2012-01-01

    combinations with camptothecin or ionizing radiation. Furthermore, monitoring pARsylation and Rad51 foci formation as surrogate markers for PARP activity and HR, respectively, supported their candidacy for biomarkers of PARP-1i responses. As to resistance mechanisms, we confrmed the role of the multidrug......(ADp-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme critical for repair pathways alternative to HR. While promising, treatment with PARP-1 inhibitors (PARP-1i) faces some hurdles, including (1) acquired resistance, (2) search for other sensitizing, non-BRCA1/2 cancer defects and (3) lack of biomarkers to predict response...

  17. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Resistance Profile Characterization of the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor Ledipasvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guofeng; Tian, Yang; Doehle, Brian; Peng, Betty; Corsa, Amoreena; Lee, Yu-Jen; Gong, Ruoyu; Yu, Mei; Han, Bin; Xu, Simin; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Perron, Michel; Xu, Yili; Mo, Hongmei; Pagratis, Nikos; Link, John O; Delaney, William

    2016-01-11

    Ledipasvir (LDV; GS-5885), a component of Harvoni (a fixed-dose combination of LDV with sofosbuvir [SOF]), is approved to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here, we report key preclinical antiviral properties of LDV, including in vitro potency, in vitro resistance profile, and activity in combination with other anti-HCV agents. LDV has picomolar antiviral activity against genotype 1a and genotype 1b replicons with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 0.031 nM and 0.004 nM, respectively. LDV is also active against HCV genotypes 4a, 4d, 5a, and 6a with EC50 values of 0.11 to 1.1 nM. LDV has relatively less in vitro antiviral activity against genotypes 2a, 2b, 3a, and 6e, with EC50 values of 16 to 530 nM. In vitro resistance selection with LDV identified the single Y93H and Q30E resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in the NS5A gene; these RAVs were also observed in patients after a 3-day monotherapy treatment. In vitro antiviral combination studies indicate that LDV has additive to moderately synergistic antiviral activity when combined with other classes of HCV direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, including NS3/4A protease inhibitors and the nucleotide NS5B polymerase inhibitor SOF. Furthermore, LDV is active against known NS3 protease and NS5B polymerase inhibitor RAVs with EC50 values equivalent to those for the wild type. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. BAG3-dependent expression of Mcl-1 confers resistance of mutant KRAS colon cancer cells to the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun Yan; Guo, Su Tang; Croft, Amanda; Yan, Xu Guang; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Xu Dong; Jiang, Chen Chen

    2018-02-01

    Past studies have shown that mutant KRAS colon cancer cells are susceptible to apoptosis induced by the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922. Nevertheless, intrinsic and acquired resistance remains an obstacle for the potential application of the inhibitor in the treatment of the disease. Here we report that Mcl-1 is important for survival of colon cancer cells in the presence of AUY922. Mcl-1 was upregulated in mutant KRAS colon cancer cells selected for resistance to AUY922-induced apoptosis. This was due to its increased stability mediated by Bcl-2-associated athanogene domain 3 (BAG3), which was also increased in resistant colon cancer cells by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) as a result of chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Functional investigations demonstrated that inhibition of Mcl-1, BAG3, or HSF1 triggered apoptosis in resistant colon cancer cells, and rendered AUY922-naïve colon cancer cells more sensitive to the inhibitor. Together, these results identify that the HSF1-BAG3-Mcl-1 signal axis is critical for protection of mutant KRAS colon cancer cells from AUY922-induced apoptosis, with potential implications for targeting HSF1/BAG3/Mcl-1 to improve the efficacy of AUY922 in the treatment of colon cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 6-(1-Benzyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-2,4-dioxo-5-hexenoic acids as dual inhibitors of recombinant HIV-1 integrase and ribonuclease H, synthesized by a parallel synthesis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costi, Roberta; Métifiot, Mathieu; Esposito, Francesca; Cuzzucoli Crucitti, Giuliana; Pescatori, Luca; Messore, Antonella; Scipione, Luigi; Tortorella, Silvano; Zinzula, Luca; Novellino, Ettore; Pommier, Yves; Tramontano, Enzo; Marchand, Christophe; Di Santo, Roberto

    2013-11-14

    The increasing efficiency of HAART has helped to transform HIV/AIDS into a chronic disease. Still, resistance and drug-drug interactions warrant the development of new anti-HIV agents. We previously discovered hit 6, active against HIV-1 replication and targeting RNase H in vitro. Because of its diketo-acid moiety, we speculated that this chemotype could serve to develop dual inhibitors of both RNase H and integrase. Here, we describe a new series of 1-benzyl-pyrrolyl diketohexenoic derivatives, 7a-y and 8a-y, synthesized following a parallel solution-phase approach. Those 50 analogues have been tested on recombinant enzymes (RNase H and integrase) and in cell-based assays. Approximately half (22) exibited inhibition of HIV replication. Compounds 7b, 7u, and 8g were the most active against the RNase H activity of reverse-transcriptase, with IC50 values of 3, 3, and 2.5 μM, respectively. Compound 8g was also the most potent integrase inhibitor with an IC50 value of 26 nM.

  20. Prevalence of polymorphisms with significant resistance to NS5A inhibitors in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis C virus genotypes 1a and 3a in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Ida; Kjellin, Midori; Palanisamy, Navaneethan; Bondeson, Kåre; Wesslén, Lars; Lannergard, Anders; Lennerstrand, Johan

    2015-08-01

    The future treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection will be combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that not only target multiple viral targets, but are also effective against different HCV genotypes. Of the many drug targets in HCV, one promising target is the non-structural 5A protein (NS5A), against which inhibitors, namely daclatasvir, ledipasvir and ombitasvir, have shown potent efficacy. However, since HCV is known to have very high sequence diversity, development of resistance is a problem against but not limited to NS5A inhibitors (i.e. resistance also found against NS3-protease and NS5B non-nucleoside inhibitors), when used in suboptimal combinations. Furthermore, it has been shown that natural resistance against DAAs is present in treatment-naïve patients and such baseline resistance will potentially complicate future treatment strategies. A pan-genotypic population-sequencing method with degenerated primers targeting the NS5A region was developed. We have investigated the prevalence of baseline resistant variants in 127 treatment-naïve patients of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2b and 3a. The method could successfully sequence more than 95% of genotype 1a, 1b and 3a samples. Interpretation of fold resistance data against the NS5A inhibitors was done with the help of earlier published phenotypic data. Baseline resistance variants associated with high resistance (1000-50,000-fold) was found in three patients: Q30H or Y93N in genotype 1a patients and further Y93H in a genotype 3a patient. Using this method, baseline resistance can be examined and the data could have a potential role in selecting the optimal and cost-efficient treatment for the patient.

  1. Emergent HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations Were Not Present at Low-Frequency at Baseline in Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Treated Subjects in the STaR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Danielle P; Daeumer, Martin; Thielen, Alexander; Chang, Silvia; Martin, Ross; Cohen, Cal; Miller, Michael D; White, Kirsten L

    2015-12-07

    At Week 96 of the Single-Tablet Regimen (STaR) study, more treatment-naïve subjects that received rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (RPV/FTC/TDF) developed resistance mutations compared to those treated with efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF by population sequencing. Furthermore, more RPV/FTC/TDF-treated subjects with baseline HIV-1 RNA >100,000 copies/mL developed resistance compared to subjects with baseline HIV-1 RNA ≤100,000 copies/mL. Here, deep sequencing was utilized to assess the presence of pre-existing low-frequency variants in subjects with and without resistance development in the STaR study. Deep sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) was performed on baseline and virologic failure samples for all subjects analyzed for resistance by population sequencing during the clinical study (n = 33), as well as baseline samples from control subjects with virologic response (n = 118). Primary NRTI or NNRTI drug resistance mutations present at low frequency (≥2% to 20%) were detected in 6.6% of baseline samples by deep sequencing, all of which occurred in control subjects. Deep sequencing results were generally consistent with population sequencing but detected additional primary NNRTI and NRTI resistance mutations at virologic failure in seven samples. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations emerging while on RPV/FTC/TDF or EFV/FTC/TDF treatment were not present at low frequency at baseline in the STaR study.

  2. Emergent HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations Were Not Present at Low-Frequency at Baseline in Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Treated Subjects in the STaR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle P. Porter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At Week 96 of the Single-Tablet Regimen (STaR study, more treatment-naïve subjects that received rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (RPV/FTC/TDF developed resistance mutations compared to those treated with efavirenz (EFV/FTC/TDF by population sequencing. Furthermore, more RPV/FTC/TDF-treated subjects with baseline HIV-1 RNA >100,000 copies/mL developed resistance compared to subjects with baseline HIV-1 RNA ≤100,000 copies/mL. Here, deep sequencing was utilized to assess the presence of pre-existing low-frequency variants in subjects with and without resistance development in the STaR study. Deep sequencing (Illumina MiSeq was performed on baseline and virologic failure samples for all subjects analyzed for resistance by population sequencing during the clinical study (n = 33, as well as baseline samples from control subjects with virologic response (n = 118. Primary NRTI or NNRTI drug resistance mutations present at low frequency (≥2% to 20% were detected in 6.6% of baseline samples by deep sequencing, all of which occurred in control subjects. Deep sequencing results were generally consistent with population sequencing but detected additional primary NNRTI and NRTI resistance mutations at virologic failure in seven samples. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations emerging while on RPV/FTC/TDF or EFV/FTC/TDF treatment were not present at low frequency at baseline in the STaR study.

  3. Tyrosine and aurora kinase inhibitors diminish transport function of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP 4 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon N. Hardwick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine and aurora kinases are important effectors in signal transduction pathways that are often involved in aberrant cancer cell growth. Tyrosine (TKI and aurora (AKI kinase inhibitors are anti-cancer agents specifically designed to target such signaling pathways through TKI/AKI binding to the ATP-binding pocket of kinases thereby leading to diminished kinase activity. Some TKIs have been identified as inhibitors of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, which are commonly upregulated in malignant cells. TKI/AKIs have been investigated as ABC transporter inhibitors in order to facilitate the accumulation of concomitantly administered chemo-therapeutics within cancer cells. However, ABC transporters are prominently expressed in the liver and other eliminating organs, and their inhibition has been linked to intracellular accumulation of drugs, altered disposition, and toxicity. The potential for TKIs/AKIs to inhibit other important hepatic efflux transporters, particularly multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs, remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to compare the inhibitory potency of 20 selected TKI/AKIs against MRP4 and BCRP through the use of inverted membrane vesicle assays. Relative IC50 values were estimated by determining TKI/AKI inhibition of MRP4-mediated [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate uptake and BCRP-mediated [3H]-estrone sulfate uptake. To provide insight to the clinical relevance of TKI/AKI inhibition of ABC efflux transporters, the ratio of the steady-state maximum total plasma concentration (Css to the IC50 for each compound was calculated with Css/IC50 ratio >0.1 deemed potentially clinically relevant. Such analysis identified several potentially clinically relevant inhibitors of MRP4: alisertib, danusertib, erlotinib, lapatinib, neratinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, and tozasertib. The potentially clinically relevant inhibition of

  4. Inhibition of cornifins and up-regulation of protease inhibitors in cervicovaginal lavage imparts resistance to heterosexual HIV transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama Rokade

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs are persons who remain seronegative despite repeated exposure to HIV, suggesting an in vivo resistance mechanism to HIV. Elucidation of endogenous factors responsible for this phenomenon may aid in the development of new classes of microbicides and therapeutics. The genital mucosal secretions of both men and women are known to contain a spectrum of antimicrobials and immune mediators that may contribute to resistance against HIV-1. Existence of HIV serodiscordant couples is a testimony to mucosal factors in the genital tract that prevent sexual transmission of the virus. We attempted to map such mucosal factors in female genital secretions of the serodiscordant couples in comparison with HIV infected and healthy participants using quantitative proteomics. The cervico vaginal lavage (CVL samples were collected from three groups of study participants (HIV infected, n=30; Un-infected Controls, n=10; Serodiscordant, n=24. Abundant proteins, albumin and globulins were removed from the pooled samples using multiple affinity removal spin cartridge (Agilent to enhance the sensitivity of iTRAQ proteomics analysis. Initial analysis identified a total of 135 proteins and associated 497 peptide matches. Serodiscordant females showed significantly down regulated levels of Cornifin A, B and C, Neutrophil gelatinase, myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Cornifins are cross-linked envelope protein of keratinocytes and are upregulated during inflammation. Downregulation of oxidative stress inducing enzymes and cornifins suggests immune-quiescence in serodiscordant females. CVL of these women showed significantly upregulated levels of Mucin 5B, S100A7, Alpha-2-macroglobulin, Cystatin A (protease inhibitor, Lacto-transferrin, SLPI (anti-leukoproteinase inhibitor and SERPIN G1 (protease inhibitor.  Significantly elevated levels of Cystatin B and Elafin in the CVL of serodiscordant females were confirmed by ELISA

  5. In vitro effects of beta-lactams combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Arai, S; Hayashi, S; Sakaguchi, T

    1989-01-01

    The effects of combinations of beta-lactams with two beta-lactamase inhibitors, sulbactam and clavulanic acid, were determined in vitro against 22 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Combinations of cefpirome, cefotaxime, and cefazolin with sulbactam (10 micrograms/ml) showed synergistic effects against more than 70% of the strains. Combinations of methicillin and penicillin G with sulbactam also showed synergistic effects against 50 and 68% of the strains, respectively, while cefotiam, moxalactam, flomoxef, and cefmetazole in combination with sulbactam showed such effects against only 40% or fewer. Clavulanic acid was synergistic only when combined with penicillin G, the effect probably being due to the beta-lactamase inhibition by the inhibitor. Sulbactam did not improve the antimicrobial activities of the beta-lactams against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains. At 42 degrees C the MICs of cefotaxime, methicillin, and flomoxef alone were markedly decreased from the values at 35 degrees C, and no synergy between these beta-lactams and sulbactam appeared. The resistance to penicillin G was not inhibited by incubation at 42 degrees C, and combinations of penicillin G with sulbactam and clavulanic acid showed synergy. The amounts of beta-lactamase produced were not related to the decreases in the MICs of the beta-lactams, except for penicillin G combined with sulbactam. Clavulanic acid showed slightly stronger beta-lactamase-inhibiting activity than sulbactam did. These results suggest that the synergy between sulbactam and the beta-lactams, except for penicillin G, may not be due to beta-lactamase inhibition but to suppression of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus-specific resistance based on other factors. PMID:2786369

  6. Mechanisms of Acquired Drug Resistance to the HDAC6 Selective Inhibitor Ricolinostat Reveals Rational Drug-Drug Combination with Ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Jennifer E; Prabhu, Sathyen A; Lombardo, Maximilian; Zullo, Kelly; Johannet, Paul M; Gonzalez, Yulissa; Scotto, Luigi; Serrano, Xavier Jirau; Wei, Ying; Duong, Jimmy; Nandakumar, Renu; Cremers, Serge; Verma, Akanksha; Elemento, Olivier; O'Connor, Owen A

    2017-06-15

    Purpose: Pan-class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are effective treatments for select lymphomas. Isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors are emerging as potentially more targeted agents. ACY-1215 (ricolinostat) is a first-in-class selective HDAC6 inhibitor. To better understand the discrete function of HDAC6 and its role in lymphoma, we developed a lymphoma cell line resistant to ACY-1215. Experimental Design: The diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line OCI-Ly10 was exposed to increasing concentrations of ACY-1215 over an extended period of time, leading to the development of a resistant cell line. Gene expression profiling (GEP) was performed to investigate differentially expressed genes. Combination studies of ACY-1215 and ibrutinib were performed in cell lines, primary human lymphoma tissue, and a xenograft mouse model. Results: Systematic incremental increases in drug exposure led to the development of distinct resistant cell lines with IC 50 values 10- to 20-fold greater than that for parental lines. GEP revealed upregulation of MAPK10, HELIOS, HDAC9, and FYN, as well as downregulation of SH3BP5 and LCK. Gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed modulation of the BTK pathway. Ibrutinib was found to be synergistic with ACY-1215 in cell lines as well as in 3 primary patient samples of lymphoma. In vivo confirmation of antitumor synergy was demonstrated with a xenograft of DLBCL. Conclusions: The development of this ACY-1215-resistant cell line has provided valuable insights into the mechanistic role of HDAC6 in lymphoma and offered a novel method to identify rational synergistic drug combinations. Translation of these findings to the clinic is underway. Clin Cancer Res; 23(12); 3084-96. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Detection of reverse transcriptase termination sites using cDNA ligation and massive parallel sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielpinski, Lukasz J; Boyd, Mette; Sandelin, Albin

    2013-01-01

    Detection of reverse transcriptase termination sites is important in many different applications, such as structural probing of RNAs, rapid amplification of cDNA 5' ends (5' RACE), cap analysis of gene expression, and detection of RNA modifications and protein-RNA cross-links. The throughput...... of these methods can be increased by applying massive parallel sequencing technologies.Here, we describe a versatile method for detection of reverse transcriptase termination sites based on ligation of an adapter to the 3' end of cDNA with bacteriophage TS2126 RNA ligase (CircLigase™). In the following PCR...

  8. NEW DRUGS NEW TARGETS AND NOVEL ANTIRETROVIRALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-11-02

    Nov 2, 2005 ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has to date been based on use of a triple combination of drugs chosen from three classes of antiretrovirals (ARVs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs).

  9. Inhibition of p70S6K1 Activation by Pdcd4 Overcomes the Resistance to an IGF-1R/IR Inhibitor in Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qing; Chen, Li; Yang, Hsin-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Agents targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are being actively examined in clinical trials. Although there has been some initial success of single-agent targeting IGF-1R, attempts in later studies failed because of resistance. This study aimed to understand the effects of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) on the chemosensitivity of the IGF-1R inhibitor OSI-906 in colorectal cancer cells and the mechanism underlying this impact. Using OSI-906-resistant and -sensitive colorectal cancer cells, we found that the Pdcd4 level directly correlates with cell chemosensitivity to OSI-906. In addition, tumors derived from Pdcd4 knockdown cells resist the growth inhibitory effect of OSI-906 in a colorectal cancer xenograft mouse model. Moreover, Pdcd4 enhances the antiproliferative effect of OSI-906 in resistant cells through suppression of p70S6K1 activation. Knockdown of p70S6K1, but not p70S6K2, significantly increases the chemosensitivity of OSI-906 in cultured colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of OSI-906 and PF-4708671, a p70S6K1 inhibitor, efficiently suppresses the growth of OSI-906-resistant colon tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, activation of p70S6K1 that is inhibited by Pdcd4 is essential for resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor in colon tumor cells, and the combinational treatment of OSI-906 and PF-4708671 results in enhanced antiproliferation effects in colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, providing a novel venue to overcome the resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor in treating colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Interaction of the EGFR inhibitors gefitinib, vandetanib, pelitinib and neratinib with the ABCG2 multidrug transporter: implications for the emergence and reversal of cancer drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, Csilla; Truta-Feles, Krisztina; Antalffy, Géza; Várady, György; Német, Katalin; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Kéri, György; Orfi, László; Szakács, Gergely; Settleman, Jeffrey; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2012-08-01

    Human ABCG2 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that provides physiological protection against xenobiotics. ABCG2 also significantly influences biodistribution of drugs through pharmacological tissue barriers and confers multidrug resistance to cancer cells. Moreover, ABCG2 is the molecular determinant of the side population that is characteristically enriched in normal and cancer stem cells. Numerous tumors depend on unregulated EGFR signaling, thus inhibition of this receptor by small molecular weight inhibitors such as gefitinib, and the novel second generation agents vandetanib, pelitinib and neratinib, is a promising therapeutic option. In the present study, we provide detailed biochemical characterization regarding the interaction of these EGFR inhibitors with ABCG2. We show that ABCG2 confers resistance to gefitinib and pelitinib, whereas the intracellular action of vandetanib and neratinib is unaltered by the presence of the transporter. At higher concentrations, however, all these EGFR inhibitors inhibit ABCG2 function, thereby promoting accumulation of ABCG2 substrate drugs. We also report enhanced expression of ABCG2 in gefitinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells, suggesting potential clinical relevance of ABCG2 in acquired drug resistance. Since ABCG2 has important impact on both the pharmacological properties and anti-cancer efficiencies of drugs, our results regarding the novel EGFR inhibitors should provide useful information about their therapeutic applicability against ABCG2-expressing cancer cells depending on EGFR signaling. In addition, the finding that these EGFR inhibitors efficiently block ABCG2 function may help to design novel drug-combination therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors in patients infected with diverse HIV-1 subtypes in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inzaule, Seth C.; Hamers, Raph L.; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Casadellà, Maria; Parera, Mariona; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Paredes, Roger

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and patterns of major and accessory resistance mutations associated with integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), across diverse HIV-1 subtypes in sub-Saharan Africa. pol gene sequences were obtained using Illumina next-generation sequencing from 425 INSTI-naive

  12. Reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitor resistant mutations in art treatment naïve and treated HIV-1 infected children in India A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bure,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of first line and second line antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved the quality of life and survival of the HIV-1 infected individuals. Extension of this therapy in children has similar effect. However the emergence of drug selected resistance has hampered the response to the therapy. A database of prevalence of drug resistance mutations in the Indian children both ART naïve and treated will help in deciding the appropriate regimen for the individual patient as well as formulating the policies regarding the composition of drugs included in the fixed dose combinations and its periodic review by analysis of the information that is made available from time to time. This will enable us to utilize our limited resources in most prudent way.

  13. Intrinsic resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is associated with poor clinical outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jonas; Grünwald, Viktor; Seidel, Christoph; Weikert, Steffen; Wolff, Ingmar; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Weinkauf, Lisa; Hinz, Stefan; Magheli, Ahmed; Miller, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Data on sequential therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and intrinsic resistance to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (rTKI) treatment remains vague. We retrospectively studied treatment characteristics and outcome of mRCC patients refractory to first rTKI therapy. Thirty-five mRCC patients (male, 18; female, 11) with primary resistance to first rTKI therapy (sunitinib, n = 28; sorafenib, n = 7) and a median treatment interval of 2.4 months (1 - 4.6) were identified. In 22 patients, progressive disease (PD) was determined by a new metastatic lesion. Of these, 16 patients received subsequent therapy with 12 patients remaining refractory and 4 patients achieving disease stabilization. In 13 patients continuous growth of existing metastatic lesions determined PD. Of these, 9 received sequential therapy with 6 achieving disease stabilization. Altogether, 25 patients were treated sequentially (rTKI: n = 15; mTOR-inhibitor: n = 10) and achieved a median PFS of 3.2 months (range, 1-16.6). Fifteen patients failed to respond to either line of therapy. Disease control was not associated with type of subsequent therapy. Median OS was 14.9 months (CI: 5.5-24.4). Intrinsic resistance to rTKI is associated with a low chance of response to sequential therapy and a poor prognosis in mRCC patients

  14. Design and synthesis of N₁-aryl-benzimidazoles 2-substituted as novel HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Anna-Maria; Ferro, Stefania; De Luca, Laura; Lo Surdo, Giuseppa; Morreale, Francesca; Pannecouque, Christophe; Balzarini, Jan; Chimirri, Alba

    2014-02-15

    A series of novel N1-aryl-2-arylthioacetamido-benzimidazoles were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Some of them proved to be effective in inhibiting HIV-1 replication at submicromolar and nanomolar concentration acting as HIV-1 non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs), with low cytotoxicity. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these new derivatives was discussed and rationalized by docking studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New targets and novel antiretrovirals | Wood | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has to date been based on use of a triple combination of drugs chosen from three classes of antiretrovirals (ARVs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). These ARV classes ...

  16. Resistance to EGF receptor inhibitors in glioblastoma mediated by phosphorylation of the PTEN tumor suppressor at tyrosine 240.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Tim R; Nathanson, David; Ponte de Albuquerque, Claudio; Kuga, Daisuke; Iwanami, Akio; Dang, Julie; Yang, Huijun; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Uno, Miyuki; Inda, Maria del Mar; Wykosky, Jill; Bachoo, Robert M; James, C David; DePinho, Ronald A; Vandenberg, Scott R; Zhou, Huilin; Marie, Suely K N; Mischel, Paul S; Cavenee, Webster K; Furnari, Frank B

    2012-08-28

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive of the astrocytic malignancies and the most common intracranial tumor in adults. Although the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed and/or mutated in at least 50% of GBM cases and is required for tumor maintenance in animal models, EGFR inhibitors have thus far failed to deliver significant responses in GBM patients. One inherent resistance mechanism in GBM is the coactivation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, which generates redundancy in activation of phosphoinositide-3'-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Here we demonstrate that the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor is frequently phosphorylated at a conserved tyrosine residue, Y240, in GBM clinical samples. Phosphorylation of Y240 is associated with shortened overall survival and resistance to EGFR inhibitor therapy in GBM patients and plays an active role in mediating resistance to EGFR inhibition in vitro. Y240 phosphorylation can be mediated by both fibroblast growth factor receptors and SRC family kinases (SFKs) but does not affect the ability of PTEN to antagonize PI3K signaling. These findings show that, in addition to genetic loss and mutation of PTEN, its modulation by tyrosine phosphorylation has important implications for the development and treatment of GBM.

  17. SCREENING OF PROTEASE INHIBITORS RESISTANCE MUTATIONS IN HEPATITIS C VIRUS ISOLATES INFECTING ROMANIAN PATIENTS UNEXPOSED TO TRIPLE THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Sorin; Calistru, Petre-Iacob; Ceauşu, Emanoil; Târdeil, Graţiela; Oprişan, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Although the European recommendations include the use of new antiviral drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C, in Romania the current treatment remains interferon plus ribavirin. First generation viral protease inhibitors (i.e. boceprevir, telaprevir), which have raised the chances of obtaining viral clearance in up to 70% of infection cases produced by genotype 1 isolates, have not been introduced yet as standard treatment in our country. The success of these new antivirals is limited by the occurrence and selection of resistance mutations during therapy. We set-up a molecular study aiming to detect any resistance mutations to boceprevir and telaprevir harbored by hepatitis C isolates infecting Romanian patients naïve to viral protease inhibitors. Since these new antivirals are efficient and approved for genotype 1 infection, viral samples were genotyped following a protocol previously developed by our research group. We analyzed by both population sequencing and molecular cloning and sequencing the NS3 protease region of hepatitis C virus isolates infecting patients which were not previously exposed to boceprevir and telaprevir. All the analyzed samples were subtype 1b and resembled the samples collected in recent years from Romanian patients. Molecular cloning followed by sequencing showed great intra-host diversity, which is known to represent the source of isolates with different resistance phenotypes. Both population sequencing and molecular cloning followed by clone sequencing revealed two boceprevir resistance mutations (T54S and V55A), respectively, a telaprevir resistance mutation (T54S) in the sequences obtained from a patient with chronic hepatitis C. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the existence of pre-treatment resistance mutations to boceprevir and telaprevir in hepatitis C virus isolates infecting Romanian patients.

  18. Discovery of 2,4-diarylaminopyrimidines bearing a resorcinol motif as novel ALK inhibitors to overcome the G1202R resistant mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Kaijun; Xia, Zongjun; Ji, Yinchun; Zhang, Ruisi Ruthy; Sun, Deqiao; Ai, Jing; Song, Zilan; Geng, Meiyu; Zhang, Ao

    2018-01-20

    To address drug resistance caused by ALK kinase mutations, especially the most refractory and predominant mutation G1202R for the second-generation ALK inhibitor, a series of new diarylaminopyrimidine analogues were designed by incorporating a resorcinol moiety (A-ring) to interact the ALK kinase domain where the G1202R is located. Compound 12d turns out as the most potent with IC 50 values of 1.7, 3.5, and 1.8 nM against ALK wild type, gatekeeper mutant L1196M, and the G1202R mutant, respectively. More importantly, compound 12d has excellent inhibitory effects against the proliferation of BaF3 cells specifically expressing ALK wild type, gatekeeper L1196M, and the most challenging mutant G1202R, with IC 50 values all less than 1.5 nM. Collectively, compound 12d is worthy of further investigation as a new more potent third-generation ALK inhibitor to circumvent drug resistance of both the first-generation and the second-generation inhibitors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Apoptosis-related molecular differences for response to tyrosin kinase inhibitors in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant human bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family is reportedly overexpressed in bladder cancer, and tyrosine kinaseinhibitors (TKIs have been suggested as treatment. Gefitinib is a selective inhibitor of the EGFR and lapatinib is a dual inhibitor of both the EGFR and HER2 (human EGFR type 2 receptor. Both compounds compete with the binding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP to the tyrosine kinase domain of the respective receptors to inhibit receptor autophosphorylation causing suppression of signal transduction. Unfortunately, resistance to these inhibitors is a major clinical problem. Aims: To compare the apoptosis signaling pathway(s induced by gefitinib and lapatinib, in UM-UC-5 (drug-sensitive and UM-UC-14 (drug-resistant bladder cancer cells and to identify molecular differences that might be useful predictors of their efficacy. Materials and Methods: Cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis assay were used to detect the effect of TKIs on UM-UC-5 and UM-UC-14 cells. Molecular differences for response to TKIs were examined by protein array. Results: TKIs strongly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis in UM-UC-5 cells. Most notable apoptosis molecular differences included decreased claspin, trail, and survivin by TKIs in the sensitive cells. In contrast, TKIs had no effect on resistant cells. Conclusions: Claspin, trail, and survivin might be used to determine the sensitivity of bladder cancers to TKIs.

  20. The mTOR inhibitor, everolimus (RAD001), overcomes resistance to imatinib in quiescent Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwatsuka, Y; Minami, M; Minami, Y; Sugimoto, K; Hayakawa, F; Miyata, Y; Abe, A; Goff, D J; Kiyoi, H; Naoe, T

    2011-01-01

    In Ph-positive (Ph + ) leukemia, the quiescent cell state is one of the reasons for resistance to the BCR-ABL-kinase inhibitor, imatinib. In order to examine the mechanisms of resistance due to quiescence and the effect of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, everolimus, for such a resistant population, we used Ph + acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient cells serially xenotransplanted into NOD/SCID/IL2rγ null (NOG) mice. Spleen cells from leukemic mice showed a higher percentage of slow-cycling G 0 cells in the CD34 + CD38 − population compared with the CD34 + CD38 + and CD34 − populations. After ex vivo imatinib treatment, more residual cells were observed in the CD34 + CD38 − population than in the other populations. Although slow-cycling G 0 cells were insensitive to imatinib in spite of BCR-ABL and CrkL dephosphorylation, combination treatment with everolimus induced substantial cell death, including that of the CD34 + CD38 − population, with p70-S6 K dephosphorylation and decrease of MCL-1 expression. The leukemic non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mouse system with the in vivo combination treatment with imatinib and everolimus showed a decrease of tumor burden including CD34 + cells. These results imply that treatment with everolimus can overcome resistance to imatinib in Ph + leukemia due to quiescence

  1. The Antiviral Activity of Approved and Novel Drugs against HIV-1 Mutations Evaluated under the Consideration of Dose-Response Curve Slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Chang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify common HIV-1 mutation complexes affecting the slope of inhibition curve, and to propose a new parameter incorporating both the IC50 and the slope to evaluate phenotypic resistance.Utilizing site-directed mutagenesis, we constructed 22 HIV-1 common mutation complexes. IC50 and slope of 10 representative approved drugs and a novel agent against these mutations were measured to determine the resistance phenotypes. The values of new parameter incorporating both the IC50 and the slope of the inhibition curve were calculated, and the correlations between parameters were assessed.Depending on the class of drug, there were intrinsic differences in how the resistance mutations affected the drug parameters. All of the mutations resulted in large increases in the IC50s of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The effects of the mutations on the slope were the most apparent when examining their effects on the inhibition of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. For example, some mutations, such as V82A, had no effect on IC50, but reduced the slope. We proposed a new concept, termed IIPatoxic, on the basis of IC50, slope and the maximum limiting concentrations of the drug. The IIPatoxic values of 10 approved drugs and 1 novel agent were calculated, and were closely related to the IIPmax values (r > 0.95, p < 0.001.This study confirms that resistance mutations cannot be accurately assessed by IC50 alone, because it tends to underestimate the degree of resistance. The slope parameter is of very importance in the measurement of drug resistance and the effect can be applied to more complex patterns of resistance. This is the most apparent when testing the effects of the mutations on protease inhibitors activity. We also propose a new index, IIPatoxic, which incorporates both the IC50 and the slope. This new index could complement current IIP indices, thereby enabling predict the

  2. Retrotransposon-Encoded Reverse Transcriptase in the Genesis, Progression and Cellular Plasticity of Human Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Matteucci, Claudia; Spadafora, Corrado

    2011-01-01

    LINE-1 (Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements) and HERVs (Human Endogenous Retroviruses) are two families of autonomously replicating retrotransposons that together account for about 28% of the human genome. Genes harbored within LINE-1 and HERV retrotransposons, particularly those encoding the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme, are generally expressed at low levels in differentiated cells, but their expression is upregulated in transformed cells and embryonic tissues. Here we discuss a recently discovered RT-dependent mechanism that operates in tumorigenesis and reversibly modulates phenotypic and functional variations associated with tumor progression. Downregulation of active LINE-1 elements drastically reduces the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells, paralleled by reduced proliferation and increased differentiation. Pharmacological RT inhibitors (e.g., nevirapine and efavirenz) exert similar effects on tumorigenic cell lines, both in culture and in animal models. The HERV-K family play a distinct complementary role in stress-dependent transition of melanoma cells from an adherent, non-aggressive, to a non-adherent, highly malignant, growth phenotype. In synthesis, the retrotransposon-encoded RT is increasingly emerging as a key regulator of tumor progression and a promising target in a novel anti-cancer therapy

  3. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of doravirine, a novel HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, after single and multiple doses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matt S; Gilmartin, Jocelyn; Cilissen, Caroline; De Lepeleire, Inge; Van Bortel, Luc; Dockendorf, Marissa F; Tetteh, Ernestina; Ancona, June K; Liu, Rachael; Guo, Ying; Wagner, John A; Butterton, Joan R

    2015-01-01

    Doravirine is a novel non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with potent activity against wild-type virus (95% inhibitory concentration 19 nM, 50% human serum). Doravirine has low potential to cause drug-drug interactions since it is primarily eliminated by oxidative metabolism and does not inhibit or significantly induce drug-metabolizing enzymes. The pharmacokinetics and safety of doravirine were investigated in two double-blind, dose-escalation studies in healthy males. Thirty-two subjects received single doses of doravirine (6-1,200 mg) or matching placebo tablets; 40 subjects received doravirine (30-750 mg) or matching placebo tablets once daily for 10 days. In addition, the effect of doravirine (120 mg for 14 days) on single-dose pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam was evaluated (10 subjects). The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of doravirine was achieved within 1-5 h with an apparent terminal half-life of 12-21 h. Consistent with single-dose pharmacokinetics, steady state was achieved after approximately 7 days of once daily administration, with accumulation ratios (day 10/day 1) of 1.1-1.5 in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUC0-24 h), Cmax and trough plasma concentration (C24 h). All dose levels produced C24 h>19 nM. Administration of 50 mg doravirine with a high-fat meal was associated with slight elevations in AUC time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and C24 h with no change in Cmax. Midazolam AUC0-∞ was slightly reduced by coadministration of doravirine (geometric mean ratio 0.82, 90% CI 0.70, 0.97). There was no apparent relationship between adverse event frequency or intensity and doravirine dose. No rash or significant central nervous system events other than headache were reported. Doravirine is generally well tolerated in single doses up to 1,200 mg and multiple doses up to 750 mg once daily for up to 10 days, with a pharmacokinetic profile supportive of once

  4. Ethanol from lignocellulose - Fermentation inhibitors, detoxification and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Simona

    2000-07-01

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulose by first hydrolysing the material to sugars, and then fermenting the hydrolysate with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis using dilute sulphuric acid has advantages over other methods, however, compounds which inhibit fermentation are generated during this kind of hydrolysis. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds was investigated. The generation of inhibitors during hydrolysis was studied using Norway spruce as raw material. It was concluded that the decrease in the fermentability coincided with increasing harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. The decrease in fermentability was not correlated solely to the content of aliphatic acids or furan derivatives. To increase the fermentability, detoxification is often employed. Twelve detoxification methods were compared with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrolysate and the fermentability after treatment. The most efficient detoxification methods were anion-exchange at pH 10.0, overliming and enzymatic detoxification with the phenol-oxidase laccase. Detailed analyses of ion exchange revealed that anion exchange and unspecific hydrophobic interactions greatly contributed to the detoxification effect, while cation exchange did not. The comparison of detoxification methods also showed that phenolic compounds are very important fermentation inhibitors, as their selective removal with laccase had a major positive effect on the fermentability. Selected compounds; aliphatic acids, furans and phenolic compounds, were characterised with respect to their inhibitory effect on ethanolic fermentation by S. cerevisiae. When aliphatic acids or furans were compared, the inhibitory effects were found to be in the same range, but the phenolic compounds displayed widely different inhibitory effects. The possibility of genetically engineering S. cerevisiae to achieve increased inhibitor resistance was explored by heterologous expression of

  5. A significant reduction in the frequency of HIV-1 drug resistance in Québec from 2001 to 2011 is associated with a decrease in the monitored viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Charest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance represents a major threat for effective treatment. We assessed the trends in the frequency of drug resistance mutations and the monitored viral load (VL in treatment-naïve (TN and treatment-experienced (TE individuals infected with HIV-1 in Québec, Canada, between 2001 and 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Resistance data were obtained from 4,105 and 5,086 genotypic tests performed on TN and TE patients, respectively. Concomitantly, 274,161 VL tests were carried out in the Province. Changes over time in drug resistance frequency and in different categories of VL were assessed using univariate logistic regression. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between the rates of certain mutations and antiretroviral prescriptions. From 2001 to 2011, the proportion of undetectable VL test results continually increased, from 42.1% to 75.9%, while a significant decrease in the frequency of resistance mutations associated with protease inhibitors [PI (from 54% to 16%], nucleoside [NRTI (from 78% to 37% and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTI (from 44% to 31%] was observed in TE patients. In TN individuals, the overall frequency of transmitted drug resistance was 13.1%. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the introduction of co-formulated emtricitabine/tenofovir or emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz was positively associated with the decrease of the frequency of the M184I/V mutations observed overtime (p = 0.0004. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant decrease in the frequency of drug resistance mutations in TE patients, concomitant with a decrease in the proportion of patients with detectable viremia. These findings may be related to both the increased potencies and adherence to therapy associated with newer antiretroviral regimens. Nevertheless, our data demonstrate that broad use of antiretrovirals does not increase the level of circulating drug resistant

  6. Indolyl aryl sulfones as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: role of two halogen atoms at the indole ring in developing new analogues with improved antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, Giuseppe La; Coluccia, Antonio; Piscitelli, Francesco; Bergamini, Alberto; Sinistro, Anna; Cavazza, Antonella; Maga, Giovanni; Samuele, Alberta; Zanoli, Samantha; Novellino, Ettore; Artico, Marino; Silvestri, Romano

    2007-10-04

    Indolyl aryl sulfones bearing the 4,5-difluoro (10) or 5-chloro-4-fluoro (16) substitution pattern at the indole ring were potent inhibitors of HIV-1 WT and the NNRTI-resistant strains Y181C and K103N-Y181C. These compounds were highly effective against the 112 and the AB1 strains in lymphocytes and inhibited at nanomolar concentration the multiplication of the IIIBBa-L strain in macrophages. Compound 16 was exceptionally potent against RT WT and RTs carrying the K103N, Y181I, and L100I mutations.

  7. Structure-Activity Analysis of Vinylogous Urea Inhibitors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Encoded Ribonuclease H ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Suhman; Wendeler, Michaela; Rausch, Jason W.; Beilhartz, Greg; Gotte, Matthias; O'Keefe, Barry R.; Bermingham, Alun; Beutler, John A.; Liu, Shixin; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Le Grice, Stuart F. J.

    2010-01-01

    Vinylogous ureas 2-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-cyclohepta[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide and N-[3-(aminocarbonyl)-4,5-dimethyl-2-thienyl]-2-furancarboxamide (compounds 1 and 2, respectively) were recently identified to be modestly potent inhibitors of the RNase H activity of HIV-1 and HIV-2 reverse transcriptase (RT). Both compounds shared a 3-CONH2-substituted thiophene ring but were otherwise structurally unrelated, which prevented a precise definition of the pharmacophore. We have therefore exa...

  8. Scaffold hopping: exploration of acetanilide-containing uracil analogues as potential NNRTIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkov, Denis A; Valuev-Elliston, Vladimir T; Paramonova, Maria P; Ozerov, Alexander A; Ivanov, Alexander V; Chizhov, Alexander O; Khandazhinskaya, Anastasia L; Kochetkov, Sergey N; Balzarini, Jan; Daelemans, Dirk; Pannecouque, Christophe; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L; Novikov, Mikhail S

    2015-03-01

    In order to identify novel nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase two series of amide-containing uracil derivatives were designed as hybrids of two scaffolds of previously reported inhibitors. Subsequent biological evaluation confirmed acetamide uracil derivatives 15a-k as selective micromolar NNRTIs with a first generation-like resistance profile. Molecular modeling of the most active compounds 15c and 15i was employed to provide insight on their inhibitory properties and direct future design efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequence quality analysis tool for HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Allison K; Wu, Mingham; Bennett, Diane; Parkin, Neil; Wu, Zhijin; Hogan, Joseph W; Kantor, Rami

    2012-08-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy is increasing globally and drug resistance evolution is anticipated. Currently, protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence generation is increasing, including the use of in-house sequencing assays, and quality assessment prior to sequence analysis is essential. We created a computational HIV PR/RT Sequence Quality Analysis Tool (SQUAT) that runs in the R statistical environment. Sequence quality thresholds are calculated from a large dataset (46,802 PR and 44,432 RT sequences) from the published literature ( http://hivdb.Stanford.edu ). Nucleic acid sequences are read into SQUAT, identified, aligned, and translated. Nucleic acid sequences are flagged if with >five 1-2-base insertions; >one 3-base insertion; >one deletion; >six PR or >18 RT ambiguous bases; >three consecutive PR or >four RT nucleic acid mutations; >zero stop codons; >three PR or >six RT ambiguous amino acids; >three consecutive PR or >four RT amino acid mutations; >zero unique amino acids; or 15% genetic distance from another submitted sequence. Thresholds are user modifiable. SQUAT output includes a summary report with detailed comments for troubleshooting of flagged sequences, histograms of pairwise genetic distances, neighbor joining phylogenetic trees, and aligned nucleic and amino acid sequences. SQUAT is a stand-alone, free, web-independent tool to ensure use of high-quality HIV PR/RT sequences in interpretation and reporting of drug resistance, while increasing awareness and expertise and facilitating troubleshooting of potentially problematic sequences.

  10. In vitro HIV-1 evolution in response to triple reverse transcriptase inhibitors & in silico phenotypic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A Rath

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of ART regimens strongly depends upon complex interactions between the selective pressure of drugs and the evolution of mutations that allow or restrict drug resistance.Four clinical isolates from NRTI-exposed, NNRTI-naive subjects were passaged in increasing concentrations of NVP in combination with 1 µM 3 TC and 2 µM ADV to assess selective pressures of multi-drug treatment. A novel parameter inference procedure, based on a stochastic viral growth model, was used to estimate phenotypic resistance and fitness from in vitro combination passage experiments.Newly developed mathematical methods estimated key phenotypic parameters of mutations arising through selective pressure exerted by 3 TC and NVP. Concentrations of 1 µM 3 TC maintained the M184V mutation, which was associated with intrinsic fitness deficits. Increasing NVP concentrations selected major NNRTI resistance mutations. The evolutionary pathway of NVP resistance was highly dependent on the viral genetic background, epistasis as well as stochasticity. Parameter estimation indicated that the previously unrecognized mutation L228Q was associated with NVP resistance in some isolates.Serial passage of viruses in the presence of multiple drugs may resemble the selection of mutations observed among treated individuals and populations in vivo and indicate evolutionary preferences and restrictions. Phenotypic resistance estimated here "in silico" from in vitro passage experiments agreed well with previous knowledge, suggesting that the unique combination of "wet-" and "dry-lab" experimentation may improve our understanding of HIV-1 resistance evolution in the future.

  11. Unique Determinants of Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance among N3, N7, and N9 Avian Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Suk; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Kumar, Gyanendra; Wong, Sook-San; Rubrum, Adam; Zanin, Mark; Choi, Young-Ki; Webster, Robert G; Govorkova, Elena A; Webby, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Human infections with avian influenza viruses are a serious public health concern. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the frontline anti-influenza drugs and are the major option for treatment of newly emerging influenza. Therefore, it is essential to identify the molecular markers of NAI resistance among specific NA subtypes of avian influenza viruses to help guide clinical management. NAI-resistant substitutions in NA subtypes other than N1 and N2 have been poorly studied. Here, we identified NA amino acid substitutions associated with NAI resistance among influenza viruses of N3, N7, and N9 subtypes which have been associated with zoonotic transmission. We applied random mutagenesis and generated recombinant influenza viruses carrying single or double NA substitution(s) with seven internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus. In a fluorescence-based NA inhibition assay, we identified three categories of NA substitutions associated with reduced inhibition by NAIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir): (i) novel subtype-specific substitutions in or near the enzyme catalytic site (R152W, A246T, and D293N, N2 numbering), (ii) subtype-independent substitutions (E119G/V and/or D and R292K), and (iii) substitutions previously reported in other subtypes (Q136K, I222M, and E276D). Our data show that although some markers of resistance are present across NA subtypes, other subtype-specific markers can only be determined empirically. The number of humans infected with avian influenza viruses is increasing, raising concerns of the emergence of avian influenza viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs). Since most studies have focused on NAI-resistance in human influenza viruses, we investigated the molecular changes in NA that could confer NAI resistance in avian viruses grown in immortalized monolayer cells, especially those of the N3, N7, and N9 subtypes, which have caused human infections. We identified not only numerous NAI-resistant

  12. Manejo da Planta Daninha Brachiaria plantaginea Resistente aos herbicidas Inibidores da ACCase Management of the Weed Brachiaria plantaginea Resistant to ACCase Inhibitor Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-04-01

    study a population of alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea resistant to ACCase inhibitor herbicides (ariloxyphenoxypropionic and cyclohexanodiones, usually sprayed on soybean under the conservation tillage system. Two experiments were conducted, one under field conditions, comparing the efficacy of non-selective herbicides to ACCase inhibitors, and another under greenhouse conditions, using ACCase inhibitors with nitrogenous additives in the spray solution. Resistant seeds were collected from a site of suspected resistant population, and compared to a population of alexandergrass that had never been sprayed with ACCase inhibitors, the susceptible population. The experiment with non-selective herbicides was conducted under field conditions, but plants were confined to pots of 50 L capacity, avoiding the dissemination of the seeds to adjacent areas. It was then concluded that resistant plants did not show multiple resistance to non selective herbicides with alternative mechanisms of action, with glyphosate, paraquat, paraquat + diuron, MSMA and glufosinate alternative herbicides being possible to be used to control the weed during the winter to manage populations of alexandergrass resistant to ACCase inhibitor herbicides. The additive experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in pots, using seeds from the same populations used in the non selective experiment. The herbicides tested were ACCase inhibitors, and the additive treatments were ammonium sulfate and urea. It was then concluded that the additives did not enhance ACCase inhibitor herbicide efficacy in neither of the alexandergrass populations.

  13. High levels of X-linked Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) are indicative of radio chemotherapy resistance in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, L.; Kehoe, J.; Fay, J.; Bacon, O.; Lindner, A.U.; Kay, E.W.; Deasy, J.; McNamara, D.A.; Prehn, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The mainstay of treatment in rectal cancer is neoadjuvant radio chemotherapy prior to surgery, in an attempt to downstage the tumour, allowing for more complete removal during surgery. In 40 % of cases however, this neoadjuvant radio chemotherapy fails to achieve tumour regression, partly due insufficient apoptosis signaling. X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) is an anti-apoptotic protein that has been reported to contribute to disease progression and chemotherapy resistance. We obtained rectal biopsy normal and matched tumour tissue from 29 rectal cancer patients with varying degrees of tumour regression, and using Western blot, examined anti-apoptotic XIAP and pro-apoptotic Smac protein levels in these tissues, with the aim to examine whether disturbed XIAP/Smac levels may be an indicator of neoadjuvant radio chemotherapy resistance. Expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 was also examined. We found that levels of XIAP increased in accordance with the degree of radio chemotherapy resistance of the tissue. Levels of this protein were also significantly higher in tumour tissue, compared to matched normal tissue in highly resistant tissue. In contrast, Smac protein levels did not increase with radio chemotherapy resistance, and the protein was similarly expressed in normal and tumour tissue, indicating a shift in the balance of these proteins. Post treatment surgical resection tissue was available for 8 patients. When we compared matched tissue pre- and post- radio chemotherapy we found that XIAP levels increased significantly during treatment in both normal and tumour tissue, while Smac levels did not change. cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 levels were not differentially expressed in varying degrees of radio chemotherapy resistance, and neoadjuvant therapy did not alter expression of these proteins. These data indicate that disturbance of the XIAP/Smac balance may be a driver of radio chemotherapy resistance, and hence high levels of XIAP may

  14. Comparison of ALS functionality and plant growth in ALS-inhibitor susceptible and resistant Myosoton aquaticum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weitang; Bai, Shuang; Jia, Sisi; Guo, Wenlei; Zhang, Lele; Li, Wei; Wang, Jinxin

    2017-10-01

    Herbicide target-site resistance mutations may cause pleiotropic effects on plant ecology and physiology. The effect of several known (Pro197Ser, Pro197Leu Pro197Ala, and Pro197Glu) target-site resistance mutations of the ALS gene on both ALS functionality and plant vegetative growth of weed Myosoton aquaticum L. (water chickweed) have been investigated here. The enzyme kinetics of ALS from four purified water chickweed populations that each homozygous for the specific target-site resistance-endowing mutations were characterized and the effect of these mutations on plant growth was assessed via relative growth rate (RGR) analysis. Plants homozygous for Pro197Ser and Pro197Leu exhibited higher extractable ALS activity than susceptible (S) plants, while all ALS mutations with no negative change in ALS kinetics. The Pro197Leu mutation increased ALS sensitivity to isoleucine and valine, and Pro197Glu mutation slightly increased ALS sensitivity to isoleucine. RGR results indicated that none of these ALS resistance mutations impose negative pleiotropic effects on relative growth rate. However, resistant (R) seeds had a lowed germination rate than S seeds. This study provides baseline information on ALS functionality and plant growth characteristics associated with ALS inhibitor resistance-endowing mutations in water chickweed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Synergy against drug-resistant HIV-1 with the microbicide antiretrovirals, dapivirine and tenofovir, in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schader, Susan M; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Schachter, Jordana R; Xu, Hongtao; Wainberg, Mark A

    2011-08-24

    To evaluate the candidate antiretroviral microbicide compounds, dapivirine (DAP) and tenofovir (TFV), alone and in combination against the transmission of wild-type and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant HIV-1 from different subtypes. We determined single-drug efficacy of the RTIs, DAP and TFV, against subtype B and non-B wild-type and NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 in vitro. To assess breadth of activity, compounds were tested alone and in combination against wild-type and NNRTI-resistant subtype C primary HIV-1 isolates and complimentary clonal HIV-1 from subtypes B, C and CRF02_AG to control for viral variation. Early infection was quantified by counting light units emitted from TZM-bl cells less than 48-h postinfection. Combination ratios were based on drug inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) and combined effects were determined by calculating combination indices. Both candidate microbicide antiretrovirals demonstrated potent anti-NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 activity in vitro, albeit the combination protected better than the single-drug treatments. Of particular interest, the DAP with TFV combination exhibited synergy (50% combination index, CI(50) = 0.567) against subtype C NNRTI-resistant HIV-1, whereas additivity (CI(50) = 0.987) was observed against the wild-type counterpart from the same patient. The effect was not compounded by the presence of subdominant viral fractions, as experiments using complimentary clonal subtype C wild-type (CI(50) = 0.968) and NNRTI-resistant (CI(50) = 0.672) HIV-1, in lieu of the patient quasispecies, gave similar results. This study supports the notion that antiretroviral drug combinations may retain antiviral activity against some drug-resistant HIV-1 despite subtype classification and quasispecies diversity.

  16. Roles of circulating WNT-signaling proteins and WNT-inhibitors in human adiposity, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, R U; Karakas, S E

    2015-02-01

    Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member (WNT) signaling and WNT-inhibitors have been implicated in regulation of adipogenesis, insulin resistance, pancreatic function, and inflammation. Our goal was to determine serum proteins involved in WNT signaling (WNT5 and WISP2) and WNT inhibition (SFRP4 and SFRP5) as they relate to obesity, serum adipokines, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and inflammation in humans. Study population comprised 57 insulin resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 27 reference women. In a cross-sectional study, blood samples were obtained at fasting, during oral, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Serum WNT5, WISP2, and SFRP4 concentrations did not differ between PCOS vs. reference women. Serum WNT5 correlated inversely with weight both in PCOS and reference women, and correlated directly with insulin response during oral glucose tolerance test in PCOS women. Serum WISP2 correlated directly with fatty acid binding protein 4. Serum SFRP5 did not differ between obese (n=32) vs. nonobese (n=25) PCOS women, but reference women had lower SFRP5 (pPCOS groups). Serum SFRP5 correlated inversely with IL-1β, TNF-α, cholesterol, and apoprotein B. These findings demonstrated that WNT5 correlated inversely with adiposity and directly with insulin response, and the WNT-inhibitor SFRP5 may be anti-inflammatory. Better understanding of the role of WNT signaling in obesity, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammation is important for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Genotypic evaluation of etravirine sensitivity of clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates carrying resistance mutations to nevirapine and efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumar, A A; Jnaoui, K; Kabamba-Mukadi, B; Yombi, J C; Vandercam, B; Goubau, P; Ruelle, J

    2010-01-01

    Etravirine is a second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with a pattern of resistance mutations quite distinct from the current NNRTIs. We collected all routine samples of HIV-1 patients followed in the AIDS reference laboratory of UCLouvain (in 2006 and 2007) carrying resistance-associated mutations to nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV). The sensitivity to Etravirine was estimated using three different drug resistance algorithms: ANRS (July 2008), IAS (December 2008) and Stanford (November 2008). We also verified whether the mutations described as resistance mutations are not due to virus polymorphisms by the study of 58 genotypes of NNRTI-naive patients. Sixty one samples harboured resistance to NVP and EFV: 41/61 had at least one resistance mutation to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS algorithms; 42/61 samples had at least one resistance mutation to Etravirine according to the Stanford algorithm. 48 and 53 cases were fully sensitive to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS and Stanford algorithms, respectively. Three cases harboured more than three mutations and presented a pattern of high-degree resistance to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS algorithm, while one case harboured more than three mutations and presented high degree resistance to Etravirine according to the Stanford algorithm. The V1061 and V179D mutations were more frequent in the ARV-naive group than in the NNRTI-experienced one. According to the currently available algorithms, Etravirine can still be used in the majority of patients with virus showing resistance to NVP and/or EFV, if a combination of other active drugs is included.

  18. A Rapid Phenotypic Whole Cell Screening Approach for the Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors that Counter Beta-lactamase Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collia, Deanna; Bannister, Thomas D.; Tan, Hao; Jin, Shouguang; Langaee, Taimour; Shumate, Justin; Scampavia, Louis; Spicer, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen which is prevalent in hospitals and continues to develop resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. Historically, β-lactam antibiotics have been the first line of therapeutic defense. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of P. aeruginosa, such as AmpC β-lactamase overproducing mutants, limits the effectiveness of current antibiotics. Among AmpC hyper producing clinical isolates, inactivation of AmpG, which is essential for the expression of AmpC, increases bacterial sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics. We hypothesize that inhibition of AmpG activity will enhance the efficacy of β-lactams against P. aeruginosa. Here, using a highly drug resistant AmpC inducible laboratory strain PAO1, we describe an ultra-high throughput whole cell turbidity assay designed to identify small molecule inhibitors of the AmpG. We screened 645K compounds to identify compounds with the ability to inhibit bacterial growth in the presence of Cefoxitin; an AmpC inducer, and identified 2,663 inhibitors which were also tested in the absence of Cefoxitin to determine AmpG specificity. The Z′ and S:B were robust at 0.87 ± 0.05 and 2.2 ± 0.2, respectively. Through a series of secondary and tertiary studies, including a novel luciferase based counterscreen, we ultimately identified 8 potential AmpG specific inhibitors. PMID:28850797

  19. The mTOR inhibitor, everolimus (RAD001), overcomes resistance to imatinib in quiescent Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwatsuka, Y; Minami, M; Minami, Y; Sugimoto, K; Hayakawa, F; Miyata, Y; Abe, A [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Goff, D J [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA (United States); Kiyoi, H [Department of Infectious Diseases, Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Naoe, T [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    In Ph-positive (Ph{sup +}) leukemia, the quiescent cell state is one of the reasons for resistance to the BCR-ABL-kinase inhibitor, imatinib. In order to examine the mechanisms of resistance due to quiescence and the effect of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, everolimus, for such a resistant population, we used Ph{sup +} acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient cells serially xenotransplanted into NOD/SCID/IL2rγ{sup null} (NOG) mice. Spleen cells from leukemic mice showed a higher percentage of slow-cycling G{sub 0} cells in the CD34{sup +}CD38{sup −} population compared with the CD34{sup +}CD38{sup +} and CD34{sup −} populations. After ex vivo imatinib treatment, more residual cells were observed in the CD34{sup +}CD38{sup −} population than in the other populations. Although slow-cycling G{sub 0} cells were insensitive to imatinib in spite of BCR-ABL and CrkL dephosphorylation, combination treatment with everolimus induced substantial cell death, including that of the CD34{sup +}CD38{sup −} population, with p70-S6 K dephosphorylation and decrease of MCL-1 expression. The leukemic non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mouse system with the in vivo combination treatment with imatinib and everolimus showed a decrease of tumor burden including CD34{sup +} cells. These results imply that treatment with everolimus can overcome resistance to imatinib in Ph{sup +} leukemia due to quiescence.

  20. HIV Protease Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy Is Associated With Decreased Progesterone Levels, Suggesting a Potential Mechanism Contributing to Fetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R.; Yudin, Mark H.; Murphy, Kellie E.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background. Protease inhibitor (PI)–based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. Methods. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Results. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Conclusions. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25030058

  1. HIV protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R; Yudin, Mark H; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Drug resistance to inhibitors of the human double minute-2 E3 ligase is mediated by point mutations of p53, but can be overcome with the p53 targeting agent RITA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard J; Bjorklund, Chad C; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Kuhn, Deborah J; Orlowski, Robert Z

    2012-10-01

    The human double minute (HDM)-2 E3 ubiquitin ligase plays a key role in p53 turnover and has been validated preclinically as a target in multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). HDM-2 inhibitors are entering clinical trials, and we therefore sought to understand potential mechanisms of resistance in lymphoid models. Wild-type p53 H929 MM and Granta-519 MCL cells resistant to MI-63 or Nutlin were generated by exposing them to increasing drug concentrations. MI-63-resistant H929 and Granta-519 cells were resistant to Nutlin, whereas Nutlin-resistant cells displayed cross-resistance to MI-63. These cells also showed cross-resistance to bortezomib, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and melphalan, but remained sensitive to the small molecule inhibitor RITA (reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis). HDM-2 inhibitor-resistant cells harbored increased p53 levels, but neither genotoxic nor nongenotoxic approaches to activate p53 induced HDM-2 or p21. Resequencing revealed wild-type HDM-2, but mutations were found in the p53 DNA binding and dimerization domains. In resistant cells, RITA induced a G(2)-M arrest, upregulation of p53 targets HDM-2, PUMA, and NOXA, and PARP cleavage. Combination regimens with RITA and MI-63 resulted in enhanced cell death compared with RITA alone. These findings support the possibility that p53 mutation could be a primary mechanism of acquired resistance to HDM-2 inhibitors in MCL and MM. Furthermore, they suggest that simultaneous restoration of p53 function and HDM-2 inhibition is a rational strategy for clinical translation.

  3. Eleusine indica resistance to Accase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Ribas Antonio; Portes, Emerson da Silva; Lamego, Fabiane Pinto; Trezzi, Michelangelo Muzell

    2006-01-01

    Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase) e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade...

  4. Prevalence in the USA of rilpivirine resistance-associated mutations in clinical samples and effects on phenotypic susceptibility to rilpivirine and etravirine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchio, Gaston R; Rimsky, Laurence T; Van Eygen, Veerle; Haddad, Mojgan; Napolitano, Laura A; Vingerhoets, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of rilpivirine resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in the USA, and their effect on phenotypic susceptibility to rilpivirine and etravirine, was evaluated in clinical samples from HIV-1-infected patients. In total, 15,991 samples submitted to Monogram Biosciences (South San Francisco, CA, USA) for routine resistance testing between January 2010 and June 2011 were assessed for the presence of known rilpivirine RAMs K101E/P, E138A/G/K/Q/R, V179L, Y181C/I/V, Y188L, H221Y, F227C and M230I/L; non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) RAMs K103N, L100I and L100I+K103N; and the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) RAMs M184I/V and their combinations with rilpivirine RAMs. Phenotypic susceptibility (PhenoSenseGT(®) assay; Monogram Biosciences) was evaluated, with reduced susceptibility defined as fold change (FC) in 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)>2.0 for rilpivirine and FC>2.9 for etravirine. Of the 15,991 samples, 17% harboured ≥1 rilpivirine RAMs. The prevalence of most rilpivirine RAMs and combinations of NNRTI RAMs of interest was low (≤3%), except for Y181C (7%). Rilpivirine RAMs were often associated with reduced rilpivirine phenotypic susceptibility. Median FC values >2.0 were observed for clinical isolates with rilpivirine RAMs K101P, E138Q/R, Y181C/I/V, Y188L or M230L, and for the combination of E138K with M184I/V, and K101E with M184I. Most rilpivirine FC values >2.0 were associated with etravirine FC values >2.9 for individual rilpivirine RAMs and those combined with M184I/V. There was no relationship between the presence of K103N and rilpivirine FC. However, the L100I+K103N combination (without rilpivirine RAMs), at 2.0. Based on 15,991 US clinical samples from HIV-1-infected patients, the frequency of most known rilpivirine RAMs apart from Y181C was low.

  5. Escape from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol D. Weiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enters cells through a series of molecular interactions between the HIV envelope protein and cellular receptors, thus providing many opportunities to block infection. Entry inhibitors are currently being used in the clinic, and many more are under development. Unfortunately, as is the case for other classes of antiretroviral drugs that target later steps in the viral life cycle, HIV can become resistant to entry inhibitors. In contrast to inhibitors that block viral enzymes in intracellular compartments, entry inhibitors interfere with the function of the highly variable envelope glycoprotein as it continuously adapts to changing immune pressure and available target cells in the extracellular environment. Consequently, pathways and mechanisms of resistance for entry inhibitors are varied and often involve mutations across the envelope gene. This review provides a broad overview of entry inhibitor resistance mechanisms that inform our understanding of HIV entry and the design of new inhibitors and vaccines.

  6. Synthesis of poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] conjugates of inhibitors of the ABC transporter that overcome multidrug resistance in doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šubr, Vladimír; Sivák, Ladislav; Koziolová, Eva; Braunová, Alena; Pechar, Michal; Strohalm, Jiří; Kabešová, Martina; Říhová, Blanka; Ulbrich, Karel; Kovář, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2014), s. 3030-3043 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1254; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymers * multidrug resistance * P-glycoprotein inhibitors Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; FD - Oncology ; Hematology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 5.750, year: 2014

  7. The reverse transcriptase encoded by LINE-1 retrotransposons in the genesis, progression and therapy of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria eSciamanna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1 retrotransposons represent a large family of repeated genomic elements. They transpose using a reverse transcriptase (RT, which they encode as part of the ORF2p product. RT inhibition in cancer cells, either via RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements, or using RT inhibitory drugs, reduces cancer cell proliferation, promotes their differentiation and antagonizes tumor progression in animal models. Indeed, the nonnucleoside RT inhibitor efavirenz has recently been tested in a phase II clinical trial with metastatic prostate cancer patients. An in-depth analysis of ORF2p in a mouse model of breast cancer showed ORF2p to be precociously expressed in precancerous lesions and highly abundant in advanced cancer stages, while being barely detectable in normal breast tissue, providing a rationale for the finding that RT-expressing tumours are therapeutically sensitive to RT inhibitors. We summarise mechanistic and gene profiling studies indicating that highly abundant LINE-1-derived RT can sequester RNA substrates for reverse transcription in tumor cells, entailing the formation of RNA:DNA hybrid molecules and impairing the overall production of regulatory miRNAs, with a global impact on the cell transcriptome. Based on these data, LINE-1-ORF2 encoded RT has a tumor-promoting potential that is exerted at an epigenetic level. We propose a model whereby LINE1-RT drives a previously unrecognized global regulatory process, the deregulation of which drives cell transformation and tumorigenesis and possibly implicated in cancer cell heterogeneity.

  8. The reverse transcriptase encoded by LINE-1 retrotransposons in the genesis, progression and therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciamanna, Ilaria; De Luca, Chiara; Spadafora, Corrado

    2016-02-01

    In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons represent a large family of repeated genomic elements. They transpose using a reverse transcriptase (RT), which they encode as part of the ORF2p product. RT inhibition in cancer cells, either via RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements, or using RT inhibitory drugs, reduces cancer cell proliferation, promotes their differentiation and antagonizes tumor progression in animal models. Indeed, the nonnucleoside RT inhibitor efavirenz has recently been tested in a phase II clinical trial with metastatic prostate cancer patients. An in-depth analysis of ORF2p in a mouse model of breast cancer showed ORF2p to be precociously expressed in precancerous lesions and highly abundant in advanced cancer stages, while being barely detectable in normal breast tissue, providing a rationale for the finding that RT-expressing tumours are therapeutically sensitive to RT inhibitors. We summarise mechanistic and gene profiling studies indicating that highly abundant LINE-1-derived RT can “sequester” RNA substrates for reverse transcription in tumor cells, entailing the formation of RNA:DNA hybrid molecules and impairing the overall production of regulatory miRNAs, with a global impact on the cell transcriptome. Based on these data, LINE-1-ORF2 encoded RT has a tumor-promoting potential that is exerted at an epigenetic level. We propose a model whereby LINE1-RT drives a previously unrecognized global regulatory process, the deregulation of which drives cell transformation and tumorigenesis and possibly implicated in cancer cell heterogeneity.

  9. The reverse transcription inhibitor abacavir shows anticancer activity in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Carlini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transposable Elements (TEs comprise nearly 45% of the entire genome and are part of sophisticated regulatory network systems that control developmental processes in normal and pathological conditions. The retroviral/retrotransposon gene machinery consists mainly of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs-1 and Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs that code for their own endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT. Interestingly, RT is typically expressed at high levels in cancer cells. Recent studies report that RT inhibition by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs induces growth arrest and cell differentiation in vitro and antagonizes growth of human tumors in animal model. In the present study we analyze the anticancer activity of Abacavir (ABC, a nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI, on PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ABC significantly reduces cell growth, migration and invasion processes, considerably slows S phase progression, induces senescence and cell death in prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these observations, microarray analysis on PC3 cells shows that ABC induces specific and dose-dependent changes in gene expression, involving multiple cellular pathways. Notably, by quantitative Real-Time PCR we found that LINE-1 ORF1 and ORF2 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by ABC treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the potential of ABC as anticancer agent able to induce antiproliferative activity and trigger senescence in prostate cancer cells. Noteworthy, we show that ABC elicits up-regulation of LINE-1 expression, suggesting the involvement of these elements in the observed cellular modifications.

  10. Impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral therapy on protease and reverse transcriptase genotype: results of a global collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Kantor

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic differences among HIV-1 subtypes may be critical to clinical management and drug resistance surveillance as antiretroviral treatment is expanded to regions of the world where diverse non-subtype-B viruses predominate.To assess the impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral treatment on the distribution of mutations in protease and reverse transcriptase, a binomial response model using subtype and treatment as explanatory variables was used to analyze a large compiled dataset of non-subtype-B HIV-1 sequences. Non-subtype-B sequences from 3,686 persons with well characterized antiretroviral treatment histories were analyzed in comparison to subtype B sequences from 4,769 persons. The non-subtype-B sequences included 461 with subtype A, 1,185 with C, 331 with D, 245 with F, 293 with G, 513 with CRF01_AE, and 618 with CRF02_AG. Each of the 55 known subtype B drug-resistance mutations occurred in at least one non-B isolate, and 44 (80% of these mutations were significantly associated with antiretroviral treatment in at least one non-B subtype. Conversely, of 67 mutations found to be associated with antiretroviral therapy in at least one non-B subtype, 61 were also associated with antiretroviral therapy in subtype B isolates.Global surveillance and genotypic assessment of drug resistance should focus primarily on the known subtype B drug-resistance mutations.

  11. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a promising therapeutic strategy against paclitaxel-resistant gastric cancer via targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongshao; Lin, Xiaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Zhentao; Chen, Zuhua; Li, Zhongwu; Wang, Jingyuan; Li, Beifang; Hu, Yanting; Dong, Bin; Shen, Lin; Ji, Jiafu; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Xiaotian

    2018-01-26

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is widely used in the front-line chemotherapy for gastric cancer (GC), but resistance limits its use. Due to the lack of proper models, mechanisms underlying PTX resistance in GC were not well studied. Using established PTX-resistant GC cell sublines HGC-27R, we for the first time integrated biological traits and molecular mechanisms of PTX resistance in GC. Data revealed that PTX-resistant GC cells were characterized by microtubular disorders, an EMT phenotype, reduced responses to antimitotic drugs, and resistance to apoptosis (marked by upregulated β-tubulin III, vimentin, attenuated changes in G 2 /M molecules or pro-apoptotic factors in response to antimitotic drugs or apoptotic inducers, respectively). Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, the serine/threonine kinase Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were also observed, which might be the reason for above phenotypic alternations. In vitro data suggested that targeting these pathways were sufficient to elicit antitumor responses in PTX-resistant GC, in which the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 displayed higher therapeutic efficiency than the mTOR inhibitor everolimus or the MEK inhibitor AZD6244. Antitumor effects of BEZ235 were also confirmed in mice bearing HGC-27R tumors. Thus, these data suggest that PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathway inhibition, especially PI3K/mTOR dual blockade, might be a promising therapeutic strategy against PTX-resistant GC.

  12. Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: 60 Years of Clonal Selection Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Steele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The evidence for the reverse transcriptase mechanism of somatic hypermutation is substantial and multifactorial. In this 60th anniversary year of the publication of Sir MacFarlane Burnet’s Clonal Selection Theory, the evidence is briefly reviewed and updated.

  13. Potent Allosteric Dengue Virus NS5 Polymerase Inhibitors: Mechanism of Action and Resistance Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses comprise major emerging pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV or Zika virus (ZIKV. The flavivirus RNA genome is replicated by the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp domain of non-structural protein 5 (NS5. This essential enzymatic activity renders the RdRp attractive for antiviral therapy. NS5 synthesizes viral RNA via a "de novo" initiation mechanism. Crystal structures of the flavivirus RdRp revealed a "closed" conformation reminiscent of a pre-initiation state, with a well ordered priming loop that extrudes from the thumb subdomain into the dsRNA exit tunnel, close to the "GDD" active site. To-date, no allosteric pockets have been identified for the RdRp, and compound screening campaigns did not yield suitable drug candidates. Using fragment-based screening via X-ray crystallography, we found a fragment that bound to a pocket of the apo-DENV RdRp close to its active site (termed "N pocket". Structure-guided improvements yielded DENV pan-serotype inhibitors of the RdRp de novo initiation activity with nano-molar potency that also impeded elongation activity at micro-molar concentrations. Inhibitors exhibited mixed inhibition kinetics with respect to competition with the RNA or GTP substrate. The best compounds have EC50 values of 1-2 μM against all four DENV serotypes in cell culture assays. Genome-sequencing of compound-resistant DENV replicons, identified amino acid changes that mapped to the N pocket. Since inhibitors bind at the thumb/palm interface of the RdRp, this class of compounds is proposed to hinder RdRp conformational changes during its transition from initiation to elongation. This is the first report of a class of pan-serotype and cell-active DENV RdRp inhibitors. Given the evolutionary conservation of residues lining the N pocket, these molecules offer insights to treat other serious conditions caused by flaviviruses.

  14. Phylogeny and resistance profiles of HIV-1 POL sequences from rectal biopsies and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Petersen, A B; Storgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    The phylogeny and resistance profiles of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were compared among six patients with HIV-1 who had received numerous treatments. RNA and DNA fractions were obtained from concurrent blood and rectal biopsy...

  15. Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG inhibits progression of LuCaP35 xenograft prostate tumors to castration resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Katherine J; Langmann, Gabrielle; Ai, Junkui; Ramos-Garcia, Raquel; Vessella, Robert L; Wang, Zhou

    2012-07-01

    Advanced prostate cancer is currently treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). ADT initially results in tumor regression; however, all patients eventually relapse with castration-resistant prostate cancer. New approaches to delay the progression of prostate cancer to castration resistance are in desperate need. This study addresses whether targeting Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) regulation of androgen receptor (AR) can inhibit prostate cancer progression to castration resistance. The HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG was injected intraperitoneally into nude mice bearing LuCaP35 xenograft tumors to determine the effect of HSP90 inhibition on prostate cancer progression to castration resistance and host survival. Administration of 17-AAG maintained androgen-sensitivity, delayed the progression of LuCaP35 xenograft tumors to castration resistance, and prolonged the survival of host. In addition, 17-AAG prevented nuclear localization of endogenous AR in LuCaP35 xenograft tumors in castrated nude mice. Targeting Hsp90 or the mechanism by which HSP90 regulates androgen-independent AR nuclear localization and activation may lead to new approaches to prevent and/or treat castration-resistant prostate cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  17. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in Korean patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Wonjun; Lee, Dae Ho; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, Chang-Min; Rho, Jin Kyung; Jang, Se Jin; Park, Young Soo; Chun, Sung-Min; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Jung-Shin; Kim, Sang-We

    2013-01-01

    Despite an initial good response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), resistance to treatment eventually develops. Although several resistance mechanisms have been discovered, little data exist regarding Asian patient populations. Among patients at a tertiary referral hospital in Korea who initially responded well to gefitinib and later acquired resistance to treatment, we selected those with enough tissues obtained before EGFR-TKI treatment and after the onset of resistance to examine mutations by mass spectrometric genotyping technology (Asan-Panel), MET amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and analysis of AXL status, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and neuroendocrine markers by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-six patients were enrolled, all of whom were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations (19del: 16, L858R: 10) except one (squamous cell carcinoma with 19del). Secondary T790M mutation was detected in 11 subjects (42.3%) and four of these patients had other co-existing resistance mechanisms; increased AXL expression was observed in 5/26 patients (19.2%), MET gene amplification was noted in 3/26 (11.5%), and one patient acquired a mutation in the phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PIK3CA) gene. None of the patients exhibited EMT; however, increased CD56 expression suggesting neuroendocrine differentiation was observed in two patients. Interestingly, conversion from L858R-mutant to wild-type EGFR occurred in one patient. Seven patients (26.9%) did not exhibit any known resistance mechanisms. Patients with a T790M mutation showed a more favorable prognosis. The mechanisms and frequency of acquired EGFR-TKI resistance in Koreans are comparable to those observed in Western populations; however, more data regarding the mechanisms that drive EGFR-TKI resistance are necessary

  18. Crizotinib-Resistant ROS1 Mutations Reveal a Predictive Kinase Inhibitor Sensitivity Model for ROS1- and ALK-Rearranged Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, Francesco; Loriot, Yohann; Kuo, Mei-Shiue; Mahjoubi, Linda; Lacroix, Ludovic; Planchard, David; Besse, Benjamin; Farace, Françoise; Auger, Nathalie; Remon, Jordi; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; André, Fabrice; Soria, Jean-Charles; Friboulet, Luc

    2016-12-15

    The identification of molecular mechanisms conferring resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a key step to improve therapeutic results for patients with oncogene addiction. Several alterations leading to EGFR and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) resistance to TKI therapy have been described in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Only two mutations in the ROS1 kinase domain responsible for crizotinib resistance have been described in patients thus far. A patient suffering from a metastatic NSCLC harboring an ezrin (EZR)-ROS1 fusion gene developed acquired resistance to the ALK/ROS1 inhibitor crizotinib. Molecular analysis (whole-exome sequencing, CGH) and functional studies were undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of resistance. Based on this case, we took advantage of the structural homology of ROS1 and ALK to build a predictive model for drug sensitivity regarding future ROS1 mutations. Sequencing revealed a dual mutation, S1986Y and S1986F, in the ROS1 kinase domain. Functional in vitro studies demonstrated that ROS1 harboring either the S1986Y or the S1986F mutation, while conferring resistance to crizotinib and ceritinib, was inhibited by lorlatinib (PF-06463922). The patient's clinical response confirmed the potency of lorlatinib against S1986Y/F mutations. The ROS1 S1986Y/F and ALK C1156Y mutations are homologous and displayed similar sensitivity patterns to ALK/ROS1 TKIs. We extended this analogy to build a model predicting TKI efficacy against potential ROS1 mutations. Clinical evidence, in vitro validation, and homology-based prediction provide guidance for treatment decision making for patients with ROS1-rearranged NSCLC who progressed on crizotinib. Clin Cancer Res; 22(24); 5983-91. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Computational Studies of a Mechanism for Binding and Drug Resistance in the Wild Type and Four Mutations of HIV-1 Protease with a GRL-0519 Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance of mutations in HIV-1 protease (PR is the most severe challenge to the long-term efficacy of HIV-1 PR inhibitor in highly active antiretroviral therapy. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of drug resistance associated with mutations (D30N, I50V, I54M, and V82A and inhibitor (GRL-0519 complexes, we have performed five molecular dynamics (MD simulations and calculated the binding free energies using the molecular mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA method. The ranking of calculated binding free energies is in accordance with the experimental data. The free energy spectra of each residue and inhibitor interaction for all complexes show a similar binding model. Analysis based on the MD trajectories and contribution of each residues show that groups R2 and R3 mainly contribute van der Waals energies, while groups R1 and R4 contribute electrostatic interaction by hydrogen bonds. The drug resistance of D30N can be attributed to the decline in binding affinity of residues 28 and 29. The size of Val50 is smaller than Ile50 causes the residue to move, especially in chain A. The stable hydrophobic core, including the side chain of Ile54 in the wild type (WT complex, became unstable in I54M because the side chain of Met54 is flexible with two alternative conformations. The binding affinity of Ala82 in V82A decreases relative to Val82 in WT. The present study could provide important guidance for the design of a potent new drug resisting the mutation inhibitors.

  20. A Novel Leu92 Mutant of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase with a Selective Deficiency in Strand Transfer Causes a Loss of Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Eytan; Voronin, Nickolay; Kucherenko, Nataly; Hizi, Amnon

    2015-08-01

    completion. We show here for the first time that a single mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (L92P) selectively abolishes strand transfers without affecting the enzyme's DNA polymerase and RNase H functions. When this mutation was introduced into an infectious HIV-1 clone, viral replication was lost due to an impaired intracellular strand transfer, thus supporting the in vitro data. Therefore, finding novel drugs that target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Leu92 may be beneficial for developing new potent and selective inhibitors of retroviral reverse transcription that will obstruct HIV-1 infectivity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. An integrated chemical biology approach reveals the mechanism of action of HIV replication inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Nicholas; Teriete, Peter; Mattmann, Margrith E; Yang, Li; Snyder, Beth A; Cai, Zhaohui; Heil, Marintha L; Cosford, Nicholas D P

    2017-12-01

    Continuous flow (microfluidic) chemistry was employed to prepare a small focused library of dihydropyrimidinone (DHPM) derivatives. Compounds in this class have been reported to exhibit activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but their molecular target had not been identified. We tested the initial set of DHPMs in phenotypic assays providing a hit (1i) that inhibited the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV in cells. Flow chemistry-driven optimization of 1i led to the identification of HIV replication inhibitors such as 1l with cellular potency comparable with the clinical drug nevirapine (NVP). Mechanism of action (MOA) studies using cellular and biochemical assays coupled with 3D fingerprinting and in silico modeling demonstrated that these drug-like probe compounds exert their effects by inhibiting the viral reverse transcriptase polymerase (RT). This led to the design and synthesis of the novel DHPM 1at that inhibits the replication of drug resistant strains of HIV. Our work demonstrates that combining flow chemistry-driven analogue refinement with phenotypic assays, in silico modeling and MOA studies is a highly effective strategy for hit-to-lead optimization applicable to the discovery of future therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Patients harboring EGFR mutation after primary resistance to crizotinib and response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang WX

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wenxian Wang,1 Xiaowen Jiang,1 Zhengbo Song,1,2 Yiping Zhang1,2 1Department of Chemotherapy, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, 2Key Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment Technology on Thoracic Oncology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangement lung cancer responds to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It is known that many cases ultimately acquired resistance to crizotinib. However, a case of primary resistance is rare. We present a case of harboring exon 19 deletion in epidermal growth factor receptor in ALK rearranged lung adenocarcinoma, who experienced a partial tumor response to icotinib after failure with crizotinib therapy and chemotherapy. Considering the partial response, we conclude that it is important to find the cause of resistance to crizotinib. We detected gene mutations with plasma by the next-generation sequencing; the next-generation sequencing demonstrates an attractive system to identify mutations improving the outcome of patients with a deadly disease. Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, crizotinib, epidermal growth factor receptor

  3. AZD9291 in epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer have an objective response rate (ORR) of approximately 60-70% and a median progression free-survival (PFS) of approximately 10-13 months. Studies of tumor biopsies performed after progression on EGFR TKI revealed that 50-60% of EGFR mutant NSCLC developed an EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation as a mechanism of acquired resistance. AZD9291 is a third generation irreversible EGFR TKI with activity against the activating EGFR mutation, the T790M acquired resistance mutation, and relative sparing of the wild-type EGFR. AZD9291 was investigated in a phase I trial with expansion cohorts in patients with disease progression after EGFR TKI. Patients with and without detectable T790M mutations were enrolled in the trial. The ORR in patients with centrally confirmed and without detectable T790M mutations was 61% (95% CI, 52-70%) and 21% (95% CI, 12-34%), respectively. The PFS observed in patients with centrally confirmed and without detectable T790M mutations was 9.6 months (95% CI, 8.3 to not reached) and 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.1-4.3 months), respectively. At the dose for further investigation, 80 mg daily, the rate of all grade 3-5 drug related adverse events was 11%, and the rates of grade 3 diarrhea and rash were 1% and 0%, respectively. The identification of the T790M resistance mutation and the subsequent development of an agent against the mechanism of resistance provide a template for future drug development for acquired resistance to targeted therapy.

  4. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of LBM-A5 derivatives as potent P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Pan, Miaobo; Dai, Yuxuan; Liu, Baomin; Cui, Jian; Shi, Wei; Qiu, Qianqian; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2016-05-15

    A novel series of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) inhibitors with triazol-N-phenethyl-tetrahydroisoquinoline or triazol-N-ethyl-tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold were designed and synthesized via click chemistry. Most of the synthesized compounds showed higher reversal activity than verapamil (VRP). Among them, the most potent compound 4 showed a comparable activity with the known potent P-gp inhibitor WK-X-34 with lower cytotoxicity toward K562 cells (IC50>100μM). Compared with VRP, compound 4 exhibited more potency in increasing drug accumulation in K562/A02 MDR cells. Moreover, compound 4 could significantly reverse MDR in a dose-dependent manner and also persist longer chemo-sensitizing effect than VRP with reversibility. Further mechanism studies revealed that compound 4 could remarkably increase the intracellular accumulation of Adriamycin (ADM) in K562/A02 cells as well as inhibit rhodamine-123 (Rh123) efflux from the cells. These results suggested that compound 4 may represent a promising candidate for developing P-gp-mediated MDR inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic drug screening reveals specific vulnerabilities and co-resistance patterns in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaspeska, Sara; Hultsch, Susanne; Jaiswal, Alok; Edgren, Henrik; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Eldfors, Samuli; Brück, Oscar; Aittokallio, Tero; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2016-07-04

    The estrogen receptor (ER) inhibitor tamoxifen reduces breast cancer mortality by 31 % and has served as the standard treatment for ER-positive breast cancers for decades. However, 50 % of advanced ER-positive cancers display de novo resistance to tamoxifen, and acquired resistance evolves in 40 % of patients who initially respond. Mechanisms underlying resistance development remain poorly understood and new therapeutic opportunities are urgently needed. Here, we report the generation and characterization of seven tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines from four parental strains. Using high throughput drug sensitivity and resistance testing (DSRT) with 279 approved and investigational oncology drugs, exome-sequencing and network analysis, we for the first time, systematically determine the drug response profiles specific to tamoxifen resistance. We discovered emerging vulnerabilities towards specific drugs, such as ERK1/2-, proteasome- and BCL-family inhibitors as the cells became tamoxifen-resistant. Co-resistance to other drugs such as the survivin inhibitor YM155 and the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel also occurred. This study indicates that multiple molecular mechanisms dictate endocrine resistance, resulting in unexpected vulnerabilities to initially ineffective drugs, as well as in emerging co-resistances. Thus, combatting drug-resistant tumors will require patient-tailored strategies in order to identify new drug vulnerabilities, and to understand the associated co-resistance patterns.

  6. Determination of coagulation inhibitor levels and resistance to activated protein C in patients undergoing gastric surgery for benign and malignant disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B S; Rahr, H B; Sørensen, J V

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine plasma levels of protein C antigen (PC:Ag) and activity (PC:Act), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), protein S (PS), antithrombin (AT), heparin cofactor II (HCII), and resistance to activated protein C (APCR) before, during and after elective gas...

  7. Resistência de Bidens subalternans aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase utilizados na cultura da soja Resistance of Bidens subalternans to the acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Gelmini

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso contínuo e prolongado de produtos com o mesmo mecanismo de ação pode provocar a manifestação de biótipos resistentes. Para verificar possíveis novos casos de resistência, bem como alternativas para prevenção e manejo, foram coletadas sementes de Bidens subalternans na região de São Gabriel D' Oeste-MS, em plantas que sobreviveram a tratamentos em que inibidores da ALS foram sistematicamente utilizados. Em experimento conduzido em vasos em casa de vegetação, o biótipo com histórico de resistente foi comparado ao suscetível quando submetido aos diversos herbicidas com diferentes mecanismos de ação usados em pós-emergência, os quais foram aplicados nas doses de zero, uma, duas, quatro e oito vezes a recomendada. Decorridos 20 dias, foram avaliadas a porcentagem de controle e a produção da fitomassa verde, visando estabelecimento de curvas de dose-resposta e obtenção dos fatores de resistência. O biótipo oriundo de área com histórico de aplicações repetidas de inibidores da ALS apresentou elevado nível de resistência aos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr, demonstrando ser portador de resistência cruzada aos inibidores da ALS dos grupos das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas. Entretanto, esse biótipo foi eficientemente controlado pelos herbicidas fomesafen, lactofen, bentazon, glufosinato de amônio e glyphosate.The continuous and prolonged use of products with the same mechanism of action can provoke the manifestation of resistant biotypes. In horder to verify possible new cases, as well as alternatives for prevention and control, seeds of Bidens subalternans were collected at São Gabriel D' Oeste (MS region at plants that survived continuous treatments which sistematically ALS inhibitors. Through an experiment performed in pots inside a greenhouse, a resistant biotype was compared to a susceptible one when submitted to herbicides with different mechanisms of action and applied at post emergence

  8. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in glandular lesions of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Eric; Zheng, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Ming; Yang, Ximing; Fallon, John T; Epstein, Jonathan I; Zhong, Minghao

    2015-10-01

    Glandular lesions of the urinary bladder include a broad spectrum of entities ranging from completely benign to primary and secondary malignancies. The accurate diagnosis of these lesions is both important and challenging. Recently, studies suggest that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations could be a biomarker for urothelial carcinoma (UC). We hypothesized that these mutations can distinguish UC with glandular differentiation from nephrogenic adenoma, primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder (PAUB), or secondary malignancies. Twenty-five cases of benign glandular lesions (including nephrogenic adenoma); 29 cases of UC with glandular differentiation; 10 cases of PAUB; and 10 cases each of metastatic colon cancer, prostatic carcinoma, and carcinoma from Mullerian origin were collected. Slides were reviewed and selected to make sure the lesion was at least 10% to 20% of all tissue. Macrodissection was performed in some of cases, and genomic DNA was extracted from the tissue. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were determined by standard polymerase chain reaction sequencing. Twenty-one cases (72%) of UC with glandular differentiation were positive for TERT promoter mutations. However, none of the remaining cases (total 65 cases of benign lesions, PAUB, and metastatic carcinomas) was positive for TERT promoter mutation. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were highly associated with UC including UC with glandular differentiation but not other glandular lesions of bladder. Therefore, in conjunction with morphologic features, Immunohistochemistry stain profile, and clinical information, TERT promoter mutations could distinguish UC with glandular differentiation from other bladder glandular lesions. In addition, lack of TERT promoter mutations in primary adenocarcinoma of bladder suggests that this entity may have different origin or carcinogenesis from those of UC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Development of new mouse lung tumor models expressing EGFR T790M mutants associated with clinical resistance to kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regales, Lucia; Balak, Marissa N; Gong, Yixuan; Politi, Katerina; Sawai, Ayana; Le, Carl; Koutcher, Jason A; Solit, David B; Rosen, Neal; Zakowski, Maureen F; Pao, William

    2007-08-29

    The EGFR T790M mutation confers acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors in human EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, is occasionally detected before treatment, and may confer genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. To study further its role in lung tumorigenesis, we developed mice with inducible expression in type II pneumocytes of EGFR(T790M) alone or together with a drug-sensitive L858R mutation. Both transgenic lines develop lung adenocarcinomas that require mutant EGFR for tumor maintenance but are resistant to an EGFR kinase inhibitor. EGFR(L858R+T790M)-driven tumors are transiently targeted by hsp90 inhibition. Notably, EGFR(T790M)-expressing animals develop tumors with longer latency than EGFR(L858R+T790M)-bearing mice and in the absence of additional kinase domain mutations. These new mouse models of mutant EGFR-dependent lung adenocarcinomas provide insight into clinical observations. The models should also be useful for developing improved therapies for patients with lung cancers harboring EGFR(T790M) alone or in conjunction with drug-sensitive EGFR kinase domain mutations.

  10. Development of new mouse lung tumor models expressing EGFR T790M mutants associated with clinical resistance to kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Regales

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The EGFR T790M mutation confers acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors in human EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, is occasionally detected before treatment, and may confer genetic susceptibility to lung cancer.To study further its role in lung tumorigenesis, we developed mice with inducible expression in type II pneumocytes of EGFR(T790M alone or together with a drug-sensitive L858R mutation. Both transgenic lines develop lung adenocarcinomas that require mutant EGFR for tumor maintenance but are resistant to an EGFR kinase inhibitor. EGFR(L858R+T790M-driven tumors are transiently targeted by hsp90 inhibition. Notably, EGFR(T790M-expressing animals develop tumors with longer latency than EGFR(L858R+T790M-bearing mice and in the absence of additional kinase domain mutations.These new mouse models of mutant EGFR-dependent lung adenocarcinomas provide insight into clinical observations. The models should also be useful for developing improved therapies for patients with lung cancers harboring EGFR(T790M alone or in conjunction with drug-sensitive EGFR kinase domain mutations.

  11. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    As HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, it is mandatory to discriminate between HIV types before initiating antiretroviral treatment. Guinea-Bissau has the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. We evaluated ...... (agreement 90.9%) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 (agreement 84.5%). Our results underscore the need for evaluation of tests in relevant populations before implementation....

  12. Resistance to pyridine-based inhibitor KF116 reveals an unexpected role of integrase in HIV-1 Gag-Pol polyprotein proteolytic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Ashley C; Jamin, Augusta V; Koneru, Pratibha C; Kobe, Matthew J; Larue, Ross C; Fuchs, James R; Engelman, Alan N; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2017-12-01

    The pyridine-based multimerization selective HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (MINIs) are a distinct subclass of allosteric IN inhibitors. MINIs potently inhibit HIV-1 replication during virion maturation by inducing hyper- or aberrant IN multimerization but are largely ineffective during the early steps of viral replication. Here, we investigated the mechanism for the evolution of a triple IN substitution (T124N/V165I/T174I) that emerges in cell culture with a representative MINI, KF116. We show that HIV-1 NL4-3(IN T124N/V165I/T174I) confers marked (>2000-fold) resistance to KF116. Two IN substitutions (T124N/T174I) directly weaken inhibitor binding at the dimer interface of the catalytic core domain but at the same time markedly impair HIV-1 replication capacity. Unexpectedly, T124N/T174I IN substitutions inhibited proteolytic processing of HIV-1 polyproteins Gag and Gag-Pol, resulting in immature virions. Strikingly, the addition of the third IN substitution (V165I) restored polyprotein processing, virus particle maturation, and significant levels of replication capacity. These results reveal an unanticipated role of IN for polyprotein proteolytic processing during virion morphogenesis. The complex evolutionary pathway for the emergence of resistant viruses, which includes the need for the compensatory V165I IN substitution, highlights a relatively high genetic barrier exerted by MINI KF116. Additionally, we have solved the X-ray structure of the drug-resistant catalytic core domain protein, which provides means for rational development of second-generation MINIs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Enzyme engineering through evolution: thermostable recombinant group II intron reverse transcriptases provide new tools for RNA research and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathleen; Nilsen, Timothy W

    2013-08-01

    Current investigation of RNA transcriptomes relies heavily on the use of retroviral reverse transcriptases. It is well known that these enzymes have many limitations because of their intrinsic properties. This commentary highlights the recent biochemical characterization of a new family of reverse transcriptases, those encoded by group II intron retrohoming elements. The novel properties of these enzymes endow them with the potential to revolutionize how we approach RNA analyses.

  14. Resistance of a rodent malaria parasite to a thymidylate synthase inhibitor induces an apoptotic parasite death and imposes a huge cost of fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muregi, Francis W; Ohta, Isao; Masato, Uchijima; Kino, Hideto; Ishih, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The greatest impediment to effective malaria control is drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, and thus understanding how resistance impacts on the parasite's fitness and pathogenicity may aid in malaria control strategy. To generate resistance, P. berghei NK65 was subjected to 5-fluoroorotate (FOA, an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, TS) pressure in mice. After 15 generations of drug pressure, the 2% DT (the delay time for proliferation of parasites to 2% parasitaemia, relative to untreated wild-type controls) reduced from 8 days to 4, equalling the controls. Drug sensitivity studies confirmed that FOA-resistance was stable. During serial passaging in the absence of drug, resistant parasite maintained low growth rates (parasitaemia, 15.5%±2.9, 7 dpi) relative to the wild-type (45.6%±8.4), translating into resistance cost of fitness of 66.0%. The resistant parasite showed an apoptosis-like death, as confirmed by light and transmission electron microscopy and corroborated by oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. The resistant parasite was less fit than the wild-type, which implies that in the absence of drug pressure in the field, the wild-type alleles may expand and allow drugs withdrawn due to resistance to be reintroduced. FOA resistance led to depleted dTTP pools, causing thymineless parasite death via apoptosis. This supports the tenet that unicellular eukaryotes, like metazoans, also undergo apoptosis. This is the first report where resistance to a chemical stimulus and not the stimulus itself is shown to induce apoptosis in a unicellular parasite. This finding is relevant in cancer therapy, since thymineless cell death induced by resistance to TS-inhibitors can further be optimized via inhibition of pyrimidine salvage enzymes, thus providing a synergistic impact. We conclude that since apoptosis is a process that can be pharmacologically modulated, the parasite's apoptotic machinery may be exploited as a novel drug target in malaria and other protozoan

  15. Lack of Cross-Resistance of Imazaquin-Resistant Xanthium strumarium Acetolactate Synthase to Flumetsulam and Chlorimuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitzer, P. R.; Eilers, R. J.; Cseke, C.

    1993-09-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) was isolated from a field population of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) that developed resistance to the herbicide Scepter following three consecutive years of application. The active ingredient of Scepter, imazaquin, gave an inhibitor concentration required to produce 50% inhibition of the enzyme activity that was more than 300 times greater for the resistant enzyme than for the wild-type cocklebur ALS. Tests with flumetsulam and chlorimuron show that the resistant ALS was not cross-resistant to these two other classes of ALS inhibitors.

  16. Resistance to EGFR inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer: Clinical management and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Chiara; Baldessari, Cinzia; Napolitano, Martina; Orsi, Giulia; Grizzi, Giulia; Bertolini, Federica; Barbieri, Fausto; Cascinu, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    In the last few years, the development of targeted therapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) expressing oncogenic driver mutations (e.g. EGFR) has changed the clinical management and the survival outcomes of this specific minority of patients. Several phase III trials demonstrated the superiority of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) over chemotherapy in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. However, in the vast majority of cases EGFR TKIs lose their clinical activity within 8-12 months. Many genetic aberrations have been described as possible mechanisms of EGFR TKIs acquired resistance and can be clustered in four main sub-groups: 1. Development of secondary EGFR mutations; 2. Activation of parallel signaling pathways; 3. Histological transformation; 4. Activation of downstream signaling pathways. In this review we will describe the molecular alterations underlying each of these EGFR TKIs resistance mechanisms, focusing on the currently available and future therapeutic strategies to overcome these phenomena. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reverse Transcriptase-Containing Particles Induced in Rous Sarcoma Virus-Transformed Rat Cells by Arginine Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Weinberg, Eynat; Haspel, Osnat; Becker, Yechiel

    1972-01-01

    Incubation of rat cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) in an arginine-deficient medium resulted in accumulation of particles in the culture medium. Such particles did not appear when the transformed rat cells were incubated in a complete medium nor in the medium of primary rat cells which were incubated either in arginine-deficient or complete media. The particles which were released from the arginine-deprived transformed rat cells resemble C-type particles in their properties. These particles band in sucrose gradients at a density of 1.16 g/ml and contain 35S ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and a reverse transcriptase activity. Analysis of the cytoplasm of transformed and primary rat cells, deprived and undeprived of arginine, revealed the presence of reverse transcriptase-containing particles which banded in sucrose gradients at a density of 1.14 g/ml. These particles differed from the particles released into the medium by the arginine-deprived RSV-transformed rat cells. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules synthesized in vitro by the reverse transcriptase present in the particles isolated from the medium of arginine-deprived cells hybridized to RSV RNA, whereas the DNA synthesized by the cell-bound enzyme had no homology to RSV RNA. PMID:4116137

  18. The small molecule inhibitor YK-4-279 disrupts mitotic progression of neuroblastoma cells, overcomes drug resistance and synergizes with inhibitors of mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollareddy, Madhu; Sherrard, Alice; Park, Ji Hyun; Szemes, Marianna; Gallacher, Kelli; Melegh, Zsombor; Oltean, Sebastian; Michaelis, Martin; Cinatl, Jindrich; Kaidi, Abderrahmane; Malik, Karim

    2017-09-10

    Neuroblastoma is a biologically and clinically heterogeneous pediatric malignancy that includes a high-risk subset for which new therapeutic agents are urgently required. As well as MYCN amplification, activating point mutations of ALK and NRAS are associated with high-risk and relapsing neuroblastoma. As both ALK and RAS signal through the MEK/ERK pathway, we sought to evaluate two previously reported inhibitors of ETS-related transcription factors, which are transcriptional mediators of the Ras-MEK/ERK pathway in other cancers. Here we show that YK-4-279 suppressed growth and triggered apoptosis in nine neuroblastoma cell lines, while BRD32048, another ETV1 inhibitor, was ineffective. These results suggest that YK-4-279 acts independently of ETS-related transcription factors. Further analysis reveals that YK-4-279 induces mitotic arrest in prometaphase, resulting in subsequent cell death. Mechanistically, we show that YK-4-279 inhibits the formation of kinetochore microtubules, with treated cells showing a broad range of abnormalities including multipolar, fragmented and unseparated spindles, together leading to disrupted progression through mitosis. Notably, YK-4-279 does not affect microtubule acetylation, unlike the conventional mitotic poisons paclitaxel and vincristine. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that YK-4-279 overcomes vincristine-induced resistance in two neuroblastoma cell-line models. Furthermore, combinations of YK-4-279 with vincristine, paclitaxel or the Aurora kinase A inhibitor MLN8237/Alisertib show strong synergy, particularly at low doses. Thus, YK-4-279 could potentially be used as a single-agent or in combination therapies for the treatment of high-risk and relapsing neuroblastoma, as well as other cancers. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of non-target-site resistance in imidazolinone-resistant Imisun sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Breccia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The first commercial herbicide-resistant trait in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is known as ‘Imisun’. Imidazolinone resistance in Imisun cultivars has been reported to be genetically controlled by a major gene (known as Imr1 or Ahasl1-1 and modifier genes. Imr1 is an allelic variant of the Ahasl1 locus that codes for the acetohydroxyacid synthase, which is the target site of these herbicides. The mechanism of resistance endowed by modifier genes has not been characterized and it could be related to non-target-site resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s in Imisun resistance. The response to imazapyr herbicide in combination with P450s inhibitor malathion was evaluated in 2 Imisun lines, IMI-1 and RHA426. Malathion reduced herbicide efficacy in both lines, but IMI-1 was affected in a greater extent. A significant reduction in plant growth in response to P450s inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole and piperonyl butoxide treatment was detected in the Imisun line HA425. The increased susceptibility to imazapyr after P450s-inhibitor treatment indicates that herbicide metabolism by P450s is a mechanism involved in Imisun resistance. These results also suggest the involvement of different P450s isozymes in endowing resistance to imazapyr in Imisun cultivars.

  20. Current concepts of metabolic abnormalities in HIV patients: focus on lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Donald P

    2003-12-01

    HIV infection is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities, including lipodystrophy, a difficult-to-define disorder whose characteristics include hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and fat redistribution. Current data suggest that lipodystrophy is caused by multiple factors. Dual-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy combined with protease inhibitor therapy has been shown to increase the risk of metabolic abnormalities, but susceptibility independent of drug effects has also been shown. While many of the treatments for the broad range of signs and symptoms of lipodystrophy bring about improvements in patient status, none have been demonstrated to bring about a return to baseline levels.

  1. Development of Nano-Liposomal Formulations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors and their Pharmacological Interactions on Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummer, Brian J.

    A rapidly expanding understanding of molecular derangements in cancer cell function has led to the development of selective, targeted chemotherapeutic agents. Growth factor signal transduction networks are frequently activated in an aberrant fashion, particularly through the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). This has spurred an intensive effort to develop receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) that are targeted to specific receptors, or receptor subfamilies. Chapter 1 reviews the pharmacology, preclinical, and clinical aspects of RTKIs that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR inhibitors demonstrate significant success at inhibiting phosphorylation-based signaling pathways that promote cancer cell proliferation. Additionally RTKIs have physicochemical and structural characteristics that enable them to function as inhibitors of multi-drug resistance transport proteins. Thus EGFR inhibitors and other RTKIs have both on-target and off-target activities that could be beneficial in cancer therapy. However, these agents exert a number of side effects, some of which arise from their hydrophobic nature and large in vivo volume of distribution. Side effects of the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib include skin rash, severe myelotoxicity when combined with certain chemotherapeutic agents, and impairment of the blood brain barrier to xenobiotics. Weighing the preclinical and clinical observations with the EGFR inhibitors, we developed the primary overall hypothesis of this research: that drug-carrier formulations of RTKIs such as the EGFR inhibitors could be developed based on nanoparticulate liposomal carriers. Theoretically, this carrier strategy would ameliorate toxicity and improve the biodistribution and tumor selectivity of these agents. We hypothesized specifically that liposomal formulations could shift the biodistribution of EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib away from skin, bone marrow, and the blood brain barrier, and toward solid tumors

  2. Identification of a methylated oligoribonucleotide as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcription complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Boyan; Bocquin, Anne; Gabus, Caroline; Avilov, Sergey; Mély, Yves; Agopian, Audrey; Divita, Gilles; Gottikh, Marina; Witvrouw, Myriam; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    Upon HIV-1 infection of a target cell, the viral reverse transcriptase (RT) copies the genomic RNA to synthesize the viral DNA. The genomic RNA is within the incoming HIV-1 core where it is coated by molecules of nucleocapsid (NC) protein that chaperones the reverse transcription process. Indeed, the RT chaperoning properties of NC extend from the initiation of cDNA synthesis to completion of the viral DNA. New and effective drugs against HIV-1 continue to be required, which prompted us to search for compounds aimed at inhibiting NC protein. Here, we report that the NC chaperoning activity is extensively inhibited in vitro by small methylated oligoribonucleotides (mODN). These mODNs were delivered intracellularly using a cell-penetrating-peptide and found to impede HIV-1 replication in primary human cells at nanomolar concentrations. Extensive analysis showed that viral cDNA synthesis was severely impaired by mODNs. Partially resistant viruses with mutations in NC and RT emerged after months of passaging in cell culture. A HIV-1 molecular clone (NL4.3) bearing these mutations was found to replicate at high concentrations of mODN, albeit with a reduced fitness. Small, methylated ODNs such as mODN-11 appear to be a new type of highly potent inhibitor of HIV-1.

  3. Dual Inhibition of EGFR with Afatinib and Cetuximab in Kinase Inhibitor-Resistant EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer with and without T790M Mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Smit, Egbert F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Horn, Leora; Gettinger, Scott; Camidge, D. Ross; Riely, Gregory J.; Wang, Bushi; Fu, Yali; Chand, Vikram K.; Miller, Vincent A.; Pao, William

    EGFR-mutant lung cancers responsive to reversible EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib/erlotinib) develop acquired resistance, mediated by second-site EGFR T790M mutation in >50% of cases. Preclinically, afatinib (irreversible ErbB family blocker) plus cetuximab (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody) overcomes

  4. Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-amines as potential HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bode, ML

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ? Discovery Studio 2.5.5). The crystal structures of both the wild-type and K103N mutant forms of HIV-1 RT containing the diarylpyrimidine inhibitor rilpivirine (TMC-278) were used (pdb codes MEE and 3MEG, respectively).27 Etravirine (TMC-125... These drugs act by binding to a lipophilic, non-substrate binding pocket located about 10? from the substrate binding site. Binding induces conformational changes in the catalytic site, slowing catalytic activity markedly.3 About fifty structurally diverse...

  5. The Akt inhibitor ISC-4 synergizes with cetuximab in 5-FU-resistant colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Allen

    Full Text Available Phenylbutyl isoselenocyanate (ISC-4 is an Akt inhibitor with demonstrated preclinical efficacy against melanoma and colon cancer. In this study, we sought to improve the clinical utility of ISC-4 by identifying a synergistic combination with FDA-approved anti-cancer therapies, a relevant and appropriate disease setting for testing, and biomarkers of response. We tested the activity of ISC-4 and 19 FDA-approved anticancer agents, alone or in combination, against the SW480 and RKO human colon cancer cell lines. A synergistic interaction with cetuximab was identified and validated in a panel of additional colon cancer cell lines, as well as the kinetics of synergy. ISC-4 in combination with cetuximab synergistically reduced the viability of human colon cancer cells with wild-type but not mutant KRAS genes. Further analysis revealed that the combination therapy cooperatively decreased cell cycle progression, increased caspase-dependent apoptosis, and decreased phospho-Akt in responsive tumor cells. The synergism between ISC-4 and cetuximab was retained independently of acquired resistance to 5-FU in human colon cancer cells. The combination demonstrated synergistic anti-tumor effects in vivo without toxicity and in the face of resistance to 5-FU. These results suggest that combining ISC-4 and cetuximab should be explored in patients with 5-FU-resistant colon cancer harboring wild-type KRAS.

  6. Novel Bifunctional Quinolonyl Diketo Acid Derivatives as HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, Biological Activities and Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Roux, Alessandra; Artico, Marino; Lavecchia, Antonio; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Palmisano, Lucia; Andreotti, Mauro; Amici, Roberta; Galluzzo, Clementina Maria; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pommier, Yves; Marchand, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The virally encoded integrase protein is an essential enzyme in the life cycle of the HIV-1 virus and represents an attractive and validated target in the development of therapeutics against HIV infection. Drugs that selectively inhibit this enzyme, when used in combination with inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and protease, are believed to be highly effective in suppressing the viral replication. Among the HIV-1 integrase inhibitors, the β-diketo acids (DKAs) represent a major lead for anti-HIV-1drug development. In this study, novel bifunctional quinolonyl diketo acid derivatives were designed, synthesized and tested for their inhibitory ability against HIV-1 integrase. The compounds are potent inhibitors of integrase activity. Particularly, derivative 8 is a potent IN inhibitor for both steps of the reaction (3′-processing and strand transfer) and exhibits both high antiviral activity against HIV-1 infected cells and low cytotoxicity. Molecular modeling studies provide a plausible mechanism of action, which is consistent with ligand SARs and enzyme photo-crosslinking experiments. PMID:16539381

  7. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Multi-targeted or single-targeted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, Fleur; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J

    2011-02-10

    Since in most tumors multiple signaling pathways are involved, many of the inhibitors in clinical development are designed to affect a wide range of targeted kinases. The most important tyrosine kinase families in the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the ABL, SCR, platelet derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor families. Both multi-kinase inhibitors and single-kinase inhibitors have advantages and disadvantages, which are related to potential resistance mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, selectivity and tumor environment. In different malignancies various tyrosine kinases are mutated or overexpressed and several resistance mechanisms exist. Pharmacokinetics is influenced by interindividual differences and differs for two single targeted inhibitors or between patients treated by the same tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Different tyrosine kinase inhibitors have various mechanisms to achieve selectivity, while differences in gene expression exist between tumor and stromal cells. Considering these aspects, one type of inhibitor can generally not be preferred above the other, but will depend on the specific genetic constitution of the patient and the tumor, allowing personalized therapy. The most effective way of cancer treatment by using tyrosine kinase inhibitors is to consider each patient/tumor individually and to determine the strategy that specifically targets the consequences of altered (epi)genetics of the tumor. This strategy might result in treatment by a single multi kinase inhibitor for one patient, but in treatment by a couple of single kinase inhibitors for other patients.

  8. Cofirmation of resistance in littleseed canarygrass (phalaris minor retz) to accase inhibitors in central punjab-pakistan and alternative herbicides for its management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, T.; Burgos, N. R.; Nadeem, M. A.; Matloob, A.; Farooq, N.; Chauhan, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    Littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor) infests wheat and other winter crops in Pakistan and many other countries. Studies were conducted in Pakistan to confirm littleseed canarygrass resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and to appraise the efficacy of other postemergence herbicides against this grassy weed. A field survey was conducted to collect putative fenoxaprop-resistant seeds from various districts of the central Punjab in March 2015. Dose-response assays were conducted in the greenhouse to confirm resistance to fenoxaprop. The response of fenoxaprop-resistant littleseed canarygrass to diverse herbicide molecules like clodinafop-propargyl, metribuzin, pinoxaden, and sulfosulfuron was also evaluated in further dose-response bioassays. All accessions manifested variable resistance to fenoxaprop, which ranged from 2.52- to 6.00-fold. The resistant accessions also showed low-level cross-resistance (two-fold) to clodinafop. Metribuzin, pinoxaden, and sulfosulfuron were still effective in controlling fenoxaprop-resistant canarygrass. This is the first scientific documentation of resistance to ACCase inhibitor herbicides in central Punjab, Pakistan. The use of alternative herbicides in conjunction with other agronomic practices is crucial for sustainable wheat production in the country. (author)

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A resensitizes gemcitabine resistant urothelial carcinoma cells via suppression of TG-interacting factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Bi-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Li, Wei-Ming [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Li, Ching-Chia [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Kang, Wan-Yi [Department of Pathology, Kuo General Hospital, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chun-Nung [Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan [Institute of Biochemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Zi-Miao [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); and others

    2016-01-01

    Gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) has been widely used for advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, resistance to this remedy has been noticed. We have demonstrated that increase of TG-interacting factor (TGIF) in specimens is associated with worse prognosis of upper tract UC (UTUC) patients. The roles of TGIF in the gemcitabine resistance of UC were explored. Specimens of 23 locally advanced/advanced stage UTUC patients who received GC systemic chemotherapy after radical nephroureterectomy were collected to evaluate the alterations of TGIF in the resistance to the remedy by using immunohistochemistry. In vitro characterizations of mechanisms mediating TGIF in gemcitabine resistance were conducted by analyzing NTUB1 cells and their gemcitabine-resistant subline, NGR cells. Our results show that increased TGIF is significantly associated with chemo-resistance, poor progression-free survival, and higher cancer-related deaths of UTUC patients. Higher increases of TGIF, p-AKT{sup Ser473} and invasive ability were demonstrated in NGR cells. Overexpression of TGIF in NTUB1 cells upregulated p-AKT{sup Ser473} activation, enhanced migration ability, and attenuated cellular sensitivity to gemcitabine. Knockdown of TGIF in NGR cells downregulated p-AKT{sup Ser473} activation, declined migration ability, and enhanced cellular sensitivity to gemcitabine. In addition, histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) inhibited TGIF, p-AKT{sup Ser473} expression and migration ability. Synergistic effects of gemcitabine and TSA on NGR cells were also demonstrated. Collectively, TGIF contributes to the gemcitabine resistance of UC via AKT activation. Combined treatment with gemcitabine and TSA might be a promising therapeutic remedy to improve the gemcitabine resistance of UC. - Highlights: • TGIF expression in UC cells is associated with chemoresistance to gemcitabine. • TGIF-regulated AKT activation contributes to the gemcitabine resistance. • Increased

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A resensitizes gemcitabine resistant urothelial carcinoma cells via suppression of TG-interacting factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Bi-Wen; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Ching-Chia; Kang, Wan-Yi; Huang, Chun-Nung; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Liu, Zi-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) has been widely used for advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, resistance to this remedy has been noticed. We have demonstrated that increase of TG-interacting factor (TGIF) in specimens is associated with worse prognosis of upper tract UC (UTUC) patients. The roles of TGIF in the gemcitabine resistance of UC were explored. Specimens of 23 locally advanced/advanced stage UTUC patients who received GC systemic chemotherapy after radical nephroureterectomy were collected to evaluate the alterations of TGIF in the resistance to the remedy by using immunohistochemistry. In vitro characterizations of mechanisms mediating TGIF in gemcitabine resistance were conducted by analyzing NTUB1 cells and their gemcitabine-resistant subline, NGR cells. Our results show that increased TGIF is significantly associated with chemo-resistance, poor progression-free survival, and higher cancer-related deaths of UTUC patients. Higher increases of TGIF, p-AKT Ser473 and invasive ability were demonstrated in NGR cells. Overexpression of TGIF in NTUB1 cells upregulated p-AKT Ser473 activation, enhanced migration ability, and attenuated cellular sensitivity to gemcitabine. Knockdown of TGIF in NGR cells downregulated p-AKT Ser473 activation, declined migration ability, and enhanced cellular sensitivity to gemcitabine. In addition, histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) inhibited TGIF, p-AKT Ser473 expression and migration ability. Synergistic effects of gemcitabine and TSA on NGR cells were also demonstrated. Collectively, TGIF contributes to the gemcitabine resistance of UC via AKT activation. Combined treatment with gemcitabine and TSA might be a promising therapeutic remedy to improve the gemcitabine resistance of UC. - Highlights: • TGIF expression in UC cells is associated with chemoresistance to gemcitabine. • TGIF-regulated AKT activation contributes to the gemcitabine resistance. • Increased TGIF is significantly

  11. Activity of levofloxacin alone and in combination with a DnaK inhibitor against gram-negative rods, including levofloxacin-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Koeth, Laura; Sturgess, Michael A; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2009-02-01

    Synergy time-kill testing of levofloxacin alone and in combination with CHP-105, a representative DnaK inhibitor, against 50 gram-negative rods demonstrated that 34 of the 50 strains tested showed significant synergy between levofloxacin and CHP-105 after 12 h and 24 h. Fourteen of these 34 organisms were quinolone resistant (levofloxacin MICs of > or =4 microg/ml).

  12. Activity of Levofloxacin Alone and in Combination with a DnaK Inhibitor against Gram-Negative Rods, Including Levofloxacin-Resistant Strains▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Koeth, Laura; Sturgess, Michael A.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Synergy time-kill testing of levofloxacin alone and in combination with CHP-105, a representative DnaK inhibitor, against 50 gram-negative rods demonstrated that 34 of the 50 strains tested showed significant synergy between levofloxacin and CHP-105 after 12 h and 24 h. Fourteen of these 34 organisms were quinolone resistant (levofloxacin MICs of ≥4 μg/ml). PMID:19015359

  13. Transmitted drug resistance in the CFAR network of integrated clinical systems cohort: prevalence and effects on pre-therapy CD4 and viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genomes often carry one or more mutations associated with drug resistance upon transmission into a therapy-naïve individual. We assessed the prevalence and clinical significance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR in chronically-infected therapy-naïve patients enrolled in a multi-center cohort in North America. Pre-therapy clinical significance was quantified by plasma viral load (pVL and CD4+ cell count (CD4 at baseline. Naïve bulk sequences of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT were screened for resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance list. The overall prevalence of TDR was 14.2%. We used a Bayesian network to identify co-transmission of TDR mutations in clusters associated with specific drugs or drug classes. Aggregate effects of mutations by drug class were estimated by fitting linear models of pVL and CD4 on weighted sums over TDR mutations according to the Stanford HIV Database algorithm. Transmitted resistance to both classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitors was significantly associated with lower CD4, but had opposing effects on pVL. In contrast, position-specific analyses of TDR mutations revealed substantial effects on CD4 and pVL at several residue positions that were being masked in the aggregate analyses, and significant interaction effects as well. Residue positions in RT with predominant effects on CD4 or pVL (D67 and M184 were re-evaluated in causal models using an inverse probability-weighting scheme to address the problem of confounding by other mutations and demographic or risk factors. We found that causal effect estimates of mutations M184V/I (-1.7 log₁₀pVL and D67N/G (-2.1[³√CD4] and 0.4 log₁₀pVL were compensated by K103N/S and K219Q/E/N/R. As TDR becomes an increasing dilemma in this modern era of highly-active antiretroviral therapy, these results have immediate significance for the clinical management of HIV-1

  14. Insight into the effect of inhibitor resistant S130G mutant on physico-chemical properties of SHV type beta-lactamase: a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hassan Baig

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance is a serious threat to human health. The production of β-lactamase, which inactivates β-lactams is most common cause of resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics. The Class A enzymes are most frequently encountered among the four β-lactamases in the clinic isolates. Mutations in class A β-lactamases play a crucial role in substrate and inhibitor specificity. SHV and TEM type are known to be most common class A β-lactamases. In the present study, we have analyzed the effect of inhibitor resistant S130G point mutation of SHV type Class-A β-lactamase using molecular dynamics and other in silico approaches. Our study involved the use of different in silico methods to investigate the affect of S130G point mutation on the major physico-chemical properties of SHV type class A β-lactamase. We have used molecular dynamics approach to compare the dynamic behaviour of native and S130G mutant form of SHV β-lactamase by analyzing different properties like root mean square deviation (RMSD, H-bond, Radius of gyration (Rg and RMS fluctuation of mutation. The results clearly suggest notable loss in the stability of S130G mutant that may further lead to decrease in substrate specificity of SHV. Molecular docking further indicates that S130G mutation decreases the binding affinity of all the three inhibitors in clinical practice.

  15. Characterization of the virus-cell interactions by HIV-1 subtype C variants from an antiretroviral therapy-naïve subject with baseline resistance to the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Martin Roelsgaard

    The CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc (MVC) exerts its antiviral activity by binding to- and altering the conformation of the CCR5 extracellular loops such that HIV-1 gp120 no longer recognizes CCR5. Viruses that have become resistant to MVC through long-term in vitro culture, or from treatment failure...... in vivo, can use the MVCbound form of CCR5 for HIV-1 entry via adaptive alterations in gp120. Partial baseline resistance to another CCR5 inhibitor through this mechanism, AD101, has been noted recently in one subject (1). Here, we identified and characterized envelope (Env) clones with baseline...

  16. Identification of N-phenyl-N'-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-4-yl)-oxalamides as a new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors that prevent gp120 binding to CD4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qian; Ma Liying; Jiang Shibo; Lu Hong; Liu Shuwen; He Yuxian; Strick, Nathan; Neamati, Nouri; Debnath, Asim Kumar

    2005-01-01

    We have identified two N-phenyl-N'-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-4-yl)-oxalamide analogs as a novel class of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry inhibitors that block the gp120-CD4 interaction, using database screening techniques. The lead compounds, NBD-556 and NBD-557, are small molecule organic compounds with drug-like properties. These compounds showed potent cell fusion and virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity at low micromolar levels. A systematic study showed that these compounds target viral entry by inhibiting the binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cellular receptor CD4 but did not inhibit reverse transcriptase, integrase, or protease, indicating that they do not target the later stages of the HIV-1 life cycle to inhibit HIV-1 infection. These compounds were equally potent inhibitors of both X4 and R5 viruses tested in CXCR4 and CCR5 expressing cell lines, respectively, indicating that their anti-HIV-1 activity is not dependent on the coreceptor tropism of the virus. A surface plasmon resonance study, which measures binding affinity, clearly demonstrated that these compounds bind to unliganded HIV-1 gp120 but not to the cellular receptor CD4. NBD-556 and NBD-557 were active against HIV-1 laboratory-adapted strains including an AZT-resistant strain and HIV-1 primary isolates, indicating that these compounds can potentially be further modified to become potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors

  17. Dynamic HIV-1 genetic recombination and genotypic drug resistance among treatment-experienced adults in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii-Trebi, Nicholas Israel; Brandful, James Ashun Mensah; Ibe, Shiro; Sugiura, Wataru; Barnor, Jacob Samson; Bampoh, Patrick Owiredu; Yamaoka, Shoji; Matano, Tetsuro; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Ishikawa, Koichi; Ampofo, William Kwabena

    2017-11-01

    There have been hardly any reports on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug-resistance profile from northern Ghana since antiretroviral therapy (ART) was introduced over a decade ago. This study investigated prevailing HIV-1 subtypes and examined the occurrence of drug resistance in ART-experienced patients in Tamale, the capital of the Northern Region of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was carried out on HIV-infected adult patients receiving first-line ART. HIV viral load (VL) and CD4 + T-cell counts were measured. The pol gene sequences were analysed for genotypic resistance by an in-house HIV-1 drug-resistance test; the prevailing HIV-1 subtypes were analysed in detail.Results/Key findings. A total of 33 subjects were studied. Participants comprised 11 males (33.3 %) and 22 (66.7 %) females, with a median age of 34.5 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30.0-40.3]. The median duration on ART was 12 months (IQR 8.0-24). Of the 24 subjects successfully genotyped, 10 (41.7 %) viruses possessed at least one mutation conferring resistance to nucleoside or non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NNRTIs). Two-class drug resistance to NRTI and NNRTI was mostly detected (25 %, 6/24). The most frequent mutations were lamivudine-resistance M184V and efavirenz/nevirapine-resistance K103N. HIV-1 subtype CRF02_AG was predominant (79.2 %). Other HIV-1 subtypes detected were G (8.3 %), A3 (4.2 %) and importantly two (8.3 %) unique HIV-1 recombinant forms with CRF02_AG/A3 mosaic. HIV-1 shows high genetic diversity and on-going viral genetic recombination in the study region. Nearly 42 % of the patients studied harboured a drug-resistant virus. The study underscores the need for continued surveillance of HIV-1 subtype diversity; and of drug-resistance patterns to guide selection of second-line regimens in northern Ghana.

  18. Comparing exercise responses to aerobic plus resistance training between postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Thais R S de; Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Viezel, Juliana; Rossi, Fabricio E; Aro, Bruna L; Trindade, Ana Carolina A C; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Junior, Ismael F

    2018-04-12

    The aim of this study was to explore whether postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy differ from healthy postmenopausal women in their response to the same aerobic + resistance training. The participants were separated into two groups: postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for an average of 20 months (18 women) and healthy postmenopausal women (24 women). We assessed aerobic capacity (predicted maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and maximum running velocity test (Vmax)) through a walking test, upper and lower body muscle strength using an estimated one-repetition maximum test, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at three, six, a